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Sample records for human anatomy content

  1. The Human Anatomy Teacher-Scholar: Meeting the Expectations of Educational Outcomes Research, Course Content Innovation, and Textbook Innovation for Educational Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Christine Marie

    2009-01-01

    A human anatomy teacher-scholar is a scholar whose area of expertise includes content knowledge of the anatomical sciences (gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and/or neuroanatomy) and whose research interests and focus are centered in medical educational outcomes. The projects described in this dissertation represent endeavors I engaged in to…

  2. The human anatomy teacher-scholar: Meeting the expectations of educational outcomes research, course content innovation, and textbook innovation for educational scholarship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Christine Marie

    A human anatomy teacher-scholar is a scholar whose area of expertise includes content knowledge of the anatomical sciences (gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and/or neuroanatomy) and whose research interests and focus are centered in medical educational outcomes. The projects described in this dissertation represent endeavors I engaged in to become a human anatomy teacher-scholar. These projects included: (1) prospectively testing a hypothesis, and performing outcomes assessment in a field for which little data (theory) exist (dissection guide educational research project), (2) creating innovative course content that bridged disciplines (cadaver autopsy project), and (3) composing original teaching material for a specific audience (human anatomy laboratory manual). The training of a human anatomy teacher-scholar emphasizes knowledge acquisition in both the basic sciences (particularly gross anatomy) and in educational outcomes research methodology and theory. Therefore, human anatomy teacher-scholars are positioned to create innovative course content and materials and assess the innovations to guide future efforts. These are important skills for faculty members involved in the education of medical students in the U.S. as the medical education system in the U.S. continues to evolve.

  3. Human ocular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. PMID:25704934

  4. Lecture Notes on Human Anatomy. Part Two, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and learn a specific way of thinking. This is the second volume in a set of notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human anatomy. This volume includes…

  5. Lecture Notes on Human Anatomy. Part One, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and use a specific way of thinking. This is the first volume in a set of notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human anatomy. This volume includes discussions…

  6. Anatomy 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy: A Functional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Robert M.

    An introductory human anatomy course designed to provide the basic understanding of human structure necessary for further study in allied health and related fields is described. First, a general course description provides an overview; discusses the courses' place within the science curriculum, noting that it does not meet the general education…

  7. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  8. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  9. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  10. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  11. A Syllabus for Biol 242--Human Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.

    This document is the fall and spring semester course syllabus of Biology 242--Human Anatomy at Southern University (Louisiana). Sections include: (1) Descriptive Information; (2) Specification of Course Goals and Objectives; (3) Readings; (4) Description of Instructional Procedures; (5) Course Requirements; (6) Course Schedule; (7) Evaluation of…

  12. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  13. Determination of Clinically Relevant Content for a Musculoskeletal Anatomy Curriculum for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisk, Kristina; Flannery, John F.; Loh, Eldon Y.; Richardson, Denyse; Agur, Anne M. R.; Woods, Nicole N.

    2014-01-01

    To address the need for more clinical anatomy training in residency education, many postgraduate programs have implemented structured anatomy courses into their curriculum. Consensus often does not exist on specific content and level of detail of the content that should be included in such curricula. This article describes the use of the Delphi…

  14. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  15. Laboratory Instructions and Study Guide for Human Anatomy. Part Two, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, learn to deal successfully with complex tasks, and use a specific way of thinking. This is the second volume in a set of laboratory instructions and study notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in…

  16. Laboratory Instructions and Study Guide for Human Anatomy. Part One, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and use a specific way of thinking. This is the first volume in a set of laboratory instructions and study notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human…

  17. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  18. Changing undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories: perspectives from a large-enrollment course.

    PubMed

    Griff, Edwin R

    2016-09-01

    In the present article, a veteran lecturer of human anatomy and physiology taught several sections of the laboratory component for the first time and shares his observations and analysis from this unique perspective. The article discusses a large-enrollment, content-heavy anatomy and physiology course in relationship to published studies on learning and student self-efficacy. Changes in the laboratory component that could increase student learning are proposed. The author also points out the need for research to assess whether selective curricular changes could increase the depth of understanding and retention of learned material. PMID:27503898

  19. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  20. Near-Peer Teaching Strategy in a Large Human Anatomy Course: Perceptions of Near-Peer Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Carmona Pulido, Juan Manuel; De la Garza Chapa, Roberto Isaac; Serna Vázquez, Ruth Patricia; Alcalá Briones, Ricardo Daniel; Plasencia Banda, Perla Marina; Villarreal Silva, Eliud Enrique; Jacobo Baca, Guillermo; de la Garza Castro, Oscar; Elizondo Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán López, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a strategy in which senior students assume the instructor role with junior peers (mentees). Senior students develop unique skills and knowledge through NPT, an experience which extends their learning beyond content mastery. Different teaching modules featuring NPT were utilized in the human anatomy course at the School…

  1. Content-Specific Auditing of a Large Scale Anatomy Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Kalet, Ira J.; Mejino, Jose L. V.; Wang, Vania; Whipple, Mark; Brinkley, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies are envisioned to be useable in a range of research and clinical applications. The requirements for such uses include formal consistency, adequacy of coverage, and possibly other domain specific constraints. In this report we describe a case study that illustrates how application specific requirements may be used to identify modeling problems as well as data entry errors in ontology building and evolution. We have begun a project to use the UW Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) in a clinical application in radiation therapy planning. This application focuses mainly (but not exclusively) on the representation of the lymphatic system in the FMA, in order to predict the spread of tumor cells to regional metastatic sites. This application requires that the downstream relations associated with lymphatic system components must only be to other lymphatic chains or vessels, must be at the appropriate level of granularity, and that every path through the lymphatic system must terminate at one of the two well known trunks of the lymphatic system. It is possible through a programmable query interface to the FMA to write small programs that systematically audit the FMA for compliance with these constraints. We report on the design of some of these programs, and the results we obtained by applying them to the lymphatic system. The algorithms and approach are generalizable to other network organ systems in the FMA such as arteries and veins. In addition to illustrating exact constraint checking methods, this work illustrates how the details of an application may reflect back a requirement to revise the design of the ontology itself. PMID:19248842

  2. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  3. Humanities in Gross Anatomy Project: A Novel Humanistic Learning Tool at Des Moines University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canby, Craig A.; Bush, Traci A.

    2010-01-01

    Gross anatomy affords physical therapy students an opportunity to discover human morphology by intimately studying the dead. Moreover, it also exposes future physical therapists to the humanistic aspects of the profession. In 2007, anatomy faculty decided to socialize students to the humanities with a new course requirement: Humanities in Gross…

  4. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    PubMed

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy. PMID:23650274

  5. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching. PMID:24336036

  6. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  7. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  8. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  9. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Xu, Hua-Zi; Wang, Yong-Li; Zhu, Qing-An; Mao, Fang-Min; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Context Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported. Purpose To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans. Study Design Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs). Methods Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal width (SCW), spinal canal depth (SCD), pedicle width (PW), pedicle depth (PD), pedicle inclination (PI), dens width (DW), dens depth (DD), total vertebral width (TVW), and total vertebral depth (TVD). Results The atlantoaxial (C1–2) joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4–C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute. Conclusion Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be

  10. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  11. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  12. Sinus Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  13. The use of computers to teach human anatomy and physiology to allied health and nursing students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Valerie J.

    Educational institutions are under tremendous pressure to adopt the newest technologies in order to prepare their students to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. For the last twenty years huge amounts of money have been spent on computers, printers, software, multimedia projection equipment, and so forth. A reasonable question is, "Has it worked?" Has this infusion of resources, financial as well as human, resulted in improved learning? Are the students meeting the intended learning goals? Any attempt to develop answers to these questions should include examining the intended goals and exploring the effects of the changes on students and faculty. This project investigated the impact of a specific application of a computer program in a community college setting on students' attitudes and understanding of human anatomy and physiology. In this investigation two sites of the same community college with seemingly similar students populations, seven miles apart, used different laboratory activities to teach human anatomy and physiology. At one site nursing students were taught using traditional dissections and laboratory activities; at the other site two of the dissections, specifically cat and sheep pluck, were replaced with the A.D.A.M.RTM (Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine) computer program. Analysis of the attitude data indicated that students at both sites were extremely positive about their laboratory experiences. Analysis of the content data indicated a statistically significant difference in performance between the two sites in two of the eight content areas that were studied. For both topics the students using the computer program scored higher. A detailed analysis of the surveys, interviews with faculty and students, examination of laboratory materials, and observations of laboratory facilities in both sites, and cost-benefit analysis led to the development of seven recommendations. The recommendations call for action at the level of the

  14. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  15. Near-peer teaching strategy in a large human anatomy course: perceptions of near-peer instructors.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Carmona Pulido, Juan Manuel; De la Garza Chapa, Roberto Isaac; Serna Vázquez, Ruth Patricia; Alcalá Briones, Ricardo Daniel; Plasencia Banda, Perla Marina; Villarreal Silva, Eliud Enrique; Jacobo Baca, Guillermo; de la Garza Castro, Oscar; Elizondo Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán López, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a strategy in which senior students assume the instructor role with junior peers (mentees). Senior students develop unique skills and knowledge through NPT, an experience which extends their learning beyond content mastery. Different teaching modules featuring NPT were utilized in the human anatomy course at the School of Medicine, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon in Monterrey, Mexico. Modules included: Theory, Clinical Hour, Imaging Anatomy, and Laboratory. The aim of this study was to assess instructor participants' perceptions on the benefits of the NPT strategy in the anatomy classroom. A survey was administered to anatomy course instructors who utilized NPT strategies during winter, fall, and spring semesters of the 2012-2013 school year. A total of 120 instructors were enrolled in the study. There were different perceptions of instructors' roles. Theory and Imaging Anatomy instructors considered themselves to be information providers and resource developers, whereas Clinical Hour and Laboratory instructors saw themselves more as facilitators, role models, and planners. All instructors' opinions on the benefits of NPT were positive. Thus, in this article, the authors find NPT to be a strategy that promotes self-learning, a vital skill. PMID:25203867

  16. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  17. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  18. Anatomy and humanity: Examining the effects of a short documentary film and first anatomy laboratory experience on medical students.

    PubMed

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the effects of a brief documentary film and the initial cadaver encounter on student perceptions and attitudes towards the laboratory experience. A pre-test, exposure, post-test design was used with 77 first-year medical students at the University of Central Florida. A previously validated questionnaire was adapted to measure attitudes, emotions, initial reaction to cadaver, perception of the donor as a person, and impressions of the film. An online questionnaire was completed before the first day of laboratory, in which students watched the film Anatomy and Humanity and handled their respective cadavers (no dissection was performed). The post-test was administered immediately following the activities of the first laboratory day. Results indicate an increase in negative attitudes towards dissection, but a more positive initial reaction to the cadaver than originally anticipated. Students also experienced a decrease in emotions like sadness and guilt regarding anatomy laboratory and were less likely to view the cadaver as a once-living person. Findings suggest a higher comfort level, but also greater detachment toward the cadavers from day one despite the video intervention. These results provide novel insight that may aid other interventions aimed at promoting humanism in the anatomy laboratory experience. PMID:25919991

  19. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... 16 for more on decibel information. ) Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional What can I do to ...

  20. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. PMID:24249485

  1. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26580309

  2. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly ...

  3. The development, assessment and validation of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Karen Benn

    1996-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, validating and utilizing VR as a human anatomy training medium. Current anatomy instruction is primarily in the form of lectures and usage of textbooks. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three-dimensional, unlike the one-dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two-dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality allows one to step through the computer screen into a 3-D artificial world. The primary objective of this project is to produce a virtual reality application of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver that can be taken back to the classroom. The hypothesis is that an immersive learning environment affords quicker anatomic recognition and orientation and a greater level of retention in human anatomy instruction. The goal is to augment not replace traditional modes of instruction.

  4. A Measure of the Effectiveness of Incorporating 3D Human Anatomy into an Online Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbelink, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Results of a study designed to determine the effectiveness of implementing three-dimensional (3D) stereo images of a human skull in an undergraduate human anatomy online laboratory were gathered and analysed. Mental model theory and its applications to 3D relationships are discussed along with the research results. Quantitative results on 62 pairs…

  5. Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

  6. The benefits of the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website for the design of cardiac devices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Julianne H; Quill, Jason L; Bateman, Michael G; Eggen, Michael D; Howard, Stephen A; Goff, Ryan P; Howard, Brian T; Quallich, Stephen G; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes how the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website can be used to improve cardiac device design throughout the process of development. The Atlas is a free-access website featuring novel images of both functional and fixed human cardiac anatomy from over 250 human heart specimens. This website provides numerous educational tutorials on anatomy, physiology and various imaging modalities. For instance, the 'device tutorial' provides examples of devices that were either present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of the vasculature, blood volumes and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of various heart specimens. The website shares library images, video clips and computed tomography and MRI DICOM files in honor of the generous gifts received from donors and their families. PMID:24195457

  7. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  8. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sustercic, Dusan; Sersa, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Background Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Materials and methods Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. Results MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. Conclusions This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment. PMID:22933973

  9. [Chinese books on human anatomy published in the late Qing dynasty].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideshi

    2007-12-01

    Quanti-chanwei (1881) is the first technical book on human anatomy written in Chinese and brought to Modern China. It was compiled and translated on the basis of Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical (first edition in 1858) by Henry Gray. Quanti-chanwei was published with intent to establish Chinese translations for terms referring to anatomy, and it gained broad support from medical missionaries who mainly served in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Fuzhou at that time. Quanti-tongkao (1886) was also complied and translated on the basis of Gray' Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical. It was published from Jingshi Tongwen Guan, The Academy of Foreign Languages in the Qing dynasty, and they selected different words for the translation into Chinese from Quanti-chanwei. Thus, although Gray' Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical played a great role in the introduction of Western Medicine into Modern China, there was no accordance between the national government and the provinces regarding Chinese translations for terms referring to anatomy. PMID:18548873

  10. Learning Outcomes and Student-Perceived Value of Clay Modeling and Cat Dissection in Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling…

  11. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  12. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  13. Tracheobronchial Cast Production and Use in an Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Silastic E RTV silicone was used to produce tracheobronchial cast for use in an undergraduate human anatomy course. Following air-drying, the trachea and lungs were injected with E RTV silicone and allowed to cure for 24 hr. The parenchyma was then removed from the tracheobronchial cast by maceration and boiling and then whitened in a 10% solution…

  14. Mixed Methods Student Evaluation of an Online Systemic Human Anatomy Course with Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attardi, Stefanie M.; Choi, Suwhan; Barnett, John; Rogers, Kem A.

    2016-01-01

    A fully online section of an existing face-to-face (F2F) systemic human anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered for the first time in 2012-2013. Lectures for F2F students (N = 365) were broadcast in both live and archived format to online students (N = 40) using virtual classroom software. Laboratories were delivered online by a…

  15. Self-Directed Learning in Gross Human Anatomy: Assessment Outcomes and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smythe, Gayle; Hughes, Diane

    2008-01-01

    Speech pathology students enrolled in a lecture-based gross human anatomy program completed two out of nine topics in self-directed mode. Student performance in quizzes was compared for the two modes, and the students completed questionnaires on their perceptions of the self-directed mode of delivery. Students performed as well in the first…

  16. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  17. Student Attitudes Toward Instructional Variables in a Human Anatomy Class as Assessed by a Projective Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ruth M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Explored the effectiveness of the self-initiated modular approach for learning a unit in a human gross anatomy course, and student preference of cadaver dissection versus cadaver prosection. A color scale, the Chromatic Differential Test (CDT), was used to assess general student attitude and preference. (CS)

  18. Neural Population Tuning Links Visual Cortical Anatomy to Human Visual Perception

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chen; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Summary The anatomy of cerebral cortex is characterized by two genetically independent variables, cortical thickness and cortical surface area, that jointly determine cortical volume. It remains unclear how cortical anatomy might influence neural response properties and whether such influences would have behavioral consequences. Here, we report that thickness and surface area of human early visual cortices exert opposite influences on neural population tuning with behavioral consequences for perceptual acuity. We found that visual cortical thickness correlated negatively with the sharpness of neural population tuning and the accuracy of perceptual discrimination at different visual field positions. In contrast, visual cortical surface area correlated positively with neural population tuning sharpness and perceptual discrimination accuracy. Our findings reveal a central role for neural population tuning in linking visual cortical anatomy to visual perception and suggest that a perceptually advantageous visual cortex is a thinned one with an enlarged surface area. PMID:25619658

  19. Out of the dissecting room: news media portrayal of human anatomy teaching and research.

    PubMed

    Regan de Bere, Sam; Petersen, Alan

    2006-07-01

    Radical changes in medical research and education have recently led to a number of innovative developments in terms of how human anatomy is represented and understood. New ways of introducing medical students to anatomy (including living anatomies and virtual simulations) have provoked widespread debate, with discussion of their relative merits compared to more traditional approaches that use cadaveric dissection. Outside the field of medicine, in the wider public sphere, the practice of anatomical study may often seem mysterious. The dissemination of news on anatomy, we contend, is central to the question of how medical researchers and educators engage with the public. Our analysis of news media coverage in the UK demonstrates that news-making, by giving prominence to certain facts, themes and images, serves to mask issues about anatomy and its practices that need debate. We examine the ways in which news media, through processes of selection and the 'framing' of issues, may perform an agenda-setting role. We draw attention to the use of positive 'awe and amazement' frames including 'miracles of modern science', 'medical heroes', and 'gifts of life', alongside more negative 'guts and gore' coverage including 'Frankenstein', 'Brave New World' and 'Rape of the Body' frames that concentrate on high profile scandals associated with the use and misuse of human bodies, tissues and parts. We also highlight the selective use of commentaries from members of the medical profession, which are more prevalent in positive 'awe and amazement' stories than in stories with negative coverage. We conclude by arguing for greater collaboration between journalists on the one hand, and medical educators and researchers on the other, in the making of news in order to provide portrayals of anatomy which bear a closer relationship to the everyday reality of professional work. PMID:16476515

  20. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  1. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  2. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    PubMed

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  3. Design and implementation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Stefanie M; Rogers, Kem A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Human Anatomy is a full credit, upper year undergraduate course with a (prosection) laboratory component at Western University Canada. To meet enrollment demands beyond the physical space of the laboratory facility, a fully online section was developed to run concurrently with the traditional face to face (F2F) course. Lectures given to F2F students are simultaneously broadcasted to online students using collaborative software (Blackboard Collaborate). The same collaborative software is used by a teaching assistant to deliver laboratory demonstrations in which three-dimensional (3D) virtual anatomical models are manipulated. Ten commercial software programs were reviewed to determine their suitability for demonstrating the virtual models, resulting in the selection of Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy. Supplementary online materials for the central nervous system were developed by creating 360° images of plastinated prosected brain specimens and a website through which they could be accessed. This is the first description of a fully online undergraduate anatomy course with a live, interactive laboratory component. Preliminary data comparing the online and F2F student grades suggest that previous student academic performance, and not course delivery format, predicts performance in anatomy. Future qualitative studies will reveal student perceptions about their learning experiences in both of the course delivery formats. PMID:24920278

  4. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  5. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  6. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units.

