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Sample records for human beta satellite

  1. Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae) is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, symptom modulating satellites (beta satellites). We describe a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of beta satellites associated with okra in India. Results The full-length sequences of 36 beta satellites, isolated from okra exhibiting typical begomovirus symptoms (leaf curl and yellow vein), were determined. The sequences segregated in to four groups. Two groups correspond to the beta satellites Okra leaf curl beta satellite (OLCuB) and Bhendi yellow vein beta satellite (BYVB) that have previously been identified in okra from the sub-continent. One sequence was distinct from all other, previously isolated beta satellites and represents a new species for which we propose the name Bhendi yellow vein India beta satellite (BYVIB). This new beta satellite was nevertheless closely related to BYVB and OLCuB. Most surprising was the identification of Croton yellow vein mosaic beta satellite (CroYVMB) in okra; a beta satellite not previously identified in a malvaceous plant species. The okra beta satellites were shown to have distinct geographic host ranges with BYVB occurring across India whereas OLCuB was only identified in northwestern India. Okra infections with CroYVMB were only identified across the northern and eastern central regions of India. A more detailed analysis of the sequences showed that OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share highest identity with respect βC1 gene. βC1 is the only gene encoded by beta satellites, the product of which is the major pathogenicity determinant of begomovirus-beta

  2. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists at the human beta1, beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jillian G

    2005-02-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ("beta-blockers") are one of the most widely used classes of drugs in cardiovascular medicine (hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and increasingly in heart failure) as well as in the management of anxiety, migraine and glaucoma. Where known, the mode of action in cardiovascular disease is from antagonism of endogenous catecholamine responses in the heart (mainly at beta1-adrenoceptors), while the worrisome side effects of bronchospasm result from airway beta2-adrenoceptor blockade. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of beta-antagonists for the human beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. (3)H-CGP 12177 whole cell-binding studies were undertaken in CHO cell lines stably expressing either the human beta1-, beta2- or the beta3-adrenoceptor in order to determine the affinity of ligands for each receptor subtype in the same cell background. In this study, the selectivity of well-known subtype-selective ligands was clearly demonstrated: thus, the selective beta1 antagonist CGP 20712A was 501-fold selective over beta2 and 4169-fold selective over beta3; the beta2-selective antagonist ICI 118551 was 550- and 661-fold selective over beta1 and beta3, respectively, and the selective beta3 compound CL 316243 was 10-fold selective over beta2 and more than 129-fold selective over beta1. Those beta2-adrenoceptor agonists used clinically for the treatment of asthma and COPD were beta2 selective: 29-, 61- and 2818-fold for salbutamol, terbutaline and salmeterol over beta1, respectively. There was little difference in the affinity of these ligands between beta1 and beta3 adrenoceptors. The clinically used beta-antagonists studied ranged from bisoprolol (14-fold beta1-selective) to timolol (26-fold beta2-selective). However, the majority showed little selectivity for the beta1- over the beta2-adrenoceptor, with many actually being more beta2-selective. This study shows that the beta1/beta2 selectivity of most clinically used beta-blockers is

  3. Beta-catenin expression in human cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, T.; Shiozaki, H.; Shibamoto, S.; Oka, H.; Kimura, Y.; Tamura, S.; Inoue, M.; Monden, T.; Ito, F.; Monden, M.

    1996-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion in tissue is mainly regulated by homotypic interaction of cadherin molecules, which are anchored to the cytoskeleton via cytoplasmic proteins, including alpha- and beta-catenin. Although we previously demonstrated that alpha-catenin is crucial for cadherin function in vivo, little is known about the role of beta-catenin. We examined the expression of beta-catenin in human carcinoma samples along with normal tissue (esophagus, stomach, and colon) by immunostaining using our antibody for beta-catenin. Normal epithelium strongly expressed beta-catenin. However, beta-catenin expression was frequently reduced in primary tumors of the esophagus (10 of 15, 67%), stomach (9 of 19, 47%), and colon (11 of 22, 50%). From an immunoprecipitation study, we found that beta-catenin forms a complex with E-cadherin not only in the normal epithelium but also in cancerous tissues. In coexpression patterns of E-cadherin and beta-catenin, 43 (77%) of the 56 tumors showed a similar expression of both molecules, whereas the other 13 tumors (23%) showed positive staining for E-cadherin and reduced expression of beta-catenin. These findings suggest that beta-catenin forms a complex with E-cadherin in vivo and down-regulation of beta-catenin expression is associated with malignant transformation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8546224

  4. Expression of transforming growth factors beta-1, beta 2 and beta 3 in human bladder carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Eder, I. E.; Stenzl, A.; Hobisch, A.; Cronauer, M. V.; Bartsch, G.; Klocker, H.

    1997-01-01

    We previously detected elevated transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) serum levels in patients with invasive bladder carcinomas. In this study, we therefore investigated whether elevated serum levels correlate with enhanced TGF-beta expression in human bladder tumours. mRNA levels of TGF-beta1, -beta2 and -beta3 were reduced in bladder tumour tissue to 86%, 68% and 56%, respectively, of the levels in normal urothelium. On the other hand, TGF-beta1 protein levels were found to be higher in superficial tumours (Ta-T1) (mean level of 0.153 ng mg(-1)) and in invasive T2/T3 tumours (mean level of 0.104 ng mg(-1)) compared with normal urothelium (mean level of 0.065 ng mg(-1)). Invasive T4 tumours, however, contained only low amounts of TGF-beta1 (mean level of 0.02 ng mg(-1)). Neither in mean nor in individual patients were serum and tissue TGF-beta levels correlated with each other. Cell culture experiments on primary bladder cells revealed a 57% decrease in TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in tumour compared with normal epithelial cells. Tumour epithelial cells contained about two times higher levels of TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 mRNA than normal epithelial cells. Fibroblasts expressed about the same amount of TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta2 as epithelial cells. Yet, fibroblasts released only 19% and 13% of the amount secreted by tumour epithelial cells into the supernatant. TGF-beta3, on the other hand, was expressed by fibroblasts with higher levels than by epithelial cells. TGF-beta1 was the predominent isoform in bladder tissue and cells at protein as well as on mRNA levels indicating that TGFs-beta2 and -beta3 are of minor importance in bladder cancer. In summary, there is a lack of correlation between TGF-beta serum levels and TGF-beta expression in tumour tissue in bladder cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:9192977

  5. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P.; McKay, Bryon R.; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models. PMID:26557092

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-beta in human pregnancy and labor.

    PubMed

    Laham, N; Van Dunné, F; Abraham, L J; Farrugia, W; Bendtzen, K; Brennecke, S P; Rice, G E

    1997-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-beta) concentration profiles in peripheral venous plasma and amniotic fluid during pregnancy and at the time of labor and to characterise TNF-beta mRNA expression and TNF-beta release from human gestational tissues. In addition, we investigated the expression of TNF-beta binding protein, lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta), in human gestational tissues. The mean (+/-S.E.M.) TNF-beta concentrations in maternal plasma (TIL, 78 +/- 12 pg/ml, n = 7 vs. TNIL, 304 +/- 88 pg/ml, n = 7) and amniotic fluid (TIL, 8 +/- 5 pg/ml, n = 6 vs. TNIL, 73 +/- 20 pg/ml, n = 20) were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in association with term labor-onset (TIL) compared to term not-in-labor (TNIL). TNF-beta concentration in maternal plasma and amniotic fluid did not change significantly either with preterm labor (PIL), or during pregnancy. Group-matched comparison of maternal plasma and amniotic fluid TNF-beta concentrations demonstrated that amniotic fluid TNF-beta concentrations were 6-8 fold lower than maternal plasma TNF-beta concentrations. Furthermore, no detectable TNF-beta was secreted from cultured human amniotic, choriodecidual and placental explants. Although, TNF-beta mRNA was detected in amnion, choriodecidual and placenta, LT-beta was similarly expressed in these tissues, suggesting that TNF-beta may be cell membrane bound. These data demonstrate that TNF-beta is present at low levels within the intrauterine environment and may suggest that TNF-beta is specifically inhibited at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:9185077

  7. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin {beta}E subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Osamu . E-mail: ohashim@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-03-10

    Activins, TGF-{beta} superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin {beta} subunit genes, {beta}C and {beta}E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin {beta}E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells.

  8. Cytosine methylation of an ancient satellite family in the wild beet Beta procumbens.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin; Hense, Sarah; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas; Zakrzewski, Falk

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic feature for the regulation and maintenance of heterochromatin. Satellite DNA is a repetitive sequence component that often occurs in large arrays in heterochromatin of subtelomeric, intercalary and centromeric regions. Knowledge about the methylation status of satellite DNA is important for understanding the role of repetitive DNA in heterochromatization. In this study, we investigated the cytosine methylation of the ancient satellite family pEV in the wild beet Beta procumbens. The pEV satellite is widespread in species-specific pEV subfamilies in the genus Beta and most likely originated before the radiation of the Betoideae and Chenopodioideae. In B. procumbens, the pEV subfamily occurs abundantly and spans intercalary and centromeric regions. To uncover its cytosine methylation, we performed chromosome-wide immunostaining and bisulfite sequencing of pEV satellite repeats. We found that CG and CHG sites are highly methylated while CHH sites show only low levels of methylation. As a consequence of the low frequency of CG and CHG sites and the preferential occurrence of most cytosines in the CHH motif in pEV monomers, this satellite family displays only low levels of total cytosine methylation. PMID:24994030

  9. Beta-receptor-mediated increase in venous return in humans.

    PubMed

    Leenen, F H; Reeves, R A

    1987-08-01

    To assess the involvement of beta 1- and beta 2-receptors in the regulation of venous return in humans, changes in left ventricular end-diastolic (LVED) dimension were determined during beta-receptor stimulation either by exogenous catecholamines or by increased endogenous sympathetic activity after hydralazine, after placebo and during nonselective versus beta 1-selective blockade. Taking changes in heart rate and LV emptying into account, the three beta-agonists (isoproterenol, terbutaline, and epinephrine) as well as hydralazine increased venous return as inferred from LVED dimension. After hydralazine, nonselective and beta 1-selective blockade were equally effective in blunting the increases in venous return, in heart rate, and in positive inotropic response. Beta 1-Selective blockade did not affect the increase in heart rate caused by epinephrine and partially inhibited the positive inotropic effect and the increase in venous return. Nonselective blockade not only blocked the increase in venous return owing to epinephrine but actually led to a decrease, as evidenced by a decrease in LVED dimension despite the marked bradycardia and high afterload with this combination. The present findings in healthy humans indicate that stimulation of both beta 1- and beta 2-receptors increases venous return, heart rate, and myocardial contractility. Beta 1-Receptors appear to predominate in the response to neuronal sympathetic activity. PMID:2825941

  10. Human Fucci Pancreatic Beta Cell Lines: New Tools to Study Beta Cell Cycle and Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, Géraldine; Maugein, Alicia; Cordier, Corinne; Pechberty, Séverine; Garfa-Traoré, Meriem; Martin, Patrick; Scharfmann, Raphaël; Albagli, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell cycle in beta cells is poorly understood, especially in humans. We exploited here the recently described human pancreatic beta cell line EndoC-βH2 to set up experimental systems for cell cycle studies. We derived 2 populations from EndoC-βH2 cells that stably harbor the 2 genes encoding the Fucci fluorescent indicators of cell cycle, either from two vectors, or from a unique bicistronic vector. In proliferating non-synchronized cells, the 2 Fucci indicators revealed cells in the expected phases of cell cycle, with orange and green cells being in G1 and S/G2/M cells, respectively, and allowed the sorting of cells in different substeps of G1. The Fucci indicators also faithfully red out alterations in human beta cell proliferative activity since a mitogen-rich medium decreased the proportion of orange cells and inflated the green population, while reciprocal changes were observed when cells were induced to cease proliferation and increased expression of some beta cell genes. In the last situation, acquisition of a more differentiated beta cell phenotype correlates with an increased intensity in orange fluorescence. Hence Fucci beta cell lines provide new tools to address important questions regarding human beta cell cycle and differentiation. PMID:25259951

  11. Closing in on Mass Production of Mature Human Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocols based on mimicking developmental pathways are getting close to generating fully fledged pancreatic endocrine cells, including insulin-producing beta cells. However, challenges remain in identifying pathways to trigger the attainment of robust glucose responsiveness that occurs postnatally in beta cells. PMID:27257758

  12. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 1. The primary structure of the beta 1 beta 1 isoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Hempel, J; Bühler, R; Kaiser, R; Holmquist, B; de Zalenski, C; von Wartburg, J P; Vallee, B; Jörnvall, H

    1984-12-17

    Determination of the amino acid sequence of the beta 1 subunit from the class I (pyrazole-sensitive) human liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme beta 1 beta 1 revealed a 373-residue structure differing at 48 positions (including a gap) from that of the subunit of the well studied horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase EE isoenzyme. The structure deduced is compatible with known differences in composition, ultraviolet absorbance, electrophoretic mobility and catalytic properties between the horse and human enzymes. All zinc-liganding residues of the horse E subunit are strictly conserved in the human beta 1 subunit, despite an earlier report of a mutation involving Cys-46. This residue therefore remains conserved in all known alcohol dehydrogenase structures. However, the total cysteine content of the beta 1 structure is raised from 14 in the subunit of the horse enzyme to 15 by a Tyr----Cys exchange. Most exchanges are on the surface of the molecule and of a well conserved nature. Substitutions close to the catalytic centre are of interest to explain the altered substrate specificity and different catalytic activity of the beta 1 homodimer. Functionally, a Ser----Thr exchange at position 48 appears to be of special importance, since Thr-48 in beta 1 instead of Ser-48 in the horse enzyme can restrict available space. Four other substitutions also line the active-site pocket, and appear to constitute partly compensated exchanges. PMID:6391920

  13. Autoradiographic localization of beta-adrenoceptors in asthmatic human lung

    SciTech Connect

    Spina, D.; Rigby, P.J.; Paterson, J.W.; Goldie, R.G. )

    1989-11-01

    The autoradiographic distribution and density of beta-adrenoceptors in human non-diseased and asthmatic bronchi were investigated using (125I)iodocyanopindolol (I-CYP). Analysis of the effects of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on I-CYP binding demonstrated that betaxolol (20 nM, beta 1-selective) had no significant effect on specific grain density in either nonasthmatic or asthmatic human bronchus, whereas ICI-118551 (20 nM, beta 2-selective) inhibited I-CYP binding by 85 +/- 9% and 89 +/- 3%, respectively. Thus, homogeneous populations of beta 2-adrenoceptors existed in bronchi from both sources. Large populations of beta-adrenoceptors were localized to the bronchial epithelium, submucosal glands, and airway smooth muscle. Asthmatic bronchial tissue featured epithelial damage with exfoliated cells associated with luminal mucus plugs. A thickened basement membrane and airway smooth muscle hyperplasia were also evident. High levels of specific I-CYP binding were also detected over asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle, as assessed by autoradiography and quantitation of specific grain densities. Isoproterenol and fenoterol were 10- and 13-fold less potent, respectively, in bronchi from asthmatic lung than in those from nonasthmatic lung. However, this attenuated responsiveness to beta-adrenoceptor agonists was not caused by reduced beta-adrenoceptor density in asthmatic airways. A defect may exist in the coupling between beta-adrenoceptors and postreceptor mechanisms in severely asthmatic lung.

  14. Diversity of a Complex Centromeric Satellite and Molecular Characterization of Dispersed Sequence Families in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Gerhard; Dechyeva, Daryna; Wenke, Torsten; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The aim of this work was the identification and molecular characterization of novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) repetitive sequences to unravel the impact of repetitive DNA on size and evolution of Beta genomes via amplification and diversification. Methods Genomic DNA and a pool of B. vulgaris repetitive sequences were separately used as probes for a screening of high-density filters from a B. vulgaris plasmid library. Novel repetitive motifs were identified by sequencing and further used as probes for Southern analyses in the genus Beta. Chromosomal localization of the repeats was analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomes of B. vulgaris and two other species of the section Beta. Key Results Two dispersed repetitive families pDvul1 and pDvul2 and the tandemly arranged repeat family pRv1 were isolated from a sugar beet plasmid library. The dispersed repetitive families pDvul1 and pDvul2 were identified in all four sections of the genus Beta. The members of the pDvul1 and pDvul2 family are scattered over all B. vulgaris chromosomes, although amplified to a different extent. The pRv1 satellite repeat is exclusively present in species of the section Beta. The centromeric satellite pBV1 by structural variations of the monomer and interspersion of pRv1 units forms complex satellite structures, which are amplified in different degrees on the centromeres of 12 chromosomes of the three species of the Beta section. Conclusions The complexity of the pBV1 satellite family observed in the section Beta of the genus Beta and, in particular, the strong amplification of the pBV1/pRv1 satellite in the domesticated B. vulgaris indicates the dynamics of centromeric satellite evolution during species radiation within the genus. The dispersed repeat families pDvul1 and pDvul2 might represent derivatives of transposable elements. PMID:18682437

  15. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for human. beta. -casein

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.; Bergstroem, S.; Andersson, Y.; Hialmarsson, K.; Sundgyist, A.; Hernell, O. )

    1990-02-26

    Human {beta}-casein is a major protein in human milk. This protein is part of the casein micelle and has been suggested to have several physiological functions in the newborn. Since there is limited information on {beta}casein and the factors that affect its concentration in human milk, the authors have isolated and sequenced the gene for this protein. A human mammary gland cDNA library (Clontech) in gt 11 was screened by plaque hy-hybridization using a 42-mer synthetic {sup 32}p-labelled oligo-nucleotide. Positive clones were identified and isolated, DNA was prepared and the gene isolated by cleavage with EcoR1. Following subcloning (PUC18), restriction mapping and Southern blotting, DNA for sequencing was prepared. The gene was sequenced by the dideoxy method. Human {beta}-casein has 212 amino acids and the amino acid sequence deducted from the nucleotide sequence is to 91% identical to the published sequence for human {beta}-casein show a high degree of conservation at the leader peptide and the highly phosphorylated sequences, but also deletions and divergence at several positions. These results provide insight into the structure of the human {beta}-casein gene and will facilitate studies on factors affecting its expression.

  16. Transforming growth factor-beta and transforming growth factor beta-receptor expression in human meningioma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. D.; Federspiel, C. F.; Gold, L. I.; Moses, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) family in mammals includes three closely related peptides that influence proliferation and numerous physiologic processes in most mesenchymal cells. In this study, Northern blots, immunohistochemistry, TGF beta radioreceptor assays, TGF beta receptor affinity labeling and [3H] thymidine incorporation were used to evaluate whether primary cell cultures of human meningiomas synthesize the three TGF beta isoforms, bear TGF beta receptors, and respond to TGF beta. Transcripts for TGF beta 1 and 2 were detected in the three cases analyzed. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 immunoreactivity was detected in three of six cases, and TGF beta 2 and 3 immunoreactivity were detected in each case analyzed. Media conditioned by cells cultured from six meningiomas also contained latent TGF beta-like activity. Transforming growth factor-beta receptor cross-linking studies identified TGF beta binding sites corresponding to the type 1, type 2, and type 3 receptors on meningioma cells. Treatment with active TGF beta 1 produced a statistically significant reduction in [3H] thymidine incorporation after stimulation with 10% fetal calf serum and epidermal growth factor in all six cases studied. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1325741

  17. Human B-cell TNF-beta microheterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, D; Kofler, G; Tschachler, E

    1992-02-01

    The production of TNF-alpha and TNF-beta by human B-cell lines was studied at both the molecular and biological levels. The 24 B-cell lines studied included EBV+ cell lines (n = 13), EBV- cell lines (n = 8), and AIDS-associated B-cell lines (AABCL) (n = 3) which are EBV+/HIV-. Whereas radioimmunoprecipitation using TNF-alpha antisera detected 17-kDa TNF-alpha as expected, similar studies with anti-TNF-beta antisera revealed TNF-beta microheterogeneity. In the AABCL three bands with approximate MW of 26, 24, and 22 kDa were detected under reducing conditions, and in the non-AABCL, two bands only with 26 and 22 kDa were observed. To determine whether the size heterogeneity of TNF-beta is due to glycosylation, TNF-beta deglycosylation studies were done in two AABCL (PA682BM-2, PA682PE-1) and one non-AABCL (IM-1178). As control, the normal lymphoblastoid B-cell line RPMI-1788, which is known to secrete TNF-beta with MW 25 and 20 kDa, has been used. Deglycosylation studies using N-glycanase + neuraminidase + O-glycanase reduced the various bands in all cell lines to one band with 18.6 kDa, which is compatible with the TNF-beta backbone. In attempt to determine whether the differential glycosylation of TNF has any functional significance, all 24 cell lines were studied for TNF secretion and for TNF neutralization by monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antibodies to TNF-alpha and TNF-beta. Constitutive secretion of TNF-alpha and TNF-beta has been detected only in the three AABCL. Following activation with the tumor promoter teleocidin, the secretion of both TNFs has been triggered in 2/8 EBV- cell lines and in 8/13 EBV+ non-AABCL. Using rabbit polyclonal antibodies to human TNF-alpha and to human TNF-beta, only little if any neutralization of these TNFs has been shown. Our data suggest that the differences in glycosylation of B-cell-derived TNFs may account for the incomplete neutralization, and may influence the cytotoxic biological activity of this lymphokine. PMID

  18. Human satellite cells have regenerative capacity and are genetically manipulable

    PubMed Central

    Marg, Andreas; Escobar, Helena; Gloy, Sina; Kufeld, Markus; Zacher, Joseph; Spuler, Andreas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Spuler, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells promote regeneration and could potentially improve gene delivery for treating muscular dystrophies. Human satellite cells are scarce; therefore, clinical investigation has been limited. We obtained muscle fiber fragments from skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from adult donors aged 20 to 80 years. Fiber fragments were manually dissected, cultured, and evaluated for expression of myogenesis regulator PAX7. PAX7+ satellite cells were activated and proliferated efficiently in culture. Independent of donor age, as few as 2 to 4 PAX7+ satellite cells gave rise to several thousand myoblasts. Transplantation of human muscle fiber fragments into irradiated muscle of immunodeficient mice resulted in robust engraftment, muscle regeneration, and proper homing of human PAX7+ satellite cells to the stem cell niche. Further, we determined that subjecting the human muscle fiber fragments to hypothermic treatment successfully enriches the cultures for PAX7+ cells and improves the efficacy of the transplantation and muscle regeneration. Finally, we successfully altered gene expression in cultured human PAX7+ satellite cells with Sleeping Beauty transposon–mediated nonviral gene transfer, highlighting the potential of this system for use in gene therapy. Together, these results demonstrate the ability to culture and manipulate a rare population of human tissue-specific stem cells and suggest that these PAX7+ satellite cells have potential to restore gene function in muscular dystrophies. PMID:25157816

  19. The p38alpha/beta MAPK functions as a molecular switch to activate the quiescent satellite cell.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathan C; Tyner, Kristina J; Nibarger, Lisa; Stanley, Heather M; Cornelison, Dawn D W; Fedorov, Yuri V; Olwin, Bradley B

    2005-04-11

    Somatic stem cells cycle slowly or remain quiescent until required for tissue repair and maintenance. Upon muscle injury, stem cells that lie between the muscle fiber and basal lamina (satellite cells) are activated, proliferate, and eventually differentiate to repair the damaged muscle. Satellite cells in healthy muscle are quiescent, do not express MyoD family transcription factors or cell cycle regulatory genes and are insulated from the surrounding environment. Here, we report that the p38alpha/beta family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) reversibly regulates the quiescent state of the skeletal muscle satellite cell. Inhibition of p38alpha/beta MAPKs (a) promotes exit from the cell cycle, (b) prevents differentiation, and (c) insulates the cell from most external stimuli allowing the satellite cell to maintain a quiescent state. Activation of satellite cells and p38alpha/beta MAPKs occurs concomitantly, providing further support that these MAPKs function as a molecular switch for satellite cell activation. PMID:15824134

  20. Biotinylated human. beta. -endorphins as probes for the opioid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hochhaus, G.; Gibson, B.W.; Sadee, W.

    1988-01-05

    The reaction of human ..beta..-endorphin and biotinyl N-hydroxysuccinimide with or without spacer arm, afforded a series of products that were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry of the biotinylated products and their tryptic digests produced abundant protonated molecular ions (MH/sup +/), which specified the number and location of biotinylation. Between 1 and 4 biotinyl residues were incorporated per human ..beta..-endorphin molecule, at Lys-9, -19, -24, -28, and -29, but not at the amino-terminal Try-1. Three HPLC fractions were isolated for receptor binding studies monobiotinylation of Lys-9, Lys-19, and a mixture of Lys-24, Lys-28, and Lys-29 derivatives. IC/sub 50/ values for binding to ..mu.. and delta opioid receptor sites were 3-8 times higher for monobiotinylated derivatives than for the parent human ..beta..-endorphin. Association with avidin decreased opioid receptor affinities for the C/sub 6/ spacer derivative biotinylated at position Lys-9, which is close to the (1-5) enkephalin receptor region. In contrast, avidin did not affect or even increased apparent affinities to ..mu.. and delta sites for derivatives biotinylated at the ..cap alpha..-helical part of the molecule (Lys-19, -24, -28, and -29). Biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphins also bound to low affinity nonopioid binding sites on NG-108-15 cells; however, affinities to these sites were considerably reduced when derivatives were bound to avidin. The ability of biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphin to cross-link the ..mu.. and delta opioid receptors to avidin allows application of the biotin-avidin system as a molecular probe of the opioid receptor.

  1. Sulindac suppresses beta-catenin expression in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Anjia; Song, Zibo; Tong, Chang; Hu, Dong; Bi, Xiuli; Augenlicht, Leonard H; Yang, Wancai

    2008-03-31

    Sulindac has been reported to be effective in suppressing tumor growth through the induction of p21WAF1/cip1 in human, animal models of colon cancer and colon cancer cells. In this study, we treated human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and lung cancer cell line A549 as well as colon cancer cell line SW620 with sulindac to observe the effects of sulindac in other tissue sites. In all cell lines, proliferation was significantly inhibited by sulindac after 24 and 72 h of treatment. Apoptosis was induced by sulindac in both lung cancer cells and colon cancer cells but was not induced in breast cancer cells. Western blots showed that p21 protein level were induced by sulindac in lung cancer cells and colon cancer cells, but not in breast cancer cells. However, the suppression of beta-catenin, a key mediator of Wnt signaling pathway, was seen in all three cell lines with sulindac administration. Further studies revealed that transcriptional activities of beta-catenin were significantly inhibited by sulindac and that the inhibition was sulindac dosage-dependent. The transcriptional targets of beta-catenin, c-myc, cyclin D1 and cdk 4 were also dramatically downregulated. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that the efficacy of sulindac in the inhibition of cell proliferation (rather than the induction of apoptosis) might be through the suppression of beta-catenin pathway in human cancer cells. PMID:18291362

  2. Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease in India is caused by association of a DNA Beta satellite with a begomovirus.

    PubMed

    Jose, Joyce; Usha, Ramakrishnan

    2003-01-20

    Yellow vein mosaic disease is the major limitation in the production of bhendi or okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), an important vegetable crop of India. This disease is caused by a complex consisting of the monopartite begomovirus Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV, family: Geminiviridae) and a small satellite DNA beta component. BYVMV can systemically infect bhendi upon agroinoculation but produces only mild leaf curling in this host. DNA beta induces typical symptoms of bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease (BYVMD) when co-agroinoculated with the begomovirus to bhendi. The DNA beta component associated with BYVMD has a number of features in common with those reported for ageratum yellow vein disease and cotton leaf curl disease. BYVMV represents a new member of the emerging group of monopartite begomoviruses requiring a satellite component for symptom induction. PMID:12573576

  3. Transforming growth factor beta 1 and beta 2 induce down-modulation of thrombomodulin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ohji, T; Urano, H; Shirahata, A; Yamagishi, M; Higashi, K; Gotoh, S; Karasaki, Y

    1995-05-01

    To investigate the effects of transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) on endothelial anticoagulant activity, we assayed thrombomodulin (TM) activity and antigen levels of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) incubated with TGF-betas in vitro. TGF-beta 1 suppressed surface TM activity and surface TM antigen levels maximally 12 h after incubation in dose-dependent manners. TGF-beta 2 was almost equipotent with TGF-beta 1 for the suppression of them. Both TGF-betas suppressed total TM antigen level in HUVECs, and the time course of the suppression was similar to that of the cell surface TM antigen level. The maximal reductions of TM mRNA levels by TGF-betas were observed at several hours ahead of those observed in both surface and total TM antigens levels, suggesting that the TGF-beta-mediated suppression of TM antigen of HUVECs is primarily regulated at the TM mRNA level. Our present work suggests that the down-modulation of TM level induced by TGF-betas in HUVECs contributes in vivo to promoting the thrombogenesis either at the sites of injury of vessel walls, such as atherosclerotic lesions where TGF-beta 1 is released from platelets, smooth muscle cells and monocytes, or at neovascular walls in tumors secreting TGF-beta 2. PMID:7482408

  4. Specific binding of beta-endorphin to normal human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chenet, B.; Hollis, V. Jr.; Kang, Y.; Simpkins, C.

    1986-03-05

    Beta-endorphin (BE) exhibits peripheral functions which may not be mediated by interactions with receptors in the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated binding of BE to both opioid and non-opioid receptors on lymphocytes and monocytes. Abood has reported specific binding of /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine in erythrocytes. Using 5 x 10/sup -11/M /sup 125/I-beta-endorphin and 10/sup -5/M unlabeled BE, they have detected 50% specific binding to human erythrocytes. This finding is supported by results from immunoelectron microscopy using rabbit anti-BE antibody and biotinylated secondary antibody with avidin-biotin complexes horseradish peroxidase. Binding is clearly observed and is confined to only one side of the cells. Conclusions: (1) BE binding to human erythrocytes was demonstrated by radioreceptor assay and immunoelectron microscopy, and (2) BE binding sites exist on only one side of the cells.

  5. Asynchronous DNA replication within the human. beta. -globin gene locus

    SciTech Connect

    Epner, E.; Forrester, W.C.; Groudine, M. )

    1988-11-01

    The timing of DNA replication of the human {beta}-globin gene locus has been studied by blot hybridization of newly synthesized BrdUrd-substituted DNA from cells in different stages of the S phase. Using probes that span >120 kilobases across the human {beta}-globin gene locus, the authors show that the majority of this domain replicates in early S phase in the human erythroleukemia cell line K562 and in middle-to-late S phase in the lymphoid cell line Manca. However, in K562 cells three small regions display a strikingly different replication pattern than adjacent sequences. These islands, located in the inter-{gamma}-globin gene region and approximately 20 kilobases 5' to the {epsilon}-globin gene and 20 kilobases 3' to the {beta}-globin gene, replicate later and throughout S phase. A similar area is also present in the {alpha}-globin gene region in K562 cells. They suggest that these regions may represent sites of termination of replication forks.

  6. Enzymatic conversion of beta-carotene into beta-apo-carotenals and retinoids by human, monkey, ferret, and rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, X D; Tang, G W; Fox, J G; Krinsky, N I; Russell, R M

    1991-02-15

    Whether the conversion of beta-carotene into retinoids involves an enzymatic excentric cleavage mechanism was examined in vitro with homogenates prepared from human, monkey, ferret, and rat tissue. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, significant amounts of beta-apo-12'-, -10'-, and -8'-carotenals, retinal, and retinoic acid were found after incubation of intestinal homogenates of the four different species with beta-carotene in the presence of NAD+ and dithiothreitol. No beta-apo-carotenals or retinoids were detected in control incubations done without tissue homogenates. The production of beta-apo-carotenals was linear for 30 min and up to tissue protein concentrations of 1.5 mg/ml. The rate of formation of beta-apo-carotenals from 2 microM beta-carotene was about 7- to 14-fold higher than the rate of retinoid formation in intestinal homogenates, and the rate of beta-apo-carotenal production was fivefold greater in primate intestine vs rat or ferret intestine (P less than 0.05). The amounts of beta-apo-carotenals and retinoids formed were markedly reduced when NAD+ was replaced by NADH, or when dithiothreitol and cofactors were deleted from the incubation mixture. Both beta-apo-carotenal and retinoid production from beta-carotene were inhibited completely by adding disulfiram, an inhibitor of sulfhydryl-containing enzymes. Incubation of beta-carotene with liver, kidney, lung, and fat homogenates from each species also resulted in the appearance of beta-apo-carotenals and retinoids. The identification of three unknown compounds which might be excentric cleavage products is ongoing. These data support the existence of an excentric cleavage mechanism for beta-carotene conversion. PMID:1899329

  7. Divergence of satellite DNA and interspersion of dispersed repeats in the genome of the wild beet Beta procumbens.

    PubMed

    Dechyeva, Daryna; Gindullis, Frank; Schmidt, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Several repetitive sequences of the genome of Beta procumbens Chr. Sm., a wild beet species of the section Procumbentes of the genus Beta have been isolated. According to their genomic organization, the repeats were assigned to satellite DNA and families of dispersed DNA sequences. The tandem repeats are 229-246 bp long and belong to an AluI restriction satellite designated pAp11. Monomers of this satellite DNA form subfamilies which can be distinguished by the divergence or methylation of an internal restriction site. The satellite is amplified in the section Procumbentes, but is also found in species of the section Beta including cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris). The existence of the pAp11 satellite in distantly related species suggests that the AluI sequence family is an ancient component of Beta genomes and the ancestor of the diverged satellite subfamily pEV4 in B. vulgaris. Comparative fluorescent in-situ hybridization revealed remarkable differences in the chromosomal position between B. procumbens and B. vulgaris, indicating that the pAp11 and pEV4 satellites were most likely involved in the expansion or rearrangement of the intercalary B. vulgaris heterochromatin. Furthermore, we describe the molecular structure, and genomic and chromosomal organization of two repetitive DNA families which were designated pAp4 and pAp22 and are 1354 and 582 bp long, respectively. The families consist of sequence elements which are widely dispersed along B. procumbens chromosomes with local clustering and exclusion from distal euchromatic regions. FISH on meiotic chromosomes showed that both dispersed repeats are colocalized in some chromosomal regions. The interspersion of repeats of the pAp4 and pAp22 family was studied by PCR and enabled the determination of repeat flanking sequences. Sequence analysis revealed that pAp22 is either derived from or part of a long terminal repeat (LTR) of an Athila-like retrotransposon. Southern analysis and FISH with pAp4 and pAp22 showed

  8. Human pancreatic beta-like cells converted from fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Saiyong; Russ, Holger A.; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Mingliang; Ma, Tianhua; Xu, Tao; Tang, Shibing; Hebrok, Matthias; Ding, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cells are of great interest for biomedical research and regenerative medicine. Here we show the conversion of human fibroblasts towards an endodermal cell fate by employing non-integrative episomal reprogramming factors in combination with specific growth factors and chemical compounds. On initial culture, converted definitive endodermal progenitor cells (cDE cells) are specified into posterior foregut-like progenitor cells (cPF cells). The cPF cells and their derivatives, pancreatic endodermal progenitor cells (cPE cells), can be greatly expanded. A screening approach identified chemical compounds that promote the differentiation and maturation of cPE cells into functional pancreatic beta-like cells (cPB cells) in vitro. Transplanted cPB cells exhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo and protect mice from chemically induced diabetes. In summary, our study has important implications for future strategies aimed at generating high numbers of functional beta cells, which may help restoring normoglycemia in patients suffering from diabetes. PMID:26733021

  9. Human pancreatic beta-like cells converted from fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Saiyong; Russ, Holger A; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Mingliang; Ma, Tianhua; Xu, Tao; Tang, Shibing; Hebrok, Matthias; Ding, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cells are of great interest for biomedical research and regenerative medicine. Here we show the conversion of human fibroblasts towards an endodermal cell fate by employing non-integrative episomal reprogramming factors in combination with specific growth factors and chemical compounds. On initial culture, converted definitive endodermal progenitor cells (cDE cells) are specified into posterior foregut-like progenitor cells (cPF cells). The cPF cells and their derivatives, pancreatic endodermal progenitor cells (cPE cells), can be greatly expanded. A screening approach identified chemical compounds that promote the differentiation and maturation of cPE cells into functional pancreatic beta-like cells (cPB cells) in vitro. Transplanted cPB cells exhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo and protect mice from chemically induced diabetes. In summary, our study has important implications for future strategies aimed at generating high numbers of functional beta cells, which may help restoring normoglycemia in patients suffering from diabetes. PMID:26733021

  10. Induction of human pancreatic beta cell replication by inhibitors of dual specificity tyrosine regulated kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Alvarez-Perez, Juan-Carlos; Felsenfeld, Dan P.; Liu, Hongtao; Sivendran, Sharmila; Bender, Aaron; Kumar, Anil; Sanchez, Roberto; Scott, Donald K.; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Stewart, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Types 1 and 2 diabetes affect some 380 million people worldwide. Both result ultimately from a deficiency of functional pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Beta cells proliferate in humans during a brief temporal window beginning around the time of birth, with peak beta cell labeling indices achieving approximately 2% in first year of life1-4. In embryonic life and after early childhood, beta cell replication rates are very low. While beta cell expansion seems an obvious therapeutic approach to beta cell deficiency, adult human beta cells have proven recalcitrant to such efforts1-8. Hence, there remains an urgent need for diabetes therapeutic agents that can induce regeneration and expansion of adult human beta cells in vivo or ex vivo. Here, we report the results of a high-throughput small molecule screen (HTS) revealing a novel class of human beta cell mitogenic compounds, analogues of the small molecule, harmine. We also define dual specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) as the likely target of harmine, and the Nuclear Factors of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors as likely mediators of human beta cell proliferation as well as beta cell differentiation. These observations suggest that harmine analogues (“harmalogs”) may have unique therapeutic promise for human diabetes therapy. Enhancing potency and beta cell specificity are important future challenges. PMID:25751815

  11. Human-Centered Design for the Personal Satellite Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Gawdiak, Yuri; Thomas, Hans; Greaves, Mark; Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) is a softball-sized flying robot designed to operate autonomously onboard manned spacecraft in pressurized micro-gravity environments. We describe how the Brahms multi-agent modeling and simulation environment in conjunction with a KAoS agent teamwork approach can be used to support human-centered design for the PSA.

