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  1. Polar bear population status in southern Hudson Bay, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obbard, Martyn E.; McDonald, Trent L.; Howe, Eric J.; Regehr, Eric V.; Richardson, Evan S.

    2007-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) population of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) resides in a seasonal sea ice environment and is the most southerly population in the species’ range. Therefore, SH polar bears may be among the first to show negative effects associated with climate warming and consequent loss of sea ice. Polar bears in the neighboring Western Hudson Bay (WH) population have declined significantly in body condition since the mid-1980s, and a recent study indicated that the size of the WH population declined by about 22% between 1987 and 2004. Similarly, SH bears have shown a significant decline in body condition since the mid-1980s, and an assessment of the current status of the SH population was therefore needed. We applied open population capture-recapture models to data collected from 1984-86 and 1999- 2005 to estimate population size and survival. The size of the SH population appears to be unchanged from the mid-1980s (1984-1986: 641, 95% CI = 401, 881) vs. 2003-2005: 681 (95% CI = 401, 961). Point estimates of survival for subadults and adult females were 94% (95% CI = 68%, 100%) in 1984-1985 to 89% (95% CI = 79%, 99%) in 2003-2005, but imprecision exhibited by overlap of the confidence intervals prevented us from unequivocally concluding that this 5% decline in survival was not a chance occurrence. Similarly, a decline of 7% in survival was estimated for subadult and adult males over the same time period (male survival estimates = 88% (95% CI = 77%, 100%) in 1984-1985; 81% (95% CI = 66%, 96%), but again we could not unequivocally conclude that this decline was not chance. There was weak evidence of lower survival of cubs, yearlings, and senescent adults in the recent time period. This, combined with the evidence of significant declines in body condition for all age and sex classes, which were greatest for pregnant females and subadults, suggests this population may be under increased stress at this time. However, we did not find any clear

  2. Precambrian Processes, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, and Cratonic Keels: Insights From Teleseismic Tomography in Northern Hudson Bay, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddell, M. V.; Bastow, I. D.; Gilligan, A.; Kendall, J. M.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Earth conditions in the Precambrian, and their effect upon the formation of cratons and orogenies from that era, are not fully understood. For example, the precise onset of modern plate tectonics remains ambiguous; it has been hypothesised to have begun anywhere from ~4.1Ga (Hopkins, 2008) to ~1Ga (Stern, 2005). Also, the exceptional depth to which fast wave-speed and geoid anomalies extend beneath some cratons points to the existence of thick "cratonic keels", the origin of which remains unexplained. To improve our understanding of the early Earth processes, geological evidence preserved within ancient plates that have remained largely unchanged since the Precambrian can be used. The rocks of northern Hudson Bay include Archean domains, the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO), and lie atop one of the largest cratonic keels on Earth (Bastow et al., 2013), making this region an ideal laboratory for study of Precambrian processes. Here, we use seismological data recorded at Canadian POLARIS and Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment (HuBLE) stations to perform a relative arrival-time study of northern Hudson Bay region and the THO. Waveforms are aligned using the adaptive stacking routine of Rawlinson et al. (2004), and inversions are produced using the Fast Marching Tomography (FMTOMO) inversion code of Rawlinson et al. (2006). Our inversions provide an improved velocity model of the lithosphere and upper mantle of northern Canada, suggesting updated boundaries between lithospheric blocks at mantle depths and constituting new body-wave constraints on their structure. The results are used to address a number of outstanding questions regarding the processes that formed the THO and the Laurentian Keel of North America.

  3. An observational study of ice effects on Nelson River estuarine variability, Hudson Bay, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruixue; McCullough, Greg K.; Gunn, Geoffrey G.; Hochheim, Klaus P.; Dorostkar, Abbas; Sydor, Kevin; Barber, David G.

    2012-09-01

    Many estuaries in high latitude regions are subjected to seasonally ice-covered conditions. However, ice effects on estuarine variability have received limited scientific attention and remain poorly understood. In this paper, an 11-month mooring record is used to examine seasonal variation of estuarine hydrodynamics in the Nelson River estuary (NRE), Hudson Bay (HB), in northern Canada. We show that ice cover strongly affects tidal amplitudes, velocities and phases in the NRE. In the mid-winter, the M2 tidal amplitude and consequently the tidal range are significantly reduced due to under-ice friction in HB, while conversely the M2 tidal velocity is amplified due to reduction of cross-section of the channel by formation of fast ice. A stronger surface seaward residual flow observed in the winter indicates that the formation of fast ice could also enhance the residual circulation. Suspended sediment concentration in the river mouth is reduced, also possibly due to the formation of fast ice that protects shallow nearshore shoals from erosion. This study demonstrates the importance of ice effects on estuarine variability and the complexity of processes in a seasonally ice-covered estuary.

  4. The role of lichen on peatland development in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lorna; Moore, Tim; Roulet, Nigel

    2015-04-01

    Lichen (Cladina stellaris) can be a dominant vegetation cover on bogs within the extensive peatland landscape of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), northern Ontario, Canada. The unique characteristics of lichens (growth structure and function as a symbiotic organism), their ability to form thick, dense mats across the HBL bogs, and their increased tolerance of extreme environmental conditions, points to their importance as a distinct plant functional type. However, the role of lichen within the peatland ecosystem is poorly understood, particularly ecosystem interactions (vegetation associations) and peatland development (including microtopography) and the resulting carbon sink. Many studies consider the role of different plant functional types on peatland CO2 and CH4 exchange (e.g. Bubier et al., 2003; Strack et al., 2006), and this understanding is included in peatland growth and climate change models. As far as we are aware lichens are currently omitted from these models. We suggest that lichens represent a distinct plant functional type with CO2 exchange characteristics (NEE and respiration) that are quite different to vascular plants and mosses. In this study we measured lichen CO2 exchange in both natural and modified moisture conditions at field sites in the HBL over two field seasons. Our results indicate that lichen productivity is strongly influenced by abiotic factors that affect lichen moisture content, with very dry lichen exhibiting little or no photosynthetic capacity. We suggest that the low productivity of lichen mats results in lower rates of peat accumulation compared to Sphagnum-dominated peatland areas, and that this has consequences for the development of peatland microtopography (hummocks and hollows) and feedback mechanisms. To better understand the role of lichen mats on peat accumulation and to test possible feedback mechanisms we developed a model, the parameters of which are supported by data from field sites in the HBL. This dependence of

  5. Karst hydrogeology within a subarctic peatland: Attawapiskat River, Hudson Bay lowland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowell, Daryl W.

    1983-02-01

    The Attawapiskat River has cut through 30 m of mid-Silurian limestone ˜90 km west of James Bay in the Hudson Bay Lowland. Limestone cliffs of 12-15 m provide local relief along the river but inland the terrain is flat, covered by 1.5 m or more of peat. The area emerged from the Tyrrell Sea ˜4400 yr. B.P. Since that time two karst hydrogeological zones have become established. These are: (1) a vadose fluvio-karst zone in the exposed limestone along the river represented by disappearing lakes and streams; and (2) an organo-karst zone represented by sinkholes on or next to limestone bioherms within the peat mantle. They occupy 16% and 13% of the study area, respectively.

  6. Architecture and subsidence history of the intracratonic Hudson Bay Basin, northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Nicolas; Lavoie, Denis; Dietrich, Jim; Hu, Kezhen; Keating, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    The Phanerozoic Hudson Bay Basin is a large intracratonic basin that is almost completely encircled by Precambrian rocks of the Canadian Shield. The preserved sedimentary succession is up to 2500 m thick and consists mainly of Upper Ordovician to Upper Devonian limestones, dolostones, evaporites and minor siliciclastics that were deposited in shallow marine conditions. Backstripping, based on new paleontological data and well correlations, reveals an irregular subsidence history marked by several periods of exhumation. In seismic data, the Hudson Bay Basin appears to have a relatively simple geometry, characterized by a lower sedimentary package cut by high-angle faults, overlain by a saucer-shape, essentially underformed upper sedimentary package. Normal (or transtensional) faults imaged on seismic reflection profiles provide clear evidence for crustal extension during deposition of the older sedimentary packages or slightly later, indicating that the basin is, at least partly, extensional in nature. However, significant changes in the depocenter location during the Paleozoic and variable exhumation values required by new maturation data indicate that other mechanisms influenced the subsidence/exhumation history of the basin. In particular, the influence of far-field events and dynamic topography transmitted by large-scale mantle flow in the continental interior (creating long-wavelength tilting and unconformities) is suspected but not yet proven.

  7. Sea Level and Paleoenvironment Control on Late Ordovician Source Rocks, Hudson Bay Basin, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Hefter, J.

    2009-05-01

    Hudson Bay Basin is one of the largest Paleozoic sedimentary basins in North America, with Southampton Island on its north margin. The lower part of the basin succession comprises approximately 180 to 300 m of Upper Ordovician strata including Bad Cache Rapids and Churchill River groups and Red Head Rapids Formation. These units mainly comprise carbonate rocks consisting of alternating fossiliferous limestone, evaporitic and reefal dolostone, and minor shale. Shale units containing extremely high TOC, and interpreted to have potential as petroleum source rocks, were found at three levels in the lower Red Head Rapids Formation on Southampton Island, and were also recognized in exploration wells from the Hudson Bay offshore area. A study of conodonts from 390 conodont-bearing samples from continuous cores and well cuttings from six exploration wells in the Hudson Bay Lowlands and offshore area (Comeault Province No. 1, Kaskattama Province No. 1, Pen Island No. 1, Walrus A-71, Polar Bear C-11 and Narwhal South O-58), and about 250 conodont-bearing samples collected from outcrops on Southampton Island allows recognition of three conodont zones in the Upper Ordovician sequence, namely (in ascendant sequence) Belodina confluens, Amorphognathus ordovicicus, and Rhipidognathus symmetricus zones. The three conodont zones suggest a cycle of sea level changes of rising, reaching the highest level, and then falling during the Late Ordovician. Three intervals of petroleum potential source rock are within the Rhipidognathus symmetricus Zone in Red Head Rapids Formation, and formed in a restricted anoxic and hypersaline condition during a period of sea level falling. This is supported by the following data: 1) The conodont Rhipidognathus symmetricus represents the shallowest Late Ordovician conodont biofacies and very shallow subtidal to intertidal and hypersaline condition. This species has the greatest richness within the three oil shale intervals to compare other parts of Red

  8. Lithospheric Architecture of the Hudson Bay Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D.; Darbyshire, F.

    2009-05-01

    Hudson Bay is a vast inland sea that penetrates deeply into north-central Canada, forming a conspicuous element of the coastline and concealing several fundamental tectonic elements of North America, including most of the Paleoproterozoic Trans Hudson orogen (THO) and the Paleozoic Hudson Bay basin. The THO formed due to a collision between two Archean domains, the Superior and Churchill Provinces of the Canadian Shield, and is similar in scale and tectonic style to the modern Himalayan-Karakorum orogen. Tectonic reconstructions suggest that the lobate shape of the indentor (Superior Province) formed an orogenic template that exerted a persistent influence on the tectonic evolution of the region, resulting in anomalous preservation of juvenile crustal material. Based on analysis of gravity and magnetic data, we propose a model in which juvenile crust in the southeastern part of Hudson Bay formed within an island-arc setting proximal to the Superior Province, in contrast to the Reindeer Zone of Saskatchewan and Manitoba which accreted first to the Churchill Province. Thick, cold and refractory lithosphere that underlies the Bay is well imaged by surface-wave studies and comprises a large component of the cratonic mantle keel that forms the nucleus of the North American continent. The existence of an unusually thick mantle root beneath Hudson Bay indicates that subduction and collision are root-forming (or at least root-preserving) processes. Although the Hudson Bay basin is the largest by surface area of four major intracratonic basins in North America, it is also the shallowest. Available evidence suggests that basin subsidence may have been triggered by eclogitization of crust that was previously thickened during the Trans-Hudson orogeny. Relatively stiff Early Paleozoic lithosphere may have inhibited subsidence of the Hudson Bay basin relative to other basins of similar age in North America.

  9. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  10. Magnitude and Seasonality of Wetland Methane Emissions from the Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett-Heaps, C. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Kort, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Kaplan, J. O.; Bey, I.; Drevet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) is the second largest boreal wetland ecosystem in the world and an important natural source of global atmospheric methane. We quantify the HBL methane emissions by using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to simulate aircraft measurements over the HBL from the ARCTAS and pre-HIPPO campaigns in May-July 2008, together with continuous 2004-2008 surface observations at Fraserdale (southern edge of HBL) and Alert (Arctic background). The difference in methane concentrations between Fraserdale and Alert is shown to be a good indicator of HBL emissions, and implies a sharp seasonal onset of emissions in late May (consistent with the aircraft data), a peak in July-August, and a seasonal shut-off in September. The model, in which seasonal variation of emission is mainly driven by surface temperature, reproduces well the observations in summer but its seasonal shoulders are too broad. We suggest that this reflects the suppression of emissions by snow cover and greatly improve the model simulation by accounting for this effect. Our resulting best estimate for HBL methane emissions is 2.3 Tg/a, several-fold higher than previous estimates (Roulet et al., 1994; Worthy et al., 2000).

  11. Climate and peat type in relation to spatial variation of the peatland carbon mass in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packalen, Maara S.; Finkelstein, Sarah A.; McLaughlin, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Northern peatlands store ~500 Pg of carbon (C); however, controls on the spatial distribution of the stored C may differ regionally, owing to the complex interaction among climate, ecosystem processes, and geophysical controls. As a globally significant C sink, elucidation of controls on the distribution of C in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada (HBL), is of particular importance. Although peat age is related to timing of land emergence and peat depth in the HBL, considerable variation in the total C mass (kg m-2) among sites of similar peat age suggests that other factors may explain spatial patterns in C storage (Pg) and sequestration. Here we quantify the role of two key factors in explaining the spatial distribution of the C mass in the HBL (n = 364 sites), (i) climate variability and (ii) peat lithology, for two major peatland classes in the HBL (bogs and fens). We find that temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration each explained nearly half of the C mass variability. Regions characterized by warmer and wetter conditions stored the most C as peat. Our results show that bogs and fens store similar amounts of C within a given climate domain, although via distinct storage mechanisms. Namely, fen peats tend to be shallower and more C dense (kg m-3) compared to bogs. Following geophysical controls on the timing of peat initiation, our results reveal that both the widespread bog-fen patterning and variability in regional climate contribute to explaining the spatial distribution of the peat C mass in the HBL.

  12. Proxy-Derived Reconstructions of Holocene Paleoclimate for the Hudson Bay Lowlands, an Extensive Peatland in Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, S. A.; Bunbury, J.; Friel, C.; O'Reilly, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) is an extensive peatland in northern Canada where an estimated 31 Pg of carbon have accumulated during the Holocene. Given the large size of this carbon pool and the rapid rate of climate warming at high latitudes, quantifying the responses of this peatland to climate change is a critical research priority. Comparing Holocene paleoclimate reconstructions and paleo-vegetation and carbon dynamics in HBL peatlands through analyses of sediment cores is an effective approach to understanding the sensitivity of the carbon pool to climate. Robust paleoclimate reconstructions for the Holocene are needed for such comparisons. Until recently, there have been few paleoclimate reconstructions available for the HBL. Owing to the unique geographic setting of this low lying region to the west of Hudson Bay, reconstructions from adjacent subarctic regions are not directly applicable. We synthesize in this paper a series of paleoenvironmental records derived from biological proxies preserved in lake and wetland sediment cores collected from within the HBL with the goal of improving available paleoclimate information for the region. Our available pollen records document a series of vegetation changes during the Holocene, beginning with the establishment of coastal or salt marsh communities after emergence of the HBL from the Tyrrell Sea, followed by establishment of vegetation typical of poor fens or bogs. These local vegetation changes are apparently primarily related to hydrological changes driven by isostatic rebound and autogenic processes. Regional assemblages composed of tree pollen, which may be more directly tied to climate, show less variability during the Holocene. Reconstructions using modern analogs suggest minimal variation in temperature during the period of record, although these reconstructions show a moderate increase in precipitation following 3000 yrs BP, corresponding to Neoglacial climates reported at other northern high latitude

  13. Supplemental materials for the analysis of capture-recapture data for polar bears in Western Hudson Bay, Canada, 1984-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Regehr, Eric V.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Regehr and others (2007, Survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay in relation to earlier sea ice breakup: Journal of Wildlife Management, v. 71, no. 8) evaluated survival in relation to climatic conditions and estimated population size for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in western Hudson Bay, Canada. Here, we provide supplemental materials for the analyses in Regehr and others (2007). We demonstrate how tag-return data from harvested polar bears were used to adjust estimates of total survival for human-caused mortality. We describe the sex and age composition of the capture and harvest samples and provide results for goodness-of-fit tests applied to capture-recapture models. We also describe the capture-recapture model selection procedure and the structure of the most supported model, which was used to estimate survival and population size.

  14. Thermochemical Structure and Stratification of the Hudson Bay Lithosphere, Northern Canada: Evidence from Multi-Observable Probabilistic Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Afonso, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogeny (THO) was a Himalayan-style collision that marked an important stage of assembly of the Canadian Shield. Today, the THO is largely concealed beneath the Hudson Bay intracratonic basin. Regional seismic tomography shows a thick, high-wavespeed cratonic keel beneath the region, but also includes significant local heterogeneity that may be associated with the imprint of the THO, providing clues to Precambrian plate-tectonic processes. In this study, we use multi-observable probabilistic inversions to investigate the thermal and compositional state of the Hudson Bay lithosphere, to explain the seismic wavespeed variations and to constrain in more detail potential signatures of the oldest cratonic cores and the THO collision. Rayleigh wave dispersion curves, surface heatflow, geoid anomalies and topography are jointly inverted to give a pseudo-3D model of the upper mantle beneath the region. Low temperatures are pervasive across the region, leading to a thick thermal lithosphere whose base lies at depths of 250 km or greater. The data are best explained by stratification of the lithosphere into (at least) two layers, with the top layer extremely depleted and the bottom layer generally more fertile, though still depleted with respect to the sublithospheric mantle. Across the Bay and Hudson Strait, a narrow zone of lowered depletion is observed in the top layer. The position of this anomaly coincides geographically with the THO and with the wavespeed reduction noted in previous seismic studies. It is likely that this feature represents juvenile material trapped between the cratonic cores in the final stages of the THO. We also find evidence for anomalous mid-lithospheric compositions in certain areas, notably west of Hudson Bay. Additionally, some of the long-period surface wave data requires lower than average seismic wavespeeds below the lithosphere, suggesting localised regions of higher temperature/attenuation in the upper

  15. Lithospheric architecture beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Miller, Meghan S.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2015-07-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches ˜350 km thick but is thinner (˜200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the LAB conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  16. Constraining the Late Pleistocene history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet by dating the Missinaibi Formation, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, April S.; Finkelstein, Sarah A.; Barnett, Peter J.; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-08-01

    Well-dated paleorecords from periods prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are important for validating models of ice sheet build-up and growth. However, owing to glacial erosion, most Late Pleistocene records lie outside of the previously glaciated region, which limits their ability to inform about the dynamics of paleo-ice sheets. Here, we evaluate new and previously published chronology data from the Missinaibi Formation, a Pleistocene-aged deposit in the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), Canada, located near the geographic center of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). Available radiocarbon (AMS = 44, conventional = 36), amino acid (n = 13), uranium-thorium (U-Th, n = 14), thermoluminescence (TL, n = 15) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL, n = 5) data suggest that an ice-free HBL may have been possible during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 7 (MIS 7; ca. 243,000 to ca. 190,000 yr BP), MIS 5 (ca. 130,000 to ca. 71,000 yr BP) and MIS 3 (ca. 29,000 to ca. 57,000). While MIS 7 and MIS 5 are well-documented interglacial periods, the development of peat, forest bed and fluvial deposits dating to MIS 3 (n = 20 radiocarbon dates; 4 TL dates, 3 OSL dates), suggests that the LIS retreated and remained beyond, or somewhere within, the boundaries of the HBL during this interstadial. Ice sheet models approximate the margin of the LIS to Southern Ontario during this time, which is 700 km south of the HBL. Therefore, if correct, our data help constrain a significantly different configuration and dynamicity for the LIS than previously modelled. We can find no chronological basis to discount the MIS 3 age assignments. However, since most data originate from radiocarbon dates lying close to the reliable limit of this geochronometer, future work on dating the Missinaibi Formation using other geochronological methods (e.g. U-Th, OSL) is necessary in order to confirm the age estimates and strengthen the boundaries of the LIS during this period.

  17. Air mass distribution and the heterogeneity of the climate change signal in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Andrew; Gough, William

    2016-08-01

    The linkage between changes in air mass distribution and temperature trends from 1971 to 2010 is explored in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region. Statistically significant temperature increases were found of varying spatial and temporal magnitude. Concurrent statistically significant changes in air mass frequency at the same locations were also detected, particularly in the declining frequency of dry polar (DP) air. These two sets of changes were found to be linked, and we thus conclude that the heterogeneity of the climatic warming signal in the region is at least partially the result of a fundamental shift in the concurrent air mass frequency in addition to global and regional changes in radiative forcing due to increases in long-lived greenhouse gases.

  18. Mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter in the Nelson/Hayes estuarine system (Hudson Bay, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, C.; Mokhtar, M.; Perroud, A.; McCullough, G.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study (2009-2012) investigating the mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Nelson/Hayes estuary (Hudson Bay). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored DOM, and humic-like DOM decreased with increasing salinity (r2 = 0.70-0.84). Removal of DOM was noticeable at low to mid salinity range, likely due to degradation and/or adsorption to particles. DOM photobleaching rates (i.e., decrease in DOM signal resulting from exposure to solar radiation) ranged from 0.005 to 0.030 h- 1, corresponding to half-lives of 4.9-9.9 days. Dissolved organic matter from the Nelson and Hayes Rivers was more photoreactive than from the estuary where the photodegradation of terrestrial DOM decreased with increasing salinity. Coincident with the loss of CDOM absorption was an increase in spectral slope S, suggesting a decrease in DOM molecular weight. Marked differences in photoreactivity of protein- and humic-like DOM were observed with highly humidified material being the most photosensitive. Information generated by our study will provide a valuable data set for better understanding the impacts of future hydroelectric development and climate change on DOM biogeochemical dynamics in the Nelson/Hayes estuary and coastal domain. This study will constitute a reference on terrestrial DOM fate prior to building additional generating capacity on the Nelson River.

  19. Geological Setting and Petroleum Potential of the Paleozoic Hudson Platform, Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, J.; Hamblin, T.; Lavoie, D.; Duchesne, M.; Lajeunesse, P.; Zhang, Z.

    2009-05-01

    The Hudson Platform covers an area of 600,000 km2 and represents one of the largest Paleozoic sedimentary basins in Canada. The Hudson Platform contains the large Hudson Bay Basin and smaller Moose River Basin. The Hudson Bay and Moose River basins are surrounded and underlain by Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The Hudson Platform contains Ordovician to Cretaceous sedimentary strata, with a maximum known thickness of about 2500 m in Hudson Bay. The lower Paleozoic succession includes Late Ordovician to Early Devonian shallow marine carbonates and thin mudstones, deposited during widespread early Paleozoic marine inundation of the Canadian Shield, and Early to Late Devonian marine carbonates, evaporates, and mudstones deposited in saucer-shaped, isolated basin depocentres. There is no record of late Paleozoic sedimentation in the region, perhaps related to cratonic uplift accompanying the Alleghenian Orogeny. Lower Paleozoic strata are unconformably overlain by thin, erosional remnants of Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstones, mudstones and lignite seams (Moose River Basin) and Early Cretaceous marine sandstones and mudstones (Hudson Bay Basin). The Hudson Platform is currently considered a frontier prospect for hydrocarbon exploration. However, the long- held view that the region is underlain by a thin sedimentary succession with no appreciable hydrocarbon source rocks or reservoir intervals is erroneous. Geological and geophysical data indicate the Hudson Bay Basin contains many prospective petroleum reservoir and trap types, potentially including hydrothermal dolomite. Recent studies indicate Upper Ordovician oil shales are widespread and may have generated hydrocarbons in deeper parts of the Hudson Bay Basin. New high resolution bathymetric surveys in northern Hudson Bay have led to the recognition of circular sea-floor depressions similar to fluid or gas-escape pockmarks. A modern re-evaluation of the

  20. Timing the last interglacial-glacial transition in glacial sedimentary sequences of the Hudson Bay lowlands (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Allard, G.; Ghaleb, B.; Lamothe, M.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate records (oxygen isotopes and speleothems) indicate that the onset of the last glacial cycle was characterized by rapid and large-scale growth of continental ice sheets. The timing of the inception of the Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and its subsequent evolution (extent) remain, however, largely unconstrained. The depositional record of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) is of particular interest to these issues because this region is located near the former geographic center of the LIS. The presence of nonglacial deposits in HBL glacial sedimentary sequences thus implies drastic changes in ice sheet configuration, but constraining these ice volume changes through absolute dating of nonglacial sediments has been so far inconclusive. Here we use radiocarbon, U-series, and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods to constrain the age of an extensive nonglacial unit containing abundant wood fragments enclosed in compacted clay lying below several meters of glacial deposits along the Nottaway River, in the southeastern sector of the HBL. This region is particularly interesting because it lies near one of the inception centers of the LIS. Radiocarbon dating of a wood fragment yielded a nonfinite 14C age of >55.2 ka, in agreement with similar dating attempts throughout the HBL. Measurements of U and Th concentrations and isotope ratios on fossil wood samples revealed consistent 230Th/U ages, indicating that the wood fragments were subject to a single episode of uranium uptake, with apparently no subsequent disturbance of the geochemical system. Despite mechanical cleaning of the wood outer surfaces, non-authigenic 230Th was found in most samples and correction for this detrital contamination yielded an isochron age of 106.8 (+12.3, -10.3) ka, which represents a minimum age for this unit. The 230Th/U age constraint is nonetheless supported by a series of OSL ages obtained for the overlying fluvial sands, thereby assigning the Nottaway nonglacial unit to the end

  1. Methane emissions from wetlands, southern Hudson Bay lowland

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.R.; Heyes, A.; Roulet, N.T.

    1994-01-20

    This article describes the monitoring of methane emissions at 39 wetland ecosystem sites in the Hudson Bay Lowland. The study sites were located along a transect from the James Bay Coast at the tip of the Hudson Bay to Kinosheo Lake near Moosonee, Ontario, Canada. Measurements of methane flux were made using a static chamber technique. Weak statistical relationships were noted at each site between the daily methane flux rate, ground-water depth, and peat temperatures. On a regional scale, a significant correlation was noted over the complete range of sites between the seasonal methane flux and the average position of the ground-water table. Other observations are also described. 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Structure of the Crust and Uppermost Mantle Beneath Hudson Bay Based on Ambient- Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, A.; Eaton, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Hudson Bay is a vast inland sea that penetrates deeply into north-central Canada, forming a conspicuous element of the North American coastline. The Bay conceals several fundamental tectonic elements of North America, including most of the Paleoproterozoic Trans Hudson orogen, the Paleozoic Hudson Bay basin and a large part of the lithospheric root beneath the Precambrian core of North America. This study is focused on regional crustal structure based on ambient-noise tomography. Twenty-one months of continuous ambient- noise recordings have been acquired from 31 broadband seismograph stations that encircle Hudson Bay. These stations are part of the Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment (HuBLE), an international project that is currently operating more than 40 broadband seismograph stations around the periphery of Hudson Bay. Following established processing procedures that include trace normalization and spectral whitening, cross- correlations are computed for all possible station pairs. The resulting waveforms are treated as Green functions, from which group velocity dispersion measurements can be made. Since Hudson Bay freezes during winter months, there is a pronounced asymmetry to the Green functions indicative of noise sources along the Atlantic seaboard. Preliminary results indicate shield-like conditions in most areas, but reduced crustal velocities beneath the Hudson Bay basin.

  3. Chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol in the troposphere over the Hudson Bay lowlands and Quebec-Labrador regions of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorzelska, K.; Talbot, R. W.; Klemm, K.; Lefer, B.; Klemm, O.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Barrie, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the boundary layer and free troposphere over continental and coastal subarctic regions of Canada during the July - August 1990 joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B/Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). The samples were analyzed for the following water soluble species: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium, chloride, oxalate, methylsulfonate, and total amine nitrogen. Ammonium and sulfate were the major water soluble components of these aerosols. The nearly neutral (overall) chemical composition of summertime aerosol particles contrasts their strongly acidic wintertime composition. Aerosol samples were separated into several air mass categories and characterized in terms of chemical composition, associated mixing ratios of gaseous compounds, and meteorological parameters. The fundamental category represented particles associated with 'background' air masses. The summertime atmospheric aerosols in background air over the North American subarctic and Arctic regions were characterized by relatively small and spatially uniform mixing ratios of the measured species. These aerosol particles were aged to the extent that they had lost their primary source signature. The chemical profile of the background air aerosols was frequently modified by additions from biomass fire plumes, aged tropical marine air, and intrusions of upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric air. Aerosols in boundary layer background air over the boreal forest region of Quebec-Labrador had significantly larger mixing ratios of ammonium and sulfate relative to the Hudson Bay region. This may reflect infiltration of anthropogenic pollution or be due to natural emissions from this region.

  4. Chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol in the troposphere over the Hudson Bay lowlands and Quebec-Labrador regions of Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gorzelska, K.; Talbot, R.W.; Lefer, B.; Klemm, K.; Klemm, O.; Gregory, G.L.; Anderson, B.; Barrie, L.A.

    1994-01-20

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the boundary layer and free troposphere over continental and coastal subarctic regions of Canada during the July-August 1990 joint US-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B/Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). The samples were analyzed for the following water soluble species: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium, chloride, oxalate, methylsulfonate, and total amine nitrogen. Ammonium and sulfate were the major water soluble components of these aerosols. The nearly neutral (overall) chemical composition of summertime aerosol particles contrasts their strongly acidic wintertime composition. Aerosol samples were separated into several air mass categories and characterized in terms of chemical composition, associated mixing ratios of gaseous compounds, and meteorological parameters. The fundamental category represented particles associated with {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} air masses. The summertime atmospheric aerosols in background air over the North American subarctic and Arctic regions were characterized by relatively small and spatially uniform mixing ratios of the measured species. These aerosol particles were aged to the extent that they had lost their primary source signature. The chemical profile of the background air aerosols was frequently modified by additions from biomass fire plumes, aged tropical marine air, and intrusions of upper troposphere/lower stratospheric air. Aerosols in boundary layer background air over the boreal forested region of Quebec-Labrador had significantly larger mixing ratios of ammonium and sulfate relative to the Hudson Bay region. This may reflect infiltration of anthropogenic pollution or be due to natural emissions from this region. 71 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-01-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds (“WAP 12”, “WAP 20”, and “WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of 210Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring. PMID:25750718

  6. Spatial-temporal controls on peatland carbon dynamics in the Hudson Bay Lowland, Canada: Reducing landscape-scale uncertainty in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packalen, M. S.; Finkelstein, S. A.; McLaughlin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Global peatlands currently store more than 650 Pg of carbon (C) that has accumulated over millennia, and contributed to a net climatic cooling. However, controls on spatial-temporal C dynamics may differ regionally. With at least 30 Pg C sequestered in the Hudson Bay Lowlands Canada (HBL), the vulnerability of this globally significant peat C reservoir remains uncertain under conditions of a changing climate and enhanced anthropogenic pressure. Here, we synthesize our current understanding of controls on C dynamics in the HBL using detailed peat records. Our data reveal that widespread bog-fen patterning across the HBL is related to the distribution of peat C in space and time, indicating that topographic and ecohydroclimatic controls are potentially important determinants of C mass accretion. We find that while peat age is closely related to timing of land emergence and peat depth in the HBL, considerable variation in the total C mass among sites of similar peat age suggests that additional factors may further explain trends in peat C dynamics. Among these factors, we find that temperature, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration in the HBL account for up to half of the variation in the distribution of the peat C mass, whereby regions with warmer and wetter conditions support larger peat C masses. Moreover, we find that the rate of C accumulation is greatest for young fen peatlands developing during warmer mid-Holocene climates; but that long-term C stores are greatest in association with bog peatlands. Although nearly two-thirds of HBL peat C is of late Holocene age, most of the reconstructed potential C losses also occurred during the late Holocene, as previously accrued peat decayed. Our findings support the hypothesis that both climate and ecohydrological factors are important drivers of peat C dynamics in the HBL, alongside geophysical controls on the timing of peat initiation. As the HBL peat complex continues to rapidly expand, it may remain a

  7. The Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J.-M.; Helffrich, G. R.; Thompson, D. A.; Wookey, J.; Brisbourne, A. M.; Hawthorn, D.; Eaton, D.; Snyder, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    I D Bastow, J-M Kendall, A M Brisbourne, D B Snyder, D Thompson, D Hawthorn, G R Helffrich, J Wookey, A Horleston and D Eaton describe the motivation for - and successful operation of - a remote seismic survey in Arctic Canada.

  8. Distribution and diversity of diatom assemblages in surficial sediments of shallow lakes in Wapusk National Park (Manitoba, Canada) region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Olivier; Bouchard, Frédéric; MacDonald, Lauren A; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Pienitz, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    The hydrology of shallow lakes (and ponds) located in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) is sensitive to climate warming and associated permafrost thaw. However, their biological characteristics are poorly known, which hampers effective aquatic ecosystem monitoring. Located in northern Manitoba along the southwestern coast of Hudson Bay, Wapusk National Park (WNP) encompasses numerous shallow lakes representative of the subarctic zone. We analyzed the distribution and diversity of diatom (microscopic algae; class Bacillariophyceae) assemblages in surficial sediments of 33 lakes located in three different ecozones spanning a vegetation gradient, from NE to SW: the Coastal Fen (CF), the Interior Peat Plateau (IPP), and the Boreal Spruce Forest (BSF). We found significant differences (P < 0.05) in diatom community composition between CF and IPP lakes, and CF and BSF lakes, but not between IPP and BSF lakes. These results are consistent with water chemistry measurements, which indicated distinct limnological conditions for CF lakes. Diatom communities in CF lakes were generally dominated by alkaliphilous taxa typical of waters with medium to high conductivity, such as Nitzschia denticula. In contrast, several IPP and BSF lakes were dominated by acidophilous and circumneutral diatom taxa with preference for low conductivity (e.g., Tabellaria flocculosa, Eunotia mucophila, E. necompacta var. vixcompacta). This exploratory survey provides a first detailed inventory of the diatom assemblages in the WNP region needed for monitoring programs to detect changes in shallow lake ecosystems and ecozonal shifts in response to climate variations. PMID:27386094

  9. Late-summer zooplankton community structure, abundance, and distribution in the Hudson Bay system (Canada) and their relationships with environmental conditions, 2003-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Rafael; Harvey, Michel; Gosselin, Michel; Starr, Michel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Straneo, Fiammetta

    2012-08-01

    Zooplankton communities were examined for the first time in three different hydrographic regions of the Hudson Bay system (HBS) in early August to early September from 2003 to 2006. Sampling was conducted at 50 stations distributed along different transects located in Hudson Bay (HB), Hudson Strait (HS), and Foxe Basin (FB). Variations in zooplankton biomass, abundance, taxonomic composition, and diversity in relation to environmental variables were studied using multivariate techniques. During all sampling years, the total zooplankton biomass was on average four times lower in HB than in HS and FB. Clustering samples by their relative species compositions revealed no interannual variation in zooplankton community but showed a marked interregional variability between the three regions. Water column stratification explained the greatest proportion (25%) of this spatial variability. According to redundancy analysis (RDA), the zooplankton taxa that contribute most to the separation of the three regions are Microcalanus spp., Oithona similis, Oncaea borealis, Aeginopsis laurentii, Sagitta elegans, Fritillaria sp., and larvae of cnidaria, chaetognatha, and pteropoda in HB; hyperiid amphipods in FB; and Pseudocalanus spp. CI-CV, Calanus glacialis CI-CVI, Calanus finmarchicus CI-CVI, Calanus hyperboreus CV-CVI, Acartia longiremis CI-CV, Metridia longa N3-N6 CI-CIII CVIf, Eukrohnia hamata, larvae of echinodermata, mollusca, cirripedia, appendicularia, and polychaeta in the northwestern and southeastern HS transects. For the HB transect, the RDA analyzed allowed us to distinguish three regions (HB west, central, and east) with different environmental gradients and zooplankton assemblages, in particular higher concentration of Pseudocalanus spp. nauplii and CI-CVI, as well as benthic macrozooplankton and meroplankton larvae in western HB. In HS, Calanoid species (mainly C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis) were mostly observed at the north shore stations associated with the

  10. Lithospheric architecture of the Hudson Bay region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2009-12-01

    Hudson Bay conceals several fundamental tectonic elements of North America, including most of the ca. 1.8 Ga Trans Hudson orogen (THO) and the Paleozoic Hudson Bay basin. Formed due to a collision between the Superior and Churchill Provinces of the Canadian Shield, the THO is similar in scale and tectonic style to the modern Himalayan-Karakorum orogen. During collision, the lobate shape of the indentor (Superior Province) formed an orogenic template that, along with the Sask craton of central North America, exerted a persistent influence on the tectonic evolution of the region resulting in anomalous preservation of juvenile crustal material. Juvenile crust in the southeastern part of Hudson Bay is interpreted to have formed within an island-arc setting proximal to the Superior Province, in contrast to the Reindeer Zone of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, which accreted first to the Churchill Province. Thick, cold and refractory lithosphere that underlies the Bay is well imaged by surface-wave and S-Receiver function studies and comprises a large component of the cratonic mantle keel that forms the nucleus of the North American continent. The existence of an unusually thick mantle root beneath Hudson Bay indicates that subduction and plate collision during the Trans-Hudson orogeny were ‘root-preserving’ (if not ‘root-forming’) processes. Although the Hudson Bay basin is the largest by surface area of four major intracratonic basins in North America, it is also the shallowest. Crustal thinning imaged from ambient-noise tomography is consistent with previous models of basin subsidence caused by extension. Compared to other basins of similar age in North America, however, relatively stiff Early Paleozoic lithosphere may have inhibited subsidence of the Hudson Bay basin.

  11. Peat analyses in the Hudson Bay Lowlands using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Davis, J. L.; Rossiter, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a means to determine peak thickness and estimate peat volume in the Hudson Bay Lowlands of Canada is examined. Ground-based and airborne GPR data were acquired so as to extrapolate measurements to larger scales. While the ground-based measurements did an excellent job in determining peat depth, the airborne techniques did a fair job a low altitudes and demonstrated great promise with additional system engineering changes.

  12. Exchange of nitrous oxide within the Hudson Bay lowland

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, C.L.; Hastie, D.R.

    1994-01-20

    Static chamber and gas exchange techniques were used to measure nitrous oxide fluxes from soil and water at five sites within the Hudson Bay Lowland as part of the Northern Wetland Study. Episodic and diffusive mechanisms are indicated as likely sources for nitrous oxide emissions. Episodic emissions could not be detected by the gas exchange technique, therefore, it is not an appropriate measurement method for wetland water emission rate determination. LANDSAT-Thermatic Mapper imagery was used to scale nitrous oxide emissions on a regional scale over the entire Hudson Bay Lowland area.

  13. The 'Mandarin-missionary' strategy: Robert Kennicott, Spencer Fullerton Baird and specimen collection in the Hudson's Bay Territory.

    PubMed

    Laubacher, Matthew

    2012-06-01

    In 1859, Robert Kennicott, one of the most promising specimen collectors and young naturalists in the United States, was dispatched to Hudson's Bay Territory by Spencer Fullerton Baird, the Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian. Kennicott was chosen because of previous experience in Canada, the familiarity with biota of the American Midwest, and because he had a boundless, infectious, enthusiasm for natural history that was typical among Baird's closest protégées. Kennicott was a natural scientific envoy--or missionary--to the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company, and many officers were enthusiastically 'converted' to the cause of collecting and/or overseeing the collection of natural history specimens. Due to this collaboration between Baird, Kennicott and the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company, the Smithsonian became a leading center of Canadian natural history in the Western hemisphere. PMID:22410313

  14. Inorganic Carbon Cycling and Biogeochemical Processes in an Arctic Inland Sea (Hudson Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Miller, Lisa; Granskog, Mats; Papakyriakou, Tim; Pengelly, Leah

    2016-04-01

    The distributions of CO2 system parameters in Hudson Bay, which not only receives nearly one third of Canada's river discharge, but is also subject to annual cycles of sea-ice formation and melt, indicate that the timing and magnitude of freshwater inputs play an important role in carbon biogeochemistry and ocean acidification in this unique Arctic ecosystem. This study uses basin-wide measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA), as well as stable isotope tracers (δ18OH2O and δ13CDIC), to provide a detailed assessment of carbon cycling processes throughout the bay. Surface distributions of carbonate parameters reveal the particular importance of freshwater inputs in the southern portion of the bay. Riverine TA end-members vary significantly both regionally and with small changes in near-surface depths, highlighting the importance of careful surface water sampling in highly stratified waters. In an along-shore transect, large increases in subsurface DIC are accompanied by equivalent decreases in δ13CDIC with no discernable change in TA, indicating a respiratory DIC production on the order of 100 μmol/kg during deep water circulation around the bay. Based on TA data we surmise that the deep waters in the Hudson Bay are of Pacific origin.

  15. Seismic imaging of the lithosphere beneath Hudson Bay: Episodic growth of the Laurentian mantle keel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Eaton, David W.; Bastow, Ian D.

    2013-07-01

    The Hudson Bay basin in northern Canada conceals one of the major collisional zones of the Canadian Shield, the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO), which marks the Paleoproterozoic collision between the Archean Superior and Western Churchill cratons at ˜1.9-1.8Ga. Improved knowledge of upper mantle structure beneath the region is essential to establish the nature of the THO, specifically whether Himalayan-style plate tectonics operated in Paleoproterozoic times. Detailed seismological constraints on lithospheric architecture are also required to advance our understanding of the mechanism and timing of keel formation. We use surface wave tomography to illuminate new details of the lithospheric architecture of the Hudson Bay region, resolving both seismic wavespeed and azimuthal anisotropy. Phase velocity maps are calculated from fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves, then used to construct a 3D model exploring upper mantle structure to depths of ˜300km. Fast shear wavespeeds suggest a lithospheric thickness varying from ˜180km to almost 280 km beneath the Hudson Bay region. The new study confirms previous inferences that there is no correlation between crustal ages and lithospheric thickness. Patterns of shear wavespeed and azimuthal anisotropy indicate a layered lithosphere. In the uppermost mantle, both the highest velocities and the anisotropic fast directions wrap around the Bay. This structure is likely related to the formation processes of the Paleozoic intracratonic basin. At greater depth (˜70-150km) we resolve two high-wavespeed cores separated by a relatively narrow near-vertical lower-velocity curtain. This internal architecture is suggested to result from the terminal phase of a modern-style plate-tectonic collision between the Archean Superior and Churchill cratons during the Trans-Hudson orogeny, entrapping juvenile Proterozoic material. The lower lithosphere (≥160km depth) has a relatively homogeneous wavespeed structure across the region

  16. Methane emissions from wetlands, southern Hudson Bay lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. R.; Heyes, A.; Roulet, N. T.

    1994-01-01

    Methane emissions were measured by a static chamber technique at 39 sites along a transect from the James Bay coast at the southeastern tip of Hudson Bay to Kinosheo Lake, northwest of Moosonee, Ontario, Canada. These sites represented five major wetland ecosystems along a successional gradient from the coast inland. Measurements were made at ≈ 10-day intervals from early June to mid-August, and once in mid-September and mid-October 1990. Seasonal CH4 fluxes were small (<2 g m-2) at the recently emerged coastal marsh, coastal fen, tamarack fen, and interior fen ecosystems, except where there were shallow ponds and pools, which emitted 2-5 g CH4 m-2. At the more complex bog ecosystem locations, CH4 fluxes were small (0.3-2.0 g m-2) from hummock/hollow microtopography in the raised bogs and from the forested margin. The largest CH4 fluxes were recorded from the degrading peat sections forming shallow pools and the moss/sedge mats which were always close to saturation (1.8-16.6 g m-2). A deeper (1-m water depth) pool emitted less CH4 (1.4 g m-2). In terms of ecological succession along the transect, covering emergence over ≈ 4000 yr, CH4 emission rates increase from marsh to fen and bog, primarily through the development of peat degradation and the formation of moss/sedge lawns and pools. There were very weak statistical relationships at each site between the daily CH4 flux and peat temperature and water table. However, there was a significant (r2 = 0.44, p < 0.001) correlation between the seasonal CH4 flux and the mean position of the water table over the complete range of sites, emphasizing the overall importance of hydrology in determining CH4 flux. Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of the surface (0-20 cm depth) peat samples to produce CH4 anaerobically and consume CH4 aerobically. They revealed that many samples exhibited high CH4 consumption rates, suggesting that although CH4 production in the subsurface peat is high

  17. The Fur Trade as an Environment for Education: Problems and Implications from Hudson Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer S. H.

    Fur trade settlements in North America were a fertile environment for cultural education. The fur trade became a network of closely linked social spheres in which individuals had to acquire competence in order to function and survive. The Hudson Bay Company's decision to plant permanent posts on the shores of the Hudson Bay put settlers and their…

  18. Gravity anomalies and deep structure of eastern Hudson bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Gibb, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Cape Smith and Belcher foldbelts of Lower Proterozoic (Aphebian) rocks form parts of the proposed Circum-Superior suture which separates the Superior and Churchill structural provinces of the Canadian Shield. Recent marine gravity surveys in eastern Hudson Bay (1976-1979) show that the distinctive linear gravity pattern of paired positive and negative anomalies along the Cape Smith foldbelt of northern Ungava extends southwards into Hudson Bay to the Belcher Islands. Interpretation of five gravity profiles across the Cape Smith and Belcher foldbelts suggests that the Churchill crust is thicker and denser than the Superior. The boundary between the two contrasting crustal blocks is interpreted as a collisional suture. The rocks of the foldbelts which are progressively more volcanic northwards are the source of a residual positive anomaly associated with the Cape Smith foldbelt and a series of discontinuous positive residual anomalies in the Bay. To the north the thicknesses of the foldbelt rocks are estimated to be between 4 and 9 km with a local maximum of 13 km in the northernmost profile. To the south in the Belcher Islands, where geological estimates of formation thickness and measured rock densities provide more constraints on the interpretation of the residual anomalies, the foldbelt rocks are generally 6-7 km thick with a local maximum thickness of about 9 km. One possible interpretation of paleomagnetic results for Belcher Islands rocks in terms of a two-plate model lends support to the collision hypothesis.

  19. Reconstruction of the Last Outburst Flood of Glacial Lake Agassiz-Ojibway in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, P.; St-Onge, G.

    2007-12-01

    Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait were the sites of a rapid deglaciation that culminated in the catastrophic drainage of proglacial Lake Agassiz-Ojibway into the North Atlantic at ~8.47 cal kyr BP. It has previously been suggested that this sudden outburst of freshwater may have weakened the thermohaline circulation and triggered the 8200 cal BP cold event recorded in Greenland ice cores. Evidence for the outburst flood included geomorphic features observed on the seafloor of southern Hudson Bay and the identification of a centimeter to decimeter- thick hematite-rich red layer present in Hudson Strait sediment cores. However, unequivocal evidence is still lacking in order to define the way the lake drained (i.e., either by a breach through the ice-dam, a supraglacial spillover or a subglacial flood), whether it drained by one or more pulses and the location of the northward flood routes toward Hudson Bay. In this paper, we present new seafloor images and sediment cores collected onboard the CCGS Amundsen in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait in 2004 and 2005 that shed light on the dynamics of the final drainage of the ice-dammed lakes. We found that this sudden outburst flood combined with subsequent currents displaced icebergs back-and-forth in a former calving bay to produce preferentially oriented arc-shaped scours on the seafloor. In addition, fields of giant sandwaves were identified in southern Hudson Bay in areas unaffected by arcuate iceberg scours, suggesting that they were protected from iceberg scouring by overlying glacier ice during the lake drainage event. The subglacial origin of the widely distributed sandwaves and the occurrence of many submarine channels lead us to propose that the drainage of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway took place by a buoyant lifting of the rapidly thinning LIS along many subglacial routes that spread over the entire southern Hudson Bay region. We also reveal that the red bed contains two layers deposited by hyperpycnal flows (hyperpycnites

  20. Exchange of nitrous oxide within the Hudson Bay lowland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, C. L.; Hastie, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    The source strength of atmospheric trace gases from natural ecosystems must be quantified in order to assess the effect of such inputs on the background tropospheric chemistry. A static chamber technique and a gas exchange technique were used to determine the emissions of nitrous oxide from five sites within the Hudson Bay Lowland, as part of the Northern Wetland Study. Two mechanisms, one diffusive and the other episodic, were found likely to be responsible for the emissions of nitrous oxide. The annual diffusive flux ranged from -3.8 mg(N2O)/sq m in a treed bog to 7.9 mg(N2O)/sq m in an open fen. The addition of the episodic flux, increased this range to -2.1 mg(N2O)/sq m and 18.5 mg(N2O)/sq m respectively. These episodic emissions occurred in from 2.5% to 16.7% of the samples during the late summer peak emission period. Since the gas exchange rate could not detect the episodic emissions, it was found to be a poor method for water emission rate determination within the wetland. LANDSAT-Thermatic Mapper (TM) imagery was used to scale the emissions, from the chamber level to an integrated average over the entire Hudson Bay Lowland. The total emission rate of N2O from the Hudson Bay Lowland, was determined to be 1.2 Gg(N2O)/year, of which 80% was attributed to episodic emissions.

  1. Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River estuary and western Hudson Bay, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; Sandau, C.D.; Koczanski, K.; Michaud, R.; De Guise, S.; Beland, P.

    2000-05-01

    Knowledge is limited regarding methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and especially MeSo{sub 2}-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), metabolites in cetacean species. The authors hypothesized that the ability of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to biotransform PCB and DDE compounds, and to form and degrade their MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, is related to the capacity for xenobiotic metabolism. Adipose biopsies were collected from male and female beluga whale from distinct populations in the St. Lawrence River estuary (STL) and western Hudson Bay (WHB), Canada, which are contrasted by the exposure to different levels of cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing, chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants. The PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, 28 MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 14 meta-para chlorine-unsubstituted PCBs, and four MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 4,4{prime}- and 2,4{prime}-DDE were determined. The mean concentrations of total ({Sigma}-) MeSO{sub 2}-PCB in male STL beluga (230 ng/g), and ratios of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB (0.05) and {Sigma}-precursor-PCB (0.17) were approximately twofold higher, whereas the {Sigma}-precursor-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB ratio was approximately twofold lower, than in male WHB beluga. Both populations had a low formation capacity for MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs with {le} six chlorines (<4% of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs). The congener patterns were dominated by trichloro- and tetrachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs, and tetrachloro- and pentachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in WHB and STL animals, respectively. In addition to 2- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, two unknown MeSO{sub 2}-2,4{prime}-DDEs were detected. The mean 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE concentration in STL beluga (1.2 ng/g) was much greater than in WHB animals. The concentrations of 4,4{prime}-DDE, and not 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, increased with age in male STL animals. The authors demonstrated that sulfone formation and clearance is related to metabolic capacity, and thus

  2. Airborne flux measurements of CO{sub 2}, sensible, and latent heat over the Hudson Bay lowland

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, R.L.; Hayhoe, H.N.; MacPherson, J.I.; Schuepp, P.H.

    1994-01-20

    This article describes the results of aerial surveys conducted in 1990 over the Hudson Bay Lowland as part of the Northern Wetlands Study by the National Research Council of Ottawa, Canada. Two aerial runs of approximately 100 kilometers in length were completed from James Bay to the Kinosheo Lake area. Atmospheric research aircraft was used to measure the spatial and temporal variations in carbon dioxide, water, and sensible heat fluxes over the wetlands areas. The data collected as part of this study and interpretation of the results are presented in this paper. 27 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Precambrian Crustal Evolution of the Hudson Bay Region: Insights from Receiver Function Analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Helffrich, G. R.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Snyder, D. B.; Eaton, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    The processes that formed, thickened and thinned the early Earth's crust remain poorly known. The onset of modern plate tectonics, for example, could be as far back as the Hadean or as late as the Neoproterozoic. In many cratons, vertical processes are believed to have been dominant (dome-and-keel tectonics, e.g. Pilbara craton), while others are hypothesised to have formed by the progressive accretion of different terranes (e.g. Superior craton). The Hudson Bay region represents one of the largest areas of Precambrian geology on the planet, with ages spanning 2 billion years (3.9-1.8 Ga). The western Churchill province contains the predominantly Paleo- to Mesoarchean Rae domain and the Neoarchean Hearne domain, and is welded to the Superior craton by the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen, a Himalayan scale feature which extends for more than 4500 km along strike. The Churchill has received comparatively little scientific investigation due to its remote location and harsh climate. In order to test hypotheses on crustal formation and evolution during the Precambrian, teleseismic receiver functions have been analysed for more than 30 stations located on the key geological features in the vicinity of Hudson Bay. Across the entire Rae domain, a dominantly felsic crust with a sharp Moho is observed. Little evidence exists to interpret the vast extent of the felsic crust in terms of subduction related processes. Within the granite-greenstone terranes of the Hearne domain, a more intermediate bulk composition and complex Moho signature may be representative of an oceanic affinity for the crust, suggesting accretionary processes acted there. In the Quebec-Baffin Island region, bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratios are dominated by effects associated with the Trans-Hudson Orogen, and appear to map out the first-order shape of the indenting lower-plate. Correlation between terrane age and receiver function-derived crustal structure suggests that the crust in northern Canada was

  4. Low calcium carbonate saturation state in an Arctic inland sea having large and varying fluvial inputs: The Hudson Bay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Starr, Michel; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Granskog, Mats

    2014-09-01

    The Hudson Bay system (HBS) is a shallow inland sea in the Arctic, composed of Hudson Strait, Foxe Basin/Channel, James Bay, and Hudson Bay. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) measurements were used to investigate the state of ocean acidification, specifically calcium carbonate saturation states (Ω) and pH. The freshwater sources were identified from the relationship between oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) and salinity to understand the role of freshwater in ocean acidification. The saturation state of seawater with respect to calcium carbonate (Ω) in surface water (<10 m) of the HBS was strongly influenced by river runoff. Aragonite under-saturation (Ωarg < 1) was observed in the surface water of the south-eastern Hudson Bay, where the river runoff fraction was high (>10%). The watershed characteristics, however, influenced the alkalinity of river runoff in different parts of Hudson Bay, which contributed to Ω variation in the coastal region. In southwestern Hudson Bay where the watershed is dominated by limestone, Ω was higher compared to eastern Hudson Bay, where the watershed consists of an igneous rock formation. In deeper waters, low Ω is caused by remineralization of organic matter. The highest DIC concentrations (>2300 µmol/kg) were observed in the depths of central Hudson Bay with a pHtotal of 7.49 and Ωarg of 0.37. Over 67% and 22% of the bottom water of Hudson Bay was undersaturated with respect to aragonite and calcite respectively, despite Hudson Bay being very shallow (less than 250 m deep). The aragonite saturation horizon in the central Hudson Bay was around 50 m.

  5. Mantle Lithosphere Structures of the Hudson Bay Region as Defined by Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, D. B.