    PubMed

    Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology. PMID:23408541

  7. Mixed methods student evaluation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Stefanie M; Choi, Suwhan; Barnett, John; Rogers, Kem A

    2016-05-01

    A fully online section of an existing face-to-face (F2F) systemic human anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered for the first time in 2012-2013. Lectures for F2F students (N = 365) were broadcast in both live and archived format to online students (N = 40) using virtual classroom software. Laboratories were delivered online by a teaching assistant who manipulated 3D computer models in the virtual classroom environment. An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach was undertaken to determine the most important deciding factors that drive students' preferences for a given format and then to generate theory on the strengths and weaknesses of the online format. Students (20 online; 310 F2F) volunteered to participate in a crossover period of one week to expose them to the course section in which they were not originally registered. Open ended interviews (20 online; 20 F2F) and quantitative surveys (270 F2F) were conducted following a crossover. Students valued pace control, schedule, and location flexibility of learning from archived materials and being assessed online. In the online laboratory they had difficulty using the 3D models and preferred the unique and hands-on experiences of cadaveric specimens. The F2F environment was conducive to learning in both lecture and laboratory because students felt more engaged by instructors in person and were less distracted by their surroundings. These results suggest the need to improve the online experience by increasing the quality of student-instructor communication and in turn student-content interaction with the 3D models. Anat Sci Educ 9: 272-285. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26588051

  8. Introduction to anatomy and physiology of human conception.

    PubMed

    Kably, A; Barroso, G

    2000-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological concepts of human reproduction currently in use have been developed over generations, following clinical and basic research guidelines that preceded modern technology. The application of new forms of research over recent decades, as in the case of molecular biology, has contributed to a more in-depth and accurate understanding of the interaction of each of the inter- and intracellular structures in the mechanics of human physiology. On the other hand the use of non-human primate models has provided invaluable information in the reproductive field. The information obtained through models and techniques that have changed over time has led to concepts that continue to have the same validity as when they were first described. The principal objective of this review is to develop an understanding of the physiological processes applied in the anatomical sphere, taking as a reference the fact that it is impossible to understand reproductive mechanics in terms of static phenomena, but rather they should be understood as dynamic and changing processes adaptable to the conditions of each individual's surroundings. PMID:12804191

  9. Effectiveness of three-dimensional digital animation in teaching human anatomy in an authentic classroom context.

    PubMed

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb assessments). During the upper limb section, the teacher used two-dimensional (2D) drawings embedded into PowerPoint(®) slides and 3D digital animations for the first group (2D group) and the second (3D group), respectively. The same 3D digital animations were used for both groups during the trunk section. The only difference between the two was the multimedia used to present the information during the upper limb section. The 2D group surprisingly outperformed the 3D group on the trunk assessment. On the upper limb assessment no difference in the scores on the overall anatomy examination was found. However, the 3D group outperformed the 2D group in questions requiring spatial ability. Data supported that 3D digital animations were effective instructional multimedia material tools in teaching human anatomy especially in recalling anatomical knowledge requiring spatial ability. The importance of evaluating the effectiveness of a new instructional material outside laboratory environment (e.g., after a complete semester and on official examinations) was discussed. PMID:24678034

  10. An Empirical Study of Neural Network-Based Audience Response Technology in a Human Anatomy Course for Pharmacy Students.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; López-González, Laura; González-Sequeros, Ofelia; Jayne, Chrisina; López-Jiménez, Juan José; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of a formative neural network-based assessment approach by using mobile technology to provide pharmacy students with intelligent diagnostic feedback. An unsupervised learning algorithm was integrated with an audience response system called SIDRA in order to generate states that collect some commonality in responses to questions and add diagnostic feedback for guided learning. A total of 89 pharmacy students enrolled on a Human Anatomy course were taught using two different teaching methods. Forty-four students employed intelligent SIDRA (i-SIDRA), whereas 45 students received the same training but without using i-SIDRA. A statistically significant difference was found between the experimental group (i-SIDRA) and the control group (traditional learning methodology), with T (87) = 6.598, p < 0.001. In four MCQs tests, the difference between the number of correct answers in the first attempt and in the last attempt was also studied. A global effect size of 0.644 was achieved in the meta-analysis carried out. The students expressed satisfaction with the content provided by i-SIDRA and the methodology used during the process of learning anatomy (M = 4.59). The new empirical contribution presented in this paper allows instructors to perform post hoc analyses of each particular student's progress to ensure appropriate training. PMID:26815339

  11. An explorative learning approach to teaching clinical anatomy using student generated content.

    PubMed

    Philip, Christo T; Unruh, Kenneth P; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Translating basic sciences into a clinical framework has been approached through the implementation of various teaching techniques aimed at using a patient case scenario to facilitate learning. These techniques present students with a specific patient case and lead the students to discuss physiological processes through analysis of provided data supported by independent learning and research. However, no literature exists that describes a reverse teaching methodology in which students are given disease diagnosis and then asked to construct a patient case. This article discusses an explorative learning approach introduced in the gross anatomy course in which students were asked to use clinical skills and reasoning to create a patient case. The online knowledge-sharing portal utilizing MediaWiki provided a necessary base for students in completing their task. Teams were given 4 weeks to complete their written online project with weekly feedback provided by 3rd year teaching assistants using the Wiki discussion page. A survey was performed to assess competence regarding a patient write up and oral presentation. Skills that the teams acquired through the completion of this project will benefit future patient interactions. This project also emphasized and reinforced the importance of effective communication, leadership, and teamwork. This study shows that a clinical anatomy project that incorporates explorative learning can be an effective way of introducing students to the skills needed for patient write ups and oral presentations. Furthermore this approach to learning allows students to excel during their clinical years and to correlate anatomy to clinical diagnoses. PMID:19177391

  12. The Drosophila anatomy ontology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anatomy ontologies are query-able classifications of anatomical structures. They provide a widely-used means for standardising the annotation of phenotypes and expression in both human-readable and programmatically accessible forms. They are also frequently used to group annotations in biologically meaningful ways. Accurate annotation requires clear textual definitions for terms, ideally accompanied by images. Accurate grouping and fruitful programmatic usage requires high-quality formal definitions that can be used to automate classification and check for errors. The Drosophila anatomy ontology (DAO) consists of over 8000 classes with broad coverage of Drosophila anatomy. It has been used extensively for annotation by a range of resources, but until recently it was poorly formalised and had few textual definitions. Results We have transformed the DAO into an ontology rich in formal and textual definitions in which the majority of classifications are automated and extensive error checking ensures quality. Here we present an overview of the content of the DAO, the patterns used in its formalisation, and the various uses it has been put to. Conclusions As a result of the work described here, the DAO provides a high-quality, queryable reference for the wild-type anatomy of Drosophila melanogaster and a set of terms to annotate data related to that anatomy. Extensive, well referenced textual definitions make it both a reliable and useful reference and ensure accurate use in annotation. Wide use of formal axioms allows a large proportion of classification to be automated and the use of consistency checking to eliminate errors. This increased formalisation has resulted in significant improvements to the completeness and accuracy of classification. The broad use of both formal and informal definitions make further development of the ontology sustainable and scalable. The patterns of formalisation used in the DAO are likely to be useful to developers of other

  13. Humane images: visual rhetoric in depictions of atypical genital anatomy and sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wall, Shelley

    2010-12-01

    Visual images are widely used in medical and patient education to enhance spoken or written explanations. This paper considers the role of such illustrations in shaping conceptions of the body; specifically, it addresses depictions of variant sexual anatomy and their part in the discursive production of intersex bodies. Visual language--even didactic, 'factual' visual language--carries latent as well as manifest content, and influences self-perceptions and social attitudes. In the case of illustrations about atypical sex development, where the need for non-stigmatising communication is crucial, it is especially important to consider the implicit messages conveyed by imagery and compositional strategies. PMID:21393287

  14. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Szpinda, Michał; Siedlaczek, Waldemar; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74 ± 0.09 to 0.92 ± 0.08 and from 0.56 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41 ± 0.23 to 1.66 ± 0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27 ± 0.17 to 1.48 ± 0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia. PMID:26413517

  15. Practical training on porcine hearts enhances students' knowledge of human cardiac anatomy.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla; Mazzone, Venera; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Castorina, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Historically, cadavers have been used for the study of anatomy. Nowadays, the territorial and legal limitations of this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods such as the use of practical exercise consisting of dissection and observation of animal organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of practical training on animal organs compared with the traditional method of anatomy teaching, based on the dissection of human cadavers. In this study, we seek to demonstrate the usefulness of practical exercise on animal organs. This practical training was held a week after the series of lectures, thus leaving time for the students to learn and understand the topics discussed. Immediately after the lecture, all of the students completed a preliminary test to assess the immediate effect of the lecture. Immediately before the practical exercise, both control and experimental groups completed a second test to assess the effectiveness of personal study. Immediately after practical training, a third test was completed by the experimental group and the control group (no practical activity on animal organs) to highlight the added value of hands-on practice in addition to the lecture. Data obtained from statistical analysis showed a p<0.05 (control group vs. experimental group) only for the third test as expected, highlighting significant differences in anatomy learning between control and experimental groups. Thus, the results of this study emphasize the utility of practical training on animal organs in learning and understanding anatomy, considering the limitations of the use of cadavers. PMID:24657148

  16. Integration of genomic and medical data into a 3D atlas of human anatomy.

    PubMed

    Turinsky, Andrei L; Fanea, Elena; Trinh, Quang; Dong, Xiaoli; Stromer, Julie N; Shu, Xueling; Wat, Stephen; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Hill, Jonathan W; Edwards, Carol; Grosenick, Brenda; Yajima, Masumi; Sensen, Christoph W

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a framework for the visual integration and exploration of multi-scale biomedical data, which includes anatomical and molecular components. We have also created a Java-based software system that integrates molecular information, such as gene expression data, into a three-dimensional digital atlas of the male adult human anatomy. Our atlas is structured according to the Terminologia Anatomica. The underlying data-indexing mechanism uses open standards and semantic ontology-processing tools to establish the associations between heterogeneous data types. The software system makes an extensive use of virtual reality visualization. PMID:18391362

  17. The anatomy of the human genome: a neo-Vesalian basis for medicine in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    McKusick, V A

    2001-11-14

    Since 1956, the anatomy of the human genome has been described on the basis of chromosome studies, gene mapping, and DNA sequencing. The gross anatomy of Andreas Vesalius, published in 1543, played a leading role in the development of modern medicine. The objective of this article is to show that knowledge of genomic anatomy is having a comparably strong and pervasive influence on all of medicine. The research revealing human genome anatomy is reviewed. The insight provided by genome anatomy has brought about shifts of focus, both in research and in the clinic, eg, from genomics to proteomic and from the individually rare, single-gene disorders to common disorders. Genomic anatomy permits medicine to become more predictive and preventive. At the same time, diagnosis and treatment are rendered more sensitive, specific, effective, and safe. Hazards in misuse and misunderstanding of the information exist. Education of both the public and health professionals is vital if the full benefits of neo-Vesalian medicine are to be realized. PMID:11710895

  18. The Case Anatomical Knowledge Index (CAKI): A Novel Method Used to Assess Anatomy Content in Clinical Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Sekelani S.

    2009-01-01

    There are concerns in the literature that the use of case-based teaching of anatomy could be compromising the depth and scope of anatomy learned by students in a problem-based learning curriculum. Poor selection of clinical cases that are used as vehicles for teaching/learning anatomy may be the root problem because some clinical cases do not…

  19. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Raj, Ashish; Chen, Yu-hsien

    2011-01-01

    Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization. PMID:21915250

  20. The impact of body worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results. Clin. Anat. 29:439-445, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26789643

  1. Anatomy of an App: Why Design and Content are Essential for Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santascoy, J. S.; Cieplinski, J.

    2012-08-01

    Design is a major component of outreach, but few organizations recognize the urgency of having good design, along with its sister, good content. Content includes anything that is produced, such as writing, audio, video, and photography. Good content is essential for good design and vice-versa. You need both to be successful, but we'll focus more on design in this paper. We cover the basics of app design, and many of these principles will work with regard to websites, print pieces, and posters. This paper is intended for outreach professionals interested in developing an app and/or interested in attracting a wider audience.

  2. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching.

    PubMed

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this "highly informed" group of potential donors. PMID:27190650

  3. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors. PMID:27190650

  4. Biological Model Development as an Opportunity to Provide Content Auditing for the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lucy L.; Grunblatt, Eli; Jung, Hyunggu; Kalet, Ira J.; Whipple, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Constructing a biological model using an established ontology provides a unique opportunity to perform content auditing on the ontology. We built a Markov chain model to study tumor metastasis in the regional lymphatics of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The model attempts to determine regions with high likelihood for metastasis, which guides surgeons and radiation oncologists in selecting the boundaries of treatment. To achieve consistent anatomical relationships, the nodes in our model are populated using lymphatic objects extracted from the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) ontology. During this process, we discovered several classes of inconsistencies in the lymphatic representations within the FMA. We were able to use this model building opportunity to audit the entities and connections in this region of interest (ROI). We found five subclasses of errors that are computationally detectable and resolvable, one subclass of errors that is computationally detectable but unresolvable, requiring the assistance of a content expert, and also errors of content, which cannot be detected through computational means. Mathematical descriptions of detectable errors along with expert review were used to discover inconsistencies and suggest concepts for addition and removal. Out of 106 organ and organ parts in the ROI, 8 unique entities were affected, leading to the suggestion of 30 concepts for addition and 4 for removal. Out of 27 lymphatic chain instances, 23 were found to have errors, with a total of 32 concepts suggested for addition and 15 concepts for removal. These content corrections are necessary for the accurate functioning of the FMA and provide benefits for future research and educational uses. PMID:26958311

  5. Biological Model Development as an Opportunity to Provide Content Auditing for the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lucy L; Grunblatt, Eli; Jung, Hyunggu; Kalet, Ira J; Whipple, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Constructing a biological model using an established ontology provides a unique opportunity to perform content auditing on the ontology. We built a Markov chain model to study tumor metastasis in the regional lymphatics of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The model attempts to determine regions with high likelihood for metastasis, which guides surgeons and radiation oncologists in selecting the boundaries of treatment. To achieve consistent anatomical relationships, the nodes in our model are populated using lymphatic objects extracted from the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) ontology. During this process, we discovered several classes of inconsistencies in the lymphatic representations within the FMA. We were able to use this model building opportunity to audit the entities and connections in this region of interest (ROI). We found five subclasses of errors that are computationally detectable and resolvable, one subclass of errors that is computationally detectable but unresolvable, requiring the assistance of a content expert, and also errors of content, which cannot be detected through computational means. Mathematical descriptions of detectable errors along with expert review were used to discover inconsistencies and suggest concepts for addition and removal. Out of 106 organ and organ parts in the ROI, 8 unique entities were affected, leading to the suggestion of 30 concepts for addition and 4 for removal. Out of 27 lymphatic chain instances, 23 were found to have errors, with a total of 32 concepts suggested for addition and 15 concepts for removal. These content corrections are necessary for the accurate functioning of the FMA and provide benefits for future research and educational uses. PMID:26958311

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Teaching Histology by Means of Virtual Microscopy in an Introductory Course in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husmann, Polly R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean; Braun, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares overall laboratory averages and individual test scores along with a student survey to determine the effects of using virtual microscopy in place of optical microscopes in a large undergraduate human anatomy course. T-tests revealed that the first two laboratory examinations (of four) and the overall laboratory averages were…

  7. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  8. Learning outcomes and student-perceived value of clay modeling and cat dissection in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-03-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling of human anatomy and dissection of preserved cat specimens, in the instruction of muscles, peripheral nerves, and blood vessels. Specifically, we examined the effect of each technique on student performance on low-order and high-order questions related to each body system as well as the student-perceived value of each technique. Students who modeled anatomic structures in clay scored significantly higher on low-order questions related to peripheral nerves; scores were comparable between groups for high-order questions on peripheral nerves and for questions on muscles and blood vessels. Likert-scale surveys were used to measure student responses to statements about each laboratory technique. A significantly greater percentage of students in the clay modeling group "agreed" or "strongly agreed" with positive statements about their respective technique. These results indicate that clay modeling and cat dissection are equally effective in achieving student learning outcomes for certain systems in undergraduate human anatomy. Furthermore, clay modeling appears to be the preferred technique based on students' subjective perceptions of value to their learning experience. PMID:21386004

  9. Students Helping Students: Evaluating a Pilot Program of Peer Teaching for an Undergraduate Course in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Paul A.; Love Green, Jennifer K.; Illerbrun, Sara L.; Holness, Duncan A.; Illerbrun, Samantha J.; Haus, Kara A.; Poirier, Sylvianne M.; Sveinson, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on…

  10. Larynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  11. Pharynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  12. Vulva Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  13. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Gidske L; Krzywinski, Knut

    2007-01-01

    Background Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Results Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. Conclusion The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees. PMID:17573964

  14. Cadmium content of human cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, M; Lappalainen, R; Olkkonen, H; Lammi, S; Alhava, E M

    1982-01-01

    The cadmium content of human cancellous bone was related to age, sex, bone loss, physical properties, and elemental composition. Bone specimens from the anterior iliac crest were collected from 889 cadavers with a normal mineral status, and from 50 cadavers which had bone loss from chronic diseases and immobilization. The element concentrations were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Bone fluoride levels ere determined with the ion specific electrode, the mineral density with the gamma ray attenuation method, and the compressive strength with a strain transducer. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The mean cadmium content of 0.22 +/- 9.16 micrograms/g dry weight (+/- SD) in the samples did not change with age and its content was slightly greater in males than in females. Furthermore, no statistically significant relation was found in cadmium content to bone loss changes or to the calcium content of bone. The cadmium content had a high statistically significant positive correlation with the strontium and nickel content. PMID:7138079

  15. Cadmium content of human cancellous bone

    SciTech Connect

    Knuuttila, M.; Lappalainen, R.; Olkkonen, H.; Lammi, S.; Albava, E.M.