  12. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  13. Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Simona; Huerre, Michel; Riviere, Jean-Pierre; Coffey, Lark L.; Afonso, Philippe V.; Mouly, Vincent; de Monredon, Jean; Roger, Jean-Christophe; El Amrani, Mohamed; Yvin, Jean-Luc; Jaffar, Marie-Christine; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Sourisseau, Marion; Schwartz, Olivier; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Desprès, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. Since the cellular targets of CHIK virus in humans are unknown, we studied the pathogenic events and targets of CHIK infection in skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunohistology on muscle biopsies from two CHIK virus-infected patients with myositic syndrome showed that viral antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells), and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed virus infection on primary human muscle cells; viral growth was observed in CHIK virus-infected satellite cells with a cytopathic effect, whereas myotubes were essentially refractory to infection. Conclusions/Significance This report provides new insights into CHIK virus pathogenesis, since it is the first to identify a cellular target of CHIK virus in humans and to report a selective infection of muscle satellite cells by a viral agent in humans. PMID:17565380

  14. Neural mechanisms of transient neocortical beta rhythms: Converging evidence from humans, computational modeling, monkeys, and mice.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Maxwell A; Lee, Shane; Law, Robert; Haegens, Saskia; Thorn, Catherine A; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Moore, Christopher I; Jones, Stephanie R

    2016-08-16

    Human neocortical 15-29-Hz beta oscillations are strong predictors of perceptual and motor performance. However, the mechanistic origin of beta in vivo is unknown, hindering understanding of its functional role. Combining human magnetoencephalography (MEG), computational modeling, and laminar recordings in animals, we present a new theory that accounts for the origin of spontaneous neocortical beta. In our MEG data, spontaneous beta activity from somatosensory and frontal cortex emerged as noncontinuous beta events typically lasting <150 ms with a stereotypical waveform. Computational modeling uniquely designed to infer the electrical currents underlying these signals showed that beta events could emerge from the integration of nearly synchronous bursts of excitatory synaptic drive targeting proximal and distal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, where the defining feature of a beta event was a strong distal drive that lasted one beta period (∼50 ms). This beta mechanism rigorously accounted for the beta event profiles; several other mechanisms did not. The spatial location of synaptic drive in the model to supragranular and infragranular layers was critical to the emergence of beta events and led to the prediction that beta events should be associated with a specific laminar current profile. Laminar recordings in somatosensory neocortex from anesthetized mice and awake monkeys supported these predictions, suggesting this beta mechanism is conserved across species and recording modalities. These findings make several predictions about optimal states for perceptual and motor performance and guide causal interventions to modulate beta for optimal function. PMID:27469163

  15. Neural mechanisms of transient neocortical beta rhythms: Converging evidence from humans, computational modeling, monkeys, and mice

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Maxwell A.; Lee, Shane; Law, Robert; Haegens, Saskia; Thorn, Catherine A.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Moore, Christopher I.; Jones, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Human neocortical 15–29-Hz beta oscillations are strong predictors of perceptual and motor performance. However, the mechanistic origin of beta in vivo is unknown, hindering understanding of its functional role. Combining human magnetoencephalography (MEG), computational modeling, and laminar recordings in animals, we present a new theory that accounts for the origin of spontaneous neocortical beta. In our MEG data, spontaneous beta activity from somatosensory and frontal cortex emerged as noncontinuous beta events typically lasting <150 ms with a stereotypical waveform. Computational modeling uniquely designed to infer the electrical currents underlying these signals showed that beta events could emerge from the integration of nearly synchronous bursts of excitatory synaptic drive targeting proximal and distal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, where the defining feature of a beta event was a strong distal drive that lasted one beta period (∼50 ms). This beta mechanism rigorously accounted for the beta event profiles; several other mechanisms did not. The spatial location of synaptic drive in the model to supragranular and infragranular layers was critical to the emergence of beta events and led to the prediction that beta events should be associated with a specific laminar current profile. Laminar recordings in somatosensory neocortex from anesthetized mice and awake monkeys supported these predictions, suggesting this beta mechanism is conserved across species and recording modalities. These findings make several predictions about optimal states for perceptual and motor performance and guide causal interventions to modulate beta for optimal function. PMID:27469163

  16. The immunomodulatory activity of human amniotic fluid can be correlated with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and beta 2 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, A K; Searle, R F

    1994-01-01

    The role of alphafetoprotein (AFP) in the immunomodulatory activity of amniotic fluids (AF) from normally progressing human pregnancy (weeks 14-16) was investigated. A panel of 42 AF (25% v/v) reduced significantly phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in serum-free cultures with a mean per cent inhibition of 68.4 +/- 5.5%. In contrast, AFP preparations, with one exception (U.AFP), failed to display inhibitory activity. Pretreatment of AF with anti-TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 antibodies used alone resulted in the mean per cent loss of inhibition of 33.1 +/- 3.9% and 52.3 +/- 7.5%, respectively. A summative loss of AF-mediated inhibition was detected when anti-TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 antibodies were used in combination, but immunomodulation was rarely abolished 100% by this treatment. Anti-TGF-beta 2 antibody treatment, unlike anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody treatment, reversed the inhibitory activity of U.AFP. The amount of TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 contained in human AF was studied by growth inhibition of Mv1 Lu cells. The mean levels of TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 in AF were 11 +/- 0.9 U/ml and 2.3 +/- 0.4 U/ml, respectively, which corresponds with a mean per cent inhibition of 49 +/- 4.7%. U.AFP also significantly inhibited Mv1 Lu cell growth. To investigate the mechanism of AF-mediated inhibition, the effect of AF and AFP on IL-2 production by concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated PBMC blasts was determined by the CTLL-2 cell bioassay. IL-2 production was reduced 55.5% in AF-treated blasts and 61% in U.AFP-treated blasts compared with controls. Our findings indicate that the immunomodulatory activity of human AF can be correlated with TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 and not with AFP, the inhibitory activity of U.AFP preparation reflecting copurifying TGF-beta 2 activity. PMID:7518368

  17. A human factors approach to range scheduling for satellite control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Cameron H. G.; Aitken, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    Range scheduling for satellite control presents a classical problem: supervisory control of a large-scale dynamic system, with unwieldy amounts of interrelated data used as inputs to the decision process. Increased automation of the task, with the appropriate human-computer interface, is highly desirable. The development and user evaluation of a semi-automated network range scheduling system is described. The system incorporates a synergistic human-computer interface consisting of a large screen color display, voice input/output, a 'sonic pen' pointing device, a touchscreen color CRT, and a standard keyboard. From a human factors standpoint, this development represents the first major improvement in almost 30 years to the satellite control network scheduling task.

  18. Evidence for the presence of beta 3-adrenergic receptor mRNA in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Carillon, C; Coquerel, A; Le Fur, G; Ferrara, P; Caput, D; Shire, D

    1995-04-01

    The beta 3-adrenergic receptor (AR) is widely distributed in peripheral tissues, but up to now it has not been detected in the central nervous system. By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, we found the beta 3-AR mRNA to be present in all the regions of the human brain we investigated. The quantities found were very low compared to those of the beta 1-AR and beta 2-AR mRNAs, being hardly detectable in adult brain. In contrast, the brain of very young infants contained about 100 times more beta 3-AR mRNA than the adult brain, whereas the amounts of beta 1-AR and beta 2-AR transcripts were essentially the same. In addition, using PCR we have cloned a central beta 3-AR coding region from a human frontal cortex cDNA library and have found it to be identical to the corresponding peripheral sequence. PMID:7609625

  19. Proliferation and plasticity of human beta cells on physiologically occurring laminin isoforms.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Meenal; Virtanen, Ismo; Palgi, Jaan; Korsgren, Olle; Otonkoski, Timo

    2012-05-15

    We have previously characterized the molecular composition of human islet basement membranes and shown that human beta cells bind to laminin 511 (LM511) through integrin α3β1 and Lutheran glycoprotein. We have now investigated the impact of physical contact between cultured human beta cells and the laminin isoforms occurring in their natural niche. Human islet preparations derived from 15 donors were used, beta cells and duct cells were purified by magnetic sorting. Overall beta-cell proliferation was low or undetectable. However, in many experiments the only proliferating beta cells were detected in contact with the laminin isoforms that are found in the human islets in vivo (511 and 411). Purified ductal and beta cells underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). LM511 partially blocked this dedifferentiation of purified beta cells, and did not affect purified duct cells. Interactions with the surrounding basement membrane are important for the growth and function of human beta cells. However, only a very limited level of beta-cell proliferation can be induced by exogenous factors. LM511 may be a useful substrate for human beta-cell maintenance in vitro. PMID:22314207

  20. Beta 1,4-oligoglucosides inhibit the binding of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kan, V L; Bennett, J E

    1991-05-01

    The binding of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to human monocytes is mediated by a barley beta-glucan-inhibitable receptor. The simplest linkages in this glucan are present in the disaccharides laminaribiose (beta 1,3) and cellobiose (beta 1,4). Although laminaribiose gave strong inhibition of conidial binding to monocytes, cellobiose and oligosaccharides with beta 1,4-linked glucose residues were more potent as specific inhibitors of this binding over similar concentrations. Increasing the number of beta 1,4-linked glucose residues led to greater inhibition of conidial binding by human monocytes. PMID:2019764

  1. Cell-type, allelic, and genetic signatures in the human pancreatic beta cell transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Nica, Alexandra C; Ongen, Halit; Irminger, Jean-Claude; Bosco, Domenico; Berney, Thierry; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Halban, Philippe A; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T

    2013-09-01

    Elucidating the pathophysiology and molecular attributes of common disorders as well as developing targeted and effective treatments hinges on the study of the relevant cell type and tissues. Pancreatic beta cells within the islets of Langerhans are centrally involved in the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Describing the differentiated state of the human beta cell has been hampered so far by technical (low resolution microarrays) and biological limitations (whole islet preparations rather than isolated beta cells). We circumvent these by deep RNA sequencing of purified beta cells from 11 individuals, presenting here the first characterization of the human beta cell transcriptome. We perform the first comparison of gene expression profiles between beta cells, whole islets, and beta cell depleted islet preparations, revealing thus beta-cell-specific expression and splicing signatures. Further, we demonstrate that genes with consistent increased expression in beta cells have neuronal-like properties, a signal previously hypothesized. Finally, we find evidence for extensive allelic imbalance in expression and uncover genetic regulatory variants (eQTLs) active in beta cells. This first molecular blueprint of the human beta cell offers biological insight into its differentiated function, including expression of key genes associated with both major types of diabetes. PMID:23716500

  2. Human beta defensin-1 and -2 expression in human pilosebaceous units: upregulation in acne vulgaris lesions.

    PubMed

    Chronnell, C M; Ghali, L R; Ali, R S; Quinn, A G; Holland, D B; Bull, J J; Cunliffe, W J; McKay, I A; Philpott, M P; Müller-Röver, S

    2001-11-01

    A rich residential microflora is harboured by the distal outer root sheath of the hair follicle and the hair canal - normally without causing skin diseases. Although the basic mechanisms involved in the development of inflammation during acne vulgaris remain unclear, microbial agents might play an important role in this process. In this study we have analyzed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry the expression patterns of two antimicrobial peptides, human beta defensin-1 and human beta defensin-2, in healthy human hair follicles as well as in perilesional and intralesional skin of acne vulgaris lesions such as comedones, papules, and pustules. Strong defensin-1 and defensin-2 immunoreactivity was found in all suprabasal layers of the epidermis, the distal outer root sheath of the hair follicle, and the pilosebaceous duct. Marked defensin-1 and defensin-2 immunoreactivity was also found in the sebaceous gland and in the basal layer of the central outer root sheath including the bulge region. The majority of acne biopsies displayed a marked upregulation of defensin-2 immunoreactivity in the lesional and perilesional epithelium - in particular in pustules - and a less marked upregulation of defensin-1 immunoreactivity. The upregulation of beta-defensin expression in acne vulgaris lesions compared to controls suggests that beta-defensins may be involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. PMID:11710922

  3. Assignment of the {beta}-arrestin 1 gene (ARRB1) to human chromosome 11q13

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, G.; Morizio, E.; Palka, G.

    1994-11-01

    Two types of proteins play a major role in determining homologous desensitization of G-coupled receptors: {beta}-adrenergic receptor kinase ({beta}ARK), which phosphorylates the agonist-occupied receptor, and its functional cofactor, {beta}-arrestin. {beta}ARK is a member of a multigene family, consisting of six known subtypes, which have also been named G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK 1 to 6) due to the apparently unique functional association of such kinases with this receptor family. The gene for {beta}ARK1 has been localized to human chromosome 11q13. The four members of the arrestin/{beta}-arrestin gene family identified so far are arrestin, X-arrestin, {beta}-arrestin 1, and {beta}-arrestin 2. Here the authors report the chromosome mapping of the human gene for {beta}-arrestin 1 (ARRB1) to chromosome 11q13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two-color FISH confirmed that the two genes coding for the functionally related proteins {beta}ARK1 and {beta}arrestin 1 both map to 11q13. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax dysregulates beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Mariko; Kikuchi, Akira; Akiyama, Tetsu; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Mori, Naoki

    2006-11-01

    Dysregulation of beta-catenin signaling has been implicated in the malignant transformation of cells. However, the role of beta-catenin in the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced transformation of T cells is unknown. Here we found that beta-catenin protein was overexpressed in the nucleus and that beta-catenin-dependent transcription was significantly enhanced in Tax-positive HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines compared to that in Tax-negative HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. Transfection with beta-catenin-specific small interfering RNA inhibited the growth of the Tax-positive HTLV-1-infected T-cell line HUT-102. Transient transfection of Tax appeared to enhance beta-catenin-dependent transcription by stabilizing the beta-catenin protein via activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element-binding protein. HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines overexpressing beta-catenin also showed increased Akt activity via Tax activation of the cAMP response element-binding protein, resulting in the phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, which phosphorylates beta-catenin for ubiquitination. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 reduced beta-catenin expression in Tax-positive T-cell lines, and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta by lithium chloride restored beta-catenin expression in Tax-negative T-cell lines. Finally, we showed that dominant-negative Akt inhibited Tax-induced beta-catenin-dependent transcription. These results indicate that Tax activates beta-catenin through the Akt signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that activation of beta-catenin by Tax may be important in the transformation of T cells by HTLV-1 infection. PMID:16920823

  5. Endotoxin enhances EEG alpha and beta power in human sleep.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, L; Schreiber, W; Holsboer, F; Pollmächer, T

    1994-03-01

    Endotoxin, a lipopolysaccharide (0.4 or 0.8 ng/kg body weight), was injected at 1900 hours in 17 healthy men in a single-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. The administration was followed by a 4-hour period of quiet wakefulness in bed (light intensity < 200 lux). Unlimited sleep was allowed after 2300 hours (lights off) until the next morning. The electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram, electrooculogram, electrocardiogram and rectal temperature were recorded throughout the experimental session. Standard sleep stages were assessed, and the EEG was submitted to a state-specific, serial spectral analysis. Endotoxin administration induced a rise of body temperature and heart rate, which started approximately 2 hours after the injection and persisted through most of the sleep period. Sleep latency remained unchanged, whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency increased from 60.3 to 89.0 minutes (paired t test; p = 0.06) compared to control values. Stage 2 sleep was elevated from 45.5 to 49.0% of time in bed (p < 0.05), and total nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep from 64.2 to 69.1% (p < 0.05). No significant change could be observed in slow-wave sleep (SWS, stages 3 and 4). During the first 4 hours of the sleep period, NREM sleep EEG spectral power was distinctly and markedly increased between 8 and 12 Hz (alpha) and 15 and 20 Hz (beta) (p < 0.05), whereas at the same time EEG power between 1 and 8 Hz (delta, theta) was not significantly changed. We conclude that in humans the primary host response induced by endotoxin initially suppresses REM sleep and increases stage 2 NREM sleep, but does not affect SWS. No clear modification of sleep EEG delta activity could be observed after endotoxin injection, despite marked endocrinological and physiological changes such as the elevation of body temperature. Numerous factors related to the human primary host response may be responsible for the EEG intensification of the alpha and beta range. PMID:8036367

  6. Chromosome mapping of the human arrestin (SAG), {beta}-arrestin 2 (ARRB2), and {beta}-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (ADRBK2) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, G.; Sallese, M.; Stornaiuolo, A.

    1994-09-01

    Two types of proteins play a major role in determining homologous desensitization of G-coupled receptors: {beta}-adrenergic receptor kinase ({beta}ARK), which phosphorylates the agonist-occupied receptor and its functional cofactor, {beta}-arrestin. Both {beta}ARK and {beta}-arrestin are members of multigene families. The family of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases includes rhodopsin kinase, {beta}ARK1, {beta}ARK2, IT11-A (GRK4), GRK5, and GRK6. The arrestin/{beta}-arrestin gene family includes arrestin (also known as S-antigen), {beta}-arrestin 1, and {beta}-arrestin 2. Here we report the chromosome mapping of the human genes for arrestin (SAG), {beta}arrestin 2 (ARRB2), and {beta}ARK2 (ADRBK2) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH results confirmed the assignment of the gene coding for arrestin (SAG) to chromosome 2 and allowed us to refine its localization to band q37. The gene coding for {beta}-arrestin 2 (ARRB2) was mapped to chromosome 17p13 and that coding for {beta}ARK2 (ADRBK2) to chromosome 22q11. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Binding of radioiodinated human. beta. -endorphin to serum proteins from rats and humans, determined by several methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1985-10-07

    Binding of immunoreactive radioiodinated human ..beta..-endorphin (/sup 125/I-..beta..-EP) to rat serum was demonstrated by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in pooled rat serum on Sephadex G-200. Two radioactive peaks associated with proteins eluted from the column. The first peak eluted at the void volume containing lipoproteins, ..cap alpha../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 2/-macroglobulins, and the second peak at the fraction of albumin. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP to albumin was directly proved by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin on Sephadex G-200. Equilibrium dialysis was not applicable to investigating the interaction of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP with serum proteins, because of the intense nonspecific adsorption to the semi-permeable membrane and the degradation of the peptide during dialysis. Therefore, in order to quantitatively evaluate the binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in sera from rats and humans, the authors utilized four other methods (ultrafiltration, charcoal adsorption, polyethylene glycol precipitation and equilibrium gel filtration). These methods corresponded well with each other and indicated 35-44% binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in rat serum. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in normal human serum was 36%, determined by ultrafiltration. Serum protein binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP was concentration independent over the concentration range studied (1-1000 nM). 23 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  8. Nonsense mutations in the human. beta. -globin gene affect mRNA metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Baserga, S.J.; Benz, E.J. Jr. )

    1988-04-01

    A number of premature translation termination mutations (nonsense mutations) have been described in the human {alpha}- and {beta}-globin genes. Studies on mRNA isolated from patients with {beta}{sup 0}-thalassemia have shown that for both the {beta}-17 and the {beta}-39 mutations less than normal levels of {beta}-globin mRNA accumulate in peripheral blood cells. (The codon at which the mutation occurs designates the name of the mutation; there are 146 codons in human {beta}-globin mRNA). In vitro studies using the cloned {beta}-39 gene have reproduced this effect in a heterologous transfection system and have suggested that the defect resides in intranuclear metabolism. The authors have asked if this phenomenon of decreased mRNA accumulation is a general property of nonsense mutations and if the effect depends on the location or the type of mutation. Toward this end, they have studied the effect of five nonsense mutations and two missense mutations on the expression of human {beta}-globin mRNA in a heterologous transfection system. In all cases studied, the presence of a translation termination codon correlates with a decrease in the steady-state level of mRNA. The data suggest that the metabolism of a mammalian mRNA is affected by the presence of a mutation that affects translation.

  9. Hyperhomocysteinemia inhibits satellite cell regenerative capacity through p38 alpha/beta MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sudhakar; Lominadze, David; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-07-15

    Chronic failure in maintenance and regeneration of skeletal muscles leads to lower muscle mass (sarcopenia), muscle weakness, and poor response to injury. Evidence suggests that aberrant p38 MAPK signaling undermines the repair process after injury in aged mice. Previous studies have shown that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been associated with muscle weakness and lower than normal body weights. However, whether or not HHcy condition also compromises skeletal muscle regenerative capabilities is not clear. In the current study, we show that CBS-/+ mice, a model for HHcy condition, exhibited compromised regenerative function and cell proliferation upon injury. However, there was no significant difference in Pax7 expression levels in the satellite cells from CBS-/+ mouse skeletal muscles. Interestingly, the satellite cells from CBS-/+ mice not only exhibited diminished in vitro proliferative capabilities, but also there was heightened oxidative stress. In addition, there was enhanced p38 MAPK activation as well as p16 and p21 expression in the CBS-/+ mouse satellite cells. Moreover, the C2C12 myoblasts also exhibited higher p38 MAPK activation and p16 expression upon treatment with homocysteine in addition to enhanced ROS presence. Tissue engraftment potential and regeneration after injury were restored to some extent upon treatment with the p38-MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, in the CBS-/+ mice. These results together suggest that HHcy-induced diminished satellite cell proliferation involves excessive oxidative stress and p38 MAPK signaling. Our study further proposes that HHcy is a potential risk factor for elderly frailty, and need to be considered as a therapeutic target while designing the alleviation interventions/postinjury rehabilitation measures for adults with HHcy. PMID:25980021

  10. Expression of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta in Muscle Satellite Cells Inhibits Myogenesis in Cancer Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Marchildon, François; Lamarche, Émilie; Lala-Tabbert, Neena; St-Louis, Catherine; Wiper-Bergeron, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that causes profound weight loss and muscle mass atrophy and is estimated to be the cause of up to 30% of cancer deaths. Though the exact cause is unknown, patients with cancer cachexia have increased muscle protein catabolism. In healthy muscle, injury activates skeletal muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, to differentiate and promote regeneration. Here, we provide evidence that this mechanism is inhibited in cancer cachexia due to persistent expression of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein beta (C/EBPβ) in muscle myoblasts. C/EBPβ is a bzip transcription factor that is expressed in muscle satellite cells and is normally downregulated upon differentiation. However, in myoblasts exposed to a cachectic milieu, C/EBPβ expression remains elevated, despite activation to differentiate, resulting in the inhibition of myogenin expression and myogenesis. In vivo, cancer cachexia results in increased number of Pax7+ cells that also express C/EBPβ and the inhibition of normal repair mechanisms. Loss of C/EBPβ expression in primary myoblasts rescues differentiation under cachectic conditions without restoring myotube size, indicating that C/EBPβ is an important inhibitor of myogenesis in cancer cachexia. PMID:26709824

  11. Linkage disequilibrium between the beta frequency of the human EEG and a GABAA receptor gene locus

    PubMed Central

    Porjesz, Bernice; Almasy, Laura; Edenberg, Howard J.; Wang, Kongming; Chorlian, David B.; Foroud, Tatiana; Goate, Alison; Rice, John P.; O'Connor, Sean J.; Rohrbaugh, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bauer, Lance O.; Crowe, Raymond R.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Conneally, P. Michael; Tischfield, Jay A.; Li, Ting-Kai; Reich, Theodore; Begleiter, Henri

    2002-01-01

    Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. A common feature of beta oscillations (13–28 Hz) is the critical involvement of networks of inhibitory interneurons as pacemakers, gated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) action. Advances in molecular and statistical genetics permit examination of quantitative traits such as the beta frequency of the human electroencephalogram in conjunction with DNA markers. We report a significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium between beta frequency and a set of GABAA receptor genes. Uncovering the genes influencing brain oscillations provides a better understanding of the neural function involved in information processing. PMID:11891318

  12. Analysis of a c0t-1 library enables the targeted identification of minisatellite and satellite families in Beta vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Repetitive DNA is a major fraction of eukaryotic genomes and occurs particularly often in plants. Currently, the sequencing of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) genome is under way and knowledge of repetitive DNA sequences is critical for the genome annotation. We generated a c0t-1 library, representing highly to moderately repetitive sequences, for the characterization of the major B. vulgaris repeat families. While highly abundant satellites are well-described, minisatellites are only poorly investigated in plants. Therefore, we focused on the identification and characterization of these tandemly repeated sequences. Results Analysis of 1763 c0t-1 DNA fragments, providing 442 kb sequence data, shows that the satellites pBV and pEV are the most abundant repeat families in the B. vulgaris genome while other previously described repeats show lower copy numbers. We isolated 517 novel repetitive sequences and used this fraction for the identification of minisatellite and novel satellite families. Bioinformatic analysis and Southern hybridization revealed that minisatellites are moderately to highly amplified in B. vulgaris. FISH showed a dispersed localization along most chromosomes clustering in arrays of variable size and number with exclusion and depletion in distinct regions. Conclusion The c0t-1 library represents major repeat families of the B. vulgaris genome, and analysis of the c0t-1 DNA was proven to be an efficient method for identification of minisatellites. We established, so far, the broadest analysis of minisatellites in plants and observed their chromosomal localization providing a background for the annotation of the sugar beet genome and for the understanding of the evolution of minisatellites in plant genomes. PMID:20064260

  13. Satellite nighttime lights reveal increasing human exposure to floods worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Laio, Francesco; Montanari, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    River floods are the first cause of human fatalities and economic losses among natural disasters. Floods claim thousands of lives every year, but effective and high-resolution methods to provide a spatially and temporally detailed analysis of the human exposure to floods at the global scale are still lacking. To this aim, we use satellite nightlight data to prove that nocturnal lights close to rivers are consistently related to flood damages. First, we analyse the temporal evolution of nightlights along the river network all over the world from 1992 to 2012 and obtain a global map of nightlight trends, which we associate with increasing human exposure to floods, at 1 km2 resolution. Then, we correlate global data of economic losses caused by flooding events with nighttime lights and find that increasing nightlights are associated to flood damage intensification. Our results show an enhancement of exposure to floods worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia. Therefore our analysis argues for the development of valuable flood preparedness and mitigation strategies, also associated to the projected effects of climate change on flood-related losses.

  14. Retinyl. beta. -glucoronide: its occurrence in human serum, chemical synthesis and biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, A.B.; Batres, R.O.; Olson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    When retinol is administered to rats, retinyl and retinoyl ..beta..-glucuronides appear in the bile. Retinyl or retinoyl ..beta..-glucuronide is also synthesized in vitro when rat liver microsomes are incubated with uridinediphosphoglucuronic acid and either retinol or retinoic acid. Retinoyl ..beta..-glucuronide, a major metabolite of retinoic acid in a number of tissues, is highly active biologically, has been chemically synthesized, and is found in human blood. The physiological significance of the glucuronides of vitamin A are not known yet. To investigate further its metabolism and possible physiological role, retinyl ..beta..-glucuronide was chemically synthesized from retinol and characterized by study of its ultra-violet spectrum (..gamma../sub max/ 325 nm in methanol, 329 nm in water), /sup 1/H-NMR and mass spectra. Retinyl ..beta..-glucuronide was extensively hydrolyzed by bacterial ..beta..-glucuronidase to retinol. Retinyl ..beta..-glucuronide is soluble in water and was detected in significant amounts in the serum of healthy human adults. The biological activity of synthetic retinyl ..beta..-glucuronide was determined in rats by the rat growth bioassay method.

  15. Discovery of new human beta-defensins using a genomics-based approach.

    PubMed

    Jia, H P; Schutte, B C; Schudy, A; Linzmeier, R; Guthmiller, J M; Johnson, G K; Tack, B F; Mitros, J P; Rosenthal, A; Ganz, T; McCray, P B

    2001-01-24

    Epithelial beta-defensins are broad-spectrum cationic antimicrobial peptides that also act as chemokines for adaptive immune cells. In the human genome, all known defensin genes cluster to a <1 Mb region of chromosome 8p22-p23. To identify new defensin genes, the DNA sequence from a contig of large-insert genomic clones from the region containing human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) was analyzed for the presence of defensin genes. This sequence survey identified a novel beta-defensin, termed HBD-3. The HBD-3 gene contains two exons, is located 13 kb upstream from the HBD-2 gene, and it is transcribed in the same direction. A partial HBD-3 cDNA clone was amplified from cDNA derived from IL-1beta induced fetal lung tissue. The cDNA sequence encodes for a 67 amino acid peptide that is approximately 43% identical to HBD-2 and shares the beta-defensin six cysteine motif. By PCR analysis of two commercial cDNA panels, HBD-3 expression was detected in adult heart, skeletal muscle, placenta and in fetal thymus. From RT-PCR experiments, HBD-3 expression was observed in skin, esophagus, gingival keratinocytes, placenta and trachea. Furthermore, in fetal lung explants and gingival keratinocytes, HBD-3 mRNA expression was induced by IL-1beta. Additional sequence analysis identified the HE2 (human epididymis secretory protein) gene 17 kb upstream from the HBD-3 gene. One splice variant of this gene (HE2beta1) encodes a beta-defensin consensus cysteine motif, suggesting it represents a defensin gene product. HE2beta1 mRNA expression was detected in gingival keratinocytes and bronchial epithelia using RT-PCR analysis. The discovery of these novel beta-defensin genes may allow further understanding of the role of defensins in host immunity at mucosal surfaces. PMID:11223260

  16. Topographic antigenic determinants recognized by monoclonal antibodies on human choriogonadotropin beta-subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Bidart, J.M.; Troalen, F.; Salesse, R.; Bousfield, G.R.; Bohuon, C.J.; Bellet, D.H.

    1987-06-25

    We describe a first attempt to study the antibody-combining sites recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against the beta-subunit of human choriogonadotropin (hCG). Two groups of antibodies were first defined by their ability to recognize only the free beta-subunit or the free and combined subunit. Antibodies FBT-11 and FBT-11-L bind only to hCG beta-subunit but not to hCG, whereas antibodies FBT-10 and D1E8 bind to both the beta-subunit and the hormone. In both cases, the antigenic determinants were localized to the core of the protein (residues 1-112), indicating the weak immunogenicity of the specific carboxyl-terminal extension of hCG-beta. Nine synthetic peptides spanning different regions of hCG-beta and lutropin-beta were assessed for their capacity to inhibit antibody binding. A synthetic peptide inclusive of the NH2-terminal region (residues 1-7) of the hCG beta-subunit was found to inhibit binding to the radiolabeled subunit of a monoclonal antibody specific for free hCG-beta (FBT-11). Further delineation of the antigenic site recognized by this antibody provided evidence for the involvement of fragment 82-92. Moreover, monoclonal antibody FBT-11 inhibited the recombination of hCG-beta to hCG-alpha, indicating that its antigenic determinant might be located nearby or in the hCG-beta portion interacting with the alpha-subunit. Binding of monoclonal antibody FBT-10, corresponding to the second antigenic determinant, was weakly inhibited by fragment 82-105 and did not impair the recombination of the hCG beta-subunit to the hCG alpha-subunit. Its combining site appeared to be located in a region of the intact native choriogonadotropin present at the surface of the hormone-receptor complex.

  17. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte. beta. -spectrin

    SciTech Connect

    Prchal, J.T.; Morley, B.J.; Yoon, S.H.; Coetzer, T.L.; Palek, J.; Conboy, J.G.; Kan, Y.W.

    1987-11-01

    Spectrin is an important structural component of the membrane skeleton that underlies and supports the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It is composed of nonidentical ..cap alpha.. (M/sub r/ 240,000) and ..beta.. (M/sub r/ 220,000) subunits, each of which contains multiple homologous 106-amino acid segments. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of a human erythroid-specific ..beta..-spectrin cDNA clone that encodes parts of the ..beta..-9 through ..beta..-12 repeat segments. This cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to assign the ..beta..-spectrin gene to human chromosome 14 and to begin molecular analysis of the gene and its mRNA transcripts. RNA transfer blot analysis showed that the reticulocyte ..beta..-spectrin mRNA is 7.8 kilobases in length. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) within the ..beta..-spectrin gene locus. The isolation of human spectrin cDNA probes and the identification of closely linked RFLPs will facilitate analysis of mutant spectrin genes causing congenital hemolytic anemias associated with quantitative and qualitative spectrin abnormalities.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of mutant and wild-type human. beta. -actin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, J.; Gunning, P.; Porreca, P.; Ng, S.Y.; Lin, C.H.; Kedes, L.

    1984-10-01

    There are more than 20 ..beta..-actin-specific sequences in the human genome, many of which are pseudogenes. To facilitate the isolation of potentially functional ..beta..-actin genes, they used the new method of B. Seed for selecting genomic clones by homologous recombination. A derivative of the ..pi..VX miniplasmid, ..pi..AN7..beta..1, was constructed by insertion of the 600-base-pair 3' untranslated region of the ..beta..-actin mRNA expressed in human fibroblasts. Five clones containing ..beta..-actin sequences were selected from an amplified human fetal gene library by homologous recombination between library phage and the miniplasmid. One of these clones contained a complete ..beta..-actin gene with a coding sequence identical to that determined for the mRNA of human fibroblasts. A DNA fragment consisting of mostly intervening sequences from this gene was then use to identify 13 independent recombinant copies of the analogous gene from two specially constructed gene libraries, each containing one of the two types of mutant ..beta..-actin genes found in a line of neoplastic human fibroblasts. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences encoded by the unmutated gene predict that a guanine-to-adenine transition is responsible for the glycine-to-aspartic acid mutation at codon 244 and would also result in the loss of a HaeIII site. Detection of this HaeIII polymorphism among the fibroblast-derived closed verified the identity of the ..beta..-actin gene expressed in human fibroblasts.