    2009-05-01

    The origins of the Hudson Bay intracontinental basin remain unresolved. Possibilities include eclogitic subsurface loads in the uppermost mantle, dynamic loading related to the subducted Farallon slab deeper in the mantle or more dynamic topography related to larger-scale mantle convection. Inferred causative mantle structure in these models underlies both Hudson Bay as well as neighbouring Proterozoic Canadian shield and its component Archean cratons. The candidate mechanisms represent effects integrated over at least the uppermost 1000 km of the mantle, therefore determining contributions from differing depths, backstripping, is a traditional way forward toward better understanding the whole mantle volume. Crustal studies represent the first such step and significant recent progress via bedrock mapping projects has helped clarify the tectonic history of the region and suggests which surface blocks are most extensive at depth. Regional teleseismic arrays with 200-400 km station spacing are both improving regional velocity (S- and Rayleigh-wave) models and providing previously unavailable, detailed information about structure beneath each station using SKS splitting and receiver function analysis. These structures are defined by associated changes in physical rock properties, by changes in rock fabric that produce seismic anisotropy, or by both. For example, beneath the western shore of Hudson Bay at Churchill, uppermost mantle layers dip due north between 50 and 130 km depths, beneath the northern margin of the 1.82 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen. Beneath Rankin Inlet and the Hearn-Chesterfield Terrane boundary, 500 km to the north, uppermost mantle layers dip southward toward 170° at 20° dip between 70 and 120 km depths. Northeast another 500 km beneath Repulse Bay and the 2.6 Ga Rae craton, structures dip westward toward 260° at 35° dip between 80 and 130 km. Staying within the Rae craton, but an additional 200 km to the northeast at Igloolik, uppermost mantle

  6. Mercury and cortisol in Western Hudson Bay polar bear hair.

    PubMed

    Bechshoft, T; Derocher, A E; Richardson, E; Mislan, P; Lunn, N J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Janz, D M; St Louis, V L

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive methods of assessing animal health and life history are becoming increasingly popular in wildlife research; hair samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus), are being used to study an ever broader range of anthropogenic and endocrine compounds. A number of contaminants are known to disrupt endocrine function in polar bears. However, the relationship between mercury and cortisol remains unknown, although mercury is an endocrine disruptor in other species. Here, we examine the relationship between concentrations of cortisol and total mercury (THg) analyzed in guard hair from 378 polar bears (184 females, 194 males) sampled in Western Hudson Bay, 2004-2012. The difference in mean cortisol concentration between female (0.8 ± 0.6 pg/mg) and male (0.7 ± 0.5 pg/mg) polar bears bordered on significance (p = 0.054). However, mean mercury concentration was significantly greater (p = 0.009) in females (4.7 ± 1.4 μg/g) than males (4.3 ± 1.2 μg/g). Hair cortisol in males was significantly influenced by mercury, age, and fatness, as well as interactions between mercury and year, mercury and fatness, and year and fatness (all: p < 0.03) (multiple regression analysis, whole model: r(2) = 0.14, F(7,185) = 4.43, p = 0.0001). Fatness was the only significant variable in the multiple regression analysis for females (r(2) = 0.06, F(1,182) = 13.0, p = 0.0004). In conclusion, a significant, but complex, relationship was found between mercury and cortisol concentrations in hair from male, but not female, polar bears. PMID:26044932

  7. Tidal hydrodynamics of the Hudson Bay and its impact in the global ocean tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Laetitia; Lyard, Florent; Greenberg, David; Soufflet, Yves

    2013-04-01

    In 2012, the global ocean tides atlas FES has been updated with the financial support of the French Space Agency (CNES). The examination of the tidal energy budget from the hydrodynamic solution has demonstrated the critical impact of the tidal dissipation in Hudson Bay (over-estimated in FES2012) for the accuracy of global solution especially in the Atlantic. To further explore this issue, a regional study of the tidal hydrodynamics of the Hudson Bay has been carried out with a numerical model (the finite elements model T-UGOm) and observations (altimetry-derrived and in situ data). This study aims to answer questions about the role of tidal dissipation in the Hudson system in relation with the global ocean tides. Among the numerical parameters, the two most critical in terms of tidal dissipation are the bathymetry and the friction coefficient. A sensitivity study has been carried out using the standard bathymetry data set (GEBCO, ETOPO, Smith and Sandwell) and prescribing regionally varying friction coefficients. In addition, a new Hudson bay bathymetry has been reconstructed from ship tracks sounding and other direct depth measurements. Despite these improvements, mostly due to the reconstructed bathymetry, the total energy dissipated by the bottom friction in the Hudson Bay is still significantly too large. The reason for that could be the large remaining uncertainties in the bathymetry especially in Fox Basin. Another reason could be the limitation of 2D modelling in accurately reproducing the energy dissipation in a resonant system such as the Hudson Bay, especially the effect of vertical momentum diffusion in the water column. Consequently, a 3D configuration has been set up to extend our sensitivity study. The results of this work will be presented, concentrating particularly on the energy budget.

  8. Upper Mantle Structure and Azimuthal Anisotropy Beneath Hudson Bay From Rayleigh Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F.

    2009-05-01

    Hudson Bay is a large intracratonic basin situated within the northern part of the Canadian Shield. The region is surrounded by Archean cratons, notably the Superior to the south and east and the Rae-Hearne to the north and west, and is largely underlain by the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson orogen. Global and continental scale tomographic images of North America suggest that the seismological lithosphere of the Canadian Shield is at its thickest and fastest beneath Hudson Bay, but a regional-scale seismic study is necessary to provide sufficient detail to comprehend the structure and evolution of the region. Broadband seismograph stations were installed around the Hudson Bay region in 2006 and 2007 as part of the HuBLE (Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment) project. The combination of these stations with existing permanent and temporary seismograph deployments has resulted in a high-quality teleseismic data set for which detailed multi- disciplinary seismic studies of the region can be carried out. Fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves are calculated for >100 two-station paths. The data span a range of periods ˜15-- 220~seconds, corresponding to depths from the middle crust to the sublithospheric mantle. Comparison of the dispersion curves with those derived from global reference models and from the Canadian Shield average 'CANSD' suggests that the upper mantle beneath Hudson Bay can be characterised by a typical cratonic signature of anomalously high phase velocities. Many Hudson Bay dispersion curves exhibit higher phase velocities than those of 'CANSD', suggesting a seismically faster and thicker lithosphere than average for the Canadian Shield. 1D mantle models estimated from the two-station dispersion measurements show an average lithospheric thickness of ˜225~km, with velocities ˜4--6% above global reference values. A tomographic inversion is carried out to solve simultaneously for isotropic phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy at

  9. Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment: Constraints on Lithospheric Thickness From Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    HuBLE (Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment) is an international initiative to study the structure, dynamics and evolution of the Hudson Bay region. In particular, we seek to understand the interaction between the Archean cratons surrounding the region and the underlying Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen, which formed during the collision of the Superior and Churchill Provinces at 1.9-1.8 Ga. Global and continental- scale tomographic models indicate a thick, cold and refractory lithosphere beneath Hudson Bay. Most tomographic models suggest that this region is associated with the highest velocities and thickest seismological lithosphere of the Canadian Shield. The HuBLE project commenced in 2006, with the deployment of a number of telemetered broadband seismograph stations on the east and west coasts of Hudson Bay. Along with existing stations from the POLARIS/FedNor initiative in northern Ontario, and permanent Canadian stations, the deployment ringed Hudson Bay on three sides. A second phase of deployment in 2007, using non-telemetered broadband stations, completed the coverage of the region. A considerable number of large teleseismic earthquakes have been recorded by the array since its installation, and the data are generally of high quality. We measure Rayleigh wave phase velocities for paths crossing Hudson Bay, using the two-station cross-correlation method of Meier et al. (2004). Average phase velocity dispersion curves are constructed using data from multiple earthquakes along each path, resulting in a set of reliable dispersion measurements in the period range ~15--250~seconds. The data set therefore permits constraint of lithospheric shear wave velocity structure from mid-crustal to asthenospheric depths beneath the continent. Preliminary 1D shear wave velocity models of path-averaged structure are estimated using a smooth linearised inversion technique (Maupin & Cara, 1992). The models show a typically 'shield- type' signature, with a high

  10. Surface-Wave Tomographic Studies of the Hudson Bay Lithosphere: Implications for Paleoproterozoic Tectonic Processes and the Assembly of the Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay is a shallow intracratonic basin that partially conceals the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO) in northern Canada. The THO is thought to be a Himalayan-scale Paleoproterozoic orogenic event that was an important component of assembly of the Canadian Shield, marking the collision of the Archean Superior and Western Churchill plates. Until recently, only global and continental-scale seismic tomographic models had imaged the upper-mantle structure of the region, giving a broad but relatively low-resolution picture of the thick lithospheric keel. The Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment (HuBLE) investigated the present-day seismic structure beneath Hudson Bay and its surroundings, using a distributed broadband seismograph network installed around the periphery of the Bay and complemented by existing permanent and temporary seismographs further afield. This configuration, though not optimal for body-wave studies which use subvertical arrivals, is well-suited to surface wave tomographic techniques, with many paths crossing the Bay. As there is little seismicity in the region around the Canadian Shield, two-station measurements of teleseismic Rayleigh wave phase velocity formed the principal data set for lithospheric studies. The interstation measurements were combined in a linearized tomographic inversion for maps of phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy at periods of 20-200 s; these maps were then used to calculate a pseudo-3D anisotropic upper-mantle shear-wavespeed model of the region. The model shows thick (~180-260 km), seismically fast lithosphere across the Hudson Bay region, with a near-vertical 'curtain' of lower wavespeeds trending NE-SW across the Bay, likely associated with more juvenile material trapped between the Archean Superior and Churchill continental cores during the THO. The lithosphere is layered, suggesting a 2-stage formation process. Seismic anisotropy patterns vary with depth; a circular pattern in the uppermost mantle wrapping around the

  11. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Regehr, E.V.; Lunn, N.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most pronounced ecological responses to climatic warming are expected to occur in polar marine regions, where temperature increases have been the greatest and sea ice provides a sensitive mechanism by which climatic conditions affect sympagic (i.e., with ice) species. Population-level effects of climatic change, however, remain difficult to quantify. We used a flexible extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture models to estimate population size and survival for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), one of the most ice-dependent of Arctic marine mammals. We analyzed data for polar bears captured from 1984 to 2004 along the western coast of Hudson Bay and in the community of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The Western Hudson Bay polar bear population declined from 1,194 (95% CI = 1,020-1,368) in 1987 to 935 (95% CI = 794-1,076) in 2004. Total apparent survival of prime-adult polar bears (5-19 yr) was stable for females (0.93; 95% CI = 0.91-0.94) and males (0.90; 95% CI = 0.88-0.91). Survival of juvenile, subadult, and senescent-adult polar bears was correlated with spring sea ice breakup date, which was variable among years and occurred approximately 3 weeks earlier in 2004 than in 1984. We propose that this correlation provides evidence for a causal association between earlier sea ice breakup (due to climatic warming) and decreased polar bear survival. It may also explain why Churchill, like other communities along the western coast of Hudson Bay, has experienced an increase in human-polar bear interactions in recent years. Earlier sea ice breakup may have resulted in a larger number of nutritionally stressed polar bears, which are encroaching on human habitations in search of supplemental food. Because western Hudson Bay is near the southern limit of the species' range, our findings may foreshadow the demographic responses and management challenges that more northerly polar bear populations will experience if climatic warming in the Arctic continues as

  12. Climate Variability and Human Impacts at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson River, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sritrairat, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Griffin, K.; Kurdyla, D.; Guilderson, T.

    2006-12-01

    The investigation of pollen, spores, charcoal, organic carbon content, C/N ratios, and radiometric dating provides a paleoecological study of Tivoli North Bay (42oN, 74oW), lower Hudson River. This freshwater tidal marsh record reveals vegetational changes which reflect local and regional vegetational and climatic shifts. Significant charcoal maxima at the base of the core appear to be parallel to the well-dated 500-yr charcoal maxima in Piermont Marsh downriver, implying a regional climatic impact of the Medieval Warming Interval in the lower Hudson Valley. European settlement is marked by very abrupt shift in vegetation and sediment composition as a result of deforestation, invasive species introduction, and infrastructure construction. Betula became a successful replacement of forest dominants such as Quercus, Pinus, and Tsuga. Weedy species including Ambrosia, Impatiens, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae expand as human impact increases. Higher sedimentation rate due to higher inorganic input appears to contribute to marsh composition changes as woody taxa such as Salix, Cephalanthus, Fraxinus, and Vitis appear in the wetland in the most recent centuries. Additional radiometric control linking stratigraphy from Tivoli North Bay to other Hudson River wetlands as well as pollen and spore analysis of river and air traps will lead to a better understanding of the Hudson watershed history. Significant extended droughts in the Hudson watershed due to natural variability have major implications for future water availability in this landscape.

  13. Groups of related belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) travel together during their seasonal migrations in and around Hudson Bay

    PubMed Central

    Colbeck, Gabriel J.; Duchesne, Pierre; Postma, Lianne D.; Lesage, Véronique; Hammill, Mike O.; Turgeon, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Social structure involving long-term associations with relatives should facilitate the learning of complex behaviours such as long-distance migration. In and around Hudson Bay (Canada), three stocks of beluga whales form a panmictic unit, but have different migratory behaviours associated with different summering areas. We analysed genetic variation at 13 microsatellite loci among 1524 belugas, to test hypotheses about social structure in belugas. We found significant proportions of mother–offspring pairs throughout the migratory cycle, but average relatedness extended beyond close kinship only during migration. Average relatedness was significantly above random expectations for pairs caught at the same site but on different days or months of a year, suggesting that belugas maintain associations with a network of relatives during migration. Pairs involving a female (female–female or male–female) were on average more related than pairs of males, and males seemed to disperse from their matrilineal group to associate with other mature males. Altogether, our results indicate that relatives other than strictly parents, and especially females, play a role in maintaining a social structure that could facilitate the learning of migration routes. Cultural conservatism may limit contributions from nearby summer stocks to endangered stocks such as the Eastern Hudson Bay beluga. PMID:23222451

  14. Precambrian Plate Tectonics and the Formation of the Canadian Shield: Seismic Evidence from Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, I. D.; Thompson, D. A.; Kendall, J. M.; Helffrich, G. R.; Wookey, J.; Snyder, D. B.; Eaton, D. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Shield is one of the largest exposures of Precambrian rocks on Earth. It is a mosaic of several Archean terranes that were brought together during a series of Paleoproterozoic orogens culminating in the so-called Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO), which is thought to have been similar to the Himalayan orogen in scale and nature. The tectonic evolution and lithospheric subdivisions of this region are poorly understood, but new seismic networks in northern Hudson Bay provide fresh information sources to place constraints on the Precambrian processes that formed and shaped it. Using data from a network of 12 broadband seismic stations in the northern part of Hudson Bay that complement existing POLARIS and CNSN networks in the region, we report on a combined study of seismic anisotropy, travel-time tomography, and receiver functions. While tomographic images reveal no clear seismological distinction between Archean and Proterozoic mantle, results from the study of seismic anisotropy show that much of the northern Hudson Bay region retains a strong signature of Archean-to-Paleoproterozoic tectonics - in particular the THO. The receiver function study also provides evidence in support of this 1.8 Ga orogenic event, but the simplicity of crustal structure in the oldest terranes as well as the scale of orogenic belts provides little evidence in support modern-day-style plate tectonics. When reviewed in light of age and compositional constraints from the geological record, our seismic observations point towards a secular change from non-plate tectonic deformation during the Paleo- to Mesoarchean evolving towards fully-developed modern-style plate tectonic interactions during the Paleoproterozoic.

  15. Paleoproterozoic Collisional Structures in the Hudson Bay Lithosphere Constrained by Multi-Observable Probabilistic Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Afonso, J. C.; Porritt, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleozoic Hudson Bay intracratonic basin conceals a Paleoproterozoic Himalayan-scale continental collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO), which marks an important milestone in the assembly of the Canadian Shield. The geometry of the THO is complex due to the double-indentor geometry of the collision between the Archean Superior and Western Churchill cratons. Seismic observations at regional scale show a thick, seismically fast lithospheric keel beneath the entire region; an intriguing feature of recent models is a 'curtain' of slightly lower wavespeeds trending NE-SW beneath the Bay, which may represent the remnants of more juvenile material trapped between the two Archean continental cores. The seismic models alone, however, cannot constrain the nature of this anomaly. We investigate the thermal and compositional structure of the Hudson Bay lithosphere using a multi-observable probabilistic inversion technique. This joint inversion uses Rayleigh wave phase velocity data from teleseismic earthquakes and ambient noise, geoid anomalies, surface elevation and heat flow to construct a pseudo-3D model of the crust and upper mantle. Initially a wide range of possible mantle compositions is permitted, and tests are carried out to ascertain whether the lithosphere is stratified with depth. Across the entire Hudson Bay region, low temperatures and a high degree of chemical depletion characterise the mantle lithosphere. Temperature anomalies within the lithosphere are modest, as may be expected from a tectonically-stable region. The base of the thermal lithosphere lies at depths of >250 km, reaching to ~300 km depth in the centre of the Bay. Lithospheric stratification, with a more-depleted upper layer, is best able to explain the geophysical data sets and surface observables. Some regions, where intermediate-period phase velocities are high, require stronger mid-lithospheric depletion. In addition, a narrow region of less-depleted material extends NE-SW across the Bay

  16. Crustal Structure of the Hudson Bay Region: Insights from Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. A.; Helffrich, G.; Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J.; Wookey, J.; Eaton, D.; Snyder, D.

    2009-05-01

    Cratons are vast areas of continental lithosphere that have remained relatively intact and stable since the Precambrian. They tend to be underlain by deep roots, characterized by anomalously fast seismic velocities (˜3%), which tomographic images show can extend to depths of ˜350km. The process by which these roots are formed is presently not well understood, but is believed to be associated with the accretion and imbrication of subducted oceanic material during the Archean. In order to test hypotheses on Precambrian crustal and lithospheric evolution in the North American craton and its influence on the intracratonic Hudson Bay basin, we undertake a study of P-to-S receiver functions to obtain estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Our high quality data come from the POLARIS, CHASME and CNSN networks, and the recently deployed HuBLE-UK broadband network of ten stations presently recording in northern Hudson Bay. Receiver functions from stations on Archean basement exhibit a sharp Moho Ps phase and clear subsequent reverberations, in contrast to those in the Trans-Hudson, which show much more complexity. Our results indicate Moho depths in Archean domains are consistent with other cratons worldwide (35-40km), with significant crustal thickening occurring within the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen (up to 52km). Increased crustal thickness (>40km) is also seen on Baffin Island, another region dominated by Proterozoic geology. Variations in Vp/Vs ratio appear to characterise certain geological regions, with elevated values (>1.74) in the Hearne craton, northern Hudson Bay and Southern Baffin Island regions, possibly due to reworking during Hudsonian collision. The lowest Vp/Vs ratios (˜1.70) are found within the Rae Craton, indicative of a felsic to intermediate lower crust. Combining results from the H-κ analysis with the nature of the crust-mantle transition zone will provide insights into the composition of the lower crust, and also shed light onto

  17. HuBLE-UK, the Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment: Insights into the formation of the Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J.; Helffrich, G.; Wookey, J.; Thompson, D.; Eaton, D.; Snyder, D.

    2008-12-01

    Hudson Bay lies in the Precambrian core of North America, which is comprised of the Canadian Shield and contiguous platform regions. The region is underlain by one of the largest lithospheric keels on Earth; it is also the site of one of the largest negative geoid anomalies. We have deployed 10 broadband seismic stations in the northern part of the bay that complement the existing POLARIS, CHASME and CNSN network stations in the region. Here we present preliminary SKS shear wave splitting analyses and independent tomographic inversion of P- and S-wave travel-time data in order to: 1) understand better the origin and evolution of the Hudson Bay cratonic interior basins; 2) to illuminate possible relationships between the lithospheric keel, sub-lithospheric mantle flow and formation of the Hudson Bay basin; 3) to improve understanding of postglacial isostatic rebound; 4) to map the lithospheric structure of the Trans-Hudson orogen in a region characterized by extreme salient-reentrant geometry, possibly analogous to the western syntaxis of the Himalayan front. SKS delay times vary from 0.5-1.2s, which indicate a lithospheric-scale anisotropic layer up to 150km thick. However, SKS fast directions and preliminary tomographic images do not relate simply to the structural trends of the Trans Hudson Orogen and neighboring Archean terranes. Our work complements ongoing HuBLE studies that focus on receiver function analyses, dispersion analysis of teleseismic Rayleigh waves, and applications of ambient noise tomography that extract more information about lithospheric structure of the Hudson Bay basin.

  18. A history of vegetation, sediment and nutrient dynamics at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson Estuary, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Kenna, Timothy C.; Sambrotto, Ray; Kurdyla, Dorothy; Guilderson, Tom

    2012-05-01

    We conduct a stratigraphic paleoecological investigation at a Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve (HRNERR) site, Tivoli Bays, spanning the past 1100 years. Marsh sediment cores were analyzed for ecosystem changes using multiple proxies, including pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, sediment bulk chemistry, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The results reveal climatic shifts such as the warm and dry Medieval Warm Period (MWP) followed by the cooler Little Ice Age (LIA), along with significant anthropogenic influence on the watershed ecosystem. A five-fold expansion of invasive species, including Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis, is documented along with marked changes in sediment composition and nutrient input. During the last century, a ten-fold sedimentation rate increase due to land-use changes is observed. The large magnitude of shifts in vegetation, sedimentation, and nutrients during the last few centuries suggest that human activities have made the greatest impact to the marshes of the Hudson Estuary during the last millennium. Climate variability and ecosystem changes similar to those observed at other marshes in northeastern and mid-Atlantic estuaries, attest to the widespread regional signature recorded at Tivoli Bays.

  19. A History of Vegetation, Sediment and Nutrient Dynamics at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson Estuary, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Kenna, Timothy C.; Sambrotto, Ray; Kurdyla, Dorothy; Guilderson, Tom

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a stratigraphic paleoecological investigation at a Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve (HRNERR) site, Tivoli Bays, spanning the past 1100 years. Marsh sediment cores were analyzed for ecosystem changes using multiple proxies, including pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, sediment bulk chemistry, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The results reveal climatic shifts such as the warm and dry Medieval Warm Period (MWP) followed by the cooler Little Ice Age (LIA), along with significant anthropogenic influence on the watershed ecosystem. A five-fold expansion of invasive species, including Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis, is documented along with marked changes in sediment composition and nutrient input. During the last century, a ten-fold sedimentation rate increase due to land-use changes is observed. The large magnitude of shifts in vegetation, sedimentation, and nutrients during the last few centuries suggest that human activities have made the greatest impact to the marshes of the Hudson Estuary during the last millennium. Climate variability and ecosystem changes similar to those observed at other marshes in northeastern and mid-Atlantic estuaries, attest to the widespread regional signature recorded at Tivoli Bays.

  20. Recent trends and changes in freshwater discharge into Hudson, James, and Ungava Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déry, S. J.; Stieglitz, M.; McKenna, E.; Wood, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Recent trends and changes in the observed river discharge into Hudson, James, and Ungava Bays (HJUBs) for the period 1964-1994 will be presented. Forty-two rivers with outlets into these bays contribute on average 700 cubic kilometers (= 0.02 sverdrups) of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. River discharge attains a mean annual peak of 4.2 cubic kilometers per day on average each 17 June for the system as a whole, whereas the minimum of 0.6 cubic kilometers occurs on average each 3 April. The Nelson River supplies as much as 30% of the daily discharge for the entire system during winter, but diminishes in relative importance during spring and summer. Runoff rates per contributing area are highest (lowest) on the eastern (western) shores of Hudson and James Bays. Linear trend analyses reveal decreasing discharge in 38 out of the 42 rivers over the 31-year period. By 1994, the total annual freshwater discharge into the Arctic Ocean diminished by 110 cubic kilometers from its values in 1964, equivalent to a reduction of 0.0035 sverdrups. The annual peak discharge rates associated with snowmelt advanced by 16 days between 1964 and 1994 and has diminished slightly in intensity. There is a direct correlation between the time of this hydrological event and the latitude of a river's mouth; the timing of the peak discharge rates varies by 5 days for each degree of latitude. Continental snowmelt induces a seasonal pulse of freshwater from HJUBs that is tracked along its path into the Labrador Current and that coincides with ocean salinity anomalies on the inner Newfoundland Shelf. The talk will end with a discussion on the implications of a changing freshwater regime in HJUBs.

  1. Estimating abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation using aerial surveys, 2011 and 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Middel, Kevin R.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Thibault, Isabelle; Brodeur, Vincent; Jutras, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) polar bear subpopulation occurs at the southern extent of the species’ range. Although capture-recapture studies indicate that abundance remained stable between 1986 and 2005, declines in body condition and survival were documented during the period, possibly foreshadowing a future decrease in abundance. To obtain a current estimate of abundance, we conducted a comprehensive line transect aerial survey of SH during 2011–2012. We stratified the study site by anticipated densities and flew coastal contour transects and systematically spaced inland transects in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and large offshore islands in 2011. Data were collected with double observer and distance sampling protocols. We also surveyed small islands in Hudson Bay and James Bay and flew a comprehensive transect along the Québec coastline in 2012. We observed 667 bears in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and nearby islands in 2011, and we sighted 80 bears on offshore islands during 2012. Mark-recapture distance sampling and sightresight models yielded a model-averaged estimate of 868 (SE: 177) for the 2011 study area. Our estimate of abundance for the entire SH subpopulation (951; SE: 177) suggests that abundance has remained unchanged. However, this result should be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological differences between historical studies (physical capture) and this survey. A conservative management approach is warranted given the previous increases in the duration of the ice-free season, which are predicted to continue in the future, and previously documented declines in body condition and vital rates.

  2. Estimating the abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation with aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Middel, Kevin R.; Thibault, Isabelle; Brodeur, Vincent; Jutras, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) polar bear subpopulation occurs at the southern extent of the species’ range. Although capture–recapture studies indicate abundance was likely unchanged between 1986 and 2005, declines in body condition and survival occurred during the period, possibly foreshadowing a future decrease in abundance. To obtain a current estimate of abundance, we conducted a comprehensive line transect aerial survey of SH during 2011–2012. We stratified the study site by anticipated densities and flew coastal contour transects and systematically spaced inland transects in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and large offshore islands in 2011. Data were collected with double-observer and distance sampling protocols. We surveyed small islands in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay and flew a comprehensive transect along the Québec coastline in 2012. We observed 667 bears in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and nearby islands in 2011, and we sighted 80 bears on offshore islands during 2012. Mark–recapture distance sampling and sight–resight models yielded an estimate of 860 (SE = 174) for the 2011 study area. Our estimate of abundance for the entire SH subpopulation (943; SE = 174) suggests that abundance is unlikely to have changed significantly since 1986. However, this result should be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological differences between historical studies (physical capture–recapture) and this survey. A conservative management approach is warranted given previous increases in duration of the ice-free season, which are predicted to continue in the future, and previously documented declines in body condition and vital rates.

  3. Thermal regime of shallow water bodies in the coastal tundra zone of the Hudson Bay Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, C. R.; Soliman, A. S.; Macrae, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Many shallow lakes and ponds of the Arctic/sub-Arctic contain thick, organic-rich sediments, which have the potential to release significant amounts of CO2 or CH4 to the atmosphere if sediment decomposition rates increase in response to warmer temperatures caused by global warming. This may be exacerbated by a deepening of the seasonal sediment thaw depth in small water bodies that are underlain by permafrost. An important step in linking climatic conditions to rates of organic matter decomposition and gas production from shallow water bodies is an improved understanding of the thermal properties of lake sediments and how sediment temperatures fluctuate in response to changing air temperatures. This knowledge is also important if the ratio of terrestrial to aquatic landscape units in cold regions changes under a warmer climate. One approach that has been used in terrestrial permafrost environments is the examination of how mean annual permafrost surface temperature deviates from mean annual 2-m screen height air temperature (MAAT). The offset between MAAT and the mean annual sediment surface temperature (MASST) has been found to be much larger in deep aquatic systems (greater than 10 m) than in terrestrial permafrost systems due to the presence of the water column that can efficiently transfer heat through mixing. However, the efficiency of heat transfer in shallow water bodies is expected to larger in summer (thawed) than in winter (frozen) conditions, when thermal energy must move by conduction alone. The present study examined the efficiency of sediment heat transfer in shallow water bodies (less than 3 m) during summer and winter periods. Air, sediment and water temperatures of three shallow water bodies in the coastal tundra zone of the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada were monitored (December 2009-August 2011). Arrays of thermistors and heat pulse probes were placed at 10 cm increments between 20 cm above the water/sediment interface and

  4. Characteristics and Trends of River Discharge into Hudson, James, and Ungava Bays, 1964-2000.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déry, Stephen J.; Stieglitz, Marc; McKenna, Edward C.; Wood, Eric F.

    2005-07-01

    The characteristics and trends of observed river discharge into the Hudson, James, and Ungava Bays (HJUBs) for the period 1964-2000 are investigated. Forty-two rivers with outlets into these bays contribute on average 714 km3 yr-1 [= 0.023 Sv (1 Sv 106 m3s-1)] of freshwater to high-latitude oceans. For the system as a whole, discharge attains an annual peak of 4.2 km3 day-1 on average in mid-June, whereas the minimum of 0.68 km3 day-1 occurs on average during the last week of March. The Nelson River contributes as much as 34% of the daily discharge for the entire system during winter but diminishes in relative importance during spring and summer. Runoff rates per contributing area are highest (lowest) on the eastern (western) shores of the Hudson and James Bays. Linear trend analyses reveal decreasing discharge over the 37-yr period in 36 out of the 42 rivers. By 2000, the total annual freshwater discharge into HJUBs diminished by 96 km3 (-13%) from its value in 1964, equivalent to a reduction of 0.003 Sv. The annual peak discharge rate associated with snowmelt has advanced by 8 days between 1964 and 2000 and has diminished by 0.036 km3 day-1 in intensity. There is a direct correlation between the timing of peak spring discharge rates and the latitude of a river's mouth; the spring freshet varies by 5 days for each degree of latitude. Continental snowmelt induces a seasonal pulse of freshwater from HJUBs that is tracked along its path into the Labrador Current. It is suggested that the annual upper-ocean salinity minimum observed on the inner Newfoundland Shelf can be explained by freshwater pulses composed of meltwater from three successive winter seasons in the river basins draining into HJUBs. A gradual salinization of the upper ocean during summer over the period 1966-94 on the inner Newfoundland Shelf is in accord with a decadal trend of a diminishing intensity in the continental meltwater pulses.

  5. Constraints on mantle viscosity from relative sea level variations in Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Peltier, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    Frechet kernels for the RSL data in Hunson Bay are computed to determine the detailed depth-dependent sensitivity of the data to variations in a viscosity profile which is consistent with the past inferences. The RSL data provide a robust constraint on the average viscosity in the top half of the lower mantle only (the average must be near 10 exp 21 Pa s). The data admit models whose average viscosity in the deep mantle (below 1800 km depth) and in the upper mantle can differ significantly from the value (near 10 exp 21 Pa s) estimated for the top half of the lower mantle. The total variation in the viscosity from the surface to the CMB can exceed an order of magnitude or more and still satisfy the constraint provided by the Hudson Bay RSL data set. The necessity of invoking an isoviscous mantle model in previous studies is a consequence of the limited class of viscosity model solutions employed in those studies.

  6. Dietary composition and spatial patterns of polar bear foraging on land in western Hudson Bay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flexible foraging strategies, such as prey switching, omnivory and food mixing, are key to surviving in a labile and changing environment. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in western Hudson Bay are versatile predators that use all of these strategies as they seasonally exploit resources across trophic levels. Climate warming is reducing availability of their ice habitat, especially in spring when polar bears gain most of their annual fat reserves by consuming seal pups before coming ashore in summer. How polar bears combine these flexible foraging strategies to obtain and utilize terrestrial food will become increasingly important in compensating for energy deficits from lost seal hunting opportunities. We evaluated patterns in the composition of foods in scat to characterize the foraging behaviors that underpin the diet mixing and omnivory observed in polar bears on land in western Hudson Bay. Specifically, we measured diet richness, proportions of plant and animal foods, patterns in co-occurrence of foods, spatial composition and an index of temporal composition. Results Scats contained between 1 and 6 foods, with an average of 2.11 (SE = 0.04). Most scats (84.9%) contained at least one type of plant, but animals (35.4% of scats) and both plants and animals occurring together (34.4% of scats) were also common. Certain foods, such as Lyme grass seed heads (Leymus arenarius), berries and marine algae, were consumed in relatively higher proportions, sometimes to the exclusion of others, both where and when they occurred most abundantly. The predominance of localized vegetation in scats suggests little movement among habitat types between feeding sessions. Unlike the case for plants, no spatial patterns were found for animal remains, likely due the animals’ more vagile and ubiquitous distribution. Conclusions Our results suggest that polar bears are foraging opportunistically in a manner consistent with maximizing intake while minimizing energy

  7. The Fate of Organic Carbon Released by Permafrost Decay, Eastern Coast of Hudson Bay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivel, M.; Allard, M.

    2009-05-01

    Recent evaluations indicate that large amounts of organic carbon can be released in fluvial and costal systems because of permafrost degradation, with impacts on ecosystems. In order to obtain quantitative data on those transfers, we have installed instrumentation and have made first measurements in an intensive permafrost degradation area. The study area is located on the eastern coast of Hudson Bay, in the region of the Sheldrake river (drainage basin, river mouth and offshore area), near Umiujaq, in the discontinuous permafrost zone. Permafrost mounds (palsas, lithalsas) and plateaus are the most abundant permafrost landforms. This area contains one of the largest concentrations of frost heave landforms in the world. They developed principally in east-west oriented valleys in postglacial marine silts from the Tyrrell Sea which inundated low areas around Hudson Bay, following the receding ice front eastward and inland, about 8000 years BP. Palsas are covered by peat. Organic matter and clay released by thermokarst are transferred to the sea through the river system as suspended sediments, suspended organic matter and dissolved organic carbon. We postulate that continuing warming will further accelerate permafrost erosion, favour thermokarst and have an impact on carbon transfers. The adopted methodology should permit to quantify the release of clay and carbon through fluvial transport and deposition in coastal marine depocenters. Two leveloggers and two Optical Backscatter Sensors (OBS) have been installed during summer 2008, about 2km upstream from the Sheldrake river mouth in order to estimate transportation. Moreover, bathymetric surveys (eco-sounder coupled with sidescan sonar) have been made in a 20km2 area offshore the Sheldrake river mouth. We have located deeper basins (88m deep) in submerged valleys, which are likely efficient sediments traps for recent river inputs. Some sediment cores will be extracted in March 2009 from the ice pack in order to

  8. Role of the Hudson Bay Lowland as a source of atmospheric methane

    SciTech Connect

    Roulet, N.T.; Jano, A.; Kelly, C.A.; Klinger, L.F.; Moore, T.R.; Protz, R.; Ritter, J.A.; Rouse, W.R.

    1994-01-20

    Based on point measurements of methane flux from wetlands in the boreal and subarctic regions, northern wetlands are a major source of atmospheric methane. However, measurements have not been carried out in large continuous peatlands such as the Hudson Bay Lowland (HBL) (320,000 km{sup 2}) and the Western Siberian lowland (540,000 km{sup 2}), which together account for over 30% of the wetlands north of 40{degrees}N. To determine the role the Hudson Bay Lowland as a source of atmospheric methane, fluxes were measured by enclosure throughout the 1990 snow-free period in all the major wetland types and also by an aircraft in July. Two detailed survey areas were investigated: one ({approx} 900 km{sup 2}) was in the high subarctic region of the northern lowland and the second area ({approx} 4,800 km{sup 2}) straddled the Low Subarctic and High Boreal regions of the southern lowland. On a per unit area basis, 1.31 {+-} 0.11 and 2.79 {+-} 0.39 g CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} were emitted from the southern and northern survey areas, respectively. The extrapolated enclosure estimates for a 3-week period in July were compared to within 10% of the flux derived by airborne eddy correlation measurements made during the same period. The aircraft mean flux of 10 {+-} 9 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} was not statistically different from the extrapolated mean flux of 20 {+-} 16 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. The annual habitat-weighted emission for the entire HBL using six wetland classes is estimated as 0.538 {+-} 0.187 Tg CH{sub 4} yr{sup {minus}1} (range of extreme cases is 0.057 to 2.112 Tg CH{sub 4} yr{sup {minus}1}). This value is much lower than expected, based on previous emission estimates from northern wetlands. 40 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Role of the Hudson Bay lowland as a source of atmospheric methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roulet, Nigel T.; Jano, A.; Kelly, C. A.; Klinger, L. F.; Moore, T. R.; Protz, R.; Ritter, J. A.; Rouse, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    Based on point measurements of methane flux from wetlands in the boreal and subarctic regions, northern wetlands are a major source of atmospheric methane. However, measurements have not been carried out in large continuous peatlands such as the Hudson Bay Lowland (HBL) (320,000 sq km) and the Western Siberian lowland (540,000 sq km), which together account for over 30% of the wetlands north of 40 deg N. To determine the role the Hudson Bay Lowland as a source of atmospheric methane, fluxes were measured by enclosures throughout the 1990 snow-free period in all the major wetland types and also by an aircraft in July. Two detailed survey areas were investigated: one (approximately 900 sq km) was in the high subarctic region of the northern lowland and the second area (approximately 4,800 sq km) straddled the Low Subarctic and High Boreal regions of the southern lowland. The fluxes were integrated over the study period to produce annual methane emissions for each wetland type. The fluxes were then weighted by the area of 16 different habitats for the southern area and 5 habitats for the northern area, as determined from Landsat thematic mapper to yield an annual habitat-weighted emission. On a per unit area basis, 1.31 +/- 0.11 and 2.79 +/- 0.39 g CH4 m(exp -2)/yr were emitted from the southern and northern survey areas, respectively. The extrapolated enclosure estimates for a 3-week period in July were compared to within 10% of the flux derived by airborne eddy correlation measurements made during the same period. The aircraft mean flux of 10 +/- 9 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d was not statistically different from the extrapolated mean flux of 20 +/- 16 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d. The annual habitat-weighted emission for the entire HBL using six wetland classes is estimated as 0.538 +/- 0.187 Tg CH4/yr (range of extreme cases is 0.057 to 2.112 Tg CH4/yr). This value is much lower than expected, based on previous emission estimates from northern wetlands.

  10. Hair Mercury Concentrations in Western Hudson Bay Polar Bear Family Groups.

    PubMed

    Bechshoft, Thea; Derocher, Andrew E; Richardson, Evan; Lunn, Nicholas J; St Louis, Vincent L

    2016-05-17

    Methylmercury is one of the more toxic forms of mercury (Hg), the biomagnification of which is prevalent in the Arctic where apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can carry high loads. The maternal transfer of contaminants to offspring is a concern, as offspring may be particularly sensitive to the effects of environmental pollutants during early development. However, few studies of polar bears report on Hg in dependent young. We examined hair total Hg (THg) concentrations in 24 polar bear family groups in western Hudson Bay: mother, cub-of-the-year (COY), yearling, and 2 year old. THg concentrations increased with bear age, with COYs having lower concentrations than other offspring groups (p ≤ 0.008). Using AICc-based regression models, we found maternal THg to be positively related to body condition and litter size, while overall offspring THg was positively related to maternal body condition in addition to being dependent on the sex and age of the offspring. COY THg concentrations were positively related to maternal THg while also depending on the sex of the offspring. Considering our results, future studies in polar bear ecotoxicology are encouraged to include offspring of different ages and sexes. PMID:27095340

  11. Cumberland batholith, Trans-Hudson Orogen, Canada: Petrogenesis and implications for Paleoproterozoic crustal and orogenic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Joseph B.; Wodicka, Natasha; Taylor, Bruce E.; Jackson, Garth D.

    2010-06-01

    Large volume, plutonic belts, such as the ˜ 221,000 km 2, ca. 1.865-1.845 Ga Cumberland batholith (CB) of the Trans-Hudson Orogen in Canada, are major components of Paleoproterozoic orogenic belts. In many cases, they have been interpreted as continental arc batholiths. The petrogenesis and tectonic context of the CB and implications for crustal growth and recycling are interpreted herein based on a 900 km geochemical-isotopic (Nd-O) transect across it and into granitoid plutons within bounding Archean cratons in central and southern Baffin Island. The mainly granulite grade CB, emplaced over an age span of between 14 and 24 Ma, consists mainly of high-K to shoshonitic monzogranite and granodiorite, but also includes low- and medium-K granitoid rocks. Metaluminous to slightly peraluminous compositions and δ 18O (VSMOW) values (+ 6 to + 10‰) indicate derivation from infracrustal (I-type) sources. ɛ Nd 1.85 Ga signatures (- 12 to - 2) of both mafic and felsic units suggest a dominance of evolved sources. Isotopic signatures in the interior of the CB (- 2 to - 7) are more radiogenic than those within Archean domains in central (- 8 to - 15) and southern (- 5 to - 19) Baffin Island. The isotopic transect is interpreted as 'imaging' an accreted microcontinental block (Meta Incognita) and bounding Archean cratons. The CB includes granites of arc, within-plate (A-type) and post-collisional affinity and volumetrically minor mafic rocks with both arc and non-arc features. (La/Yb) CN and Sr/Y values range from < 1 to 225 and < 1 to 611, respectively. In these respects, some CB granitoid rocks resemble Paleozoic adakitic granites, interpreted as partial melts of greatly thickened crust within post-collisional settings, such as Tibet. Thus, the CB likely encompasses various non-consanguineous magmatic suites generated at deep- to mid-crustal depths. Although CB granitoid rocks undoubtedly had important crustal sources, it is hard to assess the relative contribution of

  12. HuBLE-UK: the Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment: Insights into the Formation of the Canadian Shield From Broadband Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, I. D.; Thompson, D. A.; Kendall, J.-M.; Helffrich, G.; Wookey, J.; Snyder, D.; Eaton, D.; Darbyshire, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Shield is one of the largest exposures of Precambrian rocks on Earth. It is a mosaic of several Archean terranes that were brought together during a series of Paleoproterozoic orogens culminating in the so-called Trans-Hudson orogen, which is thought to have been similar to the Himalayan orogen in scale and nature. The tectonic evolution and lithospheric subdivisions of this region are poorly understood, but new seismic networks in northern Hudson Bay provide fresh opportunity to place constraints on the Preachbrian processes that formed and shaped it. Using a combination of seismic tomography, anisotropy and receiver function analysis we show that the lithosphere of the northern Hudson Bay region retains a strong signature of Archean-Paleoproterozoic tectonics. We map the boundary between the upper (Churchill) and lower (Superior) plates that collided ca. 1.8 Ga and identify backazimuth dependent shear-wave splitting parameters (phi, dt) on Baffin Island that indicate complex anisotropy (e.g., dipping fabric) beneath the region. Our results support the view that significant lithospheric deformation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic and that modern-day plate tectonic processes were thus in operation by at least ca. 1.8 Ga.

  13. MISR View of Georgian Bay, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of the southeast portion of Georgian Bay in Ontario, Canada, acquired on March 6, 2000, during Terra orbit 1155. The color image is from the nadir (vertical) camera, and highlights a cloud to the southwest of Christian Island. In this view, the shadow cast by the cloud on the water is visible just north of the cloud itself. Bright areas in the image are either cloud or ice; an example of the latter is the frozen Lake Simcoe.

    The eight monochrome images are red band data from the off-nadir cameras. Starting with the one in the upper right and moving counterclockwise, the images progress from the most forward-viewing to the most aftward-viewing camera. Thus, the top (bottom) row of monochrome images are views acquired forward (aftward) of vertical. The apparent displacement of the cloud from south to north as the view progresses from forward to aftward is primarily a geometric parallax effect due to the cloud's elevation above the surface.

    In each image in the top row, a fainter feature with the same shape as the cloud is visible within Georgian Bay. The feature and the cloud itself approach one another as the view angle becomes less oblique. The feature is present only in the water, and disappears over the land surface of Christian Island. What is it?

    We are observing reflections of the cloud in the water. Their positions are dictated by the law of reflection, which states that the angle relative to the vertical of the reflected rays is the same as the angle of the incident rays. Therefore, the apparent location of a reflection relative to the cloud changes as a function of camera view angle. Unlike water, land does not act as a good mirror. Also, in the aftward views the reflections are less visible because they are blocked by the southern extension of the cloud. Reflections of this sort are not visible in conventional vertical imagery because in that case they lie directly underneath the cloud, and are consequently obscured.

    MISR was built

  14. Effects of seasonal changes on the sedimentary regime of a subarctic estuary, Rupert Bay (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelejan, Bruno

    1980-04-01

    Rupert Bay is a large (875 km 2) shallow estuarine embayment opening in James Bay south of Hudson Bay, Canada. Three large rivers with a combined annual mean discharge of 2350 m 3/sec converge into the bay. Due to ice unloading and crustal readjustment, at a current rate of 1 m/100 years, these rivers have excavated their channels into marine sediments of the early post-glacial Tyrrell Sea invasion. These provide the main source of the poorly sorted silty clays forming the present deposits. Sediment transport and deposition are influenced by strong seasonal fluctuations in climate, with a continuous ice cover for nearly six months of the year, a rapid break-up and spring discharges which are as much as sixteen times the yearly minima. During the open season, high turbidity prevails with a pronounced streakiness in the flow direction and stable fronts at the boundaries of the river plumes. Both the turbulence by local wind waves and tidal action hinder deposition. Determinations of the suspended load and velocity at tidal stations indicate that conditions are met for seaward tidal flushing of the sediments brought in by the rivers. Under ice-covered conditions, there is a pronounced decrease of the suspended-matter concentrations in the reduced volume of the bay, suggesting that settling occurs below the ice cover, the winter deposits being largely returned to the water column in the following spring. Low present depositional rates are confirmed by measurements of the 137Cs activity in the surface deposits. On a longer-term basis, crustal rebound maintains a slight regional uplift which forms entrenchment of the river channels as well as slow progradation of the supratidal marshes.

  15. What to eat now? Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay

    PubMed Central

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Under current climate trends, spring ice breakup in Hudson Bay is advancing rapidly, leaving polar bears (Ursus maritimus) less time to hunt seals during the spring when they accumulate the majority of their annual fat reserves. For this reason, foods that polar bears consume during the ice-free season may become increasingly important in alleviating nutritional stress from lost seal hunting opportunities. Defining how the terrestrial diet might have changed since the onset of rapid climate change is an important step in understanding how polar bears may be reacting to climate change. We characterized the current terrestrial diet of polar bears in western Hudson Bay by evaluating the contents of passively sampled scat and comparing it to a similar study conducted 40 years ago. While the two terrestrial diets broadly overlap, polar bears currently appear to be exploiting increasingly abundant resources such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and newly available resources such as eggs. This opportunistic shift is similar to the diet mixing strategy common among other Arctic predators and bear species. We discuss whether the observed diet shift is solely a response to a nutritional stress or is an expression of plastic foraging behavior. PMID:24223286

  16. What to eat now? Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay.

    PubMed

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2013-09-01

    Under current climate trends, spring ice breakup in Hudson Bay is advancing rapidly, leaving polar bears (Ursus maritimus) less time to hunt seals during the spring when they accumulate the majority of their annual fat reserves. For this reason, foods that polar bears consume during the ice-free season may become increasingly important in alleviating nutritional stress from lost seal hunting opportunities. Defining how the terrestrial diet might have changed since the onset of rapid climate change is an important step in understanding how polar bears may be reacting to climate change. We characterized the current terrestrial diet of polar bears in western Hudson Bay by evaluating the contents of passively sampled scat and comparing it to a similar study conducted 40 years ago. While the two terrestrial diets broadly overlap, polar bears currently appear to be exploiting increasingly abundant resources such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and newly available resources such as eggs. This opportunistic shift is similar to the diet mixing strategy common among other Arctic predators and bear species. We discuss whether the observed diet shift is solely a response to a nutritional stress or is an expression of plastic foraging behavior. PMID:24223286

  17. A relative sea-level history for Arviat, Nunavut, and implications for Laurentide Ice Sheet thickness west of Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Karen M.; James, Thomas S.; Forbes, Donald L.; Telka, Alice M.; Dyke, Arthur S.; Henton, Joseph A.

    2014-07-01

    Thirty-six new and previously published radiocarbon dates constrain the relative sea-level history of Arviat on the west coast of Hudson Bay. As a result of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) following deglaciation, sea level fell rapidly from a high-stand of nearly 170 m elevation just after 8000 cal yr BP to 60 m elevation by the mid Holocene (~ 5200 cal yr BP). The rate of sea-level fall decreased in the mid and late Holocene, with sea level falling 30 m since 3000 cal yr BP. Several late Holocene sea-level measurements are interpreted to originate from the upper end of the tidal range and place tight constraints on sea level. A preliminary measurement of present-day vertical land motion obtained by repeat Global Positioning System (GPS) occupations indicates ongoing crustal uplift at Arviat of 9.3 ± 1.5 mm/yr, in close agreement with the crustal uplift rate inferred from the inferred sea-level curve. Predictions of numerical GIA models indicate that the new sea-level curve is best fit by a Laurentide Ice Sheet reconstruction with a last glacial maximum peak thickness of ~ 3.4 km. This is a 30-35% thickness reduction of the ICE-5G ice-sheet history west of Hudson Bay.

  18. The identity of Pennant's 'Wapacuthu owl' and the subspecific name for the population of Bubo virginianus from the western Hudson Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M.R.; Banks, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The name Strix wapacuthu Gmelin, often used for the subspecies of Bubo virginianus west of Hudson Bay, cannot be associated with certainty with either B. virginianus or Nyctea scandiaca. The subspecific name of the population of B. virginianus from Mackenzie to central-eastern British Columbia and northern Ontario should be B. v. subarcticus Hoy.

  19. Drought as a Disturbance: Implications for Peatland Carbon Budgets in the Hudson Bay Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, R.; Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Carbon feedbacks are of particular importance in high latitudes, both because of large circumpolar peatland carbon pools and because climate warming is occurring more rapidly at these latitudes. Longer-term net ecosystem exchange will be influenced by the capacity of plant communities to respond to changing conditions. The nature of community change and the factors inducing change are examined in this study of a disturbance generated by severe drought in 1994 causing widespread mortality in the dominant moss, Dicranum elongatum, occupying an upland tundra site within the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba. One quarter of this moss has recently died and become encrusted with the micro-lichen, Ochrolechia spp. Moss cushions affected in this manner exhibit strong allelopathic inhibition of seedling establishment progressing to complete moss decay. Chamber NEE growing-season flux measurements show an average net release of 642 mg C /m2/d from the dead moss compared to an average net uptake of 164 mg C /m2/d from completely healthy cushions. Between these two extremes, stressed living moss cushions support abundant seedling cover which increases in direct proportion with the fractional mortality. A proxy method for estimating the growth rates of cushions, based on the length of green living shoots, indicates that the moss community is uniform in age and established shortly after the most severe drought of historical record in 1966. Subsequent growth rates of cushions show a strong dependency on proximity to the water table (4.17-1.11 mm/y over 58 cm height interval). A growing-season moss water budget identifies the dominant water flow pathways and indicates capillary uptake (0.08 mm h-1) provides 64% of the storage gains, emphasizing the importance of groundwater for growth and survival. Maximum storage capacities are directly related to cushion biomass, leading to both enhanced moisture stress and increased susceptibility to mortality as cushion size

  20. HuBLE-UK, the Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment: Insights into the Formation of the Canadian Shield From Seismic Tomography and Shear-Wave Splitting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, Ian; Thompson, David; Kendall, J.-Michael; Helffrich, George; Wookey, James; Snyder, David; Eaton, David; Darbyshire, Fiona

    2010-05-01

    Hudson Bay lies in the Precambrian core of North America that comprises the Canadian Shield and contiguous platform regions. The region is underlain by one of Earth's largest lithospheric keels and is the site of one of the largest negative geoid anomalies. We have deployed a network of 12 broadband seismic stations in the northern part of Hudson Bay that complement existing POLARIS and CNSN networks in the region. Here we present SKS shear-wave splitting analyses, independent tomographic inversion of P- and S-wave travel-time data, and receiver function results in order to: 1) understand better the origin and evolution of the Hudson Bay cratonic interior basin; 2) to illuminate possible relationships between the lithospheric keel, sub-lithospheric mantle flow and formation of the Hudson Bay basin; 3) to improve understanding of postglacial isostatic rebound; 4) to map the lithospheric structure of the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO) in a region characterized by extreme salient-reentrant geometry, possibly analogous to the western syntaxis of the Himalayan front. SKS fast directions appear sensitive to Paleoproterozoic THO lithospheric fabrics, not trends that would be predicted by mantle flow or plate motion basal drag hypotheses. SKS delay times vary from 0.5-1.6s, which indicate a lithospheric-scale anisotropic layer at least 150km thick. Tomographic images of the region also shed new light on the THO and neighboring Archean terranes. Our work complements ongoing HuBLE studies that focus on dispersion analysis of teleseismic Rayleigh waves, and applications of ambient noise tomography that extract additional complementary information about lithospheric structure of the region.

  1. HuBLE-UK, the Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment: Insights into the Formation of the Canadian Shield From Seismic Tomography and Shear-Wave Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J. M.; Helffrich, G. R.; Wookey, J.; Thompson, D. A.; Snyder, D. B.; Eaton, D. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2009-12-01

    Hudson Bay lies in the Precambrian core of North America that comprises the Canadian Shield and contiguous platform regions. The region is underlain by one of Earth's largest lithospheric keels and is the site of one of the largest negative geoid anomalies. We have deployed a network of 12 broadband seismic stations in the northern part of Hudson Bay that complement existing POLARIS and CNSN networks in the region. Here we present SKS shear-wave splitting analyses and independent tomographic inversion of P- and S-wave travel-time data in order to: 1) understand better the origin and evolution of the Hudson Bay cratonic interior basin; 2) to illuminate possible relationships between the lithospheric keel, sub-lithospheric mantle flow and formation of the Hudson Bay basin; 3) to improve understanding of postglacial isostatic rebound; 4) to map the lithospheric structure of the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO) in a region characterized by extreme salient-reentrant geometry, possibly analogous to the western syntaxis of the Himalayan front. SKS fast directions appear sensitive to Paleoproterozoic THO lithospheric fabrics, not trends that would be predicted by mantle flow or plate motion basal drag hypotheses. SKS delay times vary from 0.5-1.6s, which indicate a lithospheric-scale anisotropic layer at least 150km thick. Tomographic images of the region also shed new light on the THO and neighboring Archean terranes. Our work complements ongoing HuBLE studies that focus on receiver function study, dispersion analysis of teleseismic Rayleigh waves, and applications of ambient noise tomography that extract additional complementary information about lithospheric structure of the region.

  2. Response of shallow lakes and ponds to contemporary climate change in the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, C. R.; Macrae, M. L.; Parrott, J. A.; Brown, L.; Svacina, N.

    2009-12-01

    Ponds and shallow lakes are a ubiquitous feature of Arctic coastal plains. In Canada, they are particularly prevalent in the Hudson Bay Lowland and the Mackenzie River Delta region. Recent ground-based and remote sensing observations have shown a general decreasing trend in arctic lake/pond surface area over the past 50 years, suggesting that small water bodies at high latitudes are drying. However, the majority of the work that has been done on drying ponds and shallow lakes (with the exceptional cases of increases in areal extent in a few regions found in the continuous permafrost zone) has been conducted in Alaska and Siberia. The objectives of this work are twofold: (1) to examine trends and seasonal variability in pond and shallow lake water levels and surface area during the open water season; and (2) to examine trends and variability in the duration of ice cover in ponds and shallow lakes in this region, as open water season evaporation totals have been shown to be strongly influenced by ice cover duration. Preliminary results related to the first objective of this study reveal that annual precipitation (primarily summer rainfall) and evaporation have increased between 1955 and 2008; however, rainfall appears to be increasing at a faster rate than evaporation. There is still a moisture deficit over the summer months in this region because evaporation exceeds precipitation, although this deficit appears to be lessening. Thus, conditions in this region appear to be becoming more wet. A change detection study conducted on a subset of ponds for four years using air photographs and a SPOT image show that pond surface areas appear to have fluctuated over the study period but do not show a consistent trend. Different pond sizes appear to be showing different trends. Small ponds are showing opposing trends to medium and large sized ponds and lakes. The behaviour of the small ponds appears to strongly reflect seasonality in pond-atmosphere hydrologic exchange, and

  3. Varying sediment sources (Hudson Strait, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Bay) to the NW Labrador Sea slope between and during Heinrich events 0 to 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Barber, D.C.; Jennings, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.; Maclean, B.; Kirby, M.E.; Stoner, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Core HU97048-007PC was recovered from the continental Labrador Sea slope at a water depth of 945 m, 250 km seaward from the mouth of Cumberland Sound, and 400 km north of Hudson Strait. Cumberland Sound is a structural trough partly floored by Cretaceous mudstones and Paleozoic carbonates. The record extends from ∼10 to 58 ka. On-board logging revealed a complex series of lithofacies, including buff-colored detrital carbonate-rich sediments [Heinrich (H)-events] frequently bracketed by black facies. We investigate the provenance of these facies using quantitative X-ray diffraction on drill-core samples from Paleozoic and Cretaceous bedrock from the SE Baffin Island Shelf, and on the < 2-mm sediment fraction in a transect of five cores from Cumberland Sound to the NW Labrador Sea. A sediment unmixing program was used to discriminate between sediment sources, which included dolomite-rich sediments from Baffin Bay, calcite-rich sediments from Hudson Strait and discrete sources from Cumberland Sound. Results indicated that the bulk of the sediment was derived from Cumberland Sound, but Baffin Bay contributed to sediments coeval with H-0 (Younger Dryas), whereas Hudson Strait was the source during H-events 1–4. Contributions from the Cretaceous outcrops within Cumberland Sound bracket H-events, thus both leading and lagging Hudson Strait-sourced H-events.