    1982-09-01

    The cadmium content of human cancellous bone was related to age, sex, bone loss, physical properties, and elemental composition. Bone specimens from the anterior iliac crest were collected from 88 cadavers with a normal mineral status, and from 50 cadavers which had bone loss from chronic diseases and immobilization. The element concentrations were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Bone fluoride levels were determined with the ion specific electrode, the mineral density with the gamma ray attenuation method, and the compressive strength with a strain transducer. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The mean cadmium content of 0.22 +/- 0.16 ..mu..g/g dry weight (+/- SD) in the samples did not change with age and its content was slightly greater in males than in females. Furthermore, no statistically significant relationship was found in cadmium content to bone loss changes or to the calcium content of bone. The cadmium content had a high statistically significant positive correlation with the strontium and nickel content.

  16. The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: An immersive Approach to Anatomy and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tworek, Janet K.; Jamniczky, Heather A.; Jacob, Christian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be…

  17. Simultaneous anatomical sketching as learning by doing method of teaching human anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Noorafshan, Ali; Hoseini, Leila; Amini, Mitra; Dehghani, Mohammad-Reza; Kojuri, Javad; Bazrafkan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Learning by lecture is a passive experience. Many innovative techniques have been presented to stimulate students to assume a more active attitude toward learning. In this study, simultaneous sketch drawing, as an interactive learning technique was applied to teach anatomy to the medical students. Materials and Methods: We reconstructed a fun interactive model of teaching anatomy as simultaneous anatomic sketching. To test the model's instruction effectiveness, we conducted a quasi- experimental study and then the students were asked to write their learning experiences in their portfolio, also their view was evaluated by a questionnaire. Results: The results of portfolio evaluation revealed that students believed that this method leads to deep learning and understanding anatomical subjects better. Evaluation of the students’ views on this teaching approach was showed that, more than 80% of the students were agreed or completely agreed with this statement that leaning anatomy concepts are easier and the class is less boring with this method. More than 60% of the students were agreed or completely agreed to sketch anatomical figures with professor simultaneously. They also found the sketching make anatomy more attractive and it reduced the time for learning anatomy. These number of students were agree or completely agree that the method help them learning anatomical concept in anatomy laboratory. More than 80% of the students found the simultaneous sketching is a good method for learning anatomy overall. Conclusion: Sketch drawing, as an interactive learning technique, is an attractive for students to learn anatomy. PMID:25013843

  18. On describing human white matter anatomy: the white matter query language.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This enables automated coherent labeling of white matter anatomy across subjects. We use our method to encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter describing 10 association and 8 projection tracts per hemisphere and 7 commissural tracts. The technique is shown to be comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. We present results applying this framework to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a proof-of-concept study to detect tract changes specific to schizophrenia. PMID:24505722

  19. A Computer Simulation Study of Anatomy Induced Drift of Spiral Waves in the Human Atrium

    PubMed Central

    Kharche, Sanjay R.; Biktasheva, Irina V.; Seemann, Gunnar; Zhang, Henggui; Biktashev, Vadim N.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of spiral waves of excitation with atrial anatomy remains unclear. This simulation study isolates the role of atrial anatomical structures on spiral wave spontaneous drift in the human atrium. We implemented realistic and idealised 3D human atria models to investigate the functional impact of anatomical structures on the long-term (∼40 s) behaviour of spiral waves. The drift of a spiral wave was quantified by tracing its tip trajectory, which was correlated to atrial anatomical features. The interaction of spiral waves with the following idealised geometries was investigated: (a) a wedge-like structure with a continuously varying atrial wall thickness; (b) a ridge-like structure with a sudden change in atrial wall thickness; (c) multiple bridge-like structures consisting of a bridge connected to the atrial wall. Spiral waves drifted from thicker to thinner regions and along ridge-like structures. Breakthrough patterns caused by pectinate muscles (PM) bridges were also observed, albeit infrequently. Apparent anchoring close to PM-atrial wall junctions was observed. These observations were similar in both the realistic and the idealised models. We conclude that spatially altering atrial wall thickness is a significant cause of drift of spiral waves. PM bridges cause breakthrough patterns and induce transient anchoring of spiral waves. PMID:26587545

  20. The implementation of clay modeling and rat dissection into the human anatomy and physiology curriculum of a large urban community college.

    PubMed

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty overcame and the techniques used to solve them. Methods involved were: developing a laboratory manual in conjunction with the publisher, holding training sessions for faculty and staff, the development of instructional outlines for students and lesson plans for faculty, the installation of storage facilities to hold mannequins instead of cat specimens, and designing mannequin clean-up techniques that could be used by more than one thousand students each semester. The effectiveness of these curricular changes was assessed by examining student muscle practical examination grades and the responses of faculty and students to questionnaires. The results demonstrated that the majority of faculty felt prepared to teach using clay modeling and believed the activity was effective in presenting lesson content. Students undertaking clay modeling had significantly higher muscle practical examination grades than students undertaking cat dissection, and the majority of students believed that clay modeling was an effective technique to learn human skeletal, respiratory, and cardiovascular anatomy, which included the names and locations of blood vessels. Furthermore, the majority of students felt that rat dissection helped them learn nervous, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system anatomy. Faculty experience at LAGCC may serve as a resource to other academic institutions developing new curricula for large, on-going courses. PMID:23650279

  1. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Paul Kirkpatrick; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-02-24

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. PMID:26911691

  2. MACLimbs: human peripheral anatomy and kinesiology implemented by HyperCard.

    PubMed Central

    Furman, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Physicians in various subspecialties routinely perform physical examinations of the back and extremities utilizing their understanding of peripheral anatomy, extremity kinesiology, and neuro- musculo-ligamentous pathologies. We are developing a HyperCard computer application which combines text, graphics, and sound to teach, review, and test functional limb anatomy and kinesiology in an independent, non-confrontational, user-friendly environment. The software incorporates principles which maximize learning, runs on hardware accessible to most people, encourages independent learning and self evaluation, and utilizes links which take advantage of the network structure inherent to anatomy. PMID:1807708

  3. Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

  4. Revisiting Glycogen Content in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Öz, Gülin; DiNuzzo, Mauro; Kumar, Anjali; Moheet, Amir; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2015-12-01

    Glycogen provides an important glucose reservoir in the brain since the concentration of glucosyl units stored in glycogen is several fold higher than free glucose available in brain tissue. We have previously reported 3-4 µmol/g brain glycogen content using in vivo (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in conjunction with [1-(13)C]glucose administration in healthy humans, while higher levels were reported in the rodent brain. Due to the slow turnover of bulk brain glycogen in humans, complete turnover of the glycogen pool, estimated to take 3-5 days, was not observed in these prior studies. In an attempt to reach complete turnover and thereby steady state (13)C labeling in glycogen, here we administered [1-(13)C]glucose to healthy volunteers for 80 h. To eliminate any net glycogen synthesis during this period and thereby achieve an accurate estimate of glycogen concentration, volunteers were maintained at euglycemic blood glucose levels during [1-(13)C]glucose administration and (13)C-glycogen levels in the occipital lobe were measured by (13)C MRS approximately every 12 h. Finally, we fitted the data with a biophysical model that was recently developed to take into account the tiered structure of the glycogen molecule and additionally incorporated blood glucose levels and isotopic enrichments as input function in the model. We obtained excellent fits of the model to the (13)C-glycogen data, and glycogen content in the healthy human brain tissue was found to be 7.8 ± 0.3 µmol/g, a value substantially higher than previous estimates of glycogen content in the human brain. PMID:26202425

  5. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  6. Use of individual feedback during human gross anatomy course for enhancing professional behaviors in doctor of physical therapy students.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Krause, David A; Hellyer, Nathan J; Rindflesch, Aaron B; Hollman, John H

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy education and before the first significant clinical internship could be enhanced in a semester course in gross human anatomy using individual formative feedback. During the human anatomy course, 28 first-year physical therapy students completed six biweekly, anonymous self- and peer assessment surveys that targeted ten professional behaviors important to physical therapists. All professional behaviors were assessed using a five-point Likert scale. Feedback reports occurred at week eight (mid-semester) and week 16 (end-of-semester) and comprised the direct intervention components of this study. At the midpoint of the semester, professional behavior scores and narrative comments from weeks two, four, and six were compiled and shared with each student by one of three faculty members in a feedback session. Students then submitted biweekly self-and peer professional behavior assessments (weeks 10, 12, and 14) for the remainder of the human anatomy course. Differences between preintervention and postintervention scores for each of the ten professional behaviors were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Upon receiving mid-semester individual feedback, students demonstrated significant improvement in each of the ten professional behaviors. Results from this study indicated a gross anatomy laboratory dissection experience during the first academic semester provided an effective opportunity for teaching and assessing professional behaviors of doctoral students in physical therapy. PMID:23509010

  7. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  8. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  9. Tooth anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  10. Functional reorganization of the brain in humans following spinal cord injury: evidence for underlying changes in cortical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Luke A; Gustin, Sylvia M; Macey, Paul M; Wrigley, Paul J; Siddall, Philip J

    2011-02-16

    Loss of somatosensory drive results in functional reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). While the phenomenon of functional cortical reorganization is well established, it remains unknown whether in humans, functional reorganization results from changes in brain anatomy, or simply reflects an unmasking of already existing dormant synapses. In 20 subjects with complete thoracic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) and 23 controls, we used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether SI reorganization was associated with changes in SI anatomy. SCI resulted in a significant SI reorganization, with the little finger representation moving medially toward the lower body representation (i.e., area of sensory loss). Furthermore, although SCI was associated with gray matter volume loss in the lower body representation, this loss was minimized as reorganization increased. That is, the greater the medial shift in little finger representation, the greater the gray matter preservation in the lower body representation. In addition, in the region of greatest SI reorganization (little finger), fractional anisotropy was correlated with SI reorganization. That is, as SI reorganization increased, the extent of aligned structures decreased. Finally, although thalamocortical fibers remained unchanged, the ease and direction of water movement within the little finger representation was altered, being directed more toward the midline in SCI subjects. These data show that SI reorganization following SCI is associated with changes in SI anatomy and provide compelling evidence that SI reorganization in humans results from the growth of new lateral connections, and not simply from the unmasking of already existing lateral connections. PMID:21325531

  11. MRI Reconstructions of Human Phrenic Nerve Anatomy and Computational Modeling of Cryoballoon Ablative Therapy.

    PubMed

    Goff, Ryan P; Spencer, Julianne H; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2016-04-01

    The primary goal of this computational modeling study was to better quantify the relative distance of the phrenic nerves to areas where cryoballoon ablations may be applied within the left atria. Phrenic nerve injury can be a significant complication of applied ablative therapies for treatment of drug refractory atrial fibrillation. To date, published reports suggest that such injuries may occur more frequently in cryoballoon ablations than in radiofrequency therapies. Ten human heart-lung blocs were prepared in an end-diastolic state, scanned with MRI, and analyzed using Mimics software as a means to make anatomical measurements. Next, generated computer models of ArticFront cryoballoons (23, 28 mm) were mated with reconstructed pulmonary vein ostias to determine relative distances between the phrenic nerves and projected balloon placements, simulating pulmonary vein isolation. The effects of deep seating balloons were also investigated. Interestingly, the relative anatomical differences in placement of 23 and 28 mm cryoballoons were quite small, e.g., the determined difference between mid spline distance to the phrenic nerves between the two cryoballoon sizes was only 1.7 ± 1.2 mm. Furthermore, the right phrenic nerves were commonly closer to the pulmonary veins than the left, and surprisingly tips of balloons were further from the nerves, yet balloon size choice did not significantly alter calculated distance to the nerves. Such computational modeling is considered as a useful tool for both clinicians and device designers to better understand these associated anatomies that, in turn, may lead to optimization of therapeutic treatments. PMID:26168718

  12. Genome Sequencing of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in Conjunction with a Medical School Human Anatomy Course

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Akash; Arakawa, Christopher; Baudin, Jacob; Bogaard, Andrew; Salesky, Rebecca; Zhou, Qian; Smith, Kelly; Clark, John I.; Shendure, Jay; Horwitz, Marshall S.

    2014-01-01

    Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD) adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education. PMID:25192356

  13. Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: Clinical implications for physicians and surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck’s fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery. PMID:22739749

  14. Evaluation of Small-Group Teaching in Human Gross Anatomy in a Caribbean Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2008-01-01

    Although there are a number of medical schools in the Caribbean islands, very few reports have come out so far in the literature regarding the efficacy of small-group teaching in them. The introduction of small-group teaching in the gross anatomy laboratory one and a half years ago at St. Matthew's University (SMU) on Grand Cayman appears to have…

  15. Peer Teaching among Physical Therapy Students during Human Gross Anatomy: Perceptions of Peer Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youdas, James W.; Hoffarth, Brianna L.; Kohlwey, Scott R.; Kramer, Christine M.; Petro, Jaime L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite nearly 200 accredited entry-level physical therapist education programs in the United States that culminate in a doctoral degree, only a paucity of reports have been published regarding the efficacy of peer teaching in gross anatomy. No one has described the usefulness of peer teaching from the viewpoint of the peer teacher. An organized…

  16. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  17. Ontology-driven education: Teaching anatomy with intelligent 3D games on the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Trond

    Human anatomy is a challenging and intimidating subject whose understanding is essential to good medical practice, taught primarily using a combination of lectures and the dissection of human cadavers. Lectures are cheap and scalable, but do a poor job of teaching spatial understanding, whereas dissection lets students experience the body's interior first-hand, but is expensive, cannot be repeated, and is often imperfect. Educational games and online learning activities have the potential to supplement these teaching methods in a cheap and relatively effective way, but they are difficult for educators to customize for particular curricula and lack the tutoring support that human instructors provide. I present an approach to the creation of learning activities for anatomy called ontology-driven education, in which the Foundational Model of Anatomy, an ontological representation of knowledge about anatomy, is leveraged to generate educational content, model student knowledge, and support learning activities and games in a configurable web-based educational framework for anatomy.