  19. Correction of human. beta. sup S -globin gene by gene targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Shesely, E.G.; Hyungsuk Kim; Shehee, W.R.; Smithies, O. ); Papayannopoulou, T. ); Popovich, B.W. )

    1991-05-15

    As a step toward using gene targeting for gene therapy, the authors have corrected a human {beta}{sup S}-globin gene to the normal {beta}{sup A} allele by homologous recombination in the mouse-human hybrid cell line BSM. BSM is derived from a mouse erythroleukemia cell line and carries a single human chromosome 11 with the {beta}{sup S}-globin allele. A {beta}{sup A}-globin targeting construct containing a unique oligomer and a neomycin-resistance gene was electroporated into the BSM cells, which were then placed under G418 selection. Then 126 resulting pools containing a total {approx}29,000 G418-resistant clones were screened by PCR for the presence of a targeted recombinant: 3 positive pools were identified. A targeted clone was isolated by replating one of the positive pools into smaller pools and rescreening by PCR, followed by dilution cloning. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the isolated clone had been targeted as planned. The correction of the {beta}{sup S} allele to {beta}{sup A} was confirmed both by allele-specific PCR and by allele-specific antibodies. Expression studies comparing the uninduced and induced RNA levels in unmodified BSM cells and in the targeted clone showed no significant alteration in the ability of the targeted clone to undergo induction, despite the potentially disrupting presence of a transcriptionally active neomycin gene 5{prime} to the human {beta}{sup A}-globin gene. Thus gene targeting can correct a {beta}{sup S} allele to {beta}{sup A}, and the use of a selectable helper gene need not significantly interfere with the induction of the corrected gene.

  20. Molecular constituents of maxi KCa channels in human coronary smooth muscle: predominant alpha + beta subunit complexes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Meera, P; Song, M; Knaus, H G; Toro, L

    1997-08-01

    1. Human large-conductance voltage- and calcium-sensitive K+ (maxi KCa) channels are composed of at least two subunits: the pore-forming subunit, alpha, and a modulatory subunit, beta. Expression of the beta subunit induces dramatic changes in alpha subunit function. It increases the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity and it allows dehydrosoyasaponin I (DHS-I) to upregulate the channel. 2. The functional coupling of maxi KCa channel alpha and beta subunits in freshly dissociated human coronary smooth muscle cells was assessed. To distinguish maxi KCa currents modulated by the beta subunit, we examined (a) their apparent Ca2+ sensitivity, as judged from the voltage necessary to half-activate the channel (V1/2), and (b) their activation by DHS-I. 3. In patches with unitary currents, the majority of channels were half-activated near -85 mV at 18 microM Ca2+, a value similar to that obtained when the human KCa channel alpha (HSLO) and beta (HKV,Ca beta) subunits are co-expressed. A small number of channels half-activated around 0 mV, suggesting the activity of the alpha subunit alone. 4. The properties of macroscopic currents were consistent with the view that most pore-forming alpha subunits were coupled to beta subunits, since the majority of currents had values for V1/2 near to -90 mV, and currents were potentiated by DHS-I. 5. We conclude that in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, most maxi KCa channels are composed of alpha and beta subunits. The higher Ca2+ sensitivity of maxi KCa channels, resulting from their coupling to beta subunits, suggests an important role of this channel in regulating coronary tone. Their massive activation by micromolar Ca2+ concentrations may lead to a large hyperpolarization causing profound changes in coronary blood flow and cardiac function. PMID:9279807

  1. Molecular constituents of maxi KCa channels in human coronary smooth muscle: predominant alpha + beta subunit complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Y; Meera, P; Song, M; Knaus, H G; Toro, L

    1997-01-01

    1. Human large-conductance voltage- and calcium-sensitive K+ (maxi KCa) channels are composed of at least two subunits: the pore-forming subunit, alpha, and a modulatory subunit, beta. Expression of the beta subunit induces dramatic changes in alpha subunit function. It increases the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity and it allows dehydrosoyasaponin I (DHS-I) to upregulate the channel. 2. The functional coupling of maxi KCa channel alpha and beta subunits in freshly dissociated human coronary smooth muscle cells was assessed. To distinguish maxi KCa currents modulated by the beta subunit, we examined (a) their apparent Ca2+ sensitivity, as judged from the voltage necessary to half-activate the channel (V1/2), and (b) their activation by DHS-I. 3. In patches with unitary currents, the majority of channels were half-activated near -85 mV at 18 microM Ca2+, a value similar to that obtained when the human KCa channel alpha (HSLO) and beta (HKV,Ca beta) subunits are co-expressed. A small number of channels half-activated around 0 mV, suggesting the activity of the alpha subunit alone. 4. The properties of macroscopic currents were consistent with the view that most pore-forming alpha subunits were coupled to beta subunits, since the majority of currents had values for V1/2 near to -90 mV, and currents were potentiated by DHS-I. 5. We conclude that in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, most maxi KCa channels are composed of alpha and beta subunits. The higher Ca2+ sensitivity of maxi KCa channels, resulting from their coupling to beta subunits, suggests an important role of this channel in regulating coronary tone. Their massive activation by micromolar Ca2+ concentrations may lead to a large hyperpolarization causing profound changes in coronary blood flow and cardiac function. Images Figure 1 PMID:9279807

  2. D-galactosyl-beta1-1'-sphingosine and D-glucosyl-beta1-1'-sphingosine induce human natural killer cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Maghazachi, Azzam A; Knudsen, Eirunn; Jin, Yixin; Jenstad, Monica; Chaudhry, Farrukh A

    2004-07-30

    Natural killer (NK) cells perform multiple biological functions including tumor cell lysis and eradicating virally infected cells. Here, we report for the first time that D-galactosyl-beta1-1' sphingosine and D-glucosyl-beta1- 1' sphingosine damage human NK cells. We show that these cells express T-cell-associated gene-8, the receptor for glycosphingolipids. D-galactosyl-beta1-1' sphingosine and D-glucosyl-beta1-1' sphingosine induce the in vitro chemotaxis of human NK cells. Both D-galactosyl-beta1-1' sphingosine and D-glucosyl-beta1-1' sphingosine inhibit the cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma secretion by these cells. Further analysis shows that the glycosphingolipids D-galactosyl-beta1-1' sphingosine and D-glucosyl-beta1-1' sphingosine but not any other lipid examined, which include D-lactosyl-beta1-1' sphingosine, sphingosine 1-phosphate, sphingosine, lysophosphatidic acid, and phosphatidic acid, induce the apoptosis, globoid-like formation, and multinucleation in human NK cells. These results may have important implications on diseases where glycosphingolipids accumulate. PMID:15240120

  3. Characterization of the human, mouse and rat PGC1 beta (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 beta) gene in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Meirhaeghe, Aline; Crowley, Vivion; Lenaghan, Carol; Lelliott, Christopher; Green, Kath; Stewart, Abigail; Hart, Kevin; Schinner, Sven; Sethi, Jaswinder K; Yeo, Giles; Brand, Martin D; Cortright, Ron N; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Montague, Carl; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J

    2003-01-01

    PGC1 alpha is a co-activator involved in adaptive thermogenesis, fatty-acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis. We describe the identification of several isoforms of a new human PGC1 alpha homologue, cloned independently and named PGC1 beta. The human PGC1 beta gene is localized to chromosome 5, has 13 exons and spans more than 78 kb. Two different 5' and 3' ends due to differential splicing were identified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and screening of human cDNA libraries. We show that PGC1 beta variants in humans, mice and rats are expressed predominantly in heart, brown adipose tissue, brain and skeletal muscle. PGC1 beta expression, unlike PGC1 alpha, is not up-regulated in brown adipose tissue in response to cold or obesity. Fasting experiments showed that PGC1 alpha, but not PGC1 beta, is induced in liver and this suggests that only PGC1 alpha is involved in the hepatic gluconeogenesis. No changes in PGC1 beta gene expression were observed associated with exercise. Human PGC1 beta-1a and -2a isoforms localized to the cell nucleus and, specifically, the isoform PGC1 beta-1a co-activated peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, -alpha and the thyroid hormone receptor beta1. Finally, we show that ectopic expression PGC1 beta leads to increased mitochondrial number and basal oxygen consumption. These results suggest that PGC1 beta may play a role in constitutive adrenergic-independent mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:12678921

  4. Enhanced expression of TGF-betas and their receptors in human acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Friess, H; Lu, Z; Riesle, E; Uhl, W; Bründler, A M; Horvath, L; Gold, L I; Korc, M; Büchler, M W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine which mechanisms are involved in pancreatic remodeling, repair, and fibrosis after acute necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) in humans. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Transforming growth factor betas (TGF-betas) are multifunctional polypeptides that have been implicated in the regulation and formation of extracellular matrix and fibrosis. They exert their functions by binding to specific receptors. In this study, we analyze the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 and their receptors type I (Tbeta-RI [ALK5]), type II (Tbeta-RII), and type III (Tbeta-RIII) in NP. PATIENTS: Pancreatic tissue samples were obtained from 6 female and 8 male patients with a median age of 65 years (range, 37 to 77 years) undergoing surgery for NP. The median Ranson score of the patients was 6 (range, 2 to 9). The operation was performed a median 5.5 days (range, 4 to 17 days) after the onset of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic tissue obtained from 12 previously healthy organ donors (6 male, 6 female; median age of 43 years) served as controls. METHODS: The expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, Tbeta-RI (ALK5), Tbeta-RII, Tbeta-RIII, and collagen type I mRNA was analyzed by Northern blot analysis. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antibodies was performed to detect TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, Tbeta-RI (ALK5), and Tbeta-RII. RESULTS: Northern blot analysis showed an increase in TGF-betas and their receptors in NP tissue samples compared with samples from normal controls. The increase was 3.5-fold for TGF-beta1 (p < 0.05), 2.7-fold for TGF-beta2 (p < 0.05), 3.5-fold for TGF-beta3 (p < 0.05), 10-fold for Tbeta-RI (ALK5) (p < 0.05), 5.7-fold for Tbeta-RII (p < 0.05), and 1.4-fold for Tbeta-RIII (not significant). Collagen type I mRNA was also markedly increased in NP samples and correlated with the level of TGF-betas. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated intense TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, Tbeta-RI (ALK5), and Tbeta

  5. Expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrial stromal and decidual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shiokawa, Shigetatsu; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Nakamura, Yukio

    1996-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation. Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry demonstrated the greater expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, and {alpha}{sub 5} subunits of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured stromal cells from the midsecretory phase, than in those of the early proliferative phase. The addition of estradiol (E{sub 2}) and progesterone (P) to cultured stromal cells in the early proliferative phase increased the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in vitro. Flow cytometry also demonstrated the expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {alpha}{sub 6} subunits of {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured decidual cells, and the enriched-fraction of prolactin (PRL)-producing decidual cells isolated by Percoll gradients showed high levels of {beta}{sub 1} integrins expression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the {beta}{sub 1} integrin cell surface phenotypes in cultured decidual cells observed by flow cytometry. In summary, the present study demonstrated that endometrial stromal and decidual cells expressed {beta}{sub 1} integrin subunits at their surfaces. The expression exhibited a variability throughout the menstrual cycles, being predominantly detected in the secretory phase, and was maintained highly in the decidua. Thus, {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua may be important in mediating the organization of extracellular matrix proteins derived from embryos during the early stage of implantation. 43 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Oligosaccharide structure and amino acid sequence of the major glycopeptides of mature human. beta. -hexosaminidase

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dowd, B.F.; Cumming, D.A.; Gravel, R.A.; Mahuran, D.

    1988-07-12

    Human ..beta..-hexosaminidase is a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes terminal N-acetylhexosamines from GM/sub 2/ ganglioside, oligosaccharides, and other carbohydrate-containing macromolecules. There are two major forms of hexosaminidase: hexosaminidase A, with the structure ..cap alpha..(..beta../sub a/..beta../sub b/), and hexosaminidase B, 2(..beta../sub a/..beta../sub b/). Like other lysosomal proteins, hexosaminidase is targeted to its destination via glycosylation and processing in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Phosphorylation of specific mannose residues allows binding of the protein to the phosphomannosyl receptor and transfer to the lysosome. In order to define the structure and placement of the oligosaccharides in mature hexosaminidase and thus identify candidate mannose 6-phosphate recipient sites, the major tryptic/chymotryptic glycopeptides from each isozyme were purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Two major concanavalin A binding glycopeptides, localized to the ..beta../sub b/f chain, and one non concanavalin A binding glycopeptide, localized to the ..beta../sub a/ chain, were found associated with the ..beta..-subunit in both hexosaminidase A and hexosaminidase B. The oligosaccharide structures were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The unique glycopeptide associated with the ..beta../sub a/ chain contained a single GlcNAc residue. Thus all three mature polypeptides comprising the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of hexosaminidase contain carbohydrate, the structures of which have the appearance of being partially degraded in the lysosome. In the ..cap alpha.. chain they found only one possible site for in vivo phosphorylation. In the ..beta.. it is unclear if only one or all three of the sites could have contained phosphate. However, mature placental hexosaminidase A and B can be rephosphorylated in vitro. This requires the presence of an oligosaccharide containing an ..cap

  7. Homology modeling of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABA receptor channels and Surflex-docking of fipronil.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin; Ju, Xiu-Lian; Chen, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Gen-Yan

    2009-09-01

    To further explore the mechanism of selective binding of the representative gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABARs) noncompetitive antagonist (NCA) fipronil to insect over mammalian GABARs, three-dimensional models of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABAR were generated by homology modeling, using the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo marmorata as a template. Fipronil was docked into the putative binding site of the human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 receptors by Surflex-docking, and the calculated docking energies are in agreement with experimental results. The GABA receptor antagonist fipronil exhibited higher potency with house fly beta 3 GABAR than with human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAR. Furthermore, analyses of Surflex-docking suggest that the H-bond interaction of fipronil with Ala2 and Thr6 in the second transmembrane segment (TM2) of these GABARs plays a relatively important role in ligand selective binding. The different subunit assemblies of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABARs may result in differential selectivity for fipronil. PMID:19238461

  8. The exon-intron organization of the human erythroid [beta]-spectrin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, K.M.; Forget, B.G. ); Scarpa, A.L.; Curtis, P.J. ); Winkelmann, J.C. )

    1993-10-01

    The human erythrocyte [beta]-spectrin gene DNA has been cloned from overlapping human genomic phage and cosmid recombinants. The entire erythroid [beta]-spectrin mRNA is encoded by 32 exons that range in size from 49 to 871 bases. The exon/intron junctions have been identified and the exons mapped. There is no correlation between intron positions and the repeat units of 106 amino acids within domain II of the [beta]-spectrin gene. The scatter of the introns over the 17 repeats argues against the 106-amino-acid unit representing a minigene that underwent repeated duplication resulting in the present [beta]-spectrin gene. In fact, the two largest exons, exon 14 (871 bp) and 16 (757 bp), extend over 4 and 3 repeat units of 106 amino acids, respectively, while repeat [beta]10 is encoded by 4 exons. No single position of an intron in the [beta]-spectrin gene is conserved between any of the 17 [beta]-spectrin and 22 [alpha]-spectrin repeat units. The nucleotide sequences of the exon/intron boundaries conform to the consensus splice site sequences except for exon 20, whose 5[prime] donor splice-site sequence begins with GC. The [beta]-spectrin isoform present in the human brain, the skeletal muscle, and the cardiac muscle is an alternatively spliced product of the erythroid [beta]-spectrin gene. This splice site is located within the coding sequences of exon 32 and its utilization in nonerythroid tissues leads to the use of 4 additional downstream exons with a size range of 44 to 530 bp. 55 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. A monopartite begomovirus-associated DNA beta satellite substitutes for the DNA B of a bipartite begomovirus to permit systemic infection.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Muhammad; Zafar, Yusuf; Randles, John W; Rezaian, M Ali

    2007-10-01

    DNA beta is a circular single-stranded satellite DNA which co-infects with certain monopartite helper begomoviruses to cause economically important diseases, such as cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD). DNA beta encodes a single protein, betaC1. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is a bipartite begomovirus in which both DNA A and DNA B are required for systemic infection. Inoculation of tomato plants with ToLCNDV DNA A alone induced local but not systemic infection, whereas co-inoculation with DNA A and the DNA beta associated with CLCuD resulted in systemic infection. DNA beta containing a disrupted betaC1 open reading frame (ORF) did not mobilize DNA A systemically. Co-inoculation of plants with DNA A and a construct of the betaC1 ORF, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, resulted in the systemic movement of DNA A. In inoculated tobacco and onion epidermal cells, betaC1 fused to GFP was localized at the cell periphery in association with punctate bodies, around and within the cell nucleus and with the endoplasmic reticulum. It is concluded that heterologous betaC1 protein can replace the movement function of the DNA B of a bipartite begomovirus. Evidence is also provided that tomato leaf curl virus-encoded C4 protein confers the same movement function to ToLCNDV DNA A. The intracellular distribution of betaC1 is consistent with the hypothesis that it has a role in transporting the DNA A from the nuclear site of replication to the plasmodesmatal exit sites of the infected cell. PMID:17872543

  10. Characterization of the 5'-flanking region for the human fibrinogen beta gene.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, P; Dalmon, J; Courtois, G; Laurent, M; Assouline, Z; Marguerie, G

    1987-01-01

    To identify the possible regulatory sequences in the genetic expression of fibrinogen, a human genomic DNA library raised in lambda EMBL 4 phage was screened using cDNA probes coding for the A alpha, B beta and gamma chains of human fibrinogen. The entire fibrinogen locus was characterized and its organization analysed by means of hybridization and restriction mapping. Among the clones identified, a single recombinant lambda phage contained the beta gene and its 5'- and 3'-flanking regions. A 1.5 kb fragment of the immediate 5'-flanking region was sequenced and S1 mapping experiments revealed three transcription start points. Comparison of this sequence with that previously reported for the same region upstream from the human gamma gene revealed no significant homology which suggests that the potential promoting sequences of these genes are different. In contrast, comparison of the 5'-flanking regions of human and rat beta genes revealed a 142 bp sequence of 80% homology situated 16 bp upstream from the human beta gene. This highly conserved region may well represents a potential candidate for a regulatory sequence of the human beta gene. Images PMID:3029722

  11. Modulation of growth and differentiation in normal human keratinocytes by transforming growth factor-beta

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Hashiro, M.; Yoshimasa, H.; Yoshikawa, K. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of transforming growth factor-type beta 1(TGF-beta) on the growth and differentiation of normal human skin keratinocytes cultured in serum-free medium was investigated. TGF-beta markedly inhibited the growth of keratinocytes at the concentrations greater than 2 ng/ml under low Ca2+ conditions (0.1 mM). Growth inhibition was accompanied by changes in cell functions related to proliferation. Remarkable inhibition of DNA synthesis was demonstrated by the decrease of (3H)thymidine incorporation. The decrease of (3H)thymidine incorporation was observed as early as 3 hr after addition of TGF-beta. TGF-beta also decreased c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA) expression 30 min after addition of TGF-beta. This rapid reduction of c-myc mRNA expression by TGF-beta treatment is possibly one of the main factors in the process of TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition of human keratinocytes. Since growth inhibition and induction of differentiation are closely related in human keratinocytes, the growth-inhibitory effect of TGF-beta under high Ca2+ conditions was examined. TGF-beta inhibited the growth of keratinocytes under high Ca2+ conditions in the same manner as under low Ca2+ conditions, suggesting that it is a strong growth inhibitor in both low and high Ca2+ environments. The induction of keratinocyte differentiation was evaluated by measuring involucrin expression and cornified envelope formation: TGF-beta at 20 ng/ml increased involucrin expression from 9.3% to 18.8% under high Ca2+ conditions, while it decreased involucrin expression from 7.0% to 3.3% under low Ca2+ conditions. Cornified envelope formation was modulated in a similar way by addition of TGF-beta: TGF-beta at 20 ng/ml decreased cornified envelope formation by 53% under low Ca2+ conditions, while it enhanced cornified envelope formation by 30.7% under high Ca2+ conditions.

  12. Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum: lessons from the human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ruddon, R. W.; Sherman, S. A.; Bedows, E.

    1996-01-01

    There have been few studies of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of intact mammalian cells. In the one case where the in vivo and in vitro folding pathways of a mammalian secretory protein have been compared, the folding of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit (hCG-beta), the order of formation of the detected folding intermediates is the same. The rate and efficiency with which multidomain proteins such as hCG-beta fold to native structure in intact cells is higher than in vitro, although intracellular rates of folding of the beta subunit can be approached in vitro in the presence of an optimal redox potential and protein disulfide isomerase. Understanding how proteins fold in vivo may provide a new way to diagnose and treat human illnesses that occur due to folding defects. PMID:8844836

  13. Active heterodimers are formed from human DNA topoisomerase II alpha and II beta isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Biersack, H; Jensen, S; Gromova, I; Nielsen, I S; Westergaard, O; Andersen, A H

    1996-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II is a nuclear enzyme essential for chromosome dynamics and DNA metabolism. In mammalian cells, two genetically and biochemically distinct topoisomerase II forms exist, which are designated topoisomerase II alpha and topoisomerase II beta. In our studies of human topoisomerase II, we have found that a substantial fraction of the enzyme exists as alpha/beta heterodimers in HeLa cells. The ability to form heterodimers was verified when human topoisomerases II alpha and II beta were coexpressed in yeast and investigated in a dimerization assay. Analysis of purified heterodimers shows that these enzymes maintain topoisomerase II specific catalytic activities. The natural existence of an active heterodimeric subclass of topoisomerase II merits attention whenever topoisomerases II alpha and II beta function, localization, and cell cycle regulation are investigated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8710863

  14. Mechanosensitivity of human osteosarcoma cells and phospholipase C {beta}2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hoberg, M. . E-mail: Maik.Hoberg@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Gratz, H.-H.; Noll, M.; Jones, D.B.

    2005-07-22

    Bone adapts to mechanical load by osteosynthesis, suggesting that osteoblasts might respond to mechanical stimuli. We therefore investigated cell proliferation and phospholipase C (PLC) expression in osteoblasts. One Hertz uniaxial stretching at 4000 {mu}strains significantly increased the proliferation rates of human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 and primary human osteoblasts. However, U-2/OS, SaOS-2, OST, and MNNG/HOS cells showed no significant changes in proliferation rate. We investigated the expression pattern of different isoforms of PLC in these cell lines. We were able to detect PLC {beta}1, {beta}3, {gamma}1, {gamma}2, and {delta}1 in all cells, but PLC {beta}2 was only detectable in the mechanosensitive cells. We therefore investigated the possible role of PLC {beta}2 in mechanotransduction. Inducible antisense expression for 24 h inhibited the translation of PLC {beta}1 in U-2/OS cells by 35% and PLC {beta}2 in MG-63 by 29%. Fluid shear flow experiments with MG-63 lacking PLC {beta}2 revealed a significantly higher level of cells losing attachment to coverslips and a significantly lower number of cells increasing intracellular free calcium.

  15. Gaucher disease: Physical, kinetic and immunologic investigations of human and canine acid. beta. -glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbro, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Kinetic and immunologic techniques were developed to investigate the nature of the acid {beta}-glucosidase ({beta}-Glc) defects which results in human and canine Gaucher disease (GD). Two new affinity columns, using the potent inhibitors of {beta}-Glc (N-alkyl-deoxynojirimycins) as affinity ligands, were synthesized and methods were developed to obtain homogeneous {beta}-Glc from normal human placenta. Polyclonal and monoclonal (representing 14 different epitopes from 18 clones) antibodies were produced to the pure normal {beta}-Glc. Monospecific polyclonal IgG and tritiated-bromo-conduritol B epoxide (({sup 3}H)Br-CBE), a specific covalent active site directed inhibitor of {beta}-Glc, were used to quantitate the functional catalytic sites in normal and Type 1 Ashkenazi Jewish GD (AJGD) enzyme preparations: The k{sub cat} values for several new substrates with the mutant enzymes from spleen were about 1.5-fold less than the respective normal enzyme, indicating a nearly normal catalytic capacity of the mutant enzymes. Immunoblotting studies with polyclonal or several monoclonal antibodies indicated three molecular forms of {beta}-Glc (M{sub r} = 67,000, 62,000 to 65,000 and 58,000) in fibroblast extracts from normals and Type 1 AJGD patients. In comparison, only one form of cross-reacting immunologic material (CRIM) was detected in fibroblast extracts from Types 2 and 3 or several non-Jewish Type 1 GD patients.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Krutmann, J.; Koeck, A.S.; Schauer, E.; Parlow, F.; Moeller, A.K.; Kapp, A.; Foerster, E.S.; Schoepf, E.L.; Luger, T.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as well as a receptor for human picorna virus, and its regulation thus affects various immunologic and inflammatory reactions. The weak, constitutive ICAM-1 expression on human keratinocytes (KC) can be up-regulated by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In order to further examine the regulation of KC ICAM-1 expression, normal human KC or epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB) were incubated with different cytokines and/or exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Subsequently, ICAM-1 expression was monitored cytofluorometrically using a monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Stimulation of cells with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, rhIL-4, rhIL-5, rhIL-6, rh granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rh interferon alpha (rhIFN alpha), and rh transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) did not increase ICAM-1 surface expression. In contrast, rhTNF beta significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of rhTNF beta with rhIFN gamma increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive KC synergistically. This stimulatory effect of rhTNF beta was further confirmed by the demonstration that rhTNF beta was capable of markedly enhancing ICAM-1 mRNA expression in KC. Finally, exposure of KC in vitro to sublethal doses of UV radiation (0-100 J/m2) prior to cytokine (rhIFN tau, rhTNF alpha, rhTNF beta) stimulation inhibited ICAM-1 up-regulation in a dose-dependent fashion. These studies identify TNF beta and UV light as potent regulators of KC ICAM-1 expression, which may influence both attachment and detachment of leukocytes and possibly viruses to KC.

  17. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, A.; Kyle, J.W.; Miller, R.D.; Hoffmann, J.W.; Powell, P.P.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S.; Tropak, M.; Guise, K.S.; Gravel, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    The authors report here the cDNA sequence for human placental ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.31) and demonstrate expression of the human enzyme in transfected COS cells. They also sequenced a partial cDNA clone from human fibroblasts that contained a 153-base-pair deletion within the coding sequence and found a second type of cDNA clone from placenta that contained the same deletion. Nuclease S1 mapping studies demonstrated two types of mRNAs in human placenta that corresponded to the two types of cDNA clones isolated. The NH/sub 2/-terminal amino acid sequence determined for human spleen ..beta..-glucuronidase agreed with that inferred from the DNA sequence of the two placental clones, beginning at amino acid 23, suggesting a cleaved signal sequence of 22 amino acids. When transfected into COS cells, plasmids containing either placental clone expressed an immunoprecipitable protein that contained N-linked oligosaccharides as evidenced by sensitivity to endoglycosidase F. However, only transfection with the clone containing the 153-base-pair segment led to expression of human ..beta..-glucuronidase activity. These studies provide the sequence for the full-length cDNA for human ..beta..-glucuronidase, demonstrate the existence of two populations of mRNA for ..beta..-glucuronidase in human placenta, only one of which specifies a catalytically active enzyme, and illustrate the importance of expression studies in verifying that a cDNA is functionally full-length.

  18. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Human Insulin Gene and PCR Assay for Monitoring Beta Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Husseiny, Mohamed I.; Kaye, Alexander; Zebadua, Emily; Kandeel, Fouad; Ferreri, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The onset of metabolic dysregulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurs after autoimmune destruction of the majority of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. We previously demonstrated that the DNA encoding the insulin gene is uniquely unmethylated in these cells and then developed a methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay to identify circulating beta cell DNA in streptozotocin-treated mice prior to the rise in blood glucose. The current study extends to autoimmune non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and humans, showing in NOD mice that beta cell death occurs six weeks before the rise in blood sugar and coincides with the onset of islet infiltration by immune cells, demonstrating the utility of MSP for monitoring T1D. We previously reported unique patterns of methylation of the human insulin gene, and now extend this to other human tissues. The methylation patterns of the human insulin promoter, intron 1, exon 2, and intron 2 were determined in several normal human tissues. Similar to our previous report, the human insulin promoter was unmethylated in beta cells, but methylated in all other tissues tested. In contrast, intron 1, exon 2 and intron 2 did not exhibit any tissue-specific DNA methylation pattern. Subsequently, a human MSP assay was developed based on the methylation pattern of the insulin promoter and human islet DNA was successfully detected in circulation of T1D patients after islet transplantation therapy. Signal levels of normal controls and pre-transplant samples were shown to be similar, but increased dramatically after islet transplantation. In plasma the signal declines with time but in whole blood remains elevated for at least two weeks, indicating that association of beta cell DNA with blood cells prolongs the signal. This assay provides an effective method to monitor beta cell destruction in early T1D and in islet transplantation therapy. PMID:24722187

  19. Genomically imposed and somatically modified human thymocyte V sub. beta. gene repertoires

    SciTech Connect

    Baccala, R.; Kono, D.H.; Balderas, R.S.; Theofilopoulos, A.N. ); Walker, S. )

    1991-04-01

    The effect of thymic selection on the expressed human T-cell antigen receptor {beta}-chain variable region (V{sub {beta}}) gene repertoire was examined by using a multiprobe RNase protection assay. The relative abundance of transcripts for 22 V{sub {beta}} genes (encompassing 17 of the 20 human V{sub {beta}} gene subfamilies) within a thymus, and among 17 thymuses, was variable. On the basis of the presence of corresponding mRNAs, no genomic deletions were detected, but several coding region polymorphisms were identified. Analysis of mature T-cell subsets revealed the absence of complete superantigen-mediated V{sub {beta}} deletions, suggesting that this phenomenon, in contrast to mouse, is uncommon or absent in humans. However, several V{sub {beta}} genes were over- or underexpressed in one or both mature single-positive (CD4{sup +}8{sup {minus}} or CD8{sup +}4{sup {minus}}) thymocyte subsets compared to syngeneic total, mostly immature thymocytes. Whether these changes are induced by relatively weak superantigens or conventional antigens and whether the downshifts are caused by negative selection or lack of positive selection remains to be determined.

  20. Developmental- and differentiation-specific patterns of human gamma- and beta-globin promoter DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Mabaera, Rodwell; Richardson, Christine A; Johnson, Kristin; Hsu, Mei; Fiering, Steven; Lowrey, Christopher H

    2007-08-15

    The mechanisms underlying the human fetal-to-adult beta-globin gene switch remain to be determined. While there is substantial experimental evidence to suggest that promoter DNA methylation is involved in this process, most data come from studies in nonhuman systems. We have evaluated human gamma- and beta-globin promoter methylation in primary human fetal liver (FL) and adult bone marrow (ABM) erythroid cells. Our results show that, in general, promoter methylation and gene expression are inversely related. However, CpGs at -162 of the gamma promoter and -126 of the beta promoter are hypomethylated in ABM and FL, respectively. We also studied gamma-globin promoter methylation during in vitro differentiation of erythroid cells. The gamma promoters are initially hypermethylated in CD34(+) cells. The upstream gamma promoter CpGs become hypomethylated during the preerythroid phase of differentiation and are then remethylated later, during erythropoiesis. The period of promoter hypomethylation correlates with transient gamma-globin gene expression and may explain the previously observed fetal hemoglobin production that occurs during early adult erythropoiesis. These results provide the first comprehensive survey of developmental changes in human gamma- and beta-globin promoter methylation and support the hypothesis that promoter methylation plays a role in human beta-globin locus gene switching. PMID:17456718

  1. Controlled induction of human pancreatic progenitors produces functional beta-like cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Holger A; Parent, Audrey V; Ringler, Jennifer J; Hennings, Thomas G; Nair, Gopika G; Shveygert, Mayya; Guo, Tingxia; Puri, Sapna; Haataja, Leena; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Blelloch, Robert; Szot, Greg L; Arvan, Peter; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional insulin-producing beta-like cells holds great promise for cell replacement therapy for patients suffering from diabetes. This approach also offers the unique opportunity to study otherwise inaccessible aspects of human beta cell development and function in vitro. Here, we show that current pancreatic progenitor differentiation protocols promote precocious endocrine commitment, ultimately resulting in the generation of non-functional polyhormonal cells. Omission of commonly used BMP inhibitors during pancreatic specification prevents precocious endocrine formation while treatment with retinoic acid followed by combined EGF/KGF efficiently generates both PDX1+ and subsequent PDX1+/NKX6.1+ pancreatic progenitor populations, respectively. Precise temporal activation of endocrine differentiation in PDX1+/NKX6.1+ progenitors produces glucose-responsive beta-like cells in vitro that exhibit key features of bona fide human beta cells, remain functional after short-term transplantation, and reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. Thus, our simplified and scalable system accurately recapitulates key steps of human pancreas development and provides a fast and reproducible supply of functional human beta-like cells. PMID:25908839

  2. Species-Related Differences in the Proteome of Rat and Human Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martens, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    The core proteomes of human and rat pancreatic beta cells were compared by label-free LC-MS/MS: this resulted in quantification of relative molar abundances of 707 proteins belonging to functional pathways of intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and cytoskeleton. Relative molar abundances were conserved both within and between pathways enabling the selection of a housekeeping network for geometric normalization and the analysis of potentially relevant differential expressions. Human beta cells differed from rat beta cells in their lower level of enzymes involved in glucose sensing (MDH1, PC, and ACLY) and upregulation of lysosomal enzymes. Human cells also expressed more heat shock proteins and radical scavenging systems: apart from SOD2, they expressed high levels of H2O2-scavenger peroxiredoxin 3 (PRDX3), confirmed by microarray, Western blotting, and microscopy. Besides conferring lower susceptibility to oxidative stress to human cells PRDX3 might also play a role in physiological redox regulation as, in rat, its expression was restricted to a beta cell subset with higher metabolic glucose responsiveness. In conclusion, although their core proteomic architecture is conserved, human and rat beta cells differ in their molar expression of key enzymes involved in glucose sensing and redox control. PMID:26064985

  3. Biotinylated human beta-endorphins as probes for the opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Hochhaus, G; Gibson, B W; Sadée, W

    1988-01-01

    The reaction of human beta-endorphin and biotinyl N-hydroxysuccinimide with or without spacer arm, afforded a series of products that were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry of the biotinylated products and their tryptic digests produced abundant protonated molecular ions (MH+), which specified the number and location of biotinylation. Between 1 and 4 biotinyl residues were incorporated per human beta-endorphin molecule, at Lys-9, -19, -24, -28, and -29, but not at the amino-terminal Tyr-1. Three HPLC fractions were isolated for receptor binding studies with monobiotinylation of Lys-9 (B1 beta and B1X beta; X = C6 spacer arm), Lys-19 (B1 gamma), and a mixture of Lys-24, Lys-28, and Lys-29 derivatives (B1 alpha, BX1 alpha). All derivatives displayed tight binding to avidin, and no dissociation from avidin was detectable over several hours at 0 degrees C for the derivatives (BX1 alpha) tested. IC50 values for binding to mu and delta opioid receptor sites were 3-8 times higher for monobiotinylated derivatives than for the parent human beta-endorphin (IC50,mu = 1.5 nM, IC50,delta = 1.3 nM). Association with avidin decreased opioid receptor affinities for the C6 spacer derivative biotinylated at position Lys-9, which is close to the (1-5) enkephalin receptor region. In contrast, avidin did not affect or even increased apparent affinities to mu and delta sites for derivatives biotinylated at the alpha-helical part of the molecule (Lys-19, -24, -28, and -29). Thus, when bound to avidin, the biotinylated human beta-endorphin derivatives with spacer arm (BX1 alpha), substituted near the carboxyl terminal (Lys-24, -28, and -29), displayed mu binding affinities equal to and delta binding affinities only four times lower than underivatized human beta-endorphin. Biotinylated human beta-endorphins also bound to low affinity nonopioid binding sites on NG-108-15 cells; however, affinities to these sites were

  4. Correction of murine mucopolysaccharidosis VII by a human. beta. -glucuronidase transgene

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, J.W.; Vogler, C.; Hoffmann, J.W.; Sly, W.S. ); Birkenmeier, E.H.; Gwynn, B. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors recently described a murine model for mucopolysaccharidosis VII in mice that have an inherited deficiency of {beta}-glucuronidase. Affected mice, of genotype gus{sup mps}/gus{sup mps}, present clinical manifestations similar to those of humans with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (Sly syndrome) and are shown here to have secondary elevations of other lysosomal enzymes. The mucopolysaccharidosis VII phenotype in both species includes dwarfism, skeletal deformities, and premature death. Lysosome storage is visualized within enlarged vesicles and correlates biochemically with accumulation of undegraded and partially degraded glycosaminoglycans. In this report they describe the consequences of introducing the human {beta}-glucuronidase gene, GUSB, into gus{sup mps}/gus{sup mps} mice that produce virtually no murine {beta}-glucuronidase. Transgenic mice homozygous for the mucopolysaccharidosis VII mutation expressed high levels of human {beta}-glucuronidase activity in all tissues examined and were phenotypically normal. Biochemically, both the intralysosomal storage of glycosaminoglycans and the secondary elevation of other acid hydrolases were corrected. These findings demonstrate that the GUSB transgene is expressed in gus{sup mps}/gus{sup mps} mice and that human {beta}-glucuronidase corrects the murine mucopolysaccharidosis storage disease.