  4. Recent cooling along the southern shore of Hudson Strait, Quebec, Canada, documented from permafrost temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, M.; Wang, B.; Pilon, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    Permafrost temperatures from the surface down to about 20 m from 10 boreholes distributed around three villages on the coast of Hudson Strait (Salluit, Kangiqsujuaq, and Quaqtaq) were recorded and analyzed for the period 1988-1993. The results indicate that the permafrost has been regularly cooling along the southern shore of Hudson Strait. The observed trend in the order of 0.05{degrees}C yr{sup {minus}1} at the 20-m depth is consistent with the long-term regional cooling observed in air temperatures. It also coincides with an increased rate of cooling since the mid-1980s, which has been interpreted in the literature as being related to recurrent changes in the thermohaline circulation in the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans. The weak variation observed in the active-layer thickness at the study sites leads to the conclusion that the climatic cooling takes place principally through longer and colder winters. 23 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Factors Contributing to High CH4 and CO2 Efflux Rates from Thermokarst Lakes in the Rapidly Warming Hudson Bay Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, A.; Vincent, W. F.; Laurion, I.

    2014-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes and ponds that form on thawing permafrost landscapes have long been recognized as biogeochemical reactors that emit significant amounts of CH4 and CO2. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the exact contribution of these water bodies to the global carbon cycle, in large part because of the paucity of observations from different ecosystem types across the circumpolar North, and the incomplete understanding of factors that control the balance between methane production (methanogenesis) and loss (methanotrophy). The aim of our research was to address these gaps by focusing on thermokarst lakes in subarctic Canada (eastern Hudson Bay), primarily at the southern limit of permafrost that is experiencing rapid warming, but where limnological changes have received little attention to date. Thermokarst lakes were sampled at five geographical locations that differed in their degree of permafrost degradation, as well as in carbon content and lability. All sampled lakes were supersaturated with CH4, with epilimnetic concentrations varying from CO2 undersaturation in turbid mineral (lithalsa) lakes of the continuous and discontinuous permafrost landscapes, to oversaturation by several orders of magnitude of both CO2 and CH4 in the organic-rich (palsa) lakes, especially in the areas of highly degraded permafrost at its southern limit. Concentrations and fluxes of CH4 and CO2 in these palsa lakes were at or above the highest values reported for thermokarst waters elsewhere. In addition, methane oxidation experiments showed high rates of methanotrophy that substantially reduced the net emission of CH4 from both lithalsa and palsa lake types. Our results imply that subarctic thermokarst lakes, especially those at the northward migrating permafrost margin, may be a major source of greenhouse gases as the circumpolar North continues to warm.

  6. Dinoflagellate cyst production in Hudson Bay, the world's largest inland sea, based on monthly sediment trap data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Maija; Pospelova, Vera; Forest, Alexandre; Stern, Gary

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankters, microscopic primary producers of oceans are capable of responding rapidly to environmental fluctuations due to their high cell replication rates. Fast phytoplankton growth maybe balanced out by equally fast consumption by herbivorous grazers. In high-latitude marine systems, seasonal fluctuations in plankton biomass are essentially linked to light regime controlled by the waxing and waning sea-ice cover. In addition, nutrient limitation in surface waters, seasonal temperature fluctuations and changes in freshwater inputs may play important roles. In cold-water seas, many planktonic organisms cope with seasonal harshness by the production of benthic dormant stages. Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of single-celled plankton, constituting major marine primary producers, as well as herbivorous grazers of the microbial loop. Many dinoflagellate species produce highly resistant, organic-walled resting cysts that are archived in sediments and have been increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, e.g., sea-surface temperature and salinity, productivity, sea-ice cover and eutrophication. Marine sediment core sequences are characterized by slow accumulation rates and high mixing rates: the top centimeter of surface sediment from an arctic shelf may correspond to several years or decades of deposition. Consequently, sedimentary archives do not give direct information on long-term changes in seasonal bloom patterns or cues of annually recurring life-cycle events. We used two particle-intercepting sediment traps moored in eastern and western Hudson Bay, respectively, to study monthly fluctuations in dinoflagellate cyst production from October 2005 to September 2006. The traps were deployed close to the seafloor and recovered during the ArcticNet annual expeditions onboard the CCGS Amundsen in 2005 and the CCGS Pierre Radisson in 2006. We document the seasonal succession of dinoflagellate cyst taxa, together with cyst species composition

  7. Model support for forcing of the 8.2 ka event by meltwater from the Hudson Bay ice dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Amy J.; Morrill, Carrie; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Rosenbloom, Nan; Watkins, Kelsey R.

    2013-12-01

    Previous model experiments of the 8.2 ka event forced by the drainage of Lake Agassiz often do not produce climate anomalies as long as those inferred from proxies. In addition to the Agassiz forcing, there is new evidence for significant amounts of freshwater entering the ocean at 8.2 ka from the disintegration of the Laurentide ice sheet (LIS). We use the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) to test the contribution of this additional meltwater flux. Similar to previous model experiments, we find that the estimated freshwater forcing from Lake Agassiz is capable of sustaining ocean and climate anomalies for only two to three decades, much shorter than the event duration of ~150 years in proxies. Using new estimates of the LIS freshwater flux (~0.13 Sv for 100 years) from the collapse of the Hudson Bay ice dome in addition to the Agassiz drainage, the CCSM3 generates climate anomalies with a magnitude and duration that match within error those from proxies. This result is insensitive to the duration of freshwater release, a major uncertainty, if the total volume remains the same. An analysis of the modeled North Atlantic freshwater budget indicates that the Agassiz drainage is rapidly transported out of the North Atlantic while the LIS contribution generates longer-lasting freshwater anomalies that are also subject to recirculation by the subtropical gyre back into the North Atlantic. Thus, the meltwater flux originating from the LIS appears to be more important than the Agassiz drainage in generating 8.2 ka climate anomalies and is one way to reconcile some model-data discrepancies.

  8. Towards a Multi-Surface and Multi-Sensor Altimetry Calibration Site in Churchill, Manitoba, Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, A.; Renganathan, V.; Fotopoulos, G.; Shum, C.

    2006-12-01

    Satellite altimetry is a space-based geodetic sensor primarily designed and employed to monitor ocean and ice sheets, however, new missions such as ICESat (laser) and upcoming/planned missions such as CryoSat-2 and WATer (interferometric radar altimeters) will also target more complex surface types including sea ice, wetlands, rivers, and land. Presently, most altimetry calibrations sites are located in low-latitude oceans, e.g. Corsica, Gavdos (Crete), Harvest Oil platform (California), and thus cannot deliver calibration information on sea ice, ice, snow or land surface. We propose the first calibration site of its kind at Churchill, Manitoba (58N,94W), located on the western shores of Hudson's Bay. This is a unique location as it provides long-term co-located GPS (13 yrs), tide gauge (66 yrs), and absolute gravimetry data (19 yrs). The surrounding area is comprised of wetlands, rivers, sea ice, snow, and seasonal ice/land surface with vegetation. These surface types exhibit distant height change signals including annual and inter-annual variability, which can be used for altimetry calibration that goes beyond the traditional tide gauge-altimetry comparison. Data from the geodetic sensors as well as data collected in leveling surveys in 2006 along the altimeter ground tracks will be used to compare a number of radar and laser altimetry missions over different surface types. Over coastal ocean, the interaction of ocean tides and sea ice freeboard height measured by laser or radar altimetry data will be investigated. Over land and wetlands, the heights are compared with in situ measurements which include ellipsoidal heights measured by permanent GPS and leveling, vegetation height and terrain slope. The site is assessed as a potential calibration site for dedicated ice, land and hydrology altimetry missions.

  9. Flux to the atmosphere of CH4 and CO2 from wetland ponds on the Hudson Bay lowlands (HBLs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, J. David; Kelly, Carol A.; Rudd, John W. M.; Hesslein, Raymond H.; Roulet, Nigel T.

    1994-01-01

    Ponds on peatlands of the Hudson Bay lowlands (HBLs) are complex ecosystems in which the fluxes to the atmosphere of CH4 and CO2 were controlled by interacting physical and biological factors. This resulted in strong diel variations of both dissolved gas concentrations and gas fluxes to the atmosphere, necessitating frequent sampling on a 24-hour schedule to enable accurate estimates of daily fluxes. Ponds at three sites on the HBL were constant net sources of CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere at mean rates of 110-180 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d and 3700-11,000 mg CO2 m(exp -2)/d. Rates peaked in August and September. For CH4 the pond fluxes were 3-30 times higher than adjacent vegetated surfaces. For CO2 the net pond fluxes were similar in magnitude to the vegetated fluxes but the direction of the flux was opposite, toward atmosphere. Even though ponds cover only 8-12% of the HBL area, they accounted for 30% of its total CH4 flux to the atmosphere. There is some circumstantial evidence that the ponds are being formed by decomposition of the underlying peat and that this decomposition is being stimulated by the activity of N2 fixing cyanobacteria that grow in mats at the peat-water interface. The fact that the gas fluxes from the ponds were so different from the surrounding vegetated surfaces means that any change in the ratio of pond to vegetated area, as may occur in response to climate change, would affect the total HBL fluxes.

  10. The Structure and Function of Peatlands in the Hudson Bay Lowlands - Comparing a Pristine and a Hydrologically Impacted Peatland Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, L. I.; Roulet, N. T.; Moore, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is considered to pose a significant risk to the vast and varied peatlands of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL). Changes in peatland biogeochemical processes in this region could have major consequences for global greenhouse gas exchange and climate regulation, and yet there are still many gaps and uncertainties in our knowledge of these processes. In particular, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the structure (vegetation and water table) and function (carbon flux) of these systems is limited. Various theories and models of peatland development have been proposed, including those that describe peatlands as self-regulating systems where long-term stability is maintained by feedback between biological and hydrological processes. There is limited field data however to support the different development theories and to validate proposed feedback mechanisms. Understanding how peatlands are controlled by internal and external forces is also particularly important when considering possible ecosystem shifts due to climate change. Here we compare data from a pristine peatland and a drained peatland site in the HBL to understand peatland structure and function in current climate conditions and a future climate scenario (drier conditions). We measured carbon dioxide and methane fluxes using closed chambers at 51 collar locations (12 collars at the hydrologically impacted site, 39 collars at the pristine peatland site - triplicates at both study sites) representing a total of 13 vegetation communities and different peatland microforms (hummocks, ridges, hollows and pools). Continuous hydrological measurements and vegetation surveys were also completed. These results suggest that peatland structure and function in the HBL must be explained by a combination of peatland development mechanisms and that these mechanisms are dependent on the variable hydroecological setting of peatland areas. We suggest that the drained peatland site may represent an

  11. CO{sub 2} exchange in the Hudson Bay lowlands: Community characteristics and multispectral reflectance properties

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, G.J.

    1994-01-20

    Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange was measured during the 1990 growing season (June to August) along a transect starting 10 km inland from James Bay and extending 100 km interior to Kinosheo Lake, Ontario. Sites were chosen in three distinct areas: a coastal fen, an interior fen, and a bog. For the most productive sites in the bog, net daily uptake rates reached a maximum of 2.5 g C-CO{sub 2} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} with an area-weighted exchange of 0.3 g C-CO{sub 2} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} near midsummer. The interior fen was less productive on a daily basis with a net maximum uptake of 0.5 g C-CO{sub 2} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} and with corresponding area-weighted uptake of 0.1 g C-CO{sub 2} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} during midsummer. Early and late season release of carbon to the atmosphere resulted in a net loss of 21 g C-CO{sub 2} m{sup {minus}2} over the growing season from this site. The coastal fen was the most productive site with uptake rates peaking near 1.7 g C-CO{sub 2} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} which corresponded to an area-weighted uptake of 0.8 g C-CO{sub 2} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} during midsummer and an estimated net uptake of 6 g C-CO{sub 2} m{sup {minus}2} for the growing season. These properties were related to exchange rates with the goal of examining the potential for satellite remote sensing to monitor biosphere/atmosphere CO{sub 2} exchange in this biome. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) computed from surface reflectance was correlated with net CO{sub 2} exchange for all site with the exception of areas with large proportions of Sphagnum moss cover. These mosses have greater near-infrared reflectance than typical surrounding vegetation and may require special adjustment for regional exchange/remote sensing applications. 41 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. CO2 exchange in the Hudson Bay lowlands: Community characteristics and multispectral reflectance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Gary J.

    1994-01-01

    Net ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured during the 1990 growing season (June to August) along a transect starting 10 km inland from James Bay and extending 100 km interior to Kinosheo Lake, Ontario. Sites were chosen in three distinct areas: a coastal fen, an interior fen, and a bog. For the most productive sites in the bog, net daily uptake rates reached a maximum of 2.5 g C-CO2 m-2 d-1 with an area-weighted exchange of 0.3 g C-CO2 m-2 d-1 near midsummer. This site was estimated to be a net carbon source of 9 g C-CO2 m-2 to the atmosphere over a 153-day growing season. The interior fen was less productive on a daily basis with a net maximum uptake of 0.5 g C-CO2 m-2 d-1 and with corresponding area-weighted uptake of 0.1 g C-CO2 m-2 d-1 during midsummer. Early and late season release of carbon to the atmosphere resulted in a net loss of 21 g C-CO2 m-2 over the growing season from this site. The coastal fen was the most productive site with uptake rates peaking near 1.7 g C-CO2 m-2 d-1 which corresponded to an area-weighted uptake of 0.8 g C-CO2 m-2 d-1 during midsummer and an estimated net uptake of 6g C-CO2 m-2 for the growing season. Associated with net CO2 exchange measurements, multispectral reflectance properties of the sites were measured over the growing season using portable radiometers. These properties were related to exchange rates with the goal of examining the potential for satellite remote sensing to monitor biosphere/atmosphere CO2 exchange in this biome. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) computed from surface reflectance was correlated with net CO2 exchange for all sites with the exception of areas with large proportions of Sphagnum moss cover. These mosses have greater near-infrared reflectance than typical surrounding vegetation and may require special adjustment for regional exchange/remote sensing applications.

  13. CO2 exchange in the Hudson Bay lowlands: Community characteristics and multispectral reflectance properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.

    1994-01-01

    Net ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured during the 1990 growing season (June to August) along a transect starting 10 km inland from James Bay and extending 100 km interior to Kinosheo Lake, Ontario. Sites were chosen in three distinct areas: a coastal fen, an interior fen, and a bog. For the most productive sites in the bog, net daily uptake rates reached a maximum of 2.5 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d with an area-weighted exchange of 0.3 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d near midsummer. This site was estimated to be a net carbon source of 9 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) to the atmosphere over a 153-day growing season. The interior fen was less productive on a daily basis with a net maximum uptake of 0.5 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d and with corresponding area-weighted uptake of 0.1 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d during midsummer. Early and late season release of carbon to the atmosphere resulted in a net loss of 21 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) over the growing season from this site. The coastal fen was the most productive site with uptake rates peaking near 1.7 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d which corresponded to an area-weighted uptake of 0.8 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d during midsummer and an estimated net uptake of 6 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) for the growing season. Associated with net CO2 exchange measurements, multispectral reflectance properties of the sites were measured over the growing season using portable radiometers. These properties were related to exchange rates with the goal of examining the potential for satellite remote sensing to monitor biosphere/atmosphere CO2 exchange in this biome. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) computed from surface reflectance was correlated with net CO2 exchange for all sites with the exception of areas with large proportions of Sphagnum moss cover. These mosses have greater near-infrared reflectance than typical surrounding vegetation and may require special adjustment for regional exchange/remote sensing applications.

  14. Future sea ice conditions in Western Hudson Bay and consequences for polar bears in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E; Myers, Paul G; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Arjen D; Lunn, Nick J

    2013-09-01

    The primary habitat of polar bears is sea ice, but in Western Hudson Bay (WH), the seasonal ice cycle forces polar bears ashore each summer. Survival of bears on land in WH is correlated with breakup and the ice-free season length, and studies suggest that exceeding thresholds in these variables will lead to large declines in the WH population. To estimate when anthropogenic warming may have progressed sufficiently to threaten the persistence of polar bears in WH, we predict changes in the ice cycle and the sea ice concentration (SIC) in spring (the primary feeding period of polar bears) with a high-resolution sea ice-ocean model and warming forced with 21st century IPCC greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios: B1 (low), A1B (medium), and A2 (high). We define critical years for polar bears based on proposed thresholds in breakup and ice-free season and we assess when ice-cycle conditions cross these thresholds. In the three scenarios, critical years occur more commonly after 2050. From 2001 to 2050, 2 critical years occur under B1 and A2, and 4 under A1B; from 2051 to 2100, 8 critical years occur under B1, 35 under A1B and 41 under A2. Spring SIC in WH is high (>90%) in all three scenarios between 2001 and 2050, but declines rapidly after 2050 in A1B and A2. From 2090 to 2100, the mean spring SIC is 84 (±7)% in B1, 56 (±26)% in A1B and 20 (±13)% in A2. Our predictions suggest that the habitat of polar bears in WH will deteriorate in the 21st century. Ice predictions in A1B and A2 suggest that the polar bear population may struggle to persist after ca. 2050. Predictions under B1 suggest that reducing GHG emissions could allow polar bears to persist in WH throughout the 21st century. PMID:23716301

  15. Improving Job Site Skills Project. Preliminary Report. Local 343 United Brotherhood of Carpenters & Joiners of America & Construction Labour Relations Association of Manitoba. Northern Industrial Job Site Visit Report. Environmental Improvement Project, Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting, Flin Flon, Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeag, Janis; Todd, Laurie

    The Environmental Improvement Project at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting in Flin Flon, Manitoba, presented a unique opportunity for field observation and assessment. Field observation of the approximately 70 carpenters employed with various companies provided information on the types of communication used and the circumstances in which the…

  16. 77 FR 53769 - Safety Zone; Liberty to Freedom Swims, Liberty Island, Upper Bay and Hudson River, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Liberty to Freedom Swims, Liberty Island... and the Lower Hudson River for the September 5, 2012 and September 15, 2012 Liberty to Freedom...

  17. Terrestrial and Marine Organic Matter Accumulation in Hudson Bay: A High-Resolution Record of Climate/Watershed Processes over the Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleau, Y.; Goni, M. A.; Kolcynski, L.; St-Onge, G.; Lajeunesse, P.; Haberzettl, T.

    2014-12-01

    A high-resolution record of organic matter accumulation in sediments from a combined gravity-piston core was collected from a site located at a water depth of 104 m inside Nastapoka Sound in the south-eastern region of Hudson Bay. The drainage basins in this region of Hudson Bay coincide roughly with the present-day tree line location and are within the forest-tundra transition zone. CAT- Scan and multi-sensor core logger data revealed relatively uniform sediments throughout the core. 14C-based geochronology indicates that the combined record extends to ~3200 cal BP and that accumulation rates were relatively constant (0.1-0.2 cm/y). Organic carbon, inorganic carbon and nitrogen contents display down-core variability consistent with changes in organic matter inputs but overall relatively stable depositional conditions over the last 3,000 years. Compositionally, we measured steady increases in the carbon:nitrogen ratios and lignin phenol content of sedimentary organic matter from 3200 cal BP to present consistent with enhanced inputs of vascular plant-derived organic matter. Lignin compositions (i.e. S/V and C/V phenol ratios) throughout the core are consistent with contributions from a mixture of conifer and angiosperm non-woody plant sources. Steady decreases in both S/V and C/V phenol ratios since 3200 cal BP to the present indicate enhanced contributions from conifer-dominated vegetation and are consistent with a steady expansion of boreal forests (white and black spruce) over shrub -dominated tundra (dwaf birch, willows, sedges) in this southern Arctic region over the late Holocene. No clear trends in the ratio of combustion products over lignin products are evident, suggesting a low fire frequency in the area during the covered time span of the record.

  18. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears

    PubMed Central

    Gormezano, Linda J.; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28–48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet. PMID:26061693

  19. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    PubMed

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet. PMID:26061693

  20. Lithospheric Shear Velocity and Discontinuity Structure of Hudson Bay from S-to-P Receiver Functions and Jointly Inverted P-to-S Receiver Functions and Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment (HuBLE) has thus far constrained its seismic wavespeed, anisotropy, and discontinuity structures. However, previous work has either focused on a single imaging method or briefly compared two independent methods. In this study, we combine surface wave dispersion curves with P to S receiver functions (PRF) to jointly invert for 1D shear velocity, and also compute independent S to P receiver functions (SRF) using teleseismic earthquakes recorded at 36 broadband seismic stations from the HuBLE experiment and 9 additional regional stations. High shear velocities are observed to depths of 200-300 km in the region, indicating a thick depleted lithospheric keel, with maximum thickness in the center of Hudson Bay. The 1D shear velocity profiles typically exhibit a low-velocity zone in the lower crust, consistent with the hypothesis of post-orogenic or syn-orogenic lower crustal flow or the tectonic burial of metasediments. Observations of a flat Moho in the Rae domain of northwestern Hudson Bay are consistent with an Archean-aged crust, which has remained unaltered since formation. Structures observed within the mantle lithosphere in the depth-stacked S to P receiver functions appear to dip from the Hearne domain towards the Rae domain, suggestive of lithospheric formation through plate tectonic processes. This implies that plate tectonic processes were in action during the Archean when these provinces formed.

  1. Quaternary geologic map of the Hudson River 4 degree x 6 degree quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State and province compilations by Fullerton, David S.; Sevon, William D.; Muller, Ernest H.; Judson, Sheldon; Black, Robert F.; Wagner, Phillip W.; Hartshorn, Joseph H.; Chapman, William F.; Cowan, William D.; edited and integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1992-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Hudson River 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  2. Temporal and spatial variations in the biogeochemical cycling of cobalt in two urban estuaries: Hudson River Estuary and San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2004-08-01

    Despite the fact that Co is an essential trace element for the growth of marine phytoplankton, there is very limited information on the cycling of this trace metal in the marine environment. We report here the distribution of dissolved (<0.4 μm) and particulate (>0.4 μm) Co in surface waters of the Hudson River Estuary (HRE) and San Francisco Bay (SFB). Samples were collected during several cruises (from 1990 to 1995 in SFB and from 1995 to 1997 in the HRE) along the whole salinity gradient. Dissolved Co concentrations (mean±1 standard deviation) were nearly identical in magnitude in both estuaries despite differences in climate, hydrography, riverine-flow conditions and land-usage (HRE=0.91±0.61 nM; SFB=1.12±0.69 nM). Dissolved Co levels in each system showed non-conservative distributions when plotted as a function of salinity, with increasing concentrations downstream from the riverine end-members. Desorption from suspended particulates and sewage inputs, therefore, seems to be the major processes responsible for the non-conservative behavior of Co observed. Mass balance estimates also indicated that most of the estuarine Co is exported out of both estuaries, indicating that they and other estuarine systems are principal sources of this essential trace element to the open ocean.

  3. Geologic insights from multibeam bathymetry and seascape maps of the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John; Todd, Brian J.; Li, Michael Z.

    2014-07-01

    The macrotidal Bay of Fundy, Canada, was systematically mapped in the early 2000s using multibeam sonar technology, partly to support efforts to develop hydropower. The primary product was a suite of 1:50,000-scale maps of shaded seafloor relief and backscatter. In addition, a ‘seascape’ map was produced in an attempt to classify the entire bay in terms of morphology, texture, and biota. The eight seascape groups that are delineated reflect the strong signature of glaciation in much of the bay, the effects of Holocene tidal range expansion, and the results of modern processes under a dynamic current regime. As a result of the recent mapping we are able to argue that the muddy depocentre in the southwest of the bay was primarily active before the well-documented expansion of tidal range that occurred in the Bay of Fundy in the Holocene epoch. We further demonstrate the complexity of the seafloor in one of the glacial seascapes, and discuss the morphology and stability of a major tidal scour. The evidence obtained from multibeam sonar mapping reveals the complexity of the sea floor in the Bay of Fundy not necessarily apparent on the 1977 surficial geology map based on sparse lines of single-beam echo sounder data.

  4. Flux to the atmosphere of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} from wetland ponds on the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBLs)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.D.; Kelly, C.A.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Hesslein, R.H.; Roulet, N.T.

    1994-01-20

    Ponds on peatlands of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBLs) are complex ecosystems in which the fluxes to the atmosphere of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were controlled by interacting physical and biological factors. This resulted in strong diel variations of both dissolved gas concentrations and gas fluxes to the atmosphere, necessitating frequent sampling on a 24-hour schedule to enable accurate estimates of daily fluxes. Ponds at three sites on the HBL were constant net sources of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere at mean rates of 110-180 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} and 3700-11,000 mg CO{sub 2} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Rates peaked in August and September. For CH{sub 4} the pond fluxes were 3-30 times higher than adjacent vegetated surfaces. For CO{sub 2} the net pond fluxes were similar in magnitude to the vegetated fluxes but the direction of the flux was opposite, toward atmosphere. Even though ponds cover only 8-12% of the HBL area, they accounted for 30% of its total CH{sub 4} flux to the atmosphere. There is some circumstantial evidence that the ponds are being formed by decomposition of the underlying peat and that this decomposition is being stimulated by the activity of N{sub 2} fixing cyanobacteria that grow in mats at the peat-water interface. The fact that the gas fluxes from the ponds were so different from the surrounding vegetated surfaces means that any change in the ratio of pond to vegetated area, as may occur in response to climate change, would affect the total HBL fluxes. 43 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The role of diet on long-term concentration and pattern trends of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in western Hudson Bay polar bears, 1991-2007.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Stirling, Ian; Lunn, Nick J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Letcher, Robert J

    2010-11-15

    Adipose tissue was sampled from the western Hudson Bay (WHB) subpopulation of polar bears at intervals from 1991 to 2007 to examine temporal trends of PCB and OCP levels both on an individual and sum-(∑-)contaminant basis. We also determined levels and temporal trends of emerging polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and other current-use brominated flame retardants. Over the 17-year period, ∑DDT (and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT) decreased (-8.4%/year); α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) decreased (-11%/year); β-HCH increased (+8.3%/year); and ∑PCB and ∑chlordane (CHL), both contaminants at highest concentrations in all years (>1ppm), showed no distinct trends even when compared to previous data for this subpopulation dating back to 1968. Some of the less persistent PCB congeners decreased significantly (-1.6%/year to -6.3%/year), whereas CB153 levels tended to increase (+3.3%/year). Parent CHLs (c-nonachlor, t-nonachlor) declined, whereas non-monotonic trends were detected for metabolites (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane). ∑chlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, ∑mirex, ∑MeSO(2)-PCB and dieldrin did not significantly change. Increasing ∑PBDE levels (+13%/year) matched increases in the four consistently detected congeners, BDE47, BDE99, BDE100 and BDE153. Although no trend was observed, total-(α)-HBCD was only detected post-2000. Levels of the highest concentration brominated contaminant, BB153, showed no temporal change. As long-term ecosystem changes affecting contaminant levels may also affect contaminant patterns, we examined the influence of year (i.e., aging or "weathering" of the contaminant pattern), dietary tracers (carbon stable isotope ratios, fatty acid patterns) and biological (age/sex) group on congener/metabolite profiles. Patterns of PCBs, CHLs and PBDEs were correlated with dietary tracers and biological group, but only PCB and CHL patterns were correlated with year. DDT

  6. Demography of an apex predator at the edge of its range: impacts of changing sea ice on polar bears in Hudson Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lunn, Nicholas J.; Servanty, Sabrina; Regehr, Eric V.; Converse, Sarah J.; Richardson, Evan S.; Stirling, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the abundance and distribution of wildlife populations are common consequences of historic and contemporary climate change. Some Arctic marine mammals, such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), may be particularly vulnerable to such changes due to the loss of Arctic sea ice. We evaluated the impacts of environmental variation on demographic rates for the Western Hudson Bay (WH), polar bear subpopulation from 1984 to 2011 using live-recapture and dead-recovery data in a Bayesian implementation of multistate capture–recapture models. We found that survival of female polar bears was related to the annual timing of sea ice break-up and formation. Using estimated vital rates (e.g., survival and reproduction) in matrix projection models, we calculated the growth rate of the WH subpopulation and projected population responses under different environmental scenarios while accounting for parametric uncertainty, temporal variation, and demographic stochasticity. Our analysis suggested a long-term decline in the number of bears from 1185 (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] = 993–1411) in 1987 to 806 (95% BCI = 653–984) in 2011. In the last 10 yr of the study, the number of bears appeared stable due to temporary stability in sea ice conditions (mean population growth rate for the period 2001–2010 = 1.02, 95% BCI = 0.98–1.06). Looking forward, we estimated long-term growth rates for the WH subpopulation of ~1.02 (95% BCI = 1.00–1.05) and 0.97 (95% BCI = 0.92–1.01) under hypothetical high and low sea ice conditions, respectively. Our findings support previous evidence for a demographic linkage between sea ice conditions and polar bear population dynamics. Furthermore, we present a robust framework for sensitivity analysis with respect to continued climate change (e.g., to inform scenario planning) and for evaluating the combined effects of climate change and management actions on the status of wildlife populations.

  7. Vulnerability of Selected Beaches to Petroleum Contamination, Placentia Bay, NL, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, M.; Catto, N.

    2009-04-01

    Placentia Bay currently hosts the highest volume of ship traffic in along the Atlantic Canadian coastline, and is additionally exposed to accidental and deliberate discharges of petroleum products by Trans-Atlantic ship traffic. Placentia Bay has been identified as the region in Canada that is most likely to suffer a petroleum contamination event within the next 10 years. The morphological, sedimentological, energy regime, and marine debris characteristics of 4 beaches at the head of Placentia Bay were investigated in detail. Differing morphological, sedimentological and energy regime conditions alter the sensitivity of each system to oil spill contamination. Differences in the type and amount of marine debris between each system alter the potential risk of exposure to oil spill contamination. Based on differences in sensitivity and exposure, a vulnerability assessment was created for each system. This system was applied to additional beaches and rocky coastlines to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight the actual vulnerability of each study beach relative to the spectrum of beaches actually present throughout eastern Newfoundland. Typical of the majority of beaches throughout Placentia Bay, the 4 study beaches are characterized by gravel dominated, reflective, moderate to high energy systems. Observations of sediment re-working and accretionary features along the beaches of Arnold's Cove and Come by Chance indicate that self-cleaning would not be an effective agent of oil removal in the case of a spill. The absence of sediment re-working and protected nature of Goose Cove beach suggest that oil would persist in this environment for an extended period of time. Evidence of high wave energies at Hollett's Cove indicates that this beach would self-clean effectively. Differing types and quantities of marine debris indicate that each beach, with the exception of Goose Cove, would likely be exposed to oil originating from a Placentia Bay spill. The

  8. Long term phytoplankton monitoring, including harmful algal blooms, in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. L.; Hanke, A. R.; LeGresley, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    A monitoring program was initiated in May 1987 to study phytoplankton populations in the Bay of Fundy, southwest New Brunswick, eastern Canada. Samples are collected for phytoplankton distribution and abundance at five locations in the Bay of Fundy. Other parameters measured include plant nutrients (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate), Secchi depth, and depth profiles for fluorescence, oxygen, temperature and salinity. Alexandrium fundyense abundance from the 5 sites and between years is compared to physical and chemical properties of seawater using principle component analyses (PCA) to identify factors showing the greatest amount of variance in temporal and spatial distribution patterns. Analysis of A. fundyense abundance over the 19-year period 1987-2005 indicates that cell abundance from one year does not reflect the following year's phytoplankton concentration, and nitrate values and cell densities appear to have a negative relationship. A further comparison between the 2 years 2004 and 2005 (years with very different intensities of A. fundyense maximum cell concentrations) further supported these findings. Preliminary analyses indicate that many species abundances and intensities appear to be more climate or weather related than nutrient flux related. Examination of relationships between harmful algal bloom (HAB) cell density, nutrients and environmental variables indicates that there is no evidence that HABs are linked to eutrophication processes at the temporal and spatial scales of the study.

  9. Some environmental and social impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Berkes, F.

    1981-03-01

    The construction of the James Bay hydroelectric power project in subarctic Canada started in 1972, but environmental information that would permit mitigation measures did not become available until about 1975. It is suggested that this pattern may be characteristic of large-scale development projects in remote areas where the time lags involved in obtaining environmental data, beyond the simply descriptive information, are such that engineering plans would proceed, for economic reasons, without such environmental data as a planning input. Some environmental and social impact case studies are presented in this paper with regard to the LaGrande Complex phase of the James Bay development. The environmental impact case study involves the subsystem of estuarine fisheries and the effect on it of changes in the flow regime of the LaGrande River, the relocation of the first dam (LG-1) on the LaGrande, saltwater encroachment up the river during the filling of the second dam (LG-2), and the changes in the thermal regime of the river. The social impact case study examines the effect of the road network associated with the hydro development, on the land tenure system of the native Cree Indians of the area. The behavior of developers, as they optimize their engineering plans over the years to develop as much power as is feasible, is contrasted with the behavior of the organizations representing the native peopleof the area, first opposing the project but later giving up the aboriginal title to the land in exchange for some legally recognized rights, and subsequently making additional concessions from their established rights in exchange for various community benefits. It is argued that this process has been resulting in an incremental erosion of the land and resource base of the Cree Indian people.

  10. 13. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING ACROSS HUDSON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING ACROSS HUDSON RIVER IN BACKGROUND, WITH SOUTH WALL OF NEW JERSEY SIDE OF VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York County, NY

  11. Trace element and stable isotope analysis of fourteen species of marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    PubMed

    English, Matthew D; Robertson, Gregory J; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-12-15

    The Bay of Fundy, Canada, is a macrotidal bay with a highly productive intertidal zone, hosting a large abundance and diversity of marine invertebrates. We analysed trace element concentrations and stable isotopic values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C in 14 species of benthic marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy's intertidal zone to investigate bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements in the lower level of this marine food web. Barnacles (Balanus balanus) consistently had significantly greater concentrations of trace elements compared to the other species studied, but otherwise we found low concentrations of non-essential trace elements. In the range of trophic levels that we studied, we found limited evidence of bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements across species, likely due to the species examined occupying similar trophic levels in different food chains. PMID:26490410

  12. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Hudson River School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author features the "Clearwater," a full-size working replica of a 19th century Hudson River cargo sloop. The "Clearwater" has been serving New York state students as a link to both local history and the environment, helping them to learn lessons about the history of the Hudson River and the environment, thereby supplementing…

  14. Structure, stratigraphy, and climate of the Mesozoic Chignecto subbasin, Bay of Fundy, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Withjack, M.O.; Link, M.H. ); Olsen, P.E. )

    1991-03-01

    The Chignecto subbasin is one of three Triassic/Jurassic subbasins in the Bay of Fundy rift system of southeastern Canada. Although no wells have been drilled in the subbasin, offshore seismic data and onshore outcrop data show that the basin contains typical rift structures and stratigraphy. The Chignecto subbasin is an asymmetric rift basin bounded on the west by a series of gently to moderately dipping normal faults. The seismic data show that the total heave on these boundary faults locally exceeds 10 km. Most strata within the basin dip gently to the west toward the boundary faults. Field data show that a divergent wrench fault zone composed of numerous strike-slip, oblique-slip, and normal faults bounds the Chignecto subbasin on the south. The normal faults bounding the basin on the west and the divergent wrench fault zone on the south are reactivated Paleozoic compressional structures. Major stratigraphic features in the Chignecto subbasin include an unconformity that subdivides the basin strata into pre- and syn-rift sequences and an asymmetric arrangement of sedimentary and seismic facies and corresponding lithologies. The Triassic/Jurassic syn-rift strata within the basin thicken toward the western boundary faults. Coarser-grained strata of alluvial-fan and fluvial origin interfinger with finer-grained strata of fluvial and lacustrine origin near the boundary faults. Eolian deposits and evaporites in adjacent Mesozoic rift basins indicate an arid climate for the Late Triassic/Early Jurassic. Large-amplitude reflections observed within the western half of the basin probably represent high-velocity evaporites or carbonates deposited within the deepest part of the Chignecto subbasin.

  15. Behavioral Response of Corophium volutator to Shorebird Predation in the Upper Bay of Fundy, Canada

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Elizabeth C.; Frost, Elisabeth H.; MacNeil, Stephanie M.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2014-01-01

    Predator avoidance is an important component of predator-prey relationships and can affect prey availability for foraging animals. Each summer, the burrow-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator is heavily preyed upon by Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) on mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada. We conducted three complementary studies to determine if adult C. volutator exhibit predator avoidance behavior in the presence of sandpipers. In a field experiment, we monitored vertical distribution of C. volutator adults in bird exclosures and adjacent control plots before sandpipers arrived and during their stopover. We also made polymer resin casts of C. volutator burrows in the field throughout the summer. Finally, we simulated shorebird pecking in a lab experiment and observed C. volutator behavior in their burrows. C. volutator adults were generally distributed deeper in the sediment later in the summer (after sandpipers arrived). In August, this response was detectably stronger in areas exposed to bird predation than in bird exclosures. During peak predator abundance, many C. volutator adults were beyond the reach of feeding sandpipers (>1.5 cm deep). However, burrow depth did not change significantly throughout the summer. Detailed behavioral observations indicated that C. volutator spent more time at the bottom of their burrow when exposed to a simulated predator compared to controls. This observed redistribution suggests that C. volutator adults move deeper into their burrows as an anti-predator response to the presence of sandpipers. This work has implications for predators that feed on burrow-dwelling invertebrates in soft-sediment ecosystems, as density may not accurately estimate prey availability. PMID:25354218

  16. Menstrual cycle perturbation by organohalogens and elements in the Cree of James Bay, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wainman, Bruce C; Kesner, James S; Martin, Ian D; Meadows, Juliana W; Krieg, Edward F; Nieboer, Evert; Tsuji, Leonard J

    2016-04-01

    Persistent organohalogens (POHs) and metals have been linked to alterations in menstrual cycle function and fertility in humans. The Cree First Nations people living near James Bay in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, have elevated levels of POHs, mercury and lead compared to other Canadians. The present study examines the interrelationships between selected POHs and elements on menstrual cycle function in these Cree women. Menstrual cycle characteristics were derived from structured daily diaries and endocrine measurements from daily urine samples collected during one cycle for 42 women age 19-42. We measured 31 POHs in blood plasma and 18 elements in whole blood, for 31 of the participants. POHs and elements detected in ≥ 70% of the participants were transformed by principal component (PC) analysis to reduce the contaminant exposure data to fewer, uncorrelated PCA variables. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for confounders, PC-3 values showed significant negative association with cycle length, after adjusting for confounders (p = 0.002). PC-3 accounted for 9.2% of the variance and shows positive loadings for cadmium, selenium, and PBDE congeners 47 and 153, and a negative loading for copper. Sensitivity analysis of the model to quantify likely effect sizes showed a range of menstrual cycle length from 25.3 to 28.3 days using the lower and upper 95% confidence limits of mean measured contaminant concentrations to predict cycle length. Our observations support the hypothesis that the menstrual cycle function of these women may be altered by exposure to POHs and elements from their environment. PMID:26855224

  17. Informing Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) with numerical modelling: A case-study on shellfish aquaculture in Malpeque Bay (Eastern Canada).

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Ramón; Guyondet, Thomas; Bacher, Cédric; Comeau, Luc A

    2015-11-15

    A moratorium on further bivalve leasing was established in 1999-2000 in Prince Edward Island (Canada). Recently, a marine spatial planning process was initiated explore potential mussel culture expansion in Malpeque Bay. This study focuses on the effects of a projected expansion scenario on productivity of existing leases and available suspended food resources. The aim is to provide a robust scientific assessment using available datasets and three modelling approaches ranging in complexity: (1) a connectivity analysis among culture areas; (2) a scenario analysis of organic seston dynamics based on a simplified biogeochemical model; and (3) a scenario analysis of phytoplankton dynamics based on an ecosystem model. These complementary approaches suggest (1) new leases can affect existing culture both through direct connectivity and through bay-scale effects driven by the overall increase in mussel biomass, and (2) a net reduction of phytoplankton within the bounds of its natural variation in the area. PMID:26371845

  18. 12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  19. Lithosphere structure in Northern Canada from receiver function (RF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barantseva, Olga; Vinnik, Lev; Artemieva, Irina

    2016-04-01

    We present preliminary results of seismic data analysis for Northern Canada (around the Slave craton and NE of the Hudson Bay) in order to infer the lithosphere and asthenosphere structure beneath various Precambrian terrains of the North American craton. Seismic analysis includes data processing for the several stations of the Canadian National Seismic Network, for which P and S-velocity profiles are calculated through the simultaneous inversion of receiver functions. We report variations in the Moho depth and sharpness, as well as the depth to the LAB. The results are compared with regional petrological data for xenoliths.

  20. Laurentide Ice Sheet dynamics in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, revealed through multibeam sonar mapping of glacial landsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Brian J.; Shaw, John

    2012-12-01

    Recent multibeam sonar data collected in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, interpreted in conjunction with geophysical profiling and sediment sampling, reveal in unprecedented detail a suite of glacial landforms associated with the southwest margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. These landforms constitute four glacial landsystems. 1) Subglacial landsystem I: In southwestern Bay of Fundy, the elongated Grand Manan Basin contains ice-contact sediments of possible mid-Wisconsinan age overlain by late-Wisconsinan ice-contact sediments strongly imprinted by iceberg furrows and pits. In places, possible mid-Wisconsinan glaciomarine sediments have been eroded by late-Wisconsinan ice, creating streamlined landforms. Eroded bedrock and megafluted ice-contact sediment on the flanks of Grand Manan Basin indicate the southwest direction of topographically-steered ice. 2) Subglacial landsystem II: Along the southern margin of the Bay of Fundy, an array of drumlins, with superimposed esker complexes, was formed by glacial ice that emanated northwest from the interior of Nova Scotia and was deflected to the southwest by the ice flowing out of the Bay of Fundy to the Gulf of Maine. The esker complexes formed later when the Nova Scotia ice sheet stagnated and meltwater escaped northwest via topographic gaps. 3) Ice-marginal landsystem I: In northern Bay of Fundy, both small De Geer moraines and larger, basin-bounding moraines were created when retreating late-Wisconsinan ice became grounded in relatively shallow water. New radiocarbon ages show that the Owen Basin Moraine in this landsystem was abandoned prior to c. 14,600 14C yr BP (cal BP 17,015-17,270 [0.7], 17,286-17,405 [0.3]). 4) Ice-marginal landsystem II: This distinctive landsystem consists of numerous arcuate moraines, commonly superimposed on one another. This landsystem was formed by thin (170 m), lightly grounded ice that retreated northeast into the Bay of Fundy. The splayed pattern of the ice margin was a response to a large

  1. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Views of James Bay, Canada     ... show the winter landscape of James Bay, Ontario, Canada from three of the instrument's nine cameras. The image at left captures the opening ... down. The image on the right was taken seven minutes after the first image from the most oblique, aftward-viewing camera. "These ...

  2. High Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease Caused by Strains of Uncommon emm Types in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Athey, Taryn B T; Teatero, Sarah; Sieswerda, Lee E; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Li, Aimin; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; McGeer, Allison; Williams, David; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of type emm59 invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease was declared in 2008 in Thunder Bay District, Northwestern Ontario, 2 years after a countrywide emm59 epidemic was recognized in Canada. Despite a declining number of emm59 infections since 2010, numerous cases of iGAS disease continue to be reported in the area. We collected clinical information on all iGAS cases recorded in Thunder Bay District from 2008 to 2013. We also emm typed and sequenced the genomes of all available strains isolated from 2011 to 2013 from iGAS infections and from severe cases of soft tissue infections. We used whole-genome sequencing data to investigate the population structure of GAS strains of the most frequently isolated emm types. We report an increased incidence of iGAS in Thunder Bay compared to the metropolitan area of Toronto/Peel and the province of Ontario. Illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, homelessness, and hepatitis C infection were underlying diseases or conditions that might have predisposed patients to iGAS disease. Most cases were caused by clonal strains of skin or generalist emm types (i.e., emm82, emm87, emm101, emm4, emm83, and emm114) uncommonly seen in other areas of the province. We observed rapid waxing and waning of emm types causing disease and their replacement by other emm types associated with the same tissue tropisms. Thus, iGAS disease in Thunder Bay District predominantly affects a select population of disadvantaged persons and is caused by clonally related strains of a few skin and generalist emm types less commonly associated with iGAS in other areas of Ontario. PMID:26491184

  3. High Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease Caused by Strains of Uncommon emm Types in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Athey, Taryn B. T.; Teatero, Sarah; Sieswerda, Lee E.; Gubbay, Jonathan B.; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Li, Aimin; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; McGeer, Allison; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of type emm59 invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease was declared in 2008 in Thunder Bay District, Northwestern Ontario, 2 years after a countrywide emm59 epidemic was recognized in Canada. Despite a declining number of emm59 infections since 2010, numerous cases of iGAS disease continue to be reported in the area. We collected clinical information on all iGAS cases recorded in Thunder Bay District from 2008 to 2013. We also emm typed and sequenced the genomes of all available strains isolated from 2011 to 2013 from iGAS infections and from severe cases of soft tissue infections. We used whole-genome sequencing data to investigate the population structure of GAS strains of the most frequently isolated emm types. We report an increased incidence of iGAS in Thunder Bay compared to the metropolitan area of Toronto/Peel and the province of Ontario. Illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, homelessness, and hepatitis C infection were underlying diseases or conditions that might have predisposed patients to iGAS disease. Most cases were caused by clonal strains of skin or generalist emm types (i.e., emm82, emm87, emm101, emm4, emm83, and emm114) uncommonly seen in other areas of the province. We observed rapid waxing and waning of emm types causing disease and their replacement by other emm types associated with the same tissue tropisms. Thus, iGAS disease in Thunder Bay District predominantly affects a select population of disadvantaged persons and is caused by clonally related strains of a few skin and generalist emm types less commonly associated with iGAS in other areas of Ontario. PMID:26491184

  4. Canada.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In 1986, Canada's population stood at 25.5 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.2%. The infant mortality rate is 15/1000, and life expectancy is 69 years for males and 76 years for females. Of the labor force of 12.9 million, 3.5% are engaged in agriculture, 52% work in industry and commerce, 28.4% are in the services sector, and 5.9% are employed by the government. The gross national product was US$367.2 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of about $13,000. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a bilingual federal system, a parliamentary form of government, and strong democratic traditions. The spectacular growth of Canadian manufacturing in recent decades has transformed the country from a rural agricultural society into a primarily urban and industrial society. The mineral industry has been a major factor in Canada's economic development. PMID:12178065

  5. Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Robert F.; Ghosh, Ratna

    1986-01-01

    Discusses Canada's problems in searching for a national identity and the controversy of the Federal policy of multiculturalism. Presents its objectives within a bilingual framework and the contradictions involved. Suggests a workable model involving assimilation conditioned by regional or local circumstances, useful also as a development strategy.…

  6. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Lists and annotates 130 publications from the federal government of Canada and from the various Canadian provinces. Major topics include environmental concerns, particularly ecologically responsible forestry, global warming, and waste disposal/recycling; education at all levels, including bilingual concerns; and the Belanger-Campeau report, which…

  7. Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Yukari; Gough, William A.; Butler, Ken; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2016-07-01

    In northern Canada, winter roads are essential for communities. The duration of the winter road season depends on particular meteorological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between seasonal weather trends and the historical opening dates of the James Bay Winter Road in Ontario's Far North. The statistical significance of the temporal trends and their magnitude are determined by the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Results showed that decreasing trends in the freezing degree-days (FDDs) are statistically significant, along with the statistically significant increasing trends of monthly averages of both T min and T mean during the winter months in the western James Bay region for the 1961-2014 period. However, there were no statistically significant linkages between opening dates and FDDs detected, perhaps due to the paucity of opening dates data, although early opening dates in the last 10 years may be the result of larger FDDs. The FDDs during the months of October through December were more closely linked to opening dates than FDDs that were calculated up the opening date (including January dates), suggesting the key role of preconditioning during late fall and early winter. The lowest FDDs for the months of October to December that resulted in a viable winter road were 380 degree-days (°C). This threshold can be potentially used as a lower threshold for winter roads.

  8. Early Silurian (Llandoverian) Leask Point and Charlton Bay bioherms, Manitoulin Island, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Mielczarek, W.; Copper, P.

    1986-08-01

    About 300 bioherms are known in the Llandoverian Manitoulin Formation of eastern Manitoulin Island. In the South Bay area, the large Leask Piont bioherm and Charlton Bay patch-reef complex lack a distinct skeletal growth framework. Bioherms consist of mudstone and wackestone, with isolated lenses of bafflestone, boundstone, floatstone. Fossils are scarce, but crinozoans and bryozoans comprise about 90% of the bioclasts. Other fauna include stromatoporoids, corals, brachiopods, gastropods, trilobites, and probable algae (algae are difficult to identify and may have played a significant role). Faunal ratios remained relatively constant during mound growth. Soft substrates with sedimentation rates of a few millimeters per year are suggested by bedding type and morphologic dominance of lamellar and tabular corals and stromatoporoids. An increased sedimentation rate, resulting from shoaling, is indicated by more overturned, broadly conical corals in the upper parts of the mounds. Shoaling may be responsible for cessation of mound growth. Lithoclasts are more common in the upper parts of the mounds. They formed when semiconsolidated muds were disturbed and redeposited during storms. Megarippled interreef surface areas, largely devoid of coral growth, indicate mud instability at Charlton Bay. Lack of suitable stable substrates may have hampered coral development. Dolomitization was postdepositional. The diagenetic sequence occurred in three stages: 1)selective pyritization and silicification, formation of an early muddy dolomite replacing the mud fraction of the dolostone, lithification and formation of rare calcite cement and neomorphic syntaxial rims; 2)clear, coarse dolomite replacing pore-filling calcite cement, syntaxial rims, and unaltered macrofossils, stylolitization, grain-to-grain dissolution; and 3)a late dolomite found mainly as fine rhombs in stylolites, solution seams, and intraskeletal pore space.

  9. Methane fluxes from three peatlands in the La Grande Rivière watershed, James Bay lowland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, L.; Moore, T. R.; Roulet, N. T.; Garneau, M.; Beaulieu-Audy, V.

    2007-03-01

    Methane fluxes were measured on vegetated surfaces (2003) and pools (2004) of three peatlands (LG1-LG2-LG3) located 30, 100, and 200 km along a transect from the James Bay coast, in the La Grande Rivière watershed, James Bay lowland, Quebec, Canada. Fluxes were measured with static chambers at sites chosen to represent the biotypes characteristic of each peatland, from hummocks with a water table 35 cm below the surface to pools 100 cm deep. Average CH4 fluxes for the biotypes on vegetated surfaces sampled during summer 2003 ranged from 3.5 to 197 mg m-2 d-1, while summer 2004 average floating chamber pool fluxes ranged between 6.2 and 3165 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Seasonal average daily CH4 fluxes on vegetated surface were strongly correlated with average water table depth, greater fluxes occurring where the water table was close to the surface, and with vegetation cover, particularly the aboveground biomass of sedges. Within the summer, increasing CH4 fluxes from vegetated surfaces were correlated with rising peat temperature. Pool fluxes from the LG1 and LG2 peatlands decreased with increasing pool depth, but not at LG3. Estimated growing season CH4 emissions for the three peatlands were of 44 ± 21 (standard error), 21 ± 9.4 and 52 ± 17 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 for the LG1, LG2, and LG3 peatlands, respectively. Estimated annual release of CH4 is 3.8 g m-2 with the winter contributing to 13% of the overall emission, based on winter-time measurements at LG2.

  10. Linking mechanistic toxicology to population models in forecasting recovery from chemical stress: A case study from Jackfish Bay, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, David H; Tietge, Joseph E; McMaster, Mark E; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Xia, Xiangsheng; Griesmer, David A; Ankley, Gerald T

    2015-07-01

    Recovery of fish and wildlife populations after stressor mitigation serves as a basis for evaluating remediation success. Unfortunately, effectively monitoring population status on a routine basis can be difficult and costly. In the present study, the authors describe a framework that can be applied in conjunction with field monitoring efforts (e.g., through effects-based monitoring programs) to link chemically induced alterations in molecular and biochemical endpoints to adverse outcomes in whole organisms and populations. The approach employs a simple density-dependent logistic matrix model linked to adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for reproductive effects in fish. Application of this framework requires a life table for the organism of interest, a measure of carrying capacity for the population of interest, and estimation of the effect of stressors on vital rates of organisms within the study population. The authors demonstrate the framework using linked AOPs and population models parameterized with long-term monitoring data for white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from a study site at Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior, Canada. Individual responses of fish exposed to pulp mill effluent were used to demonstrate the framework's capability to project alterations in population status, both in terms of ongoing impact and subsequent recovery after stressor mitigation associated with process changes at the mill. The general approach demonstrated at the Jackfish Bay site can be applied to characterize population statuses of other species at a variety of impacted sites and can account for effects of multiple stressors (both chemical and nonchemical) and dynamics within complex landscapes (i.e., meta-populations including emigration and immigration processes). PMID:25943079

  11. Dioxin-like compounds and bone quality in Cree women of Eastern James Bay (Canada): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal populations living in Canada’s northern regions are exposed to a number of persistent organic pollutants through their traditional diet which includes substantial amounts of predator fish species. Exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) can cause a variety of toxic effects including adverse effects on bone tissue. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relationship between plasma concentrations of DLCs and bone quality parameters in Cree women of Eastern James Bay (Canada). Methods Two hundred and forty-nine Cree women from seven communities in Eastern James Bay (Canada), aged 35 to 74 years old, participated in the study. In order to determine the total DLC concentration in plasma samples of participants, we measured the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts using a luciferase reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of mono-ortho-substituted dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) 105, 118 and 156 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Bone quality parameters (speed of sound, m/s; broadband ultrasound attenuation, dB/MHz; stiffness index, %) were assessed by quantitative ultrasound at the right calcaneus with the Achilles InSight system. Several factors known to be associated with osteoporosis were documented by questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were constructed for the three ultrasound parameters. Results DL-PCBs 105 and 118 concentrations, but not the global DLC concentration, were inversely associated with the stiffness index, even after adjusting for several confounding factors. The stiffness index (log) decreased by −0.22% (p=0.0414) and −0.04% (p=0.0483) with an increase of one μg/L in plasma concentrations of DL-PCB 105 and DL-PCB 118, respectively. Other factors, including age, height, smoking status, menopausal status and the percentage of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in

  12. Observations of fresh, anticyclonic eddies in the Hudson Strait outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, David A.; Straneo, Fiammetta; Lentz, Steven J.; Saint-Laurent, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    The waters that flow out through Hudson Strait, a coastal system that connects Hudson Bay with the Labrador Sea, constitute the third largest freshwater contribution to the northern North Atlantic. Recent studies have documented the mean structure and transport of the outflow, as well as highlighting significant variability on synoptic scales (days-week). This study examines the outflow's variability on these synoptic scales through the use of observations collected by a mooring array from 2005 to 2006. We focus on the mechanisms that cause the freshwater export to be concentrated in a series of discrete pulses during the fall/winter season. We find that the pulses occur once every 4.4 days on average and are associated with anticyclonic, surface-trapped eddies propagated through the strait by the mean outflow. Their occurrence is related to the passage of storms across Hudson Bay, although local instability processes also play a role in their formation. The eddies are responsible for approximately 40% of the mean volume transport and 50% of the mean freshwater transport out of the strait. We discuss the implications of this freshwater release mechanism on the delivery of nutrient-rich and highly stratified waters to the Labrador shelf, a productive region south of Hudson Strait.