  18. Integer anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  19. Plastination and its importance in teaching anatomy. Critical points for long-term preservation of human tissue.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Beat M

    2014-03-01

    Most medical curricula rely on human bodies for teaching macroscopic anatomy. Over the past 20 years, plastination has become an important means of preservation of organs, for well dissected specimens or for body slices. Here, several critical points regarding body donation with legal and ethical considerations for long-term preservation, the use of cadavers in teaching and the preparation of plastinates as an additional teaching tool will be discussed. Silicone S10 is the gold standard in the preparation of plastinates. An important point to respect is the preparation of specimens, since only very well dissected body parts or excellent tissue sections should be plastinated to show the extraordinary aspects of the human anatomy. The preparation of thin and transparent sections and preservation with P40 polyester provides an additional technique to prepare resistant body slices. A selection of samples prepared by S10 and P40 are shown and compared. In addition, Prussian or Berlin blue staining of brain slices is shown to discriminate better between gray and white matter and demonstrate neuroanatomical structures. These plastinates have been used for many years in teaching first- and second-year medical students and have not lost their appeal. Students and staff appreciate the use of such plastinates. One of the advantages is that their use is not restricted to the dissection hall; slices and body parts can be used in any lecture room or in small group teaching. Therefore, ethical and legal questions need to be addressed regarding their specific use. Plastinates do not replace the traditional dissection courses, since students learn best the anatomical features of a given region by hands-on dissection and by exploratory anatomy. Furthermore, plastinates are more rigid and do not allow demonstration of hidden structures; they also become more cumbersome for endoscopy or are too rigid for demonstrating mechanical features of joints. However, although not a replacement

  20. Plastination and its importance in teaching anatomy. Critical points for long-term preservation of human tissue*

    PubMed Central

    Riederer, Beat M

    2014-01-01

    Most medical curricula rely on human bodies for teaching macroscopic anatomy. Over the past 20 years, plastination has become an important means of preservation of organs, for well dissected specimens or for body slices. Here, several critical points regarding body donation with legal and ethical considerations for long-term preservation, the use of cadavers in teaching and the preparation of plastinates as an additional teaching tool will be discussed. Silicone S10 is the gold standard in the preparation of plastinates. An important point to respect is the preparation of specimens, since only very well dissected body parts or excellent tissue sections should be plastinated to show the extraordinary aspects of the human anatomy. The preparation of thin and transparent sections and preservation with P40 polyester provides an additional technique to prepare resistant body slices. A selection of samples prepared by S10 and P40 are shown and compared. In addition, Prussian or Berlin blue staining of brain slices is shown to discriminate better between gray and white matter and demonstrate neuroanatomical structures. These plastinates have been used for many years in teaching first-and second-year medical students and have not lost their appeal. Students and staff appreciate the use of such plastinates. One of the advantages is that their use is not restricted to the dissection hall; slices and body parts can be used in any lecture room or in small group teaching. Therefore, ethical and legal questions need to be addressed regarding their specific use. Plastinates do not replace the traditional dissection courses, since students learn best the anatomical features of a given region by hands-on dissection and by exploratory anatomy. Furthermore, plastinates are more rigid and do not allow demonstration of hidden structures; they also become more cumbersome for endoscopy or are too rigid for demonstrating mechanical features of joints. However, although not a replacement

  1. Human Structure in Six and One-Half Weeks: One Approach to Providing Foundational Anatomical Competency in an Era of Compressed Medical School Anatomy Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, Nancy; O'Donoghue, Daniel; Klump, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine reduced gross anatomy from a full semester, 130-hour course to a six and one-half week, 105-hour course as part of a new integrated systems-based pre-clinical curriculum. In addition to the reduction in contact hours, content from embryology, histology, and radiology were added into the course. The…

  2. Modal content of living human cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuolin; Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Turner, Timothy L.; Miller, Donald T.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of experimental and theoretical investigations have established that photoreceptors capture light based on the principles of optical waveguiding. Yet considerable uncertainty remains, even for the most basic prediction as to whether photoreceptors support more than a single waveguide mode. To test for modal behavior in human cone photoreceptors in the near infrared, we took advantage of adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT, λc = 785 nm) to noninvasively image in three dimensions the reflectance profile of cones. Modal content of reflections generated at the cone inner segment and outer segment junction (IS/OS) and cone outer segment tip (COST) was examined over a range of cone diameters in 1,802 cones from 0.6° to 10° retinal eccentricity. Second moment analysis in conjunction with theoretical predictions indicate cone IS and OS have optical properties consistent of waveguides, which depend on segment diameter and refractive index. Cone IS was found to support a single mode near the fovea (≤3°) and multiple modes further away (>4°). In contrast, no evidence of multiple modes was found in the cone OSs. The IS/OS and COST reflections share a common optical aperture, are most circular near the fovea, show no orientation preference, and are temporally stable. We tested mode predictions of a conventional step-index fiber model and found that in order to fit our AO-OCT results required a lower estimate of the IS refractive index and introduction of an IS focusing/tapering effect. PMID:26417509

  3. [Illustration of humans in the anatomy of the Renaissance: Andrea Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica libri septem, Basel 1543].

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, R

    1996-08-01

    The position of Andreas Vesalius and his most influential book De humani corporis fabrica in the history of medicine are reevaluated in the context of renaissance-humanism. Vesalius's conception of the reconstruction of the living body is discussed in the light of the macrocosm-microcosm-correspondance considering equally directed considerations of the humanist and reformator Philipp Melanchthon. In both their no longer ontological but epistemological approach when changing from the deductive to the inductive method, microcosm man is becoming an anthropological concept and thus assumes a new quality: a psychophysical unit with a transcendental dimension. Against this background the great tables of the skeletons and musclemen in the De humani corporis fabrica are studied considering the unity of art and anatomy in the visual media. At that point, however, where the limits of Vesalius's anatomical conception in representing structure and function become manifest, the disruption of this unity eventually occurring in the end of the 18th century is already visible. Where anatomy is taken up in the expression of art, in the cosciousness of his finality the tragic horizon of man expands. PMID:8928938

  4. Links between Evolution, Development, Human Anatomy, Pathology, and Medicine, with A Proposition of A Re-defined Anatomical Position and Notes on Constraints and Morphological "Imperfections".

    PubMed

    Diogo, Rui; Molnar, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Surprisingly the oldest formal discipline in medicine (anatomy) has not yet felt the full impact of evolutionary developmental biology. In medical anatomy courses and textbooks, the human body is still too often described as though it is a "perfect machine." In fact, the study of human anatomy predates evolutionary theory; therefore, many of its conventions continue to be outdated, making it difficult to study, understand, and treat the human body, and to compare it with that of other, nonbipedal animals, including other primates. Moreover, such an erroneous view of our anatomy as "perfect" can be used to fuel nonevolutionary ideologies such as intelligent design. In the section An Evolutionary and Developmental Approach to Human Anatomical Position of this paper, we propose the redefinition of the "human standard anatomical position" used in textbooks to be consistent with human evolutionary and developmental history. This redefined position also simplifies, for students and practitioners of the health professions, the study and learning of embryonic muscle groups (each group including muscles derived from the same/ontogenetically closely related primordium/primordia) and joint movements and highlights the topological correspondence between the upper and lower limbs. Section Evolutionary and Developmental Constraints, "Imperfections" and Sports Pathologies continues the theme by describing examples of apparently "illogical" characteristics of the human body that only make sense when one understands the developmental and evolutionary constraints that have accumulated over millions of years. We focus, in particular, on musculoskeletal functional problems and sports pathologies to emphasize the links with pathology and medicine. These examples demonstrate how incorporating evolutionary theory into anatomy education can be helpful for medical students, teachers, researchers, and physicians, as well as for anatomists, functional morphologists, and evolutionary and

  5. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  6. Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

  7. We Are What We Do: Examining Learner-Generated Content in the Anatomy Laboratory through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Alison F.; Wille, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of…

  8. The State of Human Anatomy Teaching in the Medical Schools of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    PubMed Central

    Habbal, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Available literature on medical education charts an emerging trend in the field of anatomy. In the past decade, assisted by innovations in informatics and the paradigm shift in medical education, the hands-on experience of cadaver dissection has progressively become a relic of the past. Within the context of the situation in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, this paper compares the traditional teaching approach with the modern one that tends to emphasise technical gadgetry, virtual reality and plastic models rather than hands-on-experience to impart knowledge and skill. However, cadaver-based learning is an important building block for the future physician and surgeon since clinical astuteness is likely to rely on skills gained from hands-on experience rather than the tendency to learning through virtual reality found in modern curricula. PMID:21509271

  9. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  10. Specializations of the human upper respiratory and upper digestive systems as seen through comparative and developmental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Laitman, J T; Reidenberg, J S

    1993-01-01

    The human upper respiratory, or aerodigestive, tract serves as the crossroads of our breathing, swallowing and vocalizing pathways. Accordingly, developmental or evolutionary change in any of these functions will, of necessity, affect the others. Our studies have shown that the position in the neck of the mammalian larynx is a major factor in determining function in this region. Most mammals, such as our closest relatives the nonhuman primates, exhibit a larynx positioned high in the neck. This permits an intranarial larynx to be present and creates largely separate respiratory and digestive routes. While infant humans retain this basic mammalian pattern, developmental descent of the larynx considerably alters this configuration. Adult humans have, accordingly, lost separation of the respiratory and digestive routes, but have gained an increased supralaryngeal region of the pharynx which allows for the production of the varied sounds of human speech. How this region has changed during human evolution has been difficult to assess due to the absence of preserved soft-tissue structures. Our studies have shown that the relationship between basicranial shape and laryngeal position in living mammals can be a valuable guide to reconstruct the region in ancestral humans. Based on these findings we have examined the basicrania of fossil ancestors--from over two million years ago to near recent times--and have reconstructed the position of the larynx and pharyngeal region in these early forms. This has allowed us insight into how our ancestors may have breathed and swallowed, and when the anatomy necessary for human speech evolved. PMID:8269722

  11. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  12. Human distal sciatic nerve fascicular anatomy: implications for ankle control using nerve-cuff electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Kenneth J; Grinberg, Yanina; Joseph, Sheeba; Triolo, Ronald J

    2012-01-01

    The design of neural prostheses to restore standing balance, prevent foot drop, or provide active propulsion during ambulation requires detailed knowledge of the distal sciatic nerve anatomy. Three complete sciatic nerves and branches were dissected from the piriformis to each muscle entry point to characterize the branching patterns and diameters. Fascicle maps were created from serial sections of each distal terminus below the knee through the anastomosis of the tibial and common fibular nerves above the knee. Similar branching patterns and fascicle maps were observed across specimens. Fascicles innervating primary plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, invertors, and evertors were distinctly separate and functionally organized in the proximal tibial, common fibular, and distal sciatic nerves; however, fascicles from individual muscles were not apparent at these levels. The fascicular organization is conducive to selective stimulation for isolated and/or balanced dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, eversion, and inversion through a single multicontact nerve-cuff electrode. These neuroanatomical data are being used to design nerve-cuff electrodes for selective control of ankle movement and improve current lower-limb neural prostheses. PMID:22773531

  13. Combined MRI-EEG techniques for correlation of anatomy and function in human somatosensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, James P.; Kelly, Edward F.

    1994-05-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution EEG imaging methods have made it advantageous to decrease inter-electrode distance to approximately 1 - 2 cm. To take full advantage of this increased recording density, it has become imperative to consider inter-subject anatomical variability and even intra-subject anatomical asymmetry. The present study used anatomical information from MRI to augment functional data obtained through EEG. Specifically, acrylic helmets made for each subject and normally used during EEG were utilized to orient NMR sample tubes filled with a marker medium (H2O(DOT)Cu2SO4) radially from the scalp at selected EEG recording sites during MRI. Using the software package AVS, the MRI data could then be volumetrically 3-D rendered, 3-D isosurface rendered, or arbitrarily sliced. The tubes appeared in the 3-D renderings as pointers from recording sites to underlying cortical anatomy. Our task was simplified by our focus on a limited area of the cortex. The renderings provide subject-specific anatomical templates for mapping of EEG topographic patterns and clearly reveal individual variations of cortical surface topography that are usually unaccounted for in EEG analysis.

  14. OLFACTION: ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  15. The arterial anatomy of the developing human dorsal and lumbar vertebral body. A microarteriographic study.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J F

    1981-12-01

    The arterial anatomy of 60 lumbar and lower dorsal vertebral bodies from eight subjects aged between 29 weeks gestation and 15 years was studied. The arteries had been injected with a suspension of barium sulphate and the vertebrae decalcified, sectioned and radiographed. In the specimen of 29 weeks gestation, the equatorial arteries were present. Precursors of the metaphyseal arteries lay obliquely over and completely outside the ossification centre. These precursors originated from an irregular network of perichondral arteries near the equator. By six months of age, the perichondral arteries had migrated discally and had become well organized metaphyseal anastomoses while the metaphyseal arteries had become horizontal. Also by six months, the extra-osseous longitudinal anastomoses had developed into the adult pattern. In the 36 weeks fetus, the ends of the unbranching metaphyseal arteries were incorporated into the ossification centre. This central relationship was maintained into adult life, but, as the ossification centre expanded, the branches of the intra-osseous arteries followed the zone of ossification in a centrifugal manner. In infancy, the metaphyseal arteries were approximately equal in length and the equatorial arteries divided in the middle of the vertebral body; by the age of 15 years, the metaphyseal arteries arising from the anterolateral surfaces were longer than those which arose from the posterior surface, and the equatorial arteries divided behind the mid-point. From these arterial observations, a number of deductions concerning the mode of growth of the vertebral body have been drawn. Preterminal coils and typical peripheral arteries, frequent features in the adult vertebral body, were not seen in any of these specimens. There was no evidence of any epiphyseal growth plate, nor of epiphyseal arteries in these specimens. PMID:7333964

  16. From fish to modern humans – comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck musculature

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper Diogo (2008) reported the results of the first part of an investigation of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish + tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish, but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. The present paper focuses mainly on sarcopterygians, and particularly on how the head and neck muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals, including modern humans. The data obtained from our dissections of the head and neck muscles of representative members of sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals, such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including modern humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons indicate that the number of mandibular and true branchial muscles (sensu this work) present in modern humans is smaller than that found in mammals such as tree-shrews, rats and monotremes, as well as in reptiles such as lizards. Regarding the pharyngeal musculature, there is an increase in the number of muscles at the time of the evolutionary transition leading to therian mammals, but there was no significant increase during the transition leading to the emergence of higher primates and modern humans. The number of hypobranchial muscles is relatively constant within the therian mammals we examined, although in this case modern humans have more muscles than other mammals. The number of laryngeal and facial muscles in modern humans is greater than that found in most other therian taxa. Interestingly, modern humans possess peculiar laryngeal and facial muscles that are not present in the majority of the other mammalian taxa; this seems to corroborate the crucial role played by vocal communication and by facial expressions in primate and especially in

  17. How useful is YouTube in learning heart anatomy?

    PubMed

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the available human heart anatomy videos on YouTube. Using the search engine of the platform we searched for relevant videos using various keywords. Videos with irrelevant content, animal tissue, non-English language, no sound, duplicates, and physiology focused were excluded from further elaboration. The initial search retrieved 55,525 videos, whereas only 294 qualified for further analysis. A unique scoring system was used to assess the anatomical quality and details, general quality, and the general data for each video. Our results indicate that the human heart anatomy videos available on YouTube conveyed our anatomical criteria poorly, whereas the general quality scoring found borderline. Students should be selective when looking up on public video databases as it can prove challenging, time consuming, and the anatomical information may be misleading due to absence of content review. Anatomists and institutions are encouraged to prepare and endorse good quality material and make them available online for the students. The scoring rubric used in the study comprises a valuable tool to faculty members for quality evaluation of heart anatomy videos available on social media platforms. PMID:23564745

  18. Art, antiquarianism and early anatomy.

    PubMed

    Guest, Clare E L

    2014-12-01

    Discussions of the early relationship between art and anatomy are shaped by Vasari's account of Florentine artists who dissected bodies in order to understand the causes of movement, and the end of movement in action. This account eclipses the role of the study of antiquities in Renaissance anatomical illustration. Beyond techniques of presentation, such as sectioning and analytic illustration, or a preoccupation with the mutilated fragment, antiquarianism offered a reflection on the variant and the role of temperament which could be adapted for anatomical purposes. With its play on ambiguities of life and death, idealisation and damage, antiquarianism also provided a way of negotiating the difficulties of content inherent in anatomical illustration. As such, it goes beyond exclusively historical interest to provoke reflection on the modes, possibilities and humane responsibilities of medical illustration. PMID:24696510

  19. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  20. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature.

    PubMed

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Aziz, M A; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2009-05-01

    In a recent study Diogo & Abdala [(2007) J Morphol 268, 504-517] reported the results of the first part of a research project on the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. This study, which reports the second part of the research project, focuses mainly on sarcopterygians and particularly on how the pectoral and forelimb muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals and humans. The data obtained by our own dissections of all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of groups as diverse as sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons clearly stress that, with regard to the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles, the most striking transition within sarcopterygian evolutionary history was that leading to the origin of tetrapods. Whereas extant sarcopterygian fish have an abductor and adductor of the fin and a largely undifferentiated hypaxial and epaxial musculature, extant salamanders such as Ambystoma have more than 40 pectoral and forelimb muscles. There is no clear increase in the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles within the evolutionary transition that led to the origin of mammals and surely not to that leading to the origin of primates and humans. PMID:19438764

  1. From fish to modern humans – comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Aziz, M A; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study Diogo & Abdala [(2007) JMorphol268, 504–517] reported the results of the first part of a research project on the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. This study, which reports the second part of the research project, focuses mainly on sarcopterygians and particularly on how the pectoral and forelimb muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals and humans. The data obtained by our own dissections of all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of groups as diverse as sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons clearly stress that, with regard to the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles, the most striking transition within sarcopterygian evolutionary history was that leading to the origin of tetrapods. Whereas extant sarcopterygian fish have an abductor and adductor of the fin and a largely undifferentiated hypaxial and epaxial musculature, extant salamanders such as Ambystoma have more than 40 pectoral and forelimb muscles. There is no clear increase in the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles within the evolutionary transition that led to the origin of mammals and surely not to that leading to the origin of primates and humans. PMID:19438764

  2. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    PubMed

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. PMID:26847254

  3. Students as resurrectionists--A multimodal humanities project in anatomy putting ethics and professionalism in historical context.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Rachel R; Jones, Trahern W; Hussain, Fareeda Taher Nazer; Bringe, Kariline; Harvey, Ronee E; Person-Rennell, Nicole H; Newman, James S

    2010-01-01

    Because medical students have many different learning styles, the authors, medical students at Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine researched the history of anatomical specimen procurement, reviewing topic-related film, academic literature, and novels, to write, direct, and perform a dramatization based on Robert Louis Stevenson's The Body-Snatcher. Into this performance, they incorporated dance, painting, instrumental and vocal performance, and creative writing. In preparation for the performance, each actor researched an aspect of the history of anatomy. These micro-research projects were presented in a lecture before the play. Not intended to be a research study, this descriptive article discusses how student research and ethics discussions became a theatrical production. This addition to classroom and laboratory learning addresses the deep emotional response experienced by some students and provides an avenue to understand and express these feelings. This enhanced multimodal approach to"holistic learning" could be applied to any topic in the medical school curriculum, thoroughly adding to the didactics with history, humanities, and team dynamics. PMID:20827724