  5. Physical mapping of the human T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) {beta}-chain gene complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yashim, Y.; So, A.K.

    1994-09-01

    The genetic variation of the TCR loci and their contribution to autoimmune diseases is poorly defined, in direct contrast to the clear examples of disease association with the Class I and II alleles of the major histocompatibility complex. We have therefore started to determine the gene organization and polymorphism of the TCR {beta} locus. Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) were used to construct a physical map of the germline human TCR {beta}-chain gene complex. Variable gene (V{beta}) sequences for the 25 known V{beta} subfamilies were amplified by PCR and were used as probes to screen a YAC library. Five positive YACs were identified. YACs designated B3, E11 and H11 of sizes 820, 400 and 600 kbp, respectively, were analyzed for their V{beta} content by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). YAC B3 was found to contain all 25 V{beta} subfamilies, E11 for 14 and H11 for 7. B3 was also positive for the constant region genes. Restriction enzyme mapping of B3 located V{beta} and C{beta} gene regions to four Sfi I fragments of 280, 110, 90 and 125 kbp, and was in accordance with published data. The data thus showed that YAC B3 encoded a complete and unrearranged TCR {beta}-gene locus. The map was further resolved by locating restriction sites for Sal I and Bssll II on B3. Fluorescent in situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes localized B3 to chromosome 7q35. However, two additional signals were obtained: one attributable to V{beta} orphon cluster on chromosome 9q21; the second to the long arm of chromosome 2. PCR amplification of a chromosome 2 somatic cell hybrid using primers for all 25 V{beta} gene families revealed the signal was not attributable to a second orphon cluster. It is suggested that B3 is a chimeric YAC with an intact TCR {beta} locus flanked by chromosome 2 sequences. The determination of the TCR genomic organization will help extend studies of the role T-cells play in autoimmune diseases.

  6. Retinoic acid modulates RAR alpha and RAR beta receptors in human glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, A F; Leonard, N; Lacombe, J; Zassadowski, F; Padua, R A; Degos, L; Daumas-Duport, C; Chomienne, C

    1999-01-01

    To identify retinoic acid (RA) signalling pathways involved in growth and differentiation in cells of the glial lineage, two human glioma ceh lines were studied. The three RA receptors (RARs) mRNAs were constitutively expressed, and of the three RXRs, RXR beta appeared predominant. Western blotting analysis confirmed the constitutive expression of RAR alpha and RAR beta. Treatment with all-trans-RA induced morphological changes in the two cell lines, which progressed from their normal pattern of randomly oriented spindle-shaped cells to fibroblast-like glial cells. RA up-regulated RAR alpha and RAR beta mRNAs in both cell lines. Interestingly, RA treatment up-regulated RAR beta proteins but not RAR alpha proteins, suggesting post-transcriptional regulations of RAR transcripts in glioma cells. PMID:10652610

  7. Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Lama

    2003-05-01

    In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of μeff=7.6 μB per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for μeff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

  8. Complete nucleotide sequence of the human corticotropin-beta-lipotropin precursor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, H; Hakamata, Y; Watanabe, Y; Kikuno, R; Miyata, T; Numa, S

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of an 8658-base-pair human genomic DNA segment containing the entire corticotropin-beta-lipotropin precursor gene has been determined, and some sequence features of the gene and its flanking regions have been analysed. The gene is composed of 7665 base pairs including two introns of 3708 and 2886 base pairs. Comparison of the 5'-flanking sequences of the human, bovine and mouse corticotropin-beta-lipotropin precursor genes reveals the presence of a highly conserved region, which contains sequences of 14-15 base pairs homologous with sequences located upstream of the mRNA start site of other glucocorticoid-regulated genes. PMID:6314261

  9. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  10. Contribution of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors of human atrium and ventricle to the effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline as assessed with (-)-atenolol.

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, H.; Schönell, H.; Kaumann, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    1. (-)-Atenolol was used as a tool to assess the function of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in human heart. Right atrial and left ventricular preparations from patients undergoing open heart surgery were set up to contract isometrically. Membrane particles were prepared for beta-adrenoceptor labelling with [3H]-(-)-bupranolol and adenylate cyclase assays. 2. The positive inotropic effects of (-)-noradrenaline were antagonized to a similar extent by (-)-atenolol in atrial and ventricular preparations. (-)-Atenolol consistently antagonized the effects of (-)-adrenaline to a lesser extent than those of (-)-noradrenaline in atrial preparations. In ventricular preparations (-)-atenolol antagonized the effects of low concentrations of (-)-adrenaline to a lesser extent than those of high concentrations. 3. pKB values (M) of (-)-atenolol, estimated with non-linear analysis from the blockade of the positive inotropic effects of the catecholamines, were 7.4 for beta 1-adrenoceptors and 6.0 for beta 2-adrenoceptors. 4. (-)-Atenolol inhibited the binding of [3H]-(-)-bupranolol to ventricular beta 1-adrenoceptors with a pKD (M) of 5.9 and to ventricular beta 2-adrenoceptors with a pKD of 4.6. 5. (-)-Atenolol inhibited the catecholamine-induced adenylate cyclase stimulation in the atrium and ventricle with pKB values of 5.8-6.4 for beta 1- and pKB values of 4.7-5.7 for beta 2-adrenoceptors. The binding and cyclase assays suggest a partial affinity loss for (-)-atenolol inherent to membrane preparations. 6. beta 1-Adrenoceptors mediate the maximum positive inotropic effects of (-)-noradrenaline in both the atrium and ventricle of man. beta 2-Adrenoceptors appear to be capable of mediating maximal positive inotropic effects of (-)-adrenaline in atrium. In contrast, ventricular beta 2-adrenoceptors mediated only submaximal effects of (-)-adrenaline. PMID:2851354

  11. Immunoreactivity for IL-1 beta and TNF alpha in human lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Ruco, L. P.; Stoppacciaro, A.; Pomponi, D.; Boraschi, D.; Santoni, A.; Tagliabue, A.; Uccini, S.; Baroni, C. D.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against two non-cross-reacting antigens of human IL-1 beta (Vhp20 and BRhC3) and human TNF alpha (B154.2 and B154.7) were applied to identify cytokine-containing cells in tissue sections and in cell suspensions. IL-1 beta- or TNF alpha-positive cells were not present in immunostained cytocentrifuge smears prepared from freshly isolated peripheral blood leukocytes, spleen, and lymph node cells. After 18 hours of culture with bacterial endotoxin (LPS), 80% to 90% of blood monocytes, 30% of spleen macrophages, and 2% to 28% of lymph node macrophages were strongly positive for IL-1 beta with either of the MAbs. Furthermore, 25% to 35% of blood monocytes and 6% to 60% of lymph node macrophages were stained for TNF alpha. Cells positive for IL-1 beta or TNF alpha were extremely rare in sections of normal thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. Immunoreactivity for IL-1 beta or TNF alpha was frequently observed in sections of granulomatous lymphadenitis (N = 11). IL-1 beta or TNF alpha staining was confined to the epithelioid macrophages forming the granuloma, and the intensity of TNF alpha reactivity was generally stronger. The high frequency of cytokine-containing cells in this pathologic condition was confirmed in a cell suspension study showing that 20% of epithelioid macrophages were weakly positive for IL-1 beta and 80% were strongly positive for TNF alpha. The presence of cytokine-containing cells was investigated in cryostat sections of several nonlymphoid organs with normal histologic appearance. IL-1 beta reactivity was not observed in any of the tissues. TNF alpha reactivity was frequently demonstrated in isolated macrophages embedded in the interstitial connective tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2683798

  12. Satellite Perspectives on Highland - Lowland Human Interaction in Ancient Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönnqvist, M.; Törmä, M.; Lönnqvist, K.; Nuñez, M.

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays we can travel by GoogleEarth 3D to Syria (http://www.worldcountries.info/GoogleEarth/GoogleEarth-Syria.php) and zoom in on the desert landscape of the mountainous region of Jebel Bishri between the Euphrates river and the Syrian Desert. This is the area, where the Finnish archaeological survey and mapping project SYGIS worked in 2000-2010 studying the relationship of humans with their environment from ancient times to the present. What kind of landscape views and visions did the ancients have and how did they utilize them? The present paper focuses on seeking answers for these questions by combining satellite data sources, such as imagery and radar data, with location information of archaeological remains collected on the ground. Landsat as well as QuickBird imagery have been fused with SRTM mission and ASTER DEM data in creating 3D landscape models and fly-over simulations. The oasis of El Kowm on the western piedmont of the mountain seems to have served as a base camp for early huntergatherers and pastoral nomads dwelling seasonally in the region of Jebel Bishri. According to the archaeological finds, the interaction between the lowland and the mountain people already started during the Palaeolithic era but was continued by pastoral nomads of the region from the Neolithic period onwards. The Upper Palaeolithic period meant a clear change in cognitive thinking and obviously in understanding the properties of landscape, visibility and perceiving sceneries in 3D. Mobility of hunter-gatherers and pastoral nomads is based on subsistence economy, but mobility also enhances visions and prospects of phenomena appearing in the horizon.

  13. Physical association and functional interaction between beta1 integrin and CD98 on human T lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Yuko J.; Mitchell, Jason S.; McIntyre, Bradley W.

    2003-01-01

    CD98 is a cell surface protein previously characterized as a cell activation marker, an amino acid transporter, and has recently been implicated in integrin-related functions. Integrins are cell surface proteins, important for homotypic cell aggregation, cell adhesion, and coactivation of T lymphocytes. We have previously shown that the anti-CD98 mAb 80A10, when coimmobilized with anti-CD3 mAb OKT3, is able to mediate human T cell coactivation that is inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin specific mAb 18D3. These results indicated a functional association of CD98 and beta1 integrin signaling but left open the question of a physical association. We now show the induction of homotypic aggregation through CD98 among human T cells and this aggregation was inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin mAb. Therefore, CD98-dependent lymphocyte proliferation and adhesion may involve integrins. Competitive binding assays and fluorescence colocalization analysis suggested that CD98 and beta1 integrin were physically associated. Differential extraction techniques and immunoprecipitations provided the first evidence that the alpha4beta1 integrin and CD98 are specifically associated on human T lymphocytes.

  14. Computational modelling of movement-related beta-oscillatory dynamics in human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Mrudul B; Bowen, Stephanie; Rossiter, Holly E; Dupont-Hadwen, Joshua; Moran, Rosalyn J; Friston, Karl J; Ward, Nick S

    2016-06-01

    Oscillatory activity in the beta range, in human primary motor cortex (M1), shows interesting dynamics that are tied to behaviour and change systematically in disease. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying these changes, we must first understand how changes in beta activity are caused in healthy subjects. We therefore adapted a canonical (repeatable) microcircuit model used in dynamic causal modelling (DCM) previously used to model induced responses in visual cortex. We adapted this model to accommodate cytoarchitectural differences between visual and motor cortex. Using biologically plausible connections, we used Bayesian model selection to identify the best model of measured MEG data from 11 young healthy participants, performing a simple handgrip task. We found that the canonical M1 model had substantially more model evidence than the generic canonical microcircuit model when explaining measured MEG data. The canonical M1 model reproduced measured dynamics in humans at rest, in a manner consistent with equivalent studies performed in mice. Furthermore, the changes in excitability (self-inhibition) necessary to explain beta suppression during handgrip were consistent with the attenuation of sensory precision implied by predictive coding. These results establish the face validity of a model that can be used to explore the laminar interactions that underlie beta-oscillatory dynamics in humans in vivo. Our canonical M1 model may be useful for characterising the synaptic mechanisms that mediate pathophysiological beta dynamics associated with movement disorders, such as stroke or Parkinson's disease. PMID:26956910

  15. A human beta cell line with drug inducible excision of immortalizing transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Benazra, Marion; Lecomte, Marie-José; Colace, Claire; Müller, Andreas; Machado, Cécile; Pechberty, Severine; Bricout-Neveu, Emilie; Grenier-Godard, Maud; Solimena, Michele; Scharfmann, Raphaël; Czernichow, Paul; Ravassard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Access to immortalized human pancreatic beta cell lines that are phenotypically close to genuine adult beta cells, represent a major tool to better understand human beta cell physiology and develop new therapeutics for Diabetes. Here we derived a new conditionally immortalized human beta cell line, EndoC-βH3 in which immortalizing transgene can be efficiently removed by simple addition of tamoxifen. Methods We used lentiviral mediated gene transfer to stably integrate a tamoxifen inducible form of CRE (CRE-ERT2) into the recently developed conditionally immortalized EndoC βH2 line. The resulting EndoC-βH3 line was characterized before and after tamoxifen treatment for cell proliferation, insulin content and insulin secretion. Results We showed that EndoC-βH3 expressing CRE-ERT2 can be massively amplified in culture. We established an optimized tamoxifen treatment to efficiently excise the immortalizing transgenes resulting in proliferation arrest. In addition, insulin expression raised by 12 fold and insulin content increased by 23 fold reaching 2 μg of insulin per million cells. Such massive increase was accompanied by enhanced insulin secretion upon glucose stimulation. We further observed that tamoxifen treated cells maintained a stable function for 5 weeks in culture. Conclusions EndoC βH3 cell line represents a powerful tool that allows, using a simple and efficient procedure, the massive production of functional non-proliferative human beta cells. Such cells are close to genuine human beta cells and maintain a stable phenotype for 5 weeks in culture. PMID:26909308

  16. MISR Satellite Observations of Aerosol Types Affecting Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Franklin, M.; Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based observations of pollutants and concentrations of particulate matter (PM), that includes small particles designated PM2.5 and dust-dominated PM10, are the gold standard in studies of environmental impacts on human health. However, because monitoring stations are costly, they typically provide only limited spatial coverage, especially in rural and remote areas. We will demonstrate how data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument that has been flying on NASA's Terra Earth Observing System satellite since early 2000 can be used to provide estimates of surface PM types. The current MISR operational aerosol retrieval uses a combination of multi-spectral and multi-angle data to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property information (including dust AOD) globally at 17.6 km spatial resolution. Using the same algorithm with data collected in all 36-channels at 275 m resolution (Local Mode), which is available over greater Los Angeles area, and also was activated during 2013 DISCOVER-AQ California field campaign, high-resolution 4.4 km aerosol retrievals were performed in addition to the standard 17.6 km retrievals. The 4.4 km spatial resolution of the PM information data is fine enough to be able to resolve local differences in PM loading that may be important for understanding regional health effects of pollution in the region. In particular, we demonstrate that MISR high-resolution AOD retrievals are in better agreement with ground-based aerosol observations and reveal more details about the aerosol spatial variability compared to the MISR standard 17.6 km product. Then we will discuss techniques and show examples of the application of high-resolution MISR data to provide estimates of surface PM for the greater Los Angeles area in 2008 and for California San Joaquin Valley during the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. Finally, we will discuss future NASA instruments that will provide new information allowing for better

  17. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on long-term human cord blood monocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Orcel, P.; Bielakoff, J.; De Vernejoul, M.C. )

    1990-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) modulates growth and differentiation in many cell types and is abundant in bone matrix. We recently showed that human cord blood monocytes cultured in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 acquire some features of osteoclast precursors. Since TGF-beta has been shown to influence bone resorption in organ culture, we have studied the effect of TGF-beta (1-1,000 pg/ml) on cord blood monocyte cultures. These cells were cultured on plastic substrate during 3 weeks in the presence of 20% horse serum and 10(-9) M 1,25(OH)2D3. TGF-beta, from a concentration of 10 pg/ml in the culture medium, decreased in a dose dependent manner the formation of multinucleated cells. At a concentration of TGF-beta of 1 ng/ml, the multinucleated cells were reduced to 2.1% +/- 0.3%, compared to 19.3% +/- 1.5% in control cultures. TGF-beta inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the proliferation of cord blood monocytes as assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation at 7 and 14 days of culture. The fusion index was also decreased by 3 weeks of treatment with TGF-beta. Indomethacin did not reverse the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta. The expression of the osteoclastic phenotype was assessed using two different antibodies: 23C6, a monoclonal antibody directed against the vitronectin receptor, which is highly expressed by osteoclasts but not by adult monocytes, and an antibody to HLA-DR, which is not present on osteoclast. TGF-beta decreased the expression of HLA-DR and increased in a dose-dependent manner the proportion of 23C6-labeled cells; these results suggest that TGF-beta could modulate a differentiation effect to the osteoclastic phenotype. However, when cord blood monocytes were cultured on devitalized rat calvariae prelabeled with 45Ca, TGF-beta did not induce any 45Ca release from bone cultured with monocytes.

  18. Construction of human Fab library and screening of a single-domain antibody of amyloid-beta 42 oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zuanning; Du, Minge; Chen, Yiwen; Dou, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Screening humanized antibodies from a human Fab phage display library is an effective and quick method to obtain beta-amyloid oligomers. Thus, the present study prepared amyloid-beta 42 oli-gomers and constructed a naïve human Fab phage display library based on blood samples from six healthy people. After three rounds of biopanning in vitro, a human single-domain antibody that specifically recognized amyloid-beta 42 oligomers was identified. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated this antibody bound specifically to human amyloid-beta 42 tetramer and nonamer, but not the monomer or high molecular weight oligomers. This study successfully constructed a human phage display library and screened a single-domain antibody that specifically recognized amyloid-beta 42 oligomers. PMID:25206631

  19. Prostaglandin D2 induces the production of human beta-defensin-3 in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Naoko; Ishikawa, Takeko; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2010-04-01

    The antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is produced by epidermal keratinocytes and protects the skin from infections. This peptide induces the release of a lipid mediator, prostaglandin D(2) from dermal mast cells. Prostaglandin D(2) binds to cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors, D prostanoid receptor, and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper cell type 2 (CRTH2). Both receptors are detected on epidermal keratinocytes. It is reported that prostaglandin D(2) is involved in cutaneous allergy, however, its role in antimicrobial defense is unknown. We examined the in vitro effects of prostaglandin D(2) on hBD-3 production in normal human keratinocytes. Prostaglandin D(2) enhanced hBD-3 secretion and mRNA expression in human keratinocytes. Prostaglandin D(2)-induced hBD-3 production was suppressed by the CRTH2 antagonist ramatroban and by antisense oligonucleotides against c-Jun and c-Fos, components of a transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Prostaglandin D(2) enhanced the transcriptional activity and DNA binding of AP-1, expression, phosphorylation, and DNA binding of c-Fos proteins in keratinocytes. Prostaglandin D(2)-induced hBD-3 production, AP-1 activity, and c-Fos expression and phosphorylation were suppressed by U0126, PP2, and pertussis toxin, which are inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), src, and G(i) proteins, respectively. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), downstream kinase of MEK, was induced by prostaglandin D(2), and suppressed by ramatroban, pertussis toxin, PP2, and U0126. These results suggest that prostaglandin D(2) induces hBD-3 production in human keratinocytes by activating AP-1 through the expression and phosphorylation of c-Fos via the CRTH2/G(i)/src/MEK/ERK pathway. Prostaglandin D(2) may promote cutaneous antimicrobial activity via hBD-3. PMID:19925780

  20. Effects of halothane on the human beta-adrenergic receptor of lymphocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Marty, J.; Nivoche, Y.; Nimier, M.; Rocchiccioli, C.; Luscombe, F.; Henzel, D.; Loiseau, A.; Desmonts, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The effects of halothane on beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist interaction were studied using the membranes of human lymphocytes as a model. Membrane preparations of lymphocytes were obtained from blood samples withdrawn from seven healthy young volunteers. Beta-receptor studies were performed using (-)/sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol (/sup 125/ICP) binding. Non-specific binding was determined in the presence of (-)isoproterenol. Beta-receptor density (Bmax) and the dissociation constant (KD) for /sup 125/ICP were determined from saturation curves. Beta-receptor affinity for agonists evaluated by the IC50 (the concentration of isoproterenol required to inhibit 50% of specific /sup 125/ICP binding) and the dissociation constant (KL) for isoproterenol was established from competition curves. The effect of halothane 1%, in an air oxygen mixture (oxygen fraction: 0.3) administered by tonometry during ligand membrane incubation, on beta-adrenergic receptor, was compared to that of control experiments not exposed to halothane. Halothane produced a moderate but significant decrease of Bmax (-10%) and a significant increase in non-specific binding (+30%), while KD, IC50, and KL were unchanged. The authors conclude that halothane, in vitro, decreases beta-adrenergic receptor density. This effect could be mediated by an alteration of the receptor in the membrane due to action of halothane on the lipid phase of the membrane.

  1. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta protects muscle satellite cells from apoptosis after injury and in cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Marchildon, F; Fu, D; Lala-Tabbert, N; Wiper-Bergeron, N

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ), a transcription factor expressed in muscle satellite cells (SCs), inhibits the myogenic program and is downregulated early in differentiation. In a conditional null model in which C/EBPβ expression is knocked down in paired box protein 7+ (Pax7+) SCs, cardiotoxin (CTX) injury is poorly repaired, although muscle regeneration is efficient in control littermates. While myoblasts lacking C/EBPβ can differentiate efficiently in culture, after CTX injury poor regeneration was attributed to a smaller than normal Pax7+ population, which was not due to a failure of SCs to proliferate. Rather, the percentage of apoptotic SCs was increased in muscle lacking C/EBPβ. Given that an injury induced by BaCl2 is repaired with greater efficiency than controls in the absence of C/EBPβ, we investigated the inflammatory response following BaCl2 and CTX injury and found that the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a proinflammatory cytokine, were robustly elevated following CTX injury and could induce C/EBPβ expression in myoblasts. High levels of C/EBPβ expression in myoblasts correlated with resistance to apoptotic stimuli, while its loss increased sensitivity to thapsigargin-induced cell death. Using cancer cachexia as a model for chronic inflammation, we found that C/EBPβ expression was increased in SCs and myoblasts of tumor-bearing cachectic animals. Further, in cachectic conditional knockout animals lacking C/EBPβ in Pax7+ cells, the SC compartment was reduced because of increased apoptosis, and regeneration was impaired. Our findings indicate that the stimulation of C/EBPβ expression by IL-1β following muscle injury and in cancer cachexia acts to promote SC survival, and is therefore a protective mechanism for SCs and myoblasts in the face of inflammation. PMID:26913600

  2. Interindividual concordance of methylation profiles in human genes for tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta.

    PubMed Central

    Kochanek, S; Toth, M; Dehmel, A; Renz, D; Doerfler, W

    1990-01-01

    The DNA in mammalian genomes is characterized by complex patterns of DNA methylation that reflect the states of all genetic activities of that genome. The modified nucleotide 5-methyldeoxycytidine (5mdC) can affect the interactions of specific proteins with DNA sequence motifs. The most extensively studied effect of sequence-specific methylations is that of the long-term silencing of eukaryotic (mammalian) promoters. We have initiated studies on the methylation status of parts of the human genome to view patterns of DNA methylation as indicators for genetic activities. In this report, analyses using both restriction enzyme--Southern blotting and the very precise genomic sequencing technique have been done. The genes for tumor necrosis factors (TNF) alpha and beta--in particular, their 5'-upstream and promoter regions--have been investigated in DNA isolated from human lymphocytes, granulocytes, and sperm. The results are characterized by a remarkable interindividual concordance of DNA methylation in specific human cell types. The patterns are identical in the DNA from one cell type for different individuals even of different genetic origins but different in the DNA from different cell types. As an example, in the DNA from human granulocytes of 15 different individuals (ages 20-48 yr, both sexes), 5mdC residues have been localized by the genomic sequencing technique in three identical sequence positions in the 5'-upstream region and in one downstream position of the gene encoding TNF-alpha. The promoter of this gene is free of 5mdC, and TNF-alpha is expressed in human granulocytes. The TNF-beta promoter is methylated in granulocytes from 9 different individuals, and TNF-beta is not expressed. In human lymphocytes, the main source of TNF-beta, the TNF-beta promoter is free of 5mdC residues. All 5'-CG-3' sites studied in the TNF-alpha and -beta genes are methylated in DNA from human sperm. In human cell lines HL-60, Jurkat, and RPMI 1788, the extent of DNA methylation

  3. Structural modifications of human beta 2 microglobulin treated with oxygen-derived radicals.

    PubMed Central

    Capeillere-Blandin, C; Delaveau, T; Descamps-Latscha, B

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of human beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) with defined oxygen-derived species generated by treatment with gamma-radiation was studied. As assessed by SDS/PAGE, the hydroxyl radicals (.OH) caused the disappearance of the protein band at 12 kDa that represents beta 2m, and cross-linked the protein into protein bands stable to both SDS and reducing conditions. However, when .OH was generated under oxygen in equimolar combination with the superoxide anion radical (O2.-), the high-molecular-mass protein products were less represented, and fragmented derivatives were not obviously detectable. Exposure to .OH alone, or to .OH + O2.- in the presence of O2, induced the formation of beta 2m protein derivatives with a more acidic net electrical charge than the parent molecule. In contrast, O2.- alone had virtually no effect on molecular mass or pI. Changes in u.v. fluorescence during .OH attack indicated changes in conformation, as confirmed by c.d. spectrometry. A high concentration of radicals caused the disappearance of the beta-pleated sheet structure and the formation of a random coil structure. Loss of tryptophan and significant production of dityrosine (2,2'-biphenol type) were noted, exhibiting a clear dose-dependence with .OH alone or with .OH + O2.-. The combination of .OH + O2.- induced a pattern of changes similar to that with .OH alone, but more extensive for c.d. and tryptophan oxidation (2 Trp/beta 2m molecule), and more limited for dityrosine formation. Lower levels of these oxidative agents caused the reproducible formation of species at 18 and 25 kDa which were recognized by antibodies against native beta 2m. These findings provide a model for the protein pattern observed in beta 2m amyloidosis described in the literature. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1649598

  4. Effect of transforming growth factor beta on synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by human lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Dubaybo, B.A.; Thet, L.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The processes of lung growth, injury, and repair are characterized by alterations in fibroblast synthesis and interstitial distribution of extracellular matrix components. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), which is postulated to play a role in modulating lung repair, alters the distribution of several matrix components such as collagen and fibronectin. We studied the effect of TGF-beta on the synthesis and distribution of the various glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and whether these effects may explain its role in lung repair. Human diploid lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) were exposed to various concentrations of TGF-beta (0-5 nM) for variable periods of time (0-18 h). Newly synthesized GAGs were labeled with either (3H)glucosamine or (35S)sulfate. Individual GAGs were separated by size exclusion chromatography after serial enzymatic and chemical digestions and quantitated using scintillation counting. There was a dose-dependent increase in total GAG synthesis with maximal levels detected after 6 h of exposure. This increase was noted in all individual GAG types measured and was observed in both the cell associated GAGs (cell-matrix fraction) as well as the GAGs released into the medium (medium fraction). In the cell-matrix fraction, TGF-beta increased the proportion of heparan sulfate that was membrane bound as well as the proportion of dermatan sulfate in the intracellular compartment. In the medium fraction, TGF-beta increased the proportion of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate released. We conclude that the role of TGF-beta in lung growth and repair may be related to increased synthesis of GAGs by human lung fibroblasts as well as alterations in the distribution of individual GAGs.

  5. Beta-cell metabolic alterations under chronic nutrient overload in rat and human islets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to assess multifactorial Beta-cell responses to metabolic perturbations in primary rat and human islets. Treatment of dispersed rat islet cells with elevated glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs, oleate:palmitate = 1:1 v/v) resulted in increases in the size and the number of ...

  6. Structure of a human beta-actin-related pseudogene which lacks intervening sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Moos, M; Gallwitz, D

    1982-01-01

    From a human genomic library we have isolated and sequenced a beta-actin-related pseudogene (Hbeta Ac-psi l) which is free of intervening sequences. Several nucleotide insertions and deletions and translational stop codons generated within the protein-coding region indicate that this gene is functionless. PMID:6296793

  7. Human and rodent MaxiK channel beta-subunit genes: cloning and characterization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Wallner, M; Meera, P; Toro, L

    1999-01-01

    Voltage- and Ca2+-sensitive K+ (MaxiK) channels play key roles in controlling neuronal excitability and vascular tone. We cloned and analyzed human and rodent genes for the modulatory beta subunit, KCNMB1. The human and mouse beta-subunit genes are approximately 11 and approximately 9 kb in length, respectively, and have a four exon-three intron structure. Primer extension assay localized the transcription initiation site at 442 (human) or 440 (mouse) bp upstream of the translation initiation codon, agreeing with the transcript size in Northern blots. Both genes have a TATA-less putative promoter region, with a transcription initiator-like region, and motifs characteristic of regulated promoters, including muscle-specific enhancing factors-1 and -2. Consistent with a tissue-specific expression of KCNMB1, regulated at the transcriptional level, beta-subunit transcripts are abundant in smooth muscle and heart, but scarce in lymphatic tissues, brain, and liver. Expressed rat and mouse beta subunits increase the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the human MaxiK channel alpha subunit. PMID:9888999

  8. Using the NCBI Genome Databases to Compare the Genes for Human & Chimpanzee Beta Hemoglobin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The beta hemoglobin protein is identical in humans and chimpanzees. In this tutorial, students see that even though the proteins are identical, the genes that code for them are not. There are many more differences in the introns than in the exons, which indicates that coding regions of DNA are more highly conserved than non-coding regions.

  9. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  10. Crystal Structure of the Central Coiled-Coil Domain from Human Liprin-[beta]2

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Tang, Ming-Yun; Sawaya, Michael R.; Phillips, Martin L.; Bowie, James U.

    2012-02-07

    Liprins are a conserved family of scaffolding proteins important for the proper regulation and development of neuronal synapses. Humans have four liprin-{alpha}s and two liprin-{beta}s which all contain long coiled-coil domains followed by three tandem SAM domains. Complex interactions between the coiled-coil and SAM domains are thought to create liprin scaffolds, but the structural and biochemical properties of these domains remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we find that the human liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil forms an extended dimer. Several protease-resistant subdomains within the liprin-{beta}1 and liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coils were also identified. A 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central, protease-resistant core of the liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil reveals a parallel helix orientation. These studies represent an initial step toward determining the overall architecture of liprin scaffolds and understanding the molecular basis for their synaptic functions.

  11. Kinetics of Beta-14[14C] Carotene in a Human Subject Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dueker, S.R.; Lin, Y.; Follett, J.R.; Clifford, A.J.; Buchholz, B.A.

    2000-01-31

    {beta}-Carotene is a tetraterpenoid distributed widely throughout the plant kingdom. It is a member of a group of pigments referred to as carotenoids that have the distinction of serving as metabolic precursors to vitamin A in humans and many animals [1,2]. We used Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) [3] to determine the metabolic behavior of a physiologic oral dose of {beta}-[{sup 14}C]carotene (200 nanoCuries; 0.57 {micro}mol) in a healthy human subject. Serial blood specimens were collected for 210-d and complete urine and feces were collected for 17 and 10-d, respectively. Balance data indicated that the dose was 42% bioavailable. The absorbed {beta}-carotene was lost slowly via urine in accord with the slow body turnover of {beta}-carotene and vitamin A [4]. HPLC fractionation of plasma taken at early time points (0-24-h) showed the label was distributed between {beta}-carotene and retinyl esters (vitamin A) derived from intestinal metabolism.