  13. Evaluation of the Holocene Peat Model with Data from Boreal and Subarctic Peatlands of the James Bay Lowlands, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillet, A.; Garneau, M.; Frolking, S.; Roulet, N. T.; van Bellen, S.; Ali, A. A.; Booth, R. K.; Peng, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Holocene Peat Model (HPM) is a dynamic model simulating the transient evolution of a peatland since its early stages. HPM takes into account the feedbacks between vegetation, peat properties, water table depth, and climate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the HPM by means of empirical data. Three distinct sampling sites were chosen within a large region including boreal and subarctic peatlands in the James Bay lowlands, northern Quebec, Canada. One fen and one bog were selected in the subarctic region and another bog in the boreal region. These sites have different geographical, climatological and ecological features (e.g. pH, nutrient availability, hydrology and species composition). Five cores from those three sites were dated using 210Pb and 14C. Loss on ignition and plant macrofossils analysis were performed for each core. First, we compare the simulation results of the HPM for the study sites with the information earned in the field and laboratory. In order to capture the causes for discrepancies between simulated and observed data, we then constrained the model in two ways: 1) The water balance of HPM was forced with water table fluctuations reconstructions, obtained from a transfer function of Testate amoebae. 2) The bulk density of HPM was forced with the bulk density data obtained from the cores. In both cases, the results highlight the effectiveness of the water balance and the bulk density routines of the HPM and also draw attention to other potential causes of inaccuracy in the model.

  14. Population structure of resident, immigrant, and swimming Corophium volutator (Amphipoda) on an intertidal mudflat in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolet, David; Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2012-05-01

    Spatial variation in biotic and abiotic conditions, and differences in dispersive behavior of different life history stages can result in the formation of zones with different demography for infaunal and epifaunal species within vast intertidal flats. In this study, we evaluated within-mudflat homogeneity of the infaunal amphipod Corophium volutator found in the mud (residents), colonizing artificially disturbed areas (immigrants), and caught in the water column (swimmers) on a large mudflat in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada. Densities of residents, immigrants, and swimmers were well structured in space (both along and across shore). Occasionally, significant differences in size structure, sex ratio, and proportion of ovigerous females were found at different intertidal levels, but these were short-lived. Comparisons of size and sex structure of residents, immigrants, and swimmers revealed occasional marked differences, with small juveniles and large adult males moving most. However, this size-bias in movement did not translate into zones with different population dynamics, suggesting that ample dispersal, through swimming and drifting in the water column, homogenized the population and masked potential effects of variation in environmental conditions. We therefore conclude that the mudflat represents one homogeneous population.

  15. Smallpox and its control in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, J W; Houston, C S

    1999-01-01

    Edward Jenner's first treatise in 1798 described how he used cowpox material to provide immunity to the related smallpox virus. He sent this treatise and some cowpox material to his classmate John Clinch in Trinity, Nfld., who gave the first smallpox vaccinations in North America. Dissemination of the new technique, despite violent criticism, was rapid throughout Europe and the United States. Within a few years of its discovery, vaccination was instrumental in controlling smallpox epidemics among aboriginal people at remote trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. Arm-to-arm transfer at 8-day intervals was common through most of the 19th century. Vaccination and quarantine eliminated endemic smallpox throughout Canada by 1946. The last case, in Toronto in 1962, came from Brazil. PMID:10624414

  16. Re Os isotopic systematics of the Voisey's Bay Ni Cu Co magmatic ore system, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, D. D.; Foster, J. G.; Frick, L. R.; Li, C.; Naldrett, A. J.

    1999-06-01

    Re and Os concentrations and Os isotopic compositions have been obtained for massive, matrix, and disseminated sulphide ores from three environments within the Voisey's Bay intrusion (the `Ovoid', Eastern Deeps, and Discovery Hill Zone) in order to assess the role of crustal contamination in the genesis of this large Cu-Ni-Co deposit. These samples have high Re concentrations (148 to 288 ppb, in 100% sulphide) for their common Os concentrations (4.8 to 24 ppb, in 100% sulphide), yielding high Re/Os ratios (12 to 33). These data confirm that the magma parental to the Voisey's Bay ore system was broadly basaltic in major element chemistry rather than picritic, consistent with the low Ni/Cu ratio of the ores (˜1.5). Re-Os isotopic data exhibit a limited spread in 187Re/ 188Os (57 to 157) and define an imprecise 1323±135 Ma `model 3' isochron, likely the result of small R-factor variations within the ore system. The Re-Os isochron age is within error of 1334 Ma U-Pb ages obtained for baddeleyite from the ore-bearing troctolites, demonstrating that whole rock Re-Os isotopic systematics have remained closed since crystallisation. The initial Os isotopic composition of the isochron ( γOs=1040±200) implies significant magma interactions with radiogenic Os that most likely resides in the Nain-Churchill Province crust. These data are, therefore, consistent with the parental magma achieving sulphide saturation as a result of contamination by radiogenic crustal components, with further addition of base and precious metals as a function of R-factor. Analyses of sulphide separates from the Proterozoic Tasiuyak (Churchill) and Archaean Nain gneisses confirm that both units contained significant Os (8.6 ppb and 0.38 ppb, respectively) that was very radiogenic at 1334 Ma ( γOs=1908 and 5202, respectively), yielding crustal residence TCHUR model ages of 2200 to 2400 Ma. However, these model ages may have been affected by Re and/or Os mobility during the 1.85 Ga Torngat and 1

  17. Mineral and grain-size partitioning in a glacial to marine transect, western Baffin Bay, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Geirsdottir, A.; Jennings, A.E.; Andrews, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Pleistocene and neoglacial tills on the Precambrian shield of Baffin Island are sandy gravels with <10% in the silt/clay fraction. Observations indicate that large amounts of sediments are being carried in suspension by glacial melt water streams. Silts and clays are transported into the proximal marine environment largely as overflows where they flocculate and settle. Mineralogical analysis of the clay and silt-size fraction of one fiord core (SU5) and one shelf core (HU78-37) from western Baffin Bay were completed to investigate mineral partitioning of transport from land to sea. Such studies are commonly conducted on the clay-sized particles, but there are few investigations of the silt-sized fraction, even though silts often make up more than 50% of these marine sediments. X-ray diffraction analyses of two cores show significant differences in mineralogy. Relative to the average composition of the Precambrian shield rocks of Baffin Island the clay-size mineralogy reflects a significant enhancement in mica and depletions in quartz and feldspar. The same trend is observed in the silt-sized mineralogy, where enrichment in mica is still significant, however, the mineralogy of the two size fractions differs markedly. The overall change in mineralogy from the clay-sized to silt-sized particles shows a decrease in mica, kaolinite and chlorite and a significant increase in dolomite and calcite, which are foreign to the area. These results, combined with ongoing studies on sand-sized mineralogy will enable a sediment budget approach to glacial erosion/deposition.

  18. Peatland Microbial Communities and Decomposition Processes in the James Bay Lowlands, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Michael D.; Smemo, Kurt A.; McLaughlin, James W.; Basiliko, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Northern peatlands are a large repository of atmospheric carbon due to an imbalance between primary production by plants and microbial decomposition. The James Bay Lowlands (JBL) of northern Ontario are a large peatland-complex but remain relatively unstudied. Climate change models predict the region will experience warmer and drier conditions, potentially altering plant community composition, and shifting the region from a long-term carbon sink to a source. We collected a peat core from two geographically separated (ca. 200 km) ombrotrophic peatlands (Victor and Kinoje Bogs) and one minerotrophic peatland (Victor Fen) located near Victor Bog within the JBL. We characterized (i) archaeal, bacterial, and fungal community structure with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of ribosomal DNA, (ii) estimated microbial activity using community level physiological profiling and extracellular enzymes activities, and (iii) the aeration and temperature dependence of carbon mineralization at three depths (0–10, 50–60, and 100–110 cm) from each site. Similar dominant microbial taxa were observed at all three peatlands despite differences in nutrient content and substrate quality. In contrast, we observed differences in basal respiration, enzyme activity, and the magnitude of substrate utilization, which were all generally higher at Victor Fen and similar between the two bogs. However, there was no preferential mineralization of carbon substrates between the bogs and fens. Microbial community composition did not correlate with measures of microbial activity but pH was a strong predictor of activity across all sites and depths. Increased peat temperature and aeration stimulated CO2 production but this did not correlate with a change in enzyme activities. Potential microbial activity in the JBL appears to be influenced by the quality of the peat substrate and the presence of microbial inhibitors, which suggests the existing peat substrate will have a large

  19. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew Douglas; Ohashi, Kyoko; Sheng, Jinyu; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121-302 days). Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3-81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day). All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5-21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments) consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada. PMID:27043209

  20. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew Douglas; Ohashi, Kyoko; Sheng, Jinyu; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121–302 days). Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3–81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day). All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5–21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments) consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada. PMID:27043209

  1. Depth zonation of epibenthos on sublittoral hard substrates off Deer Island, Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, A.; Page, F. H.; Thomas, M. L. H.

    1984-05-01

    Three locations were selected for detailed study of the epibenthos of sublittoral hard substrates in the Deer Island region of the Bay of Fundy. A total of 10 transects, using photographic and quadrat methods, yielded data on percentage coverage, density and diversity of biota in relation to depth. A cluster analysis, using the Jaccard Coefficient of Association, produced five major clusters, representing three depth zones. The shallow and mid-depth zones lie within the infralittoral, the deep zone within the circalittoral. The shallow zone extends from mean low water (MLW) to a mean depth of 5 m below MLW and consists of two clusters representing minor biological differences. It is characterized by crustose coralline algae and Petrocelis middendorfii which together cover over 70% of the primary substrate. Other macro-algae are rare, as are bryozoans, while sponges are absent. The sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus droebachiensis, the limpet Acmaea testudinalis and chitons belonging to Tonicella are very common and may exert a significant influence on the community structure in terms of grazing pressure. The mid-depth zone has a mean depth of 10 m and consists of two clusters, one representing well-illuminated upward-facing surfaces, the other representing shaded steeply-inclined cliff faces. The zone is characterized by higher species richness (relative to the shallow zone); greater coverage of sponges, bryozoans and hydroids; lower densities of sea urchins and limpets; and less areal coverage by encrusting algae. The cliff-face cluster is characterized by enrichment of bryozoans, anemones, sponges and brachiopods. The deep zone has a mean depth of 18 m, and is animal-dominated, supporting the greatest species richness, with sponges, hydroids, anemones, brachiopods and tunicates common, but algal coverage much reduced. Organisms colonizing the upward-facing surfaces in the shallow and mid-depth zones are here regarded as belonging to the encrusting algae

  2. Carbon Fluxes in Boreal Peatlands, La Grande Rivière Area, James Bay Lowlands, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, L.; Moore, T. R.

    2004-05-01

    As part of a large project on carbon dynamics in boreal peatlands, carbon dioxide and methane fluxes were measured in three peatlands in the La Grande Rivière area, James Bay lowland, Québec, Canada, between June and August 2003, and during one week in November 2003 and March 2004 (LG2 site only). The three sites studied correspond to the main peatland types present in the region (LG1, Rich Fen; LG2, Ombrotrophic Bog; LG3, Poor Fen). Measurements of CO2 and CH4 were made using static chambers on 20 collars in each peatland, 2 or 3 collars per ecological groups. A PP system infrared gas analyser was used for CO2 measurements while CH4 samples were analysed on a gas chromatograph. At each site, a weather station was installed to measure air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, water table depth, PAR and peat temperature at 5, 10, 20 and 40cm depth. The objectives of this research are to determine the fluxes of CO2 and CH4 on the three sites and determine the relationships between the fluxes and water table depth, peat temperature and PAR obtained from the weather station. Preliminary results for CH4 are between 1.43{-}120 mg m-2 d-1 (average 46.42 mg m-2 d-1) for the LG1 site, 1.19{-}125 mg m-2 d-1 (average 39.69 mg m-2 d-1) for the LG2 site and 2.68{-}300 mg m-2 d -1 (average 59.97 mg m-2 d-1) for the LG3. There is a strong relationship between seasonal average water table depth and CH4 flux.

  3. The structure and evolution of Baffin Bay and its implication on the development of the continental margins of northwest Greenland, the Nares Strait, and Baffin Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakey, G.; Roest, W. R.; Lundin, E.; Damaske, D.

    2003-12-01

    Baffin Bay, located between northern Greenland and North America, is an ocean basin with a poorly understood seafloor spreading history. Magnetic anomalies identified in the North Atlantic, Norwegian-Greenland Sea and Labrador Sea have defined the independent motion of the Greenland Plate during the Cretaceous and Tertiary. However, defining the age and geometry of the crustal rocks of Baffin Bay remains key to understanding the plate tectonic history of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Satellite derived gravity data over Baffin Bay have revealed an axial low with large offsets that has been interpreted as an extinct spreading ridge and transform fault system, and this geometry has been used to improve the rotation pole for Greenland relative to North America. Based on the timing of a change in the direction of plate motions in the Labrador Sea, the latest phase of the spreading system in Baffin Bay is assumed to have been active between chron 24R (55Ma) and 13N (35Ma). Since no recent magnetic data exist in the Baffin Bay area, and older surveys suffer from the extremely large diurnal effects, observed in the auroral zone, the independent dating of the rift system remains enigmatic. However, Jackson et al. (Can. J. Earth Sci., 1979) report a magnetic survey corrected with independent diurnal observations from a moored magnetometer. A re-evaluation of this data, in context with the identified spreading system, reveals the existence of linear magnetic anomalies consistent with patterns of seafloor spreading, proving an oceanic character of the basin. The identified anomalies are tentatively interpreted as magnetic chrons 25N and 26N, and provide the first definitive ages of the plate geometry within Baffin Bay. Modern aeromagnetic data collected in the Nares Strait region in 2001 and 2003, in collaboration between the German Federal Institute of for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) have revealed new insights into

  4. Green Summer and Icy Winter in James Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    One year ago, in late February 2000, MISR began acquiring Earth imagery. Its 'first light' images showed a frozen James Bay in the Ontario-Quebec region of Canada. These more recent nadir-camera views of the same area illuminate stark contrasts between summer and winter. The left-hand image was acquired on August 9, 2000 (Terra orbit 3427), and the right-hand image is from January 16, 2001 (Terra orbit 5757).

    James Bay lies at the southern end of Hudson Bay. It is named for the English explorer Thomas James, who first explored the area in 1631 while searching for the Northwest Passage. Visible in these images are some of the many rivers that flow into the bay; starting at the southern tip and moving clockwise on the western side are the Harricana, Moose, Albany, and Attawapiskat. The latter enters the bay just to the west of the large, crescent-shaped Akimiski Island.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIES-ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS IN THE HUDSON-RARITAN ESTUARY AND RELATED SUB-BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EP A's Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) conducted a study in 1993/94 to assess the effects of sediment contamination in the Hudson- Raritan area (Upper New York, Raritan Bay, Jamaica Bay, western Long Island Sound and the Bight Apex). This s...

  6. A study of the composition, characteristics, and origin of modern driftwood on the western coast of Nunavik (Quebec, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelandt, Stéphanie; Marguerie, Dominique; Bhiry, Najat; Delwaide, Ann

    2015-03-01

    Data concerning driftwood is of value to researchers in fields as diverse as oceanography, geomorphology, and human occupation. Yet studies on the subject in the Canadian Arctic have only recently been carried out, and the present study is the first in Nunavik (northeastern Canada). This paper documents the composition, characteristics, and origin of modern driftwood pieces on the beaches of the eastern coast of Hudson Bay. A total of 1057 samples from Ivujivik, Akulivik, Inukjuak, and Umiujaq were identified as belonging to four coniferous species (Picea sp., Larix sp., Abies sp. likely balsamea, and Thuja sp. likely occidentalis) and four deciduous species (Salix sp., Populus sp., Alnus sp., and Betula sp., likely papyrifera). Spruce largely predominate; white birch, white cedar, and fir are rare. The presence of the latter species proves that some of the wood originated from south-southeast of James Bay. Driftwood found in the southern area (Umiujaq) are more numerous, larger, and less degraded than driftwood in the north (Ivujivik). However, many large coniferous samples were found as far north as Akulivik, indicating that they likely traveled a great distance, unlike the smaller wood specimens (especially deciduous samples). All of the wood that we analyzed died relatively young, with an average age of 63 years for conifers and 23 years for deciduous. Measurements of ring widths and the cross-dating of samples with existing reference chronologies of living trees along Hudson Bay and James Bay revealed several possible correlations and origins for wood found in same areas.

  7. Seasonal Variation in the Spatial Distribution of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in the Lower Bay of Fundy, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Siders, Zachary A.; Westgate, Andrew J.; Johnston, David W.; Murison, Laurie D.; Koopman, Heather N.

    2013-01-01

    The local distribution of basking sharks in the Bay of Fundy (BoF) is unknown despite frequent occurrences in the area from May to November. Defining this species’ spatial habitat use is critical for accurately assessing its Special Concern conservation status in Atlantic Canada. We developed maximum entropy distribution models for the lower BoF and the northeast Gulf of Maine (GoM) to describe spatiotemporal variation in habitat use of basking sharks. Under the Maxent framework, we assessed model responses and distribution shifts in relation to known migratory behavior and local prey dynamics. We used 10 years (2002-2011) of basking shark surface sightings from July-October acquired during boat-based surveys in relation to chlorophyll-a concentration, sea surface temperature, bathymetric features, and distance to seafloor contours to assess habitat suitability. Maximum entropy estimations were selected based on AICc criterion and used to predict habitat utilizing three model-fitting routines as well as converted to binary suitable/non-suitable habitat using the maximum sensitivity and specificity threshold. All models predicted habitat better than random (AUC values >0.796). From July-September, a majority of habitat was in the BoF, in waters >100 m deep, and in the Grand Manan Basin. In October, a majority of the habitat shifted southward into the GoM and to areas >200 m deep. Model responses suggest that suitable habitat from July - October is dependent on a mix of distance to the 0, 100, 150, and 200 m contours but in some models on sea surface temperature (July) and chlorophyll-a (August and September). Our results reveal temporally dynamic habitat use of basking sharks within the BoF and GoM. The relative importance of predictor variables suggests that prey dynamics constrained the species distribution in the BoF. Also, suitable habitat shifted minimally from July-September providing opportunities to conserve the species during peak abundance in the region

  8. Seasonal variation in the spatial distribution of basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in the lower Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    PubMed

    Siders, Zachary A; Westgate, Andrew J; Johnston, David W; Murison, Laurie D; Koopman, Heather N

    2013-01-01

    The local distribution of basking sharks in the Bay of Fundy (BoF) is unknown despite frequent occurrences in the area from May to November. Defining this species' spatial habitat use is critical for accurately assessing its Special Concern conservation status in Atlantic Canada. We developed maximum entropy distribution models for the lower BoF and the northeast Gulf of Maine (GoM) to describe spatiotemporal variation in habitat use of basking sharks. Under the Maxent framework, we assessed model responses and distribution shifts in relation to known migratory behavior and local prey dynamics. We used 10 years (2002-2011) of basking shark surface sightings from July-October acquired during boat-based surveys in relation to chlorophyll-a concentration, sea surface temperature, bathymetric features, and distance to seafloor contours to assess habitat suitability. Maximum entropy estimations were selected based on AICc criterion and used to predict habitat utilizing three model-fitting routines as well as converted to binary suitable/non-suitable habitat using the maximum sensitivity and specificity threshold. All models predicted habitat better than random (AUC values >0.796). From July-September, a majority of habitat was in the BoF, in waters >100 m deep, and in the Grand Manan Basin. In October, a majority of the habitat shifted southward into the GoM and to areas >200 m deep. Model responses suggest that suitable habitat from July - October is dependent on a mix of distance to the 0, 100, 150, and 200 m contours but in some models on sea surface temperature (July) and chlorophyll-a (August and September). Our results reveal temporally dynamic habitat use of basking sharks within the BoF and GoM. The relative importance of predictor variables suggests that prey dynamics constrained the species distribution in the BoF. Also, suitable habitat shifted minimally from July-September providing opportunities to conserve the species during peak abundance in the region

  9. Chlorofluorocarbons in the Hudson estuary during summer months

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.F.; Smethie, W.M. Jr.; Simpson, H.J.

    1995-10-01

    Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentrations in the Hudson estuary were found to be greater than the atmospheric solubility equilibrium concentration, demonstrating that the entire reach is contaminated with CFCs from local wastewater discharge. Samples have been collected along the axis of the lower Hudson estuary over a 5-month period to assess temporal and spatial variability of their wastewater sources. The highest CFC concentrations were found in water collected near Manhattan. In this region, CFC-11 (CCl{sub 3}F) and CFC-12 (CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}) were 3 to 5 and 10 to 20 times saturation, respectively. There appears to be a continuous CFC source in the New York City area, although the magnitude of this source declined during summer months. Other large CFC source were found near Albany, and in Haverstraw Bay (60 km north of Manhattan). 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Hudson Valley Fog Environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzjaprald, David R.; Garland Lala, G.

    1989-12-01

    Observations of 14 cases of radiation fog in the Hudson River valley in New York State are presented. Our emphasis is to connect the fog prediction problem to mechanisms in the nocturnal boundary layer that influence heat and moisture balances. Surface layer and boundary layer fogs are distinguished by the difference in dominant terms in the saturation specific humidity deficit budget. Fogs that persist longer than approximately 30 minutes are most frequently thicker than 50 m. The ultimate depth to which the fog grows is shown to be determined by initial conditions at sunset and by subsequent evolution of winds in the nocturnal boundary layer, as well as by surface transports and radiative cooling. Estimates of the surface and boundary layer heat budget are presented. Two new phenomena are identified: 1) A jump in specific humidity occurring during the early evening transition that shortens the time required to reach surface layer saturation; and 2) along-valley jetlike winds with maxima near 100 m altitude are shown to be frequent and their occurrence is associated with a threshold value of the along-valley surface pressure gradient. Such jets appear to have an important influence on deep fog, increasing or decreasing its likelihood depending on the sign of heat and moisture advection they associate with.

  11. 5. SECOND FLOOR CENTER BAY TO NORTH; SIPLEX PUMP IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SECOND FLOOR CENTER BAY TO NORTH; SIPLEX PUMP IN FOREGROUND, LYE STORAGE TANK AT CENTER REAR - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-13, 48-50 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  12. 4. THIRD FLOOR CENTER BAY TO NORTH; SOAP KETTLES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. THIRD FLOOR CENTER BAY TO NORTH; SOAP KETTLES TO LEFT AND RIGHT, TWO-STORY TANK AT CENTER REAR - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-13, 48-50 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. Thirty years - Alexandrium fundyense cyst, bloom dynamics and shellfish toxicity in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jennifer L.; LeGresley, Murielle M.; Hanke, Alex R.

    2014-05-01

    Sediment and water samples were collected for Alexandrium fundyense spatial and temporal distribution and abundance at more than 120 locations throughout the Bay of Fundy during the summers and winters of 1980-1984. These broad surveys have been repeated at various times through the past 30 years, with more regular sampling since 2004. In addition, A. fundyense abundance has been monitored at several locations within the Bay of Fundy at weekly intervals from April to November and monthly during the remaining months since 1988. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish (notably Mya arenaria) have also been monitored at multiple locations in the Bay of Fundy since 1943. The datasets were examined to determine relationships and roles between overwintering resting cysts, bloom initiation, bloom decline, motile cell dispersal and A. fundyense motile populations and resulting shellfish toxicity since 1980. Cysts are widely dispersed throughout the Bay of Fundy in the offshore, inshore and intertidal zones with the largest deposits located in the offshore in silt/clay sediments to the east and north of Grand Manan Island at depths of 60-180 m. Results show that there is a constant stable source of cysts in the Bay of Fundy with highest concentrations of cysts (9780 cysts cm-3) observed in 2010 and highest concentrations of A. fundyense motile cells (18×106 cells L-1) observed in 1980. Interannual changes in abundance in A. fundyense populations, resting cysts and the temporal trends in M. arenaria toxicity are discussed. Results show that there was no relationship between the abundance of overwintering cysts and the magnitude of A. fundyense blooms. The offshore seed beds appear to be relatively constant in cyst density among most years and serve as an important source for the motile cells that lead to initiation of major blooms and resulting shellfish toxicity throughout the Bay of Fundy.

  14. Collecting Representation Fees after "Hudson."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darko, Richard J.; Knapp, Janet C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses "Hudson" decision and "impingement on First Amendment rights" of those in states where fees in lieu of dues may not be involuntarily withdrawn from nonunion members' checks. Reviews three areas not addressed: role of public employer, duty to exhaust mandated procedures by objecting employees before pursuing court claims, and weight court…

  15. 12. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND; NEW JERSEY SIDE, HUDSON RIVEN VENTILATION BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York County, NY

  16. Metals in the sediments along the Hudson River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, R.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in bottom and suspended sediments from the ocean up the Hudson River estuary for 70 km were analyzed. The bottom sediments has a metal concentration maximum in the harbor. Everywhere studied, the metal concentrations in suspension are much higher than in the bottom sediments by 30 times for Cd, 20 times for Cu, and 10 to 15 times for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The composition of metals in the suspended material varied along the estuary with a large metal maximum in the harbor and again in Haverstraw Bay. By standardizing toxic metal concentrations to Fe, a maximum level of pollution in New York Harbor is indicated, along with a lesser maximum in Haverstraw Bay.

  17. Ambient seismic noise tomography of Canada and adjacent regions: Part I. Crustal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Honn; Behr, Yannik; Currie, Claire A.; Hyndman, Roy; Townend, John; Lin, Fan-Chi; Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Shan, Shao-Ju; He, Jiangheng

    2013-11-01

    paper presents the first continental-scale study of the crust and upper mantle shear velocity (Vs) structure of Canada and adjacent regions using ambient noise tomography. Continuous waveform data recorded between 2003 and 2009 with 788 broadband seismograph stations in Canada and adjacent regions were used in the analysis. The higher primary frequency band of the ambient noise provides better resolution of crustal structures than previous tomographic models based on earthquake waveforms. Prominent low velocity anomalies are observed at shallow depths (<20 km) beneath the Gulf of St. Lawrence in east Canada, the sedimentary basins of west Canada, and the Cordillera. In contrast, the Canadian Shield exhibits high crustal velocities. We characterize the crust-mantle transition in terms of not only its depth and velocity but also its sharpness, defined by its thickness and the amount of velocity increase. Considerable variations in the physical properties of the crust-mantle transition are observed across Canada. Positive correlations between the crustal thickness, Moho velocity, and the thickness of the transition are evident throughout most of the craton except near Hudson Bay where the uppermost mantle Vs is relatively low. Prominent vertical Vs gradients are observed in the midcrust beneath the Cordillera and beneath most of the Canadian Shield. The midcrust velocity contrast beneath the Cordillera may correspond to a detachment zone associated with high temperatures immediately beneath, whereas the large midcrust velocity gradient beneath the Canadian Shield probably represents an ancient rheological boundary between the upper and lower crust.

  18. Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans in Atlantic Coast striped bass and in selected Hudson River fish, waterfowl and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, P.; Hilker, D.; Meyer, C.; Aldous, K.; Shane, L.; Donnelly, R.; Smith, R.; Sloan, R.; Skinner, L.; Horn, E.

    1984-01-01

    In striped bass samples from the lower Hudson River and its estuary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was found at concentrations from 16 to 120 pg/g (ppt). Striped bass from two other locations (Rhode Island coastal waters and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland) had <5 ppt, 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), was found in striped bass from all three locations with concentrations varying from 6 ppt in Chesapeake Bay to 78 ppt in the Hudson River. Results from a limited number of non-migratory fish (carp and goldfish) and sediments suggest that the upper Hudson River is not a source for 2,3,7,8-TCDD/2,3,7,8-TCDF contamination of striped bass.

  19. 77 FR 22525 - Safety Zone; Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to establish seven temporary safety zones for swim events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) New York Zone. These proposed zones will be established on the navigable waters of the Hudson River, East River, Upper New York Bay and Lower New York Bay. These temporary safety zones are necessary to protect the maritime public and event participants from the hazards......

  20. Spring migratory pathways and migration chronology of Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) wintering at the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Molly M.; Jodice, Patrick G.; Baldwin, Robert F.; Stanton, John D.; Epstein, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the migratory pathways, migration chronology, and breeding ground affiliation of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) that winter in and adjacent to the Santee National Wildlife Refuge in Summerton, South Carolina, United States. Satellite transmitters were fitted to eight Canada Geese at Santee National Wildlife Refuge during the winter of 2009–2010. Canada Geese departed Santee National Wildlife Refuge between 5 and 7 March 2010. Six Canada Geese followed a route that included stopovers in northeastern North Carolina and western New York, with three of those birds completing spring migration to breeding grounds associated with the Atlantic Population (AP). The mean distance between stopover sites along this route was 417 km, the mean total migration distance was 2838 km, and the Canada Geese arrived on AP breeding grounds on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay between 20 and 24 May 2010. Two Canada Geese followed a different route from that described above, with stopovers in northeastern Ohio, prior to arriving on the breeding grounds on 9 June 2010. Mean distance between stopover sites was 402 and 365 km for these two birds, and total migration distance was 4020 and 3650 km. These data represent the first efforts to track migratory Canada Geese from the southernmost extent of their current wintering range in the Atlantic Flyway. We did not track any Canada Geese to breeding grounds associated with the Southern James Bay Population. Caution should be used in the interpretation of this finding, however, because of the small sample size. We demonstrated that migratory Canada Geese wintering in South Carolina use at least two migratory pathways and that an affiliation with the Atlantic Population breeding ground exists.

  1. Sediment transport and development of banner banks and sandwaves in an extreme tidal system: Upper Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Michael Z.; Shaw, John; Todd, Brian J.; Kostylev, Vladimir E.; Wu, Yongsheng

    2014-07-01

    Multibeam sonar mapping and geophysical and geological groundtruth surveys were coupled with tidal current and sediment transport model calculations to investigate the sediment transport and formation processes of the complex seabed features off the Cape Split headland in the upper Bay of Fundy. The Cape Split banner bank, composed of coarse to very coarse sand, is a southwest-northeast oriented, large tear-drop shaped sand body with superimposed sand waves that show wavelengths from 15 to 525 m and heights from 0.5 to 19 m. Isolated and chains of barchan dunes occur on top of a shadow bank to the southeast of the banner bank. The barchan dunes are composed of well-sorted medium sand and are oriented northwest-southeast. Their mean height and width are 1.5 and 55 m, respectively. A gravel bank, with an elongated elliptical shape and west-east orientation, lies in the Minas Passage erosional trough east of the headland to form the counterpart to the sandy Cape Split banner bank. The southern face is featureless but the northern face is covered by gravel megaripples. Tidal model predictions and sediment transport calculations show that the formation of the banner bank and the gravel bank are due to the development of the transient counter-clockwise and clockwise tidal eddies respectively to the west and east of the headland. The formation of barchan dunes is controlled by the nearly unidirectional flow regime in outer Scots Bay. Sand waves on the flanks of the Cape Split banner bank show opposite asymmetry and the barchan dunes are asymmetric to the northeast. The tidal current and sediment transport predictions corroborate bedform asymmetry to show that sand wave migration and net sediment transport is to southwest on the northern flank of the banner bank but to northeast on the southern bank. Long-term migration of the Scots Bay barchan dunes is to the northeast. Spring-condition tidal currents can cause frequent mobilization and high-stage transport over the

  2. Sulfur and oxygen isotopic evidence of country rock contamination in the Voisey's Bay Ni Cu Co deposit, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, Edward M.; Park, Young-Rok; Li, Chusi; Naldrett, Anthony J.

    1999-06-01

    The emplacement of basaltic magma into sulfide-bearing country rocks provides a favorable geologic environment for magmatic sulfide ore formation related either directly to assimilation of country rock sulfur or indirectly to a depression of sulfide solubility caused by assimilation-induced changes in magma composition. Pelitic country rocks of the Proterozoic Tasiuyak Gneiss in the area of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit contain sulfidic layers that may have provided sulfur to basaltic magmas during emplacement of the Voisey's Bay intrusion. Sulfur isotopic compositions of the Tasiuyak Gneiss range from -0.9 to -17.0‰, values typical for sulfides produced via bacterial sulfate reduction in an open marine environment. Archean gneisses in the area contain low amounts of sulfide and are less likely to have served as a source of externally-derived sulfur. Sulfur isotopic compositions of the sulfide minerals from the Voisey's Bay deposit show consistent variations, both spatially and with rock types. Disseminated and massive sulfides show a decrease in δ 34S to the west, with values typically between 0 and -2‰ in the Eastern Deeps, Ovoid, and Discovery Hill zone, and between -2 and -4‰ in the Reid Brook zone. δ 34S values of the Mushua intrusion to the north and the Normal Troctolite in the Eastern Deeps are more positive, ranging between -0.5 and 1.8‰. This range is taken to represent the isotopic composition of primary mantle-derived sulfur in the area because the Mushua intrusion and Normal Troctolite show the least geochemical evidence for contamination by country rocks. Sulfur isotopic data from the Reid Brook zone are consistent with up to a 50% sulfur contribution from the Tasiuyak Gneiss. Correspondingly lower proportions are indicated for the eastern portion of the deposit where country rocks are predominantly low-sulfide enderbitic and quartzofeldspathic gneisses. Oxygen isotopic values of gneiss fragments in the Basal Breccia Sequence and Feeder

  3. 33 CFR 117.791 - Hudson River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hudson River. 117.791 Section 117.791 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.791 Hudson River. (a) The draws of the bridges listed in this section shall open as...

  4. 33 CFR 117.791 - Hudson River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hudson River. 117.791 Section 117.791 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.791 Hudson River. (a) The draws of the bridges listed in this section shall open as...

  5. 33 CFR 117.791 - Hudson River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hudson River. 117.791 Section 117.791 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.791 Hudson River. (a) The draws of the...

  6. Tectonic evolution of southern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait: Results from a seismic refraction transect between Canada and Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Thomas; Gohl, Karsten; Damm, Volkmar; Heyde, Ingo

    2012-04-01

    Wide-angle reflection/refraction seismic data were acquired on a 450-km-long transect in southern Baffin Bay extending from Baffin Island to Greenland. Dense air gun shots were recorded on 22 ocean bottom seismometers. APwave velocity model was developed from forward and inverse modeling of the observed travel times. Beneath the Baffin Island shelf, a three-layered continental crust is observed with velocities of 5.5 to 6.9 km/s. Typical for transform margins, there is a sharp transition between continental and oceanic crust. Off Baffin Island, 7-km-thick oceanic crust is interpreted to lie in a major transform fault identified on the gravity map. Beneath the deep Baffin Bay basin, 9-km-thick oceanic crust is encountered but thins to 6 km within an assumed fracture zone. The thicker than normal oceanic crust indicates an ample magma supply, possibly related to melt extracted from a mantle plume. Seaward of the Greenland continental crust, 20-km-thick igneous crust (6.3 to 7.3 km/s) is encountered in a 25-km-wide zone interpreted as a leaky transform fault that can be correlated southward through Davis Strait. The igneous crust is bounded by a 20-km wide basin to the west, underlain by 4-km-thick crust of unknown affinity. This structure is probably associated with transform movements. A high-velocity lower crustal layer (7.1 km/s) of 8 km thickness is indicated beneath the Greenland crust and can be correlated into the adjacent thick igneous crust. Both the thick igneous and Greenland crust are covered by up to 4 km of Paleogene volcanics (5.2 to 5.7 km/s).

  7. Application of functional data analysis to investigate seasonal progression with interannual variability in plankton abundance in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Takayoshi; Dowd, Michael; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2008-06-01

    The statistical technique of functional data analysis (FDA) is applied to a time series analysis of plankton monitoring data. The analysis is focused on revealing patterns in the seasonal cycle to assess interannual variability of several different taxonomic groups of plankton. Cell concentrations of diatom, dinoflagellate and zooplankton abundances from the Bay of Fundy, Canada provide the observations for analysis. FDA was performed on the log-transformed abundance data as a new approach for treating such types of sparse and noisy data. Differences in the seasonal progression were seen, with peak numbers, timings and abundance levels varying for the three groups as determined by curve registration and higher order derivatives using the objectively fit FDA curves. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to capture seasonal variation among years. These results were further assessed in terms of dominant species and the relationships between groups for different seasons and years. It is anticipated that the easy to use, general and flexible technique of FDA could be applied to a wide variety of marine ecological data that are characterized by missing values and non-Gaussian distributions.

  8. Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July - August 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K. B.; Talbot, R. W.; Browell, E. V.; Barrie, L. A.; Hill, G. F.; Burney, L. G.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) were measured in the 0.15- to 6-km portion of the troposphere over subarctic and boreal landscapes of midcontinent and eastern Canada during July - August 1990. In the mid-continent region, Arctic air entering the region was characterized by relatively uniform CO concentrations (86-108 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)) and CH4 concentrations (1729-1764 ppbv). Local biomass burning and long-range transport of CO into the area from industrial/urban sources and distant fires did frequently produce enhanced and variable concentrations. Emissions of CH4 from the Hudson Bay lowlands was the primary source for enhanced and variable concentrations, especially at altitudes of 0.15-1 km. In eastern Canada, most of the observed variability in CO and CH4 was similar in origin to the phenomena described for the midcontinent region. However, unexpectedly low concentrations of CO (51 ppbv) and CH4 (1688 ppbv) were measured in the midtroposphere on several flights. Combined meteorological and chemical data indicated that the low CO-CH4 events were the result of long-range transport of tropical Pacific marine air to subarctic latitudes.

  9. Hydrogeological impacts of road salt from Canada's busiest highway on a Lake Ontario watershed (Frenchman's Bay) and lagoon, City of Pickering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriano, Mandana; Eyles, Nick; Howard, Ken W. F.

    2009-06-01

    The quantity of deicing salt applied to paved surfaces in urban watersheds in cold regions has had a significant and cumulative effect on groundwater quality. Whereas road deicing salt is known in general to impact groundwater and surface water quality, quantitative information on the impact of large transport routes is lacking. In this study, we provide a chloride mass balance for an urban stream crossed by a large transport route in south-central Ontario, Canada and quantify likely long-term impacts of salt loading on surface and groundwater resources. The chloride mass balance, supported by hydrochemical analysis, reveals that approximately 50% of the total road salt applied to Pine Creek (1700 tonnes per winter) is removed annually via overland flow with the remainder accumulating in the shallow subsurface resulting in severe degradation of groundwater quality. Moreover, results show that road salt migration is the primary reason for enhanced mineral weathering in the shallow aquifer. During the 2004-05 salting season, runoff and baseflow transport of road salts were responsible for chloride concentrations in the stream of up to 2000 mg L - 1 , and delivered approximately 850 tonnes of chloride (about 1400 tonnes of salt) to a shallow (< 3.5 m) semi-enclosed lagoon on the shore of Lake Ontario (Frenchman's Bay; 0.85 km 2). The total chloride delivery to the lagoon from its entire watershed is estimated at 3700 tonnes each year with up to 48% of the total load delivered by baseflow, the remainder from surface water runoff. Present day groundwater chloride concentrations are estimated to be about 80% of long-term concentrations when the system reaches steady state.

  10. Hydrogeological impacts of road salt from Canada's busiest highway on a Lake Ontario watershed (Frenchman's Bay) and lagoon, City of Pickering.

    PubMed

    Meriano, Mandana; Eyles, Nick; Howard, Ken W F

    2009-06-26

    The quantity of deicing salt applied to paved surfaces in urban watersheds in cold regions has had a significant and cumulative effect on groundwater quality. Whereas road deicing salt is known in general to impact groundwater and surface water quality, quantitative information on the impact of large transport routes is lacking. In this study, we provide a chloride mass balance for an urban stream crossed by a large transport route in south-central Ontario, Canada and quantify likely long-term impacts of salt loading on surface and groundwater resources. The chloride mass balance, supported by hydrochemical analysis, reveals that approximately 50% of the total road salt applied to Pine Creek (1700 tonnes per winter) is removed annually via overland flow with the remainder accumulating in the shallow subsurface resulting in severe degradation of groundwater quality. Moreover, results show that road salt migration is the primary reason for enhanced mineral weathering in the shallow aquifer. During the 2004-05 salting season, runoff and baseflow transport of road salts were responsible for chloride concentrations in the stream of up to 2000 mg L(-1), and delivered approximately 850 tonnes of chloride (about 1400 tonnes of salt) to a shallow (<3.5 m) semi-enclosed lagoon on the shore of Lake Ontario (Frenchman's Bay; 0.85 km(2)). The total chloride delivery to the lagoon from its entire watershed is estimated at 3700 tonnes each year with up to 48% of the total load delivered by baseflow, the remainder from surface water runoff. Present day groundwater chloride concentrations are estimated to be about 80% of long-term concentrations when the system reaches steady state. PMID:19464750

  11. A Hudson River Dream--Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallanter, Marty

    1979-01-01

    Detailing the history and current status of the grassroots movement to restore and protect the Hudson River, this article describes use of the Sloop Clearwater (the movement's most visible symbol) as an educational tool. (SB)

  12. 77 FR 40518 - Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River, Upper New York...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing seven temporary safety zones for swim events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) New York Zone. These zones will be established on the navigable waters of the Hudson River, East River, Upper New York Bay and Lower New York Bay. These temporary safety zones are necessary to protect the maritime public and event participants from the hazards associated with......

  13. 14. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING, SECOND FLOOR, NEW MOTOR IN FOREGROUND AND OLDER MOTOR AND BLOWER IN BACKGROUND - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York County, NY

  14. VIEW NORTHWEST ACROSS HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST ACROSS HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  15. Computerized Landscapes by Way of the Hudson. Pixel Palette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Berniece

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art lesson that integrates the study of the Hudson River School with computer art by having students create landscapes using "Fractal Design Painter 4." Offers historical background on the Hudson River School, a group of painters who lived near the Hudson River (New York). (CMK)

  16. Henry Hudson Bridge over Harlem River Shipping Canal at confluence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Bridge over Harlem River Shipping Canal at confluence with Hudson River, from Isham Park, view northeast. Inwood Hill Park on left, Spuyten Duyvil Shorefront Park on right, Palisades Interstate Park in background. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  17. Crustal structure and evolution of the Trans-Hudson orogen: Results from seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, D. J.; Nelson, K. D.; Knapp, J. H.; Walters, J. J.; Brown, L. D.

    1996-04-01

    A 400-km-long deep seismic reflection transect across northeastern Montana and northern North Dakota reveals the crustal-scale structural fabric of the Early Proterozoic Trans-Hudson orogen beneath the Williston basin. Comparison with deep seismic reflection data across the Canadian portion of the same orogen ˜700 km to the north reveals first-order similarities in crustal architecture but documents significant along-strike variation in orogenic evolution. Both transects display a broad crustal-scale antiform axial to the orogen. In the north, geologic data suggest that this antiform is cored by an Archean microcontinent. In the south, west dipping reflections on the western flank of the antiform extend from the upper crust to the uppermost mantle and truncate prominent subhorizontal lower crustal reflections of the Archean Wyoming craton. Within the Wyoming craton, the eastern limit of east dipping midcrustal reflections coincides with the subsurface age boundary between the craton and the Early Proterozoic Trans-Hudson orogen as interpreted from potential field and drill core data. On the basis of subsurface geochronologic data from the crystalline basement and by analogy with the Glennie domain within the exposed Trans-Hudson orogen in Canada, we suggest that the southern antiform is cored by an Archean crustal fragment that was caught up in the terminal collision of the Wyoming and Superior cratons during Hudsonian orogeny. The eastern side of the Trans-Hudson orogen is characterized on both seismic transects by predominantly east dipping crustal penetrating reflections. We interpret the easterly dip of these reflections as evidence that the Superior province was thrust westward over the interludes of the orogen during terminal collision. Although juvenile Early Proterozoic terranes characterize the exposed segment of the Trans-Hudson orogen in Canada, limited drill core information within the Dakota segment of the orogen shows a predominance of granulitic

  18. ISS pass over Southern California to Hudson Bay

    NASA Video Gallery

    This sequence of still frames was acquired as the International Space Station was tracking east-northeastward across the United States. The sequence begins over the Pacific Ocean as the ISS headed ...

  19. Late-Wisconsin End Moraines in Northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Falconer, G; Andrews, J T; Ives, J D

    1965-02-01

    A system of end moraines nearly 2240 kilometers long has been identified by field investigation and aerial photography. It extends through northeastern Keewatin, Melville Peninsula, and Baffin Island and marks the border of a late-Wisconsin ice sheet centered over Foxe Basin and Hudson Bay 8000 or 9000 years ago. PMID:17783266

  20. The Net Impact of Hydroelectric Reservoir Creation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Study of the Eastmain-1 Reservoir in the Eastern James Bay region of Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, I. B.; Lemieux, M.; Bonneville, M.; Roulet, N.; Tremblay, A.

    2009-05-01

    In order to satisfy present and future energy demands and to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is a growing need to develop energy sources that are not based on combustion. In the boreal regions of Canada, there is a huge potential for hydroelectricity production. However, in most cases, large areas of the boreal ecosystem must be inundated to create hydroelectric reservoirs. Previous studies have established that reservoirs emit GHGs, but these studies have typically focused on emissions some years after reservoir creation. The critical question that has not been asked is 'what is the net change in the exchange of GHG that results directly from the creation of the reservoir?' - i.e. 'what is the net difference between the landscape scale exchange of GHGs before and after reservoir creation, and how does that net difference change over time from when the reservoir was first created to when it reaches a steady-state condition?'. The Eastmain-1 (EM-1) hydroelectric reservoir, located in the James Bay region of Quebec was created in late 2005 and provides a tremendous opportunity to study the impacts of reservoir creation on GHG emissions which are still largely unknown for this type of land conversion. The creation of the EM-1 hydroelectric reservoir required the flooding of over 600 km2 of the boreal ecosystem along the Eastmain River, of which 65% was occupied by forest, 14% by peatland, and 21% by lakes and rivers. In order to assess the impacts of the creation of the reservoir on GHG emissions, three eddy covariance (EC) tower flux sites were established in a black spruce forest, peatland and on an island in the reservoir itself to measure continuous net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. Together, these represent the dominant terrestrial pre-flooded (forest and peatland) and post-flooded (reservoir) environments. The forest and reservoir EC systems were installed and operational by the end of summer 2006 with the peatland site coming on-line summer of

  1. Total plankton respiration in the Chesapeake Bay plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, C. N.; Thomas, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Total plankton respiration (TPR) was measured at 17 stations within the Chesapeake Bay plume off the Virginia coast during March, June, and October 1980. Elevated rates of TPR, as well as higher concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeopigment a, were found to be associated with the Bay plume during each survey. The TPR rates within the Bay plume were close to those found associated with the Hudson River plume for comparable times of the year. The data examined indicate that the Chesapeake Bay plume stimulates biological activity and is a source of organic loading to the contiguous shelf ecosystem.

  2. 14 CFR 93.352 - Hudson River Exclusion specific operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hudson River Exclusion specific operating... Airspace Hudson River and East River Exclusion Special Flight Rules Area § 93.352 Hudson River Exclusion... shoreline of the Hudson River when southbound, and along the east shoreline of the Hudson River...

  3. 14 CFR 93.352 - Hudson River Exclusion specific operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hudson River Exclusion specific operating... Airspace Hudson River and East River Exclusion Special Flight Rules Area § 93.352 Hudson River Exclusion... shoreline of the Hudson River when southbound, and along the east shoreline of the Hudson River...

  4. 14 CFR 93.352 - Hudson River Exclusion specific operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hudson River Exclusion specific operating... Airspace Hudson River and East River Exclusion Special Flight Rules Area § 93.352 Hudson River Exclusion... shoreline of the Hudson River when southbound, and along the east shoreline of the Hudson River...

  5. Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

  6. 24. Demolitin of Pier G reveals the center bays at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Demolitin of Pier G reveals the center bays at the track well in transverse section. Note structural system of first, second, and third floors, as well as the monitor roof. - Lehigh Valley Railroad, Pier G, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  7. Education Outreach in Village Schools during the SnowSTAR 2007 Alaska-Canada Barrenlands Traverse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D.; Sturm, M.; Huntington, H.; Anderson, D.; Derksen, C.

    2008-12-01

    In spring 2007, the IPY expedition, SnowSTAR-2007, traveled 4200 kilometers by snow machine across much of Alaska and Northern Canada. The primary objectives of the trip were education outreach, and collaborative US/Canadian field measurements of the snow across the route. Starting in Fairbanks, Alaska and ending in Baker Lake, Nunavut, Canada near Hudson Bay 42 days later, the team visited numerous settlements in route. The primary outreach efforts during the expedition were the expedition website (http://www.barrenlands.org ), and in-school presentations and interactive science demonstrations. The website, aimed at school children as well as the general public, was updated daily from the field, and had strong national and international interest. We gave presentations (classrooms and all-school assemblies), in nine of the villages we visited. In the schools we demonstrated the equipment we use in the field, as well as two proven demonstrations of physical principles (acoustic resonance in a plastic sewer pipe and eddy current forces on a magnet falling through a copper water pipe). Video recordings from the expedition travel, science and village school presentations can be adapted for classroom use to show application of scientific principles as well as excite student interest in the physical and geo-sciences.

  8. 76 FR 63342 - Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project (Rockland and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project... proposed infrastructure improvements for the Tappan Zee Hudson River crossing in Rockland and Westchester... alternatives to improve the transportation infrastructure of the Tappan Zee Hudson River crossing....

  9. Quantifying 20th century deposition in complex estuarine environment: An example from the Hudson River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.; Haberman, M.

    2010-09-01

    Sediment processes in estuaries are controlled by the interaction of factors that include tides, fresh water inputs, bed morphology, sediment supply, and hydrodynamics. The interaction of these factors strongly influences the pattern of sediment deposition. The ability to quantify sediment deposition on a regional scale will improve the understanding of the underlying processes, and provide valuable information for managing estuarine systems. This paper describes our approach for obtaining the deposition pattern and quantifying the amount of 20th century impacted sediments in the Haverstraw Bay section of the Hudson River Estuary. Through the combination of high-resolution seismic data and rapidly acquired geochemical information from numerous sediment cores, we estimate that our study site experiences an average sediment accumulation rate of ˜3 mm/y and that ˜75,000 t/y or ˜10% of the annual total sediment input measured at the Poughkeepsie, NY gauging station (USGS) is stored in this reach of the Hudson River on ˜100 y timescales. A detailed analysis of the depositional pattern indicates that the accumulation rate varies considerably throughout the study area ranging from non-depositional to >8 mm/y. Our data also clearly indicate that the dredged channel in Haverstraw Bay is currently the main focus of deposition in this area.

  10. SOLAR PANELS ON HUDSON COUNTY FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    BARRY, KEVIN

    2014-06-06

    This project involved the installation of an 83 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system tied into the energy management system of Hudson County's new 60,000 square foot Emergency Operations and Command Center and staff offices. Other renewable energy features of the building include a 15 kW wind turbine, geothermal heating and cooling, natural daylighting, natural ventilation, gray water plumbing system and a green roof. The County intends to seek Silver LEED certification for the facility.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Hudson River

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.P.; Werner, M.B.; Sloan, R.J.; Simpson, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of recent trends in the distribution of PCBs in water, sediment and fish of the Hudson River, New York. Results of various monitoring programs conducted since 1977 are presented. Elimination of direct discharge, dredging and disposal of contaminated sediments, and stabilization of banks have resulted in reduced levels in sediments and biota. The implications for commercial and recreational fishing interests are discussed. 41 references.

  12. Dating sediment cores from Hudson River marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Robideau, R.; Bopp, R.F. . Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    There are several methods for determining sediment accumulation rates in the Hudson River estuary. One involves the analysis of the concentration of certain radionuclides in sediment core sections. Radionuclides occur in the Hudson River as a result of: natural sources, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and low level aqueous releases from the Indian Point Nuclear Power Facility. The following radionuclides have been studied in the authors work: Cesium-137, which is derived from global fallout that started in the 1950's and has peaked in 1963. Beryllium-7, a natural radionuclide with a 53 day half-life and found associated with very recently deposited sediments. Another useful natural radionuclide is Lead-210 derived from the decay of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. Lead-210 has a half-life of 22 years and can be used to date sediments up to about 100 years old. In the Hudson River, Cobalt-60 is a marker for Indian Point Nuclear Reactor discharges. The author's research involved taking sediment core samples from four sites in the Hudson River Estuarine Research Reserve areas. These core samples were sectioned, dried, ground and analyzed for the presence of radionuclides by the method of gamma-ray spectroscopy. The strength of each current pulse is proportional to the energy level of the gamma ray absorbed. Since different radionuclides produce gamma rays of different energies, several radionuclides can be analyzed simultaneously in each of the samples. The data obtained from this research will be compared to earlier work to obtain a complete chronology of sediment deposition in these Reserve areas of the river. Core samples may then by analyzed for the presence of PCB's, heavy metals and other pollutants such as pesticides to construct a pollution history of the river.

  13. Seismic stratigraphy, Cenozoic basin evolution, and sedimentary history of the southern part of Baffin Bay, Canada: preliminary results of ODP Leg 105

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.P.; Arthur, M.A.

    1987-05-01

    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 105 drilled Site 645 (2018 m water depth) in southern Baffin Bay, recovering 1147 m of lowermost Miocene to Quaternary sediments. The drilling results, a regional multichannel seismic net, and industry wells on the Greenland margin and in Davis Strait allow us to reconstruct the late Paleogene-Quaternary tectonic and sedimentary history in southern Baffin Bay. A deep regional seismic reflector (R3) that extends across the central part of Baffin Bay and lies at a depth of about 1540 m below sea floor in the vicinity of Site 645 was not reached, but their results suggest a late Eocene-early Oligocene age for the horizon. That age, depositional sequences in seismic records, and results of a preliminary subsidence model for the site indicate that subsidence, following rifting of the basin, began between 63 and 55 Ma, and that spreading ceased by the Oligocene, in agreement with plate tectonic models for the region. This basin probably was not a major conduit for water-mass exchange between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans prior to the Eocene. Silty and sandy mud and muddy sand (porosities 20-30%), deposited in relatively deep water at rates of 30 to 140 m/m.y., dominate the sedimentary sequence at Site 645. Organic carbon contents average near 1% over much of the sequence, with a maximum of 3%, but the organic matter has low hydrogen indices and is predominantly of terrestrial origin. The paucity of siliceous and calcareous biota, the neritic aspect of diatom and dinocyst floras, and other indicators suggest that cool, subsaline, low-productivity surface waters predominated from at least the Miocene to the present. Regional reflector (R2) marks the onset of vigorous deep-water circulation in the basin in the middle Miocene - perhaps the first major penetration of cold Arctic water masses into the Labrador Sea via Baffin Bay.

  14. S saturation history of Nain Plutonic Suite mafic intrusions: origin of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightfoot, Peter C.; Keays, Reid R.; Evans-Lamswood, Dawn; Wheeler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Voisey's Bay deposit is hosted in a 1.34-Ga intrusion composed of troctolite, olivine gabbro, and ferrogabbro. The sulfide mineralization is associated with magmatic breccias that are enveloped by weakly mineralized olivine gabbros and troctolites, and also occurs as veins along structures in adjacent paragneiss. A dyke is connected to the base of the north wall of the Eastern Deeps Intrusion, and the entry point of this dyke into the chamber is the locus of the Eastern Deeps nickel sulfide deposit. A detailed exploration in the area between the Eastern Deeps and the Ovoid has shown that these intrusions and ore deposits are connected by a splayed dyke. The Eastern Deeps Deposit is surrounded by a halo of moderately to weakly mineralized variable-textured troctolite (VTT) that reaches a maximum thickness above the axis of the Eastern Deeps Deposit along the northern wall of the Eastern Deeps Intrusion. The massive sulfides and breccia sulfides are petrologically and chemically different when compared to the disseminated sulfides in the VTT, and there is a marked break in Ni tenor of sulfide between the two. Sulfides hosted in the dyke tend to have low metal tenors ([Ni]100 = 2.5-3.5%), sulfides in Eastern Deeps massive and breccia ores have intermediate Ni tenors ([Ni]100 = 3.5-4%), and disseminated sulfides in overlying rocks have high Ni tenors ([Ni]100 = 4-8%). Four principal processes control the compositions of the Voisey's Bay sulfides. Coarse-grained loop-textured ores consisting of pyrrhotite crystals separated by chalcopyrite and pentlandite exhibit a two orders of magnitude variation in the Pd/Ir ratio which is due to mineralogical variations where pentlandite is enriched in Pd and Ir is dispersed throughout the mineral assemblage. A decrease in Ir and Rh from the margin of the Ovoid toward cubanite-rich parts at the central part of the Ovoid is consistent with fractionation of the sulfide from the margins toward the center of the Ovoid. The Ovoid

  15. VIEW WEST ON MOTT STREET AT HUDSON STREET LEFTBUILDING 62 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST ON MOTT STREET AT HUDSON STREET LEFT-BUILDING 62 ANNEALING HOUSE (c.1900) CENTER-BUILDING 57 FLAT SHOP NO. 1 (c.1905) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  16. Henry Hudson Bridge upper deck and pedestrian walkway showing parapets ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Bridge upper deck and pedestrian walkway showing parapets with pipe rails. View of Inwood Hill Park in background, with a faint view of the Empire State Building amidst distant highrises at left, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  17. 75 FR 30018 - Hudson Transmission Partners, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hudson Transmission Partners, LLC; Notice of Filing May 20, 2010. Take notice that on May 19, 2010, Hudson Transmission Partners, LLC filed an application requesting the... section 212.4(c) and Attachment O, section 6.5 of the PJM Open Access Transmission Tariff, PJM OATT...