  4. Dose- and time-dependent benefits of iPad technology in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Raney, Marcella A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the impact of iPad integration on performance in an undergraduate gross anatomy course. Two out of six course sections were assigned to one of the following conditions: control (no iPad, n = 61); limited access (laboratory iPads, n = 58); and unlimited access (personal iPads, n = 47). Student knowledge was assessed over time during the semester with two practical examinations in laboratory and four multiple choice/essay examinations in lecture. The same PowerPoint presentations and examinations were utilized for all conditions. Mixed ANOVA analysis identified an interaction effect between time and condition for both laboratory (F2,153  = 16.12; P < 0.05) and lecture (F6,462  = 5.47; P < 0.05) performance. Between laboratory examinations, student performance was lower by 4.2% and higher by 3.0% in control and unlimited access conditions, respectively. Unlimited access students scored higher than control and limited access (82.8 ± 2.2 vs 71.5 ± 2.6 and 74.3 ± 1.7%; P < 0.05) and higher than control students (78.7 ± 2.1 vs 70.6 ± 2.0%; P < 0.05) on the third and fourth lecture examination, respectively. Postsemester surveys completed by experimental students (89.5% response rate) indicated that a greater percentage of unlimited vs limited access students agreed that laboratory (84.8 vs 56.3%, P < 0.05) and lecture (58.7 vs 14.6%, P < 0.05) performance was enhanced with the iPad. Results suggest that if students are given the opportunity to overcome the technology learning curve, tablet devices and relevant applications can be useful tools in human anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 367-377. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26606529

  5. Comparative anatomy of the meniscofemoral ligament in humans and some domestic mammals.

    PubMed

    Gupte, C M; Bull, A M J; Murray, R; Amis, A A

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence, position and relative sizes of the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFL) in three quadrupeds and humans and relate these to the caudal slope of the lateral tibial plateau. Canine, ovine and equine stifles and human knees were dissected to identify the presence of MFLs, their obliquity in relation to the caudal cruciate ligaments (CCL), the relative size and shape of the MFLs compared with the CCL, the points of femoral attachment of the MFLs and CCL, and the distance between the MFLs and CCL at their midpoints. The lateral tibial condyle was divided sagittally with a handsaw and the caudal slope was measured. An MFL was present in all quadrupeds. It was caudal to the CCL, being analogous to the human posterior MFL. There was no structure analogous to the human anterior MFL, a structure that has a different femoral attachment from the human posterior MFL and MFLs in other species examined. The meniscotibial attachments were of varying sizes. The size ratio between the MFL and CCL was greater in all three quadrupeds than it was in the human knee. The MFL lies more obliquely than the CCL in all species examined. The caudal tibial slope was steeper in the quadrupeds. In the stifle joints of quadrupeds, the MFL is a substantial structure and appears to be related to the caudal tibial slope. It is known to resist caudal translation of the tibia in conjunction with the lateral meniscus. This must be borne in mind when considering its function in the human knee. PMID:17266668

  6. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

  7. The Serotonergic Anatomy of the Developing Human Medulla Oblongata: Implications for Pediatric Disorders of Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Hannah C.; Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Haynes, Robin L.; Rognum, Ingvar J.; Paterson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The caudal serotonergic (5-HT) system is a critical component of a medullary “homeostatic network” that regulates protective responses to metabolic stressors such as hypoxia, hypercapnia, and hyperthermia. We define anatomically the caudal 5-HT system in the human medulla as 5-HT neuronal cell bodies located in the raphé (raphé obscurus, raphé magnus, and raphé pallidus), extra-raphé (gigantocellularis, paragigantocellularis lateralis, intermediate reticular zone, lateral reticular nucleus, and nucleus subtrigeminalis), and ventral surface (arcuate nucleus). These 5-HT neurons are adjacent to all of the respiratory- and autonomic-related nuclei in the medulla where they are positioned to modulate directly the responses of these effector nuclei. In the following review, we highlight the topography and development of the caudal 5-HT system in the human fetus and infant, and its inter-relationships with nicotinic, GABAergic, and cytokine receptors. We also summarize pediatric disorders in early life which we term “developmental serotonopathies” of the caudal (as well as rostral) 5-HT domain and which are associated with homeostatic imbalances. The delineation of the development and organization of the human caudal 5-HT system provides the critical foundation for the neuropathologic elucidation of its disorders directly in the human brain. PMID:21640183

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging-based research on human white matter anatomy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ming-guo; Zhang, Jing-na; Zhang, Ye; Li, Qi-Yu; Xie, Bing; Wang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the white matter by the diffusion tensor imaging and the Chinese visible human dataset and to provide the 3D anatomical data of the corticospinal tract for the neurosurgical planning by studying the probabilistic maps and the reproducibility of the corticospinal tract. Diffusion tensor images and high-resolution T1-weighted images of 15 healthy volunteers were acquired; the DTI data were processed using DtiStudio and FSL software. The FA and color FA maps were compared with the sectional images of the Chinese visible human dataset. The probability maps of the corticospinal tract were generated as a quantitative measure of reproducibility for each voxel of the stereotaxic space. The fibers displayed by the diffusion tensor imaging were well consistent with the sectional images of the Chinese visible human dataset and the existing anatomical knowledge. The three-dimensional architecture of the white matter fibers could be clearly visualized on the diffusion tensor tractography. The diffusion tensor tractography can establish the 3D probability maps of the corticospinal tract, in which the degree of intersubject reproducibility of the corticospinal tract is consistent with the previous architectonic report. DTI is a reliable method of studying the fiber connectivity in human brain, but it is difficult to identify the tiny fibers. The probability maps are useful for evaluating and identifying the corticospinal tract in the DTI, providing anatomical information for the preoperative planning and improving the accuracy of surgical risk assessments preoperatively. PMID:23226983

  9. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, A. A.; Kramarenko, V. K.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Salamatova, V. Yu; Smirnov, A. V.; Vassilevski, Yu V.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  10. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  11. [Anatomy of the skull].

    PubMed

    Pásztor, Emil

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the human body based on a special teleological system is one of the greatest miracles of the world. The skull's primary function is the defence of the brain, so every alteration or disease of the brain results in some alteration of the skull. This analogy is to be identified even in the human embryo. Proportions of the 22 bones constituting the skull and of sizes of sutures are not only the result of the phylogeny, but those of the ontogeny as well. E.g. the age of the skeletons in archaeological findings could be identified according to these facts. Present paper outlines the ontogeny and development of the tissues of the skull, of the structure of the bone-tissue, of the changes of the size of the skull and of its parts during the different periods of human life, reflecting to the aesthetics of the skull as well. "Only the human scull can give me an impression of beauty. In spite of all genetical colseness, a skull of a chimpanzee cannot impress me aesthetically"--author confesses. In the second part of the treatise those authors are listed, who contributed to the perfection of our knowledge regarding the skull. First of all the great founder of modern anatomy, Andreas Vesalius, then Pierre Paul Broca, Jacob Benignus Winslow are mentioned here. The most important Hungarian contributors were as follow: Sámuel Rácz, Pál Bugát or--the former assistant of Broca--Aurél Török. A widely used tool for measurement of the size of the skull, the craniometer was invented by the latter. The members of the family Lenhossék have had also important results in this field of research, while descriptive anatomy of the skull was completed by microsopical anatomy thanks the activity of Géza Mihálkovits. PMID:21661257

  12. Observations on some of the plates used to illustrate the Lymphatics section of Andrew Fyfe's Compendium of the Anatomy of the Human Body, Published in 1800.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, M H

    1999-01-01

    An engraving displaying A General View of the Absorbent System was used as one of many plates illustrating the Lymphatics section of Andrew Fyfe's Compendium of the Anatomy of the Human Body published in 1800. It is a scaled-down version of a life-size engraving displayed in the museum of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh, and is based on a cadaver specially dissected and injected with mercury in 1788 by Alexander Monro secundus, probably with the assistance of Fyfe, who was his 'dissector'. Only recently has the relationship between these two engravings been established, and the Figure Legend in Fyfe's Compendium now provides the missing key to the features illustrated in the life-size engraving. The source and very variable quality of some of Fyfe's other plates, both in the Lymphatics section and elsewhere in the book, are discussed. PMID:9890727

  13. Longitudinal four-dimensional mapping of subcortical anatomy in human development.

    PubMed

    Raznahan, Armin; Shaw, Phillip W; Lerch, Jason P; Clasen, Liv S; Greenstein, Deanna; Berman, Rebecca; Pipitone, Jon; Chakravarty, Mallar M; Giedd, Jay N

    2014-01-28

    Growing access to large-scale longitudinal structural neuroimaging data has fundamentally altered our understanding of cortical development en route to human adulthood, with consequences for basic science, medicine, and public policy. In striking contrast, basic anatomical development of subcortical structures such as the striatum, pallidum, and thalamus has remained poorly described--despite these evolutionarily ancient structures being both intimate working partners of the cortical sheet and critical to diverse developmentally emergent skills and disorders. Here, to begin addressing this disparity, we apply methods for the measurement of subcortical volume and shape to 1,171 longitudinally acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans from 618 typically developing males and females aged 5-25 y. We show that the striatum, pallidum, and thalamus each follow curvilinear trajectories of volume change, which, for the striatum and thalamus, peak after cortical volume has already begun to decline and show a relative delay in males. Four-dimensional mapping of subcortical shape reveals that (i) striatal, pallidal, and thalamic domains linked to specific fronto-parietal association cortices contract with age whereas other subcortical territories expand, and (ii) each structure harbors hotspots of sexually dimorphic change over adolescence--with relevance for sex-biased mental disorders emerging in youth. By establishing the developmental dynamism, spatial heterochonicity, and sexual dimorphism of human subcortical maturation, these data bring our spatiotemporal understanding of subcortical development closer to that of the cortex--allowing evolutionary, basic, and clinical neuroscience to be conducted within a more comprehensive developmental framework. PMID:24474784

  14. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  15. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  16. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  17. Anatomy and lateralization of the human corticobulbar tracts: an fMRI-guided tractography study.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Frédérique J; Butler, James; Morgan, Angela T; Clayden, Jonathan D; Clark, Chris A

    2016-07-01

    The left hemisphere lateralization bias for language functions, such as syntactic processing and semantic retrieval, is well known. Although several theories and clinical data indicate a link between speech motor execution and language, the functional and structural brain lateralization for these functions has never been examined concomitantly in the same individuals. Here, we used functional MRI during rapid silent syllable repetition (/lalala/, /papapa/ and /pataka/, known as oral diadochokinesis or DDK) to map the cortical representation of the articulators in 17 healthy adults. In these same participants, functional lateralization for language production was assessed using the well-established verb generation task. We then used DDK-related fMRI activation clusters to guide tractography of the corticobulbar tract from diffusion-weighted MRI. Functional MRI revealed a wide inter-individual variability of hemispheric asymmetry patterns (left and right dominant, as well as bilateral) for DDK in the motor cortex, despite predominantly left hemisphere dominance for language-related activity in Broca's area. Tractography revealed no evidence for structural asymmetry (based on fractional anisotropy) within the corticobulbar tract. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal that motor brain activation for syllable repetition is unrelated to functional asymmetry for language production in adult humans. In addition, we found no evidence that the human corticobulbar tract is an asymmetric white matter pathway. We suggest that the predominance of dysarthria following left hemisphere infarct is probably a consequence of disrupted feedback or input from left hemisphere language and speech planning regions, rather than structural asymmetry of the corticobulbar tract itself. PMID:26411871

  18. Students helping students: Evaluating a pilot program of peer teaching for an undergraduate course in human anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Paul A; Love Green, Jennifer K; Illerbrun, Sara L; Holness, Duncan A; Illerbrun, Samantha J; Haus, Kara A; Poirier, Sylvianne M; Sveinson, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on the number of peer teaching sessions they attended: nonattendees (0 sessions), infrequently attended (1-3 sessions), and frequently attended (≥ 4 sessions). After controlling for academic preparedness [i.e., admission grade point average (AGPA)] using an analysis of covariance, the final grades of frequent attendees were significantly higher than those of nonattendees (P = 0.025) and infrequent attendees (P = 0.015). A multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative independent contribution of several variables in predicting the final grade. The results suggest that frequent attendance (β = 0.245, P = 0.007) and AGPA (β = 0.555, P < 0.001) were significant positive predictors, while being a first-year student (β = -0.217, P = 0.006) was a significant negative predictor. Collectively, these results suggest that attending a certain number of sessions may be required to gain a noticeable benefit from the program, and that first-year students (particularly those with a lower level of academic preparedness) would likely stand to benefit from maximally using the program. End-of-semester surveys and reports indicate that the program had several additional benefits, both to the students taking the course and to the students who served as program leaders. PMID:26060978

  19. Decoding the visual and subjective contents of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Tong, Frank

    2005-05-01

    The potential for human neuroimaging to read out the detailed contents of a person's mental state has yet to be fully explored. We investigated whether the perception of edge orientation, a fundamental visual feature, can be decoded from human brain activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using statistical algorithms to classify brain states, we found that ensemble fMRI signals in early visual areas could reliably predict on individual trials which of eight stimulus orientations the subject was seeing. Moreover, when subjects had to attend to one of two overlapping orthogonal gratings, feature-based attention strongly biased ensemble activity toward the attended orientation. These results demonstrate that fMRI activity patterns in early visual areas, including primary visual cortex (V1), contain detailed orientation information that can reliably predict subjective perception. Our approach provides a framework for the readout of fine-tuned representations in the human brain and their subjective contents. PMID:15852014

  20. Human papillomavirus infection in the oromaxillofacial area: Clinical anatomy and histological considerations.

    PubMed

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; MiclĂuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; BĂbţan, Anida Maria; CÂmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2015-11-01

    Clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck can range from benign lesions, which are the most frequent, to malignant lesions. The prevalence of head and neck cancer is increasing, despite currently decreasing trends in known risk factors such as smoking and alcohol use. A new patient profile has appeared in recent practice: most frequently a middle-aged male patient who does not smoke or drink alcohol, is sexually active (possibly having multiple partners), and presents with oral or cervicofacial lesions requiring diagnosis and treatment. Another risk factor that should be considered in these patients is HPV infection. The association of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with HPV is a challenge for the medical practitioner. The gold standard for diagnosis is histopathological examination, which can also yield evidence suggesting HPV infection. Determination of the viral genotype provides additional data for assessing the oncological risk of an HPV infection. Treatment of these patients is aimed at removing the lesions, in association or not with antiviral treatment and recurrence control. PMID:26331491

  1. The morbid anatomy of the human genome: chromosomal location of mutations causing disease.

    PubMed Central

    McKusick, V A; Amberger, J S

    1993-01-01

    Information is given in tabular form derived from a synopsis of the human gene map which has been updated continuously since 1973 as part of Mendelian Inheritance in Man (Johns Hopkins University Press, 10th ed, 1992) and of OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, available generally since 1987). The part of the synopsis reproduced here consists of chromosome by chromosome gene lists of loci for which there are associated disorders (table 1), a pictorial representation of this information (fig 1a-d), and an index of disorders for which the causative mutations have been mapped (table 2). In table 1, information on genes that have been located to specific chromosomal positions and are also the site of disease producing mutations is arranged by chromosome, starting with chromosome 1 and with the end of the short arm of the chromosome in each case. In table 2 an alphabetized list of these disorders and the chromosomal location of the mutation in each case are provided. Both in the 'Disorder' field of table 1 and in table 2, the numbers 1, 2, or 3 in parentheses after the name of the disorder indicate that its chromosomal location was determined by mapping of the wildtype gene (1), by mapping of the clinical phenotype (2), or by both strategies (3). PMID:8423603

  2. Neutron anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, G.E.

    1994-12-31

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone.

  3. Optical versus Virtual: Teaching Assistant Perceptions of the Use of Virtual Microscopy in an Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Larissa; Dunham, Stacey; Braun, Mark W.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean

    2012-01-01

    Many studies that evaluate the introduction of technology in the classroom focus on student performance and student evaluations. This study focuses on instructor evaluation of the introduction of virtual microscopy into an undergraduate anatomy class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with graduate teaching assistants (TA) and analyzed…

  4. A Retrospective Look at Replacing Face-to-Face Embryology Instruction with Online Lectures in a Human Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Elmus G.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Lee, Vaughan H.

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology…

  5. Melanin content of hamster tissues, human tissues, and various melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.P.; Fairchild, R.G.; Slatkin, D.N.; Greenberg, D.; Packer, S.; Atkins, H.L.; Hannon, S.J.

    1981-02-01

    Melanin content (percentage by weight) was determined in both pigmented and nonpigmented tissues of Syrian golden hamsters bearing Greene melanoma. Melanin content was also measured in various other melanoma models (B-16 in C57 mice, Harding-Passey in BALB/c mice, and KHDD in C3H mice) and in nine human melanomas, as well as in selected normal tissues. The purpose was to evaluate the possible efficacy of chlorpromazine, which is known to bind to melanin, as a vehicle for boron transport in neutron capture therapy. Successful therapy would depend upon selective uptake and absolute concentration of borated compounds in tumors; these parameters will in turn depend upon melanin concentration in melanomas and nonpigmented ''background'' tissues. Hamster whole eyes, hamster melanomas, and other well-pigmented animal melanomas were found to contain 0.3 to 0.8% melanin by weight, whereas human melanomas varied from 0.1 to 0.9% (average, 0.35%). Other tissues, with the exception of skin, were lower in content by a factor of greater than or equal to30. Melanin pigment was extracted from tissues, and the melanin content was determined spectrophotometrically. Measurements were found to be sensitive to the presence of other proteins. Previous procedures for isolating and quantifying melanin often neglected the importance of removing proteins and other interfering nonmelanic substances.