  12. Interleukin-1 beta induces synthesis and secretion of interleukin-6 in human chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bender, S; Haubeck, H D; Van de Leur, E; Dufhues, G; Schiel, X; Lauwerijns, J; Greiling, H; Heinrich, P C

    1990-04-24

    Increased concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been found in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and crystal-related joint diseases. It is therefore of great interest to identify the cells responsible for the production of IL-6, and to investigate whether IL-6 plays a role in the pathogenesis of degenerative or inflammatory joint diseases. Here we show that human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces IL-6 synthesis and secretion in differentiated human chondrocytes. In organ cultures resembling closely the in vivo system 10(6) chondrocytes incubated with 100 units of interleukin-1 beta per ml of medium led to the release of 6 X 10(3) units of IL-6 within 24 h. Chondrocytes cultured in agarose or as monolayers similarly incubated with IL-1 beta produced even higher amounts of IL-6: 70 X 10(3) units per 10(6) cells within 24 h. The induction of IL-6 synthesis by IL-1 beta was also shown at the mRNA level. IL-6 secreted by stimulated chondrocytes showed heterogeneity upon Western blot analysis. PMID:2335234

  13. [2,4-13 C2 ]-beta-Hydroxybutyrate metabolism in human brain.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jullie W; de Graaf, Robin A; Petersen, Kitt F; Shulman, Gerald I; Hetherington, Hoby P; Rothman, Douglas L

    2002-07-01

    Infusions of [2,4-13C2]-beta-hydroxybutyrate and 1H-13C polarization transfer spectroscopy were used in normal human subjects to detect the entry and metabolism of beta-hydroxybutyrate in the brain. During the 2-hour infusion study, 13C label was detectable in the beta-hydroxybutyrate resonance positions and in the amino acid pools of glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate. With a plasma concentration of 2.25 +/- 0.24 mmol/L (four volunteers), the apparent tissue beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration reached 0.18 +/- 0.06 mmol/L during the last 20 minutes of the study. The relative fractional enrichment of 13C-4-glutamate labeling was 6.78 +/- 1.71%, whereas 13C-4-glutamine was 5.68 +/- 1.84%. Steady-state modeling of the 13C label distribution in glutamate and glutamine suggests that, under these conditions, the consumption of the beta-hydroxybutyrate is predominantly neuronal, used at a rate of 0.032 +/- 0.009 mmol. kg-1. min-1, and accounts for 6.4 +/- 1.6% of total acetyl coenzyme A oxidation. These results are consistent with minimal accumulation of cerebral ketones with rapid utilization, implying blood-brain barrier control of ketone oxidation in the nonfasted adult human brain. PMID:12142574

  14. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human interferon-beta in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Salmon, P; Le Cotonnec, J Y; Galazka, A; Abdul-Ahad, A; Darragh, A

    1996-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human interferon-beta (rHuIFN-beta 1a) were assessed following administration to 12 healthy male volunteers. Each subject received, in a double-blind, balanced, random-order, crossover sequence, single doses of 6 MIU of rHuIFN-beta 1a (Rebif) i.v., i.m., and s.c. or matching placebo on four occasions separated by washout periods of 1 week. Blood samples were collected at preset times for the measurement of serum IFN-beta levels and of intracellular 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase levels. Blood pressure, sitting heart rate, respiratory rate, oral body temperature, and tolerance were monitored regularly. All administrations of rHuIFN-beta 1a were well tolerated, although about half of the subjects had a flu-like syndrome, as expected. After i.v. bolus injection, the pharmacokinetics of rHuIFN-beta 1a were well described by a classic two-compartment model. Mean total clearance of rHuIFN-beta 1a was about 100 L.h-1. The distribution half-life was 5 min, and the terminal half-life was approximately 5 h. After i.m. or s.c. injection, serum IFN-beta profiles were rather flat, and about one sixth of the administered dose was available systemically. Extent and duration of clinical and biologic effects were independent of the route of administration and of the IFN-beta serum levels. Biologic pharmacodynamic effects persisted even when IFN-beta serum levels had returned to baseline and were still significantly elevated 3 days after a single dose. Because of the independence of the extent and duration of clinical and biologic pharmacodynamic effects from the route of administration and from the IFN-beta serum levels, the s.c route of administration is preferred in indications in which primarily an immunomodulatory action is sought. Predominantly antiviral and antiproliferative activity is enhanced by the i.v. route to provide adequate drug levels at the site of pathology, although its application is limited on practical

  15. In situ assessment of the role of the beta 1-, beta 2- and beta 3-adrenoceptors in the control of lipolysis and nutritive blood flow in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Barbe, P.; Millet, L.; Galitzky, J.; Lafontan, M.; Berlan, M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The involvement of beta 1-, beta 2- and beta 3-adrenoceptors in the control of lipolysis and nutritive blood flow was investigated in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy young adults by use of an in situ microdialysis technique. 2. Dialysis probes were infused either with isoprenaline (non-selective beta-adrenoceptor agonist), CGP 12,177 (selective beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist having beta 1-/beta 2-antagonist properties), dobutamine (selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist) or terbutaline (selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist). The recovery of each probe used for perfusion was calculated by an in vivo calibration method. The local blood flow was estimated through the measurement of the escape of ethanol infused simultaneously with the drugs included in the probe. 3. Isoprenaline infusion at 0.01 microM had a weak effect while higher concentrations of isoprenaline (0.1 and 1 microM) caused a rapid, sustained and concentration-dependent increase of glycerol outflow; the maximum increase was 306 +/- 34% with 1 microM. Isoprenaline also increased the nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue; a significant effect appeared at 0.1 microM isoprenaline and was greater at 1 microM. 4. CGP 12,177 (10 and 100 microM) increased the glycerol concentration in the dialysate (128 +/- 8 and 149 +/- 12%, respectively) and nutritive blood flow. Terbutaline and dobutamine (100 microM) both provoked rapid and similar increases in glycerol outflow (252 +/- 18 and 249 +/- 18%, respectively). Both, terbutaline and dobutamine increased nutritive blood flow. 5. It is concluded that beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor subtypes are both mainly involved in the mobilization of lipids and in the control of nutritive blood flow. beta 3-Adrenoceptors play a weaker role in the control of lipolysis and nutritive blood flow in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. PMID:8851509

  16. Long-chain fatty acid esters of 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol: composition and turnover in human mammary cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Martyn, P; Adams, J B

    1989-08-01

    Long-chain fatty acid esters of the adrenal-derived estrogen 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol (ADIOL) were found to accumulate in four human mammary cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-330) when explosed to 10-30 nM ADIOL for variable time periods. At each time point examined, the monoester fraction, which represented the major component of the total lipoidal fraction, contained fatty acids linked to either the 3 beta- or 17 beta-positions. However, there was considerable variation in the ratio of 3 beta- to 17 beta-monoesters in the four cell lines. By means of reverse phase HPLC and referral to authentic synthesized compounds, each monoester fraction was found to contain a number of long-chain fatty acid components whose composition resembled that previously determined for the fatty acid esters formed from 17 beta-estradiol. A specific and measurable turnover of a subfraction of ADIOL-17 beta-monoesters composed of essential fatty acids (22:6, 20:4, 18:3) occurred in MCF-7 cells, and to a lesser extent in ZR-75-1 cells. No changes were observed with time in any of the components of the 3 beta- or 17 beta-monoester fractions in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-330 cells. These results, coupled with other studies, now suggest that a very rapid turnover of some components of these lipoidal derivatives may be occurring. If so, it is possible that the system of acylation-deacylation may be involved in a transport mechanism for estrogens and perhaps other steroid hormones. PMID:2588301

  17. Translational activity and functional stability of human fibroblast beta 1 and beta 2 interferon mRNAs lacking 3'-terminal RNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Soreq, H; Sagar, A D; Sehgal, P B

    1981-01-01

    Polyadenylylated mRNA was purified from poly(I).poly(C)- and cycloheximide-superinduced human fibroblast (FS-4) cultures. The mRNA was subjected to electrophoresis through an agarose/CH3HgOH gel, and human fibroblast beta 1 and beta 2 interferon mRNAs were isolated. Each mRNA preparation was phosphorolyzed at 0 degrees C for 20 min by using a molar excess of polynucleotide phosphorylase to produce RNAs lacking poly(A) and then incubated at 37 degrees C for varying lengths of time to allow the phosphorylase to further digest the deadenylylated RNA from the 3' end in a processive and synchronous manner. Removal of the poly(A) (less than or equal to 100 residues) and approximately 100 adjacent residues from human fibroblast beta 1 interferon mRNA (native length, 900 residues, including a 3'-noncoding region of 203 residues) did not alter the translational activity or the functional stability of this mRNA in Xenopus oocytes, whereas deletion of the poly(A) and approximately 200 adjacent residues decreased its translational efficiency. On the other hand, removal of the poly(A) (approximately 200 residues) and approximately 200 adjacent residues from human fibroblast beta 2 interferon mRNA (native length, 1300 residues) did not alter the translational activity or the functional stability of this molecule in oocytes. Thus, neither the poly(A) nor large segments of the 3'-noncoding region (which includes the hexanucleotide A-A-U-A-A-A sequence, at least in the case of beta 1 mRNA) are required for the maintenance of the functional stability of human beta 1 and beta 2 interferon mRNAs in Xenopus oocytes. Images PMID:6165016

  18. Characterization of a new begomovirus and a beta satellite associated with the leaf curl disease of French bean in northern India.

    PubMed

    Kamaal, Naimuddin; Akram, Mohammad; Pratap, Aditya; Yadav, Prashant

    2013-02-01

    Begomoviruses are emerging as serious threat to many crops throughout the world particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. A leaf curl disease with symptoms typical of infection by many begomoviruses was observed in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) at Kanpur, India, during 2010-2012. The disease caused downward leaf curling and made the plants unproductive. The disease was transmitted from infected to healthy plants through whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). The products of five samples digested with EcoRI yielded DNA fragments of about 2.7 kb. The complete sequence of the Fb1 sample comprised 2,741 nucleotides with genome organization typical of begomoviruses having two ORFs in virion-sense and five ORFs in complementary-sense separated by an intergenic region with begomovirus conserved nonanucleotide sequence, TAATATTAC. The complete DNA-A sequence homology was most closely related to Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with 80 % nucleotide sequence identity. Based on the demarcation criteria for identifying a begomovirus species, Fb1 is considered as a distinct begomovirus species, named French bean leaf curl virus and designated as FbLCV-[IN:Knp:12]. The complete sequence of associated satellite DNA-β comprises 1,379 nucleotides with single ORF and has 80 % identity with Papaya leaf curl beta satellite. There was no evidence of recombination in DNA-A of FbLCV and associated beta satellite DNA molecule. PMID:23054434

  19. Engineered cystine knot miniproteins as potent inhibitors of human mast cell tryptase beta.

    PubMed

    Sommerhoff, Christian P; Avrutina, Olga; Schmoldt, Hans-Ulrich; Gabrijelcic-Geiger, Dusica; Diederichsen, Ulf; Kolmar, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the design, chemical and recombinant synthesis, and functional properties of a series of novel inhibitors of human mast cell tryptase beta, a protease of considerable interest as a therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic asthma and inflammatory disorders. These inhibitors are derived from a linear variant of the cyclic cystine knot miniprotein MCoTI-II, originally isolated from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis. A synthetic cyclic miniprotein that bears additional positive charge in the loop connecting the N- and C-termini inhibits all monomers of the tryptase beta tetramer with an overall equilibrium dissociation constant K(i) of 1 nM and thus is one of the most potent proteinaceous inhibitors of tryptase beta described to date. These cystine knot miniproteins may therefore become valuable scaffolds for the design of a new generation of tryptase inhibitors. PMID:19852971

  20. DNA bending and binding factors of the human. beta. -actin promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, Takeshi; Makino, Kozo; Orita, Satoshi; Nakata, Atsuo; Kakunaga, Takeo )

    1989-01-25

    Transcription of the {beta}-actin gene is rapidly inducible in response to serum stimulation. To determine the regions responsible for serum inducible and basal level expression, the human {beta}-actin promoter was subjected to mutational analysis. Two distinct elements, the CCAAT homology and the {beta}-actin specific conserved sequences, were found by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression assay and sequence comparisons, and then analyzed for possible functions. Using a DNA bend assay, it was shown that the conserved sequences included the core of a sequence-directed bend of DNA. Gel mobility shift and DNase I protection assays revealed that the conserved sequences and the CCAAT homology were recognized by binding factors in HeLa cell extracts.

  1. Receptor-binding region in human choriogonadotropin/lutropin. beta. subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Keutmann, H.T.; Charlesworth, M.C.; Mason, K.A.; Ostrea, T.; Johnson, L.; Ryan, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    Synthetic fragments have not been widely used thus far to evaluate structure-activity relations in the glycoprotein hormones. The authors prepared a series of peptides representing the intercysteine loop sequence (residues 38-57) in human choriogonadotropin (hCG) and lutropin (hLH) ..beta.. subunits, anticipating that it might be oriented toward the surface and accessible to receptors. The peptides were characterized chemically and tested for bioactivity by binding to rat ovarian membrane receptor and stimulation of Leydig cell testosterone production. The hCG..beta..-(38-57) and hLH..beta..-(38-57) peptides inhibited binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hCG half-maximally at 1.51 x 10/sup -4/ and 2.03 x 10/sup -5/ M, respectively, while other peptide hormones and fragments from elsewhere in the ..beta.. subunit were inactive. Both peptides stimulated testosterone production, with half-maximal responses at 3.55 x 10/sup -5/ M (hCG) and 2.18 x 10/sup -5/ M (hLH). By radioimmunoassay with an antibody to thyroglobulin-conjugated hCG..beta..-(38-57) peptide, native hCG and ..beta.. subunit were highly reactive, as were the reduced and carboxymethylated subunit and peptide. These results indicate that the 38-57 region of ..beta.. subunit is exposed on the surface and constitutes a component in the receptor-binding domain for hCG and hLH. A region of amphipathic-helical structure in the 38-57 sequence may promote hormone-receptor interactions in a manner proposed for several other peptide hormones.

  2. Assignment of the {beta}B1 crystallin gene (CRYBB1) to human chromosome 22 and mouse chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hulsebos, T.J.M.; Westerveld, A.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A.; Copeland, N.G.

    1995-10-10

    By using primers complementary to the rat {beta}B1 crystallin gene sequence, we amplified exons 5 and 6 of the orthologous human gene (CRYBB1). The amplified human segments displayed greater than 88% sequence homology to the corresponding rat and bovine sequences. CRYBB1 was assigned to the group 5 region in 22q11.2-q12.1 by hybridizing the exon 6 PCR product to somatic cell hybrids containing defined portions of human chromosome 22. The exon 5 and exon 6 PCR products of CRYBB1 were used to localize, by interspecific backcross mapping, the mouse gene (Crybb1) to the central portion of chromosome 5. Three other {beta} crystallin genes ({beta}B2(-l), {beta}B3, and {beta}A4) have previously been mapped to the same regions in human and mouse. We demonstrate that the {beta}B1 and {beta}A4 crystallin genes are very closely linked in the two species. These assignments complete the mapping and identification of the human and mouse homologues of the major {beta} crystallins genes that are expressed in the bovine lens. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. High affinity binding of beta 2-glycoprotein I to human endothelial cells is mediated by annexin II.

    PubMed

    Ma, K; Simantov, R; Zhang, J C; Silverstein, R; Hajjar, K A; McCrae, K R

    2000-05-19

    Beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) is an abundant plasma phospholipid-binding protein and an autoantigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Binding of beta(2)GPI to endothelial cells targets them for activation by anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies, which circulate and are associated with thrombosis in patients with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. However, the binding of beta(2)GPI to endothelial cells has not been characterized and is assumed to result from association of beta(2)GPI with membrane phospholipid. Here, we characterize the binding of beta(2)GPI to endothelial cells and identify the beta(2)GPI binding site. (125)I-beta(2)GPI bound with high affinity (K(d) approximately 18 nm) to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Using affinity purification, we isolated beta(2)GPI-binding proteins of approximately 78 and approximately 36 kDa from HUVECs and EAHY.926 cells. Amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides from each of these were identical to sequences within annexin II. A role for annexin II in binding of beta(2)GPI to cells was confirmed by the observations that annexin II-transfected HEK 293 cells bound approximately 10-fold more (125)I-beta(2)GPI than control cells and that anti-annexin II antibodies inhibited the binding of (125)I-beta(2)GPI to HUVECs by approximately 90%. Finally, surface plasmon resonance studies revealed high affinity binding between annexin II and beta(2)GPI. These results demonstrate that annexin II mediates the binding of beta(2)GPI to endothelial cells. PMID:10809787

  4. TGF-beta during human colorectal carcinogenesis: the shift from epithelial to mesenchymal signaling.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, K; Seki, T; Okazaki, K

    2006-12-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activates not only TGF-beta type I receptor (Tbeta RI) but also c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), converting the mediator Smad3 to two distinct phosphoisoforms: C-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3C) and linker phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L). While Tbeta RI/pSmad3C pathway inhibits growth of normal epithelial cells, the activated mesenchymal cells invade via JNK/pSmad3L pathway. During sporadic human colorectal carcinogenesis, TGF-beta signaling confers a selective advantage upon tumor cells by shifting from epithelial Tbeta RI/pSmad3C pathway to mesenchymal JNK/pSmad3L pathway. Loss of epithelial homeostasis and acquisition of a migratory, mesenchymal phenotype are essential for tumor invasion. In a future, specific inhibition of the JNK/pSmad3L pathway will become a therapy for human colorectal cancer that restores the lost tumor-suppressive function observed in normal colorectal epithelial cells at the expense of effects promoting the aggressive behavior. PMID:17093904

  5. Thalassaemia mutations within the 5'UTR of the human beta-globin gene disrupt transcription.

    PubMed

    Sgourou, Argyro; Routledge, Samantha; Antoniou, Michael; Papachatzopoulou, Adamantia; Psiouri, Lambrini; Athanassiadou, Aglaia

    2004-03-01

    The mechanisms by which mutations within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the human beta-globin gene (HBB) cause thalassaemia are currently not well understood. We present here the first comprehensive comparative functional analysis of four 'silent' mutations in the human beta-globin 5'UTR, namely: +10(-T), +22(G --> A), +33(C --> G) and +(40-43)(-AAAC), which are present in patients with beta-thalassaemia intermedia. Expression of these genes under the control of the beta-globin locus control region in stable transfected murine erythroleukaemia cells showed that all four mutations decreased steady state levels of mRNA to 61.6%, 68%, 85.2% and 70.6%, respectively, compared with the wildtype gene. These mutations did not interfere with either mRNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, 3' end processing or mRNA stability. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that mutations +10(-T) and +33(C --> G) reduced the rate of transcription to a degree that fully accounted for the observed lower level of mRNA accumulation, suggesting a disruption of downstream promoter sequences. Interestingly, mutation +22(G --> A) decreased the rate of transcription to a low degree, indicating the existence of a mechanism that acts post-transcriptionally. Generally, our data demonstrated the significance of functionally analysing mutants of this type in the presence of a full complement of transcriptional regulatory elements within a stably integrated chromatin context in an erythroid cell environment. PMID:15009072

  6. Promotion of human adipocyte precursor replication by 17beta-estradiol in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Roncari, D A; Van, R L

    1978-01-01

    The influence of 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-estradiol on adult human omental adipocyte precursors grown in a propagating culture system was studied. Cells were grown in subculture in the presence or absence of hormone. 17beta-estradiol resulted in significant promotion of adipocyte precursor replication, as determined by cell counting and incorporation of radioactive thymidine into DNA. The hormone stimulated cell multiplication in the concentration range 0.5--500 ng/ml growth medium. The highest level tested was 500 ng/ml. The maximal effects were obtained at 50 ng/ml (P less than 0.001 by paired t test, 48 h after hormone addition). All 10 cell strains (five were derived from men and five from women) that were tested responded similarly to the hormone. 17beta-estradiol did not affect cell size. 17alpha-estradiol did not promote the replication of adipocyte precursors, nor did it influence cell size. Thus, 17beta-estradiol, which is the active isomer in known target tissues, stimulates the multiplication of human adipocyte precursors in culture. Images PMID:690182

  7. Identification of the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 mRNA and protein in human mononuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Fiore, C; Nardi, A; Dalla Valle, L; Pellati, D; Krozowski, Z; Colombo, L; Armanini, D

    2009-10-01

    The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the interconversion between inactive 11-ketoglucocorticoids and their active 11beta-hydroxy derivatives, such as cortisol and corticosterone. We have investigated the expression of 11beta-HSD1 in freshly isolated human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes (MNL). The presence of 11beta-HSD1 mRNA was demonstrated in total RNA by RT-PCR using specific primers designed on the 4th and 5th exons of the human 11beta-HSD1 gene. Fragments of the expected size were consistently detected on agarose gels, and sequencing showed complete identity with the corresponding sequence deposited in GenBank. The occurrence of 11beta-HSD1 protein was established by Western immunoblot analysis with a specific polyclonal antibody. Enzyme oxo-reductase activity was investigated by incubating 12 samples of MNL isolated from from 8 subjects with [3H]cortisone and formation of cortisol was established only in 4 subjects (yield range: 0.15-1.3%) after acetylation and TLC, blank subtraction and correction for losses. 18beta-Glycyrrhetinic acid, an inhibitor of 11 beta-HSD1, reduced cortisol production below detection limit. Dehydrogenase activity could not be demonstrated. It is suggested that, although enzyme activity of 11beta-HSD1 in circulating MNL is low, it is apparently ready for enhancement after MNL migration to sites of inflammation. PMID:19235128

  8. A beta 1-integrin receptor for fibronectin in human kidney glomeruli.

    PubMed Central

    Kerjaschki, D.; Ojha, P. P.; Susani, M.; Horvat, R.; Binder, S.; Hovorka, A.; Hillemanns, P.; Pytela, R.

    1989-01-01

    The fibronectin receptor (FNR) is a transmembrane heterodimeric glycoprotein which shares a common beta 1-chain with several other members of the integrin family of adhesion receptors. The authors have prepared a membrane fraction of isolated human glomeruli, from which two proteins (apparent molecular weights 120 kd and 140 kd) bound to a fibronectin-column, and were selectively released by the synthetic peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser. These molecules were labeled in immune overlays by an antibody raised against the FNR from human placenta that recognizes both the FNR-specific a-chain and the group-specific beta 1-integrin chain. In sections of normal human kidneys this antibody labeled predominately the mesangia and the peripheral capillary walls of glomeruli by an immunoperoxidase procedure. Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy, using an indirect immunogold procedure, revealed a preferential localization along the cell membranes of mesangial, epithelial, and endothelial cells that face the mesangial matrix or the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In kidney biopsies from patients with various glomerular diseases (membranous and other forms of glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease) the distribution was similar to that in normal glomeruli. These findings indicate that a beta 1-integrin-related FNR is present in normal and diseased human glomeruli. Images Figure 1-4 Figure 5 Figure 6-10 Figure 11-16 PMID:2521774

  9. Human biliverdin reductase, a previously unknown activator of protein kinase C betaII.

    PubMed

    Maines, Mahin D; Miralem, Tihomir; Lerner-Marmarosh, Nicole; Shen, Jenny; Gibbs, Peter E M

    2007-03-16

    Human biliverdin reductase (hBVR), a dual specificity kinase (Ser/Thr/Tyr) is, as protein kinase C (PKC) betaII, activated by insulin and free radicals (Miralem, T., Hu, Z., Torno, M. D., Lelli, K. M., and Maines, M. D. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 17084-17092; Lerner-Marmarosh, N., Shen, J., Torno, M. D., Kravets, A., Hu, Z., and Maines, M. D. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102, 7109-7114). Here, by using 293A cells co-transfected with pcDNA3-hBVR and PKC betaII plasmids, we report the co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins and co-purification in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assay. hBVR and PKC betaII, but not the reductase and PKC zeta, transphosphorylated in assay systems supportive of activity of only one of the kinases. PKC betaII K371R mutant protein ("kinase-dead") was also a substrate for hBVR. The reductase increased the Vmax but not the apparent Km values of PKC betaII for myelin basic protein; activation was independent of phospholipids and extended to the phosphorylation of S2, a PKC-specific substrate. The increase in substrate phosphorylation was blocked by specific inhibitors of conventional PKCs and attenuated by sihBVR. The effect of the latter could be rescued by subsequent overexpression of hBVR. To a large extent, the activation was a function of the hBVR N-terminal chain of valines and intact ATP-binding site and the cysteine-rich C-terminal segment. The cobalt protoporphyrin-activated hBVR phosphorylated a threonine in a peptide corresponding to the Thr500 in the human PKC betaII activation loop. Neither serine nor threonine residues in peptides corresponding to other phosphorylation sites of the PKC betaII nor PKC zeta activation loop-derived peptides were substrates. The phosphorylation of Thr500 was confirmed by immunoblotting of hBVR.PKC betaII immunocomplex. The potential biological relevance of the hBVR activation of PKC betaII was suggested by the finding that in cells transfected with the PKC betaII, h

  10. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte migration through human dermal fibroblast monolayers is dependent on both beta 2-integrin (CD11/CD18) and beta 1-integrin (CD29) mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J X; Issekutz, A C

    1995-01-01

    Accumulation of leucocytes in inflammation involves their migration through vascular endothelium and then in the connective tissue. We investigated human polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) migration through a biological barrier of human dermal fibroblasts grown on microporous filters, as a model of PMNL migration in the connective tissue. PMNL did not migrate through a fibroblast monolayer unless a chemotactic factor, e.g. C5a, interleukin-8 (IL-8) or zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP; C5adesArg), was added. This migration was partially inhibited (35-70%, depending on the stimulus) by treatment of PMNL with monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD18 (beta 2-integrins). Most of the CD18-independent migration was inhibited by mAb to beta 1-integrins (CD29). Inhibition by mAb to beta 1 was observed when the PMNL, but not the fibroblasts, were treated with mAb. The role of beta 1-integrins in PMNL transfibroblast migration was detectable only when the function of the CD11-CD18 complex was blocked, because mAb to beta 1-integrin alone had no significant effect on PMNL migration. Migration induced by C5a was more CD18-independent compared to IL-8 or C5adesArg. The CD18-independent migration was also inhibited by mAb to the beta 1-integrin subunits alpha 5 (of very late antigens-5; VLA-5) and alpha 6 (of VLA-6). Treatment of the fibroblasts (4 hr) with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or IL-1 alpha enhanced C5a-induced PMNL transfibroblast migration and increased the proportion of migration utilizing the CD11-CD18 mechanism. However, TNF-alpha treatment had no effect on the degree of beta 1-integrin-dependent migration. These findings suggest that in response to the chemotactic factors C5a, IL-8 and C5adesArg, PMNL migration in the connective tissue is mediated by both CD11-CD18 (beta 2) and beta 1-integrins on the PMNL. The VLA-5 and VLA-6 members of beta 1-integrins are involved in this process. This is in contrast to PMNL migration across endothelium in this system, which

  11. Functional properties of an isolated. cap alpha beta. heterodimeric human placenta insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, S.M.; Swanson, M.L.; Wemmie, J.A.; Pessin, J.E.

    1988-05-03

    Treatment of human placenta membranes at pH 8.5 in the presence of 2.0 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 5 min, followed by the simultaneous removal of the DTT and pH adjustment of pH 7.6, resulted in the formation of a functional ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor complex from the native ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state. The membrane-bound ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complex displayed similar curvilinear /sup 125/I-IGF-1 equilibrium binding compared to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric complex. /sup 125/I-IGF-1 binding to both the isolated ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes demonstrated a marked straightening of the Scatchard plots, compared to the placenta membrane-bound IGF-1 receptors, with a 2-fold increase in the high-affinity binding component. IGF-1 stimulation of IGF-1 receptor autophosphorylation indicated that the ligand-dependent activation of ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric protein kinase activity occurred concomitant with the reassociation into a covalent ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric state. These data demonstrate that (i) a combination of alkaline pH and DTT treatment of human placenta membranes results in the formation of an ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex, (ii) unlike the insulin receptor, high-affinity homogeneous IGF-1 binding occurs in both the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes, and (iii) IGF-1-dependent autophosphorylation of the ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex correlates wit an IGF-1 dependent covalent reassociation into an ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state.

  12. Recombination within and between the human insulin and beta-globin gene loci.

    PubMed Central

    Lebo, R V; Chakravarti, A; Buetow, K H; Cheung, M C; Cann, H; Cordell, B; Goodman, H

    1983-01-01

    We detected a large number of polymorphic insulin restriction fragments in black Americans. These different size fragments were probably generated by unequal recombination on both sides of the human insulin gene. Population genetic analysis indicates that recombination occurred 33 times more frequently than expected to generate this large number of polymorphic fragments. Specific properties of the unique repeated 14- to 16-base-pair sequences 5' to the insulin gene suggest that this sequence would promote increased unequal recombination. Additional pedigree analysis showed that the recombination rate between the structural insulin and beta-globin gene loci was 14% with strong evidence for linkage. Since both insulin and beta-globin have been mapped to the short arm of human chromosome 11, this study establishes that the genetic map distance between these genes is 14.2 centimorgans. PMID:6348773

  13. Multiple Signals Regulate PLC beta 3 in Human Myometrial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Miao; Murtazina, Dilyara A.; Phillips, Jennifer; Ku, Chun-Ying; Sanborn, Barbara M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The regulation of PLCB3-Serine1105 phosphorylation by both negative feedback and negative crosstalk facilitates the integration of multiple signaling pathways in myometrial cells. Phospholipase CB3 (PLCB3) Serine1105, a substrate for multiple protein kinases, represents a potential point of convergence of several signaling pathways in the myometrium. To explore this hypothesis, the regulation of PLCB3-Serine1105 phosphorylation (P-S1105) was studied in immortalized and primary human myometrial cells. CPT-cAMP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CALCA) transiently increased P-S1105. Relaxin also stimulated P-S1105; this effect was partially blocked by the protein kinase A (PRKA) inhibitor Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS. Oxytocin, which stimulates Gαq-mediated pathways, also rapidly increased P-S1105, as did PGF2α and ATP. Oxytocin-stimulated phosphorylation was blocked by the protein kinase C (PRKC) inhibitor Go6976 and by pretreatment overnight with a phorbol ester. Cypermethrin, a PP2B phosphatase inhibitor, but not okadaic acid, a PP1/PP2A inhibitor, prolonged the effect of CALCA on P-S1105, whereas the reverse was the case for the oxytocin-stimulated increase in P-S1105. PLCB3 was the predominant PLC isoform expressed in the myometrial cells and PLCB3 shRNA constructs significantly attenuated oxytocin-stimulated increases in intracellular calcium. Oxytocin-induced phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover was inhibited by CPT-cAMP and okadaic acid but enhanced by pretreatment with Go6976. CPT-cAMP inhibited oxytocin-stimulated PI turnover in the presence of overexpressed PLCB3, but not overexpressed PLCB3-S1105A. These data demonstrate that both negative crosstalk from the cAMP/PRKA pathway and a negative feedback loop in the oxytocin/G protein/PLCB pathway involving PRKC operate in myometrial cells and suggest that different protein phosphatases predominate in mediating P-S1105 dephosphorylation in these pathways. The integration of multiple signal components at the level

  14. Novel monoclonal antibody against beta 1 integrin enhances cisplatin efficacy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Young; Cho, Woon-Dong; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Choi, Da Bin; Hong, Jeong won; Kim, Soseul; Moon, Yoo Ri; Son, Seung-Myoung; Lee, Ok-Jun; Lee, Ho-Chang; Song, Hyung Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of anti-beta 1 integrin monoclonal antibody in lung cancer treatment has proven beneficial. Here, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), called P5, by immunizing mice with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Its anti-tumor effect is now being tested, in a clinical phase III trial, in combinatorial treatments with various chemical drugs. To confirm that P5 indeed binds to beta 1 integrin, cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with commercial anti-beta 1 integrin mAb (TS2/16) and immunoblotted against P5 to reveal a 140 kDa molecular weight band, as expected. Immunoprecipitation with P5 followed by LC/MS protein sequence analysis further verified P5 antigen to be beta 1 integrin. Cisplatin treatment upregulated cell surface expression of beta 1 integrin in A549 cells, while causing inhibition of cell growth. When cells were co-treated with different concentrations of P5 mAb, the cisplatin-mediated inhibitory effect was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show that a combinatorial treatment of P5 mAb and cisplatin in A549 cells resulted in a 30% increase in apoptosis, compared to baseline, and significantly more when compared to either the cisplatin or P5 alone group. The entire peptide sequences in CDR from variable region of Ig heavy and light chain gene for P5 mAb are also disclosed. Together, these results provide evidence of the beneficial effect of P5 mAb in combinatorial treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma.

  15. Interaction of selected vasodilating beta-blockers with adrenergic receptors in human cardiovascular tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Monopoli, A.; Forlani, A.; Bevilacqua, M.; Vago, T.; Norbiato, G.; Bertora, P.; Biglioli, P.; Alamanni, F.; Ongini, E.

    1989-07-01

    beta- And alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist properties of bufuralol, carvedilol, celiprolol, dilevalol, labetalol, and pindolol were investigated in human myocardium and mammary artery using binding techniques and functional studies. In myocardial membranes, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists showed monophasic competition isotherms for (125I)pindolol binding with high affinity (Ki from 1-100 nM), except for celiprolol which displayed a biphasic competition isotherm (pKi = 6.4 +/- 0.06 for beta 1- and 4.8 +/- 0.07 for beta 2-adrenoceptors). Drug interactions with alpha 1-adrenoceptors were evaluated in human mammary artery by (3H)prazosin binding and by measuring contractile responses to norepinephrine (NE). Labetalol and carvedilol showed a moderate affinity for alpha 1-adrenoceptors (pKi = 6.2 +/- 0.01 and 6.1 +/- 0.06, respectively), and inhibited NE-induced contractions (pA2 = 6.93 +/- 0.23 and 8.64 +/- 0.24, respectively). Dilevalol, bufuralol, and pindolol displayed weak effect both in binding (Ki in micromolar range) and functional experiments (pA2 = 5.98, 5.54, and 6.23, respectively). Celiprolol did not show antagonist properties up to 100 microM in functional studies, but displayed a slight affinity for alpha 1-adrenoceptors in binding studies. The data indicate that the vasodilating activity of these beta-adrenoceptor antagonists is caused in some instances by an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonism (labetalol, carvedilol), whereas for the others alternative mechanisms should be considered.

  16. Neuronal and glial accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kyoko; Iseki, Eizo; Togo, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Katsuse, Omi; Katsuyama, Kayoko; Kanzaki, Seiichi; Shiozaki, Kazumasa; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Tanaka, Yukichi; Yamanaka, Shoji; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    A number of the lysosomal storage diseases that have now been characterized are associated with intra-lysosomal accumulation of lipids, caused by defective lysosomal enzymes. We have previously reported neuronal accumulation of both alpha- and beta-synucleins in brain tissue of a GM2 gangliosidosis mouse model. Although alpha-synuclein has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, its functions remain largely unclear. In our present study, we have examined a cohort of human lipidosis cases, including Sandhoff disease, Tay-Sachs disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy, beta-galactosialidosis and adrenoleukodystrophy, for the expression of alpha- and beta-synucleins and the associated lipid storage levels. The accumulation of alpha-synuclein was found in brain tissue in not only cases of lysosomal storage diseases, but also in instances of adrenoleukodystrophy, which is a peroxisomal disease. alpha-synuclein was detected in both neurons and glial cells of patients with these two disorders, although its distribution was found to be disease-dependent. In addition, alpha-synuclein-positive neurons were also found to be NeuN-positive, whereas NeuN-negative neurons did not show any accumulation of this protein. By comparison, the accumulation of beta-synuclein was detectable only in the pons of Sandhoff disease cases. This differential accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses may be related to functional differences between these two proteins. In addition, the accumulation of alpha-synuclein may also be a condition that is common to lysosomal storage diseases and adrenoleukodystrophies that show an enhanced expression of this protein upon the elevation of stored lipids. PMID:17653558

  17. Existence of both IL-1 alpha and beta in normal human amniotic fluid: unique high molecular weight form of IL-1 beta.

    PubMed Central

    Tamatani, T; Tsunoda, H; Iwasaki, H; Kaneko, M; Hashimoto, T; Onozaki, K

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the possible existence of IL-1 in human amniotic fluid (AF). Since AF from most full-term deliveries appeared to contain an inhibitor(s) for thymocyte proliferation, AFs were fractionated by gel filtration prior to IL-1 assay. IL-1 activities eluted in two peaks at positions of 90,000-60,000 MW and 20,000-15,000 MW. Growth inhibitory activity eluted at the position of 70,000-50,000 MW, and its effect appeared to be non-specific because these fractions inhibited the growth of various cell lines. Using isoelectric focusing (IEF) techniques, pI values of 6.8-7.3 for the higher MW IL-1 as well as 4.9-5.5 and 6.7-7.0 for the lower MW IL-1 were obtained. Antibody against human IL-1 alpha partially neutralized the activity of the lower MW IL-1, though it exhibited little effect on the higher MW IL-1. In contrast, antibody against human IL-1 beta almost completely neutralized the activity of the higher MW IL-1 and partially neutralized the activity of the lower MW IL-1. These results suggest that most of the higher MW IL-1 is beta-type, and the lower MW IL-1 is a mixture of alpha and beta-types. IL-1 beta appeared to exist as a complex (combined with AF components) or as an aggregate of the lower MW IL-1 forms. These findings indicate that both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta are present in normal human AF from full-term deliveries, though IL-1 beta exists as a higher MW form aggregated with an unknown molecule. PMID:3264804

  18. Localized decrease of {beta}-catenin contributes to the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Hayley; Patel, Shyam; Wong, Janelle; Chu, Julia; Li, Adrian; Li, Song

    2008-08-08

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are pluripotent, and can be directed to differentiate into different cell types for therapeutic applications. To expand hESCs, it is desirable to maintain hESC growth without differentiation. As hESC colonies grow, differentiated cells are often found at the periphery of the colonies, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here, we utilized micropatterning techniques to pattern circular islands or strips of matrix proteins, and examined the spatial pattern of hESC renewal and differentiation. We found that micropatterned matrix restricted hESC differentiation at colony periphery but allowed hESC growth into multiple layers in the central region, which decreased hESC proliferation and induced hESC differentiation. In undifferentiated hESCs, {beta}-catenin primarily localized at cell-cell junctions but not in the nucleus. The amount of {beta}-catenin in differentiating hESCs at the periphery of colonies or in multiple layers decreased significantly at cell-cell junctions. Consistently, knocking down {beta}-catenin decreased Oct-4 expression in hESCs. These results indicate that localized decrease of {beta}-catenin contributes to the spatial pattern of differentiation in hESC colonies.