  18. 78 FR 49748 - Hudson Transmission Partners, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hudson Transmission Partners, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 12, 2013, Hudson Transmission Partners, LLC filed a request for exemption from, or waiver of,...

  19. View of Hudson & Manhattan Tunnel in Section C showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Hudson & Manhattan Tunnel in Section C showing one of World Trade Center 2's column bases used to support Hudson & Manhattan Tube across site, looking east. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  20. Hudson County Community College Periodic Review Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson County Community Coll., Jersey City, NJ.

    Hudson County Community College (HCCC) serves Hudson County, New Jersey. Although the county is the smallest in the state, its 610,000 residents make up one of the most diverse counties in New Jersey. Approximately 40% of residents are Hispanic, 12% are African-American, 10% are Asian, and 35% are White. The county is also home to a growing Middle…

  1. 77 FR 41048 - Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... Federal Register (76 FR 139) for this event. The Coast Guard is issuing this final rule without prior... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster...

  2. Let's Bet on Sediments! Hudson Canyon Cruise--Grades 9-12. Focus: Sediments of Hudson Canyon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    These activities are designed to teach about the sediments of Hudson Canyon. Students investigate and analyze the patterns of sedimentation in the Hudson Canyon, observe how heavier particles sink faster than finer particles, and learn that submarine landslides are avalanches of sediment in deep ocean canyons. The activity provides learning…

  3. A River Summer on the Hudson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, T. C.; Pfirman, S.; Selleck, B.; Son, L.; Land, M.; Cronin, J.

    2006-12-01

    River Summer is a month-long faculty development program extending from the continental shelf off New York City to the headwaters of the Hudson in the Adirondack Mountains. During the program, faculty from the Environmental Consortium of Hudson Valley Colleges and Universities teach each other about the Hudson environment, using innovative methods of teaching and learning, with a focus on incorporation of hands-on approaches from the perspective of multiple disciplines. Over four weeks, faculty from research universities, community colleges, liberal arts institutions, and middle and high schools work and live together, on board a research vessel or in a remote tent campsite, for several days at a time. Using the geology, hydrology, and landscape of the River as a foundation, River Summer focuses on understanding development of the Hudson within the context of its natural resources and cultural history. Participants conduct field sampling and analyses and consider issues through approaches that are common to many disciplines: scaling for problem solving; sampling and assessing bias and representation; observing and documenting; representing and depicting; interpretation and assessing relationships and causality; and evaluation. They also get a chance to experience, first-hand, the complexity and often open-ended nature of doing science. By allowing individuals, many of whom come from non-science disciplines, to experience these methods and processes in a safe learning environment, science is made more meaningful and accessible. The program's pedagogy is based on the principles of cognitive psychology and immersive field-, place- and inquiry-based learning. Field programs have been found to provide memorable, transformative experiences for undergraduate students, and our experience with River Summer 2005 and 2006 suggests they are equally effective with faculty. Evaluation shows that River Summer has a significant impact on its participants. Participants develop new

  4. Glacial landforms of the southern Ungava Bay region (Canada): implications for the late-glacial dynamics and the damming of glacial Lake Naskaupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube-Loubert, Hugo; Roy, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Laurentide ice sheet played an important role in the late Pleistocene climate, notably through discharges of icebergs and meltwater. In this context, the Ungava Bay region in northern Quebec-Labrador appears particularly important, especially during the last deglaciation when the retreating ice margin dammed major river valleys, creating large proglacial lakes (e.g., McLean, aux Feuilles). The history of these lakes is closely related to the temporal evolution of the Labrador-Quebec ice dome. There are, however, large uncertainties regarding the position of its ice divide system through time, thereby limiting our understanding of the history of these glacial lakes. Here we focus on glacial and deglacial landforms present in the George River valley, south of Ungava Bay, in order to bring additional constraints on the late-glacial ice dynamics of this region, which also comprised glacial Lake Naskaupi. This work is based on surficial mapping using aerial photos and satellite imagery, combined with extensive fieldwork and sediment sampling. Our investigation showed significant differences in the distribution of glacial landforms across the region. The area east of the George River is characterized by well-developed Naskaupi shorelines while the elevated terrains show a succession of geomorphological features indicative of cold-based ice or ice with low basal velocities. In the easternmost part of this sector, ice flow directional data indicate that the ice was flowing towards ENE, against the regional slope. Eskers show paleocurrent directions indicating a general ice retreat from east to west. In the western part of this sector, near the George River valley, eskers are absent and the region is covered by felsenmeer and ground moraine that likely reflect the presence of a residual ice mass that was no longer dynamic. The presence of a stagnant ice represents the best mechanism to explain the formation of glacial lakes in the George River valley and its main

  5. Bayesian model for fate and transport of polychlorinated biphenyl in upper Hudson River

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, L.J.; Reckhow, K.H.; Wolpert, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Modelers of contaminant fate and transport in surface waters typically rely on literature values when selecting parameter values for mechanistic models. While the expert judgment with which these selections are made is valuable, the information contained in contaminant concentration measurements should not be ignored. In this full-scale Bayesian analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the upper Hudson River, these two sources of information are combined using Bayes` theorem. A simulation model for the fate and transport of the PCBs in the upper Hudson River forms the basis of the likelihood function while the prior density is developed from literature values. The method provides estimates for the anaerobic biodegradation half-life, aerobic biodegradation plus volatilization half-life, contaminated sediment depth, and resuspension velocity of 4,400 d, 3.2 d, 0.32 m, and 0.02 m/yr, respectively. These are significantly different than values obtained with more traditional methods, and are shown to produce better predictions than those methods when used in a cross-validation study.

  6. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Kirk, B.L.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1982-02-01

    This report summarizes a series of analyses of the magnitude and biological significance of the impingement of white perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Station and other Hudson River power plants. Included in these analyses were evaluations of: (1) two independent lines of evidence relating to the magnitude of impingement impacts on the Hudson River white perch population; (2) the additional impact caused by entrainment of white perch; (3) data relating to density-dependent growth among young-of-the-year white perch; (4) the feasibility of performing population-level analyses of impingement impacts on the white perch populations of Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River; and (5) the feasibility of using simple food chain and food web models to evaluate community-level effects of impingement and entrainment. Estimated reductions in the abundances of the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes, caused by impingement and entrainment, were high enough that the possibility of adverse long-term effects cannot be excluded.

  7. Nd isotopic and trace element constraints on the source of Silurian-Devonian mafic lavas in the Chaleur Bay Synclinorium of New Brunswick (Canada): Tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Keppie, J. Duncan; Wilson, Reginald A.

    2016-06-01

    Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian volcanic rocks of the Gander Zone, from the northern mainland Appalachians of northern New Brunswick, occur in the Chaleur Bay Synclinorium which forms the southeastern part of the Middle Paleozoic Matapedia cover sequence. These rocks, which are parts of shallow marine to subaerial sequences (Dalhousie, Dickie Cove and Tobique groups), were erupted in a continental rift environment between ca. 422 and 407 Ma. The volcanic rocks are mostly bimodal with mafic types corresponding predominantly to continental tholeiites inferred to be generated by partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The mafic rocks of all three groups have age-corrected ɛNd values ranging from + 3.4 to + 5.3, and depleted model mantle ages ranging from 0.65 to 0.95 Ma that are interpreted to represent mantle enrichment ages associated with ancient Neoproterozoic subduction. This Neoproterozoic SCLM shows no contributions from juvenile Silurian mantle, suggesting that rifting was of limited extent and did not result in the replacement of the old SCLM by upwelling juvenile asthenosphere beneath the rift. These Nd isotopic data do not support the generation of the volcanic rocks by slab break-off, which would have likely introduced a juvenile asthenospheric mantle source for some of the Silurian-Devonian basaltic rocks. The ranges in ɛNd values and depleted mantle ages in northern New Brunswick are similar to those recorded in penecontemporaneous mafic lavas in Avalonia suggesting that the Neoproterozoic SCLM was common to both Avalonia and Ganderia.

  8. Spatio-temporal trends and monitoring design of perfluoroalkyl acids in the eggs of gull (Larid) species from across Canada and parts of the United States.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Martin, Pamela A; Letcher, Robert J; Burgess, Neil M; Champoux, Louise; Elliott, John E; Weseloh, D V Chip

    2016-09-15

    A large spatial dataset of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations in eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus or congeneric species) collected from late April to early June between 2009 and 2014 from 28 colonies across Canada and parts of the Unites States was used to evaluate location-specific patterns in chemical concentrations and to generate hypotheses on the major sources affecting PFAA distributions. The highly bioaccumulative perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) as well as other perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) showed the greatest concentrations in eggs from the lower Great Lakes of southern Ontario as well as from the St. Lawrence River. Despite the 2000 to 2002 phase-out of PFOS and related C8 chemistry by the major manufacturer at the time, ongoing losses from consumer products during use and disposal in urban/industrial locations continue to be major sources to the environment and are influencing the spatial trends of PFOS in Canada. In comparison to PFOS, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were not as concentrated in eggs in close proximity to urbanized/industrialized centers, but had surprisingly elevated levels in relatively remote regions such as Great Slave Lake, NT and East Bay in Hudson Bay, NU. The present results support the hypothesis that atmospheric transport and degradation of precursor chemicals, such as the fluorotelomer alcohols 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH, are influencing the spatial trends of PFCAs in Canada. A power analysis conducted on a representative urbanized/industrialized colony in the Toronto Harbour, ON, and a relatively remote colony in Lake Superior, emphasized the importance of consistent and long-term data collection in order to detect the anticipated changes in PFAA concentrations in Canadian gull eggs. PMID:27183458

  9. The AUTUMNX magnetometer meridian chain in Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; Reiter, Kyle; Chi, Peter J.; Rowe, Kathryn M.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    The AUTUMNX magnetometer array consists of 10 THEMIS-class ground-based magnetometers deployed to form a meridian chain on the eastern coast of Hudson Bay in eastern Canada, a second partial chain one hour of magnetic local time further east, and one magnetometer at an intermediate midlatitude site. These instruments, augmented by those of other arrays, permit good latitudinal coverage through the auroral zone on two meridians, some midlatitude coverage, and detection of magnetic field changes near the sensitive infrastructure of the Hydro-Québec power grid. Further, they offer the possibility for conjugate studies with Antarctica and the GOES East geosynchronous satellite, and complement the Chinese International Space Weather Meridian Circle Program. We examine current world distribution of magnetometers to show the need for AUTUMNX, and describe the instrumentation which allows near-real-time monitoring. We present magnetic inversion results for the disturbed day February 17, 2015, which showed classic signatures of the substorm current wedge, and developed into steady magnetospheric convection (SMC). For a separate event later that day, we examine a large and rapid magnetic field change event associated with an unusual near-Earth transient. We show GOES East conjugacy for these events.

  10. Hudson Submarine Canyon Head Offshore New York and New Jersey: a Dynamic Interface II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, P.; Guida, V.; Scranton, M.; Gong, D.; Sullivan, M.; Haag, S.; Diercks, A.; Asper, V.

    2008-12-01

    Hudson Canyon is the largest submarine canyon on the US Atlantic continental margin. Our multidisciplinary study focuses on the canyon head from where it begins as an indentation in the outer continental shelf (water depth 100 m) to 75 km seaward along the canyon axis (water depth 2000 m). A shallow trough, the Hudson Shelf Valley extends about 185 km across the continental shelf and connects the mouth of the Hudson River where the river discharges into New York Bay to the head of the canyon. Our study comprises high-resolution bathymetry using Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Eagle Ray (100 square km area),and delineation of interacting shelf and slope water masses using shipboard and AUV hydrocasts including water samples for methane analysis. The initial 10 km of the canyon head (axial depth 100 m to 300 m) bifurcates where it indents the outer shelf, with one branch aligned NW-SE with the Hudson Shelf Valley and a second branch aligned N-S along the shelf. The walls and floor of the NW-SE branch are smoothed by sediment accumulation and appear inactive in terms of sediment transport. The N-S branch is rough and appears active. Ravines orthogonal to the axis progressively increase in frequency and relief seaward through successive 10 km-long N-S and NW-SE trending sections of the canyon attaining a 1 km spacing. Two circular depressions (diameters 100 m and 300 m; relief c.15 m; depths 345 m and 390 m) occur at the base of the W wall of the N-S segment. The depressions may be collapse features related to gas discharge evidenced by a high methane anomaly (50 nM) detected in the adjacent canyon axis (water depth 421 m). Multiple layers of inter-leaved shelf (fresh) and slope (warm, salty) water masses were observed in the canyon head in summer 2007 and 2008. The dynamic interaction of these water masses is being studied in context of shelf-slope exchange and potential influence on canyon topography and ecosystems. We thank NOAA for support.

  11. The Neogene Alert Bay Volcanic Belt of northern Vancouver Island, Canada: Descending-plate-edge volcanism in the arc-trench gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Muller, J. E.; Harakal, J. E.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1985-10-01

    The Alert Bay Volcanic Belt trends northeasterly across northern Vancouver Island, coincident with the trace of the subducted Juan de Fuca—Explorer plate edge. Volcanism began in the west, at Brooks Peninsula, about 8 Ma ago, but occurred in most centers 3.5 ± 1 Ma ago. There is a suggestion of eastward migration of activity and shift from basalt to dacite or rhyolite with time. Most of the volcanism was coincident with a time of rapid changes in the geometry of subduction, as inferred from offshore magnetic patterns, and with a hiatus in mainland, Cascade volcanic arc activity. Geometry and chronometry suggest this is a descending-plate-edge volcanic belt, where disruption of steady-state plate-consumption patterns triggered magma genesis. Chemically the rocks are quite variable, with divergent fractionation trends. One trend resembles that of Mull (Hebrides), with a plagiophyric basalt of transitional alkaline-subalkaline, mildly tholeiitic, and aluminous character which differentiated to clinopyroxene andesite, and eventually to tholeiitic rhyolite and mildly tholeiitic calc-alkaline dacite, both of K-poor magma type. The other trend is like the Cascades, with aluminous, aphyric, calc-alkaline basalt, hornblende and/or hypersthene andesite, and K-poor dacite. This divergent character is also evident in Ba, Rb, Nb, and Zr fractionation trends. Major- and trace-element discriminant diagrams generally identify the basalts as within-plate types. The 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratio is relatively low, averaging 0.70325, and shows no trend with rock type or differentiation series. Oxygen in the entire suite is relatively heavy, δ 18O averaging 7.1%. Even the basalts are 18O enriched. Oxygen shows no trend with degree of hydration, rock type, or series. These isotopic and chemical data are compatible with minor crustal contamination of mafic primary magmas, followed by fractional crystallization under different oxidation and hydration conditions.

  12. Phosphorus chemistry in the tidal Hudson River

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, L.E. )

    1991-06-01

    A study of inorganic phosphborus in the tidal Hudson River was performed from Noverber 1988 to October 1989. Results indicate that phosphate concentrations are at or near equilibrium with a suspended solid phase consisting of amorphous ferric phosphate in amorphous ferric hydroxide. Equilibrium was observed over most of the river, over most of the year. Undersaturation was observed regularly below river mile 40 in the month of July. It represented the major deviation from equilibration. Low suspended sediment levels and dilution from sea water are believed to be responsible for undersaturation. Dissolved iron was near equilibrium with amorphous ferric hydroxide except in July. Recognition of the wide range of watersheds where phosphorus equilibrium controls phosphate concentrations suggests that the global, terrestrial flux of biologically available phosphorus may be double current estimates.

  13. Close to home. Interview by Terese Hudson.

    PubMed

    May, J

    1993-08-20

    The hospital is an integral part of the community, according to James May, CEO and president of Legacy Portland (OR) Hospitals. May has put this principle to work concretely by loaning employees money for initial costs on homes near Emanuel Hospital and Health Center in northeast Portland. Now in its second year, the program has already helped 25 employees purchase homes in a 19-square-mile area targeted for redevelopment. Loans of up to $5,000 for homes with a purchase price of $65,000 or lower are available. The loans can be used for down payments, pre-paid reserves or closing costs. Legacy forgives 20 percent of a loan's outstanding balance each year to employees in good standing. This encourages employees to stay for at least five years. Only the interest payments on the outstanding balance are paid back to Legacy. May spoke recently with Senior Editor Terese Hudson about the program's genesis. PMID:8348171

  14. PCB cleanup battle wages on in the Hudson River Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.B.

    1990-07-01

    The Hudson River between Troy, NY and Fort Edward, NY has sediments contaminated with polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). The author discusses the legal red tape and public opinion problems associated with the clean up of this river.

  15. Numerical modeling of late Glacial Laurentide advance of ice across Hudson Strait: Insights into terrestrial and marine geology, mass balance, and calving flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeffer, W.T.; Dyurgerov, M.; Kaplan, M.; Dwyer, J.; Sassolas, C.; Jennings, A.; Raup, B.; Manley, W.

    1997-01-01

    A time-dependent finite element model was used to reconstruct the advance of ice from a late Glacial dome on northern Quebec/Labrador across Hudson Strait to Meta Incognita Peninsula (Baffin Island) and subsequently to the 9.9-9.6 ka 14C Gold Cove position on Hall Peninsula. Terrestrial geological and geophysical information from Quebec and Labrador was used to constrain initial and boundary conditions, and the model results are compared with terrestrial geological information from Baffin Island and considered in the context of the marine event DC-0 and the Younger Dryas cooling. We conclude that advance across Hudson Strait from Ungava Bay to Baffin Island is possible using realistic glacier physics under a variety of reasonable boundary conditions. Production of ice flux from a dome centered on northeastern Quebec and Labrador sufficient to deliver geologically inferred ice thickness at Gold Cove (Hall Peninsula) appears to require extensive penetration of sliding south from Ungava Bay. The discharge of ice into the ocean associated with advance and retreat across Hudson Strait does not peak at a time coincident with the start of the Younger Dryas and is less than minimum values proposed to influence North Atlantic thermohaline circulation; nevertheless, a significant fraction of freshwater input to the North Atlantic may have been provided abruptly and at a critical time by this event.

  16. Distribution of Clostridium botulinum Type E Strains in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Leclair, Daniel; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Doidge, Bill; Blanchfield, Burke; Suppa, Sandy; Pagotto, Franco

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and levels of Clostridium botulinum type E were determined from field sites used by Inuit hunters for butchering seals along the coast of Nunavik. The incidence rates of C. botulinum type E in shoreline soil along the coast were 0, 50, and 87.5% among samples tested for the Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and Ungava Bay regions, respectively. Spores were detected in seawater or coastal rock surfaces from 17.6% of butchering sites, almost all of which were located in southern Ungava Bay. Concentrations of C. botulinum type E along the Ungava Bay coast were significantly higher than on the coasts of Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay, with the highest concentrations (270 to 1,800/kg of sample) found near butchering sites located along the mouths of large rivers. The Koksoak River contained high levels of C. botulinum type E, with the highest median concentration (270/kg) found in sediments of the marine portion of the river. C. botulinum type E was found in the intestinal contents (4.4%) and skins (1.4%) of seals. A high genetic biodiversity of C. botulinum type E isolates was observed among the 21 butchering sites and their surroundings along the Nunavik coastline, with 83% of isolates (44/53) yielding distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes. Multiple sources of C. botulinum type E may be involved in the contamination of seal meat during butchering in this region, but the risk of contamination appears to be much higher from environmental sources along the shoreline of southern Ungava Bay and the sediments of the Koksoak River. PMID:23160120

  17. SUBMERSED MACROPHYTE DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION IN THE TIDAL FRESHWATER HUDSON RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the tidal freshwater Hudson River submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) occupies on average 6 percent of the river area with much greater coverage in the mid Hudson (Kingston-Hudson) and much lower areal coverage south of Hyde Park. The native water celery ( Vallisneria americana...

  18. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 165.165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. (a) Regulated navigation area. All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. (b) Definitions. The following... operations are not authorized to transit that portion of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when...

  19. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 165.165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. (a) Regulated navigation area. All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. (b) Definitions. The following... operations are not authorized to transit that portion of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when...

  20. 75 FR 38714 - Safety Zone; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Hudson River, New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ..., Hudson River, New York, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Hudson River for the Macy's... traffic from a portion of the Hudson River during the event. DATES: This rule is effective from 7 p.m....

  1. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 165.165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. (a) Regulated navigation area. All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. (b) Definitions. The following... operations are not authorized to transit that portion of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when...

  2. Temporal trends toward stability of Hudson River PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, R.J.; Simpson, K.W.; Schroeder, R.A.; Barnes, C.R.

    1983-10-01

    PCB was used in the manufacture of electrical equipment at two General Electric Company (GE) facilities located on the upper Hudson River about 1 km apart in Fort Edward and Hudson Falls (Washington Co.) New York. Discharges of PCB from these plants resulted in concentrations in bottom sediments of the Hudson River which now exceed those of other major rivers by about two orders of magnitude and those of small remote streams by more than three orders of magnitude. Intensive monitoring was initiated in 1977 by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to ascertain the magnitude of and trends in contaminant conditions of biotic and physical strata. The paper summarizes PCB trends from 1977 to 1981 in three major monitoring components - water, multiplate residues and fish.

  3. Seismological structure of the 1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, Amy; Bastow, Ian D.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2016-06-01

    Precambrian tectonic processes are debated: what was the nature and scale of orogenic events on the younger, hotter, and more ductile Earth? Northern Hudson Bay records the Paleoproterozoic collision between the Western Churchill and Superior plates—the ˜1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogeny (THO)—and is an ideal locality to study Precambrian tectonic structure. Integrated field, geochronological, and thermobarometric studies suggest that the THO was comparable to the present-day Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen (HKTO). However, detailed understanding of the deep crustal architecture of the THO, and how it compares to that of the evolving HKTO, is lacking. The joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave data provides new Moho depth estimates and shear velocity models for the crust and uppermost mantle of the THO. Most of the Archean crust is relatively thin (˜39 km) and structurally simple, with a sharp Moho; upper-crustal wave speed variations are attributed to postformation events. However, the Quebec-Baffin segment of the THO has a deeper Moho (˜45 km) and a more complex crustal structure. Observations show some similarity to recent models, computed using the same methods, of the HKTO crust. Based on Moho character, present-day crustal thickness, and metamorphic grade, we support the view that southern Baffin Island experienced thickening during the THO of a similar magnitude and width to present-day Tibet. Fast seismic velocities at >10 km below southern Baffin Island may be the result of partial eclogitization of the lower crust during the THO, as is currently thought to be happening in Tibet.

  4. Patterns of pollution in the Hudson-Raritan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.U.; Rod, S.R.

    1986-05-01

    By 1987 fully 100 percent of New York City's 1.6 billion gallons of waste water will receive at least primary sewage treatment. Eliminating the addition of raw sewage into New York Harbor is one example of the slow but steady progress being made in cleaning up the rivers and coastal waters of the Hudson-Raritan basin. This paper examined the historical patterns of pollution and the steps required to reduce future pollution of the Hudson-Raritan basin. 21 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume I. Entrainment-impact estimates for six fish populations inhabiting the Hudson River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Boreman, J.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Vaughn, D.S.; Goodyear, C.P.; Christensen, S.W.; Kumar, K.D.; Kirk, B.L.; Van Winkle, W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is concerned with the estimation of the direct (or annual) entrainment impact of power plants on populations of striped bass, white perch, Alosa spp. (blueback herring and alewife), American shad, Atlantic tomcod, and bay anchovy in the Hudson River estuary. Entrainment impact results from the killing of fish eggs, larvae, and young juveniles that are contained in the cooling water cycled through a power plant. An Empirical Transport Model (ETM) is presented as the means of estimating a conditional entrainment mortality rate (defined as the fraction of a year class which would be killed due to entrainment in the absence of any other source of mortality). Most of this volume is concerned with the estimation of several parameters required by the ETM: physical input parameters (e.g., power-plant withdrawal flow rates); the longitudinal distribution of ichthyoplankton in time and space; the duration of susceptibility of the vulnerable organisms; the W-factors, which express the ratios of densities of organisms in power plant intakes to densities of organisms in the river; and the entrainment mortality factors (f-factors), which express the probability that an organism will be killed if it is entrained. Once these values are obtained, the ETM is used to estimate entrainment impact for both historical and projected conditions.

  6. 77 FR 22530 - Safety Zone; Fireworks, Hudson River, Rhinecliff, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan now to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks, Hudson River, Rhinecliff, NY..., NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and...

  7. Computing the Water Quality Index: The Hudson River Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihich, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Describes a science project at Booker T. Washington Middle School #54 (New York City) where seventh and eighth graders computed the Hudson River's water quality using ClarisWorks spreadsheets and MicroWorlds software. Students gained technology skills and public recognition, as well as scientific and environmental information. Includes sample…

  8. Comprehensive Science Evaluation Project: Hudson County Community College. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oromaner, Mark

    A summary is provided of the goals, objectives, activities, and findings of Hudson County Community College's (HCCC's) comprehensive science evaluation project. After introductory material outlines the status of science education at HCCC, the project's objectives are presented; i.e., to analyze the college's science courses and their ability to…

  9. Reproductive success of belted kingfishers on the upper Hudson River.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Eli S; Kelly, Jeffrey F

    2013-08-01

    Belted kingfishers (Megaceryle alcyon) are predators in many North American aquatic ecosystems; as such, they are prone to bioaccumulation of certain environmental contaminants. In 2002 and 2004, kingfisher eggs collected near the upper Hudson River in New York had elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the kingfisher population in this area was reported to be at risk because of PCB exposure. From 2007 to 2009, the authors monitored 69 kingfisher nests on the Hudson River to track both nest success and survival of individual nestlings. The study site consisted of 2 adjacent sections of the Hudson River, 1 upstream and 1 downstream of a historic PCB source. The authors compared models of nest success that differentially incorporated the following 4 variables that they deemed most likely to affect reproductive output: 1) river section (upstream vs downstream of PCB source), 2) year, 3) hatch date, and 4) abandonment by 1 parent. After ranking models according to Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes, it was clear that parental abandonment was the most important of the factors examined. River section was not an important parameter, and overall nesting success was slightly higher in the PCB-contaminated section than in the upstream area. These findings support the conclusion that kingfisher productivity is not adversely impacted by PCB contamination in the upper Hudson River. PMID:23633435

  10. Thinking Big: Leslie Polott Hudson Library and Historical Society, OH

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When Leslie Polott arrived at the Hudson Library and Historical Society in 1996. She headed out into the community to find out what people wanted from their library. After rounds of surveys, focus groups, and town meetings, she knew: a library that was the center of their educational and cultural lives, that provided more opportunities for…

  11. Hudson River PCBs Site EPA Phase 1 Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 2002, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, or EPA) issued a Record of Decision (ROD) (USEPA, 2002) for the Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site (Site). The ROD called for environmental dredging targeting approximately 2.65 million cubic yards (CY) ...

  12. Occurrence of PCBs in raw and finished drinking water at seven public water systems along the Hudson River.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Patrick M; Wilson, Lloyd R; Casey, Ann C; Wagner, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in raw and finished drinking water at seven Public Water Systems (PWSs) along the Hudson River as part of a baseline monitoring program prior to the extensive sediment dredging of the Upper Hudson River. Water samples were either analyzed using an Aroclor method (based on USEPA Method 508) or a congener method (Modified Green Bay Mass Balance Method). Using the congener-based method, raw water concentrations ranged from <9.3 to 164.3 ng/L and finished water concentrations ranged from <9.3 to 186.6 ng/L. Using the Aroclor method, finished water concentrations ranged from <5.0 to 200.9 ng/L. Most finished water samples above 73.0 ng/L were from a PWS with wells drilled near the river. Excluding the well data, total PCB concentrations in raw water at systems in the Upper River were similar to concentrations at systems in the Lower River, though the congener patterns differed. Paired comparison of total PCB concentrations using the two analytical methods showed good agreement, although raw water showed a different relationship than finished water. PMID:20556645

  13. Distributions of polyhalogenated compounds in Hudson River (New York, USA) fish in relation to human uses along the river.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Lawrence C

    2011-10-01

    PCBs (as Aroclor concentrations) have been extensively examined in fish along the Hudson River, but other xenobiotic chemicals in fish have had limited assessment. This study determined concentrations and congener distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in smallmouth bass and striped bass taken from a 385 km reach of the Hudson River. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in smallmouth bass, and PCBs in striped bass, were positively related to human uses of the compounds in the basin. Generally low levels of PCDD/Fs were found. One striped bass, however, contained elevated 2,3,7,8-TCDD, indicating exposure to a known source in the adjacent Newark Bay-Passaic River basin. PBDDs were generally below detection. PBDFs were present in four of 18 smallmouth bass, but were not detected in striped bass. Dioxin-like PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. PMID:21742424

  14. Age and Correlation of Late Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Successions in Northwestern Canada and Their Bearing on the Paleogeography of Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbird, R. H.; Davis, W. J.; Hahn, K.; Furlanetto, F.; Thorkelson, D.

    2009-05-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, Fraser et al. (1970) proposed that thick basinal deposits of late Paleoproterozoic age along the western paleo-continental margin of Laurentia might represent the marine, deep-water complement of thinner but broadly correlative terrestrial sandstone deposits preserved today in intracontinental basins of the Canadian shield such as the Hornby Bay, Athabasca and Thelon. These basins exhibit comparable geometry, lithology, stratigraphy and overall paleocurrent patterns, which suggested they were initially co- extensive. Regional paleocurrents derived from crossbedded sandstone units interpreted as braided river deposits are dominantly west-directed in the mid-upper parts of all basins but are variable in the lower parts, supporting distinct initial basins that were later joined by broad fluvial braidplains originating from sources along active orogenic uplands located to the east (e.g. Trans-Hudson orogen). The sediment from these rivers was shunted westward across the craton and ultimately deposited along Laurentia's western margin. Geophysical data suggest that the distal parts of these river systems are preserved in the subsurface of northwestern Canada and are contiguous with fine-grained siliclastic and carbonate rocks of the Wernecke Supergroup and Muskwa Assemblage. One way to test this paleogeographic model is to compare the provenance of different parts of this sedimentary system using detrital zircon geochronology. Previous studies of the Muskwa assemblage (Ross et al. 2001) were compared with data for the Athabasca Group of the Athabasca Basin (Rainbird et al. 2007). A prominent peak of ages between 1.9-1.8 Ga is present in both successions and suggests common provenance from the Trans-Hudson orogen and delivery of detritus to the western margin of Laurentia by a >1000 km long drainage system. Based on correlation of seismic sections, MacLean and Cook (2004) proposed that the Wernecke Supergroup is equivalent to the lower part of the

  15. The College and the Community, with Special Reference to the North Hudson Center and the North Hudson Area. Data Report 95.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oromaner, Mark; Fujita, Eleanor

    Focusing on the service area of New Jersey's Hudson County Community College (HCCC), this report presents data on the demographic and educational characteristics of the residents of Hudson County. The first section reviews the demographics of the County, focusing on the area in square miles and population of the County's 12 municipalities in 1970,…

  16. Time trends of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in umbilical cord blood of Inuit infants born in Nunavik (Québec, Canada) between 1994 and 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Dewailly, Eric; Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Inuit inhabitants of Nunavik (northern Québec, Canada) consume great quantities of marine food and are therefore exposed to high doses of food chain contaminants. In this study, we report the time trends of persistent organic pollutants, mercury, and lead in umbilical cord blood of infants from three communities of the east coast of Hudson Bay in Nunavik. We analyzed 251 cord blood samples collected from 1994 through 2001 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes, lead, and mercury. Using an exponential model, we found strongly significant decreasing trends for PCBs (7.9% per year, p < 0.001), DDE (9.1% per year, p < 0.001), DDT (8.2% per year, p < 0.001), and HCB (6.6% per year, p < 0.01). No significant trends were detected for chlordanes. A significant reduction of lead and mercury concentrations was found, but there was no clear linear or exponential trend. The decreases observed could be explained by a decrease in food contamination, by changes in dietary habits, or, most likely, by a combination of both. PMID:14527847

  17. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the Hudson River Estuary linked to wet weather sewage contamination.

    PubMed

    Young, Suzanne; Juhl, Andrew; O'Mullan, Gregory D

    2013-06-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin were assessed in waterways of the New York City metropolitan area using culture-dependent approaches and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of resultant isolates. Resistant microbes were detected at all 10 sampling sites in monthly research cruises on the lower Hudson River Estuary (HRE), with highest concentrations detected at nearshore sites. Higher frequency sampling was conducted in Flushing Bay, to enumerate resistant microbes under both dry and wet weather conditions. Concentrations of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant bacteria, in paired samples, were positively correlated with one another and increased following precipitation. Counts of the fecal indicator, Enterococcus, were positively correlated with levels of resistant bacteria, suggesting a shared sewage-associated source. Analysis of 16S rRNA from isolates identified a phylogenetically diverse group of resistant bacteria, including genera containing opportunistic pathogens. The occurrence of Enterobacteriaceae, a family of enteric bacteria, was found to be significantly higher in resistant isolates compared to total heterotrophic bacteria and increased following precipitation. This study is the first to document the widespread distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the HRE and to demonstrate clearly a link between the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and levels of sewage-associated bacteria in an estuary. PMID:23708577

  18. Mapping invasive wetland plants in the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve using quickbird satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laba, M.; Downs, R.; Smith, S.; Welsh, S.; Neider, C.; White, S.; Richmond, M.; Philpot, W.; Baveye, P.

    2008-01-01

    The National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) program is a nationally coordinated research and monitoring program that identifies and tracks changes in ecological resources of representative estuarine ecosystems and coastal watersheds. In recent years, attention has focused on using high spatial and spectral resolution satellite imagery to map and monitor wetland plant communities in the NERRs, particularly invasive plant species. The utility of this technology for that purpose has yet to be assessed in detail. To that end, a specific high spatial resolution satellite imagery, QuickBird, was used to map plant communities and monitor invasive plants within the Hudson River NERR (HRNERR). The HRNERR contains four diverse tidal wetlands (Stockport Flats, Tivoli Bays, Iona Island, and Piermont), each with unique water chemistry (i.e., brackish, oligotrophic and fresh) and, consequently, unique assemblages of plant communities, including three invasive plants (Trapa natans, Phragmites australis, and Lythrum salicaria). A maximum-likelihood classification was used to produce 20-class land cover maps for each of the four marshes within the HRNERR. Conventional contingency tables and a fuzzy set analysis served as a basis for an accuracy assessment of these maps. The overall accuracies, as assessed by the contingency tables, were 73.6%, 68.4%, 67.9%, and 64.9% for Tivoli Bays, Stockport Flats, Piermont, and Iona Island, respectively. Fuzzy assessment tables lead to higher estimates of map accuracies of 83%, 75%, 76%, and 76%, respectively. In general, the open water/tidal channel class was the most accurately mapped class and Scirpus sp. was the least accurately mapped. These encouraging accuracies suggest that high-resolution satellite imagery offers significant potential for the mapping of invasive plant species in estuarine environments. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. OASIS-CANADA: observations of boundary layer ozone and mercury depletion from the Arctic Ocean surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottenheim, J. W.; Netcheva, S.; Staebler, R.; Steffen, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dramatic depletion of ozone (O3) and gaseous elementary mercury (GEM) from the marine boundary layer during the spring in Polar Regions is known to be driven by bromine atoms originating from activation of seasalt bromide. Almost all surface based measurements have been made at coastal observatories, but much of the active processing of the air is believed to occur near or at the surface of the Arctic Ocean itself. A major objective of the OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice and Snow) program during the International Polar Year (IPY) was therefore to make observations directly over the frozen Arctic Ocean. In the context of the OASIS-CANADA program, sponsored by the Canadian Federal Program Office of the IPY, several ocean bound campaigns were joined including the French TARA expedition (2006-2008), the CFL campaign on the Canadian ice breaker CCGS Amundsen (February-April 2008), the COBRA campaign over the Hudson Bay near Kuujjuaraapik/Whapmagoostui, Quebec (February-March 2008), the ASCOS campaign on the Swedish polar class ice breaker Oden to the North Pole (August-September 2008), and the OASIS-09 campaign at Barrow Alaska (February-March 2009). In this presentation I will summarize the observations and explore what has been learned regarding the drivers for the depletion process, such as the influence of the ambient temperature, the nature of the underlying surface, and the atmospheric stability. An important question is whether depletion in progress was observed, rather than the arrival of previously depleted air, as is generally the case at Arctic coastal observatories.

  20. The Tectonic Evolution of SE Canada: Seismic Evidence from the QM-III Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, I. D.; Boyce, A.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Levin, V. L.; Menke, W. H.; Ellwood, A.

    2014-12-01

    Much of the geological record can be interpreted in the context of processes operating today at plate boundaries. This works well to explain processes and products during the Phanerozoic era; during Precambrian times when the oldest rocks were forming, however, conditions on the younger, hotter, more ductile Earth were likely very different, making analogies with modern day tectonics less certain. Gathering evidence preserved deep within the plates in the shields is thus essential to improve our understanding of the early Earth. Shields are usually underlain by thick, seismically fast roots that are absent beneath younger portions of Earth's surface. The thermochemically distinct nature of cratonic roots is often associated with Archean processes such as the extraction of komatiitic magmas. However, the cratonic core of North America does not fit easily into this Archean formation paradigm: part of the Canadian shield extends beneath the Archean Superior craton, but much of it persists beneath younger Proterozoic crust as well. We present here a relative arrival-time tomographic study of mantle seismic structure using data from a new seismograph network operating in SE Canada. Our stations extend from the Archean Superior craton around the southern tip of Hudson Bay, through Proterozoic Grenville terranes, and into Paleozoic coastal Maine and Nova Scotia. Tomographic images display three broad zones of mantle wavespeed: slow in the Appalachian terranes; fast in the Grenville Province; very fast within the Superior craton. Archean lithosphere has been modified by the Great Meteor hotspot, but we find no evidence for major plate-scale underthrusting during the Grenville orogeny. The abrupt wavespeed transition from Archean to Proterozoic mantle is thus consistent with the emerging consensus that keels form in two stages: a chemically depleted layer in Archean times followed by the thermal development of a less-depleted lithosphere during Proterozoic times.

  1. Craton Development and Stabilization: Insights from SE Canada using P and S Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Ellwood, A.; Levin, V. L.; Menke, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Cratons, the ancient cores of the continents, are the longest-lived parts of Earth's surface that have survived thermal and mechanical erosion during multiple Wilson cycles. They are visible in tomographic images due to their thick (>200km), seismically fast keels or roots. The Laurentian keel beneath North America is intriguing since its root is thought to extend beneath both the Archean Superior craton and the Proterozoic Grenville province thus implying that keel formation may not have been restricted to Archean times. In order to address this issue we present a P and S wave relative arrival-time tomographic study using data from seismograph networks in SE Canada and the NE US, stretching from the southern tip of Hudson Bay within the Superior craton to the coastal Phanerozoic Appalachian terranes. The tomographic images display three broad zones of increasing mantle wavespeed from globally "slow" in the Appalachian terranes, to a "fast" Grenville Province and "extremely fast" Superior craton. We observe a linear low-velocity feature resulting from modification of the Laurentian keel by the passage of the Great Meteor hotspot. This feature is progressively offset southwestward with depth, potentially due to viscous coupling with mantle flow. No major plate-scale underthrusting during the Grenville Orogeny is apparent, which contradicts the inferred results from crustal seismic reflection and refraction studies. Our results therefore may have fundamental implications for the nature of the Grenville orogenic collision and cratonic stabilization of North America. The results also support the developing consensus that keels form in two stages: a chemically depleted core of Archean age followed by a thermally developed, less-depleted lithosphere during Proterozoic times, highlighted by an abrupt wavespeed contrast in the tomographic images.

  2. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L W; Van Winkle, W

    1980-01-01

    The impact of power plant impingement on the 1974 and 1975 year classes of the Hudson River white perch population is assessed using a simple model derived from Ricker's theory of fisheries dynamics. The impact of impingement is expressed in the model as the conditional mortality rate, rather than as the more commonly used exploitation rate. Since the calculated impact is sensitive to errors in the estimation of population size and total mortality, ranges of probable values of these quantities are used to compute upper and lower bounds on the fractional reduction in abundance of each year class. Best estimates of abundance and mortality are used to compute the conditional impingement mortality rate separately for each plant and month. The results are used to assess the relative impacts of white perch impingement at six Hudson River power plants and to identify the seasons during which the impact is highest.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl transport in the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, John T.; Troutman, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been entering the Hudson River estuary since 1951. Concentration and loading of PCB 's in the river below Waterford, N.Y., are controlled at present by resuspension of sediments containing these substances; therefore , until the amount of PCB 's in the sediments is significantly lowered, reduction of point-source PCB discharge from the present rate of 0.4 kilograms per day will produce no more than a 10% reduction in loading to the river. Potential concentrations of PCB 's in solution and suspension in the river can be predicted by a simple model for mixing and dilution. From a known range of PCB influent rates, total PCB loading to the Hudson River from above Waterford is shown to be between 2,000 and 12,000 kilograms per year. (USGS)

  4. Hudson River PCB clean-up to begin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Christie Whitman signed the Record of Decision on 1 February to clean up a stretch of the Hudson River that has been contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The decision calls for dredging 2 million cubic meters of PCB-contaminated sediment from a 64-kilometer stretch of the upper Hudson to remove about 68,000 kilograms of PCBs.The plan follows years of scientific study about whether the PCBs were safely encased in the sediment or posed a continuing hazard, and concern over whether the PCBs can be safely removed without stirring up a larger pollution problem along the river. The EPA found that PCBs in the sediment are not safely buried because erosion and river flows can redistribute river sediment. The agency also found that although PCBs break down naturally over time, this degradation does not render them harmless.

  5. Hudson's theorem for finite-dimensional quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, D.

    2006-12-01

    We show that, on a Hilbert space of odd dimension, the only pure states to possess a non-negative Wigner function are stabilizer states. The Clifford group is identified as the set of unitary operations which preserve positivity. The result can be seen as a discrete version of Hudson's theorem. Hudson established that for continuous variable systems, the Wigner function of a pure state has no negative values if and only if the state is Gaussian. Turning to mixed states, it might be surmised that only convex combinations of stabilizer states give rise to non-negative Wigner distributions. We refute this conjecture by means of a counterexample. Further, we give an axiomatic characterization which completely fixes the definition of the Wigner function and compare two approaches to stabilizer states for Hilbert spaces of prime-power dimensions. In the course of the discussion, we derive explicit formulas for the number of stabilizer codes defined on such systems.

  6. Determining the Sediment Budget of the Lower Hudson River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prugue, R.; Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment is a major component of the Hudson River Estuary, constantly being resuspended and deposited. The Lower Hudson River is heavily dredged due to its use as a shipping lane for large vessels traversing through the harbor. A detailed sediment budget is key for management of the estuary including development, optimizing dredging, restoration, and mitigating future sea-level changes. However, it has been difficult to produce a detailed sediment budget due to the large amounts of data required to obtain a reputable value and account for spatial variability. Thus, previous budget estimates were based on approximations of input and output of material The Hudson River Benthic Mapping Project, which was funded by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, resulted in a comprehensive data set that includes a dense network of subbottom profiles and over 400 sediment cores from the Hudson River Estuary. Using industrial seismic interpretation software and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, we identified the thickness and distribution of 20th century sediment deposition by mapping the sediment layer with elevated levels of anthropogenic lead, which is a characteristic for sediment deposition since 1920/1930. This 20th century sediment are of special concern because of the high amounts of contaminants that were being introduced into the estuary during this time. By combining analysis of different sections of the estuary, we are able to quantify the amount of 20th century deposition between Poughkeepsie and the New York Harbor and demonstrate that a detailed sediment budget can be obtained. This analysis reveals that ~35,000,000 cubic meters of sediment has been deposited in the study area during the last 70-80 years, which corresponds to an annual deposition of 450,000 - 500,000 cubic meters. Following this analysis, we aim to obtain a sediment mass and compare our results with other estimates that were taken in the past.

  7. Impact Ejecta above an Unconformity in Hudson River Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D. H.; Gogan, N.; Breger, D.

    2012-12-01

    We examined three Hudson River cores just above a step increase in density that we infer to be an erosional unconformity circa 2300 BP in age (Goodbred et al., 2006). Each core has a layer containing impact ejecta and marine microfossils that lies directly above the unconformity. As the river water is too fresh for marine organisms, there are no marine microfossils in the sediments above and below this unusual layer. The marine microfossils are pelagic and benthic foraminifera, radiolarians, and coccoliths. The impact ejecta include marine microfossils coated with Sn oxide, often in crystalline form. The Sn oxide coating contains quantitative levels of Ni as determined by microprobe analysis. Ni is a marker for extraterrestrial material. Sn oxide also appears as a coating on glauconite grains within the layer. Glauconite is highly unstable and only forms in a marine setting. Marine sediments on the continental shelf outside the mouth of the Hudson River contain abundant glauconite. We also found impact breccia containing flow-textured glass, shocked ilmenite, pyroxene, and K-feldspar. Some of the glass cemented impact breccias are enriched in pyrite. The layer above the unconformity increases in thickness towards the mouth of the Hudson. The water depth of the cores in some cases exceeds 10 meters. Because the flow depths of storm surges do not exceed 10 meters and are generally less than 3 meters, we can eliminate storm surge as a cause of the event. Alternatively, tsunamis can exhibit flow depths that exceed 10 meters, suggesting that the erosional event was produced by an impact-generated tsunami. The cores containing the unconformity are located between 27 and 41 km upstream from the mouth of the Hudson River.

  8. Trends in chlorinated hydrocarbon levels in Hudson River basin sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, R F; Chillrud, S N; Shuster, E L; Simpson, H J; Estabrooks, F D

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of sections from dated sediment cores were used to establish geographic distributions and temporal trends of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant levels in sediments from natural waters of the Hudson River basin. Radiometric dating was based primarily on the depth distribution of 137(Cs) in the cores and on the occurrence of detectable levels of 7(Be) in surface sediment samples. Eighteen sampling sites included several along the main stem of the Hudson, its major tributaries, and components of the New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ) harbor complex. Drinking-water reservoirs were sampled to place upper limits on atmospheric inputs. Core sections were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT)-derived compounds, chlordane, and dioxins. Sediment concentrations of most contaminants at most sites have decreased significantly since the mid-1960s. The data provide a basinwide perspective on major point-source inputs of PCBs to the upper Hudson River and of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and DDT to the lower Passaic River. Evidence was found for significant but poorly characterized sources of PCBs and chlordane to the western NY/NJ harbor, and of highly chlorinated dioxins to the upstream sites on the main stem of the Hudson. The results indicate that analysis of dated sediment samples is a most effective and efficient monitoring tool for the study of large-scale geographic and temporal trends in levels of particle-associated contaminants. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9703496

  9. 75 FR 10229 - Application for Presidential Permit; Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc. (CHPEI) has applied for a Presidential permit to construct, operate, maintain, and connect an electric transmission line across the United States border with...

  10. Utility company installs first Hudson River drilled crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Directionally drilling a natural gas pipe line under the Hudson River called for innovative installation techniques including an elevated pullback over a heavily traveled commuter railroad. The 3,700-ft crossing was installed for Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corp. as part of an 11-mi system to supply natural gas from the Iroquois Gas Transmission System to the utility company's Roseton Generating Station. It represents the first horizontal drilled pipe line installation of the Hudson River and the longest drilled crossing in the US Northeast. At the point of installation, the line was designed to contend with an existing glacial till geology, the river crossing, eight electric cables near the right-of-way and the high-speed Metro North Railroad on the east side of the river. Through the interconnection with Iroquois, the utility receives up to 100 MMcfd of natural gas at 750 psig. Total cost of the new system was about $13.1 million with nearly $3.2 million dedicated to the crossing. This paper describes the installation procedures used in this project.

  11. Revisiting the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Brunner, A.; Collins, G.; Cohen, B. A.; Coulter, A.; Elphic, R.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Hodges, K.; Horne, A.; Kerrigan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The West and East Clearwater Lake impact structures are two of the most distinctive and recognizable impact structures on Earth. Known regionally as the "Clearwater Lake Complex", these structures are located in northern Quebec, Canada (56 deg 10 N, 74 deg 20 W) approximately 125 km east of Hudson Bay. The currently accepted diameters are 36 km and 26 km for the West and East structures, respectively. Long thought to represent a rare example of a double impact, recent age dating has called this into question with ages of approximately 286 Ma and approximately 460-470 Ma being proposed for the West and East structures, respectively. Relatively little is known about the East Clearwater Lake structure. There is no surface exposure and what information there is comes from geophysics and two drill cores obtained in the 1960s. In contrast, the West Clearwater Lake structure is relatively well preserved with large ring of islands in the approximately 30 km diameter lake. Much of the work done on West Clearwater stems from field investigations carried out in 1977 driven by the Apollo program, with a focus on the impact melt rocks and other impactites, which are well exposed on the ring of islands. To our knowledge, the Clearwater Lake impact structures have not been the focus of detailed impact geology field investigations since the 1977 expedition and the only geological map that exists is from the 1960s and is at the reconnaissance level. Our knowledge of impact cratering processes have increased substantially since this time, as have the analytical techniques available for samples. This provided the motivation for a joint Canadian-US-UK expedition to the West Clearwater Lake impact structure in August and September 2015, under the auspices of the FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project, part of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). We focus here on the impactites of the West Clearwater Lake

  12. GALVESTON BAY CCMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Galveston Bay ranks high among the nation's great bay systems, providing huge economic benefits to the region and state. Remarkably, the bay's natural resources are self-renewing as long as the bay remains healthy and productive. However, Galveston Bay, like many other U.S. bays,...

  13. Detrital carbonate peaks on the Labrador shelf, a 13-7 ka template for freshwater forcing from the Hudson Strait outlet of the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the subpolar gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John; Pearce, Christof; Wilson, Lindsay; Ólfasdótttir, Sædís

    2015-01-01

    The Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) was a large, dynamic ice sheet in the early Holocene. The glacial events through Hudson Strait leading to its eventual demise are recorded in the well-dated Labrador shelf core, MD99-2236 from the Cartwright Saddle. We develop a detailed history of the timing of ice-sheet discharge events from the Hudson Strait outlet of the LIS during the Holocene using high-resolution detrital carbonate, ice rafted detritus (IRD), δ18O, and sediment color data. Eight detrital carbonate peaks (DCPs) associated with IRD peaks and light oxygen isotope events punctuate the MD99-2236 record between 11.5 and 8.0 ka. We use the stratigraphy of the DCPs developed from MD99-2236 to select the appropriate ΔR to calibrate the ages of recorded glacial events in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait such that they match the DCPs in MD99-2236. We associate the eight DCPs with H0, Gold Cove advance, Noble Inlet advance, initial retreat of the Hudson Strait ice stream (HSIS) from Hudson Strait, opening of the Tyrrell Sea, and drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. The opening of Foxe Channel and retreat of glacial ice from Foxe Basin are represented by a shoulder in the carbonate data. ΔR of 350 years applied to the radiocarbon ages constraining glacial events H0 through the opening of the Tyrell Sea provided the best match with the MD99-2236 DCPs; ΔR values and ages from the literature are used for the younger events. A very close age match was achieved between the 8.2 ka cold event in the Greenland ice cores, DCP7 (8.15 ka BP), and the drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. Our stratigraphic comparison between the DCPs in MD99-2236 and the calibrated ages of Hudson Strait/Bay deglacial events shows that the retreat of the HSIS, the opening of the Tyrell Sea, and the catastrophic drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway at 8.2 ka are separate events that have been combined in previous estimates of the timing of the 8.2 ka event from marine records

  14. New seismic images of the crust in the central Trans-Hudson Orogen of Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, B. I.; Hajnal, Z.; Stauffer, M. R.; Lewry, J.; Ashton, K. E.

    1998-05-01

    A reprocessing program to enhance the correlation between the surface geology and the seismic data has been completed for seismic line 9 (eastern 100 km) and line 10 in the central region of the Trans-Hudson Orogen of Saskatchewan, Canada. The new seismic images through lateral continuity of reflectivity provide sufficient detail to resolve the discrepancy between the low-dipping, layer-parallel and dextral-reverse nature of the Sturgeon-Weir shear zone (line 9) observed in the field and its steeply dipping (apparent) normal displacement character interpreted on the basis of the initial processing. Furthermore, the new interpretation provides a strong confirmation of the role of Pelican Thrust as a major detachment zone — the main `sole thrust' — along which juvenile allochthons have been carried across the Archaean microcontinental block. The images are also refined enough to suggest: (a) a boundary within the Pelican Thrust between its internal and external suites; (b) a possible boundary separating a lower (older?) Archaean basement from its upper (younger?) counterpart; and (c) sub-Moho events (M2) which reveal possible involvement of the upper mantle in the collisional tectonic process in addition to the well defined Moho (M1) which probably represents the youngest of the post-collisional detachments.

  15. Organic Matter Sources in the Water Column and Sediments of the Hudson River Estuary: the Use of Plant Pigments as Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Findlay, Stuart; Dawson, Rodger

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to document inputs of organic matter into the Hudson River Estuary using plant pigments as tracers. Plant pigments (carotenoids and chloropigments) were determined using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Water column and sediment samples were collected in 1988 and 1989, from stations along a 165 km transect in the Hudson River Estuary. In the water column, high concentrations of lutein were found at stations adjacent to wetland areas indicating inputs of vascular plant detritus, particularly during late fall. Chlorophyll b/lutein ratios at these stations were 2-4 which are similar to that found in fresh vascular plant material collected from the Hudson. Low chlorophyll b/lutein ratios at Haverstraw Bay, a shallow and turbid area of the estuary, indicate high levels of sediment resuspension. Cyanophyte blooms, as indicated by high concentrations of myxoxanthophyll, reach their peak in late summer at the Hudson and Kingston stations. The chlorophyll a from these algae may comprise as much as 78% of the total chlorophyll a pool during these periods. Concentrations of total phaeophorbide, an indicator of grazing activity, were not correlated with chlorophyll a but were correlated with fucoxanthin and/or fucoxanthinol. This correlation suggests that much of the zooplankton grazing activity is associated with high quality food resources such as diatoms and not with cyanophytes. Surface sediments from a coarse-grained sandy habitat had significantly lower amounts of total organic matter than muddy habitats. However, the sandy sediment had higher grazing activity per gram organic matter, as indicated by total phaeophorbides. Higher concentrations of chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin at the sandy habitat indicate the presence of benthic diatoms which are high quality (low C/N ratio) living resources in contrast to the detrital sources (high C/N, mostly vascular plant) at the muddy stations. High concentrations of chlorophyllide a at some

  16. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  17. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  18. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The GAS container on the left contains the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment, or COLLIDE, which will study low velocity collisions between space-borne particles in an attempt to better understand planetary ring dynamics. The STS-90 mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  19. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. Other agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  20. 77 FR 65929 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project in New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River.... Sec. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project located in Rockland... the following highway project in the State of New York: Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing...

  1. 78 FR 27473 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project in New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... (New NY Bridge) Project in New York, in the Federal Register at FR Doc. 2012-26799. Tappan Zee Hudson... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River... within the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to the Tappan Zee Hudson River...

  2. 14 CFR 93.351 - General requirements for operating in the East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions. 93.351 Section 93.351 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES New York Class B Airspace Hudson River and East River Exclusion Special Flight Rules Area § 93.351 General requirements for operating in the East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions....

  3. 14 CFR 93.351 - General requirements for operating in the East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions. 93.351 Section 93.351 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES New York Class B Airspace Hudson River and East River Exclusion Special Flight Rules Area § 93.351 General requirements for operating in the East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions....