  6. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  7. Executions and scientific anatomy.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Antonín; Jelen, Karel; Stajnrtova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    The very word "anatomy" tells us about this branch's connection with dissection. Studies of anatomy have taken place for approximately 2.300 years already. Anatomy's birthplace lies in Greece and Egypt. Knowledge in this specific field of science was necessary during surgical procedures in ophthalmology and obstetrics. Embalming took place without public disapproval just like autopsies and manipulation with relics. Thus, anatomical dissection became part of later forensic sciences. Anatomical studies on humans themselves, which needed to be compared with the knowledge gained through studying procedures performed on animals, elicited public disapprobation and prohibition. When faced with a shortage of cadavers, anatomists resorted to obtaining bodies of the executed and suicide victims - since torture, public display of the mutilated body, (including anatomical autopsy), were perceived as an intensification of the death penalty. Decapitation and hanging were the main execution methods meted out for death sentences. Anatomists preferred intact bodies for dissection; hence, convicts could thus avoid torture. This paper lists examples of how this process was resolved. It concerns the manners of killing, vivisection on people in the antiquity and middle-ages, experiments before the execution and after, vivifying from seeming death, experiments with galvanizing electricity on fresh cadavers, evaluating of sensibility after guillotine execution, and making perfect anatomical preparations and publications during Nazism from fresh bodies of the executed. PMID:26859596

  8. "The Purple Island" of Phineas Fletcher: allusions to the anatomy of the human body in English poetry up to the end of the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Young, John Riddington

    2005-06-01

    The Bible declared that God created man in His own image. The concept that this divine pattern occurred not only in Man (the Microcosm), but was eternally repeated throughout Creation in the Macrocosm (Universe) and the Geocosm (Earth), was the basis of the important Doctrine of Correspondences, in which similarities were sought between man and nature, (e.g. the comparable morphology of a human brain and a walnut). This article outlines the relevance of this concept in early herbal medicine. Contemporary poems describing correspondences to the anatomy of the human body are the examined, in particular The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher. The Reverend Phineas Fletcher (1582 - 1650) was an English metaphysical poet and The Purple Island (1633), his most famous work, was an epic poem describing the anatomy of the human body in allegorical terms. It is compared to an island, with veins and arteries as purple rivers flowing through the chief cities of Liver, Heart and Braine. This has been acknowledged as one of the best and also one of the last great examples of the tradition of poetic correspondence in English literature. PMID:16208854

  9. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  10. Manipulation of Carotenoid Content in Plants to Improve Human Health.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Maria Jesús; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements. This enables the manipulation and improvement of carotenoid content and composition in order to control the nutritional value of a number of agronomical important staple crops. Biotechnological and genetic engineering-based strategies to manipulate carotenoid metabolism have been successfully implemented in many crops, with Golden rice as the most relevant example of β-carotene improvement in one of the more widely consumed foods. Conventional breeding strategies have been also adopted in the bio-fortification of carotenoid in staple foods that are highly consumed in developing countries, including maize, cassava and sweet potatoes, to alleviate nutrition-related problems. The objective of the chapter is to summarize major breakthroughs and advances in the enhancement of carotenoid content and composition in agronomical and nutritional important crops, with special emphasis to their potential impact and benefits in human nutrition and health. PMID:27485228

  11. The effects of changing water content, relaxation times, and tissue contrast on tissue segmentation and measures of cortical anatomy in MR images.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Feng; Xu, Dongrong; Liu, Jun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-12-01

    Water content is the dominant chemical compound in the brain and it is the primary determinant of tissue contrast in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Water content varies greatly between individuals, and it changes dramatically over time from birth through senescence of the human life span. We hypothesize that the effects that individual- and age-related variations in water content have on contrast of the brain in MR images also have important, systematic effects on in vivo, MRI-based measures of regional brain volumes. We also hypothesize that changes in water content and tissue contrast across time may account for age-related changes in regional volumes, and that differences in water content or tissue contrast across differing neuropsychiatric diagnoses may account for differences in regional volumes across diagnostic groups. We demonstrate in several complementary ways that subtle variations in water content across age and tissue compartments alter tissue contrast, and that changing tissue contrast in turn alters measures of the thickness and volume of the cortical mantle: (1) We derive analytic relations describing how age-related changes in tissue relaxation times produce age-related changes in tissue gray-scale intensity values and tissue contrast; (2) We vary tissue contrast in computer-generated images to assess its effects on tissue segmentation and volumes of gray matter and white matter; and (3) We use real-world imaging data from adults with either Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder and age- and sex-matched healthy adults to assess the ways in which variations in tissue contrast across diagnoses affects group differences in tissue segmentation and associated volumes. We conclude that in vivo MRI-based morphological measures of the brain, including regional volumes and measures of cortical thickness, are a product of, or at least are confounded by, differences in tissue contrast across individuals, ages, and diagnostic groups, and that differences in

  12. Neural correlates of the contents of visual awareness in humans.

    PubMed

    Rees, Geraint

    2007-05-29

    The immediacy and directness of our subjective visual experience belies the complexity of the neural mechanisms involved, which remain incompletely understood. This review focuses on how the subjective contents of human visual awareness are encoded in neural activity. Empirical evidence to date suggests that no single brain area is both necessary and sufficient for consciousness. Instead, necessary and sufficient conditions appear to involve both activation of a distributed representation of the visual scene in primary visual cortex and ventral visual areas, plus parietal and frontal activity. The key empirical focus is now on characterizing qualitative differences in the type of neural activity in these areas underlying conscious and unconscious processing. To this end, recent progress in developing novel approaches to accurately decoding the contents of consciousness from brief samples of neural activity show great promise. PMID:17395576

  13. Global Microsatellite Content Distinguishes Humans, Primates, Animals, and Plants

    PubMed Central

    McIver, L.J.; McCormick, J.F.; Skinner, M.A.; Xie, Y.; Gelhausen, R.A.; Ng, K.; Kumar, N.M.; Garner, H.R.

    2009-01-01

    Microsatellites are highly mutable, repetitive sequences commonly used as genetic markers, but they have never been studied en masse. Using a custom microarray to measure hybridization intensities of every possible repetitive nucleotide motif from 1-mers to 6-mers, we examined 25 genomes. Here, we show that global microsatellite content varies predictably by species, as measured by array hybridization signal intensities, correlating with established taxonomic relationships, and particular motifs are characteristic of one species versus another. For instance, hominid-specific microsatellite motifs were identified despite alignment of the human reference, Celera, and Venter genomic sequences indicating substantial variation (30–50%) among individuals. Differential microsatellite motifs were mainly associated with genes involved in developmental processes, whereas those found in intergenic regions exhibited no discernible pattern. This is the first description of a method for evaluating microsatellite content to classify individual genomes. PMID:19717526

  14. Identification of Human-Induced Changes in Atmospheric Moisture Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santer, B.D.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Gleckler, P.J.; Wigley, T.M.; Barnett, T.P.; Boyle, J.S.; Bruggemann, W.; Gillett, N.P.; Klein, S.A.; Meehl, G.A.; Nozawa, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Scott, P.A.; Washington, W.M.; Wehner, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the satellite-based Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) show that the total atmospheric moisture content over oceans has increased by 0.41 kg/sq m per decade since 1988. Results from current climate models indicate that water vapor increases of this magnitude cannot be explained by climate noise alone. In a formal detection and attribution analysis using the pooled results from 22 different climate models, the simulated "fingerprint" pattern of anthropogenically caused changes in water vapor is identifiable with high statistical confidence in the SSM/I data. Experiments in which forcing factors are varied individually suggest that this fingerprint "match" is primarily due to human-caused increases in greenhouse gases and not to solar forcing or recovery from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of an emerging anthropogenic signal in the moisture content of earth's atmosphere.

  15. Identification of human-induced changes in atmospheric moisture content.

    PubMed

    Santer, B D; Mears, C; Wentz, F J; Taylor, K E; Gleckler, P J; Wigley, T M L; Barnett, T P; Boyle, J S; Brüggemann, W; Gillett, N P; Klein, S A; Meehl, G A; Nozawa, T; Pierce, D W; Stott, P A; Washington, W M; Wehner, M F

    2007-09-25

    Data from the satellite-based Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) show that the total atmospheric moisture content over oceans has increased by 0.41 kg/m(2) per decade since 1988. Results from current climate models indicate that water vapor increases of this magnitude cannot be explained by climate noise alone. In a formal detection and attribution analysis using the pooled results from 22 different climate models, the simulated "fingerprint" pattern of anthropogenically caused changes in water vapor is identifiable with high statistical confidence in the SSM/I data. Experiments in which forcing factors are varied individually suggest that this fingerprint "match" is primarily due to human-caused increases in greenhouse gases and not to solar forcing or recovery from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of an emerging anthropogenic signal in the moisture content of earth's atmosphere. PMID:17881573

  16. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  17. Use of an audience response system during peer teaching among physical therapy students in human gross anatomy: perceptions of peer teachers and students.

    PubMed

    Wait, Kevin R; Cloud, Beth A; Forster, Lindsey A; Jones, Tiffany M; Nokleby, Jessica J; Wolfe, Cortney R; Youdas, James W

    2009-01-01

    An audience response system (ARS) has become popular among educators in medicine and the health professions because of the system's ability to engage listeners during a lecture presentation. No one has described the usefulness of ARS technology during planned nonlecture peer teaching sessions in gross anatomy instruction for health professionals. The unique feature of each peer teaching session was a nongraded 12-15 item ARS quiz assembled by six second-year doctor of physical therapy (DPT) students and purposely placed at the beginning of the review session for those first-year DPT students in attendance. This study used a ten-item questionnaire and a five-point Likert scale in addition to three open ended questions to survey perceptions of both first-year and second-year DPT students about the usefulness of ARS technology implemented during weekly interactive peer teaching sessions during a semester course in Anatomy for Physical Therapists. First-year students overwhelmingly acknowledged the ARS system permitted each student to self-assess his/her preparedness for a quiz or examination and compare his/her performance with that of classmates. Peer teachers recognized an ARS quiz provided them an opportunity to: (1) estimate first-year students' level of understanding of anatomical concepts; and (2) effectively prepare first-year students for their weekly quizzes and future examinations. On the basis of the mutual benefits derived by both students/tutees and teachers/tutors, physical therapist educators may wish to consider using ARS technology to enhance teaching methods for a class in gross human anatomy. PMID:19764082

  18. [Pandora's box of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Uri; Reis, Shmuel

    2008-05-01

    Physicians in Nazi Germany were among the first to join the Nazi party and the SS, and were considered passionate and active supporters of the regime. Their actions included development and implementation of the racial theory thus legitimizing the development of the Nazi genocide plan, leadership and execution of the sterilization and euthanasia programs as well as atrocious human experimentation. Nazi law allowed the use of humans and their remains in research institutions. One of the physicians whose involvement in the Nazi regime was particularly significant was Eduard Pernkopf. He was the head of the Anatomy Institute at the University of Vienna, and later became the president of the university. Pernkopf was a member of the Nazi party, promoted the idea of "racial hygiene", and in 1938, "purified" the university from all Jews. In Pernkopfs atlas of anatomy, the illustrators expressed their sympathy to Nazism by adding Nazi symbols to their illustrations. In light of the demand stated by the "Yad Vashem" Institute, the sources of the atlas were investigated. The report, which was published in 1998, determined that Pernkopfs Anatomy Institute received almost 1400 corpses from the Gestapo's execution chambers. Copies of Pernkopfs atlas, accidentally exposed at the Rappaport School of Medicine in the Technion, led to dilemmas concerning similar works with a common background. The books initiated a wide debate in Israel and abroad, regarding ethical aspects of using information originated in Nazi crimes. Moreover, these findings are evidence of the evil to which science and medicine can give rise, when they are captured as an unshakable authority. PMID:18770971

  19. Human structure in six and one-half weeks: one approach to providing foundational anatomical competency in an era of compressed medical school anatomy curricula.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Nancy; O'Donoghue, Daniel; Klump, Kathryn E; Thompson, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine reduced gross anatomy from a full semester, 130-hour course to a six and one-half week, 105-hour course as part of a new integrated systems-based pre-clinical curriculum. In addition to the reduction in contact hours, content from embryology, histology, and radiology were added into the course. The new curriculum incorporated best practices in the area of regular assessments, feedback, clinical application, multiple teaching modalities, and professionalism. A comparison of the components of the traditional and integrated curriculum, along with end of course evaluations and student performance revealed that the new curriculum was just as effective, if not more effective. This article also provides important lessons learned. PMID:24996159

  20. Human Structure in Six and One-Half Weeks: One Approach to Providing Foundational Anatomical Competency in an Era of Compressed Medical School Anatomy curricula

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Nancy; O'Donoghue, Daniel; Klump, Kathryn E; Thompson, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine reduced gross anatomy from a full semester, 130-hour course to a six and one-half week, 105-hour course as part of a new integrated systems-based pre-clinical curriculum. In addition to the reduction in contact hours, content from embryology, histology, and radiology were added into the course. The new curriculum incorporated best practices in the area of regular assessments, feedback, clinical application, multiple teaching modalities, and professionalism. A comparison of the components of the traditional and integrated curriculum, along with end of course evaluations and student performance revealed that the new curriculum was just as effective, if not more effective. This article also provides important lessons learned. Anat Sci Educ 8: 149–157. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Association of Anatomists. PMID:24996159

  1. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  2. Human milk anti-inflammatory component contents during acute mastitis.

    PubMed

    Buescher, E S; Hair, P S

    2001-06-15

    Mastitis is a common complication of human lactation. We examined milk specimens from eight women with clinical mastitis to determine their content of anti-inflammatory components. Antioxidant activity (spontaneous cytochrome c reducing activity), selected pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta), selected endogenous cytokine control molecules (sIL-6R, sIL-1RII, and sTNFRI), lactoferrin, Na(+):K(+) ratios, and milk bioactivities that cause shedding of sIL-1RII from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), suppress PMN aggregation, and suppress PMN adherence responses were not increased compared to normal milks. Neither the bioactivities that deplete PMN intracellular Ca(2+) stores nor those that block Ca(2+) influx into fMLP-stimulated PMN were significantly increased in mastitis milks. In contrast, levels of TNFalpha, sTNFRII, and IL-1RA and bioactivities that cause shedding of sTNFRI from human PMN were significantly increased compared to normal milks. Mastitis milk has the same anti-inflammatory components and characteristics of normal milk, with elevations in selected components/activities that may help protect the nursing infant from developing clinical illness due to feeding on mastitis milk. PMID:11520075

  3. Effect of hydration on the water content of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Levin, R L; Cravalho, E G; Huggins, C E

    1976-12-01

    An ideal, hydrated, nondilute pseudobinary salt-protein-water solution model of the RBC intracellular solution has been developed to describe the osmotic behavior of human erythrocytes during freezing and thawing. Because of the hydration of intracellular solutes (mostly cell proteins), our analytical results predict that at least 16.65% of the isotonic cell water content will be retained within RBCs placed in hypertonic solutions. These findings are consistent not only with the experimental measurements of the amount of isotonic cell water retained within RBCs subjected to nonisotonic extracellular solutions (20-32%) but also with the experimental evidence that all of the water within RBCs is solvent water. By modeling the RBC intracellular solution as a hydrated salt-protein-water solution, no anomalous osmotic behavior is apparent. PMID:990394

  4. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  5. How useful is plastination in learning anatomy?

    PubMed

    Latorre, Rafael M; García-Sanz, Mari P; Moreno, Matilde; Hernández, Fuensanta; Gil, Francisco; López, Octavio; Ayala, Maria D; Ramírez, Gregorio; Vázquez, Jose M; Arencibia, Alberto; Henry, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    In recent years plastination has begun to revolutionize the way in which human and veterinary gross anatomy can be presented to students. The study reported here assessed the efficacy of plastinated organs as teaching resources in an innovative anatomy teaching/learning system. The main objective was to evaluate whether the use of plastinated organs improves the quality of teaching and learning of anatomy. For this purpose, we used an interdepartmental approach involving the departments of Veterinary Anatomy, Human Anatomy, Veterinary Surgery, and Education Development and Research Methods. The knowledge base of control and experimental student groups was examined before and after use of the fixed or plastinated resources, respectively, to gather information evaluating the effectiveness of these teaching resources. Significant differences (p < 0.001) between control and experimental groups of Human and Veterinary Anatomy were observed in the post-test results. The Veterinary Surgery students had the most positive opinion of the use of plastinated specimens. Using these data, we were able to quantitatively characterize the use of plastinated specimens as anatomy teaching resources. This analysis showed that all the plastinated resources available were heavily used and deemed useful by students. Although the properties of plastinated specimens accommodate student needs at various levels, traditional material should be used in conjunction with plastinated resources. PMID:17446645

  6. Content Guidelines for an Undergraduate Human Resources Curriculum: Recommendations from Human Resources Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sincoff, Michael Z.; Owen, Crystal L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors surveyed 445 human resources (HR) professionals to determine their views regarding the HR curriculum content that will lead to graduates' success in entry-level (first-job) HR positions. Ninety-eight questionnaires (22%) were returned. Respondents identified five topics--equal employment opportunity/affirmative action…

  7. Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Glenn C.; Chopp, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Movements of the human shoulder represent the result of a complex dynamic interplay of structural bony anatomy and biomechanics, static ligamentous and tendinous restraints, and dynamic muscle forces. Injury to 1 or more of these components through overuse or acute trauma disrupts this complex interrelationship and places the shoulder at increased risk. A thorough understanding of the functional anatomy of the shoulder provides the clinician with a foundation for caring for athletes with shoulder injuries. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE for the years 1980 to 1999, using the key words “shoulder,” “anatomy,” “glenohumeral joint,” “acromioclavicular joint,” “sternoclavicular joint,” “scapulothoracic joint,” and “rotator cuff.” Data Synthesis: We examine human shoulder movement by breaking it down into its structural static and dynamic components. Bony anatomy, including the humerus, scapula, and clavicle, is described, along with the associated articulations, providing the clinician with the structural foundation for understanding how the static ligamentous and dynamic muscle forces exert their effects. Commonly encountered athletic injuries are discussed from an anatomical standpoint. Conclusions/Recommendations: Shoulder injuries represent a significant proportion of athletic injuries seen by the medical provider. A functional understanding of the dynamic interplay of biomechanical forces around the shoulder girdle is necessary and allows for a more structured approach to the treatment of an athlete with a shoulder injury. PMID:16558636

  8. Optical versus virtual: teaching assistant perceptions of the use of virtual microscopy in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Collier, Larissa; Dunham, Stacey; Braun, Mark W; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean

    2012-01-01

    Many studies that evaluate the introduction of technology in the classroom focus on student performance and student evaluations. This study focuses on instructor evaluation of the introduction of virtual microscopy into an undergraduate anatomy class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with graduate teaching assistants (TA) and analyzed through qualitative methods. This analysis showed that the teaching assistants found the virtual microscope to be an advantageous change in the classroom. They cite the ease of use of the virtual microscope, access to histology outside of designated laboratory time, and increasing student collaboration in class as the primary advantages. The teaching assistants also discuss principal areas where the use of the virtual microscope can be improved from a pedagogical standpoint, including requiring students to spend more time working on histology in class. PMID:22069298

  9. Human Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Anatomy for Epidural Anesthesia: Reviewing a 3D MR-Based Interactive Model and Postmortem Samples.