  19. beta. -Adrenoceptors in human tracheal smooth muscle: characteristics of binding and relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    van Koppen, C.J.; Hermanussen, M.W.; Verrijp, K.N.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J.F.; Beld, A.J.; Lammers, J.W.J.; van Ginneken, C.A.M.

    1987-06-29

    Specific binding of (/sup 125/I)-(-)-cyanopindolol to human tracheal smooth muscle membranes was saturable, stereo-selective and of high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5.3 +/- 0.9 pmol/l and R/sub T/ = 78 +/- 7 fmol/g tissue). The ..beta../sub 1/-selective antagonists atenolol and LK 203-030 inhibited specific (/sup 125/I)-(-)-cyanopindolol binding according to a one binding site model with low affinity in nearly all subjects, pointing to a homogeneous BETA/sub 2/-adrenoceptor population. In one subject using LK 203-030 a small ..beta../sub 1/-adrenoceptor subpopulation could be demonstrated. The beta-mimetics isoprenaline, fenoterol, salbutamol and terbutaline recognized high and low affinity agonist binding sites. Isoprenaline's pK/sub H/- and pK/sub L/-values for the high and low affinity sites were 8.0 +/- 0.2 and 5.9 +/- 0.3 respectively. In functional experiments isoprenaline relaxed tracheal smooth muscle strips having intrinsic tone with a pD/sub 2/-value of 6.63 +/- 0.19. 32 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  20. The integrin alpha 6 beta 1 promotes the survival of metastatic human breast carcinoma cells in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wewer, U. M.; Shaw, L. M.; Albrechtsen, R.; Mercurio, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    The role of the integrin alpha 6 beta 1 in breast carcinoma progression was studied by targeted elimination of this integrin in MDA-MB-435 cells, a human breast carcinoma cell line that is highly metastatic in athymic mice. The strategy used is based on the finding that expression of a cytoplasmic domain deletion mutant of the beta 4-integrin subunit (beta 4-delta CYT) in MDA-MB-435 cells eliminates formation of the alpha 6 beta 1 heterodimer. MDA-MB-435 cells that lacked alpha 6 beta 1 expression (beta 4-delta CYT transfectants) formed tumors in athymic mice that were suppressed in their growth and that exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in comparison to the control tumors. Unlike the control MDA-MB-435 cells, the beta 4-delta CYT transfectants were unable to establish metastatic foci in the lungs. Also, the control transfectants grew substantially better than the beta 4-delta CYT transfectants in the liver after intrahepatic injection because of extensive apoptosis in the beta 4-delta CYT transfectants. These data suggest that a major function of the alpha 6 beta 1 integrin in breast carcinoma is to facilitate tumorigenesis and promote tumor cell survival in distant organs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9358743

  1. Involvement of the RAR{beta}1 and dlk genes in small cell lung carcinogenesis and in human development

    SciTech Connect

    Toulouse, A.; Pelletier, M.; Morin, J.

    1994-09-01

    Lung cancer is the most lethal malignant disease in western societies. It encompasses four major histological types: squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma (known together as non-small-cell lung cancers) and a fourth type which is small cell carcinoma. This last histological class is a particularly aggressive malignant disease; it is characterized by an early development of metastasis so that upon time of diagnosis these are already widespread throughout the body. Our group is interested in defining and understanding the role of the retinoic acid receptor {beta}(RAR{beta}) gene in human lung cancer. This gene encodes nuclear transcription factors which are part of the thyroid and steroid hormone receptor superfamily. Four isoforms are known in mouse, which are generated by alternative splicing from two promoters, P{sub 1} (isoforms {beta}1 and {beta}3) and P{sub 2} (isoforms {beta}2 and {beta}4). In human only the isoforms {beta}2 (a tumor suppressor gene) and {beta}4 were known until recently when our group cloned the sequences encoding the 5{prime} end of the mRNA for RAR{beta}1. Expression studies have shown that this isoform is expressed during development in almost all tissues tested and that it is also expressed in a particular subset of human small cell carcinoma lines. It is not expressed in any adult tissue examined so far. Recently, Laborda et al. have cloned a human gene (dlk for delta-like) similar to the drosophila neurogenic gene Delta. We have found striking similarities in the expression pattern of dlk and RAR{beta}1 since the two genes are coexpressed in all fetal tissues examined and are also coexpressed in virtually identical subsets of SCLC lines. These results have implications for human embryogenesis and tumorigenesis.

  2. Partial rescue of epithelial phenotype in integrin beta4 null mice by a keratin-5 promoter driven human integrin beta4 transgene.

    PubMed

    van der Neut, R; Cachaço, A S; Thorsteinsdóttir, S; Janssen, H; Prins, D; Bulthuis, J; van der Valk, M; Calafat, J; Sonnenberg, A

    1999-11-01

    Integrin beta4 null mice exhibit extensive epidermal detachment, reminiscent of the human skin blistering disease junctional epidermolysis bullosa associated with pyloric atresia. Hemidesmosomes, the stable adhesion structures of squamous epithelia, are not formed in the absence of alpha6beta4. Null mutant mice die shortly after birth, but apart from their striking epithelial phenotype, no obvious developmental defects have been observed. To elucidate the cause of death in these mice, we generated transgenic mice with a heterologous construct consisting of the squamous epithelial-specific keratin-5 promoter and a human integrin beta4 subunit cDNA. The transgene was not expressed in the presence of endogenous beta4, probably as a result of competition for a limited pool of alpha6 subunits. In a beta4 null background, however, the transgene was expressed, and its expression pattern followed that of squamous epithelial-specific keratins. These rescued pups appeared healthy and ultrastructural analysis revealed that the interspecies heterodimer alpha6(mouse)/beta4(human) was sufficient to trigger the assembly of hemidesmosomes. After a variable period of up to 48 hours after birth these animals began to exhibit haemorrhages at the plantar and palmar areas. We observed the formation of small blisters and found that the transgene was not detectably expressed in this region, which is devoid of hair follicles. The rescued neonates became increasingly cyanotic and died soon after the onset of this phenomenon. We performed a developmental study of the expression of beta4 in the complete respiratory tract, but we found no correlation between the spatiotemporal distribution of beta4 and the onset of the respiratory insufficiency. It became clear, however, that there was a gradual detachment of squamous epithelia in the oral and nasal cavities which led to obstruction of the respiratory tract, suggesting that in beta4 null and rescued mice, neonatal death was a direct

  3. Characterization of the human beta4 nAChR gene and polymorphisms in CHRNA3 and CHRNB4.

    PubMed

    Lev-Lehman, E; Bercovich, D; Xu, W; Stockton, D W; Beaudet, A L

    2001-01-01

    Most neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are heteropentamers, composed of alpha and beta subunits. Mice lacking the alpha3 subunit and mice lacking both the beta2 and beta4 subunits, but not mice lacking the beta2 or beta4 subunits alone, have a severe phenotype characterized by megacystis, failure of bladder strips to contract in response to nicotine, widely dilated ocular pupils, growth failure, and perinatal mortality. The deficit in bladder contraction was also found in mice lacking only the beta4 subunit, although they did not develop megacystis. The major bladder phenotype resembles the human autosomal recessive disorder of megacystis-microcolon-hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS). Based on the similarity of the mouse and human phenotypes, we initiated mutation analyses in the alpha3 and beta4 genes in MMIHS families. The human gene encoding the beta4 subunit was fully characterized, including refinement of its mapping. Analysis of disease families and controls identified numerous genetic variants, including high-frequency polymorphisms in both CHRNA3 and CHRNB4. Although no loss-of-function mutations have been identified to date, these genes remain strong candidates for involvement in MMIHS, because various mutations might be obscured within the complex cluster of genes. Some of the markers presented here are valuable tools for analysis of the role of genetic variation in responses to nicotine and for characterization of various dysautonomic abnormalities. PMID:11450844

  4. Interaction of ibogaine with human alpha3beta4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Rosenberg, Avraham; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Feuerbach, Dominik; Yuan, Xiao Juan; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Moaddel, Ruin; Wainer, Irving W

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of ibogaine and phencyclidine (PCP) with human (h) alpha3beta4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was determined by functional and structural approaches including, radioligand binding assays, Ca2+ influx detections, and thermodynamic and kinetics measurements. The results established that (a) ibogaine inhibits (+/-)-epibatidine-induced Ca2+ influx in h(alpha)3beta4 AChRs with approximately 9-fold higher potency than that for PCP, (b) [3H]ibogaine binds to a single site in the h(alpha)3beta4 AChR ion channel with relatively high affinity (Kd = 0.46 +/- 0.06 microM), and ibogaine inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the desensitized h(alpha)3beta4 AChR with slightly higher affinity compared to the resting AChR. This is explained by a slower dissociation rate from the desensitized ion channel compared to the resting ion channel, and (c) PCP inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the h(alpha)3beta4 AChR, suggesting overlapping sites. The experimental results correlate with the docking simulations suggesting that ibogaine and PCP interact with a binding domain located between the serine (position 6') and valine/phenylalanine (position 13') rings. This interaction is mediated mainly by van der Waals contacts, which is in agreement with the observed enthalpic contribution determined by non-linear chromatography. However, the calculated entropic contribution also indicates local conformational changes. Collectively our data suggest that ibogaine and PCP bind to overlapping sites located between the serine and valine/phenylalanine rings, to finally block the AChR ion channel, and in the case of ibogaine, to probably maintain the AChR in the desensitized state for longer time. PMID:20684041

  5. Molecular characterization of the gene for human interleukin-1[beta] converting enzyme (IL1BC)

    SciTech Connect

    Cerretti, D.P.; Hollingsworth, L.T.; Kozlosky, C.J.; Nelson, N. ); Valentine, M.B. ); Shapiro, D.N.; Morris, S.W. Univ. of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN )

    1994-04-01

    Interleukin-1[beta] (IL-1[beta]) mediates a wide range of immune and inflammatory responses. The active cytokine is generated by proteolytic cleavage of an inactive precursor by a protease called the IL-1[beta] converting enzyme (ICE). A cDNA encoding this protease was recently isolated. A human genomic clone containing the ICE gene (IL1BC) was isolated using the cDNA as a probe. The gene consists of 10 exons spanning at least 10.6 kb. 5[prime]-anchored polymerase chain reaction indicated a single transcription start site [approximately]33 bp upstream of the initiator Met codon. The 5[prime]-flanking region does not have an apparent TATA box but may contain an initiator (Inr) promotor element. However, transcriptional activity could not be detected with a fusion gene containing the 5[prime]-flanking region linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (CAT) when transfected into the human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Using the genomic IL1BC clone, the authors have confirmed the localization of the gene to chromosome 11 band q22.2-q22.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Mechanism of mismatch recognition revealed by human MutS[beta] bound to unpaired DNA loops

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Shikha; Gellert, Martin; Yang, Wei

    2012-04-17

    DNA mismatch repair corrects replication errors, thus reducing mutation rates and microsatellite instability. Genetic defects in this pathway cause Lynch syndrome and various cancers in humans. Binding of a mispaired or unpaired base by bacterial MutS and eukaryotic MutS{alpha} is well characterized. We report here crystal structures of human MutS{beta} in complex with DNA containing insertion-deletion loops (IDL) of two, three, four or six unpaired nucleotides. In contrast to eukaryotic MutS{alpha} and bacterial MutS, which bind the base of a mismatched nucleotide, MutS{beta} binds three phosphates in an IDL. DNA is severely bent at the IDL; unpaired bases are flipped out into the major groove and partially exposed to solvent. A normal downstream base pair can become unpaired; a single unpaired base can thereby be converted to an IDL of two nucleotides and recognized by MutS{beta}. The C-terminal dimerization domains form an integral part of the MutS structure and coordinate asymmetrical ATP hydrolysis by Msh2 and Msh3 with mismatch binding to signal for repair.

  7. Histological assessment in grafts of highly purified beta-tricalcium phosphate (OSferion) in human bones.

    PubMed

    Ogose, Akira; Kondo, Naoki; Umezu, Hajime; Hotta, Tetsuo; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Tokunaga, Kunihiko; Ito, Tomoyuki; Kudo, Naoko; Hoshino, Makiko; Gu, Wenguang; Endo, Naoto

    2006-03-01

    Prominent osteoconductive activity and the biodegradable nature of commercially available beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP, OSferion) have been documented in animal experiments. We analyzed four cases of involving grafted OSferion in human bone with respect to histological features by routine hematoxylin and eosin staining, silver impregnation, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. OSferion affords early bioresorption by osteoclasts, vascular invasion of macropores and osteoblastic cell attachment on the surface on the ceramic surface 14 days after grafting. Prominent bone formation and direct bone connection between preexisting bone and OSferion were evident 28 days after grafting. Nearly the entire TCP surface was covered by lamellar bone; additionally, active osteoblastic lining and attachment of the osteoclast-like giant cells were not observed 72 weeks after grafting. Silver impregnation revealed the presence of collagen fibrils within probable micropores of OSferion. PMID:16165205

  8. Synergistic effects of beta-aescin and 5-fluorouracil in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    PubMed

    Ming, Z J; Hu, Y; Qiu, Y H; Cao, L; Zhang, X G

    2010-07-01

    The effects and mechanisms of action of beta-aescin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), alone and in combination, were studied in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. Growth inhibition, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, Bcl-2 expression and caspase activity were assessed. The Isobole-method/interaction-index analysis was applied to evaluate the synergy, additivity or antagonism of these agents. The results indicate that mixtures of beta-aescin and 5-FU showed a synergistic effect on the 50% inhibitory effect when their ratio was 4:1 when compared with either agent alone. The mechanism of action could be through the synergistic arrest of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, activation of caspases-3, 8 and 9, and down-regulation Bcl-2 expression. The results suggest that mixtures of these two agents had a synergistic inhibitory effect on SMMC-7721 cells, an observation which might be useful for the further development of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:20106644

  9. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP){beta}/{zeta} is expressed in different subtypes of human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Garcia-Suarez, Olivia; Menendez-Rodriguez, Primitiva; Mortimer, J.; Chang, Y.; Astudillo, A.; Deuel, T.F.

    2007-10-12

    Increasing evidence suggests mutations in human breast cancer cells that induce inappropriate expression of the 18-kDa cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN, Ptn) initiate progression of breast cancers to a more malignant phenotype. Pleiotrophin signals through inactivating its receptor, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP){beta}/{zeta}, leading to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of different substrate proteins of RPTP{beta}/{zeta}, including {beta}-catenin, {beta}-adducin, Fyn, GIT1/Cat-1, and P190RhoGAP. PTN signaling thus has wide impact on different important cellular systems. Recently, PTN was found to activate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) through the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway; this discovery potentially is very important, since constitutive ALK activity of nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion protein is causative of anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and, activated ALK is found in other malignant cancers. Recently ALK was identified in each of 63 human breast cancers from 22 subjects. We now demonstrate that RPTP{beta}/{zeta} is expressed in each of these same 63 human breast cancers that previously were found to express ALK and in 10 additional samples of human breast cancer. RPTP{beta}/{zeta} furthermore was localized not only in its normal association with the cell membrane but also scattered in cytoplasm and in nuclei in different breast cancer cells and, in the case of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, the distribution of RPTP{beta}/{zeta} changes as the breast cancer become more malignant. The data suggest that the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway may be constitutively activated and potentially function to constitutively activate ALK in human breast cancer.

  10. PPAR{gamma} agonists prevent TGF{beta}1/Smad3-signaling in human hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Caiyan; Chen, Wei; Yang Liu; Chen Lihong; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Diehl, Anna Mae . E-mail: annamae.diehl@duke.edu

    2006-11-17

    PPAR{gamma} agonists inhibit liver fibrosis, but the mechanisms involved are uncertain. We hypothesized that PPAR{gamma} agonists inhibit transforming growth factor (TGF){beta}1-activation of TGF{beta} receptor (TGF{beta}R)-1 signaling in quiescent stellate cells, thereby abrogating Smad3-dependent induction of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, such as PAI-1 and collagen-1{alpha}I. To test this, human HSC were cultured to induce a quiescent phenotype, characterized by lipid accumulation and PPAR{gamma} expression and transcriptional activity. These adipocytic HSC were then treated with TGF{beta}1 {+-} a TGF{beta}R-1 kinase inhibitor (SB431542) or a PPAR{gamma} agonist (GW7845). TGF{beta}1 caused dose- and time-dependent increases in Smad3 phosphorylation, followed by induction of collagen and PAI-1 expression. Like the TGF{beta}R-1 kinase inhibitor, the PPAR{gamma} agonist caused dose-dependent inhibition of all of these responses without effecting HSC proliferation or viability. Thus, the anti-fibrotic actions of PPAR{gamma} agonists reflect their ability to inhibit TGF{beta}1-TGF{beta}R1 signaling that initiates ECM gene expression in quiescent HSC.

  11. Isolation and characterization of an alpha-satellite repeated sequence from human chromosome 22.

    PubMed

    McDermid, H E; Duncan, A M; Higgins, M J; Hamerton, J L; Rector, E; Brasch, K R; White, B N

    1986-01-01

    We constructed a library in lambda L47.1 with DNA isolated from flow-sorted human chromosome 22. Over 50% of the recombinants contained the same highly repetitive sequence. When this sequence was used to probe Southern blots of EcoRI-digested genomic DNA, a ladder of bands with increments of about 170 bp was observed. This sequence comigrates with satellite III in Ag+/Cs2SO4 gradients and may account for at least part of the 170 bp Hae III ladder seen in isolated satellite III DNA. Partial sequence analysis revealed homology to the 171 bp monomeric repeat unit of alpha-R1-DNA and the X specific alpha-satellite consensus sequence. After low stringency in situ hybridization, silver grains were found over the centromeres of a number of chromosomes. Under high stringency conditions, however, the labeling was concentrated over the centromeric region of chromosome 22. This localization was confirmed using DNA from a panel of human/hamster cell lines which showed that the homologous 2.1 and 2.8 kb EcoR1 restriction fragments were chromosome 22 specific. These clones therefore contain chromosome 22 derived alpha-satellite sequences analogous to other chromosome-specific satellite sequences described previously. PMID:3769652

  12. Crystal Structure of Human [Beta]-Hexosaminidase B: Understanding the Molecular Basis of Sandhoff and Tay-Sachs Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, Brian L.; Mahuran, Don J.; Cherney, Maia M.; Zhao, Dalian; Knapp, Spencer; James, Michael N.G.

    2010-12-01

    In humans, two major {beta}-hexosaminidase isoenzymes exist: Hex A and Hex B. Hex A is a heterodimer of subunits {alpha} and {beta} (60% identity), whereas Hex B is a homodimer of {beta}-subunits. Interest in human {beta}-hexosaminidase stems from its association with Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease; these are prototypical lysosomal storage disorders resulting from the abnormal accumulation of G{sub M2}-ganglioside (G{sub M2}). Hex A degrades G{sub M2} by removing a terminal N-acetyl-D-galactosamine ({beta}-GalNAc) residue, and this activity requires the G{sub M2}-activator, a protein which solubilizes the ganglioside for presentation to Hex A. We present here the crystal structure of human Hex B, alone (2.4 {angstrom}) and in complex with the mechanistic inhibitors GalNAc-isofagomine (2.2 {angstrom}) or NAG-thiazoline (2.5 {angstrom}). From these, and the known X-ray structure of the G{sub M2}-activator, we have modeled Hex A in complex with the activator and ganglioside. Together, our crystallographic and modeling data demonstrate how {alpha} and {beta}-subunits dimerize to form either Hex A or Hex B, how these isoenzymes hydrolyze diverse substrates, and how many documented point mutations cause Sandhoff disease ({beta}-subunit mutations) and Tay-Sachs disease ({alpha}-subunit mutations).

  13. Reduction of 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid to lithocholic and isolithocholic acids by human liver cytosol in vitro.

    PubMed

    Amuro, Y; Yamade, W; Maebo, A; Hada, T; Higashino, K

    1985-10-23

    The formation of lithocholic and isolithocholic acids from 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid by human liver cytosol was examined in vitro. Liver cytosol was incubated at various pH levels with 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid in a phosphate buffer containing NADPH or NADH; the products formed were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results showed that human liver cytosol reduced 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid to lithocholic acid at a pH level of 7.0 or above and to isolithocholic acid at a pH level of 6.0 or below when NADPH was used as a coenzyme, and it was reduced to isolithocholic acid only when NADH was used. Furthermore, two peaks for the reducing enzymes could be clearly found by column chromatography of Affi-Gel Blue. These results indicate that human liver cytosol contains two enzymes acting on reduction of 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid to lithocholic and isolithocholic acids, which are dependent on the pH level and the use of NADPH or NADH in vitro. Since the 3 beta-dehydrogenation was inhibited by the addition of pyrazole, an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor or ethanol, and the major peak of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase coincided with the peak of alcohol dehydrogenase on Affi-Gel Blue chromatography, at least some of the cytosolic 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase seemed to be identical to or to have characteristics similar to alcohol dehydrogenase. PMID:2932163

  14. Integrin alpha 4 beta 7 mediates human eosinophil interaction with MAdCAM-1, VCAM-1 and fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, G M; Symon, F A; Lazarovils, A L; Wardlaw, A J

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the contribution of integrin alpha 4 beta 7 to human peripheral blood eosinophil adhesive interactions. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry demonstrated constitutive expression of alpha 4 beta 7 by eosinophils. Expression of alpha 4 beta 7 or alpha 4 beta 7 was not enhanced by eosinophil activation with platelet-activating factor (PAF). Expression of alpha 4 beta 7 was confirmed by immuno-precipitation of 125I-labeled lysates analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). Approximately 20% of unstimulated eosinophils were adherent to L1-2 cells transfected with vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) cDNA, while very few resting eosinophils adhered to mouse mucosal adressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) transfectants. Binding of unstimulated eosinophils to VCAM-1 transfectant was inhibited by HPI 2 (an antibody that blocks both alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha 4 beta 7 functions), but not Act-1, and alpha 4 beta 1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). PAF stimulation resulted in increased binding of eosinophils to MAdCAM-1 transfectants, which was inhibited by both HPI 2 and Act-1. In contrast, PAF did not enhance binding to VCAM 1 transfectants, although binding of PAE-stimulated eosinophils to VCAM-1 could be partially inhibited by Act-1. Stimulation of eosinophils with the beta 7-activating mAb TS2 16 resulted in enhanced binding of eosinophils to both VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1 transfectants. The increased binding was largely alpha 4 beta 7-dependent. Unstimulated eosinophils bound to soluble recombinant human (rh) VCAM-1 and fibronectin (Fn), coated on 96-well plates in dose-dependent manner. Binding was inhibited by HPI-2 and 4b4, an anti-beta 1 mAb, but not by Act-1. TS2 16 treatment increased adherent cell numbers and this enhanced binding was inhibited by Act-1. We have therefore confirmed that alpha 4 beta 7 is functionally active on unstimulated eosinophils. In contrast, PAF-induced enhancement of eosinophils

  15. Use of beta-maltosides (p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-maltoside, 2-chloro-4- nitrophenyl-beta-D-maltoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-maltoside) as substrates for the assay of neutral alpha-glucosidase from human kidney and urine.

    PubMed

    Lukomskaya, I S; Voznyi, Y V; Lanskaya, I M; Podkidisheva, E I

    1996-01-31

    The method of assay of neutral alpha-glucosidase from human kidney and urine using beta-maltosides (p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-maltoside [NP-beta-D-maltoside], 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-maltoside]) [CNP-beta-D-maltoside] and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-maltosides ([MU-beta-D-maltoside]) as substrates and beta-glucosidase as an auxiliary enzyme is proposed. All three beta-maltosides are suitable substrates for the determination of neutral alpha-glucosidase activity but MU-beta-D-maltoside is the most sensitive due to its methylumbelliferyl moiety. The method is simple, convenient and 10-fold more sensitive than the commonly used alpha-glucosidase assay procedure with the corresponding synthetic alpha-glucosides, p-nitrophenyl- alpha-D-glucoside (NP-alpha-D-glucoside) and 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-glucoside (MU-alpha-D-glucoside). A modification of the method, with p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-maltoside as substrate, was applied to the semiautomatic assay of urinary alpha-glucosidase in 96-well microtitre plates. PMID:8714432

  16. Suppression of beta oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus following cortical stimulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Doyle Gaynor, L M F; Kühn, A A; Dileone, M; Litvak, V; Eusebio, A; Pogosyan, A; Androulidakis, A G; Tisch, S; Limousin, P; Insola, A; Mazzone, P; Di Lazzaro, V; Brown, P

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear how subthalamic nucleus activity is modulated by the cerebral cortex. Here we investigate the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the cortex on oscillatory subthalamic local field potential activity in the 8–35 Hz (alpha/beta) band, as exaggerated synchronization in this band is implicated in the pathophysiology of parkinsonism. We studied nine patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) to test whether cortical stimulation can modulate synchronized oscillations in the human subthalamic nucleus. With patients at rest, single-pulse TMS was delivered every 5 s over each primary motor area and supplementary motor area at intensities of 85–115% resting motor threshold. Subthalamic local field potentials were recorded from deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted into this nucleus for the treatment of PD. Motor cortical stimulation suppressed beta activity in the subthalamic nucleus from ∼0.2 to 0.6 s after TMS (repeated measures anova; main effect of time, P<0.01; main effect of side, P=0.03), regardless of intensity. TMS over the supplementary motor area also reduced subthalamic beta activity at 95% (P=0.05) and 115% resting motor threshold (P=0.01). The oscillatory activity decreased to 80 ± 26% of baseline (averaged across sites and stimulation intensities). Suppression with subthreshold stimuli confirmed that these changes were centrally driven and not due to peripheral afference. The results may have implications for mechanisms underlying the reported therapeutic benefits of cortical stimulation. PMID:18657185

  17. Cocaine inhibits human endothelial cell IL-8 production: the role of transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Mao, J T; Zhu, L X; Sharma, S; Chen, K; Huang, M; Santiago, S J; Gulsurd, J; Tashkin, D P; Dubinett, S M

    1997-10-10

    Cocaine use is associated with modulation of a broad range of biological functions including the capacity to influence cytokine production in murine and human immunoeffector cells. Little is known, however, regarding the effects of cocaine on endothelial cell cytokine production. Because the vascular endothelium actively participates in acute and chronic inflammatory responses and interleukin-8 (IL-8) is one of the key cytokines involved in the inflammatory process, modification of the production of IL-8 by vascular endothelial cells may interfere with the host response to infection or tissue injury. We investigated the effect of cocaine on endothelial cell IL-8 production. Conditioned supernatant from EA.hy 926 cells were evaluated by ELISA following in vitro cocaine exposure. Cocaine decreased IL-8 production in a dose-responsive manner, and this reduction correlated with down-regulation of IL-8 mRNA expression. Cocaine also increased the production of TGF-beta by EA.hy 926 cells and anti-TGF-beta abrogated the cocaine-mediated decrement of IL-8 production, indicating that cocaine down-regulates endothelial IL-8 production by increasing TGF-beta. Our findings suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of cocaine may be mediated, in part, by modification of endothelial-derived cytokine production. PMID:9344494

  18. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta on accumulation of inflammatory peritoneal macrophages in mice treated with pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Torre, D; Speranza, F; Pugliese, A; Tambini, R

    1990-01-01

    In this study we report that treatment with recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) (10 U per mouse, intraperitoneally) significantly increased the number of inflammatory macrophages in the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with pertussis toxin (PT) (1 micrograms per mouse, intravenously). The administration of rIL-1 beta in a single intraperitoneal dose (10 U per mouse) 1 or 2 days before challenge with PT did not prevent the decrease in the number of inflammatory macrophages in the peritoneal cavity of mice. On the other hand, the simultaneous administration of rIL-1 beta and PT, as well as the administration of rIL-1 beta 24 h after injection of PT, significantly counteracted the inhibitory effect of PT on inflammatory peritoneal macrophages. PMID:2254036

  19. Role of arachidonic acid metabolites in the action of a beta adrenergic agonist on human monocyte phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Borda, E S; Tenenbaum, A; Sales, M E; Rumi, L; Sterin-Borda, L

    1998-02-01

    The mechanisms by which beta adrenergic stimulation regulates phagocytosis of Candida albicans by human peripheral monocytes (HPM) are characterized. Isoproterenol (ISO) inhibits phagocytosis in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was blunted by propranolol, inhibitors of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase and verapamil, pointing to a participation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites and calcium in the phenomenon. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP) also exerted the same inhibitory effect on phagocytosis. ISO interacts with beta adrenergic receptors of HPM increasing PGE2 and cAMP. We conclude that the mechanisms by which beta adrenergic stimulation regulates phagocytosis of Candida albicans by HPM appear to be secondary to beta adrenoceptor-mediated hydrolysis of AA accompanied by an increase in PGE2 generation and cAMP production. Both PGE2 and cAMP could act as mediators of the inhibitory action of beta agonists on the HPM-phagocytosis process. PMID:9578144

  20. Aluminum-sensitive degradation of amyloid beta-protein 1-40 by murine and human intracellular enzymes.

    PubMed

    Banks, W A; Maness, L M; Banks, M F; Kastin, A J

    1996-01-01

    Both amyloid beta protein (A beta) and aluminum (A1) have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Recently, A beta has been found to be produced by peripheral tissues as well as by the CNS and to cross and accumulate in the vascular bed of the brain, which comprises the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This raises the possibility that blood-borne A beta may be a source of A beta within the CNS. Al has been shown to alter the structure and function of A beta, to inhibit the class of enzymes (metalloproteases) associated with the processing and degradation of A beta, and to alter the permeability of the BBB to peptides of similar size to A beta. Therefore, Al could alter the access of blood-borne A beta to the CNS either by changing the permeability of the BBB or by affecting enzymatic degradation. We examined the effect of Al on both of these parameters and found that Al did not alter the permeability of the BBB to A beta radioactively labeled with 125I (I-A beta) ever after correction for in vivo degradation. However, Al did enhance clearance and degradation of I-A beta in the circulation but not in the brain. Alterations in clearance can indirectly affect the CNS accumulation of circulating substances by modifying their presentation to the brain. In vitro studies of intracellular enzymatic activity of lysates of mouse and human erythrocytes (RBC) showed that Al could inhibit degradation of I-A beta through a mechanism antagonized by calcium and dependent on the concentrations of RBC lysate and Al. Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography showed that Al acted primarily by inhibiting the initial degradation of I-A beta to a peptide intermediate without inducing the aggregation of I-A beta under the conditions of these studies. No difference was found in sensitivity to Al between RBCs from patients with Alzheimer's disease and age- and sex-matched controls. The ability of Al to alter the degradation of A beta suggests a way in which these two potentially

  1. Overexpression of Recombinant Human Beta Interferon (rhINF-β) in Periplasmic Space of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein; Babaeipour, Valiollah; Rajabi-Memari, Hamid; Vahidi, Hossein; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Human Interferon β (INF-β) is a member of cytokines family which different studies have shown its immunomodulatory and antiviral activities. In this study an expression vector was designed and constructed for expression of human INF-β-1b either in shake flasks or bench top bioreactor. The designed vector was constructed based upon pET-25b(+) with T7 promoter. Recombinant human beta interferon (rhINF-β) was codon optimized and overexpressed as a soluble, N-terminal pelB fusion protein and secreted into the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The sugar, Isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) was used as a chemical inducer for rhINF-β production in the shake flasks and bench top bioreactor. Timing of beta interferon expression was controlled by using the T7 promoter. The rhINF-β protein was extracted from periplasmic space by osmotic shock treatment and the expression of the beta interferon encoding gene in random selected transformants, was confirmed by western and dot blot methods. The maximum of product formation achieved at the OD600nm = 3.42 was found to be 35 % of the total protein content of the strain which translates to 0.32 g L-1. The constructed vector could efficiently overexpress the rhINF-β into the periplasmic space of E. coli. The obtained yield of the produced rhINF-β was more than previous reports. The system is easily adapted to include other vectors, tags or fusions and therefore has the potential to be broadly applicable to express other recombinant proteins. PMID:24711841

  2. Overexpression of Recombinant Human Beta Interferon (rhINF-β) in Periplasmic Space of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein; Babaeipour, Valiollah; Rajabi-Memari, Hamid; Vahidi, Hossein; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Human Interferon β (INF-β) is a member of cytokines family which different studies have shown its immunomodulatory and antiviral activities. In this study an expression vector was designed and constructed for expression of human INF-β-1b either in shake flasks or bench top bioreactor. The designed vector was constructed based upon pET-25b(+) with T7 promoter. Recombinant human beta interferon (rhINF-β) was codon optimized and overexpressed as a soluble, N-terminal pelB fusion protein and secreted into the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The sugar, Isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) was used as a chemical inducer for rhINF-β production in the shake flasks and bench top bioreactor. Timing of beta interferon expression was controlled by using the T7 promoter. The rhINF-β protein was extracted from periplasmic space by osmotic shock treatment and the expression of the beta interferon encoding gene in random selected transformants, was confirmed by western and dot blot methods. The maximum of product formation achieved at the OD600nm = 3.42 was found to be 35 % of the total protein content of the strain which translates to 0.32 g L-1. The constructed vector could efficiently overexpress the rhINF-β into the periplasmic space of E. coli. The obtained yield of the produced rhINF-β was more than previous reports. The system is easily adapted to include other vectors, tags or fusions and therefore has the potential to be broadly applicable to express other recombinant proteins. PMID:24711841

  3. Rapid effects of phytoestrogens on human colonic smooth muscle are mediated by oestrogen receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Hogan, A M; Collins, D; Sheehan, K; Zierau, O; Baird, A W; Winter, D C

    2010-05-14

    Epidemiological studies have correlated consumption of dietary phytoestrogens with beneficial effects on colon, breast and prostate cancers. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms are responsible for anti-carcinogenic effects but, until now, the effect on human colon was assumed to be passive and remote. No direct effect on human colonic smooth muscle has previously been described. Institutional research board approval was granted. Histologically normal colon was obtained from the proximal resection margin of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended under 1g of tension in organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs solution at 37 degrees C. After an equilibration period, tissues were exposed to diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (ER beta agonist) and 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT) (ER alpha agonist) or to the synthetic phytoestrogen compounds genistein (n=8), daidzein (n=8), fisetin (n=8) and quercetin (n=8) in the presence or absence of fulvestrant (oestrogen receptor antagonist). Mechanism of action was investigated by inhibition of downstream pathways. The cholinergic agonist carbachol was used to induce contractile activity. Tension was recorded isometrically. Phytoestrogens inhibit carbachol-induced colonic contractility. In keeping with a non-genomic, rapid onset direct action, the effect was within minutes, reversible and similar to previously described actions of 17 beta oestradiol. No effect was seen in the presence of fulvestrant indicating receptor modulation. While the DPN exerted inhibitory effects, PPT did not. The effect appears to be reliant on a p38/mitogen activated protein kinase mediated induction of nitric oxide production in colonic smooth muscle. The present data set provides the first description of a direct effect of genistein, daidzein, fisetin and quercetin on human colonic smooth muscle. The presence of ER in colonic smooth muscle has been functionally proven and the beta

  4. A unique chromatin complex occupies young α-satellite arrays of human centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Henikoff, Jorja G.; Thakur, Jitendra; Kasinathan, Sivakanthan; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The intractability of homogeneous α-satellite arrays has impeded understanding of human centromeres. Artificial centromeres are produced from higher-order repeats (HORs) present at centromere edges, although the exact sequences and chromatin conformations of centromere cores remain unknown. We use high-resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of centromere components followed by clustering of sequence data as an unbiased approach to identify functional centromere sequences. We find that specific dimeric α-satellite units shared by multiple individuals dominate functional human centromeres. We identify two recently homogenized α-satellite dimers that are occupied by precisely positioned CENP-A (cenH3) nucleosomes with two ~100–base pair (bp) DNA wraps in tandem separated by a CENP-B/CENP-C–containing linker, whereas pericentromeric HORs show diffuse positioning. Precise positioning is largely maintained, whereas abundance decreases exponentially with divergence, which suggests that young α-satellite dimers with paired ~100-bp particles mediate evolution of functional human centromeres. Our unbiased strategy for identifying functional centromeric sequences should be generally applicable to tandem repeat arrays that dominate the centromeres of most eukaryotes. PMID:25927077

  5. beta 1 integrin inhibition dramatically enhances radiotherapy efficacy in human breast cancer xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Catherine C.; Park, Catherine C.; Zhang, Hui J.; Yao, Evelyn S.; Park, Chong J.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-06-02

    {beta}1 integrin signaling has been shown to mediate cellular resistance to apoptosis after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). Other signaling molecules that increase resistance include Akt, which promotes cell survival downstream of {beta}1 integrin signaling. We showed previously that {beta}1 integrin inhibitory antibodies, AIIB2, enhance apoptosis and decrease growth in human breast cancer cells in 3 dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (3D lrECM) cultures and in vivo. Here we asked whether AIIB2 could synergize with IR to modify Akt-mediated IR resistance. We used 3D lrECM cultures to test the optimal combination of AIIB2 with IR treatment of two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HMT3522-T4-2, as well as T4-2 myr-Akt breast cancer colonies or HMT3522-S-1, which form normal organotypic structures in 3D lrECM. Colonies were assayed for apoptosis and {beta}1 integrin/Akt signaling pathways were evaluated using western blot. In addition, mice bearing MCF-7 xenografts were used to validate the findings in 3D lrECM. We report that AIIB2 increased apoptosis optimally post-IR by down regulating Akt in breast cancer colonies in 3D lrECM. In vivo, addition of AIIB2 after IR significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis compared to either treatment alone. Remarkably, the degree of tumor growth inhibition using AIIB2 plus 2 Gy radiation was similar to that of 8 Gy alone. We showed previously that AIIB2 had no discernible toxicity in mice; here, its addition allowed for a significant reduction in the IR dose that was necessary to achieve comparable growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer xenografts in vivo.