  4. 14 CFR 93.351 - General requirements for operating in the East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions. 93.351 Section 93.351 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES New York Class B Airspace Hudson River and East River Exclusion Special Flight Rules Area § 93.351 General requirements for operating in the East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions....

  5. The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator: Estimates of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newgent, Rebecca A.; Parr, Patricia E.; Newman, Isadore; Higgins, Kristin K.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to estimate the reliability and validity of scores on the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (D. R. Riso & R. Hudson, 1999a). Results of 287 participants were analyzed. Alpha suggests an adequate degree of internal consistency. Evidence provides mixed support for construct validity using correlational and…

  6. 77 FR 16978 - Special Local Regulation; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display Spectator Viewing Areas; Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... Fireworks Display Spectator Viewing Areas; Hudson River; New York, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... regulation (SLR) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York, NY for the...

  7. The Hudson River Plume: Exploring Human Impact on the Coastal Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Janice; Duncan, Ravit; Lichtenwalner, C. Sage; Dunbar, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The Hudson River Watershed contains a variety of geologic, topographic, climatic, and hydrologic features and a diversity of land-use patterns--making it an ideal model for studying human impact on the coastal environment. In this article, the authors present the Hudson River Plume (HRP), a problem-based online module that explores nonpoint-source…

  8. Transport of fallout and reactor radionuclides in the drainage basin of the Hudson River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, H.J.; Linsalata, P.; Olsen, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The transport and fate of Strontium 90, Cesium 137 and Plutonium 239, 240 in the Hudson River Estuary is discussed. Rates of radionuclide deposition and accumulation over time and space are calculated for the Hudson River watershed, estuary, and continental shelf offshore. 37 references, 7 figures, 15 tables. (ACR)

  9. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... River South of the Troy Locks, NY. 165.165 Section 165.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. (a) Regulated navigation area. All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. (b) Definitions. The...

  10. 14 CFR 93.352 - Hudson River Exclusion specific operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hudson River Exclusion specific operating procedures. 93.352 Section 93.352 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES New York Class B Airspace Hudson River and East...

  11. Cytochrome P450IA mRNA expression in feral Hudson River tomcod

    SciTech Connect

    Kreamer, G.L.; Squibb, K.; Gioeli, D.; Garte, S.J.; Wirgin, I. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors sought to determine if levels of cytochrome P450IA gene expression are environmentally induced in feral populations of Hudson River tomcod, a cancer prone fish, and whether laboratory exposure of tomcod to artificially spiked and naturally contaminated Hudson sediments can elicit a significant response. Using Northern blot analysis, they found levels of P450IA mRNA in tomcod collected from two Hudson River sites higher than those in tomcod from a river in Maine. Depuration of environmentally induced Hudson tomcod P450IA mRNA was rapid, with an initial detectable decline in P450 gene expression by 8 hr and basal levels reached by 5 days. Intraperitoneal injection of {beta}-napthoflavone in depurated Hudson tomcod resulted in a 15-fold induction of P450 gene expression within 26 hr. Exposure of depurated Hudson tomcod to natural sediment spiked with two PAHs resulted in a 7-fold induction of P450 gene expression. Exposure of depurated tomcod to sediment from a contaminated Hudson site also resulted in a 7- to 15-fold induction of P450IA mRNA expression. Northern blot analysis revealed a second polymorphic cytochrome P450IA mRNA band in some tomcod which was also detected by Southern blot analysis. Induction of cytochrome P450IA mRNA in Atlantic tomcod may provide a sensitive biomarker of environmentally relevant concentrations of some pollutants in the Hudson and other northeastern tidal rivers.

  12. 14 CFR 93.352 - Hudson River Exclusion specific operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hudson River Exclusion specific operating procedures. 93.352 Section 93.352 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES New York Class B Airspace Hudson River and East...

  13. Influence of Aroclor 1242 concentration on polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations in Hudson River test tube microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, K.M.

    1996-08-01

    PCBs are a family of compounds sold with various levels of chlorination and under different trade names. They have accumulated in soils, sediments, and biota, raising concerns about possible health risks. The upper Hudson River was contaminated with Aroclor 1242. This study examines the influence of Aroclor concentration on PCB biotransformations in the upper Hudson River sediment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Public Sector Agency Shops after "Hudson": The "Right to Work" Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, David T.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Supreme Court decision in "Chicago Teachers Union v. Hudson." The court found the union procedure defective for three reasons. After "Hudson," procedures must be established to provide nonunion members adequate explanation of fee basis, prompt opportunity for challenge, and escrow accounts to hold disputed amounts during challenges. (MD)

  15. 77 FR 32990 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Maine, Hudson Museum, Orono, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ..., by the former Portland Society of Natural History and subsequently donated to the University of Maine... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Maine, Hudson Museum, Orono, ME AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Maine, Hudson Museum,...

  16. 77 FR 32984 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Maine, Hudson Museum, Orono, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ..., by the former Portland Society of Natural History and subsequently donated to the University of Maine... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Maine, Hudson Museum, Orono, ME AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Maine, Hudson Museum...

  17. 78 FR 76140 - Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is extending the public comment period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0447). The Draft EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of DOE's proposed Federal action of issuing a Presidential permit to the Applicant, Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc. (CHPEI), to construct, operate,......

  18. Comments on James D. Brown and Thom Hudson's "The Alternatives in Language Assessment."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Anthony; Brown, James Dean; Hudson, Thom

    1999-01-01

    Anthony Bruton comments on Brown and Hudson's article "The Alternatives in Language Assessment," (v32 n4 Win 1998). Raises questions about some of their definitions and categories and suggests additional items that need to be considered by test takers. Brown and Hudson reply with clarifications of terms and definition of the scope of their paper.…

  19. Multi-element variations in olivine as geochemical signatures of Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization in mafic magma systems—examples from Voisey's Bay and Pants Lake intrusions, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulle, Florian; Layne, Graham D.

    2016-01-01

    Olivine from the olivine gabbro to troctolite intrusions at Voisey's Bay and at Pants Lake, Labrador, was analyzed for multiple elements (Ca, Sc, Mg, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, and Zr) with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Both intrusions have similar lithologies and petrographic characteristics and are approximately coeval (1.34 and 1.32 Ga, respectively) members of the Mesoproterozoic Nain Plutonic Suite. The Voisey's Bay intrusion hosts a producing economic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, whereas the Pants Lake intrusion displays evidence of Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization, but, to date, a viable ore deposit has not been discovered. Olivine from both barren and mineralized lithologies was analyzed to assess the potential of the olivine composition for providing a record of silicate melt evolution and sulfide saturation related to formation of a massive sulfide deposit. Two detailed transects were sampled, using five diamond drill holes that laterally approach the basal massive sulfide in the Eastern Deeps portion of the Voisey's Bay intrusion from the barren central part. Olivine displays distinct trace element distributions that vary coherently with host lithology and proximity to sulfide mineralization. In particular, olivine shows an increase in Fe (˜Fo80 to ˜Fo60), Mn (˜2500 to 5000 ppm), and Zn (˜280 to 700 ppm), generally coupled with a decrease in Ni (˜1600 to ˜900 ppm), Co (˜270 to ˜190 ppm), and Cr (˜110 to 45 ppm), from barren troctolite (normal troctolite—NT) and weakly mineralized troctolite (variable-textured troctolite—VTT) towards the heavily mineralized, brecciated basal succession (basal breccia sequence—BBS). The enrichment in Fe-Mn-Zn is most pronounced in samples that laterally approach, but do not directly intersect, the massive sulfide deposit at the base of the intrusion, particularly in samples from the lower variable-textured troctolite and the basal breccia. Olivine from gabbro lithologies within the basal

  20. Body burdens of mercury in lower Hudson River area anglers.

    PubMed

    Gobeille, Alayne K; Morland, Kimberly B; Bopp, Richard F; Godbold, James H; Landrigan, Philip J

    2006-06-01

    The Hudson River has been a federally designated Superfund site for over 20 years. Discharges of industrial waste and of treated and untreated sewage and atmospheric deposition have introduced mercury and other persistent pollutants to the Hudson River ecosystem. Despite New York and New Jersey health advisories, many local anglers and their family members continue to consume fish caught from the river. To evaluate associations between body burden of mercury and local fish consumption, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 191 anglers recruited from piers and fishing clubs. Participants were administered a questionnaire to obtain information on local fish consumption, and 65% (124 individuals) provided a blood sample used to determine mercury levels. Mercury levels ranged from below the limit of detection (0.75 ng/mL) to 24.0 ng/mL. Participants who reported eating locally caught fish had significantly higher levels of mercury (mean (M)=2.4 ng/mL, standard error (SE)=1.2) than anglers who never ate locally caught fish (M=1.3 ng/mL, SE=1.1). A positive dose-response pattern was also observed, where participants who reported eating locally caught fish more than once a week had higher mercury levels (M=2.6 ng/mL, SE=1.1) than anglers eating fish less frequently (M=2.0 ng/mL, SE=1.2) or never at all (M=1.3 ng/mL, SE=1.1). These findings indicate that consumption of fish caught from the lower Hudson River area is a route of human exposure to mercury for the angling community. PMID:16226244

  1. Chromite ore processing residue in Hudson County, New Jersey.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, T; Fagliano, J; Goldoft, M; Hazen, R E; Iglewicz, R; McKee, T

    1991-01-01

    Chromite ore processing residue occurs at over 130 sites in Hudson County, New Jersey. Many of these sites are in urban residential areas. This waste is a result of 70 years of chromate and bichromate chemical manufacturing. At least 15% of the sites contain total chromium concentrations greater than 10,000 mg/kg, with hexavalent content ranging from about 1 to 50%. Continuing leaching of this waste results in yellow-colored surface water runoff and yellow deposits on the soil surface and inside basement walls. The chemistry, environmental fate, health effects, and human exposure potentials for this waste are described. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:1935843

  2. Biotransformations of Aroclor 1242 in Hudson River test tube microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, K.M.; Principe, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are relatively unreactive and hydrophobic, are widely used commercially, and have accumulated in soils, sediments, and biota. The researchers partially simulated environmental conditions in the laboratory to examine the fate of Aroclor 1242 in the Upper Hudson River. The test tube microcosms developed both aerobic and anaerobic compartments. This paper reports on the patterns and rates of anaerobic and aerobic PCB transformations for a single set of conditions in static, unamended microosms to model the environmental fate of Aroclor 1242 in river sediments. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Hudson River PCB reclamation demonstration project, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    An abstract of the final environmental impact statement (EIS) for a demonstration project to dredge Hudson River sediments to remove polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination describes an effort to reduce the 40 hot spots by half. Positive impacts would be the removal of potential health hazards, but there is a risk that the dredging operations will release some contaminants into the surrounding water, leaving PCBs in the water and no longer contained. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 is the legal mandate for the EIS.

  4. Analyzing a Mid-Air Collision Over the Hudson River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sean; Holloway, C. Michael

    2012-01-01

    On August 8, 2009, a private airplane collided with a sightseeing helicopter over the Hudson River near Hoboken, New Jersey. All three people aboard the airplane, the pilot and two passengers, and all six people aboard the helicopter, the pilot and five passengers, were killed. The National Transportation Safety Board report on the accident identified inherent limitations of the see-and-avoid concept, inadequate regulations, and errors by the pilots and an air traffic controller as causing or contributing to the accident. This paper presents the results of analyzing the accident using the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) approach to determining accident causation.

  5. Infilling of the Hudson River Estuary During the Late Holocene (3000ka to Present): Implications for Estuarine Stratigraphic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, C. M.; Pekar, S. F.; Ryan, W. B.; Carbotte, S.; Bell, R.; Burckle, L.

    2002-12-01

    accumulating in coastal bays (Sandy Hook, New Jersey) and on the inner shelf, and sediment export to the Hudson Shelf Valley on the mid-shelf is nearly non-existent, with sediments dated at 14ka from 14-C on the outer shelf. Additionally, anthropogenic activities (construction of bridges and dredging) alter sedimentation patterns in the estuary leading to continued localized erosion and deposition. For example, sediment export onto the shelf is taking place, not by natural processes but by dredging. The variability documented for the HRE indicates that although estuarine and stratigraphic models provide a framework for continental margin studies, the models need to be interpreted, taking into consideration these factors.

  6. Demography and population status of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lunn, Nicholas J.; Regher, Eric V; Servanty, Sabrina; Converse, Sarah J.; Richardson, Evan S.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 abundance estimate from this analysis was 806 bears with a 95% Bayesian credible interval of 653-984. This is lower than, but broadly consistent with, the abundance estimate of 1,030 (95% confidence interval = 745-1406) from a 2011 aerial survey (Stapleton et al. 2014). The capture-recapture and aerial survey approaches have different spatial and temporal coverage of the WH subpopulation and, consequently, the effective study population considered by each approach is different.

  7. Moisture Content Assessment in the Hudson Bay Lowlands Through Remote Sensing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, T.; Cheng, Q.; Bello, R. L.; Hu, B.

    2009-05-01

    Assessing moisture contents of lichens and mosses using ground-based high spectral resolution spectrometers (400-2500 nm) offers immense opportunities for a comprehensive monitoring of northern peatland moisture status by satellite/airborne imagery. This study investigates the impact of various moisture conditions of the lichens Cladina stellaris and Cladina rangiferina, and the mosses Dicranum elongatum and Tomenthypnum nitens upon the spectral signatures obtained. Reflectance and moisture content measurements (using weighing lysimeters) of the above species were made in a laboratory setting, while maintaining the natural moisture conditions of the samples; once the moisture and spectral measurements were complete, the samples were returned to the field and placed in their natural setting, continuously receiving moisture from precipitation and groundwater and losing water through evaporation and drainage. The spectral indices MSI (Moisture Stress Index), Simple ratio, WBI (Water Band Index), NDII (Normalized Difference Infrared Index), and NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index), were correlated with the moisture contents of the above species. The NDII was most successful in detecting moisture contents for all species, with R2 between 0.44 and 0.67. This study developed species specific indices to improve the detection of the above lichens and mosses moisture conditions. These species specific indices use normalized ratios between the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR). The improvement of these indices versus the spectral index NDII is significant (10-70%). The relationship between the plants' moisture content and the water table position was examined as well. It was found that the lichens are not responsive to variations in the water table position, while the mosses, specifically D. elongatum, are quite sensitive to changes in the water table position (with R2 0.78, and 0.38 for D. elongatum, and T. nitens, respectively). Thus, the use of the mosses spectral indices, specifically, the D. elongatum index, may contribute to an indirect evaluation of the water table position. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the unique spectral signatures of C. stellaris, C. rangiferina, D. elongatum, and T. nitens allow these species to be detected by satellite and airborne imagery, while the mosses, can be used as indicators of peatlands moisture status.

  8. Summertime partitioning and budget of NO{sub y} compounds in the troposphere over Alaska and Canada: ABLE 3B

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, S.; Olson, J.; Bradshaw, J.; Talbot, R.; Singh, H.; Gregory, G.; Anderson, B.; Sachse, G.; Barrick, J.; Blake, D.

    1994-01-20

    As part of NASA`s Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 3A and 3B field measurement programs, measurements of NO{sub x}, HNO{sub 3}, PAN, PPN, and NO{sub y} were made in the middle to lower troposphere over Alaska and Canada during the summers of 1988 and 1990. These measurements are used to assess the degree of closure within the reactive odd nitrogen (N{sub x}O{sub y}) budget through the comparison of the values of NO{sub y} measured with a catalytic convertor to the sum of individually measured NO{sub y}(i) compounds (i.e., {Sigma}NO{sub y}(i) = NO{sub x} + HNO{sub 3} + PAN + PPN). In the lower 6 km of the troposphere over Alaska and the Hudson Bay lowlands of Canada a significant fraction of the NO{sub y} budget (30 to 60%) could not be accounted for by the measured {Sigma}NO{sub y}(i). This deficit in the NO{sub y} budget is about 100 to 200 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) in the lower troposphere (0.15 to 3 km) and about 200 to 400 pptv in the middle free troposphere (3 to 6.2 km). Conversely, the NO{sub y} budget in the northern Labrador and Quebec regions of Canada is almost totally accounted for within the combined measurement uncertainties of NO{sub y} and the various NO{sub y}(i) compounds. A substantial portion of the NO{sub y} budget`s {open_quotes}missing compounds{close_quotes} appears to be coupled to the photochemical and/or dynamical parameters influencing the tropospheric oxidative potential over these regions. A combination of factors are suggested as the causes for the variability observed in the NO{sub y} budget. In addition, the apparent stability of compounds represented by the NO{sub y} budget deficit in the lower-altitude range questions the ability of these compounds to participate as reversible reservoirs for {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} odd nitrogen and suggest that some portion of the NO{sub y} budget may consist of relatively unreactive nitrogen-containing compounds. 56 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Summertime partitioning and budget of NO(y) compounds in the troposphere over Alaska and Canada: ABLE 3B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandholm, S.; Olson, J.; Bradshaw, J.; Talbot, R.; Singh, H.; Gregory, G.; Blake, D.; Anderson, B.; Sachse, G.; Barrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    As part of NASA's Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 3A and 3B field measurement programs, measurements of NO(x), HNO3, PAN, PPN, and NO(y) were made in the middle to lower troposphere over Alaska and Canada during the summers of 1988 and 1990. These measurements are used to assess the degree of closure within the reactive odd nitrogen (N(x)O(y)) budget through the comparison of the values of NO(y) measured with a catalytic convertor to the sum of individually measured NO(y) (i) compounds (i.e., sigmaNO(y)(i) = NO(x) + HNO3 + PAN + PPN). Significant differences were observed between the various study regions. In the lower 6 km of the troposphere over Alaska and the Hudson Bay lowlands of Canada a significant fraction of the NO(y) budget (30 to 60%) could not be accounted for by the measured sigmaNO(y)i. This deficit in the NO(y) budget is about 100 to 200 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) in the lower troposphere (0.15 to 3 km) and about 200 to 400 pptv in the middle free troposphere (3 to 6.2 km). Conversely, the NO(y) budget in the northern Labrador and Quebec regions of Canada is almost totally accounted for within the combined measurement uncertainties of NO(y) and the various NO(y)(i) compounds. A substantial portion of the NO(y) budget's 'missing compounds' appears to be coupled to the photochemical and/or dynamical parameters influencing the tropospheric oxidative potential over these regions. A combination of factors are suggested as the causes for the variability observed in the NO(y) budget. In addition, the apparent stability of compounds represented by the NO(y) budget deficit in the lower-altitude range questions the ability of these compounds to participate as reversible reservoirs for 'active' odd nitrogen and suggest that some portion of the NO(y) budget may consist of relatively unreactive nitrogen-containing compounds.

  10. Seismological Structure of the 1.8Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America and its affinity to present-day Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    How tectonic processes operated and changed through the Precambrian is debated: what was the nature and scale of orogenic events and were they different on the younger, hotter, more ductile Earth? The geology of northern Hudson Bay records the Paleoproterozoic collision between the Western Churchill and Superior plates: the 1.8Ga Trans-Hudson Orogeny (THO) and is thus an ideal study locale to address this issue. It has been suggested, primarily on the strength of traditional field geology, that the THO was comparable in scale and style to the present-day Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen (HKTO). However, understanding of the deep crustal architecture of the THO, and how it compares to the evolving HKTO is presently lacking. Through joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave data, we obtain new Moho depth estimates and shear velocity models for the crust and upper mantle. Archean crust in the Rae, Hearne and Churchill domains is thin and structurally simple, with a sharp Moho; upper crustal wavespeed variations are readily attributed to post-formation events. However, the Paleoproterozoic Quebec-Baffin segment of the THO has a deeper Moho and more complex crustal structure. Our observations are strikingly similar to recent models, computed using the same methods, of the HKTO lithosphere, where deformation also extends >400km beyond the collision front. On the strength of Moho character, present-day crustal thickness, and metamorphic grade, we thus propose that southern Baffin experienced uplift of a similar magnitude and spatial extent to the Himalayas during the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogeny.

  11. Anomalous topography on the continental shelf around Hudson Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    Recent seismic-reflection data show that the topography on the Continental Shelf around Hudson Canyon is composed of a series of depressions having variable spacings (< 100 m to 2 km), depths (1-10 m), outlines, and bottom configurations that give the sea floor an anomalous "jagged" appearance in profile. The acoustic and sedimentary characteristics, the proximity to relict shores, and the areal distribution indicate that this rough topography is an erosional surface formed on Upper Pleistocene silty sands about 13,000 to 15,000 years ago by processes related to Hudson Canyon. The pronounced southward extension of the surface, in particular, may reflect a former increase in the longshore-current erosion capacity caused by the loss of sediments over the canyon. Modern erosion or nondeposition of sediments has prevented the ubiquitous sand sheet on the Middle Atlantic shelf from covering the surface. The "anomalous" topography may, in fact, be characteristic of areas near other submarine canyons that interrupt or have interrupted the longshore drift of sediments. ?? 1979.

  12. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the Hudson River Airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Gigliotti, Cari L.; Offenberg, John H.; Eisenreich, Steven J.; Turpin, Barbara J.

    2004-11-01

    Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Hudson River Estuary Airshed were investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF). A three-city dataset was used to obtain common factor profiles. The contributions of each factor on each sampling day and site were then determined, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted. A stable eight-factor solution was identified. PMF was able to identify a factor associated with air-surface exchange. This factor contains low-molecular weight PAHs and was a dominant contributor to the measured PAHs concentrations. Factors linked to motor vehicle use (diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions and evaporative/uncombusted petroleum) and natural gas combustion were also major contributors. Motor vehicle combustion and oil combustion factors were the predominant contributors to particle-phase PAHs, while natural gas combustion, air-surface exchange, and evaporative/uncombusted petroleum factors made substantial contributions to gas-phase PAH concentrations. In contrast to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which is dominated by regional transport, spatial variations in PAH concentrations suggest that PAH concentrations in the Hudson River Estuary Airshed are dominated by sources within the New York-New Jersey urban-industrial complex.

  13. Flow and chloride transport in the tidal Hudson River, NY

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, Lawrence A.; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; de Vries, M. Peter

    1994-01-01

    A one-dimensional dynamic-flow model and a one-dimensional solute-transport model were used to evaluate the effects of hypothetical public-supply water withdrawals on saltwater intrusion in a 133-mile reach of the tidal Hudson River between Green Island dam, near Troy, N.Y., and Hastings-on-Hudson, N.Y. Regression techniques were used in analyses of current and extreme historical conditions, and numerical models were used to investigate the effect of various water withdrawals. Of four withdrawal scenarios investigated, simulations of a 27-day period during which discharges at Green Island dam averaged 7,090 ft3/s indicate that increasing the present Chelsea pumping-station withdrawal rate of 100 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) to 300 Mgal/d would have the least effect on upstream saltwater movement. A 90-day simulation, during which discharges at Green Island dam averaged 25,200 ft3/s, indicates that withdrawals of 1,940 Mgal/d at Chelsea would not measurably increase chloride concentrations at Chelsea under normal tidal and meteorological conditions, but withdrawals of twice that rate (3,880 Mgal/d) could increase the chloride concentration at Chelsea to 250 mg/L.

  14. Ecological Impacts of Development in the Hudson River Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, D. C.; Peteet, D. M.; Kleinstein, D. S.

    2002-12-01

    Piermont Marsh, located approximately 40 kilometers north of the mouth of the Hudson River, provides an opportunity to evaluate local and regional vegetation shifts primarily due to changes in land use over the past 600 years. A high-resolution palynological record from Piermont Marsh, NY shows consistent presence of "weedy" genera (Ambrosia, Plantago, and Rumex) beginning around 1760. This increase in herbaceous genera is also marked by a decline in arboreal taxa, attributed to land clearance by settlers. Typha (cattail) also experiences a very large increase coincident with the rise in weedy genera, accounting for as much as 70% of pollen grains counted in a sample. Although the profile for Gramineae (grass) appears consistent throughout the core, grain size separations show periods dominated by the native marsh Spartina species downcore and the invasive Phragmites in recent decades. A pre-settlement interval shows a period of decreased pollen deposition and increased charcoal, which could be due to sea level change, drought, or Native American use. Comparison with other marsh records in the Hudson River estuary shows general agreement in chronology with interesting differences in sedimentation rate, which can be attributed to sea level change, natural disturbance, or anthropogenic influences of development.

  15. Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased marginally to 89%, with 1774 oil discoveries and 2778 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in all four western provinces, and total land sales reached the record $1 billion mark in Alberta and a record $78 million in Saskatchewan. British Columbia land sales declined slightly to $181 million. Alberta drilling activity continued in the deeper portions of the Alberta basin and foothills, with major gas discoveries at Hanlan, Big Mountain, Blackstone, and Elmworth. Significant oil discoveries were made in the West Pembina Nisku pinnacle reefs, in the Upper Devonian at Del Bonita and Eaglesham, and in the Lower Cretaceous glauconite river channels in southern Alberta between Countess and Grand Forks. British Columbia successes occurred as the Elmworth Deep Basin play spilled over into British Columbia with gas discoveries at Tupper and Steeprock. Gas finds were also made at West Sierra and Murray. The Arctic Islands continued to yield the largest discoveries. Two major successes occurred in the Beaufort Sea, in an oil and gas discovery by Esso at Issungnak and a reentry oil discovery by Dome at Tarsuit. However, 1980 will especially be remembered for the introduction of the federal government's National Energy Program during October, with new taxes on revenue, lower than expected wellhead price increases, and major emphasis on increasing Canadian ownership and self-sufficiency. Industry and provincial government reaction was highly critical, and a major downturn in exploration is expected in western Canada in 1981. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  16. CHESAPEAKE BAY MONITORING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is the unique regional partnership which has been directing and conducting the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay since the signing of the historic 1983 Chesapeake Bay Agreement. The Chesapeake Bay Program partners include the states of Maryland, Pennsyl...

  17. Bay of Fundy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active

  18. Proterozoic collisional tectonism in the Trans-Hudson orogen, Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, M.E.; Chiarenzelli, J.R.; Van Schmus, W.R. ); Collerson, K.D. ); Lewry, J.F. )

    1990-01-01

    Isotopic and structural data from the juvenile Reindeer zone of the Trans-Hudson orogen, northern Saskatchewan, indicate a pre-1.85 Ga thermotectonic event, possibly reflecting arc-continent collision, followed by a more extensive, nappe-forming, ca. 1.83-1.80 Ga thermotectonism during terminal continent-continent collision. Preliminary data from the adjacent, ensialic Cree Lake zone suggest high-grade reworking of Archean crust by the pre-1.85 Ga event. In the Rae province to the west, high-grade metamorphism and reworking of Archean crust occurred about 2.0 Ga and may be related to the formation of the coeval Taltson magmatic zone.

  19. Integrative Acoustic Mapping Reveals Hudson RIver Sediment Processes an Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Bell, R.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Slagle, A.; Chillrud, S.; Kenna, T.; Flood, R.; Ferrini, V.; Cerrato, R.; McHugh, C.; Strayer, D.

    2005-06-01

    Rivers and estuaries around the world are the focus of human settlements and activities. Needs for clean water, ecosystem preservation, commercial navigation, industrial development, and recreational access compete for the use of estuaries, and management of these resources requires a detailed understanding of estuarine morphology and sediment dynamics. This article presents an overview of the first estuary-wide study of a heavily used estuary, the Hudson River, based on high-resolution acoustic mapping of the river bottom. The integration of three high-resolution acoustic methods with extensive sampling reveals an unexpected complexity of bottom features and allows detailed classification of the benthic environment in terms of riverbed morphology, sediment type, and sedimentary processes.

  20. Methods to assess impacts on Hudson River white perch, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Kumar, K.D.; Van Winkle, W.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1980-05-01

    This report is a brief description of the work done during the period October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. During this period, a final draft topical report entitled ''Evaluation of Impingement Losses of White Perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Station and Other Hudson River Power Plants'' (NUREG/CR-1100) was completed. In addition, special studies of white perch entrainment at Hudson River powder plants, of density-dependent growth in the Hudson River white perch population, and of data on the white perch populations of the Delaware and Chesapeake systems were performed. Most of the results obtained during FY 79 were incorporated in testimony written for the ongoing adjudicatory hearing on the Hudson River Power Case (Region II). 13 tabs.

  1. A Student Activity for the James Bay Hydro Project. The Geography Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Milberg, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Provides activities for grades 6 to 8 that will promote student awareness and understanding of the use of hydropower in Canada, the benefits and drawbacks to hydropower, and also the drawbacks of electricity transmission lines. Explains that the activities focus on the James Bay Hydro Project in Canada. (CMK)

  2. 33 CFR 207.60 - Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level. 207.60 Section 207.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.60 Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level. (a) Whenever the elevation...

  3. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hudson River included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Hudson River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). A composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of Hudson River sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed with three species. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  4. Burrowing mayflies as indicators of ecosystem health: Status of populations in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay and Green Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, T.A.; Bur, M.T.; Gorman, O.T.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environment Canada are supporting the development of indicators of ecosystem health that can be used to report on progress in restoring and maintaining the Great Lakes ecosystem, as called for in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada. One indicator under development is based on burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia: Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae). We sampled in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and Green Bay (Lake Michigan) in spring 2001 at 117 stations covering about 1,870 km2 of lake bed, to determine the status of nymphal populations of Hexagenia, and to provide information that would further the technical development of an indicator of ecosystem health based on Hexagenia. In western Lake Erie, density and biomass of nymphs were generally highest on fine-grained substrate in offshore waters and were lower on coarser substrates in near shore waters. Nymphs were virtually absent from Saginaw Bay, where only one nymph was collected at 28 stations. Nymphs were collected at only 6 of 48 stations in Green Bay, and density and biomass were highest at the northern end of the bay. Polluted sediments are likely responsible for the absence or low density and biomass of nymphs observed on fine-grained substrates in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay, and Green Bay, all of which historically supported abundant populations.

  5. Impact of the Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age, and Recent Warming on Hydrology and Carbon Accumulation in the James Bay Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmquist, J. R.; Booth, R. K.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Reconstructing late-Holocene hydroclimatic variations can be useful to understand the sensitivity of peatland soil carbon (C) to climate change (Bunbury et al., 2012). We reconstructed water table depth (WTD), using testate amoebae, for a four-core north to south transect of the James Bay Lowland and Boreal Shield of Ontario, Canada, and compared WTD to long-term apparent rate of C accumulation (LARCA). The three southern sites indicate that WTD fluctuated relative to the mean, with a wetter Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and drier Little Ice Age (LIA) (Fig. 1). However, the most northern site recorded a wet LIA and dry MCA (Fig. 1). All four cores recorded drying coincident with modern warming (Fig. 1). Increased Medieval moisture detected in the three southern sites is consistent with a geographic pattern of precipitation anomalies associated with La Niña-like conditions, which cause drought in the American southwest and central plains regions coupled with increased moisture in the Pacific Northwest and north of the Great Lakes (Feng et al., 2008; Seager et al., 2008). Despite the hydroclimatic sensitivity of the region, we observed no consistent relationship between variations in WTD and LARCA from the same cores. At these particular sites, at least, C accumulation has not been sensitive to the range of climatic variability associated with the MCA, LIA and recent warming. Bunbury, J., Finkelstein, S. A., & Bollmann, J. (2012). Holocene hydro-climatic change and effects on carbon accumulation inferred from a peat bog in the Attawapiskat River watershed, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. Quaternary Research: 275-284. Feng, S., Oglesby, R. J., Rowe, C. M., Loope, D. B., & Hu, Q. (2008). Atlantic and Pacific SST influences on Medieval drought in North America simulated by the Community Atmospheric Model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984-2012), 113(D11). Seager, R., Burgman, R., Kushnir, Y., Clement, A., Cook, E., Naik, N., & Miller, J. (2008). Tropical

  6. SURVEY OF CHEMICAL FACTORS IN SAGINAW BAY (LAKE HURON)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in Saginaw Bay, Michigan (western Lake Huron) was surveyed during 32 cruises in 1974 and 1975, as part of the International Joint Commission's Upper Lakes Reference Study co-sponsored by the United States and Canada. Goals of the study were to establish a base of wa...

  7. Salt Marsh Formation in the Lower Hudson River Estuary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merley, Michael; Peteet, Dorothy; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Salt marshes are constant depositional environments and as a result contain accurate indicators of past relative sea level rise and salinity. The Hudson River marshes are at least twice as deep when compared to coastal marshes on either side of the mouth of the Hudson. The reason for this difference in sedimentation is unclear. This study uses macrofossil data as well as sediment stratigraphy in order to understand the formation and evolution of these marshes. The composition of seeds, roots, shoots and foraminifera, are used to indicate past sea levels. The four sites involved in this study are, from south to north, the Arthur Kill Marsh in Staten Island (40 36 N, 74 77W), Piermont marsh (N 4100; 73 55W) Croton Point (41 14 N; 73 50W) and Iona Island (41 18N, 73 58W). These are all tidally influenced but with increasing distances from the New York Bight, which gives a good spectrum of tidal influence. AMS-C14 dates on basal macrofossils will document the time of each marsh formation. Basal material from Arthur Kill (8 m) includes freshwater seeds such as Viola, Potomageton and Alnus along with Salix buds. Basal material from Croton Point (10 m) includes fibrous woody material, foraminifera and Zanichellia seeds and other brackish vegetational components. The basal material from Piermont (13.77 m) is lacking any identifiable macrofossils between 150 and 500 microns. The basal material from Iona Island (10 m) has vegetation such as Scirpus and Cyperus seeds, probably implying a brackish environment. The freshwater origin of the Arthur Kill marsh in Staten Island is significant because it predates either sea level rise or the western channel incision. Additional implications for this study include evidence for changes in river channel geomorphology. Reasons for the relatively deeper river marshes include possible basal clay compaction, high production due to river and marine nutrients as well as tectonic activity. This study provides the groundwork for more high

  8. Sea-Level Rise Impacts on Hudson River Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooks, A.; Nitsche, F. O.

    2015-12-01

    The response of tidal marshes to increasing sea-level rise is uncertain. Tidal marshes can adapt to rising sea levels through vertical accretion and inland migration. Yet tidal marshes are vulnerable to submergence if the rate of sea-level rise exceeds the rate of accretion and if inland migration is limited by natural features or development. We studied how Piermont and Iona Island Marsh, two tidal marshes on the Hudson River, New York, would be affected by sea-level rise of 0.5m, 1m, and 1.5m by 2100. This study was based on the 2011-2012 Coastal New York LiDAR survey. Using GIS we mapped sea-level rise projections accounting for accretion rates and calculated the submerged area of the marsh. Based on the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Vegetation 2005 dataset, we studied how elevation zones based on vegetation distributions would change. To evaluate the potential for inland migration, we assessed land cover around each marsh using the National Land Cover Database 2011 Land Cover dataset and examined the slope beyond the marsh boundaries. With an accretion rate of 0.29cm/year and 0.5m of sea-level rise by 2100, Piermont Marsh would be mostly unchanged. With 1.5m of sea-level rise, 86% of Piermont Marsh would be flooded. For Iona Island Marsh with an accretion rate of 0.78cm/year, sea-level rise of 0.5m by 2100 would result in a 4% expansion while 1.5m sea-level rise would cause inundation of 17% of the marsh. The results indicate that Piermont and Iona Island Marsh may be able to survive rates of sea-level rise such as 0.5m by 2100 through vertical accretion. At rates of sea-level rise like 1.5m by 2100, vertical accretion cannot match sea-level rise, submerging parts of the marshes. High elevations and steep slopes limit Piermont and Iona Island Marsh's ability to migrate inland. Understanding the impacts of sea-level rise on Piermont and Iona Island Marsh allows for long-term planning and could motivate marsh conservation programs.

  9. Observed Response of the Hudson River Plume to Wind Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, S.; Schofield, O.; Chant, R.; Kohut, J.

    2004-12-01

    One objective of the May 2004 pilot study for the Lagrangian Transport and Transformation Experiment (LaTTE) was to determine the relative advantages of studying the Hudson River plume within the spatial and temporal context provided by a research-friendly coastal ocean observatory. Towards this end, a shelf-wide observational backbone was locally enhanced with high-resolution relocatable systems in the New York Bight apex. The permanent backbone includes local acquisition of international satellite ocean color imagery, a network of long-range High Frequency radars, and a cross-shelf Endurance line occupied by an autonomous underwater glider. The higher resolution HF Radar, glider and mooring network was originally deployed in the vicinity of the Long-term Ecosystem Observatory, where it attracted a large number of scientists to coastal upwelling experiments conducted offshore Tuckerton, NJ from 1998-2001. With scientific interest in the series of coastal upwelling experiments having peaked and run its course through the publication phase, the high resolution systems were moved to the New York Bight Apex to hopefully repeat the cycle of attracting a variety of scientists to a specific interdisciplinary process study site. During the LaTTE pilot study, datasets from the nested observation network were assembled in real-time at a shore-based acquisition center, and high-resolution atmospheric forecasts were performed. Specific emphasis was placed on communicating the real time observatory data and forecasts to scientists on a pair of research vessels conducting a dye release with the associated physical, biological and chemical sampling. Observational results from the observatory will be reviewed, with specific emphasis placed on the observed response of the Hudson River plume to a windshift from upwelling to downwelling favorable winds in the middle of the pilot experiment. This includes a shift from a relatively weak plume flowing eastward along the south shore of

  10. ASA24-Canada-2014

    Cancer.gov

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24-Canada-2014) Recall has been developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  11. Sediment Dynamics and Fate of Heavy Metals, Carbon, and Inorganic Matter in the Hudson Estuary, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sritrairat, S.; Kenna, T. C.; Peteet, D. M.; Nguyen, K.; Perez, M.; Huang, Z.; Miller, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Hudson River Estuary is typical of a large, intensively used and modified estuary. Its watershed is an important resource for small communities along the river as well as large population centers such as the Metropolitan area of New York City. In addition to past industrial activities within the region that have resulted in many instances of environmental contamination, the estuary is at high risk for climatic and other anthropogenic changes. This study focuses on sediment dynamics and the fate of heavy metals, inorganic matter, and carbon in 27 sediment cores and 15 surface samples taken from wetlands and tributaries of the Hudson Estuary along a north-south transect from Troy, NY to New York harbor. Each site experiences different salinity, vegetation, landscape, and flow pattern. 1) We quantified and mapped the distribution of toxic heavy metals, including Pb, Cu, and Zn, in the estuary to examine the fate of these contaminants. Jamaica Bay and the East River sediments from New York City are the most contaminated with heavy metals among the sites analyzed. 2) We examined the sedimentation rate and sedimentation pattern, using pollution chronology along with radiometric methods. Sedimentation rates at 17 sites range from 0.26 - 2.63 cm/yr during the last century. Cores taken from high-energy or non-vegetated area are more likely to have a disturbed sedimentation pattern, and thus there is a higher risk of contaminant resuspension at those locations. 3) We quantified Ti and K concentration as a measure of the fluctuation of inorganic matter input and the fate of inorganic matter in the estuary. We quantified organic matter content with the Loss-on-Ignition (LOI) method at selected sites to identify carbon sequestration rate in the estuary. Inorganic matter content during the last century at most sites is significantly higher than that found prior to the European Settlements at the same location, suggesting increasing erosion and disturbances. However, more

  12. Geochemical phases of metals in Hudson River estuary sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Stamoulis, S.; Gibbs, R.J.; Menon, M.G.

    1996-08-01

    Bottom sediment samples were collected from six location along a section of the Hudson River Estuary, 5.3 to 82.7 km from the ocean. These samples were analyzed for particle and, due to the bimodal distribution of the sediment, were seperated into two size fractions, fine (<7.8 um) and coarse (7.8-62 um). These fractions were subject to a sequential chemical phase extraction procedure to differenciate the ion exchangeable, carbonate, metallic oxide coating, and organic phases. The extracted phases were analyzed with an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer for Cd, Co, Cc, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Metals were found to be associated largely with fine particle-size fraction. The concentration of fine particles (especially the <2 um size mode within the fine fraction) is a crucial in influencing overall metal content. This is evidenced by strong correlations between the <2 {mu}m or clay mode and concentrations in the metallic-oxide coating phase. Various metal/metal relationships exist among the phases and fractions studied and are highlighted by strong correlations, such as Ni and Zn, and Cu and Cd. The trends associated among the metal and mud concentrations are significant in terms of assessing the bioavailability of heavy metals within the river and estuary system, and as a result, provide valuable insight into the ultimate fate of pollutants which are introduced to this unique environment. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Population biology in the courtroom: the Hudson River controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Boreman, J.; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Van Winkle, W.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    In support of more than a decade of litigation, scientists devoted unprecedented effort to modeling the impact of electric power generation on the Hudson River striped bass population. When the Cornwall pumped storage facility was first proposed, opponents of the project argued that enormous numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Several years later, when the US Atomic Energy Commission held hearings to investigate the potential environmental impacts of Indian Point Unit 2, a nuclear power plant nearing completion 25 km downriver from Cornwall, it was argued that young striped bass would be entrained through the condensers with the cooling water and killed by thermal and mechanical stress. In addition, fish would be killed by impingement on the trash screens. The AEC staff recommended that a cooling tower be built at Indian Point to reduce cooling-water requirements and, therefore, entrainment and impingement mortality. The most sophisticated models failed to provide useful long-term impact predictions. However, simpler models, used to evaluate alternatives for mitigation, were instrumental in arranging a negotiated settlement.

  14. Dissolved oxygen in lower Hudson Estuary: 1978--93

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.F.; Simpson, H.J.; Bopp, R.F.; Deck, B.L.

    1995-10-01

    During summer months, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the lower Hudson estuary were usually lower than atmospheric equilibrium values. Distributions of DO along the axis of the estuary can be described by three general characteristics. Firstly, surface and bottom values lie on a single trend when plotted against salinity. Secondly, maximum DO concentrations were observed 50--75 km upstream of Manhattan at salinities off 5--15 ppt. Thirdly, the lowest DO concentrations were observed near Manhattan, New York, at salinities of 15--25 ppt and vary systematically with freshwater discharge rate. Minimum DO concentrations during times of similar freshwater discharge were substantially lower for water samples collected between 1978 and 1984 than for those collected between 1989 and 1993. These two periods were also distinguished by occurrences of intense phytoplankton blooms that produced supersaturated DO concentrations at salinities of 5--15 ppt for the period of 1989 to 1993. The increase in the minimum DO concentration in the water near Manhattan is probably in response to improved wastewater treatment at Passaic Valley, NJ; North River, NY; and other wastewater-treatment facilities.

  15. Pesticides in the Hudson River Basin, 1994-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wall, G.R.; Phillips, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, distribution, and temporal patterns of pesticide concentrations were studied in the Hudson River Basin during 1994 - 96. This article presents the results of three separate pesticide studies conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Pesticides were found in all three studies, but rarely at concentrations exceeding any U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. The highest concentrations were detected during and immediately after the first runoff following pesticide applications in the late spring and early summer. The herbicides atrazine and metolachlor were the most commonly detected pesticides and were present in nearly every sample collected from streams draining agricultural areas; they also were detected in many streams draining areas with other land uses. Herbicides were most often detected, and had the highest concentrations, in samples from streams draining agricultural areas, whereas insecticides such as diazinon were most commonly detected, and had the highest concentrations, in samples from streams draining urban areas.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl release from resuspended Hudson River sediment.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Abby R; Porter, Elka T; Baker, Joel E

    2007-02-15

    Three shear turbulence resuspension mesocosms (STORM tanks) were used to examine the release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from resuspended Hudson River sediment. Twenty-two percent of the resuspended PCBs desorbed after 2 h, and 35% +/- 8% of PCBs were in the dissolved phase after apparent steady state was reached in 2 days. After the first resuspension event, the solids were allowed to settle and the quiescent time was varied to determine whether the labile pool of PCBs is recharged during sediment consolidation. The steady-state log Koc values for the third subsequent resuspension were higher than for the first event due to lower dissolved PCB concentrations; the particulate PCB concentrations were constant between events. With 1 day of consolidation between resuspension events, the dissolved concentration of all congeners decreased an average of 8% +/- 5% between subsequent resuspension events. With 4 days between events, only the dissolved pentachlorinated PCBs decreased significantly (p = 0.002), suggesting that the easily desorbable PCBs recharge when there is sufficient time between resuspension events. PMID:17593705

  17. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Hudson River Estuary based on dynamic tsunami-tide simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelby, Michael; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Grilli, Annette R.

    2016-05-01

    This work is part of a tsunami inundation mapping activity carried out along the US East Coast since 2010, under the auspice of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation program (NTHMP). The US East Coast features two main estuaries with significant tidal forcing, which are bordered by numerous critical facilities (power plants, major harbors,...) as well as densely built low-level areas: Chesapeake Bay and the Hudson River Estuary (HRE). HRE is the object of this work, with specific focus on assessing tsunami hazard in Manhattan, the Hudson and East River areas. In the NTHMP work, inundation maps are computed as envelopes of maximum surface elevation along the coast and inland, by simulating the impact of selected probable maximum tsunamis (PMT) in the Atlantic ocean margin and basin. At present, such simulations assume a static reference level near shore equal to the local mean high water (MHW) level. Here, instead we simulate maximum inundation in the HRE resulting from dynamic interactions between the incident PMTs and a tide, which is calibrated to achieve MHW at its maximum level. To identify conditions leading to maximum tsunami inundation, each PMT is simulated for four different phases of the tide and results are compared to those obtained for a static reference level. We first separately simulate the tide and the three PMTs that were found to be most significant for the HRE. These are caused by: (1) a flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV) in the Canary Islands (with a 80 km3 volume representing the most likely extreme scenario); (2) an M9 coseismic source in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT); and (3) a large submarine mass failure (SMF) in the Hudson River canyon of parameters similar to the 165 km3 historical Currituck slide, which is used as a local proxy for the maximum possible SMF. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear and dispersive long wave model FUNWAVE-TVD, in a series of nested grids of increasing resolution towards the coast, by one

  18. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Hudson River Estuary based on dynamic tsunami-tide simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelby, Michael; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Grilli, Annette R.

    2016-05-01

    This work is part of a tsunami inundation mapping activity carried out along the US East Coast since 2010, under the auspice of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation program (NTHMP). The US East Coast features two main estuaries with significant tidal forcing, which are bordered by numerous critical facilities (power plants, major harbors,...) as well as densely built low-level areas: Chesapeake Bay and the Hudson River Estuary (HRE). HRE is the object of this work, with specific focus on assessing tsunami hazard in Manhattan, the Hudson and East River areas. In the NTHMP work, inundation maps are computed as envelopes of maximum surface elevation along the coast and inland, by simulating the impact of selected probable maximum tsunamis (PMT) in the Atlantic ocean margin and basin. At present, such simulations assume a static reference level near shore equal to the local mean high water (MHW) level. Here, instead we simulate maximum inundation in the HRE resulting from dynamic interactions between the incident PMTs and a tide, which is calibrated to achieve MHW at its maximum level. To identify conditions leading to maximum tsunami inundation, each PMT is simulated for four different phases of the tide and results are compared to those obtained for a static reference level. We first separately simulate the tide and the three PMTs that were found to be most significant for the HRE. These are caused by: (1) a flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV) in the Canary Islands (with a 80 km3 volume representing the most likely extreme scenario); (2) an M9 coseismic source in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT); and (3) a large submarine mass failure (SMF) in the Hudson River canyon of parameters similar to the 165 km3 historical Currituck slide, which is used as a local proxy for the maximum possible SMF. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear and dispersive long wave model FUNWAVE-TVD, in a series of nested grids of increasing resolution towards the coast, by one

  19. Watershed nutrient inputs, phytoplankton accumulation, and C stocks in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, T. R.; Boynton, W. R.; Hagy, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Inputs of N and P to Chesapeake Bay have been enhanced by anthropogenic activities. Fertilizers, urbanization, N emissions, and industrial effluents contribute to point and diffuse sources currently 2-7X higher for P and 5-20X higher for N than those from undisturbed watersheds. Enhanced nutrient inputs cause phytoplankton blooms which obscure visibility, eliminate submerged grasses, and influence the distribution of C within the Bay. Accumulations of dissolved organic and particulate organic C lead to enhanced microbial respiration in isolated bottom waters, and dissolved oxygen is seasonally reduced to trace levels during summer. Cultural eutrophication is not unique to Chesapeake Bay. Although some estuaries such as the Delaware, Hudson, and San Francisco Bay also have high anthropogenic inputs, these estuaries have much shorter residence times, and much of the N and P may be exported to the coastal ocean. However, in Chesapeake Bay, with residence times >2 months, internal processing of watershed inputs results in local algal blooms within the estuary. Watershed restoration strategies for Chesapeake watersheds have had limited success to date. Groundwaters are enriched with nitrate, and the long residence times of groundwaters mean slow responses to watershed improvements. The few successes in the Chesapeake have been associated with point source reductions, although continued human population growth can easily override restoration efforts. Widespread improvement in water quality has yet to occur, but the limited successes show that the Bay responds to load changes.

  20. Agreement by and between the County of Rensselaer and the Board of Trustees of Hudson Valley Community College as Co-Employers and the Hudson Valley Community College Department Chairpersons Faculty Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson Valley Community Coll., Troy, NY.

    This document is comprised of articles of agreement by and between the County of Rensselaer and the Board of Trustees of Hudson Valley Community College as co-employers and the Hudson Valley Community College Department chairpersons Faculty Association ("association"). The contract addresses topics such as requirements of legislative action,…

  1. BUZZARDS BAY IR, 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2002 Buzzards Bay Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Buzzards Bay Project. Major new completed actions during the past two years include: designation of Buzzards Bay as a no discharge area in August 2000; full support by the Massac...

  2. PCB-pollution problem in the upper Hudson River: From environmental disaster to environmental gridlock

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E. )

    1989-01-01

    The PCB pollution of the upper Hudson River has been traced to two discharge pipes from capacitor-manufacturing plants of the General Electric Company (GE) at Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, located about 40 miles north of Troy, New York. In August 1974, EPA biologists carried out a field investigation upstream of, at, and downstream of the GE discharge pipes. In September 1975, goaded by articles about PCB-contaminated fish from the Hudson Estuary, the Commissioner of the New York State Department of conservation (NYS DEC) commenced an administrative proceeding against GE, alleging violations of several NY State Environmental Conservation Law sections, and seeking cessation of PCB discharges, penalties for past discharges, and rehabilitation of the upper river. One stipulation of the resulting settlement agreement was that New York State sign off with GE over PCB pollution of the Hudson River and, if the Advisory Committee recommended in favor of rehabilitation, it would use its best efforts to find funds from sources other than GE to help pay for rehabilitation. The future of the PCB problem in the upper Hudson River seems likely to be settled by the outcome of a class-action lawsuit that commercial fisherman have filed against GE. In January 1989, a NEW York Appeals Court voted in favor of the ruling that the fishermen were entitled not only to payments for lost income, but to injunctive relief (which implies that GE must clean up the River). 311 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Rapid fluctuations of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at the mouth of Hudson Strait: New evidence for ocean/ice-sheet interactions as a control on the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gifford H.; Kaufman, Darrell S.

    1990-12-01

    Ice-directional features and erratic lithologies of the last glaciation demonstrate that a major outlet glacier of the Laurentide Ice Sheet flowed NNE across outer Hudson Strait rather than SE down the Strait as previously hypothesized. Ice advanced more than 600 km from a Labradorean source, crossing Hudson Strait and outer Frobisher Bay, and advancing onto Hall Peninsula; the highest summits on Loks Land (circa 400 m asl), a large island at the SE tip of Hall Peninsula, were inundated by Labradorean ice. Three distinct Late Wisconsin advances have been recognized. The earliest, most extensive advance crossed Frobisher about 11.5 kyr B.P. and was maintained for circa 1 kyr. Differences in the extent of amino acid racemization in shells from interstadial and deglacial sites on eastern Loks Land limit the duration of the most extensive Late Wisconsin advance(s) to a brief interval of no more than 2 kyr. Radiocarbon dates on in situ shells and on shells incorporated in till indicate that Frobisher Bay was ice-free from at least 10.5 to 10.2 kyr B.P. after which a second Labradorean advance, the Gold Cove readvance, attained nearly the same extent as the earlier advance. The readvance was short lived, and the Bay was deglaciated before 9.5 kyr B.P. A final readvance occurred during the Cockburn Substage (9 to 8 kyr B.P.), but ice failed to cross Frobisher Bay. The maximum extent of the Labradorean advance coincides with the onset of Younger Dryas cooling. Based on a minimum cross-sectional area and reasonable estimates of ice velocity, the iceberg flux to the North Atlantic Ocean at this time was between 300 to 2400 km³ year-1, about the same as the freshwater influx from the diversion of Lake Agassiz drainage to the St. Lawrence. The input of a significant volume of ice into the North Atlantic via the Labrador Sea would have cooled sea surface and air temperatures, increased sea-surface albedo, and diminished the effectiveness of wind mixing of surface waters

  4. 33 CFR 151.2065 - Equivalent reporting methods for vessels other than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent reporting methods for vessels other than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson River after operating outside the U.S... than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson River after operating outside the U.S. Exclusive...

  5. 33 CFR 151.2043 - Equivalent Reporting Methods for vessels other than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent Reporting Methods for vessels other than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson River after operating outside the EEZ or... entering the Great Lakes or Hudson River after operating outside the EEZ or Canadian equivalent. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 151.2065 - Equivalent reporting methods for vessels other than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent reporting methods for vessels other than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson River after operating outside the U.S... than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson River after operating outside the U.S. Exclusive...

  7. 33 CFR 151.2065 - Equivalent reporting methods for vessels other than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalent reporting methods for vessels other than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson River after operating outside the U.S... than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson River after operating outside the U.S. Exclusive...

  8. The Siege of Port Hudson: "Forty Days and Nights in the Wilderness of Death." Revised. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Gregg; Bergeron, Arthur W., Jr.

    This lesson describes and discusses the U.S. Civil War Siege of Port Hudson (Louisiana). Based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file, "Port Hudson Battlefield," the lesson cites objectives and lists materials for students, and provides information for a site visit. It contains eight sections: (1) "About this Lesson"; (2)…

  9. Ground-water data on the Hudson River basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, Deborah S.; Heath, Ralph C.; Waller, Roger Milton

    1978-01-01

    Ground water in the Hudson River basin occurs in unconsolidated deposits and consolidated rock. Sand and gravel units of the unconsolidated deposits, which occur principally in valley bottoms, form the best aquifers and commonly provide well yields of several hundred gallons per minute. Carbonate aquifers are the most productive consolidated rock units. Ground water in the Hudson River basin is generally hard and may contain appreciable amounts of iron, salts in solution, or sulfur locally. Basic data on the availability of ground water in the Hudson River drainage area are compiled in (1) a hydrogeologic map of the drainage basin; (2) a table of well depths, yields, concentrations of selected chemical constituents, and hardness of ground water, listed by county and aquifer type; (3) a short text describing the occurrence of ground water in the basin; and (4) a bibliography of ground-water reports pertinent to the area studied. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Climate change drives warming in the Hudson River Estuary, New York (USA).