    PubMed

    Reina, Miguel A; Lirk, Philipp; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    The ligamentum flavum (LF) forms the anatomic basis for the loss-of-resistance technique essential to the performance of epidural anesthesia. However, the LF presents considerable interindividual variability, including the possibility of midline gaps, which may influence the performance of epidural anesthesia. We devise a method to reconstruct the anatomy of the digitally LF based on magnetic resonance images to clarify the exact limits and edges of LF and its different thickness, depending on the area examined, while avoiding destructive methods, as well as the dissection processes. Anatomic cadaveric cross sections enabled us to visually check the definition of the edges along the entire LF and compare them using 3D image reconstruction methods. Reconstruction was performed in images obtained from 7 patients. Images from 1 patient were used as a basis for the 3D spinal anatomy tool. In parallel, axial cuts, 2 to 3 cm thick, were performed in lumbar spines of 4 frozen cadavers. This technique allowed us to identify the entire ligament and its exact limits, while avoiding alterations resulting from cutting processes or from preparation methods. The LF extended between the laminas of adjacent vertebrae at all vertebral levels of the patients examined, but midline gaps are regularly encountered. These anatomical variants were reproduced in a 3D portable document format. The major anatomical features of the LF were reproduced in the 3D model. Details of its structure and variations of thickness in successive sagittal and axial slides could be visualized. Gaps within LF previously studied in cadavers have been identified in our interactive 3D model, which may help to understand their nature, as well as possible implications for epidural techniques. PMID:26891398

  10. Dynamic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, Burne

    This student artist's handbook uses drawings and diagrams to demonstrate the basic structure, proportions, and expressive nature of the human form from an artist's point of view. Emphasis is placed upon the relationship of mass to movement. Drawings of the figure in action reveal the rhythmic relationship of muscles and their effect upon surface…

  11. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  12. Functional anatomy of the colonic bioreactor: Impact of antibiotics and Saccharomyces boulardii on bacterial composition in human fecal cylinders.

    PubMed

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Schulz, Stefan; Manowsky, Julia; Verstraelen, Hans; Swidsinski, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Sections of fecal cylinders were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting 180 bacterial groups. Samples were collected from three groups of women (N=20 each) treated for bacterial vaginosis with ciprofloxacin+metronidazole. Group A only received the combined antibiotic regimen, whereas the A/Sb group received concomitant Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 treatment, and the A_Sb group received S. boulardii prophylaxis following the 14-day antibiotic course. The number of stool cylinders analyzed was 188 out of 228 in group A, 170 out of 228 in group A/Sb, and 172 out of 216 in group A_Sb. The colonic biomass was organized into a separate mucus layer with no bacteria, a 10-30μm broad unstirred transitional layer enriched with bacteria, and a patchy fermentative area that mixed digestive leftovers with bacteria. The antibiotics suppressed bacteria mainly in the fermentative area, whereas abundant bacterial clades retreated to the transitional mucus and survived. As a result, the total concentration of bacteria decreased only by one order. These effects were lasting, since the overall recovery of the microbial mass, bacterial diversity and concentrations were still below pre-antibiotic values 4 months after the end of antibiotic treatment. Sb-prophylaxis markedly reduced antibiotic effects and improved the recovery rates. Since the colon is a sophisticated bioreactor, the study indicated that the spatial anatomy of its biomass was crucial for its function. PMID:26723852

  13. Honoring our donors: a survey of memorial ceremonies in United States anatomy programs.

    PubMed

    Jones, Trahern W; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Many anatomy programs that incorporate dissection of donated human bodies hold memorial ceremonies of gratitude towards body donors. The content of these ceremonies may include learners' reflections on mortality, respect, altruism, and personal growth told through various humanities modalities. The task of planning is usually student- and faculty-led with participation from other health care students. Objective information on current memorial ceremonies for body donors in anatomy programs in the United States appears to be lacking. The number of programs in the United States that currently plan these memorial ceremonies and information on trends in programs undertaking such ceremonies remain unknown. Gross anatomy program directors throughout the United States were contacted and asked to respond to a voluntary questionnaire on memorial ceremonies held at their institution. The results (response rate 68.2%) indicated that a majority of human anatomy programs (95.5%) hold memorial ceremonies. These ceremonies are, for the most part, student-driven and nondenominational or secular in nature. Participants heavily rely upon speech, music, poetry, and written essays, with a small inclusion of other humanities modalities, such as dance or visual art, to explore a variety of themes during these ceremonies. PMID:24753299

  14. Content representation in the human medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jackson C; Wagner, Anthony D; Preston, Alison R

    2013-01-01

    Current theories of medial temporal lobe (MTL) function focus on event content as an important organizational principle that differentiates MTL subregions. Perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices may play content-specific roles in memory, whereas hippocampal processing is alternately hypothesized to be content specific or content general. Despite anatomical evidence for content-specific MTL pathways, empirical data for content-based MTL subregional dissociations are mixed. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multiple statistical approaches to characterize MTL subregional responses to different classes of novel event content (faces, scenes, spoken words, sounds, visual words). Univariate analyses revealed that responses to novel faces and scenes were distributed across the anterior-posterior axis of MTL cortex, with face responses distributed more anteriorly than scene responses. Moreover, multivariate pattern analyses of perirhinal and parahippocampal data revealed spatially organized representational codes for multiple content classes, including nonpreferred visual and auditory stimuli. In contrast, anterior hippocampal responses were content general, with less accurate overall pattern classification relative to MTL cortex. Finally, posterior hippocampal activation patterns consistently discriminated scenes more accurately than other forms of content. Collectively, our findings indicate differential contributions of MTL subregions to event representation via a distributed code along the anterior-posterior axis of MTL that depends on the nature of event content. PMID:22275474

  15. Build a Human Project: Improving Attitude and Increasing Anatomy Content Knowledge and Skills for Middle-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtz, Lynne E.; Quinn, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    For four years middle-level students and science teachers have participated in a two-week summer workshop outreach project collaboratively designed and implemented by School of Medicine and Department of Education faculty. The project's goals included improving the attitude of student participants toward the study of science; increasing…

  16. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Beale, Elmus G; Tarwater, Patrick M; Lee, Vaughan H

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology instruction model with four face-to-face classes that supplemented online recorded lectures was used. One instructor delivered the lectures face-to-face in 2007 and by online videos in 2008-2009, while a second instructor provided the supplemental face-to-face classes in 2008-2009. The same embryology learning objectives and selected examination questions were used for each of the three years. This allowed direct comparison of learning outcomes, as measured by examination performance, for students receiving only face-to-face embryology instruction versus the hybrid approach. Comparison of the face-to-face lectures to the hybrid approach showed no difference in overall class performance on embryology questions that were used all three years. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the delivery method on the examination scores for bottom quartile students. Students completed an end-of-course survey to assess their opinions. They rated the two forms of delivery similarly on a six-point Likert scale and reported that face-to-face lectures have the advantage of allowing them to interact with the instructor, whereas online lectures could be paused, replayed, and viewed at any time. These experiences suggest the need for well-designed prospective studies to determine whether online lectures can be used to enhance the efficacy of embryology instruction. PMID:23959807

  17. [Surgery without anatomy?].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, F

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is the basis of all operative medicine. While this branch of scientific medicine is frequently not explicitly mentioned in surgical publications, it is nonetheless quintessential to medical education. In the era of video sequences and digitized images, surgical methods are frequently communicated in the form of cinematic documentation of surgical procedures; however, this occurs without the help of explanatory drawings or subtexts that would illustrate the underlying anatomical nomenclature, comment on fine functionally important details or even without making any mention of the surgeon. In scientific manuscripts color illustrations frequently appear in such overwhelming quantities that they resemble long arrays of trophies but fail to give detailed explanations that would aid the therapeutic translation of the novel datasets. In a similar fashion, many anatomy textbooks prefer to place emphasis on illustrations and photographs while supplying only a paucity of explanations that would foster the understanding of functional contexts and thus confuse students and practitioners alike. There is great temptation to repeat existing data and facts over and over again, while it is proportionally rare to make reference to truly original scientific discoveries. A number of examples are given in this article to illustrate how discoveries that were made even a long time ago can still contribute to scientific progress in current times. This includes the NO signaling molecules, which were first described in 1775 but were only discovered to have a pivotal role as neurotransmitters in the function of human paradoxical sphincter muscles in 2012 and 2015. Readers of scientific manuscripts often long for explanations by the numerous silent coauthors of a publication who could contribute to the main topic by adding in-depth illustrations (e. g. malignograms, evolution and involution of lymph node structures). PMID:27251482

  18. Human Anatomy and Physiology Human Anatomy and Physiology A spence and E mason Addison-Wesley 994pp £18.95 0-8053-6989-9 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    1988-09-17

    They say that a book should' never be judged 'by its cover'. In this case, Dr Williams' thermograph of Da Vinci creates an interest that continues throughout the book. It is well presented in content, colour, photographs and diagrams. PMID:27224169

  19. Learning of cross-sectional anatomy using clay models.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students in a clay modeling group responded positively to this approach, and their average score on CT examination was higher than that of a group that did not use clay models. Clay modeling appears to be a useful supplement to conventional anatomy or radiologic anatomy education. It can be applied to any part of human body, and its effectiveness will be greater when a more complicated understanding of cross-sectional anatomy is required. PMID:19588481

  20. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment. PMID:27382498

  1. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-12-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  2. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  3. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  4. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  5. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  6. Computer-Assisted Learning in Anatomy at the International Medical School in Debrecen, Hungary: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A.; Kis, Greta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an…

  7. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt

    2010-01-01

    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  8. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls. PMID:27046584

  9. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  10. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W; Heath, Andrew C

    2006-06-01

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n = 264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200 and 600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline region, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance. PMID:16712815

  11. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n=264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200−600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline regions, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance. PMID:16712815

  12. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man. PMID:26460093

  13. Elevated insulin receptor content in human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Papa, V; Pezzino, V; Costantino, A; Belfiore, A; Giuffrida, D; Frittitta, L; Vannelli, G B; Brand, R; Goldfine, I D; Vigneri, R

    1990-01-01

    The growth of breast cancer cells is under the regulation of hormones, growth factors, and their receptors. In the present study, we have employed a new, sensitive, and specific radioimmunoassay for the direct measurement of insulin receptors in surgical specimens of breast cancers. In 159 specimens the insulin receptor content was 6.15 +/- 3.69 ng/0.1 mg protein. This value was more than sixfold higher than the mean value found in both 27 normal breast tissues obtained at total mastectomy (0.95 + 0.68, P less than 0.001) and in six normal specimens obtained from reduction mammoplasty (0.84 +/- 0.78, P less than 0.001). The insulin receptor content in breast cancer tissues was also higher than in any normal tissue investigated including liver (Pezzino, V., V. Papa, V. Trischitta, A. Brunetti, P.A. Goodman, M.K. Treutelaar, J.A. Williams, B.A. Maddux, R. Vigneri, and I.D. Goldfine, 1989. Am. J. Physiol. 257:E451-457). The insulin receptor in breast cancer retained its ability to both bind insulin and undergo insulin-induced tyrosine kinase activation. Immunostaining of the specimens revealed that the insulin receptor was present in malignant epithelial cells, but was not detected in stromal and inflammatory cells. Univariant analysis revealed that the insulin receptor content of the tumors correlated positively with tumor size (P = 0.014), histological grading (P = 0.030), and the estrogen receptor content (P = 0.035). There were no significant correlations between insulin receptor content and the age, body weight, menopausal status, and nodal involvement of the patients. These studies indicate, therefore, that the insulin receptor content is increased in breast cancers and raise the possibility that the insulin receptor may have a role in the biology of these tumors. Images PMID:2243127

  14. Long-Term Human Outcomes of a "Shotgun" Marriage in Higher Education: Anatomy of a Merger, Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind; Williamson, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses a gap in the research literature on mergers in higher education by giving special consideration to the human resource dimension. It focuses on the forced merger of two higher education institutions that was implemented in Northern Ireland over 20 years ago and from which the University of Ulster was established. The authors…

  15. Skull Base Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base. PMID:26614826

  16. Mercury and selenium content and chemical form in human and animal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cappon, C J; Smith, J C

    1981-01-01

    The content, chemical form, and distribution of mercury and selenium were determined for selected samples of human and animal tissue by gas chromatography. Methylmercury averaged 38.7% of the total mercury content in homogenized human brain. For human heart, spleen, liver, kidney and placenta, methylmercury comprised 40.2%, 57.0%, 39.6%, 6.0% and 57.1% respectively, of the total mercury content. Similar results were obtained for the heart and liver of a whitetail deer. Methylmercury represented 9.1%, 62.9% and 24.1% of the total mercury content in seal liver, seal meat and deer meat, respectively. For all samples, a significant portion of the total selenium content, averaging 27%, was present as selenate (Se VI). Tissue selenium content did not correlate with the corresponding mercury content. In brain, heart and placenta, and in seal liver and meat, 53% to 80% of the total mercury content was water-extractable. For human kidney, liver and spleen, and deer meat, only 15% to 45% of the total mercury was extractable. On a percentage basis, inorganic mercury was more extractable than methylmercury, except for human kidney and liver, and deer meat. For all samples, except kidney, liver and deer meat, 55% to 76% of the total selenium content was water-extractable, Se VI being more extractable on a percentage basis than selenite (Se IV) and selenide (Se-II). PMID:7242026

  17. The beauty of anatomy: visual displays and surgical education in early-nineteenth-century London.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Carin

    2011-01-01

    The early-nineteenth-century artist, anatomist, and teacher Sir Charles Bell saw anatomy and art as closely related subjects. He taught anatomy to artists and surgeons, illustrated his own anatomical texts, and wrote a treatise on the use of anatomy in art. The author explores the connections among visual displays representing human anatomy, aesthetics, and pedagogical practices for Bell and a particular group of British surgeon-anatomists. Creating anatomical models and drawings was thought to discipline the surgeon's hand, while the study of anatomy and comparative anatomy would discipline the artist's eye. And for Bell, beauty made drawings into better pedagogical tools. PMID:21804185

  18. COMT Genetic Reduction Produces Sexually Divergent Effects on Cortical Anatomy and Working Memory in Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Sara; Gozzi, Alessandro; Cerasa, Antonio; Piras, Fabrizio; Scheggia, Diego; Managò, Francesca; Damiano, Mario; Galbusera, Alberto; Erickson, Lucy C; De Pietri Tonelli, Davide; Bifone, Angelo; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A; Caltagirone, Carlo; Weinberger, Daniel R; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Papaleo, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Genetic variations in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that modulate cortical dopamine have been associated with pleiotropic behavioral effects in humans and mice. Recent data suggest that some of these effects may vary among sexes. However, the specific brain substrates underlying COMT sexual dimorphisms remain unknown. Here, we report that genetically driven reduction in COMT enzyme activity increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and postero-parieto-temporal cortex of male, but not female adult mice and humans. Dichotomous changes in PFC cytoarchitecture were also observed: reduced COMT increased a measure of neuronal density in males, while reducing it in female mice. Consistent with the neuroanatomical findings, COMT-dependent sex-specific morphological brain changes were paralleled by divergent effects on PFC-dependent working memory in both mice and humans. These findings emphasize a specific sex-gene interaction that can modulate brain morphological substrates with influence on behavioral outcomes in healthy subjects and, potentially, in neuropsychiatric populations. PMID:24658585

  19. The 2007 Anatomy Ceremony: A Service of Gratitude

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Yale University medical and PA students, classes of 2010 and 2008 respectively, express their gratitude in a compilation of reflections on learning human anatomy. In coordination with the Section of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery at the School of Medicine, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine encourages you to hear the stories of the body as narrated by the student. PMID:18160994

  20. Evaluation of a Gross Anatomy Program Without Dissection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Norbert A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    An experimental multimedia gross anatomy program for freshman medical students at Emory University includes audiovisuals, computer-assisted instruction, and tutorial sessions using prosected specimens. No lectures or dissection are included. A comparative study shows that multimedia students learned human anatomy as well as those in traditional…

  1. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  2. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  3. Anatomy and art.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoukalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci, Jean Falcon, Andreas Vesalius, Henry Gray, Henry Vandyke Carter and Frank Netter created some of the best atlases of anatomy. Their works constitute not only scientific medical projects but also masterpieces of art. PMID:24640589

  4. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... our existence. It controls our personality, thoughts, memory, intelligence, speech and understanding, emotions, senses, and basic body functions, as well as how we function in our environment. The diagrams below show brain anatomy, or the various parts of the brain, ...