  6. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    SciTech Connect

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  7. Localization of transforming growth factor-beta at the human fetal-maternal interface: role in trophoblast growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Graham, C H; Lysiak, J J; McCrae, K R; Lala, P K

    1992-04-01

    We examined the localization of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in first-trimester and term human decidua and chorionic villi and explored the role of this factor on the proliferation and differentiation of cultured trophoblast cells. Two antibodies, 1D11.16.8, a mouse monoclonal neutralizing antibody capable of recognizing both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 and CL-B1/29, a rabbit polyclonal antibody capable of recognizing TGF-beta 2, were used to immunolocalize TGF-beta in fixed, paraffin-embedded, or fixed, frozen sections of placenta and decidua, providing similar results. Intense labeling was observed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the first-trimester decidua and cytoplasm of term decidual cells. Syncytiotrophoblast cell cytoplasm as well as the ECM in the core of the chorionic villi of both first-trimester and term placentas exhibited a moderate degree of labeling. Strong cytoplasmic labeling was observed in the cytotrophoblastic shell of the term placenta. To examine the role of TGF-beta on trophoblast proliferation and differentiation, early passage cultures of first-trimester and primary cultures of term trophoblast cells were established and characterized on the basis of numerous immunocytochemical and functional markers. These cells expressed cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and pregnancy-specific beta glycoprotein, but not factor VIII or 63D3; they also produced hCG and collagenase type IV. Exposure of first-trimester trophoblast cultures to TGF-beta 1 significantly inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. An antiproliferative effect was also noted in the presence of TGF-beta 2. These effects were abrogated in the presence of the neutralizing anti-TGF-beta antibody (1D11.16.8) in a concentration-dependent manner. In a 3-day culture, exogenous TGF-beta 1 stimulated formation of multinucleated cells by the first trimester as well as term trophoblast cells. Addition of neutralizing anti-TGF-beta

  8. Beta-lipotropin is the major component of the plasma opioid response to surgical stress in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Porro, C.A.; Facchinetti, F.; Bertellini, E.; Petraglia, F.; Stacca, R.; Barbieri, G.C.; Genazzani, A.R.

    1987-12-07

    There is growing experimental evidence that beta-endorphin immunoreactivity is raised by surgical stress in patients undergoing general anesthesia. As the assay methods employed to date did not allow to fully discriminate between beta-endorphin and its immediate precursor, beta-lipotropin, the authors have investigated in the present study plasma levels of these two peptides by separating them by chromatography on plasma extracts prior to radioimmunoassay. Beta-lipotropin, but not beta-endorphin, plasma levels were found to be significantly elevated during surgery in the general anesthesia group, while no change was found in either peptide concentration in the spinal one. Cortisol plasma levels also increased significantly 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. Although the sampling time they adopted may have prevented them from detecting an early peak of beta-endorphin during the first 30 minutes of surgery, the major component of the pituitary opioid response to surgical stress appears to be related to beta-lipotropin. This is in agreement with results of experimental work on various kinds of stress in animals and humans and seems to rule out a role for plasma beta-endorphin in post-operative analgesia. 38 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  9. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Reuben H.; Lieberman, Mark B.; Lee, Rachel; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K.

    2010-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-{beta}-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15{sup INK4B}, and p57{sup KIP2}. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-{beta} receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-{beta} antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in NHOK.

  10. Transfer of beta-amyloid precursor protein gene using adenovirus vector causes mitochondrial abnormalities in cultured normal human muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Askanas, V; McFerrin, J; Baqué, S; Alvarez, R B; Sarkozi, E; Engel, W K

    1996-01-01

    As in Alzheimer-disease (AD) brain, vacuolated muscle fibers of inclusion-body myositis (IBM) contain abnormally accumulated beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP), including its beta-amyloid protein epitope, and increased beta APP-751 mRNA. Other similarities between IBM muscle and AD brain phenotypes include paired helical filaments, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, apolipoprotein E, and mitochondrial abnormalities, including decreased cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity. The pathogenesis of these abnormalities in IBM muscle and AD brain is not known. We now report that direct transfer of the beta APP gene, using adenovirus vector, into cultured normal human muscle fibers causes structural abnormalities of mitochondria and decreased COX activity. In this adenovirus-mediated beta APP gene transfer, we demonstrated that beta APP overproduction can induce mitochondrial abnormalities. The data suggest that excessive beta APP may be responsible for mitochondrial and COX abnormalities in IBM muscle and perhaps AD brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8577761

  11. Indirect immunofluorescence localization of beta-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins in human A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H Y; Berrios, M; Malbon, C C

    1989-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies directed against (i) rodent lung beta 2-adrenergic receptor, (ii) a synthetic fragment of an extracellular domain of the receptor, and (iii) human placenta G-protein beta-subunits, were used to localize these antigens in situ in intact and permeabilized human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Antibodies directed against beta 2-adrenergic receptors showed a punctate immunofluorescence staining throughout the cell surface of fixed intact cells. Punctate staining was also observed in clones of Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with an expression vector harbouring the gene for the hamster beta 2-adrenergic receptor. The immunofluorescence observed with anti-receptor antibodies paralleled the level of receptor expression. In contrast, the beta-subunits common to G-proteins were not stained in fixed intact cells, presumably reflecting their intracellular localization. In detergent-permeabilized fixed cells, strong punctate staining of G beta-subunits was observed throughout the cytoplasm. This is the first indirect immunofluorescence localization of beta-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins. Punctate immunofluorescence staining suggests that both antigens are distributed in clusters. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. p528-a Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2556996

  12. Current Characteristics and Trends of the Tracked Satellite Population in the Human Space Flight Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the Apollo program in 1972, human space flight has been restricted to altitudes below 600 km above the Earth s surface with most missions restricted to a ceiling below 400 km. An investigation of the tracked satellite population transiting and influencing the human space flight regime during the past 11 years (equivalent to a full solar cycle) has recently been completed. The overall effects of satellite breakups and solar activity are typically less pronounced in the human space flight regime than other regions of low Earth orbit. As of January 2006 nearly 1500 tracked objects resided in or traversed the human space flight regime, although two-thirds of these objects were in orbits of moderate to high eccentricity, significantly reducing their effect on human space flight safety. During the period investigated, the spatial density of tracked objects in the 350-400 km altitude regime of the International Space Station demonstrated a steady decline, actually decreasing by 50% by the end of the period. On the other hand, the region immediately above 600 km experienced a significant increase in its population density. This regime is important for future risk assessments, since this region represents the reservoir of debris which will influence human space flight safety in the future. The paper seeks to put into sharper perspective the risks posed to human space flight by the tracked satellite population, as well as the influences of solar activity and the effects of compliance with orbital debris mitigation guidelines on human space flight missions. Finally, the methods and successes of characterizing the population of smaller debris at human space flight regimes are addressed.

  13. Dysregulation of autocrine TGF-beta isoform production and ligand responses in human tumour-derived and Ha-ras-transfected keratinocytes and fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, M. S.; Paterson, I. C.; Stone, A.; Collier, A. J.; Heung, Y. L.; Davies, M.; Patel, V.; Parkinson, E. K.; Prime, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the autocrine production of TGF-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 in culture supernatants from tumour-derived (H series, n = 7; BICR series, n = 5), Ha-ras-transfected (n = 4) and normal (n = 2) human keratinocytes using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Detection limits were 39.0 pg ml-1 for TGF-beta 1, 78.0 pg ml-1 for TGF-beta 2 and 1.9 ng ml-1 for TGF-beta 3. Tumour-derived oral keratinocytes predominantly produced less TGF-beta 1 than normal oral epithelial cells; the expression of endogenous TGF-beta 2 was variable. In keratinocytes containing mutant Ha-ras, TGF-beta 1 production was enhanced and TGF-beta 2 was undetectable. TGF-beta 3 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) but the protein was not detected in conditioned media, most probably because of the low detection limits of the ELISA for this isoform. Neutralisation experiments indicated that the latent TGF-beta peptide was secreted in keratinocyte conditioned medium. Seven tumour-derived keratinocyte cell lines (H series) and fibroblasts separated from normal (n = 1) and tumour-derived (n = 2) keratinocyte cultures were examined for their response to exogenous TGF-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3. Six of seven tumour-derived keratinocyte cell lines were inhibited by TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 (-beta 1 > -beta 2); one cell line was refractory to both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2. Keratinocytes were inhibited (4 of 7), stimulated (1 of 7) or failed to respond (2 of 7) to TGF-beta 3, TGF-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 stimulated both normal and tumour-associated fibroblasts, but the tumour-associated fibroblasts showed less response to the ligands than their normal counterparts following prolonged treatment with each isoform. The results demonstrate variable autocrine production of TGF-beta isoforms by malignant keratinocytes, with loss of TGF-beta 1 generally associated with the tumour-derived phenotype and modification of endogenous isoform

  14. Decreased type II/type I TGF-beta receptor ratio in cells derived from human atherosclerotic lesions. Conversion from an antiproliferative to profibrotic response to TGF-beta1.

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, T A; Consigli, S; Du, B; Falcone, D J; Sanborn, T A; Spokojny, A M; Bush, H L

    1995-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and postangioplasty restenosis may result from abnormal wound healing. The present studies report that normal human smooth muscle cells are growth inhibited by TGF-beta1, a potent wound healing agent, and show little induction of collagen synthesis to TGF-beta1, yet cells grown from human vascular lesions are growth stimulated by TGF-beta1 and markedly increase collagen synthesis. Both cell types increase plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production, switch actin phenotypes in response to TGF-beta1, and produce similar levels of TGF-beta activity. Membrane cross-linking of 125I-TGF-beta1 indicates that normal human smooth muscle cells express type I, II, and III receptors. The type II receptor is strikingly decreased in lesion cells, with little change in the type I or III receptors. RT-PCR confirmed that the type II TGF-beta1 receptor mRNA is reduced in lesion cells. Transfection of the type II receptor into lesion cells restores the growth inhibitory response to TGF-beta1, implying that signaling remains responsive. Because TGF-beta1 is overexpressed in fibroproliferative vascular lesions, receptor-variant cells would be allowed to grow in a slow, but uncontrolled fashion, while overproducing extracellular matrix components. This TGF-beta1 receptor dysfunction may be relevant for atherosclerosis, restenosis and related fibroproliferative diseases. Images PMID:8675633

  15. Severe pancreas hypoplasia and multicystic renal dysplasia in two human fetuses carrying novel HNF1beta/MODY5 mutations.

    PubMed

    Haumaitre, Cécile; Fabre, Mélanie; Cormier, Sarah; Baumann, Clarisse; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Cereghini, Silvia

    2006-08-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the HNF1beta/vHNF1/TCF2 gene cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY5), associated with severe renal disease and abnormal genital tract. Here, we characterize two fetuses, a 27-week male and a 31.5-week female, carrying novel mutations in exons 2 and 7 of HNF1beta, respectively. Although these mutations were predicted to have different functional consequences, both fetuses displayed highly similar phenotypes. They presented one of the most severe phenotypes described in HNF1beta carriers: bilateral enlarged polycystic kidneys, severe pancreas hypoplasia and abnormal genital tract. Consistent with this, we detected high levels of HNF1beta transcripts in 8-week human embryos in the mesonephros and metanephric kidney and in the epithelium of pancreas. Renal histology and immunohistochemistry analyses of mutant fetuses revealed cysts derived from all nephron segments with multilayered epithelia and dysplastic regions, accompanied by a marked increase in the expression of beta-catenin and E-cadherin. A significant proportion of cysts still expressed the cystic renal disease proteins, polycystin-1, polycystin-2, fibrocystin and uromodulin, implying that cyst formation may result from a deregulation of cell-cell adhesion and/or the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Both fetuses exhibited a severe pancreatic hypoplasia with underdeveloped and disorganized acini, together with an absence of ventral pancreatic-derived tissue. beta-catenin and E-cadherin were strongly downregulated in the exocrine and endocrine compartments, and the islets lacked the transporter essential for glucose-sensing GLUT2, indicating a beta-cell maturation defect. This study provides evidence of differential gene-dosage requirements for HNF1beta in normal human kidney and pancreas differentiation and increases our understanding of the etiology of MODY5 disorder. PMID:16801329

  16. MicroRNA-26a modulates transforming growth factor beta-1-induced proliferation in human fetal lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Lian; Shen, Yongchun; Wang, Tao; Chen, Lei; Xu, Dan; Wen, Fuqiang

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Endogenous miR-26a inhibits TGF-beta 1 induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts. • miR-26a induces G1 arrest through directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2. • TGF indispensable receptor, TGF-beta R I, is regulated by miR-26a. • miR-26a acts through inhibiting TGF-beta 2 feedback loop to reduce TGF-beta 1. • Collagen type I and connective tissue growth factor are suppressed by miR-26a. - Abstract: MicroRNA-26a is a newly discovered microRNA that has a strong anti-tumorigenic capacity and is capable of suppressing cell proliferation and activating tumor-specific apoptosis. However, whether miR-26a can inhibit the over-growth of lung fibroblasts remains unclear. The relationship between miR-26a and lung fibrosis was explored in the current study. We first investigated the effect of miR-26a on the proliferative activity of human lung fibroblasts with or without TGF-beta1 treatment. We found that the inhibition of endogenous miR-26a promoted proliferation and restoration of mature miR-26a inhibited the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts. We also examined that miR-26a can block the G1/S phase transition via directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2, degrading mRNA and decreasing protein expression of Cyclin D2. Furthermore, we showed that miR-26a mediated a TGF-beta 2-TGF-beta 1 feedback loop and inhibited TGF-beta R I activation. In addition, the overexpression of miR-26a also significantly suppressed the TGF-beta 1-interacting-CTGF–collagen fibrotic pathway. In summary, our studies indicated an essential role of miR-26a in the anti-fibrotic mechanism in TGF-beta1-induced proliferation in human lung fibroblasts, by directly targeting Cyclin D2, regulating TGF-beta R I as well as TGF-beta 2, and suggested the therapeutic potential of miR-26a in ameliorating lung fibrosis.

  17. Generation of a high-titer retroviral vector capable of expressing high levels of the human beta-globin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sadelain, M; Wang, C H; Antoniou, M; Grosveld, F; Mulligan, R C

    1995-01-01

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into hematopoietic cells may provide a means of treating both inherited and acquired diseases involving hematopoietic cells. Implementation of this approach for disorders resulting from mutations affecting the beta-globin gene (e.g., beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia), however, has been hampered by the inability to generate recombinant viruses able to efficiently and faithfully transmit the necessary sequences for appropriate gene expression. We have addressed this problem by carefully examining the interactions between retroviral and beta-globin gene sequences which affect vector transmission, stability, and expression. First, we examined the transmission properties of a large number of different recombinant proviral genomes which vary both in the precise nature of vector, beta-globin structural gene, and locus control region (LCR) core sequences incorporated and in the placement and orientation of those sequences. Through this analysis, we identified one specific vector, termed M beta 6L, which carries both the human beta-globin gene and core elements HS2, HS3, and HS4 from the LCR and faithfully transmits recombinant proviral sequences to cells with titers greater than 10(6) per ml. Populations of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells transduced by this virus expressed levels of human beta-globin transcript which, on a per gene copy basis, were 78% of the levels detected in an MEL-derived cell line, Hu11, which carries human chromosome 11, the site of the beta-globin locus. Analysis of individual transduced MEL cell clones, however, indicated that, while expression was detected in every clone tested (n = 17), the levels of human beta-globin treatment varied between 4% and 146% of the levels in Hu11. This clonal variation in expression levels suggests that small beta-globin LCR sequences may not provide for as strict chromosomal position-independent expression of beta-globin as previously suspected, at least in the context of

  18. Conservation of the primary structure, organization, and function of the human and mouse beta-globin locus-activating regions.

    PubMed Central

    Moon, A M; Ley, T J

    1990-01-01

    DNA sequences located in a region 6-18 kilobases (kb) upstream from the human epsilon-globin gene are known as the locus-activating region (LAR) or dominant control region. This region is thought to play a key role in chromatin organization of the beta-like globin gene cluster during erythroid development. The beta-globin LAR activates linked globin genes in transiently or stably transfected erythroleukemia cells and in erythroid cells of transgenic mice. Since the human beta-globin LAR is functional in mice, we reasoned that critical LAR sequence elements might be conserved between mice and humans. We therefore cloned murine genomic sequences homologous to one portion of the human LAR (site II, positions -11,054 to -10,322 with respect to the human epsilon gene). We found that this murine DNA fragment (mouse LAR site II) and sequences homologous to human LAR sites I and III are located upstream from the mouse beta-like globin gene cluster and determined that their locations relative to the cluster are similar to that of their human counterparts. The homologous site II sequences are 70% identical between mice and humans over a stretch of approximately 800 base pairs. Multiple core sequences with greater than 80% identity were present within this region. Transient and stable transfection assays of K562 erythroleukemia cells demonstrated that both human and mouse LAR elements contain enhancer activity and confer hemin inducibility on a linked human gamma-globin promoter. These results suggest that primary structural elements--and the spatial organization of these elements--are important for function of the beta-globin LAR. Images PMID:2217202

  19. The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human {beta}-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3{percent} of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of {beta}-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14{percent} the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor.

  20. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2 in human thymus.

    PubMed

    Almanzar, Giovanni; Mayerl, Christina; Seitz, Jan-Christoph; Höfner, Kerstin; Brunner, Andrea; Wild, Vanessa; Jahn, Daniel; Geier, Andreas; Fassnacht, Martin; Prelog, Martina

    2016-06-01

    11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) is a high affinity dehydrogenase which rapidly inactivates physiologically-active glucocorticoids to protect key tissues. 11β-HSD2 expression has been described in peripheral cells of the innate and the adaptive immune system as well as in murine thymus. In absence of knowledge of 11β-HSD2 expression in human thymus, the study aimed to localize 11β-HSD2 in human thymic tissue. Thymic tissue was taken of six healthy, non-immunologically impaired male infants below 12months of age with congenital heart defects who had to undergo correction surgery. 11β-HSD2 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Kidney tissue, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were taken as positive controls. Significant expression of 11β-HSD2 protein was found at single cell level in thymus parenchyma, at perivascular sites of capillaries and small vessels penetrating the thymus lobuli and within Hassall's bodies. The present study demonstrates that 11β-HSD2 is expressed in human thymus with predominant perivascular expression and also within Hassall's bodies. To our knowledge, this is the first report confirming 11β-HSD2 expression at the protein level in human thymic tissue underlining a potential role of this enzyme in regulating glucocorticoid function at the thymic level. PMID:27025972

  1. Isolation of human beta-interferon receptor by wheat germ lectin affinity and immunosorbent column chromatographies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.Q.; Fournier, A.; Tan, Y.H.

    1986-06-15

    Radioiodinated human beta-interferon-Ser 17 (Betaseron) was reversibly cross-linked to Daudi cells by dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate). The radioactive ligand was cross-linked to three macromolecules forming labeled complexes of apparent Mr values of 130,000, 220,000, and 320,000. Betaseron, human alpha-interferon, human interleukin 2 but not recombinant human gamma-interferon competed with the labeled ligand for binding to these putative receptor(s). Human leukocyte-produced gamma-interferon competed weakly with /sup 125/I-Betaseron for binding to Daudi cells. The Betaseron-receptor complex(es) was purified by passage through a wheat germ lectin column followed by chromatography on an anti-interferon immunosorbent column and semipreparative gel electrophoresis. The cross-linked ligand-receptor complex was shown to be highly purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate and acetic acid:urea:Triton X-100 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It can be dissociated into the labeled Betaseron (Mr = 17,000) ligand and a receptor moiety which has an apparent molecular weight of 110,000. The chromatographic behavior of the ligand-receptor complex on wheat germ lectin column suggests that the receptor is a glycoprotein. The described procedure yielded about 1 microgram of Betaseron receptor from 10(10) Daudi cells, estimated to contain a maximum of about 15 micrograms of the receptor.

  2. Exogenous transforming growth factor-beta amplifies its own expression and induces scar formation in a model of human fetal skin repair.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, R Y; Sullivan, K M; Argenta, P A; Meuli, M; Lorenz, H P; Adzick, N S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fetal skin wounds heal without scarring. To determine the role of TGF-beta 1 in fetal wound healing, mRNA expression of TGF-beta 1 was analyzed in human fetal and adult skin wounds. METHODS: Human fetal skin transplanted to a subcutaneous location on an adult athymic mouse that was subsequently wounded heals without scar, whereas human adult skin heals with scar formation in that location. In situ hybridization for TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression and species-specific immunohistochemistry for fibroblasts, macrophages, and neutrophils were performed in human adult wounds, fetal wounds, and fetal wounds treated with a TGF-beta 1 slow release disk. RESULTS: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA expression was induced by wounding adult skin. No TGF-beta 1 mRNA upregulation was detected in human fetal skin after wounding. However, when exogenous TGF-beta 1 was added to human fetal skin, induction of TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression in human fetal fibroblasts occurred, an adult-like inflammatory response was detected, and the skin healed with scar formation. CONCLUSIONS: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 is an important modulator in scar formation. Anti-TGF-beta 1 strategies may promote scarless healing in adult wounds. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:7639582

  3. Human beta-globin gene polymorphisms characterized in DNA extracted from ancient bones 12,000 years old.

    PubMed Central

    Béraud-Colomb, E; Roubin, R; Martin, J; Maroc, N; Gardeisen, A; Trabuchet, G; Goosséns, M

    1995-01-01

    Analyzing the nuclear DNA from ancient human bones is an essential step to the understanding of genetic diversity in current populations, provided that such systematic studies are experimentally feasible. This article reports the successful extraction and amplification of nuclear DNA from the beta-globin region from 5 of 10 bone specimens up to 12,000 years old. These have been typed for beta-globin frameworks by sequencing through two variable positions and for a polymorphic (AT) chi (T) gamma microsatellite 500 bp upstream of the beta-globin gene. These specimens of human remains are somewhat older than those analyzed in previous nuclear gene sequencing reports and considerably older than those used to study high-copy-number human mtDNA. These results show that the systematic study of nuclear DNA polymorphisms of ancient populations is feasible. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8533755

  4. Localization of the human {beta}-catenin gene (CTNNB1) to 3p21: A region implicated in tumor development

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, C.; Liehr, T.; Ballhausen, G.

    1994-09-01

    The human {beta}-catenin locus (CTNNB1) was mapped by in situ fluorescence analysis to band p21 on the short arm of chromosome 3, a region frequently affected by somatic alterations in a variety of tumors. PCR primers for the genomic amplification of {beta}-catenin sequences were selected on the basis of homology to exon 4 of the Drosophila armadillo gene. Analysis of a panel of somatic cell hybrids confirmed the localization of {beta}-catenin on human chromosome 3. Furthermore, exclusion mapping of three hybrids carrying defined fragments of the short arm of human chromosome 3 allowed us to determine the position of the CTNNB1 locus close to the marker D3S2 in 3p21. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Induced secretion of beta-hexosaminidase by human brain endothelial cells: a novel approach in Sandhoff disease?

    PubMed

    Batista, Lionel; Miller, Florence; Clave, Céline; Arfi, Audrey; Douillard-Guilloux, Gaëlle; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Caillaud, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder due to mutations in the beta-hexosaminidase beta-chain gene, resulting in beta-hexosaminidases A (alphabeta) and B (betabeta) deficiency and GM2 ganglioside accumulation in the brain. In this study, our aim was to demonstrate that transduction of cerebral endothelial cells cultured in two-chamber culture inserts with a lentiviral vector encoding the hexosaminidases alpha and beta chains could induce a vectorial secretion of hexosaminidases. Therefore, the human cerebral endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 was infected with the bicistronic vector from the apical compartment, and beta-hexosaminidase activity was measured in transduced cells and in deficient fibroblasts co-cultured in the basal (i.e. brain) compartment. Induced beta-hexosaminidase secretion by transduced hCMEC/D3 cells was sufficient to allow for a 70-90% restoration of beta-hexosaminidase activity in deficient fibroblasts. On the basis of these in vitro data, we propose that brain endothelium be considered as a novel therapeutic target in Sandhoff disease. PMID:20005954

  6. Transfer of cow's milk beta-lactoglobulin to human serum after a milk load: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Lovegrove, J A; Osman, D L; Morgan, J B; Hampton, S M

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive and specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of cow's milk beta-lactoglobulin in human serum. The assay had a sensitivity of 80 pg/ml (2 standard deviations from zero) and did not cross react significantly with any other tested milk proteins. The absorption of cow's milk beta-lactoglobulin and beta-lactoglobulin immunoglobulin G antibody levels after a milk load was investigated in eight healthy non-allergic individuals. There was a significant variation in the circulating beta-lactoglobulin antigen levels during the six hour period after feeding (p < 0.01) for the combined data. A biphasic absorption pattern was seen in all subjects except one subject who had undetectable levels. No significant variation with time was observed for the beta-lactoglobulin IgG antibody levels and no correlation was found between the beta-lactoglobulin antigen levels and the beta-lactoglobulin IgG antibody levels. This pilot study offered information on the quantity of immunogenic cows' milk protein transferred to the blood after a milk load in non-allergic healthy adults and confirmed a biphasic profile of antigen transfer. The sensitivity of the assay used has shown that transfer of food antigen does occur in the majority of healthy nonallergic subjects. PMID:8432474

  7. Possible contribution of follicular interleukin-1beta to nitric oxide generation in human pre-ovulatory follicles.

    PubMed

    Tao, M; Kodama, H; Kagabu, S; Fukuda, J; Murata, M; Shimizu, Y; Hirano, H; Tanaka, T

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between follicular nitric oxide (NO) metabolite concentrations and several related variables, with special reference to follicular interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The follicular fluid from the leading and secondary follicles was collected individually from 20 women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, and the concentrations of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) were determined fluorometrically using 2,3-diaminonaphthalene. Both follicular nitrite (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) and nitrate (r = 0.49, P < 0.001) were found to be significantly correlated with follicular IL-1beta concentrations. There were also significant positive correlations between follicular nitrate and the number of oocytes retrieved (P < 0.01) and serum oestradiol concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration (P < 0.05). When follicular cells were incubated in vitro with 10 ng/ml of IL-1beta for 24 h, nitrate generation was significantly (P < 0.01) elevated compared with the control. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that follicular IL-1beta and the number of developing follicles are significant variables that affect follicular NO concentrations, and points to the possible contribution of IL-1beta to NO generation in human preovulatory follicles. PMID:9402285

  8. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. )

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant human acid beta-glucocerebrosidase, a treatment for Gaucher's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Manavalan, Partha; Edmunds, Tim; Scott, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Acid beta-glucocerebrosidase (N-acylsphingosyl-1-O-beta-D-glucoside:glucohydrolase) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycolipid glucocerebroside to glucose and ceramide. Inadequate levels of this enzyme underly the pathophysiology of Gaucher's disease. Cerezyme (Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA) is a partially deglycosylated form of recombinant human acid beta-glucocerebrosidase that is used in the treatment of Gaucher patients. Although acid beta-glucocerebrosidase belongs to a large family of glycosidases, relatively little is known regarding its structural biology. Here, the crystallization and the initial diffraction analysis of Cerezyme are reported. The crystals are C-centered orthorhombic, with unit-cell parameters a = 285.0, b = 110.2, c = 91.7 A. A 99.9% complete data set has been collected to 2.75 A with an R(sym) of 8.8%.

  10. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray analysis of Human Recombinant Acid beta-glucocerebrosidase, a treatment for Gaucher's Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana F.; Achari, Aniruddha; Manavalan, Partha; Edmunds, Tim; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Acid beta-glucocerebrosidase (N-acylsphingosyl - O - beta-D - glucoside:glucohydrolase) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycolipid glucocerebroside to glucose and ceramide. Inadequate levels of this enzyme underly the pathophysiology of Gaucher's disease. Cerezyme(R) (Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) is a partially deglycosylated form of recombinant human acid beta-glucocerebrosidase that is commercially available for the treatment of Gaucher patients. Although acid beta-glucocerebrosidase belongs to a large family of glycosidases, relatively little is known regarding its structural biology. We report the crystallization and the initial diffraction analysis of Cerezyme(R). The crystals are C-centered orthorhombic, with unit-cell parameters of a = 285.0 A, b = 110.2 A, and c = 91.7 A. A 99.9 A complete data set has been collected to 2.75 A with an R(sub sym) of 8.8 %.

  11. The Use of a Satellite Human Interaction System in Conjunction with a Satellite Media Distribution System. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0217.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Joyce B.

    Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) was designed to provide data on the use of a satellite to deliver educational programs to 56 rural-isolated schools in eight Rocky Mountain States. Three series were broadcast: (1) a junior high school career development, (2) career development for public school administrators and teachers, and (3) topical…

  12. Proportion of beta-D-glucuronidase-negative Escherichia coli in human fecal samples.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, G W; Brill, J; Lum, R

    1989-01-01

    Convenient assays and reports that almost all clinical isolates of Escherichia coli produce beta-D-glucuronidase (GUR) have led to great interest in the use of the enzyme for the rapid detection of the bacterium in water, food, and environmental samples. In these materials, E. coli serves as an indicator of possible fecal contamination. Therefore, it was crucial to examine the proportion of GUR-negative E. coli in human fecal samples. The bacterium was isolated from 35 samples, and a mean of 34% and a median of 15% were found to be GUR negative in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide. E. coli from three samples were temperature dependent for GUR production: very weakly positive at 37 degrees C but strongly positive at 44.5 degrees C. These results remind us of differences between fecal and clinical E. coli populations, of diversity in GUR regulation and expression in natural populations of E. coli, and of the need for caution in using GUR for the detection of fecal E. coli. PMID:2655534

  13. Secondary structure determination of human. beta. -endorphin by /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtarge, O.; Jardetzky, O.; Li, C.H.

    1987-09-08

    The /sup 1/H NMR spectra of human ..beta..-endorphin indicate that the peptide exists in random-coil form in aqueous solution but becomes helical in mixed solvent. Thermal denaturation NMR experiments show that in water there is no transition between 24 and 75/sup 0/C, while a slow noncooperative thermal unfolding is observed in a 60% methanol-40% water mixed solvent in the same temperature range. These findings are consistent with circular dichroism studies by other workers concluding that ..beta..-endorphin is a random coil in water but that it forms 50% ..cap alpha..-helix or more in mixed solvents. The peptide in the mixed water-methanol solvent was further studied by correlated spectroscopy (COSY) and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. These allow a complete set of assignments to be made and establish two distinct stretches over which the solvent induces formation of ..cap alpha..-helices: the first occurs between Tyr-1 and Thr-12 and the second between Leu-14 and extending to Lys-28. There is evidence that the latter is capped by a turn occurring between Lys-28 and Glu-31. These helices form at the enkephalin receptor binding site, which is at the amino terminus, and at the morphine receptor binding site, located at the carboxyl terminus. The findings suggest that these two receptors may specifically recognize ..cap alpha..-helices.

  14. [Separation and properties of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase from human seminal plasma].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Uchijima, Y; Kobayashi, N; Saitoh, H

    1989-11-01

    N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase from human seminal plasma has been separated by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis into two components, isoenzyme I and II. The two isoenzymes are readily separated on a DEAE-Sephadex column. Isoenzyme I which has adsorbed to the column, is eluted at 0.1 M NaCl, whereas isoenzyme II has passed through the column. The following enzyme properties have been obtained: 1) Both isoenzymes show the same Km values (0.27 X 10(-3) M) towards sodio-m-cresol-sufonphtaleinyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide . 2) Both isoenzymes show the same pH optima of 5.4. 3) Optimal temperature for isoenzyme I is 50 degrees C, while that for isoenzyme II is 65 degrees C. Isoenzyme II is heat stable, while isoenzyme I is easily denatured by heat. These characteristics of isoenzyme I and II coincide with previous reports of NAG A and B from the spleen and the kidney, respectively. The activity ratio of isoenzyme I and II has been studied for the reproductive tissues. The % ratio of isoenzyme I and II in the epididymal head is 62 and 38, that in the epididymal tail is 42 and 58, and 38:62 in the seminal vesicle, 35:65 in the prostatic gland and 27:73 in the seminal plasma. PMID:2593437

  15. beta-Carboline alkaloids in Peganum harmala and inhibition of human monoamine oxidase (MAO).