    PubMed

    Seekell, David A; Pace, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    Estuaries may be subject to warming due to global climate change but few studies have considered the drivers or seasonality of warming empirically. We analyzed temperature trends and rates of temperature change over time for the Hudson River estuary using long-term data, mainly from daily measures taken at the Poughkeepsie Water Treatment Facility. This temperature record is among the longest in the world for a river or estuary. The Hudson River has warmed 0.945 °C since 1946. Many of the warmest years in the record occurred in the last 16 years. A seasonal analysis of trends indicated significant warming for the months of April through August. The warming of the Hudson is primarily related to increasing air temperature. Increasing freshwater discharge into the estuary has not mitigated the warming trend. PMID:21720614

  11. Environmental exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among older residents of upper Hudson River communities.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Edward F; Belanger, Erin E; Gomez, Marta I; Hwang, Syni-an; Jansing, Robert L; Hicks, Heraline E

    2007-07-01

    The upper Hudson River has been heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to discharges from former electrical capacitor plants in Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, NY. An epidemiologic study was conducted to assess the impact of dietary and residential exposure on PCB body burden among older, long-term, non-occupationally exposed adults living in the vicinity of these former capacitor plants. The study population consisted of 133 persons 55-74 years of age who had lived in Hudson Falls or Fort Edward for 25 years or more. The comparison group consisted of 120 persons from Glens Falls, which is upriver. Both groups were interviewed, and blood samples were obtained for congener-specific PCB analysis. Persons from the study area reported greater past consumption of Hudson River fish than did the comparison area, but current rates were very low in both areas. The geometric mean serum PCB concentrations for the study and comparison populations did not differ significantly (3.07 ppb wet weight and 3.23 ppb, respectively, for total PCB). Serum PCB concentrations increased with cumulative lifetime exposure to PCBs from Hudson River fish consumption (p<0.10). Persons who lived within 800 m of the river did not have significantly greater serum PCB concentrations than the control population, nor did persons who lived downwind and within 800 m of a PCB-contaminated site. The results indicate no detectable differences in serum PCB levels according to proximity or wind direction relative to local point sources, but lifetime consumption of Hudson River fish was positively associated with serum PCB concentrations. PMID:17382313

  12. A statistical forecast model for Tropical Cyclone Rainfall and flood events for the Hudson River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioffi, Francesco; Conticello, Federico; Hall, Thimoty; Lall, Upmanu; Orton, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) lead to potentially severe coastal flooding through wind surge and also through rainfall-runoff processes. There is growing interest in modeling these processes simultaneously. Here, a statistical approach that can facilitate this process is presented with an application to the Hudson River Basin that is associated with the New York City metropolitan area. Three submodels are used in sequence. The first submodel is a stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones developed by Hall and Yonekura (2011). It uses archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and of sea surface temperature (SST). The second submodel translates the attributes of a tropical cyclone simulated by the first model to rainfall intensity at selected stations within the watershed of Hudson River. Two different approaches are used and compared: artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN). Finally, the third submodel transforms, once again, by using an ANN approach and KNN, the rainfall intensities, calculated for the ensemble of the stations, to the streamflows at specific points of the tributaries of the Hudson River. These streamflows are to be used as inputs in a hydrodynamic model that includes storm surge surge dynamics for the simulation of coastal flooding along the Hudson River. Calibration and validation of the model is carried out by using, selected tropical cyclone data since 1950, and hourly station rainfall and streamflow recorded for such extreme events. Four stream gauges (Troy dam, Mohawk River at Cohoes, Mohawk River diversion at Crescent Dam, Hudson River above lock one nr Waterford), a gauge from a tributary in the lower Hudson River, and over 20 rain gauges are used. The performance of the proposed model as tool for storm events is then analyzed and discussed.

  13. Decadal to Millennial Sedimentation Patterns of the Hudson River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M.; McHugh, C. M.; Burckle, L.; Pekar, S.; Pereira, G.; Ryan, W. B.; Bell, R.; Carbotte, S.

    2002-12-01

    The Hudson River Estuary (HRE) is adjacent to large metropolitan areas including New York City. Understanding the variable energy conditions for transporting sediments is key to deal with environmental pollution such as the controversial burial and dredging of PCB's in the HRE. We studied sediment transport in the HRE by examining more than 150 cores and grab samples interpreted within the framework of acoustic images. The HRE sedimentary environments were defined based on quantitative estimates of grain size, sedimentary structures, bioturbation, and sedimentation rates and were divided into: channel, channel banks, subtidal flats, tributaries, and islands. Diatom assemblages were used to determine the extent of salt-water intrusion and sediment reworking in the estuary. Along a longitudinal profile, the estuary can be subdivided into: (1) sandy inner fluvial (furthest upstream), (2) muddy central portions, and (3) sandy outer marine. We classified sedimentary facies for the central and fluvial parts of the system (1 and 2). The HRE basin is nearly filled with sediment and tidal energy is focused within the channel and its banks. In the central basin where the estuary is wide (up to 4 km), flood currents are more energetic along the eastern channel bank and the ebb currents lead to minor sediment deposition on the western bank, but only where the system is out of equilibrium with its sediment load. The energy of the tides is accentuated along narrow segments of the estuary that are locally constrained by gorges of the Hudson Valley Highlands leading to erosion and the trapping of sediments. Beyond the banks of the channel, the subtidal flats that were filled with sediment by 0.5 to 3ka, are tranquil environments where the sediment is homogenized by bioturbation and reworked by waves as the estuary shallowed. Occasional high-energy events, (possibly flood-related) eroded the subtidal flats sediment as shown by rare rip-up clasts found in the cores. The inner

  14. Microbial dissolved organic phosphorus utilization in the Hudson River Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, J.W. ); Angel, D.L. )

    1990-01-09

    The Hudson River Estuary has large inputs of phosphorus and other nutrients from sewage discharge. Concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) reach at least 4 uM during the summer low-flow period. Biological utilization of phosphorus and other nutrients is usually minimal because of the high turbidity and short residence time of the water. Therefore SRP is normally a conservative tracer of salinity, with maximum concentrations found off Manhattan and decreasing to the north. Despite this abundance of SRP, some components of the dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) appear to be rapidly cycled by microbes. The objective of this study was to measure this DIP cycling during both the high- and low-flow periods. We measured the concentrations of SRP and DOP, the SRP turnover rate, algal and bacterial biomass, and the substrate turnover rates of two microbial cell-surface phosphatases, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and 5[prime] - nucleotidase (5PN). SRP concentrations ranged from about 0.5-4 uM, DOP was usually less than 1 uM. SRP and AP turnover were slow (generally < 5%/h), but 5PN substrate turnover was high with a median rate of 100%/h. Furthermore, over 30% of the phosphate hydrolyzed by 5PN was immediately taken up. If the nucleotide-P concentration is conservatively assumed to be 5 nM, than the rate of phosphate utilization from DOP is nearly equal to that from SRP. That is paradoxical considering the large SRP concentration, but suggests that much of this SRP may be biologically unavailable due to complexation with iron or other processes.

  15. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the tidal Hudson River, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, R.F.; Simpson, H.J.; Olsen, C.R.; Kostyk, N.

    1981-02-01

    As a result of PCB discharges from two manufacturing facilities located some 60 km upstream of Troy, N.Y., PCB's in sediments of the Hudson River were measured. The sediments contain PCB concentrations of approximately 10 ppm, some one to two orders of magnitude higher than levels previously recorded. A first-order PCB budget for Hudson River sediment samples and regional levels of PCB contamination prior to the large point-source discharges are examined. (5 graphs, 1 map, 23 references, 6 tables)

  17. Discharge, gage height, and elevation of 100-year floods in the Hudson River basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    The flood discharge that may be expected to be equaled or exceeded on the average of once in 100 years (100-year flood) was computed by the log-Pearson Type-III frequency relation for 72 stations in the Hudson River basin. These discharges and, where available, their corresponding gage height and elevation above mean sea level are presented in tabular form. A short explanation of computation methods is included. The data are to be used as part of a federally funded study of the water resources and related land resources of the Hudson River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Geochemical and sedimentological properties of Heinrich layers H2 and H1 off the Hudson Strait ice-surging source areas: ice-rafting vs water-laid down depositional mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttin, L.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The ~9 m-long core HU08-029-004PC was raised from the lower Labrador Sea slope (2674 m water-depth), approximately 180 km off Hudson Strait shelf edge. It yielded a high resolution record spanning the last 35 ka. The sequence includes layers with abundant detrital carbonates produced by glacial erosion of Paleozoic rocks and released into the Labrador Sea through ice streaming processes in Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay. These layers are assigned to 'Heinrich events' 3 (at core bottom), 2 and 1. Sedimentological properties and U and Th isotope measurements are used to document depositional mechanisms and durations of these layers. Data suggest: i) intense ice-rafting deposition (IRD) due to iceberg calving at the ice-stream edge, as illustrated by the coarse fraction content of the layers, and ii) sub-glacial meltwater flushing over the Hudson Strait sill, carrying fine silt-size, carbonate-rich glacial flour to the shelf-edge. Such suspended sediment pulses led to the spreading of turbidites mostly into the deep Labrador Sea, through the NAMOC system. Others late-glacial events, such as the ~ 8.2 ka final drainage of Lake Agassiz, are also recorded in the study core, whereas the H0 layer, exclusively observed in the western Labrador Sea is missing. CAT-scan images, mineralogical data, carbonate abundance, %>106 μm fraction (mostly IRD here), U-Th isotope data and 14C ages of planktic foraminifera assemblages (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, l.) are used to further document H2 (760 to 700 cm) and H1 (588 to 488 cm). The H-layers contain up to 60% of fine detrital carbonates (about 2/3 calcite, 1/3 dolomite). Whereas the fine calcitic material points to sediment sources (basal till/water-laid glacial sediments) in the Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay, i.e., originating from the glacial erosion of Paleozoic carbonates from the area, the dolomitic component might have several origins (from Proterozoic and Paleozoic limestones in the Hudson Bay and Strait, to northwestern

  19. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  20. Infrared Observations of Temperature Modulations on the Hudson River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, S.; Anderson, S. P.; Zappa, C. J.; Smith, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The thermal boundary layer at the surface of a river is constantly disrupted and renewed by physical processes associated with convection, turbulence, wind stress, heat flux, and other environmental factors. These disruptions cause temperature modulations in the surface layer which can be measured with an infrared (IR) sensor. Over the course of two ten-day periods in August and November of 2010, we imaged the Hudson River from atop a nearby cliff using a large-format, mid-wave IR sensor. Time series imagery was collected for 5 to 10 minute periods, every 30 minutes for the entirety of each experiment. In the field of view, several in situ instruments were mounted to a steel piling driven into the river bed. Above and below the water surface, an array of instruments were installed to measure heat flux, wind speed, air and water temperature, current velocity, humidity, radiance, and conductivity. In this analysis, we investigate the relationship between the temperature modulations present in the IR imagery, which are associated with coherent features advecting with the mean flow, and the environmental parameters measured from our in situ instruments. The IR imagery from these experiments show a diverse range of temperature modulation patterns, on scales of 20cm to several tens of meters, often masked by the presence of surface waves. At low grazing angles, the IR images of the water surface are comprised of a combination of emitted radiance from temperature modulations on the surface and reflected radiance from the sky above. To separate out the emitted signal from the reflected signal, we employ a Fourier space filtering technique to exclude the variance in the imagery due to the surface waves. We find the remaining emitted signal to be correlated with wind speed and the air-water temperature difference, and weakly or uncorrelated with stratification and mean current speed. We report on both the signal processing technique used to extract the emitted signal from

  1. Abrupt Atmospheric Methane Increases Associated With Hudson Strait Heinrich Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, R.; Brook, E.; Chiang, J. C. H.; Blunier, T.; Maselli, O. J.; McConnell, J. R.; Romanini, D.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The drivers of abrupt climate change during the Last Glacial Period are not well understood. While Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles are thought to be linked to variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC), it is not clear how or if Heinrich Events—extensive influxes of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean that impacted global climate and biogeochemistry—are related. An enduring problem is the difficultly in dating iceberg rafted debris deposits that typically lack foraminifera. Here we present an ultra-high resolution record of methane from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core at unprecedented, continuous temporal resolution from 67.2-9.8 ka BP, which we propose constrains the timing of Heinrich events. Our methane record essentially mirrors Greenland ice core stable isotope variability across D-O events, except during Heinrich stadials 1, 2, 4 and 5. Partway through these stadials only, methane increases abruptly and rapidly, as at the onset of a D-O event but Greenland temperature exhibits no equivalent response. Speleothem records exhibit signatures of drought in the Northern extra-tropics and intensified monsoonal activity over South America at these times. We use a simple heuristic model to propose that cold air temperatures and extensive sea ice in the North, resulting from Heinrich events, caused extreme reorganization of tropical hydroclimate. This involved curtailment of the seasonal northerly migration of tropical rain belts, leading to intensification of rainfall over Southern Hemisphere tropical wetlands, thus allowing production of excess methane relative to a 'normal' Greenland stadial. We note that this mechanism can operate if AMOC is already in a slowed state when a Heinrich event occurs, as paleo-evidence suggests it was. Heinrich events and associated sea ice cover would therefore act to prolong the duration of this AMOC state. Our findings place the big four Heinrich events of Hudson Strait origin

  2. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  3. Hudson County Community College Credit Student Enrollment Projections, 1999/00-2009/10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oromaner, Mark

    This report presents Hudson County Community College's (New Jersey) 1999/2000-2009/2010 enrollment projections, which are based upon three scenarios/assumptions: high, moderate, and low projections. Annual enrollment data for fall headcounts, annual unduplicated headcounts, and full-time equivalent students as well as assumptions for each scenario…

  4. TRENDS IN INDICATORS OF EUTROPHICATION IN WESTERN LONG ISLAND SOUND AND THE HUDSON-RARITAN ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant improvements in water quality have been observed for several decades throughout much of the Hudson-Raritan Estuary, largely as a result of regional abatement of municipal and industrial discharges. these improvements include area-wide, order-of-magnatude reductions i...

  5. 78 FR 20169 - Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hudson Yards Concrete...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Environmental Impacts,'' 64 FR 28545 (May 26, 1999) and 78 FR 2713 (Jan. 14, 2013), (FRA's Environmental... Procedures (64 FR at 28551). Issued in Washington, DC, on March 28, 2013. Corey Hill, Director, Office of... Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Project in New York, New York AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...

  6. 78 FR 56607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Regulations; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY,'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 31454). We received no... Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard amends the..., mile 152.7, between Troy and Green Island, New York. The owner of the bridge, New York State...

  7. TRENDS IN INDICATORS OF EUTOPHICATION IN WESTERN LONG ISLAND SOUND AND THE HUDSON-RARITAN ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant improvements in water quality have been observed for several decades throughout much of the Hudson-Raritan Estuary, largely as a result of regional abatement of municipal and industrial discharges. these improvements include area-wide, order-of-magnatude reductions i...

  8. The Partitioning of Triclosan between Aqueous and Particulate Phases in the Hudson River Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution of Triclosan within the Hudson River Estuary can be explained by a balance among the overall effluent inputs from municipal sewage treatment facilities, dilution of Triclosan concentrations in the water column with freshwater and seawater inputs, removal of Tricl...

  9. Community Perceptions of Hudson County Community College. Special Report 93.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Eleanor

    In 1993, two surveys were conducted to determine community perceptions of Hudson County Community College (HCCC) in New Jersey. During January and February 1993, 591 questionnaires regarding HCCC's mission were sent to representatives of business and industry, education, government, community groups and agencies, health and human service…

  10. Bridging the energy gap: Anadromous blueback herring feeding in the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simonin, P.W.; Limburg, K.E.; Machut, L.S.

    2007-01-01

    Adult blueback herring Alosa aestivalis (N = 116) were collected during the 1999, 2000, and 2002-2004 spawning runs from sites on the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, and gut contents were analyzed. Thirty-four fish (33% of those examined) were found to contain food material. Food items were present in 41% of Mohawk River samples and 11% of Hudson River samples; all Hudson River fish containing food were captured in small tributaries above the head of tide. Hudson River fish predominantly consumed zooplankton, while Mohawk River fish consumed benthic aquatic insects in large quantities, including Baetidae, Ephemeridae, and Chironomidae. Using stable isotope analysis and a mixing model, we found that fish collected later in the season had significantly decreased marine-derived C. Condition indices of later-season fish were equal to or greater than those of fish collected earlier in the season. Blueback herring in this system may face increased energy requirements as they migrate farther upstream during spawning runs, and feeding may provide energy subsidies needed to maintain fitness over their expanded migratory range. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  11. 75 FR 8486 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Troy Locks, New York AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... south of the Troy Locks. This regulated navigation area is necessary to promote maritime safety, and... operations, from operating on the navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy locks when...

  12. Impact Ejecta in a Possible Tsunami Layer in the Hudson River: Regional or Local Event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagen, K. T.; Abbott, D.; Nitsche, F.; West, A.; Bunch, T.; Breger, D.; Slagle, A.; Carbotte, S.

    2009-03-01

    Recent discoveries point to a tsunami event in the New York metropolitan area approximately 2300 BP. Our discovery of impact ejecta deposited by the tsunami in the Hudson River suggests that the tsunami was caused by an impact in the Atlantic Ocean.

  13. US Airways Flight 1549 Hudson river crash: the New Jersey experience.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Mark A; Bucher, Joshua; Cortacans, Henry P

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the preparation, implementation, and management of the US Airways Flight 1549 Hudson River crash. This is a review of the experience of NJ. The state planning that created the ability to execute the treatment of patients from time of impact in the river until debriefing is reviewed. PMID:19860160

  14. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  15. Chiral source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Hudson River estuary atmosphere and food web.

    PubMed

    Asher, Brian J; Wong, Charles S; Rodenburg, Lisa A

    2007-09-01

    The New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary is subject to significant contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from numerous sources, including the historically contaminated Upper Hudson River, stormwater runoff and sewer overflows, and atmospheric deposition from PCBs originating from the surrounding urban area. However, the relative importance of these sources to the estuary's food web is not fully understood. Sources of PCBs to the estuary were apportioned using chiral signatures of PCBs in air, water, total suspended matter, phytoplankton, and sediment. PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were racemic in the atmosphere of the estuary. However, the other phases contained nonracemic PCB 95 and to a lesser extent PCB 149. Thus, the predominant atmospheric source of these congeners is likely unweathered local pollution and not volatilization from the estuary. The similarity in chiral signatures in the other phases is consistent with dynamic contaminant exchange among them. Chiral signatures in the dissolved phase and total suspended matter were correlated with Upper Hudson discharge, suggesting thatthe delivery of nonracemic contaminated sediment from the Upper Hudson, not the atmosphere, controls phytoplankton uptake of some PCBs. Thus, measures to control PCB contamination in the Upper Hudson should be effective in reducing loadings to the estuary's aquatic ecosystem. PMID:17937297

  16. An integrated model for the fate and bioaccumulation of PCBs in the Hudson River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, K.J.; Thomann, R.V.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated mass transport model with a five component food chain calculation was developed for predicting PCB accumulation in sediments, lower trophic species, and striped bass. The model was originally applied to PCB homologues and calibrated using field data through 1987. Results of this work indicated that, under a no-action alternative, 50% of the striped bass would be below the FDA limit of 2 {micro}g of PCB/g of fish (wet weight) by 1992 and 95% of the striped bass would be below the FDA limit by 2004. An initial post-audit evaluation of the model showed that predicted PCB concentrations in striped bass compared well to field measurements. Some deviation in predicted and observed concentrations however were noted in the upper portion of the estuary and are believed to be related to a transient PCB load from the upper Hudson. Further evaluations are presently being performed to addressed: (1) how have Hudson River sediments and striped bass responded to decreasing PCB loads; (2) what are the relative contributions of PCB loads from the upper Hudson, from contaminated estuarine sediments, and from wastewater discharges into the lower estuary on present PCB levels in fish; and (3) what role does congener structure play in determining the fate and bioaccumulation of PCBs in the Hudson River estuary.

  17. Development of a probabilistic PCB-bioaccumulation model for six fish species in the Hudson River

    SciTech Connect

    Stackelberg, K. von; Menzie, C.

    1995-12-31

    In 1984 the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) completed a Feasibility Study on the Hudson River that investigated remedial alternatives and issued a Record of Decision (ROD) later that year. In December 1989 USEPA decided to reassess the No Action decision for Hudson River sediments. This reassessment consists of three phases: Interim Characterization and Evaluation (Phase 1); Further Site Characterization and Analysis (Phase 2); and, Feasibility study (Phase 3). A Phase 1 report was completed in August, 1991. The team then completed a Final Work Plan for Phase 2 in September 1992. This work plan identified various PCB fate and transport modeling activities to support the Hudson River PCB Reassessment Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS). This talk provides a description of the development of a Probabilistic bioaccumulation models to describe the uptake of PCBs on a congener-specific basis in six fish species. The authors have developed a framework for relating body burdens of PCBs in fish to exposure concentrations in Hudson River water and sediments. This framework is used to understand historical and current relationships as well as to predict fish body burdens for future conditions under specific remediation and no action scenarios. The framework incorporates a probabilistic approach to predict distributions in PCB body burdens for selected fish species. These models can predict single population statistics such as the average expected values of PCBs under specific scenarios as well as the distribution of expected concentrations.

  18. Library Resources in the Mid-Hudson Valley: Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichmann, Felix; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to "survey the library resources in the eight Mid-Hudson Counties of Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, and Ulster in order to develop a plan of service in which assets would be shared, resources developed, and services extended." Survey data were collected by six questionnaires; visits…

  19. 77 FR 46613 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman US Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...) entitled 2012 Ironman US Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ in the Federal Register (77 FR 34285...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman US Championship Swim,...

  20. 33 CFR 165.162 - Safety Zone: New York Super Boat Race, Hudson River, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: New York Super Boat Race, Hudson River, New York. 165.162 Section 165.162 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  1. 33 CFR 165.162 - Safety Zone: New York Super Boat Race, Hudson River, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: New York Super Boat Race, Hudson River, New York. 165.162 Section 165.162 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  2. The Study of Attrition at Hudson County Community College. Status Report. Special Report 92.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Eleanor; Oromaner, Mark

    At Hudson County Community College (HCCC), in New Jersey, research on student attrition has included cohort specific studies of enrollment and completion patterns, enrollment pattern studies of instructional programs, and periodic surveys of enrolled students, former students, and graduates. A comparative analysis conducted of previous attrition…

  3. Circulation and sediment transport in the vicinity of the Hudson Shelf Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Courtney K.; Signell, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment transport in the Hudson Shelf Valley and on the adjacent Long Island Shelf are evaluated using available data along with a three-dimensional wind-driven circulation model and a one-dimensional sediment transport model. Winds from the northwest drive currents up the Hudson Shelf Valley, while winds from the east produce weaker currents directed down the valley. Consistent with previous studies, sediment transport on the Long Island Shelf is dominated by resuspension during energetic wave events that are correlated with strong winds from the northeast, and net sediment flux is predicted to be towards the southwest along bathymetric contours. Transport of muddy sediments in the Hudson Shelf Valley, however, does not appear to be wave-dominated. These sediments are most likely to be resuspended by energetic currents driven by strong winds from the northwest that are not associated with energetic waves. The strong up-valley flows associated with these winds implies that net sediment flux along the Hudson Shelf Valley is up-valley.

  4. Frederic Hudson's Nineteenth Century Critics and the Research Agenda for Press Historians of the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorn, William J.

    Although Frederic Hudson's "Journalism History in the United States from 1690 to 1872," the first major survey of American journalism, has been a major reference since its publication in 1873, an examination of book reviews that appeared in the New York press following the book's publication reveals surprisingly sharp criticisms of the book that…

  5. 10-487 - Waterkeeper Alliance, Inc. v. Alan & Kristin Hudson Farm et al

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-08-27

    ... observed discharges was the tons of cow manure associated with the beef cattle operation that Hudson also.... This case was brought under the citizen suit provision of the Clean Water Act (CWA), 33 U.S.C. § 1365.... coli, nitrogen, and phosphorous had been discharged from Hudson’s farm and that at least some of...

  6. 33 CFR 165.170 - Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels will be allowed to transit the safety zone without the permission... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster... § 165.170 Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The...

  7. 33 CFR 165.170 - Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels will be allowed to transit the safety zone without the permission... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster... § 165.170 Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The...

  8. 75 FR 39839 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of NY/NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... machinery and construction vessel operations above and upon the navigable waters between Port Coeymans on... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of...

  9. 77 FR 41271 - Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson River, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register CFR Code of Federal Regulations NPRM... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson... Newburgh, NY for the annual Newburgh Beacon Swim event. This temporary safety zone is necessary to...

  10. Low Latitude Pelagic Foraminifera Found in the Hudson River: Are They Hurricane Deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, K. M.; Abbott, D. H.; Hoenisch, B.; Breger, D.

    2011-12-01

    River sediment cores provide a record of past environmental changes through stacked layers of sediments. In core CD02-29A, recovered from the southern Hudson River, a significant number of tropical planktic foraminifer tests were found. Foraminifera were concentrated in sediment layers of low impedance, suggesting high carbonate content. Because modern planktic foraminifera are exclusively marine, their presence in Hudson sediments in the core was remarkable. We can think of only two mechanisms that could explain this observation: either living specimens are carried upriver with the daily tides, or storm surges carry large amounts of seawater and re-suspended marine sediment upriver. To test for the presence of living specimens in Hudson River water, plankton tow samples were collected during high tide at the Hudson Battery south of the sample site, and at Piermont Pier north of the sample site and no living foraminifera were found. In addition, oxygen isotope (δ18O) analyses reveal a marine composition but the large difference in δ18O between the two surface dwelling species Globigerinoides ruber (pink) and Globigerinoides sacculifer, picked from the same sediment layer, suggests re-suspension and mixing of marine sediment deposits. Because only planktic, tropical to subtropical foraminiferal assemblages were found, the Hudson River deposits differ from previously recorded storm deposits found on Long Island and in New Jersey. In particular, the foraminiferal assemblages contain up to 40% G. ruber (pink), suggesting a highly tropical signal from a location where abundances of G. ruber are very low. This data, in addition to the pulsed occurrence of tests in the sediment suggests that the introduction of planktic foraminifera into the Hudson River must be driven by rare events. We suggest that storm surges from rare high-intensity hurricanes most likely explain the presence of these tests in Hudson River sediments, possibly assisted by the Gulf Stream entraining

  11. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  12. Canada: Country Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Canada emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and graphs. Aspects of the country depicted include: geography, population, resources, international trade, government, and energy. Short texts on multiculturalism, the Canadian economy, the country's history, and U.S.-Canada relations also are included.…

  13. Canada and the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Highlights Canada's high marks in a poll on its international image in 20 countries. Asks how Canada should take advantage of its positive international image. Notes areas where Canadian foreign policy is most admired: advancement of global peace and human rights, provision of aid, and participation in international peacekeeping. (DSK)

  14. Canada's iron creek meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, C. E.

    1989-04-01

    An iron mass, of meteoritical origin, found on a hilltop in the southern Canadian prairies, is unique to Canadian scientific history. It is the third largest meteorite to have been found in Canada (at one time it was reported to be Canada's largest single meteorite mass). A brief historical account, and a corrected official weight (145 kilograms), of this interesting meteorite is presented.

  15. A catastrophic meltwater flood event and the formation of the Hudson Shelf Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, E.R.; Butman, B.; Schwab, W.C.; Allison, M.A.; Driscoll, N.W.; Donnelly, J.P.; Uchupi, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Hudson Shelf Valley (HSV) is the largest physiographic feature on the U.S. mid-Atlantic continental shelf. The 150-km long valley is the submerged extension of the ancestral Hudson River Valley that connects to the Hudson Canyon. Unlike other incised valleys on the mid-Atlantic shelf, it has not been infilled with sediment during the Holocene. Analyses of multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter intensity, and high-resolution seismic reflection profiles reveal morphologic and stratigraphic evidence for a catastrophic meltwater flood event that formed the modern HSV. The valley and its distal deposits record a discrete flood event that carved 15-m high banks, formed a 120-km2 field of 3- to 6-m high bedforms, and deposited a subaqueous delta on the outer shelf. The HSV is inferred to have been carved initially by precipitation and meltwater runoff during the advance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, and later by the drainage of early proglacial lakes through stable spillways. A flood resulting from the failure of the terminal moraine dam at the Narrows between Staten Island and Long Island, New York, allowed glacial lakes in the Hudson and Ontario basins to drain across the continental shelf. Water level changes in the Hudson River basin associated with the catastrophic drainage of glacial lakes Iroquois, Vermont, and Albany around 11,450 14C year BP (∼ 13,350 cal BP) may have precipitated dam failure at the Narrows. This 3200 km3 discharge of freshwater entered the North Atlantic proximal to the Gulf Stream and may have affected thermohaline circulation at the onset of the Intra-Allerød Cold Period. Based on bedform characteristics and fluvial morphology in the HSV, the maximum freshwater flux during the flood event is estimated to be ∼ 0.46 Sv for a duration of ∼ 80 days.

  16. Detection of Changes in Sediment Distribution in the Hudson River Estuary with Repeated Subbottom Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decade, several major storms have impacted the US Atlantic coast, including tropical storm Sandy in 2013 and tropical storms Irene and Lee in 2012. These storms, in particular, had major impacts on the watershed of the Hudson River Estuary, resulting in changes in the delivery and distribution of sediments. While Sandy generated a large storm surge that mostly effected the lower estuary, Irene and Lee caused significant flooding in the upper estuary that delivered ~2.7 million tons of sediment to the Hudson River Estuary, which according to USGS estimates is an amount equal to three times the annual load of ~700,000-800,000 metric? tons (Wall et al. 2008; Ralston et al., 2013). Here we report results from high-resolution Chirp subbottom surveys conducted in selected areas of the Hudson River in 2014. Areas were selected with the goal of investigating changes in the sediment deposition and storage in the Hudson River as a result of these events. The new survey lines were acquired following the tracks of earlier subbottom profiles that were collected as part of the Hudson River Benthic Mapping Project in the early 2000s, i.e. before the storms of 2012 and 2013, in a dense grid of subbottom profiles. We then compared these co-located profiles to determine changes between the profiles and to map out the spatial distribution of increased deposition in the selected areas. In several places, the data show clear increases of the thickness of depositional layers of over 0.25 m while in other areas these changes are less clear. Changes based on sub-bottom data will be compared to results obtained on sediment cores taken from the same areas. Preliminary analysis of the sediment cores indicates clear layers of recent sediments in some areas that correspond to the results of the subbottom analysis.

  17. Groundwater Resources Evolution in Degrading Permafrost Environments: A Small Catchment-Scale Study in Northern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molson, John; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Fortier, Richard; Therrien, Rene; Ouellet, Michel; Barth, Johannes; van Geldern, Robert; Cochand, Marion; Sottas, Jonathan; Murray, Renaud; Banville, David

    2015-04-01

    A two square kilometre catchment in a discontinuous permafrost zone near the Inuit community of Umiujaq on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay in Northern Quebec, Canada, is being investigated to determine the impact of permafrost degradation on groundwater resources. The catchment, which became deglaciated about 7500 years ago, lies in a valley which includes about 30-40 m of glacial-fluvial and marine Quaternary sediments. Permafrost mounds at the site extend from a few meters below ground surface to depths of about 10-30 m. Instrumentation has been installed to measure groundwater levels and temperature, as well as groundwater and surface water geochemistry, isotope signatures (including δ18O and 3H) and stream flow. Preliminary groundwater isotope data reflect depleted δ18O signals that differ from expected values for local groundwater, possibly representing permafrost thaw. In addition, stable water isotopes indicate evaporation from shallow thermokarst lakes. Meteorological conditions including air temperatures, precipitation and snowpack are also being monitored. Near-surface geophysical surveys using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization tomography (IPT), georadar and seismic refraction tomography have been carried out to characterize the catchment and to build a 3D geological site model. A numerical model of coupled groundwater flow and heat transport, including thermal advection, conduction, freeze-thaw and latent heat, is being developed for the site to help develop the conceptual model and to assess future impacts of permafrost degradation due to climate warming. The model (Heatflow/3D) includes nonlinear functions for the temperature-dependent unfrozen moisture content and relative permeability, and has been tested against analytical solutions and using benchmarks developed by the INTERFROST modelling consortium. A conceptual 2D vertical-plane model including several permafrost mounds along a 1 km section shows dynamic seasonal

  18. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  19. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  20. Spacelab-1 module in orbiter Columbia's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A Space Shuttle mission STS-9 onboard view show's Spacelab-1 (SL-1) module in orbiter Columbia's payload bay. Spacelab-1 was a cooperative venture of NASA and the European Space Agency. Scientists from eleven European nations plus Canada, Japan and the U.S. provided instruments and experimental procedures for over 70 different investigations in five research areas of disciplines: astronomy and solar physics, space plasma physics, atmospheric physics and Earth observations, life sciences and materials science.

  1. 77 FR 47621 - Hudson Transmission Partners, LLC v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hudson Transmission Partners, LLC v. New York Independent System Operator... formal complaint against the New York Independent System Operator, Inc. (Respondent). As more fully... Test using methods and assumptions that are unjust, unreasonable, and unduly discriminatory;...

  2. Determining Sources and Transport of Nuclear Contamination in Hudson River Sediments with Plutonium, Neptunium, and Cesium isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, T. C.; Chillrud, S. N.; Chaky, D. A.; Simpson, H. J.; McHugh, C. M.; Shuster, E. L.; Bopp, R. F.

    2004-12-01

    Different sources of radioactive contamination contain characteristic and identifiable isotopic signatures, which can be used to study sediment transport. We focus on Pu-239, Pu-240, Np-237 and Cs-137, which are strongly bound to fine grained sediments. The Hudson River drainage basin has received contamination from at least three separate sources: 1) global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which contributed Pu, Np and Cs; 2) contamination resulting from reactor releases at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant (IPNPP) located on the Hudson River Estuary ˜70km north of New York Harbor, where records document releases of Cs-137; 3) contamination resulting from activities at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) located on the Mohawk River, where incomplete records document releases of Cs-137 but no mention is made of Pu or Np. Here we report measurements of Pu isotopes, Np-237 and Cs-137 for a series of sediment cores collected from various locations within the drainage basin: 1) Mohawk River downstream of KAPL, 2) Hudson River upstream of its confluence with the Mohawk River, and 3) lower Hudson River at a location in close proximity to IPNPP. In addition, we present data from selected samples from two other lower Hudson River locations: One site located ˜30km downstream of IPNPP and another ˜30km upstream of IPNPP. By comparing the isotopic ratios Pu-240/Pu-239, Np-237/Pu-239, and Cs-137/Pu-239, measured in fluvial sediments to mean global fallout values, it is possible to identify and resolve different sources of non-fallout contamination. To date, isotopic data for sediments indicate non-fallout sources of Pu-239, Pu-240, and Cs-137; Np-237, however, appears to originate from global fallout only. Mohawk River sediments downstream of KAPL exhibit enrichments in Pu-239, Pu-240, and Cs-137 that are 7 to 20 times higher than levels expected from global fallout as indicated from Np-237. The elevated levels, non-fallout isotopic signatures

  3. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River, Eastern Lake Ontario, and Lower Hudson River Basins, New York, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Reddy, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The Lower Hudson River Basin study area covers 5,607 square miles and encompasses the part of the Lower Hudson River Basin that lies within New York plus the parts of the Housatonic, Hackensack, Bronx, and Saugatuck River Basins that are in New York. Twelve of the wells sampled in the Lower Hudson River Basin are completed in sand-and-gravel deposits, and 13 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Lower Hudson River Basin was generally of good quality, although properties and concentrations of some constituents—pH, sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, aluminum, iron, manganese, radon-222, total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, and heterotrophic plate count—equaled or exceeded primary, secondary, or proposed drinking-water standards. The constituent most frequently detected in concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards (20 of 25 samples) was radon-222.

  4. Methods to assess impacts on Hudson River striped bass. Report for the period October 1, 1977-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Kumar, K.D.; Van Winkle, W.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1980-05-01

    The results obtained during this period were used in a detailed assessment of the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population. Most of these results were incorporated in testimony written for ongoing adjudicatory hearings on the Hudson River Power Case, US Environmental Protection Agency, Region II (USEPA, Region II). This testimony will be published as a three-volume NUREG report during FY80.

  5. Report from Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, D.

    1990-06-01

    This report announces Canada's strategies for dealing with smog; a pilot project for reducing smog and ozone through gasoline vapor recovery; setting national targets for curbing carbon dioxide emissions; and the development of a comprehensive air quality policy in Saskatchewan.

  6. Canada thistle phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural and experimental populations of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) were monitored at separate sites in western Minnesota for two and four years, respectively. Both populations responded similarly to environmental cues, except during the establishment year for the experimental population. Other...

  7. Trichinellosis acquired in Nunavut, Canada in September 2009: meat from grizzly bear suspected.

    PubMed

    Houzé, S; Ancelle, T; Matra, R; Boceno, C; Carlier, Y; Gajadhar, A A; Dupouy-Camet, J

    2009-01-01

    Five cases of trichinellosis with onset of symptoms in September 2009, were reported in France, and were probably linked to the consumption of meat from a grizzly bear in Cambridge Bay in Nunavut, Canada. Travellers should be aware of the risks of eating raw or rare meat products in arctic regions, particularly game meat such as bear or walrus meat. PMID:19941776

  8. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race...

  9. VALIDATION OF AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA (AWQC) BIOACCUMULATION METHODOLOGY USING FIELD DATA FROM GREEN BAY AND THE HUDSON RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, EPA published its draft revision to the methodology for deriving ambient water quality criteria to protect human health. Four methods were proposed to determine lipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors based on freely-dissolved water concentrations (BAFs) for nonpolar or...

  10. Index of surface-water records, part 5, Hudson Bay and upper Mississippi River basins, to September 30, 1948

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1949-01-01

    Langlade County depends almost exclusively on groundwater pumped from the glacial sand and gravel deposits for its water needs. Well yields of 10 to 20 gallons per minute (gpm) can be obtained from these deposits throughout most of the county. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity values of glacial material range from < 1 ft/day in fine-grained glacial tills in western parts of the county to approximately 145 ft/day in outwash deposits. The transmissivity of glacial deposits ranges from essentially zero in areas of unsaturated glacial material to more than 40,000 sq ft/day in the outwash plain of south-central Langlade County. Most surface water and groundwater originates from precipitation falling within the county. Groundwater composition in Langlade County is similar to most groundwater in the State and is of suitable quality for most uses. It is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. Concentrations of total dissolved solids are relatively low and range from 71 to 369 mg/L, with a median value of 144 mg/L. An average of about 4.7 million gallons of water was pumped daily in Langlade County in 1983. Irrigation and fish rearing are the major groundwater uses in the county. An average of about 4.2 million gallons per day was pumped for irrigation during the months of June, July, and August. Results of this study show that present irrigation pumpage rates have little effect on groundwater levels in the Antigo Flats area. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Hudson River water and treated drinking water at Waterford, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.A.; Barnes, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Past discharge of PCBs into the Hudson River has resulted in contaminant concentrations of a few tenths of a microgram per liter in the water. Waterford is one of two large municipal users of the Hudson River for drinking-water supply. The treatment scheme at the Waterford plant, which processes approximately 1 million gallons per day, is similar to that of most conventional treatment plants except for the addition of powdered activated carbon during flocculation. Comparison of PCB concentrations in river water and intake water at the plant to concentrations in treated drinking-water samples indicates that purification processes remove 80 to 90 percent of the PCBs and that final concentrations seldom exceed 0.1 microgram per liter. No significant difference was noted between the removal efficiencies during periods of high river discharge, when PCBs are associated with suspended sediment, and low discharge, when PCBs are generally dissolved. (USGS)

  12. Cross sections of the Hudson River estuary from Troy to New York City, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stedfast, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Data on channel geometry of the Hudson River estuary at 125 cross sections between the Federal Dam at Troy and the norhtern limits of New York City (133 miles) are presented for use in hydraulic modeling, tidal studies, traveltime and water-quality studies, and other uses requiring knowledge of Hudson River channel properties. The data were obtained from field surveys of the estuary conducted by boat with a fathometer in 1966-69. Water-surface elevations were not recorded during the fathometer runs but were calculated in 1979 from information on tide variations in the estuary and from stage data collected at Albany and New York City. Topographic maps and field reconaissance were used to extend the ends of the cross sections beyond 100-year flood stage. Channel-configuration data are presented as perspective plots and in a table; also included are strip maps showing the location of the cross sections. (USGS)

  13. /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu in sediments of the Hudson River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Linsalata, P.; Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.; Singh, N.P.

    1980-12-01

    Plutonium-239,240 and plutonium-238 were determined in 59 Hudson River sediment dredge samples collected during 1973-77 in the vicinity of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station. Acid leaching followed by solvent extraction, electrodeposition, and alpha-spectrometry were used to extract, purify, and quantitate plutonium isotopes present in these samples. Annual median plutonium-238/plutonium-239,240 isotopic activity ratios in surficial sediments were 0.032 (1973-74), 0.035 (1975), 0.042 (1976), and 0.040 (1977). The source of these nuclides in the estuary was identified by analysis of the sample isotopic activity ratios. On the basis of the sampling regimen and the methods used, it is concluded that no input, other than that of fallout, has contributed significantly to the plutonium burden in Hudson sediments. (1 map, 9 references, 9 tables)

  14. The partitioning of Triclosan between aqueous and particulate bound phases in the Hudson River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brittan; Chen, Robert F; Cantwell, Mark; Gontz, Allen; Zhu, Jun; Olsen, Curtis R

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of Triclosan within the Hudson River Estuary can be explained by a balance among the overall effluent inputs from municipal sewage treatment facilities, dilution of Triclosan concentrations in the water column with freshwater and seawater inputs, removal of Triclosan from the water column by adsorption to particles, and loss to photodegradation. This study shows that an average water column concentration of 3+/-2 ng/l (in the lower Hudson River Estuary) is consistent with an estimate for dilution of average wastewater concentrations with seawater and calculated rates of adsorption of Triclosan to particles. An average Triclosan sediment concentration of 26+/-11 ng/g would be in equilibrium with the overlying water column if Triclosan has a particle-to-water partitioning coefficient of k(d) approximately 10(4), consistent with laboratory estimates. PMID:19559448

  15. Sediment transport due to extreme events: The Hudson River estuary after tropical storms Irene and Lee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, David K.; Warner, John C.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Wall, Gary R.

    2013-10-01

    Storms Irene and Lee in 2011 produced intense precipitation and flooding in the U.S. Northeast, including the Hudson River watershed. Sediment input to the Hudson River was approximately 2.7 megaton, about 5 times the long-term annual average. Rather than the common assumption that sediment is predominantly trapped in the estuary, observations and model results indicate that approximately two thirds of the new sediment remained trapped in the tidal freshwater river more than 1 month after the storms and only about one fifth of the new sediment reached the saline estuary. High sediment concentrations were observed in the estuary, but the model results suggest that this was predominantly due to remobilization of bed sediment. Spatially localized deposits of new and remobilized sediment were consistent with longer term depositional records. The results indicate that tidal rivers can intercept (at least temporarily) delivery of terrigenous sediment to the marine environment during major flow events.

  16. Lutzow-Holm Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Lutzow-Holm Bay and the Shirase Glacier, Antarctica ... in the lower right-hand corner of these images, are the primary drainage systems for the Antarctic ice sheet. These two views ...

  17. Public support for ecosystem restoration in the Hudson River Valley, USA.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Knuth, Barbara A; Kay, David L

    2002-04-01

    We applied the Theory of Planned Behavior to help understand the relationships between environmental beliefs, support for ecosystem restoration actions, and willingness to pay (WTP) for restoration and protection goals in the Hudson River estuary, New York State, USA. We conducted a mail survey with 3,000 randomly-chosen local residents of the Hudson River estuary in the fall of 1999. As hypothesized, the broad ecosystem restoration goals of the Hudson River Estuary Action Plan were more strongly supported than the corresponding specific implementation actions. We found that beliefs and past behavior were better explanatory variables than sociodemographic characteristics for explaining people's support for ecosystem restoration actions and WTP for restoration and protection goals. Because ecosystem restoration goals appear to be more generally acceptable than specific restoration actions, proponents of restoration programs should not become complacent about the need for active public outreach and involvement even if initial restoration program discussions have been low in controversy. Efforts to assess and foster support for ecosystem restoration should be targeted toward audiences identified on the basis of beliefs and past behaviors rather than on sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:12071498

  18. Re-visiting projections of PCBs in Lower Hudson River fish using model emulation.

    PubMed

    Field, L Jay; Kern, John W; Rosman, Lisa B

    2016-07-01

    Remedial decision making at large contaminated sediment sites with bioaccumulative contaminants often relies on complex mechanistic models to forecast future concentrations and compare remedial alternatives. Remedial decision-making for the Hudson River PCBs Superfund site involved predictions of future levels of PCBs in Upper Hudson River (UHR) and Lower Hudson River (LHR) fish. This study applied model emulation to evaluate the impact of updated sediment concentrations on the original mechanistic model projections of time to reach risk-based target thresholds in fish in the LHR under Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and the selected dredging remedy. The model emulation approach used a combination of nonlinear and linear regression models to estimate UHR water PCBs as a function of UHR sediment PCBs and to estimate fish concentrations in the LHR as a function of UHR water PCBs, respectively. Model emulation captured temporal changes in sediment, water, and fish PCBs predicted by the mechanistic model over the emulation period. The emulated model, using updated sediment concentrations and a revised estimate of recovery rate, matched the trend in annual monitoring data for white perch and largemouth bass in the LHR between 1997 and 2014. Our best predictions based on the emulated model indicate that the projected time to reach fish tissue risk-based thresholds in the LHR will take decades longer than the original mechanistic model projections. PMID:27017079

  19. Linking habitat use of Hudson River striped bass to accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Secor, D.H.; Zlokovitz, E.; Wales, S.Q.; Baker, J.E.

    2000-03-15

    Since 1976, the commercial striped bass fishery in the Hudson River (NY) has been closed due to total polychlorinated biphenyl (t-PCB) concentrations that exceed the US Food and Drug Administration's advisory level of 2 {micro}g/g-wet weight. Extensive monitoring of Hudson River striped bass demonstrated much more variability in t-PCB levels among individual striped bass than could be explained by their age, sex, or lipid contents. To investigate the possible role of differential habitat use among subpopulations of striped bass in controlling their PCB exposures, 70 fish collected throughout the Hudson River estuary and Long Island Sound in 1994--1995 were analyzed for PCB congeners, and their lifetime migration behaviors were estimated by otolith microchemistry. The mean salinity encountered during the fish's last growth season prior to capture was inversely correlated with the t-PCB body burden. Striped bass permanently residing in fresh and oligohaline portions of the estuary adjacent to known PCB sources had elevated t-PCB levels and congeneric patterns with higher proportions of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls. Conversely, fish spending the majority of their life in more saline waters of the estuary or migrating frequently throughout the salinity gradient contained lower PCB levels composed of more highly chlorinated congeners. The approach used in this study allows habitat use to be incorporated into exposure assessments for anadromous fish species such as striped bass.

  20. Spatial variation of sediment deposition in the Hudson River - a detailed inventory and potential causes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment deposition in urban estuaries is controlled by the interaction of human modifications and natural factors that include tides, fresh water inputs, bed morphology, sediment supply, and hydrodynamics. A key element of managing these estuaries is detailed understanding of sediment deposition and its driving processes. Using a combination of geophysical and geochemical analysis we establish a detailed inventory of 20 century deposition for most of the mud-dominated sections of the Hudson River. These data show variations between different segments of the Hudson River as well as strong local variations within each section, with depositional settings ranging from erosional to those accumulating at ~10 mm/year. Our work indicates that 170,000 - 250,000 metric tons of sediment are deposited annually in the areas studied, which is a significant portion of the estimated total annual sediment load of ~700,000 - 800,000 metric tons. This also suggests that some of the accumulated sediments are re-mobilized, e.g. during major storms. The observed patterns of deposition/erosion are primarily caused by natural conditions, but, in some parts, they are strongly influenced by human modifications of the estuary, such as dredging. In addition to improving our understanding of the sediment dynamic of the Hudson River, the observed distribution of sediment deposition is also an indicator for the occurrence of contaminants including heavy metals and PCB’s and thus a valuable tool for management decisions.

  1. Peat landforms along the Albany River, northern Ontario. An ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    During the summer of 1985 a field investigation was started in the Hudson Bay lowland region of northern Ontario, which represents the largest expanse of peatland in North America and is an important sink in the global carbon cycle. A key area in the lowlands is situated along the Albany River near the confluence of the Chepay River. Here the striking vegetation-landforms are transitional between those found on the bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz in northern Minnesota and southern Manitoba and the more northern peatlands in the Hudson Bay lowland region. In peatland studies elsewhere the landform patterns have been used not only to classify different peatland types but also as an indicator of potential developmetnal trends. The study area is generally defined by that covered by the TM scene E-40062-15532 taken on Sept. 16, 1982. The purpose of the field work is to acquire sufficent information to interpret the TM imagery and test various hypotheses on peatland development on the gasis of the pattern transitions.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in spotted sandpiper eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Custer, Christine M; Gray, Brian R

    2010-02-01

    In 2004, spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia) were studied on the Hudson River near Fort Edward south to New Baltimore, NY and on two river drainages that flow into the Hudson River. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 160 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 17 dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) congeners were quantified in eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. The pattern of organochlorine pesticides and PCDD-F congeners did not differ significantly between eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. In contrast, the pattern of PCB congeners differed significantly between the Hudson River and other rivers. Total PCBs were significantly greater in eggs from the Hudson River (geometric mean = 9.1 microg PCBs/g wet weight) than from the other two rivers (0.6 and 0.6 microg PCBs/g wet weight). Seven of 35 (20%) eggs exceeded 20 microg PCBs/g wet weight, the estimated threshold for reduced hatching in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and some raptor species; the maximum concentration was 72.3 microg PCBs/g wet weight. Models that predicted nest survival and egg success (the proportion of eggs hatching in a clutch if at least one egg hatched) as functions of contaminant levels were poorly distinguished from models that presumed no such associations. While small sample size could have contributed to the inability to distinguish among contaminant and no toxicant models, we cannot rule out the possibility that contaminant concentrations on the Hudson River were not sufficiently high to demonstrate a relationship between contaminant concentrations and reproductive success. PMID:19809875

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in spotted sandpiper eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia) were studied on the Hudson River near Fort Edward south to New Baltimore, NY and on two river drainages that flow into the Hudson River. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 160 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 17 dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) congeners were quantified in eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. The pattern of organochlorine pesticides and PCDD-F congeners did not differ significantly between eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. In contrast, the pattern of PCB congeners differed significantly between the Hudson River and other rivers. Total PCBs were significantly greater in eggs from the Hudson River (geometric mean = 9.1 ??g PCBs/g wet weight) than from the other two rivers (0.6 and 0.6 ??g PCBs/g wet weight). Seven of 35 (20%) eggs exceeded 20 ??g PCBs/g wet weight, the estimated threshold for reduced hatching in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and some raptor species; the maximum concentration was 72.3 ??g PCBs/g wet weight. Models that predicted nest survival and egg success (the proportion of eggs hatching in a clutch if at least one egg hatched) as functions of contaminant levels were poorly distinguished from models that presumed no such associations. While small sample size could have contributed to the inability to distinguish among contaminant and no toxicant models, we cannot rule out the possibility that contaminant concentrations on the Hudson River were not sufficiently high to demonstrate a relationship between contaminant concentrations and reproductive success. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Acoustic propagation in the Hudson River Estuary: Analysis of experimental measurements and numerical modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Sreeram

    Underwater intrusion detection is an ongoing security concern in port and harbor areas. Of particular interest is to detect SCUBA divers, unmanned underwater vehicles and small boats from their acoustic signature. A thorough understanding of the effects of the shallow water propagating medium on acoustic signals can help develop new technologies and improve the performance of existing acoustic based surveillance systems. The Hudson River Estuary provides us with such a shallow water medium to conduct research and improve our knowledge of shallow water acoustics. Acoustic propagation in the Hudson River Estuary is highly affected by the temporal and spatial variability of salinity and temperature due to tides, freshwater inflows, winds etc. The primary goal of this research is to help develop methodologies to predict the formation of an acoustic field in the realistic environment of the lower Hudson River Estuary. Shallow water high-frequency acoustic propagation experiments were conducted in the Hudson River near Hoboken, New Jersey. Channel Impulse Response (CIR) measurements were carried out in the frequency band from 10 to 100 kHz for distances up to 200 meters in a water depth of 8-10 meters which formed the basis for experimental Transmission Loss (TL). CIR data was also utilized to demonstrate multi-path propagation in shallow water. Acoustic propagation models based on Ray Theory and Parabolic Equation methods were implemented in the frequency band from 10 to 100 kHz and TL was estimated. The sound velocity profiles required as input by acoustic propagation models were calculated from in-situ measurements of temperature, salinity and depth. Surface reflection loss was obtained from CIR data and incorporated into the acoustic propagation models. Experimentally obtained TL was used to validate the acoustic model predictions. An outcome of this research is an operational acoustic transmission loss (TL) forecast system based on the existing, Stevens New York

  5. Observational Evidence of an Intensifying Hydrological Cycle in Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déry, S. J.; Hernández-Henríquez, M. A.; Mlynowski, T. J.; Burford, J. E.; Wood, E. F.

    2009-05-01

    This talk will present an overview of recent trends and variability of river discharge in northern Canada, with a focus on our contributions to the IPY project "Arctic Freshwater Systems". We will first introduce the pan-Arctic domain, with a focus on northern Canada, and its hydroclimatology. Trends and variability in the 1964-2007 annual streamflow for 45 rivers spanning 5.2 × 106 km2 of northern Canada will then be discussed. We will present a trend analysis for the 44-year period that reveals a modest increase in the annual flows, with a recent trend reversal owing to much-above average values recorded over the past decade. Trends in the coefficient of variation computed from 11-year moving windows of annual streamflows exhibit spatially coherent signals with increasing variability across most of northern Canada, excluding some rivers with outlets to the Labrador Sea and eastern James Bay. This study therefore provides observational evidence of an intensifying hydrological cycle in northern Canada.

  6. Research Spotlight: Narwhals document continued warming of Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2011-03-01

    Baffin Bay, situated between northern Greenland and Canada, is a major gateway between waters from the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Dynamics within the bay help govern how much water from the Arctic flows south and sinks to form North Atlantic Deep Water, a deep current that drives ocean circulation on a global scale. Unfortunately, monitoring the deep reaches of Baffin Bay throughout the year is difficult—most oceanographic data are collected in the summer when the area is ice free. To overcome this inability to collect data in harsh winter conditions, Laidre et al. hit upon a novel solution: mounting instruments on narwhals to collect temperature and depth data. Narwhals, a top predator in this frigid ecosystem, make annual migrations from summering grounds in the Canadian High Arctic and western Greenland to wintering grounds in the dense offshore pack ice of Baffin Bay. Moreover, narwhals, which rank among the deepest-diving whales in the world, dive extensively and repeatedly to depths exceeding 1800 meters under pack ice to reach their major food source, the flatfish that swarm on the seafloor of Baffin Bay. Narwhal dives are nearly vertical, making this whale an ideal platform on which to mount surveying instruments. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2009JC005820, 2010)

  7. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  10. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  12. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  13. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  14. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  19. Modeling power-plant impacts on multipopulation systems: application of loop analysis to the Hudson River white perch population

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1981-12-01

    The white perch population of the Hudson River suffers unusually high mortality due to impingement and entrainment at power plants. The long-term consequences of this mortality for the Hudson River ecosystem depend in part on interactions between the white perch population and its prey, competitors, and predators, many of which are themselves subject to mortality at power plants. Size multipopulation models were analyzed, using a technique known as loop analysis, to determine how patterns of interaction affect population responses to stress and to identify the parameters that have the greatest influence on those responses. These theoretical results, together with information on life history and vulnerability to power plants for Hudson River fish and macroinvertebrate populations, were used to assess the likely effects of power plant mortality on the white perch population and its prey, competitors, and predators. The results suggest that effects of interactions with other populations are insufficient to offset the effects of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River white perch population. The results also suggest that if mortality imposed by power plants does cause a substantial decline in the white perch population, then piscivore populations in the Hudson River should not be noticeably affected, a complementary increase in the abundance of competitors that are relatively invulnerable to power plants should occur, and a shift in the distribution of biomass within the white perch population toward the older age classes should occur.

  20. Establishment of white spruce populations and responses to climatic change at the treeline, Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.A.; Hansell, R.I.C.; Fayle, D.C.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies on recruitment of white spruce from 1785 to present document the open forest succession at Churchill, Manitoba. Advance of trees onto land emerging from Hudson Bay due to isostatic uplift and permafrost intrusion has resulted in the development of two distinct systems. Open forest and forest-tundra are distinguished by seedling establishment, crown forms, and the growth patterns of the trees. Forest-tundra plots which demonstrate transition to open forest are documented. Where the two systems were established prior to the major climatic warming, they are resistant to invasion and there is little resultant change in the position of the treeline. Once started, population growth within the open forest system tends to be self generating and is little affected by subsequent climatic cooling. The mature open forest established prior to 1800 has shown a decline in seedling establishment during the climatic warming. These sites are characterized by extensive lichen cover.

  1. Holocene vegetation histories from three sites in the Tundra of Northwestern Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, K. ); Garralla, S.