  5. Molecular anatomy of human chromosome 9: comparative mapping of the immunoglobulin processed pseudogene C epsilon 3 (IGHEP2) in primates.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, H; Ishida, T; Ueda, S; Sofuni, T; Mizusawa, H

    1996-01-01

    Karyotypic homology in relation to human chromosome 9 (HSA 9) was studied through comparative mapping of the immunoglobulin-processed pseudogene C epsilon 3 (IGHEP2) in primates. IGHEP2, which has been mapped to 9p24.2 --> p24.1 in the human genome, was assigned to PTR 11q34 (common chimpanzee), PPA 11q34 (pygmy chimpanzee), PPY 13q16 (orangutan), HLA 8qter (white-handed gibbon), HAG 8qter (agile gibbon), and MFU 14q22 (Japanese macaque) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. To verify the breakpoints of presumed pericentric inversions on the ancestral great ape chromosomes, three DNA markers on HSA 9, cCI9-37 (9q22.1 --> q22.2), cCI9-135 (9q22.32 --> q22.33), and cCI9-208 (9p13.3 --> p13.2), were also assigned to PTR/PPA 11p11 (cCI9-37 and 135), PTR/PPA 11q22 (cCI9-208), PPY 13q22 (cCI9-37 and 135), and PPY 13q12 (cCI9-208). These data more clearly define the position of the breakpoints of pericentric inversions that occurred in the human-chimp ancestral and chimpanzee ancestral chromosomes and support the hypothesis of HSA 9 genesis previously derived from banding analyses of HSA 9 and its homologs. PMID:8646893

  6. A model for the induction of autism in the ecosystem of the human body: the anatomy of a modern pandemic?

    PubMed Central

    Bilbo, Staci D.; Nevison, Cynthia D.; Parker, William

    2015-01-01

    Background The field of autism research is currently divided based on a fundamental question regarding the nature of autism: Some are convinced that autism is a pandemic of modern culture, with environmental factors at the roots. Others are convinced that the disease is not pandemic in nature, but rather that it has been with humanity for millennia, with its biological and neurological underpinnings just now being understood. Objective In this review, two lines of reasoning are examined which suggest that autism is indeed a pandemic of modern culture. First, given the widely appreciated derailment of immune function by modern culture, evidence that autism is strongly associated with aberrant immune function is examined. Second, evidence is reviewed indicating that autism is associated with ‘triggers’ that are, for the most part, a construct of modern culture. In light of this reasoning, current epidemiological evidence regarding the incidence of autism, including the role of changing awareness and diagnostic criteria, is examined. Finally, the potential role of the microbial flora (the microbiome) in the pathogenesis of autism is discussed, with the view that the microbial flora is a subset of the life associated with the human body, and that the entire human biome, including both the microbial flora and the fauna, has been radically destabilized by modern culture. Conclusions It is suggested that the unequivocal way to resolve the debate regarding the pandemic nature of autism is to perform an experiment: monitor the prevalence of autism after normalizing immune function in a Western population using readily available approaches that address the well-known factors underlying the immune dysfunction in that population. PMID:25634608

  7. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  8. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set I: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the first part in a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following topics: (1) organization of the human body; (2) biochemistry and microbiology; (3) infection,…

  9. Age and gender effects on human brain anatomy: a voxel-based morphometric study in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles D; Chebrolu, Himachandra; Wekstein, David R; Schmitt, Frederick A; Markesbery, William R

    2007-07-01

    The adult human brain shrinks slowly with age, but the regional specificity and tissue class specificity of this loss is unclear. Subjects (n=122) were healthy aged participants in a longitudinal cohort who undergo periodic standardized cognitive and clinical examination. Multi-spectral segmentation of magnetic resonance images into grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and CSF was performed on cross-sectional image data using a custom template and calculated prior probability maps. Global differences were evaluated by fitting a regression model for absolute and normalized subject GM, WM, and CSF values. Global and regional patterns of GM, WM and CSF differences were assessed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). GM volume decreased with age at a rate of 2.4 cm(3)/year (-0.18%/year); CSF increased by 2.5 cm(3)/year (0.20%/year). Regression analyses showed no significant decrease in WM volume, but a focal WM decrease with age was detected in the anterior corpus callosum using VBM. Diffuse reductions of GM volume were seen with age in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. Relative regional differences in cortical GM volume with age occurred in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, but not in medial temporal lobe or in posterior cingulate. We did not observe significant gender effects. These findings establish a baseline for comparison with pathologic changes in human brain volume between ages 58 and 95 years. PMID:16774798

  10. Concept Mapping Strategies: Content, Tools and Assessment for Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehry, Stephanie; Monroe-Ossi, Heather; Cobb, Sharon; Fountain, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the use of concept mapping for formative and summative assessment of northeast Florida middle school students' knowledge of human geography. The students were participants in an afterschool, academic, college reach-out program that provided opportunities to test concept mapping strategies that support spatial thinking and…

  11. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  12. The surgical anatomy of the perineum.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, V; Chandak, P

    2013-03-01

    The anatomy of the perineum and pelvis is complex. Those outside the specialist fields of colorectal surgery, urology and gynaecological surgery often have a less-than-complete understanding of the anatomical details of this region. The recent increase in complicated pelvic and perineal injuries caused by the detonation of Improvised Explosive Devices has brought into sharp focus, the importance of this area of surgical anatomy. The following article describes, in a systematic and detailed manner, the anatomy of the urogenital and anal regions of the perineum. The terminology in relation to the fascial layers and structures encountered in the perineum is elucidated. In addition, the surgical anatomy of the scrotum and its contents and the ligamentous support of the penis are described, with clear illustrations throughout. It is intended that this article will go some way towards clarifying the anatomy underlying the surgical management of complex perineal/pelvic injuries, and benefit both the specialist and non-specialist military surgeon. PMID:23631319

  13. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-11-15

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-..gamma.., tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin l..cap alpha.. or 1..beta... The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes.

  14. Microsurgical anatomy of the human carotid body (glomus caroticum): Features of its detailed topography, syntopy and morphology.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Sissy-Amelie; Wöhler, Aliona; Beutner, Dirk; Angelov, Doychin N

    2016-03-01

    The human glomus caroticum (GC) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching courses because of insufficient time and difficulties encountered in the preparation. Accordingly, most anatomical descriptions of its location, relationship to neighboring structures, size and shape are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study is to present the GC with all associated roots and branches. Following microscope-assisted dissection and precise photo-documentation, a detailed analysis of location, syntopy and morphology was performed. We carried out this study on 46 bifurcations of the common carotid artery (CCA) into the external (ECA) and internal (ICA) carotid arteries and identified the GC in 40 (91%) of them. We found significant variations regarding the location of the GC and its syntopy: GC was associated with CCA (42%), ECA (28%) and ICA (30%) lying on the medial or lateral surface (82% or 13%, respectively) or exactly in the middle (5%) of the bifurcation. The short and long diameter of its oval form varied from 1.0×2.0 to 5.0×5.0mm. Connections with the sympathetic trunk (100%), glossopharyngeal (93%), vagus (79%) and hypoglossal nerve (90%) could be established in 29 cadavers. We conclude that precise knowledge of this enormous variety might be very helpful not only to students in medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to surgeons working in this field. PMID:26704358

  15. Architecture and anatomy of the chromosomal locus in human chromosome 21 encoding the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    Levanon, D; Lieman-Hurwitz, J; Dafni, N; Wigderson, M; Sherman, L; Bernstein, Y; Laver-Rudich, Z; Danciger, E; Stein, O; Groner, Y

    1985-01-01

    The SOD-1 gene on chromosome 21 and approximately 100 kb of chromosomal DNA from the 21q22 region have been isolated and characterized. The gene which is present as a single copy per haploid genome spans 11 kb of chromosomal DNA. Heteroduplex analysis and DNA sequencing reveals five rather small exons and four introns that interrupt the coding region. The donor sequence at the first intron contains an unusual variant dinucleotide 5'-G-C, rather than the highly conserved 5'-GT. The unusual splice junction is functional in vivo since it was detected in both alleles of the SOD-1 gene, which were defined by differences in the length of restriction endonuclease fragments (RFLPs) that hybridize to the cDNA probe. Genomic blots of human DNA isolated from cells trisomic for chromosome 21 (Down's syndrome patients) show the normal pattern of bands. At the 5' end of gene there are the 'TATA' and 'CAT' promoter sequences as well as four copies of the -GGCGGG- hexanucleotide. Two of these -GC- elements are contained within a 13 nucleotide inverted repeat that could form a stem-loop structure with stability of -33 kcal. The 3'-non coding region of the gene contains five short open reading-frames starting with ATG and terminating with stop codons. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 7. PMID:3160582

  16. Somatic genital reflexes in rats with a nod to humans: anatomy, physiology, and the role of the social neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2011-01-01

    Somatic genital reflexes such as ejaculation and vaginocervical contractions are produced through the striated muscles associated with the genitalia. The coordination of these reflexes is surprisingly complex and involves a number of lumbosacral spinal and supraspinal systems. The rat model has proved to be an excellent source of information regarding these mechanisms, and many parallels to research in humans can be drawn. An understanding of the spinal systems involving the lumbosacral spinal cord, both efferent and afferent, has been generated through decades of research. Spinal and supraspinal mechanisms of descending excitation, through a spinal ejaculation generator in the lumbar spinal cord and thalamus, and descending inhibition, through the ventrolateral medulla, have been identified and characterized both anatomically and physiologically. In addition, delineation of the neural circuits whereby ascending genitosensory information regarding the regulation of somatic genital reflexes is relayed supraspinally has also been the topic of recent investigation. Lastly, the importance of the “social neuropeptides” oxytocin and vasopressin in the regulation of somatic genital reflexes, and associated sociosexual behaviors, is emerging. This work not only has implications for understanding how nervous systems generate sexual behavior, but also provides treatment targets for sexual dysfunction in people. PMID:21338605

  17. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Veronica; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education. Doctors without anatomy are like moles.They work in the dark and the work of their hands are mounds. Friedrich TiedemannThe foundation of the study of the art of operating must be laid in the dissecting room. Robert Liston PMID:24367240

  18. Influence of IR radiation on the carotenoid content in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, M. E.; Zastrov, L.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Lademann, J.

    2009-12-01

    It is shown that the infrared irradiation decreases the content of β-carotene and lycopene carotenoids in human skin. A decrease in the content of β-carotene and lycopene may indicate that the IR radiation, as well as the UV radiation, is capable of forming free radicals in human skin. The investigations were performed in vivo using the technique of resonance Raman scattering developed by us for the noninvasive determination of antioxidant potential in skin.

  19. Nonuniform High-Gamma (60–500 Hz) Power Changes Dissociate Cognitive Task and Anatomy in Human Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gaona, Charles M.; Sharma, Mohit; Freudenburg, Zachary V.; Breshears, Jonathan D.; Bundy, David T.; Roland, Jarod; Barbour, Dennis L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    High-gamma-band (>60 Hz) power changes in cortical electrophysiology are a reliable indicator of focal, event-related cortical activity. Despite discoveries of oscillatory subthreshold and synchronous suprathreshold activity at the cellular level, there is an increasingly popular view that high-gamma-band amplitude changes recorded from cellular ensembles are the result of asynchronous firing activity that yields wideband and uniform power increases. Others have demonstrated independence of power changes in the low- and high-gamma bands, but to date, no studies have shown evidence of any such independence above 60 Hz. Based on nonuniformities in time-frequency analyses of electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals, we hypothesized that induced high-gamma-band (60–500 Hz) power changes are more heterogeneous than currently understood. Using single-word repetition tasks in six human subjects, we showed that functional responsiveness of different ECoG high-gamma sub-bands can discriminate cognitive task (e.g., hearing, reading, speaking) and cortical locations. Power changes in these sub-bands of the high-gamma range are consistently present within single trials and have statistically different time courses within the trial structure. Moreover, when consolidated across all subjects within three task-relevant anatomic regions (sensorimotor, Broca's area, and superior temporal gyrus), these behavior- and location-dependent power changes evidenced nonuniform trends across the population. Together, the independence and nonuniformity of power changes across a broad range of frequencies suggest that a new approach to evaluating high-gamma-band cortical activity is necessary. These findings show that in addition to time and location, frequency is another fundamental dimension of high-gamma dynamics. PMID:21307246

  20. Human lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation is associated with raised cyclic nucleotide content.

    PubMed Central

    Barnette, M S; Barone, F C; Fowler, P J; Grous, M; Price, W J; Ormsbee, H S

    1991-01-01

    Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate content accompany relaxation of isolated strips of opossum and canine lower oesophageal sphincter muscle. The aim of this investigation was to characterise these responses in isolated muscle from the human lower oesophageal sphincter. Electrical stimulation of enteric neurons produced a frequency dependent relaxation of the human lower oesophageal sphincter that was sensitive to tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, as previously shown in the opossum and canine lower oesophageal sphincter, cyclic guanosine monophosphate content was significantly raised in muscle strips frozen during maximum electrical field stimulation whereas cyclic adenosine monophosphate content was unchanged. In addition, sodium nitroprusside (EC50 = 0.1 microM) produced a concentration dependent relaxation of human lower oesophageal sphincter, significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate content, but did not alter cyclic adenosine monophosphate content. Zaprinast (M&B 22948) and SK&F 94120, selective inhibitors of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterases, respectively, both relaxed human lower oesophageal sphincter with a potency similar to that seen in the dog or opossum lower oesophageal sphincter. Finally, the 8-bromo analogues of both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (EC50 = 420 microM) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (EC50 = 100 microM) relaxed the human lower oesophageal sphincter. These studies suggest that in the human, as well as the canine and opossum lower oesophageal sphincter, increases in cyclic nucleotide content are associated with relaxation and increases in cyclic guanosine monophosphate are associated with the relaxation induced by stimulation of enteric neurons. PMID:1846837

  1. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland). PMID:26341598

  2. Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

  3. Anatomy in a Modern Medical Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Turney, BW

    2007-01-01

    Anatomy in undergraduate education has been in decline for many years. Some suggest that it has fallen below a safe level. Balances between detail and safety, and assimilation and application of anatomy have yet to be established as the methods of teaching undergo another metamorphosis. For doctors, the human body is the focus of investigation and intervention on a daily basis; for this reason, the study of anatomy in some form will continue to be essential to safe medical practice. It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice and communicate safely. It may be true that most doctors do not need to dissect a cadaver or study a prosection in order to practice, but if it can improve their understanding of what they do and why they do it, this surely has to be of benefit both for the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. Integration of newer teaching modalities and modern technology will encourage interest and retention of anatomical knowledge and its clinical relevance. Anatomy has a promising future in postgraduate specialist and surgical training. Detailed knowledge should be integrated into specialist training when it is clinically relevant allowing specialists of the future to practice safely and accurately and also to provide a strong base for future clinical developments. PMID:17346399

  4. Use of an Audience Response System during Peer Teaching among Physical Therapy Students in Human Gross Anatomy: Perceptions of Peer Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wait, Kevin R.; Cloud, Beth A.; Forster, Lindsey A.; Jones, Tiffany M.; Nokleby, Jessica J.; Wolfe, Cortney R.; Youdas, James W.

    2009-01-01

    An audience response system (ARS) has become popular among educators in medicine and the health professions because of the system's ability to engage listeners during a lecture presentation. No one has described the usefulness of ARS technology during planned nonlecture peer teaching sessions in gross anatomy instruction for health professionals.…

  5. Teaching anatomy: cadavers vs. computers?

    PubMed

    Biasutto, Susana Norma; Caussa, Lucas Ignacio; Criado del Río, Luis Esteban

    2006-03-01

    Our study was aimed to show if cadaver dissections are still important in the Anatomy Course for medical students or whether computerized resources could replace them. We followed three groups, one of them (698 students) proceeded through the Anatomy Course in a traditional way, meaning, with cadaver material enough to observe all the regions and structures; the second group (330 students) used many technological resources but not cadaver dissections; and the third group (145 students) followed the course, recently, with the same program but with both practical resources. Theoretical contents were developed in the same way and by the same professor. The traditional teaching group obtained better results than the technologically supported group, evaluated by the number of students that passed their exams. The third group results were better than the others, with regard to passed exams and marks. Even when computerized improvements have developed a new area giving students a lot of elements to facilitate their approach to imaging structures, the possibility of direct contact with tissues and anatomical elements cannot yet be replaced. We are demonstrating that the best possibility is the correct association of all these resources to complement one another. PMID:16551018

  6. Michelangelo: anatomy and its implication in his art.

    PubMed

    Hilloowala, Rumy

    2009-06-01

    Michelangelo's major interest was the Life of the Soul as expressed in the beautiful structure and movement of the human body, which he often called the "mortal veil" of the divine intentions. This study ascertains Michelangelo's interest in and acquisition of the knowledge of human anatomy, the use of small anatomical models to crystallize his concepts into reality and the application of anatomy to his art. Relatively little is known of this interaction between anatomy and art in Michelangelo's life and work. PMID:20027756

  7. Chromosomes and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Robert James McKinlay

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome abnormalities may cast light on the nature of mechanisms whereby normal anatomy evolves, and abnormal anatomy arises. Correlating genotype to phenotype is an exercise in which the geneticist and the anatomist can collaborate. The increasing power of the new genetic methodologies is enabling an increasing precision in the delineation of chromosome imbalances, even to the nucleotide level; but the classical skills of careful observation and recording remain as crucial as they always have been. Clin. Anat. 29:540-546, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990310

  8. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  9. The study of anatomy in England from 1700 to the early 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Piers D; Boston, Ceridwen; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Chaplin, Simon; Chauhan, Vin; Evans, Jonathan; Fowler, Louise; Powers, Natasha; Walker, Don; Webb, Helen; Witkin, Annsofie

    2011-01-01

    The study of anatomy in England during the 18th and 19th century has become infamous for bodysnatching from graveyards to provide a sufficient supply of cadavers. However, recent discoveries have improved our understanding of how and why anatomy was studied during the enlightenment, and allow us to see the context in which dissection of the human body took place. Excavations of infirmary burial grounds and medical school cemeteries, study of hospital archives, and analysis of the content of surviving anatomical collections in medical museums enables us to re-evaluate the field from a fresh perspective. The pathway from a death in poverty, sale of the corpse to body dealer, dissection by anatomist or medical student, and either the disposal and burial of the remains or preservation of teaching specimens that survive today in medical museums is a complex and fascinating one. PMID:21496014

  10. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…