    1992-11-01

    Two pollen diagrams from lakes north of treeline in northwestern Quebec indicate that Picea never extended north of its present-day limit during the past 6000 yr BP. Alnus crispa was slightly more abundant around 5000 BP, but there are few major changes in the vegetation of the region during the Holocene. A third site in the tundra along Hudson Bay has a slightly longer sequence (7000 yr BP) which indicates more open conditions in the early and recent part of the record. Picea may have been more abundant locally around 3000 BP. Few major changes in these diagrams can be unequivocally attributed to local changes in plant abundance; changes in tree and shrub pollen abundance parallel those seen south of treeline.

  2. Projects in eastern Canada encounter strong opposition. [Hydroelectric power plants planned

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.H.

    1993-09-13

    At the end of August, Quebec's provincial utility submitted a long-awaited environmental impact statement on its proposed Great Whale project near Hudson Bay. It faces opposition, as does a big project planned in Labrador. Hydro-Quebec's EIS says its $10-billion, 3,210-Mw project [open quotes]would have impacts that are generally moderate and localized, and that can be mitigated,[close quotes] according to a utility spokeswoman. But environmental and Native American groups opposed to the project say its three powerhouses on the Great Whale River and 600 sq miles of new impoundments would destroy hunting and fishing areas and mar the environment. Five federal and provincial review panels will determine over the next several weeks if the EIS meets their requirements.

  3. Evolution of the Precambrian Crust and Sub-Continental Lithsophere in Eastern Canada: Constraints from Probabilistic Inversion and H-k Stacking of Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, L.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Levin, V. L.; Menke, W. H.

    2014-12-01

    Cratons are continental nuclei that have been tectonically quiescent for at least a billion years. They show distinct geological and geophysical signatures from younger continental regions. Some Precambrian crustal generation models suggest a change in tectonic processes at the end of the Archean, marking the onset of modern-style plate tectonics and different lithospheric growth mechanisms. Eastern Canada comprises Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic terranes, recording tectonic events spanning ~3 Ga of Earth history. It is a natural laboratory to test hypotheses concerning craton genesis and Precambrian plate tectonics. To constrain structural variations across this region, a new broadband seismograph network has been deployed from southernmost Hudson Bay to coastal Nova Scotia. The main profile crosses major tectonic boundaries between the Superior craton, the Proterozoic Grenville and Phanerozoic Appalachian provinces. A profile of crustal structure across the major tectonic terranes was constructed from transdimensional Bayesian receiver function inversions. 1D structure beneath individual stations is described in terms of two parameters: shear wavespeed variation with depth, and likelihood of discontinuity, both defined probabilistically. A clear Moho can be identified at about 36-42 km with variable transition width. Moreover, a persistent sub-continental lithospheric impedance contrast is detected at 52-57 km beneath most stations. The ubiquity of this feature across a profile spanning 3 Ga of lithospheric processes could imply that post-cratonization chemical modification may have homogenized the uppermost mantle. Small age-dependent variations in mean bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratios are revealed from receiver function H-k stacking: ~1.71, ~1.77 and ~1.75 for the Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic respectively. Crustal thickness also varies systematically with age, with Moho depths of ~35 km for the Archean and Phanerozoic but up to 10 km thicker in some

  4. Up From Suffrage: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulaninec, John S.

    Influences on the political and economic status of women in Canada between World Wars I and II are discussed, with emphasis on the struggle to enfranchise women on the provincial level, legislative precedents, and the relationship between educational achievement and economic opportunity. Data are derived from historical accounts; trade union…

  5. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  6. University Study in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). International Programmes Div.

    These notes for overseas students intending to attend university in Canada contain information on admission requirements and application and registration procedures. A sample budget for a 1967-68 undergraduate as well as a discussion of medical and other insurance are included in the summary of possible financial expenditures. Although there are…

  7. Canada in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paz, Shoshana

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Canadian Space Agency. Explains that Canada's space program grew out of the need to manage resources and communicate over large distances. Reports that the small Canadian space industry is growing rapidly. Describes Canadian cooperation in international space programs. Identifies space careers and examines the future…

  8. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  9. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  10. Profiling Canada's Families II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…

  11. Update on Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  12. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  13. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease. PMID:4541003

  14. Estuarine research; an annotated bibliography of selected literature, with emphasis on the Hudson River estuary, New York and New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embree, William N.; Wiltshire, Denise A.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts of 177 selected publications on water movement in estuaries, particularly the Hudson River estuary, are compiled for reference in Hudson River studies. Subjects represented are the hydraulic, chemical, and physical characteristics of estuarine waters, estuarine modeling techniques, and methods of water-data collection and analysis. Summaries are presented in five categories: Hudson River estuary studies; hydrodynamic-model studies; water-quality-model studies; reports on data-collection equipment and methods; and bibliographies, literature reviews, conference proceedings, and textbooks. An author index is included. Omitted are most works published before 1965, environmental-impact statements, theses and dissertations, policy or planning reports, regional or economic reports, ocean studies, studies based on physical models, and foreign studies. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Real-time Monitoring Network to Characterize Anthropogenic and Natural Events Affecting the Hudson River, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. S.; Bonner, J. S.; Fuller, C.; Kirkey, W.; Ojo, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Hudson River watershed spans 34,700 km2 predominantly in New York State, including agricultural, wilderness, and urban areas. The Hudson River supports many activities including shipping, supplies water for municipal, commercial, and agricultural uses, and is an important recreational resource. As the population increases within this watershed, so does the anthropogenic impact on this natural system. To address the impacts of anthropogenic and natural activities on this ecosystem, the River and Estuary Observatory Network (REON) is being developed through a joint venture between the Beacon Institute, Clarkson University, General Electric Inc. and IBM Inc. to monitor New York's Hudson and Mohawk Rivers in real-time. REON uses four sensor platform types with multiple nodes within the network to capture environmentally relevant episodic events. Sensor platform types include: 1) fixed robotic vertical profiler (FRVP); 2) mobile robotic undulating platform (MRUP); 3) fixed acoustic Doppler current profiler (FADCP) and 4) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The FRVP periodically generates a vertical profile with respect to water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, particle concentration and size distribution, and fluorescence. The MRUP utilizes an undulating tow-body tethered behind a research vessel to measure the same set of water parameters as the FRVP, but does so 'synchronically' over a highly-resolved spatial regime. The fixed ADCP provides continuous water current profiles. The AUV maps four-dimensional (time, latitude, longitude, depth) variation of water quality, water currents and bathymetry along a pre-determined transect route. REON data can be used to identify episodic events, both anthropogenic and natural, that impact the Hudson River. For example, a strong heat signature associated with cooling water discharge from the Indian Point nuclear power plant was detected with the MRUP. The FRVP monitoring platform at Beacon, NY, located in the

  16. Role of cryptic amphibole crystallization in magma differentiation at Hudson volcano, Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzmann, David J.; Carey, Steven; Scasso, Roberto A.; Naranjo, Jose-Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Hudson volcano (Chile) is the southern most stratovolcano of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone and has produced some of the largest Holocene eruptions in South America. There have been at least 12 recorded Holocene explosive events at Hudson, with the 6700 years BP, 3600 years BP, and 1991 eruptions the largest of these. Hudson volcano has consistently discharged magmas of similar trachyandesitic and trachydacitic composition, with comparable anhydrous phenocryst assemblages, and pre-eruptive temperatures and oxygen fugacities. Pre-eruptive storage conditions for the three largest Holocene events have been estimated using mineral geothermometry, melt inclusion volatile contents, and comparisons to analogous high pressure experiments. Throughout the Holocene, storage of the trachyandesitic magmas occurred at depths between 0.2 and 2.7 km at approximately ~972°C (±25) and log fO2 -10.33-10.24 (±0.2) (one log unit above the NNO buffer), with between 1 and 3 wt% H2O in the melt. Pre-eruptive storage of the trachydacitic magma occurred between 1.1 and 2.0 km, at ~942°C (±26) and log fO2 -10.68 (±0.2), with ~2.5 wt% H2O in the melt. The evolved trachyandesitic and trachydacitic magmas can be derived from a basaltic parent primarily via fractional crystallization. Entrapment pressures estimated from plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions suggest relatively shallow levels of crystallization. However, trace element data (e.g., Dy/Yb ratio trends) suggests amphibole played an important role in the differentiation of the Hudson magmas, and this fractionation is likely to have occurred at depths >6 km. The absence of a garnet signal in the Hudson trace element data, the potential staging point for differentiation of parental mafic magmas [i.e., ~20 km (e.g., Annen et al. in J Petrol 47(3):505-539, 2006)], and the inferred amphibolite facies [~24 km (e.g., Rudnick and Fountain in Rev Geophys 33:267-309, 1995)] combine to place some constraint on the lower limit of depth of

  17. Early proterozoic evolution of the saskatchewan craton and its allochthonous coyer, trans-hudson Orogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiarenzelli, J.; Aspler, L.; Villeneuve, M.; Lewry, J.

    1998-01-01

    The composition, chronology, and structural relations of the Saskatchewan Craton and enveloping mylonitic rocks exposed in basement windows of the Glennie Domain, Trans-Hudson Orogen, have been determined by geochemical, geochronologic, and structural studies accompanying detailed field mapping. Basement windows lie along the hinge zone of a regional crustal culmination and consist mostly of 2.4-2.5 Ga felsic plutonic rocks enveloped by the Nistowiak Thrust. The Nistowiak Thrust is a folded, 1-2 km thick, upper amphibolite facie??s mylonite zone formed during emplacement of the Flin Flon-Glennie Complex across the Saskatchewan Craton. It is likely correlative to the Pelican Thrust, which envelops basement windows in the Hanson Lake Block -100 km to the east. An internal high strain zone within the overlying nappe pile, the Guncoat Thrust, is composed primarily of mylonitized porphyroclastic pelitic and psammitic migmatites. U-Pb geochronological results suggest calc-alkaline plutonism from 1889-1837 Ma, thrust stacking, peak metamorphism and associated anatexis between 1837 and 1809 Ma, isotopic closure of titanite at 1790-1772 Ma, and intrusion of late granitic rocks at 1770-1762 Ma. This is in agreement with ages from the Hanson Lake Block, and La Ronge, Kisseynew, and Flin-Flon domains in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, and from the Ungava-Baffin portion of Trans-Hudson Orogen, suggesting broadly synchronous thermotectonic processes along a strike length of 2000 km. We speculate that the Saskatchewan Craton, rather than representing an exotic continental fragment, rifted from the Superior and/or Hearne Provinces at ca. 2.1 Ga and that the Trans-Hudson Orogen is an internal orogen. In this scenario the Maniwekan Ocean, developed between the Rae-Hearne and Superior cratons, opened and closed about similar pole(s) of plate motion. ?? 1998 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  18. PCB accumulation in Hudson River pumpkinseed sunfish and bullhead: Influences of invertebrate prey

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Hudson River sediments are contaminated with PCBs, and these toxic compounds are also in the water and have accumulated in food chains. The relative importance of exposure by fish to contaminated water vs. contaminated prey was unknown. further, is was not known if difference in diet could influence fish PCB levels. Invertebrates and fish were sampled in different habitats to address these issues. Invertebrate communities differed in several ecological measures between two different plant beds, and among experimentally manipulated habitats in one plant bed. Communities often differed significantly in parameters such as total invertebrate density, densities of individual taxa, taxonomic richness and similarity, and size distributions; some taxa were also absent from one habitat but present in another. Total PCBs differed significantly for invertebrate communities between the two plant beds (9.4 vs. 31.4 [mu]g/g), and between some of the communities in the manipulated habitats (1.8 vs 5.3 [mu]g/g). These differences did not translate into difference in PCBs among fish that fed in the different habitats. However, bullhead had significantly higher levels than pumpkinseed (15.4 vs. 6.9 [mu]g/g). Yearling pumpkinseed that fed on Hudson River invertebrates had 5x the PCB levels of pumpkinseed exposed for the same period to the water but not to the prey, and 18x as much PCBs as fish unexposed to either Hudson River water or prey. Further, fish that fed on local prey had a higher proportion of high-Cl isomers than those exposed only to the contaminated water. Fish that fed in different habitats did not have different PCB levels. Thus, the role of diet needs further experimentation, but it is clear that local prey are the major route for PCB accumulation in yearling pumpkinseed.

  19. Diatoms as Proxies for Abrupt Events in the Hudson River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorski, W.; Abbott, D. H.; Recasens, C.; Breger, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Hudson River estuary has been subject to many abrupt events throughout its history including hurricanes, droughts and pluvials. Hurricanes in particular are rare, discrete events that if fingerprinted can be used to develop better age models for Hudson River sediments. Proxies use observed physical characteristics or biological assemblages (e.g. diatom and foraminiferal assemblages) as tools to reconstruct past conditions prior to the modern instrumental record. Using a sediment core taken from the Hudson River (CDO2-29A), in New York City, drought and pluvial layers were selected based on Cs-137 dating while hurricane layers were determined from occurrences of tropical to subtropical foraminifera. Contrary to previous studies (Weaver, 1970, Weiss et al, 1978), more than sixty different diatom species have been identified using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cosmopolitan, hurricane and drought assemblages have begun to be identified after observing multiple layers (Table 1). Tropical foraminifera dominated by Globigerinoides ruber pink were also found in a hurricane layer that we infer was deposited during Hurricane Belle in 1976. More diatom abundance analyses and cataloged SEM pictures will provide further insight into these proxies. Table 1 Diatom Genera and Species Environment Clarification Cyclotella caspia Planktonic, marine-brackish Cosmopolitan Karayevia clevei Freshwater Cosmopolitan Melosira sp Planktonic, marine Cosmopolitan Thalassiosira sp Marine, brackish Cosmopolitan Staurosirella leptostauron Benthic, freshwater Cosmopolitan Actinoptychus senarius Planktonic or benthic, freshwater to brackish Hurricane and pluvial layers Amphora aff. sp Benthic, marine or freshwater Hurricane layers only Nitzschia sp Benthic, marine or freshwater Hurricane layers only Gomphonema sp Freshwater Hurricane layers only Surirella sp Marine-brackish Drought layer only Triceratium sp Marine Drought layer only Other Genera and species Environment Clarification

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in belted kingfisher eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Custer, Christine M; Gray, Brian R

    2010-01-01

    Nesting belted kingfishers (hereafter kingfishers, Ceryle alcyon) were studied on the Hudson River near Fort Edward south to New Baltimore (NY, USA) and three nearby river drainages in 2004. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 160 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 17 dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) congeners were quantified in kingfisher eggs. The pattern of organochlorine pesticides and PCDD-F congeners did not differ significantly between 14 eggs collected from individual nests on the Hudson River and five eggs similarly collected on three other nearby rivers. In contrast, the pattern of PCB congeners in eggs collected on the Hudson River differed significantly from the other rivers. The differences in patterns of PCB congeners were associated with a higher representation of lower-numbered congeners on the Hudson River than the other rivers. The higher prevalence of the lower-numbered congeners and lower prevalence of the higher-numbered congeners is consistent with Aroclor 1016 and 1242 being the source of the PCBs on the Hudson River. Concentrations in a sample egg collected at each nest were compared to nest survival and egg success (the proportion of eggs hatching in a clutch if at least one egg hatched) of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Models that predicted nest survival and egg success as functions of contaminant levels were poorly distinguished from models that presumed no such associations. Small sample sizes could have contributed to the inability to distinguish among contaminant and no toxicant models. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that contaminant concentrations on the Hudson River were not sufficiently high to demonstrate a relationship between contaminant concentrations and reproductive success in kingfishers. PMID:20821424

  1. In situ stimulation of aerobic PCB biodegradation in Hudson River sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, M.R.; McDermott, J.B.; Abramowicz, D.A.; Salvo, J.J.; Flanagan, W.P.; Stephens, M.L.; Mondello, F.J.; May, R.J.; Lobos, J.H.; Carroll, K.M.; Brennan, M.J.; Bracco, A.A.; Fish, K.M.; Warner, G.L.; Wilson, P.R.; Dietrich, D.K.; Lin, D.T.; Morgan, C.B.; Gately, W.L. )

    1993-01-22

    A 73-day field study of in situ aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River shows that indigenous aerobic microorganisms can degrade the lightly chlorinated PCBs present in these sediments. Addition of inorganic nutrients, biphenyl, and oxygen enhanced PCB biodegradation, as indicated both by a 37 to 55 percent loss of PCBs and by the production of chlorobenzoates, intermediates in the PCB biodegradation pathway. Repeated inoculation with a purified PCB-degrading bacterium failed to improve biodegradative activity. Biodegradation was also observed under mixed but unamended conditions, which suggests that this process may occur commonly in river sediments, with implications for PCB fate models and risk assessments.

  2. Geo-referenced social accounting with application to integrated watershed planning in the Hudson River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowosielski, Audra Ann

    Changing economic activity and patterns of human habitation have long been a cause of concern for the ecological health of the Hudson River and its tributaries. Today, economic development in the Hudson River Valley is often characterized as a battle between proponents of economy-wide growth and citizen groups concerned about the cumulative impact of incremental development on the watershed. Current development trends in the Hudson River Valley are driving the conversion of rural, agricultural and forestland to urban or industrial uses. This thesis is part of a larger study of the economic changes that lead to land use and environmental changes. It focuses specifically on the economic drivers of development in Dutchess County, an area of the lower watershed on the east bank of the Hudson, midway between New York City and the state capital of Albany. The objective was to engage the Dutchess County planning community in developing a planning model, the economic portion of which characterizes the economy with a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) referenced to a Geographical Information System (GIS). The model was used to assess economic impacts of locally relevant development scenarios including a new IBM semiconductor plant, agro-tourism, and commuting behavior. These scenarios each discuss economic changes that have land use consequences. For example, a new IBM plant will likely instigate new residential development, agro-tourism offers a way to keep land in agricultural use, and the study of commuting behavior leads to insights on how residential growth may depend on commuting patterns, as well as information on the effects of second home communities. The final model will help stakeholders to visualize not only how economic shocks will change their communities, but also how these changes may lead to land use and cumulative environmental impact. Stakeholders will be able to visualize the trade-off between new economic growth and the possible loss of environmental

  3. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

  4. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  5. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  6. PECONIC BAY SYSTEM AQUACULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PECONIC BAY SYSTEM AQUACULTURE This reference document serves as the aquaculture sub-section for Phase II of a four-phase series of economic studies being conducted by Economic Analysis, Inc., for the Peconic Estuary Program. It provides an evaluation of the history, current stat...

  7. Chesapeake Bay Critters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay-Atha, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    When students enter the author's classroom on the first day of school, they are greeted with live crabs scuttling around in large bins. The crabs are her way of grabbing students' attention and launching the unit on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. She chooses to start the year with this unit because, despite the fact that the Potomac River can be…

  8. Focus: immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, D

    1994-01-01

    This is a special section containing four articles on aspects of immigration in Canada. The first article, by Daniel Hiebert, examines current migration policy at both federal and regional levels and the impact of these policies on the distribution of immigrants and on regional inequalities. The second article, by Alan Nash, looks at the incompatibility between regulations pertaining to business and refugee migration. The final two papers look at the specifics of acculturation among Italian and Caribbean immigrants in Toronto. PMID:12320209

  9. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    PubMed

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. PMID:25308235

  10. Agreement by and between the County of Rensselaer and the Board of Trustees of Hudson Valley Community College as Co-Employers and the Hudson Valley Community College Non-Teaching Professional Organization, NEA/NY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson Valley Community Coll., Troy, NY.

    This document is comprised of articles of agreement and addenda by and between the County of Rensselaer and the Board of Trustees of Hudson Valley Community College as co-employers and the College Non-Teaching Professional Organization, NEA/NY ("association"). The articles address topics such as determination of employment titles, civil service…

  11. Low PCB concentrations observed in American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in six Hudson River tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Limburg, K.E.; Machut, L.S.; Jeffers, P.; Schmidt, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed 73 eels, collected in 2004 and 2005 above the head of tide in six Hudson River tributaries, for total PCBs, length, weight, age, and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (??15N). Mean total PCB concentration (wet weight basis) was 0.23 ppm ?? 0.08 (standard error), with a range of 0.008 to 5.4 ppm. A majority of eels (84) had concentrations below 0.25 ppm, and only seven eels (10%) had concentrations exceeding 0.5 ppm. Those eels with higher PCB concentrations were ???12 yr; there was a weak correlation of PCB concentration with ??15N and also with weight. Compared to recent (2003) data from the mainstem of the Hudson River estuary, these results indicate that tributaries are generally much less contaminated with PCBs. We hypothesize that those tributary eels with high PCB concentrations were relatively recent immigrants from the mainstem. Given concern over the possible adverse effects of PCBs on eel reproduction, these tributaries may serve as refugia. Therefore, providing improved access to upland tributaries may be critically important to this species. ?? 2008 Northeastern Naturalist.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, and potential endocrine disruption in fish from the Hudson River, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Sloan, R.J.; Smith, S.B.; Denslow, N.D.; Blazer, V.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue residues of total mercury (Hg), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lipid-based PCBs; plasma concentrations of endocrine biomarkers; and reproductive and histologic biomarkers were assessed in 460 carp (Cyprinus carpio), bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus dolomieui), and bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from eight sites across the Hudson River Basin in the spring of 1998 to determine if endocrine disruption was evident in resident fish species and to evaluate contaminant-biomarker interrelations. Total PCBs in bed sediments (maximum 2,500 ??g kg-1) could explain 64 to 90% of the variability in lipid-based PCB residues in tissues (maximum 1,250 ??g PCB g-lipid-1) of the four species. The 17??-estradiol to 11-ketotestosterone ratio, typically less than 1.0 in male fish and greater than 1.0 in females, exceeded 1.4 in all male largemouth bass and 35% of male carp and bullhead at one site 21 km downstream from a major PCB source. Endocrine biomarkers were significantly correlated with total Hg in female smallmouth bass and carp, and with lipid-based PCBs in males of all four species. Empirical evidence of endocrine modulation in blood plasma of male and female fish from sites with and without high PCB residues in bed sediments and fish tissues suggest that PCBs, Hg, or other contaminants may disrupt normal endocrine function in fish of the Hudson River. ?? Eawag, 2006.

  13. Hudson River Paleoclimate, Sea Level, and Human Impact - A record from Piermont Marsh, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Peteet, D. M.; Kurdyla, D.; Liberman, L.; Sugar, A.; Wong, J.

    2001-05-01

    A 13.77 meter sediment core from Piermont Marsh, NY (41 00 N, 73 55W) records the local and regional vegetational and foraminiferal history of the Hudson Estuary. The sediments were sampled every 4 cm, which represents a decadal to century-scale resolution. Basal sediment dating is in progress, and the ll-m depth represents about 4000 years. Fluctuations in plant macrofossils and charcoal appear to indicate differences in salinlty and drought, suggesting major changes in climate. Scirpus, Salicornia, and high levels of charcoal seem to indicate drier/more saline conditions, while lack of these macrofossils and increases in Chara/Nitella, aquatic leaves, and very little charcoal suggests wetter conditions. Other macrofossils present include Carex, Juncus, Polygonum, Zanichellia, and Ruppia. High resolution AMS dating of plant macrofossils is in progress, and will be compared with sedimentation in Hudson River sediment cores nearby. Foraminiferal asssemblages from key intervals of the core will be presented. Human impact in the upper sediments is visible from the influx of grass seeds, primarily Phragmites, and the ragweed pollen rise.

  14. Wildlife habitat connectivity in the changing climate of New York's Hudson Valley.

    PubMed

    Howard, Timothy G; Schlesinger, Matthew D

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining and restoring connectivity are key adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation under climate change. We present a novel combination of species distribution and connectivity modeling using current and future climate regimes to prioritize connections among populations of 26 rare species in New York's Hudson Valley. We modeled patches for each species for each time period and modeled potential connections among habitat patches by finding the least-cost path for every patch-to-patch connection. Finally, we aggregated these patches and paths to the tax parcel, commonly the primary unit of conservation action. Under future climate regimes, suitable habitat was predicted to contract or appear upslope and farther north. On average, predicted patches were nine times smaller and paths were twice as long under future climate. Parcels within the Hudson Highlands, Shawangunk Ridge, Catskill Mountains, and Harlem Valley had high species overlap, with areas upslope and northward increasing in importance over time. We envision that land managers and conservation planners can use these results to help prioritize parcel-level conservation and management and thus support biodiversity adaptation to climate change. PMID:23777545

  15. Carbonate Chemistry Dynamics in an Area of Active Gas Seepage: the Hudson Canyon, US Atlantic Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Tigreros Kodovska, F.; Kessler, J. D.; Leonte, M.; Chepigin, A.; Kellermann, M. Y.; Arrington, E. C.; Valentine, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The fate of oceanic methane and its impact on the global climate has been of particular interest to the global community. The potential for vast amounts of methane to be emitted from the seafloor into the atmosphere due to gas hydrate decomposition has been under scientific evaluation. However, despite the great extent of these geological reservoirs, much of the methane released from the seafloor in deep ocean environments does not reach the atmosphere. Once dissolved in ocean water, the emitted methane can be microbially converted to either carbon dioxide or assimilated to biomass. Here, we will present results from a research cruise to the Hudson Canyon, northern US Atlantic Margin, where we investigated changes in ocean water carbonate chemistry induced by the oxidation of methane released from gas seeps. We will be presenting high precision pH data as well as methane and DIC concentrations, natural stable isotopes, and methane oxidation rates collected inside and adjacent to the Hudson Canyon in the summer of 2014.

  16. Temporal trends of PCBs in sediments and striped bass from the Hudson River and estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Chillrud, S.N.; Simpson, H.J.; Bopp, R.F.; Sloan, R.N.

    1995-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon chronologies of fine-grained sediments in NY Harbor indicate that decreasing concentration trends of total polychlorinated biphenyls which began in the late 1960s and early 1970s continued through the late 1980s. 1994 core top samples are currently being analyzed. This recent decline in total-PCB levels in NY harbor sediments can be described by a two component exponential function with separate terms representing the two primary sources of PCBs to this area. According to this function, transport from the Upper Hudson River dominated total PCB loading to NY Harbor in the 1970s, while local urban influxes were more important by the mid 1980s. The rate of decline in the geometric mean of lipid-based total-PCB concentrations in striped bass collected throughout the lower Hudson estuary between 1978 and 1990 is very similar to the trends observed in NY Harbor sediments. This similarity is consistent with the hypotheses that striped bass caught in the estuary obtain a significant fraction of their PCB burden in the NY Harbor area and contiguous estuarine waters and indicates that analyses of a relatively small number of dated sediment samples can provide an excellent indication of likely future trends of PCB levels in striped bass populations.

  17. Sediment mixing and accumulation rate effects on radionuclide depth profiles in Hudson estuary sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.; Simpson, H.J.; Peng, T.; Bopp, R.F.; Trier, R.M.

    1981-11-20

    Measured anthropogenic radionuclide profiles in sediment cores from the Hudson River estuary were compared with profiles computed by using known input histories of radionuclides to the estuary and mixing coefficients which decreased exponentially with depth in the sediment. Observed /sup 134/Cs sediment depth profiles were used in the mixing rate computation because reactor releases were the only significant source for this nuclide, whereas the inputs of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 239.240/Pu to the estuary were complicated by runoff or erosion in upstream areas, in addition to direct fallout from precipitation. Our estimates for the rates of surface sediment mixing in the low salinity reach of the estuary range from 0.25 to 1 cm/sup 2//yr, or less. In some areas of the harbor adjacent to New York City, were fine-particle accumulation rates are generally >3 cm/yr, and often as high as 10 to 20 cm/yr, sediment mixing rates as high as 10 cm/sup 2//yr would have little effect on radionuclide peak distributions. Consequently, anthropogenic radionuclide maximum activities in subsurface sediments of the Hudson appear to be useful as time-stratigraphic reference levels, which can be correlated with periods of maximum radionuclide inputs for estimating rates and patterns of sediment accumulation.

  18. Benthic bacterial biomass and production in the Hudson River estuary. [Trapa, Typha, Nuphar

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, H.K. ); Findlay, S.E.G. )

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial biomass, production, and turnover were determined for two freshwater march sites and a site in the main river channel along the tidally influenced Hudson River. The incorporation of (methyl-{sup 3}H)thymidine into DNA was used to estimate the growth rate of surface and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial production at marsh sites was similar to, and in some cases considerably higher than, production estimates reported for other aquatic wetland and marine sediment habitats. Production averaged 1.8-2.8 mg C{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot} hour{sup {minus}1} in marsh sediments. Anaerobic bacteria in marsh sediment incorporated significant amounts of (methyl-{sup 3}H)thymidine into DNA. Despite differences in dominant vegatation and tidal regime, bacterial biomass was similar (1 {times} 10{sup 3} {plus minus} 0.08 mg C{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}) in Trapa, Typha, and Nuphar aquatic macrophyte communities. Bacterial abundance and productivity were lower in sandy sediments associated with Scirpus communities along the Hudson River (0.2 {times} 10{sup 3} {plus minus} 0.05 mg C{center dot}m{sup {minus}2} and 0.3 {plus minus} 0.23 mg C {center dot} m{sup {minus}2}{center dot} hour{sup {minus}1}, respectively).

  19. Seasonal air-water exchange fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Hudson River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shu; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Dachs, Jordi; Eisenreich, Steven J

    2008-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the air and water over the Hudson River Estuary during six intensive field campaigns from December 1999 to April 2001. Over-water gas-phase SigmaPCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/m3 and varied with temperature. Dissolved-phase SigmaPCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/L and displayed no seasonal trend. Uncertainty analysis of the results suggests that PCBs with 5 or fewer chlorines exhibited net volatilization. The direction of net air/water exchange could not be determined for PCBs with 6 or more chlorines. Instantaneous net fluxes of SigmaPCBs ranged from +0.2 to +630 ng m(-2) d(-1). Annual fluxes of SigmaPCBs were predicted from modeled gas-phase concentrations, measured dissolved-phase concentrations, daily surface water temperatures and wind speeds. The net volatilization flux was +62 microg m(-2) yr(-1), corresponding to an annual loss of +28 kg/yr of SigmaPCBs from the Hudson River Estuary for the year of 2000. PMID:17854962

  20. Hudson River Paleoclimate, Sea Level, and Human Impact: A Record From Piermont Marsh, NY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdyla; Peteet, Dorothy; Liberman, Louisa; Sugar; Wong; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A 13.77 meter sediment core from Piermont Marsh, NY (40 00 N, 73 55W) records the local and regional vegetational and foraminiferal history of the Hudson Estuary. The sediments were sampled every 4 cm, which represents a decadal to centuryscale resolution. Basal sediment dating is in progress, and the 11-m depth represents about 4000 years. Changes in plant macrofossils and charcoal appear to indicate differences in salinIty and drought, suggesting changes in climate. Scirpus, Salicornia, and high levels of charcoal seem to indicate drier/more saline conditions, while lack of these macrofossils and increases in Chara/Nitella, aquatic leaves, and very little charcoal suggests wetter conditions. Other macrofossils include Carex, Juncus, Polygonum, Zanichellia, Ruppia. High resolution AMS dating of plant macrofossils is in progress, and will be compared with changes in Hudson River sediment cores offshore. Foraminiferal assemblages from key intervals of the core will be presented. Human impact in the upper sediments is visible from the influx of grass seeds, primarily Phragmites, and the ragweed pollen rise.

  1. Anthropogenic impacts on American eel demographics in Hudson River tributaries, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machut, L.S.; Limburg, K.E.; Schmidt, R.E.; Dittman, D.

    2007-01-01

    Populations of American eel Anguilla rostrata along the eastern coast of North America have declined drastically for largely unknown reasons. We examined the population dynamics of American eels in six tributaries of the Hudson River, New York, to quantify their distribution and the impacts of anthropogenic stressors. With up to 155 American eels per 100 m2, tributary densities are greater than those within the main stem of the Hudson River and are among the highest reported anywhere. The predominance of small American eels (<200 mm) and wide range of ages (from young-of-year glass eels to 24-year-old yellow eels) suggest that tributaries are an important nursery area for immature American eels. However, upstream of natural and artificial barriers, American eel densities were reduced by at least a factor of 10 and condition, as measured by mass, was significantly lower. Significantly lower American eel condition was also found with increasing riparian urbanization. Density-dependent growth limitations below barriers are suggested by increased growth rates above the first tributary barrier. We suggest that (1) tributaries are important habitat for the conservation of American eels and (2) mitigation of anthropogenic stressors is vital for complete utilization of available habitat and conservation of the species. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  2. Surface Sediment Geochemistry in and around the Hudson Shelf Valley Offshore of New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecray, E. L.; ten Brink, M. B.; Butman, B.; Denny, J.; Murray, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    The Hudson Shelf Valley, an ancient submerged portion of the Hudson River, extends across the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. Between 1959 and 1987, the area near the head of the valley was used for disposal of approximately 1.20 x 108 m3 of dredged material and sewage sludge. The distribution of metal concentrations and sediment characteristics were used to investigate the transport and fate of the sediments and their associated contaminants. Surface (0-2cm) sediments collected at 440 stations throughout the New York Bight between 1993 and 1998 were used to establish the regional distribution of pollutant metals, grain size, organic carbon, and Clostridium perfringens spores. Sediments in the New York Bight are generally sandy, however fine-grained sediments are found in the axis of the Valley. Statistical methods identified common sources and chemical mobility within groups of anthropogenic and naturally-occurring elements. High metal concentrations, fine-grained sediments, and higher organic carbon concentrations co-occur in depo-centers within the Valley. Normalization of the metal concentrations to these factors shows higher metal concentrations on the fine-grained particles in sandy areas of the Bight, particularly along the southern shore of Long Island. These distributions have implications for evaluating the impact of the mass distribution for contaminated metals in different habitats and areas. Decreasing concentrations of pollutants with time are observed, reflecting reduced contaminant loading in the upper region of the Valley; however, concentrations are still above natural background levels.

  3. Groundwater quality in the Upper Hudson River Basin, New York, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 production and domestic wells in the Upper Hudson River Basin (north of the Federal Dam at Troy, New York) in New York in August 2012 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Upper Hudson River Basin covers 4,600 square miles in upstate New York, Vermont, and Massachusetts; the study area encompasses the 4,000 square miles that lie within New York. The basin is underlain by crystalline and sedimentary bedrock, including gneiss, shale, and slate; some sandstone and carbonate rocks are present locally. The bedrock in some areas is overlain by surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel. Eleven of the wells sampled in the Upper Hudson River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and nine are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Upper Hudson River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was moderately hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 7 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Two pesticides, an herbicide degradate and an insecticide degredate, were detected in two samples at trace levels; seven VOCs, including chloroform, four solvents, and the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,900 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well; the median radon activity was higher in samples from bedrock wells than in samples from sand and gravel wells. Coliform bacteria were

  4. 77 FR 66215 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project in New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project in New York Correction In notice document 2012-26799, appearing on page 65929 in the...

  5. Pathways to Sexual Offense Recidivism Following Treatment: An Examination of the Ward and Hudson Self-Regulation Model of Relapse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    Ward and Hudson (1998, 2000) proposed a self-regulation model of relapse in sexual offenders, which classifies offenders into one of four pathways. This study examined the validity of the model, whether sexual recidivists are characterized by one predominant pathway and offense type, and whether participants would change pathway pre- to…

  6. Stories of Transformation: Place-Based Education and the Developing Place-Consciousness of Educators along the Hudson River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological case study investigates the lived experiences of five educators who engage in on-board educational programs, offered by the non-profit environmental organization "Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, Inc", and follows their stories of place-conscious development leading to place-based educational engagement. By analyzing surveys,…

  7. 33 CFR 151.2043 - Equivalent Reporting Methods for vessels other than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent Reporting Methods for vessels other than those entering the Great Lakes or Hudson River after operating outside the EEZ or Canadian equivalent. 151.2043 Section 151.2043 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  8. 33 CFR 165.T01-0174 - Regulated Navigation Area; Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply within the RNA. (2) In accordance with the general regulations... anything contained in this section, the Rules of the Road (33 CFR part 84—Subchapter E, inland navigational... Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and Tarrytown, NY. 165.T01-0174 Section...

  9. 14 CFR 93.351 - General requirements for operating in the East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements for operating in the East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions. 93.351 Section 93.351 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES New York Class...

  10. The Natural Palette: Hudson River Artists and the Land. Teacher's Guide. Curriculum Resource: Grades 4 through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Ted; Sorin, Gretchen Sullivan; Mack, Stevie; Fiore, Jennifer, Ed.

    This interdisciplinary curriculum guide resource kit focuses on 19th-century Euro-American painters of the Hudson River School. Lessons are designed to encourage student recognition of the significant impact of North American Indians, the natural environment, and the romantic period writers and philosophers artists and their work. The guide…

  11. 14 CFR 93.351 - General requirements for operating in the East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General requirements for operating in the East River and/or Hudson River Exclusions. 93.351 Section 93.351 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES New York Class...

  12. Organizational Effectiveness and the Active Community College: The Case of Hudson County Community College. Special Report 95.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabert, Glen; And Others

    In an effort to increase enrollment and move from a limited-mission institution emphasizing career-oriented programs to a comprehensive urban community college, Hudson County Community College (HCCC), in New Jersey, implemented a mission renewal process in 1993. The process included a review of mission statements from other comprehensive community…

  13. 76 FR 31678 - Saratoga and North Creek Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Delaware and Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Delaware and Hudson Railway Company, Inc. d/b/a Canadian Pacific (CP) a permanent and exclusive freight... approximately 3.2 miles of operating rights for the purpose of interchange with CP between Adirondack Branch milepost 39.44 and CP's yard at Saratoga Springs located at Canadian Subdivision milepost 35.\\3\\ The...

  14. The Right of Public School Employees to Send Their Children to Private Schools: The Demise of "Cook v. Hudson."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, T. Page

    1991-01-01

    The demise of "Cook v. Hudson" stems from its failure to accord proper value to public school employees' constitutional right to select private schooling for children. Unjustified school board attempts to terminate the employment of staff enrolling their children in private schools will not survive the "Pickering" balance-of-interests test. (122…

  15. 75 FR 26793 - Arcelor Mittal Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, ESW, Inc., Guardsmark, Hudson Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Arcelor Mittal Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, ESW, Inc., Guardsmark, Hudson Global Resources and Multi Serv, Hennepin, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker...

  16. Hudson County Community College Mission Survey: Responses from College Community and from External Community. Special Report 92.07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oromaner, Mark; Fujita, Eleanor

    Two surveys were conducted to assist in the development of a mission statement for Hudson County Community College (HCCC) in New Jersey. In December 1992, 547 members of the HCCC internal community, including all HCCC employees and a sample of students and recent graduates, received a questionnaire that asked them to indicate how important it was…

  17. An Exploratory Evaluation of the Ward and Hudson Offending Pathways Model with Sex Offenders Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Peter E.; Maxted, Helen; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: It was predicted that offenders with intellectual disability (ID) categorised according to Ward & Hudson's (1998b) self-regulation theory as having an "Approach" goal would have higher levels of distorted cognitions, less victim empathy, and a history of more prolific offending compared to those with an "Avoidant" goal. Offenders…

  18. Sea floor topography and backscatter intensity of the Hudson Canyon region offshore of New York and New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Twichell, David C.; Rona, Peter A.; Tucholke, Brian E.; Middleton, Tammie J.; Robb, James M.

    2006-01-01

    These maps show the sea floor topography and backscatter intensity of the Hudson Canyon region on the continental slope and rise offshore of New Jersey and New York (fig. 1 and fig. 2). Sheet 1 shows sea floor topography as shaded relief. Sheet 2 shows sea floor topography as shaded relief with backscatter intensity superimposed in color. Both sheets are at a scale of 1:300,000 and also show smoothed topographic contours at selected intervals. The maps are based on new multibeam echo-sounder data collected on an 18-day cruise carried out aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Ship Ronald H. Brown during August and September 2002. Additional multibeam data of the Hudson Canyon collected by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), on the continental shelf collected by the STRATAFORM project (Goff and others, 1999), and a survey of the Hudson Shelf Valley (Butman and others, 2003), and a compilation of bathymetric data from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) Coastal Relief Model provide coverage of areas surrounding Hudson Canyon (fig. 2). Interpretations of the surficial geology also utilize widely spaced 3.5- and 10-kiloHertz (kHz) high-resolution seismic profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (fig.2).

  19. SURVEY OF TOXICITY IN AMBIENT WATERS OF THE HUDSON/RARITAN ESTUARY: IMPORTANCE OF SMALL-SCALE VARIATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was part of a characterization of the nature and severity of water-quality problems in the Hudson/Raritan Estuary in New York and New Jersey, USA. The toxicity of ambient water was measured at 51 stations in the estuary by using standard tests with the sea urchin Arbac...

  20. Invasive herbivory: resident Canada geese and the decline of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    While concern grows over the increasing numbers of exotic mute swans (Cygnus olor) on the Chesapeake Bay, less attention seems to be given to the highly familiar and native Canada goose (Branta canadensis) which has over time developed unprecedented nonmigratory, or resident, populations. Although nuisance flocks of Canada geese have been well advertised at city parks, athletic fields, and golf courses over the past three decades, recent expansion of populations to an estimated one million birds in the Atlantic Flyway, and to over 100,000 in Maryland, carries a threat of broader ecological consequences.

  1. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  2. Novel Method for Estimating Variations in Salinity and River Discharge in the Hudson Estuary Using Stable Isotopes of Leaf Waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabanpour, B.; Nichols, J. E.; Isles, P. D.; Peteet, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding variations in the hydrological cycle of the Hudson Valley has important implications for water resources management, affecting millions of New Yorkers. Paleoclimatological records of hydrological variability from this region, however, are sparse, as the typical enivronments used for paleohydrological reconstruction do not exist. However, salt marshes are common features of the Hudson River, where the influence of tides is felt far upstream. To take advantage of these environments as recorders of paleohydrology, we present a new method for estimating annual river discharge using salt marsh sediments. We will be examining hydrogen isotopes of leaf waxes in vascular plants to estimate salinity, which will be calibrated to Hudson River discharge using United States Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow data. Freshwater flux from the Hudson Valley is proportional to the salinity at a particular location in the estuary. We estimate the relationship between the salinity and δD using a two-part mixing model where the salinity and δD of ocean water is 35 ppt and 0‰ VSMOW respectively, and the salinity and δD of continental water is 0 ppt and -55‰ (approximately annual average precipitation in the region). It has been shown that the δD of the leaf waxes of aquatic vegetation accurately reflect the δD of growth water. For our experiment, we collected common members of the generaTypha, Spartina, Phragmites, and Scirpus from salt marshes along the Hudson River, and the north and south shores of Long Island to calibrate the specific relationship between marsh plant leaf wax δD and marsh water δD. We compare the measured δD of these plant waxes to the δD of marsh water estimated from salinity measurements made at USGS gage stations near each collection location. We then used the new calibration to estimate late Holocene variations in marsh salinity and thus Hudson River discharge using fossil leaf waxes. This novel method will help us better understand

  3. SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS, BAY CITY, MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SITE Program funded a field demonstration to evaluate the Eco Logic Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction Process developed by ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (ELI), Ontario, Canada. The Demonstration took place at the Middleground Landfill in Bay City, Michigan using landfill wa...

  4. Identifying Sources of Non-fallout Nuclear Contamination in Hudson River Sediments by Plutonium and Neptunium isotope ratios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, T. C.; Chillrud, S. N.

    2002-12-01

    In an effort to identify and characterize nuclear contaminants released from sources contained within the Hudson River drainage basin, Pu isotopes and 237Np have been measured in a series of sediment cores collected from various locations within the region. During the last several decades, the Hudson River has received input of radioactive contamination from several sources. The first and most significant, has been global fallout, which was a result of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons primarily by governments of the United States and Former Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. The second, is contamination resulting from reactor releases at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant (IPNPP) located on the Hudson River about 35 miles north of New York City. This facility began operation in 1962. A third source of radioactive contamination to the region is contamination resulting from activities at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) located on the Mohawk River, which began operation in 1946. Our research entails identifying different sources of nuclear contamination by measurement of plutonium and neptunium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The isotopic composition of a nuclear contaminant is a sensitive indicator of its origin. By comparing the isotopic composition measured in fluvial sediments to mean values reported for global fallout (i.e. 240Pu/239Pu = 0.18 ñ 0.014, 237Np/239Pu = 0.48 ñ 0.07, and 241Pu/239Pu = .00194 ñ 00028) it is possible to identify contaminants as non-fallout in origin. To date, we have analyzed selected samples from 3 sediment cores collected from the following locations: 1) the Mohawk River downstream of KAPL, 2) the Hudson River above its confluence with the Mohawk River, and 3) the lower Hudson River at a location in close proximity to IPNPP. Isotopic analysis of sediments from the Mohawk River indicates contamination that is clearly non-fallout in origin (240Pu/239Pu ranges between 0

  5. Reproductive health of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in Chesapeake Bay Tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, Vicki; Pinkney, A.E.; Uphoff, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Yellow perch live in creeks, rivers, ponds, lakes, and estuaries across the central and eastern United States and Canada. In Chesapeake Bay, they tolerate salinities up to one-third that of seawater. The adults reside in the brackish waters of the bay’s tributaries and migrate upstream to spawn. Yellow perch are eagerly sought by recreational fishermen for their excellent taste and, because their late winter spawning runs are the earliest of the year, they are regarded as a harbinger of spring. Yellow perch also support a small but valuable, tightly regulated commercial fishery in the part of Chesapeake Bay that lies in Maryland.

  6. Catastrophic Drainage of Glacial Lake Iroquois Down the Hudson River Valley: A Potential Trigger for the Intra-Allerod Cold Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, J. P.; Driscoll, N.; Uchupi, E.; Keigwin, L.; Schwab, W.; Thieler, E.; Swift, S.

    2004-12-01

    Meltwater discharge to the North Atlantic during deglaciation likely influenced global oceanic circulation and climate. However, directly linking meltwater discharge events with individual climate oscillations has been difficult because of challenges in determining the location, timing and amount of meltwater discharge. New evidence from the Hudson River Valley (HRV) and the Northeastern US continental margin constrain the timing of the catastrophic draining of Glacial Lake Iroquois, that breached the moraine dam at the Narrows in New York City, eroded the HRV, and deposited large sediment lobes on the exposed New York and New Jersey continental shelf, to about 13,350 years before present (BP). Including the contribution of Glacial Lake Vermont and Glacial Lake Albany, which also drained in this event, the meltwater release was likely about 3.5x1012 m3. We regard this as a minimum estimate, as additional meltwater from the west most likely contributed to Glacial Lake Iroquois at this time and further meltwater may have been provided by subglacial reservoirs. The timing of this meltwater pulse is coincident with the onset of the Intra-Allerod Cold Period (IACP) recorded in the GISP II oxygen isotopes and the grey-scale record from the Cariaco Basin. The IACP probably correlates to short-lived cold reversals in Central North America, Atlantic Canada (Killarney Oscillation), and Central Europe (Gerzensee Oscillation). Excess 14C in Cariaco Basin sediments likely indicates a slowdown in thermohaline circulation and heat transport to the North Atlantic that initiated about 13,350 years ago. Thus the meltwater discharge out the HRV may have played an important role in slowing thermohaline circulation triggering the IACP.

  7. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  8. Canada's population is aging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jennifer; Samis, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Canada's population is aging, and the authors of this issue's lead article, Neena Chappell and Marcus Hollander, present a policy prescription for how to design a healthcare system that better responds to needs of older Canadians. The timing of this issue of Healthcare Papers is important: the first of the baby boomers turned 65 in January 2011. There is a pressing need to develop policies and implement sustainable reforms that will allow older adults to stay healthier and maintain their independence longer in their place of choice, while also creating efficiencies and quality improvements in our overall healthcare system that will benefit Canadians of all ages. PMID:21464621

  9. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  10. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate. PMID:26871530

  11. Canada's largest mining scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

  12. Canada: irrational energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Paehlke, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    Despite energy shortages, recent weeks have seen the collapse or at least postponement of three major energy projects in Canada: the Cold Lake (Alberta) heavy oil plant, the Alsands oil sands plant, and the Alaska Highway natural gas pipeline. All have fallen victim to the combination of high interest rates and increasing doubts that oil prices will continue to rise at an annual rate of five percent in real terms. Current energy problems and policies are discussed including decline of oil reserves, expanded domestic use and export of Canadian natural gas, expansion of the nuclear energy program, demand for electricity, and energy conservation. (JMT)

  13. Women Physicists in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Austin, Roby; Bhadra, Sampa; McKenna, Janis; Xu, Li-Hong; Steinitz, Michael

    2009-04-01

    In recent years the overall climate for women in academia in Canada has improved. Efforts are being made to attract girls to science at a young age. The enrollment of women across undergraduate and graduate programs in the physical sciences has increased gradually in the past decade, with a sharp increase at the graduate level. In light of a large number of upcoming retirements in academic positions, the presence of women in academia will continue to grow, supported by efforts to ensure equity in academia made by government agencies, academic institutions, and faculty associations.

  14. Extreme Rainfall and Flood Events for the Hudson River Induced by Tropical Cyclones: a Statistical Forecast Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conticello, F.; Hall, T. M.; Lall, U.; Orton, P. M.; Cioffi, F.; Georgas, N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) lead to potentially severe coastal flooding through wind surge and also through rainfall-runoff processes. There is growing interest in modeling these processes simultaneously. Here, a statistical approach that can facilitate this process is presented with an application to the Hudson River Basin that is associated with the New York City metropolitan area. Three submodels are used in sequence. The first submodel is a stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones developed by Hall and Yonekura (2011). It uses archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and of sea surface temperature (SST). The second submodel translates the attributes of a tropical cyclone simulated by the first model to the streamflows at specific points of the tributaries of the Hudson River. That points are the closure sections of five different watersheds. Two different approaches are used and compared: 1) an ANN-cyclone/rainfall clustering model which calculates the rainfall intensity at selected stations within the watershed, that are then used as inputs of an ANN rainfall/runoff model; 2) an ANN/ Bayesian multivariate approach that translates the TC attributes ( track, SST, Velocities,..) directly in streamflows in the tributaries. Finally, the streamflows of the tributaries of the Hudson River are to be used as inputs in a hydrodynamic model that includes storm surge dynamics for the simulation of coastal flooding along the Hudson River. Calibration and validation of the model is carried out by using, selected tropical cyclone data since 1950, and hourly and daily station rainfall and streamflow recorded for such extreme events. Seven stream gauges (Croton River, Rondout Creek, Wappinger Creek, Troy dam, Mohawk River at Cohoes, Mohawk River diversion at Crescent Dam, Hudson River above lock one nr Waterford) and over 20 rain gauges are

  15. Minimum Bayes risk image correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

  16. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  17. Impact of AMD on water quality in critical watershed in the Hudson River drainage basin: Phillips Mine, Hudson Highlands, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, Sivajini; Gates, Alexander; Szabo, Zoltan; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2009-03-01

    A sulfur and trace element enriched U-Th-laced tailings pile at the abandoned Phillips Mine in Garrison, New York, releases acid mine drainage (AMD, generally pH < 3, minimum pH 1.78) into the first-order Copper Mine Brook (CMB) that drains into the Hudson River. The pyrrhotite-rich Phillips Mine is located in the Highlands region, a critical water source for the New York metro area. A conceptual model for derivation/dissolution, sequestration, transport and dilution of contaminants is proposed. The acidic water interacts with the tailings, leaching and dissolving the trace metals. AMD evaporation during dry periods concentrates solid phase trace metals and sulfate, forming melanterite (FeSO4·7H2O) on sulfide-rich tailings surfaces. Wet periods dissolve these concentrates/precipitates, releasing stored acidity and trace metals into the CMB. Sediments along CMB are enriched in iron hydroxides which act as sinks for metals, indicating progressive sequestration that correlates with dilution and sharp rise in pH when mine water mixes with tributaries. Seasonal variations in metal concentrations were partly attributable to dissolution of the efflorescent salts with their sorbed metals and additional metals from surging acidic seepage induced by precipitation.

  18. Impact of AMD on water quality in critical watershed in the Hudson River drainage basin: Phillips Mine, Hudson Highlands, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilchrist, S.; Gates, A.; Szabo, Z.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    A sulfur and trace element enriched U-Th-laced tailings pile at the abandoned Phillips Mine in Garrison, New York, releases acid mine drainage (AMD, generally pH < 3, minimum pH 1.78) into the first-order Copper Mine Brook (CMB) that drains into the Hudson River. The pyrrhotite-rich Phillips Mine is located in the Highlands region, a critical water source for the New York metro area. A conceptual model for derivation/dissolution, sequestration, transport and dilution of contaminants is proposed. The acidic water interacts with the tailings, leaching and dissolving the trace metals. AMD evaporation during dry periods concentrates solid phase trace metals and sulfate, forming melanterite (FeSO4???7H2O) on sulfide-rich tailings surfaces. Wet periods dissolve these concentrates/precipitates, releasing stored acidity and trace metals into the CMB. Sediments along CMB are enriched in iron hydroxides which act as sinks for metals, indicating progressive sequestration that correlates with dilution and sharp rise in pH when mine water mixes with tributaries. Seasonal variations in metal concentrations were partly attributable to dissolution of the efflorescent salts with their sorbed metals and additional metals from surging acidic seepage induced by precipitation. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Winter-time circulation and sediment transport in the Hudson Shelf Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Courtney K.; Butman, Bradford; Traykovski, Peter

    2003-05-01

    The Hudson Shelf Valley is a bathymetric low that extends across the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. From December 1999 to April 2000 a field experiment was carried out to investigate the transport of sediment in the shelf and valley system. Near-bed tripods and water-column moorings were deployed at water depths from 38 to 75 m in the axis of the shelf valley and at about 26 m on the adjacent shelves offshore of New Jersey and Long Island, New York. These measured suspended sediment concentrations, current velocities, waves, and water column properties. This paper analyzes observations made during December 1999 and January 2000, and presents the first direct near-bed measurements of suspended sediment concentration and sediment flux from the region. Sediment transport within the Hudson Shelf Valley was coherent over tens of kilometers, and usually aligned with the axis of the shelf valley. Down-valley (off-shore) transport was associated with energetic waves, winds from the east, moderate current velocities (5-10 cm/s), and sea level setup at Sandy Hook, NJ. Up-valley (shoreward) transport occurred frequently, and was associated with winds from the west, low wave energy, high current velocities (20-40 cm/s), and sea level set-down at the coast. Within the shelf valley, net sediment flux (the product of near-bed concentration and velocity) was directed shoreward, up the axis of the valley. Current velocities and suspended sediment fluxes on the New York and New Jersey continental shelves were lower than within the shelf valley, and exhibited greater variability in alignment. Longer term meteorological data indicate that wind, setup, and wave conditions during the study period were more conducive to up-valley transport than seasonal data suggest as average. To relate the observed up-valley sediment flux to observed accumulation of contaminants within the Hudson Shelf Valley requires consideration of transport over longer timescales than those

  20. Controls on Bacterial Concentrations in Sediment Grab Samples from the Hudson River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batta, J.; Mailloux, B. J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.; Ferguson, A. S.; Cheung, J.; Layton, A.

    2010-12-01

    High levels of fecal bacteria resulting from sewage-related pollution are often present in the Hudson River Estuary. Die-off of the fecal bacteria in surface waters is relatively rapid but the fecal bacteria can also attach to particles and settle. It is known that fecal bacteria are present in the shallow sediments but controls on their distribution have not been closely examined. The goal of this work is to examine the relationship between the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria and sediment properties including estimates of sediment age. Forty sediment surface grabs were obtained from the Hudson River Estuary. Twenty samples were collected from near the George Washington Bridge (GWB) and twenty samples from a 15 mile transect near Hudson New York. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were determined by the cultured based Enterolert and Colilert tests (Idexx Laboratories) and molecular based techniques for E. coli and Bacteroides. Sediments were analyzed for total metals, total organic carbon, grain size, and gamma emitting radionuclides including Beryllium-7, Lead-210, and Cesium-137. Enterococcus was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 88 cells/g and a range of 4 to 817 cells /g. Culturable E. Coli was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 168 cells /g and a range of 5 to 2247 cells /g. Enterococcus concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the northern transect. Molecular based concentrations were determined for the GWB samples and were significantly higher than culture based concentrations. Bacteroides was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 1.1x106 copies/g and a range of 3.9x104 to 4.7x106 copies /g. Molecular E. Coli was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 3.0x106 copies/g and a range of 8.7x104 to 8.9x107 copies /g. The results clearly show that a significant amount of fecal bacteria are present in the sediments. Simple linear correlations between bacterial concentrations and sediment