    PubMed

    Herraiz, T; González, D; Ancín-Azpilicueta, C; Arán, V J; Guillén, H

    2010-03-01

    Peganum harmala L. is a multipurpose medicinal plant increasingly used for psychoactive recreational purposes (Ayahuasca analog). Harmaline, harmine, harmalol, harmol and tetrahydroharmine were identified and quantified as the main beta-carboline alkaloids in P. harmala extracts. Seeds and roots contained the highest levels of alkaloids with low levels in stems and leaves, and absence in flowers. Harmine and harmaline accumulated in dry seeds at 4.3% and 5.6% (w/w), respectively, harmalol at 0.6%, and tetrahydroharmine at 0.1% (w/w). Roots contained harmine and harmol with 2.0% and 1.4% (w/w), respectively. Seed extracts were potent reversible and competitive inhibitors of human monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) with an IC(50) of 27 microg/l whereas root extracts strongly inhibited MAO-A with an IC(50) of 159 microg/l. In contrast, they were poor inhibitors of MAO-B. Inhibition of MAO-A by seed extracts was quantitatively attributed to harmaline and harmine whereas inhibition by root extracts came from harmine with no additional interferences. Stems and leaves extracts were poor inhibitors of MAO. The potent inhibition of MAO-A by seed and root extracts of P. harmala containing beta-carbolines should contribute to the psychopharmacological and toxicological effects of this plant and could be the basis for its purported antidepressant actions. PMID:20036304

  16. Transforming growth factor beta increases cell surface binding and assembly of exogenous (plasma) fibronectin by normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Hoffmann, B L; Crankshaw, C L; Mosher, D F

    1988-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) enhances the cell surface binding of 125I-fibronectin by cultured human fibroblasts. The effect of TGF-beta on cell surface binding was maximal after 2 h of exposure to TFG-beta and did not require epidermal growth factor or protein synthesis. The enhancement was dose dependent and was found with the 125I-labeled 70-kilodalton amino-terminal fragment of fibronectin as well as with 125I-fibronectin. Treatment of cultures with TGF-beta for 6 h resulted in a threefold increase in the estimated number of fibronectin binding sites. The increase in number of binding sites was accompanied by an increased accumulation of labeled fibronectin in detergent-insoluble extracellular matrix. The effect of TGF-beta was biphasic; after 6 h of exposure, less labeled fibronectin bound to treated cultures than to control cultures. Exposure of cells to TGF-beta for greater than 6 h caused a two- to threefold increase in the accumulation of cellular fibronectin in culture medium as detected by a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The second phase of the biphasic effect and the increase in soluble cellular fibronectin were blocked by cycloheximide. Immunofluorescence staining of fibroblast cultures with antifibronectin revealed that TGF-beta caused a striking increase in fibronectin fibrils. The 70-kilodalton amino-terminal fragment of fibronectin, which blocks incorporation of fibronectin into extracellular matrix, blocked anchorage-independent growth of NRK-49F cells in the presence of epidermal growth factor. Our results show that an increase in the binding and rate of assembly of exogenous fibronectin is an early event preceding the increase in expression of extracellular matrix proteins. Such an early increase in cell surface binding of exogenous fibronectin may be a mechanism whereby TGF-beta can modify extracellular matrix characteristics rapidly after tissue injury or during embryonic morphogenesis. Images PMID:3054513

  17. Antibodies that neutralize human beta interferon biologic activity recognize a linear epitope: analysis by synthetic peptide mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, P N; Hoeprich, P D; Colby, C B; Grossberg, S E

    1991-01-01

    The location of biologically relevant epitopes on recombinant human beta interferon in which Ser-17 replaces Cys-17 (rh[Ser17]IFN-beta) was evaluated by testing the immunoreactivity of antibodies against 159 sequential, overlapping octamer peptides. Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize rh[Ser17]IFN-beta biologic activity, designated A1, A5, and A7, bound to peptides spanning only residues 39-48, whereas nonneutralizing mAb bound less specifically at multiple sites near the amino terminus. The immunoreactivity of peptides spanning residues 40-47 that contained a series of single amino acid substitutions suggested that residues 41-43 (Pro-Glu-Glu) and 46 (Gln) are important for the binding of neutralizing mAbs. The reactivity of mAbs to larger synthetic peptides containing rh[Ser17]IFN-beta sequences from residue 32 through residue 56 was evaluated. All mAbs except A7 reacted with synthetic peptides representing rh[Ser17]IFN-beta residues 32-47, 40-56, and 32-56, but only mAbs A1 and A5 bound to the core peptide composed of residues 40-47. Peptide 32-56 effectively blocked the binding of mAbs A1 and A5 to rh[Ser17]IFN-beta and markedly inhibited their neutralizing activity. Biologic activity of the peptides was undetectable. Rabbit antisera raised against peptides 32-47 and 40-56 recognized rh[Ser17]IFN-beta but did not neutralize its antiviral activity. Thus, structure-function analysis by peptide mapping has permitted the identification of a linear epitope recognized by neutralizing antibody on a biologically active cytokine. We conclude that the region spanning residues 32-56 is of major importance in the expression of the biologic activity of human IFN-beta. Images PMID:1708891

  18. Negative feedback between prostaglandin and alpha- and beta-chemokine synthesis in human microglial cells and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Janabi, N; Hau, I; Tardieu, M

    1999-02-01

    The understanding of immune surveillance and inflammation regulation in cerebral tissue is essential in the therapy of neuroimmunological disorders. We demonstrate here that primary human glial cells were able to produce alpha- and beta-chemokines (IL-8 > growth related protein alpha (GROalpha) > RANTES > microphage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta) in parallel to PGs (PGE2 and PGF2alpha) after proinflammatory cytokine stimulation: TNF-alpha + IL-1beta induced all except RANTES, which was induced by TNF-alpha + IFN-gamma. Purified cultures of astrocytes and microglia were also induced by the same combination of cytokines, to produce all these mediators except MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, which were produced predominantly by astrocytes. The inhibition of PG production by indomethacin led to a 37-60% increase in RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta but not in GROalpha and IL-8 secretion. In contrast, inhibition of IL-8 and GRO activities using neutralizing Abs resulted in a specific 6-fold increase in PGE2 but not in PGF2alpha production by stimulated microglial cells and astrocytes, whereas Abs to beta-chemokines had no effect. Thus, the production of PGs in human glial cells down-regulates their beta-chemokine secretion, whereas alpha-chemokine production in these cells controls PG secretion level. These data suggest that under inflammatory conditions, the intraparenchymal production of PGs could control chemotactic gradient of beta-chemokines for an appropriate effector cell recruitment or activation. Conversely, the elevated intracerebral alpha-chemokine levels could reduce PG secretion, preventing the exacerbation of inflammation and neurotoxicity. PMID:9973432

  19. Analysis of 12 beta-lactam antibiotics in human plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    McWhinney, Brett C; Wallis, Steven C; Hillister, Tara; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2010-07-15

    A simple and economical high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for routine analysis of 12 Penicillin, Cephalosporin and Carbapenem antibiotics in 200 microL of human plasma. Antibiotics determined were Ceftazidime, Meropenem, Ceftriaxone, Ampicillin, Cefazolin, Ertapenem, Cephalothin, Benzylpenicillin, Flucloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Piperacillin and Ticarcillin. There was a common sample preparation approach involving precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile and removal of lipid-soluble components by a chloroform wash. Separations were performed on a Waters X-bridge C18 column with, depending on analytes, one of three acetonitrile-phosphate buffer mobile phases. Detection was by UV at 210, 260 and 304 nm. Validation has demonstrated the method to be linear, accurate and precise. The method has been used in a pathology laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of beta-lactams in critically ill patients. PMID:20561826

  20. Production of human beta interferon in insect cells infected with a Baculovirus expression vector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.E.; Summers, M.D.; Fraser, M.J.

    1983-12-01

    Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) was used as an expression vector for human beta interferon. By using specially constructed plasmids, the protein-coding sequences for interferon were linked to the AcNPV promoter for the gene encoding for polyhedrin, the major occlusion protein. The interferon gene was inserted at various locations relative to the AcNPV polyhedrin transcriptional and translational signals, and the interferon-polyhedrin hybrid genes were transferred to infectious AcNPV expression vectors. Biologically active interferon was produced, and greater than 95% was secreted from infected insect cells. A maximum of ca. 5 x 10/sup 6/ U of interferon activity was produced by 10/sup 6/ infected cells. These results demonstrate that AcNPV should be suitable for use as a eucaryotic expression vector for the production of products from cloned genes.

  1. Regulation of the human. beta. -actin promoter by upstream and intron domains

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Sunyu )); Gunning, P.; Kedes, L. ); Liu, Shuhui National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu ); Leavitt, J. )

    1989-01-25

    The authors have identified three regulatory domains of the complex human {beta}-actin gene promoter. They span a region of about 3,000 bases, from not more than {minus}2,011 bases upstream of the mRNA cap site to within the 5{prime} intron (832 bases long). A distal upstream domain contains at least one enhancer-like element. A proximal upstream domain, with a CArG (for CC(A+T rich){sub 6}GG) motif found in all known mammalian actin genes, seems to confer serum, but not growth factor, inducibility. The third domain is within the evolutionarily conserved 3{prime} region of the first intron and contains a 13 base-pair sequence, identical to the upstream sequence with the CArG motif. This domain also contains sequences that are both serum and fibroblast growth inducible.

  2. Genomic organization of the human {beta}-catenin gene (CTNNB1)

    SciTech Connect

    Nollet, F.; Berx, G.; Molemans, F.; Roy, F. van

    1996-03-05

    The cytoplasmic {beta}-catenin protein is implicated in signal transduction and associates with both the cell-cell adhesion protein E-cadherin and the tumor suppressor gene product APC. We determined the primary structure of the human {beta}-catenin gene (CTNNB1) by analysis cDNA and genomic clones. The size of the complete gene was determined to be 23.2 kb. Restriction mapping and partial sequence analysis revealed 16 exons. All splice donor and acceptor sites were conformable to the GT/AG rule. The exon size ranged from 61 to 790 bp. Half of the introns were smaller than 550 bp, with the smallest being 84 pb and the longest being 6700 bp. The intron-exon boundaries did not coincide either with conserved sites in the 12 armadillo repeat sequences of {beta}-catenin or with intron-exon boundaries in the armadillo gene of Drosophila. A major site for transcription initiation was identified as an A residue 214 nucleotides upstream of the ATG initiation codon. The resulting transcript is 3362 nucleotides long. Compared to the previously published mRNA sequence, additional residues were identified, 16 at the 5{prime} end and 766 at the 3{prime} end of the mRNA. An alternative splice acceptor site within exon 16 reduced the 3{prime} UTR sequence by 159 bp. Polymerase chain reaction on cDNA from 14 human cell lines demonstrated the general occurrence of both splice variants. The 5{prime}-flanking region is highly GC-rich and lacks a CCAAT box, but contains a TATA box and potential binding sites for several transcription factors, such as NFkB, SP1, AP2, and EGR1. Both a 437-bp fragment and a 6-kb fragment, containing about 4.7 kb of the 5{prime}-flanking region in addition to the noncoding exon 1 and 1 kb of intron 1, showed clear promoter activity when these fragments were linked to a secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene and transfected into a mouse epithelial cell line. 53 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Selective destruction of mouse islet beta cells by human T lymphocytes in a newly-established humanized type 1 diabetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yong; Guo, Chengshan; Hwang, David; Lin, Brian; Dingeldein, Michael; Mihailescu, Dan; Sam, Susan; Sidhwani, Seema; Zhang, Yongkang; Jain, Sumit; Skidgel, Randal A.; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Mazzone, Theodore; Holterman, Mark J.

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Establish a human immune-mediated type 1 diabetic model in NOD-scid IL2r{gamma}{sup null} mice. {yields} Using the irradiated diabetic NOD mouse spleen mononuclear cells as trigger. {yields} The islet {beta} cells were selectively destroyed by infiltrated human T cells. {yields} The model can facilitate translational research to find a cure for type 1 diabetes. -- Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by a T cell-mediated autoimmune response that leads to the loss of insulin-producing {beta} cells. The optimal preclinical testing of promising therapies would be aided by a humanized immune-mediated T1D model. We develop this model in NOD-scid IL2r{gamma}{sup null} mice. The selective destruction of pancreatic islet {beta} cells was mediated by human T lymphocytes after an initial trigger was supplied by the injection of irradiated spleen mononuclear cells (SMC) from diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. This resulted in severe insulitis, a marked loss of total {beta}-cell mass, and other related phenotypes of T1D. The migration of human T cells to pancreatic islets was controlled by the {beta} cell-produced highly conserved chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4, as demonstrated by in vivo blocking experiments using antibody to CXCR4. The specificity of humanized T cell-mediated immune responses against islet {beta} cells was generated by the local inflammatory microenvironment in pancreatic islets including human CD4{sup +} T cell infiltration and clonal expansion, and the mouse islet {beta}-cell-derived CD1d-mediated human iNKT activation. The selective destruction of mouse islet {beta} cells by a human T cell-mediated immune response in this humanized T1D model can mimic those observed in T1D patients. This model can provide a valuable tool for translational research into T1D.

  4. Beta-Cryptoxanthin Suppresses the Growth of Immortalized Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent findings of an inverse association between beta-cryptoxanthin and lung cancer risk in several observational epidemiologic studies suggests that beta-cryptoxanthin could potentially act as a chemopreventive agent against lung cancer. However, the biological activity of beta-cryptoxanthin and m...

  5. The production of transgenic mice expressing human cystathionine beta-synthase to study Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butler, Christine; Knox, Aaron J; Bowersox, Jeffrey; Forbes, Stacy; Patterson, David

    2006-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of significant cognitive disability. We hypothesize that by identifying metabolic alterations associated with cognitive impairment, it may be possible to develop medical or dietary interventions to ameliorate cognitive disabilities in persons with DS. Evidence suggests that one-carbon/transsulfuration (1C-TS) metabolism is abnormal in persons with DS. Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) plays a critical role in this metabolic system. The gene for CBS is on human chromosome 21, and there is evidence of elevated CBS enzyme activity in tissues and cells from individuals with DS. To analyze the possible role of CBS in Down syndrome, we have produced several lines of transgenic mice expressing the human CBS gene. We describe the use of Florescence Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis to characterize the transgene insertion site for each line. Our initial expression analysis of each transgenic line by RT-PCR shows that the tissue specificity of human CBS mRNA levels in these mice may differ from the tissue specificity of mouse CBS mRNA levels in the same animals. These mice will be invaluable for assessing the regulation of the CBS gene and the role of CBS in cognition. They can also be used to develop therapies that target abnormalities in 1C-TS metabolism to improve cognition in persons with DS. PMID:16541333

  6. Targeting vaccinia virus-expressed secretory beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin to the cell surface induces antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, J; Singh, O; Chakrabarti, S; Talwar, G P

    1995-01-01

    We carried out experiments designed to study the effect of a protein's localization on its immunogenicity. A novel cell-surface protein was generated from a small, glycosylated secretory protein. The DNA sequence encoding the entire precursor of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta (beta hCG) subunit was fused in the correct reading frame to the DNA sequence encoding the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. This chimeric gene was introduced into the vaccinia virus genome to generate a recombinant virus. The recombinant virus, when used to infect animal cells, expressed a 135-amino-acid beta hCG subunit anchored in cellular membranes by the 48 carboxy-terminal amino acids of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The immunogenicity of this recombinant virus with respect to its ability to generate anti-hCG antibodies was compared with that of a second recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG. All animals immunized with the vaccinia virus expressing beta hCG on the cell surface elicited high titers of anti-hCG antibodies. Even after a single immunization with the recombinant vaccinia virus, the anti-hCG antibody titers persisted for a long period of time (more than 6 months). None of the animals immunized with vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG showed any hCG-specific antibody response. PMID:7591154

  7. Bicistronic lentiviral vector corrects beta-hexosaminidase deficiency in transduced and cross-corrected human Sandhoff fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Arfi, Audrey; Bourgoin, Christophe; Basso, Luisa; Emiliani, Carla; Tancini, Brunella; Chigorno, Vanna; Li, Yu-Teh; Orlacchio, Aldo; Poenaru, Livia; Sonnino, Sandro; Caillaud, Catherine

    2005-11-01

    Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease characterized by a GM2 ganglioside intralysosomal accumulation. It is due to mutations in the beta-hexosaminidases beta-chain gene, resulting in a beta-hexosaminidases A (alphabeta) and B (betabeta) deficiency. Mono and bicistronic lentiviral vectors containing the HEXA or/and HEXB cDNAs were constructed and tested on human Sandhoff fibroblasts. The bicistronic SIV.ASB vector enabled a massive restoration of beta-hexosaminidases activity on synthetic substrates and a 20% correction on the GM2 natural substrate. Metabolic labeling experiments showed a large reduction of ganglioside accumulation in SIV.ASB transduced cells, demonstrating a correct recombinant enzyme targeting to the lysosomes. Moreover, enzymes secreted by transduced Sandhoff fibroblasts were endocytosed in deficient cells via the mannose 6-phosphate pathway, allowing GM2 metabolism restoration in cross-corrected cells. Therefore, our bicistronic lentivector supplying both alpha- and beta-subunits of beta-hexosaminidases may provide a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of Sandhoff disease. PMID:15953731

  8. The crystal structure of human glycosylation-inhibiting factor is a trimeric barrel with three 6-stranded beta-sheets.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Y; Muto, T; Tomura, T; Tsumura, H; Watarai, H; Mikayama, T; Ishizaka, K; Kuroki, R

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylation-inhibiting factor (GIF) is a cytokine that is involved in the regulation of IgE synthesis. The crystal structure of recombinant human GIF was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method. The structure was refined to an R factor of 0.168 at 1.9 angstrom resolution. The overall structure is seen to consist of three interconnected subunits forming a barrel with three 6-stranded beta-sheets on the inside and six alpha-helices on the outside. There is a 5-angstrom-diameter "hole" through the middle of the barrel. The barrel structure of GIF in part resembles other "trefoil" cytokines such as interleukin 1 and fibroblast growth factor. Each subunit has a new class of alpha + beta sandwich structure consisting of two beta-alpha-beta motifs. These beta-alpha-beta motifs are related by a pseudo-twofold axis and resemble both interleukin 8 and the peptide binding domain of major histocompatibility complex protein, although the topology of the polypeptide chain is quite different. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8610159

  9. The crystal structure of human glycosylation-inhibiting factor is a trimeric barrel with three 6-stranded beta-sheets.

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Muto, T; Tomura, T; Tsumura, H; Watarai, H; Mikayama, T; Ishizaka, K; Kuroki, R

    1996-04-01

    Glycosylation-inhibiting factor (GIF) is a cytokine that is involved in the regulation of IgE synthesis. The crystal structure of recombinant human GIF was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method. The structure was refined to an R factor of 0.168 at 1.9 angstrom resolution. The overall structure is seen to consist of three interconnected subunits forming a barrel with three 6-stranded beta-sheets on the inside and six alpha-helices on the outside. There is a 5-angstrom-diameter "hole" through the middle of the barrel. The barrel structure of GIF in part resembles other "trefoil" cytokines such as interleukin 1 and fibroblast growth factor. Each subunit has a new class of alpha + beta sandwich structure consisting of two beta-alpha-beta motifs. These beta-alpha-beta motifs are related by a pseudo-twofold axis and resemble both interleukin 8 and the peptide binding domain of major histocompatibility complex protein, although the topology of the polypeptide chain is quite different. PMID:8610159

  10. E6 and E7 oncoproteins from human papillomavirus type 16 induce activation of human transforming growth factor beta1 promoter throughout Sp1 recognition sequence.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Xicotencatl, Lourdes; Alcocer-González, Juan; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main etiologic agent of cervical cancer and HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes trans-regulate many cellular genes. An association between TGF-beta1 gene expression and cervical cancer development has been suggested; however, the mechanisms by which HPV influences TGF-beta1 expression remain unclear. In the present study we analyzed the mechanism through which HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins regulate the TGF-beta1 promoter in cervical tumor cells. Our results showed that E6 and E7 increased TGF-beta1 promoter activity. Furthermore, we identified a specific DNA sequence motif in the TGF-beta1 core promoter that is responsible for trans-activation and that corresponds to the Sp1e-binding site associated with HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Mutational analysis showed that the Sp1e recognition site abolished the trans-activation caused by E6 and E7. These results suggest a physical interaction and functional cooperation between viral oncoproteins and cellular regulatory elements of the TGF-beta1 promoter, and may explain the contribution of HPV-16 to TGF-beta1 gene expression in cervical cancer. PMID:16987065

  11. Expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 gene induced by CpG-DNA in human B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Su Ho; Kim, Young-Eun; Park, Jeong-A; Park, Jae-Bong; Kim, Yong-Sun; Lee, Younghee; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Kwon, Hyung-Joo

    2009-11-20

    Defensins have a broad range of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is prevalently observed in epithelial cells and is induced by bacterial infection. Here, we have shown that the expression of the hBD-2 gene and release of hBD-2 protein into the medium is up-regulated in response to CpG-DNA in human B cell line RPMI 8226. The induction of hBD-2 was dependent on CG sequence and phosphorothioate backbone-modification. This was also confirmed in primary human lymphocytes. To shed light on the molecular mechanism involved in hBD-2 induction by CpG-DNA, we examined the contribution of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway in RPMI 8226 cells. Suppression of MyD88 function and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization blocked hBD-2 induction. The NF-{kappa}B pathway inhibitors also abolished hBD-2 induction. These results may contribute to a better understanding on the therapeutic effects of CpG-DNA against infectious diseases.

  12. Corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulates expression of leptin, 11beta-HSD2 and syncytin-1 in primary human trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The placental syncytiotrophoblast is the major source of maternal plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the second half of pregnancy. Placental CRH exerts multiple functions in the maternal organism: It induces the adrenal secretion of cortisol via the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone, regulates the timing of birth via its actions in the myometrium and inhibits the invasion of extravillous trophoblast cells in vitro. However, the auto- and paracrine actions of CRH on the syncytiotrophoblast itself are unknown. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is accompanied by an increase in placental CRH, which could be of pathophysiological relevance for the dysregulation in syncytialisation seen in IUGR placentas. Methods We aimed to determine the effect of CRH on isolated primary trophoblastic cells in vitro. After CRH stimulation the trophoblast syncytialisation rate was monitored via syncytin-1 gene expression and beta-hCG (beta-human chorionic gonadotropine) ELISA in culture supernatant. The expression of the IUGR marker genes leptin and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11beta-HSD2) was measured continuously over a period of 72 h. We hypothesized that CRH might attenuate syncytialisation, induce leptin, and reduce 11beta-HSD2 expression in primary villous trophoblasts, which are known features of IUGR. Results CRH did not influence the differentiation of isolated trophoblasts into functional syncytium as determined by beta-hCG secretion, albeit inducing syncytin-1 expression. Following syncytialisation, CRH treatment significantly increased leptin and 11beta-HSD2 expression, as well as leptin secretion into culture supernatant after 48 h. Conclusion The relevance of CRH for placental physiology is underlined by the present in vitro study. The induction of leptin and 11beta-HSD2 in the syncytiotrophoblast by CRH might promote fetal nutrient supply and placental corticosteroid metabolism in the phase before labour induction. PMID

  13. Structure and mapping of the human thymopoietin (TMPO) gene and relationship of human TMPO {beta} to rat lamin-associated polypeptide 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.A.; Andryuk, P.J.; Cline, S.W.; Seikierka, J.J.; Goldstein, G.

    1995-07-20

    Thymopoietins (TMPOs, previously abbreviated TPs) {alpha}(75kDa), {beta}(51 kDa), and {gamma}(39 kDa) are related nuclear proteins expressed in many or all tissues. TMPO {alpha} is present diffusely throughout the nucleus, while TMPOs {beta} and {gamma} are localized to the nuclear membrane. Here we report the cloning and analysis of a single TMPO gene encoding TMPOs {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}, which are produced by alternative mRNA splicing, as previously inferred from cDNA sequences. The eight exons of the TMPO gene are spread over {approximately}35 kb. Exon 4, which is spliced into TMPS {alpha} mRNA, contains sequences that encode a putative basic nuclear localization motif. Exon 8, which is spliced into TMPO {beta} and {gamma} mRNAs, encodes a hydrophobic putative membrane-spanning domain that is thought to target TMPOs {beta} and {gamma} to the nuclear membrane. TMPO {Beta} appears to be the human homologue of the recently described rat protein LAP2 (lamina-associated polypeptide 2), which is thought to play an important role in the regulation of nuclear architecture by binding lamin B1 and chromosomes in a manner regulated by phosphorylation during mitosis. The human TMPO gene maps to chromosome band 12q22. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Assignment of the gene for the. beta. subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone to the short arm of human chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dracopoli, N.C.; Rettig, W.J.; Whitfield, G.K.; Darlington, G.J.; Spengler, B.A.; Biedler, J.L.; Old, L.J.; Kourides, I.A.

    1986-03-01

    The chromosomal locations of the genes for the ..beta.. subunit of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and the glycoprotein hormone ..cap alpha.. subunit have been determined by restriction enzyme analysis of DNA extracted from rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA and a cloned 0.9-kilobase (kb) fragment of the human TSH ..beta..-subunit gene were used as hybridization probes in the analysis of Southern blots of DNA extracted from rodent-human hybrid clones. Analysis of the segregation of 5- and 10-kb EcoRI fragments hybridizing to CG ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA confirmed the previous assignment of this gene to chromosome 6. Analysis of the patterns of segregation of a 2.3-kb EcoRI fragment containing human TSH ..beta..-subunit sequences permitted the assignment of the TSH ..beta..-subunit gene to human chromosome 1. The subregional assignment of TSH ..beta.. subunit to chromosome 1p22 was made possible by the additional analysis of a set of hybrids containing partially overlapping segments of this chromosome. Human TSH ..beta.. subunit is not syntenic with genes encoding the ..beta.. subunits of CG, luteinizing hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone and is assigned to a conserved linkage group that also contains the structural genes for the ..beta.. subunit of nerve growth factor (NGFB) and the proto-oncogene N-ras (NRAS).

  15. Induction of TNF-alpha production from human peripheral blood monocytes with beta-1,3-glucan oligomer prepared from laminarin with beta-1,3-glucanase from Bacillus clausii NM-1.

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, Nobumitsu; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Etsuo; Odaz, Tatsuya

    2003-01-01

    We prepared a beta-1,3-glucan oligomer (DP> or = 4) from laminarin (DP: 25-30) derived from Laminaria digitata with beta-1,3-glucanase, and examined its effect on human peripheral blood monocytes. Conditioned medium prepared by incubating monocytes (MC-CM) with the beta-1,3-glucan oligomer showed strong inhibitory activity against the proliferation of human leukemic U937 cells. Since the beta-1,3-glucan oligomer had no direct cytotoxic effect on U937 cells up to 1000 microg/ml, the cytotoxicity of the MC-CM may be due to cytotoxic cytokines produced from monocytes stimulated by the beta-1,3-glucan oligomer. On the other hand, the MC-CM prepared with original laminarin had little effect on the growth of U937 cells. The cytotoxicity of the MC-CM prepared with the beta-1,3-glucan oligomer was significantly reduced by an anti-TNF-alpha antibody, but the anti-TNF-beta antibody had no effect. Our results suggest that the enzymatically depolymerized beta-1,3-glucan oligomer induces TNF-alpha production from human monocytes. PMID:16233391

  16. Interactions between human serum proteins and oral streptococci reveal occurrence of receptors for aggregated beta 2-microglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, D; Bratthall, D; Björck, L; Myhre, E; Kronvall, G

    1979-01-01

    A total of 31 strains of oral streptococci representing Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitior, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus milleri were tested for possible binding of human immunoglobulins G, G1, G2, G3, G4, A1, A2, M1, and M2 and haptoglobin, hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and aggregated beta 2-microglobulin. Radiolabeled beta 2-microglobulin in aggregated form showed affinity for 20 of the 31 strains tested. Binding activity for the protein was found in strains belonging to all five species. The bacterial receptor was resistant to trypsin. Monomeric, unlabeled beta 2-microglobulin did not interfere with the binding of the aggregated form. Of the other proteins tested, only the immunoglobulin A1 protein showed positive binding, and that was only with a single strain of S. milleri. beta 2-Microglobulin is present on all nucleated cell membranes in vivo. The reaction between aggregated beta 2-microglobulin and oral streptococci is a new type of human-bacterium interaction which should be considered in studies of bacterial adherence. PMID:90015

  17. Both alpha and beta subunits of human choriogonadotropin photoaffinity label the hormone receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ji, I; Ji, T H

    1981-01-01

    It has been shown that a photoactivable derivative of human choriogonadotropin (hCG) labels the lutropin receptor on porcine granulosa cells [Ji, I. & Ji, T. H. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 7167-7170]. In an attempt to identify which of the hCG subunits labeled the receptor, three sets of different hCG derivatives were prepared. In the first set, hCG was coupled to the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of 4-azidobenzoylglycine and radioiodinated. In the second set, only one of the subunits was radioiodinated, but both subunits were allowed to react with the reagent. In the third set, both the reagent and [125I]iodine were coupled to only one of the subunits. The binding activity of each hormone derivative was comparable to that of 125I-labeled hCG. After binding of these hormone derivatives to the granulosa cell surface, they were photolyzed. After solubilization, autoradiographs of sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels of each sample revealed a number of labeled bands; the hCG derivatives containing 125I-labeled alpha subunit produced four bands (molecular weights 120,000 +/- 6,000, 96,000 +/- 5,000, 76,000 +/- 4,000, and 73,000 +/- 4,000) and those containing 125I-labeled beta subunit produced three bands (molecular weights 106,000 +/- 6,000, 88,000 +/- 5,000, and 83,000 +/- 4,000). Results were the same when the hormone-receptor complexes were solubilized in 0.5% Triton X-100 and then photolyzed or when the hormone was derivatized with a family of reagents having arms of various lengths. We conclude that both the alpha subunit and the beta subunit of hCG photoaffinity labeled certain membrane polypeptides and that these polypeptides are related to the hormone receptor. Images PMID:6272303

  18. Tributyltin alters secretion of interleukin 1 beta from human immune cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shyretha; Whalen, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) has been used as a biocide in industrial applications such as wood preservation, antifouling paint and antifungal agents. Owing to its many uses, it contaminates the environment and has been found in human blood samples. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that promotes cell growth, tissue repair and immune response regulation. Produced predominately by both monocytes and macrophages, IL-1β appears to increase the invasiveness of certain tumors. This study shows that TBT modifies the secretion of IL-1β from increasingly reconstituted preparations of human immune cells. IL-1β secretion was examined after 24-, 48-h or 6-day exposures to TBT in highly enriched human natural killer (NK) cells, monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MD-PBMCs), PBMCs, granulocytes and a preparation combining both PBMCs and granulocytes (PBMCs+granulocytes). TBT altered IL-1β secretion from all of the cell preparations. The 200 nM concentration of TBT normally blocked the secretion of IL-1β, whereas lower concentrations (usually 5-50 nM) elevated secretion of IL-1β. Examination of the signaling pathway(s) responsible for the elevated secretion of IL-1β was carried out in MD-PBMCs. Pathways examined were IL-1β processing (Caspase-1), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). Results indicated that MAPK pathways (p44/42 and p38) appear to be the targets of TBT that lead to increased IL-1β secretion from immune cells. These results from human immune cells show IL-1β dysregulation by TBT is occurring ex vivo. Thus, the potential for in vivo effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels may possibly be a consequence of TBT exposures. PMID:25382723

  19. The FBXW7 {beta}-form is suppressed in human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Zhaodi; Inomata, Kenichi; Ishizawa, Kota; Horii, Akira . E-mail: horii@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

    2007-03-23

    FBXW7 (F-box and WD40 domain protein 7) is an F-box protein with 7 tandem WDs (tryptophan-aspartic acid) that functions as a phosphoepitope-specific substrate recognition component of SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligases and catalyzes the ubiquitination of proteins promoting cell proliferation, such as CCNE1, MYC, AURKA, NOTCH1, and JUN, which are frequently activated in a wide range of human cancers. FBXW7 is a candidate tumor suppressor, and mutations have been reported in some human tumors. In this study, we analyzed 84 human tumor cell lines in search for genetic alterations of FBXW7, as well as mRNA and protein expressional changes, and compared them with expression levels of the CCNE1, MYC, and AURKA proteins. We found a novel nonsense mutation in a colon cancer cell line SCC and confirmed the missense mutations in SKOV3, an ovarian cancer cell line, and LoVo, a colon cancer cell line. Moreover, suppressed expression of FBXW7 accompanied by activation of the target proteins were observed in ovarian, colon, endometrial, gastric, and prostate cancers. It is notable that highly suppressed mRNA expression of the FBXW7 {beta}-form was found in all the human glioma cell lines analyzed; enhanced expressions of CCNE1, MYC, and AURKA were observed in these cells. Our present results imply that FBXW7 plays a pivotal role in many tissues by controlling the amount of cell cycle promoter proteins and that dysfunction of this protein is one of the essential steps in carcinogenesis in multiple organs.

  20. Myomir dysregulation and reactive oxygen species in aged human satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Mancinelli, Rosa; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2016-04-29

    Satellite cells that reside on the myofibre surface are crucial for the muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Aging goes along with a less effective regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue mainly due to the decreased myogenic capability of satellite cells. This phenomenon impedes proper maintenance and contributes to the age-associated decline in muscle mass, known as sarcopenia. The myogenic potential impairment does not depend on a reduced myogenic cell number, but mainly on their difficulty to complete a differentiation program. The unbalanced production of reactive oxygen species in elderly people could be responsible for skeletal muscle impairments. microRNAs are conserved post-transcriptional regulators implicated in numerous biological processes including adult myogenesis. Here, we measure the ROS level and analyze myomiR (miR-1, miR-133b and miR-206) expression in human myogenic precursors obtained from Vastus lateralis of elderly and young subjects to provide the molecular signature responsible for the differentiation impairment of elderly activated satellite cells. PMID:26975470

  1. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase by the 5'-triphosphate beta enantiomers of cytidine analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, A; Agrofoglio, L A; Wakefield, J K; McPherson, S; Morrow, C D; Gosselin, G; Mathe, C; Imbach, J L; Schinazi, R F; Sommadossi, J P

    1994-01-01

    (-)-beta-L-2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (L-ddC) and (-)-beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluorocytidine (L-FddC) have been reported to be potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) in vitro. In the present study, the 5'-triphosphates of L-ddC (L-ddCTP) and L-FddC (L-FddCTP) were demonstrated to competitively inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), with inhibition constants (KiS) of 2 and 1.6 microM, respectively, when a poly(rI).oligo(dC)10-15 template primer was used; in comparison Ki values for beta-D-2',3'-dideoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate (D-ddCTP) and beta-D-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluorocytidine 5'-triphosphate (D-FddCTP) were 1.1 and 1.4 microM, respectively. Use of the mutant RT at position 184 (substitution of methionine to valine [M184V]), which is associated with resistance to beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) and beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine (FTC), resulted in significant increases (50- to 60-fold) in Ki values for L-ddCTP and L-FddCTP, whereas the elevation in Ki values for D-ddCTP and D-FddCTP was moderate (2-fold). L-ddCTP and L-FddCTP did not inhibit human DNA polymerases alpha and beta up to 100 microM. In contrast, D-ddCTP and D-FddCTP inhibited human DNA polymerase beta, with Ki values of 0.5 and 2.5 microM, respectively. By using sequencing analysis, L-ddCTP and L-FddCTP exhibited DNA chain-terminating activities toward the parental HIV-1 RT, whereas they were not a substrate for the mutant M184V HIV-1 RT.L-ddC and L-FddC did not inhibit the mitochondrial DNA content of human cells up to a concentration of 10 microM, whereas D-ddC and D-FddC decreased the mitochondrial DNA content by 90% at concentrations of 1 and 10 microM, respectively. All of these results suggest that further development of L-ddC, and L-FddC in particular, is warranted as a possible anti-HIV candidate. Images PMID:7530932

  2. Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

  3. The soluble form of Alzheimer's amyloid beta protein is complexed to high density lipoprotein 3 and very high density lipoprotein in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Koudinov, A; Matsubara, E; Frangione, B; Ghiso, J

    1994-12-15

    The amyloid fibrils of Alzheimer's neuritic plaques and cerebral blood vessels are mainly composed of aggregated forms of a 39 to 44 amino acids peptide, named amyloid beta (A beta). A similar although soluble form of A beta (sA beta) has been identified in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and cell culture supernatants, indicating that it is produced under physiologic conditions. We report here that sA beta in normal human plasma is associated with lipoprotein particles, in particular to the HDL3 and VHDL fractions where it is complexed to ApoJ and, to a lesser extent, to ApoAI. This was assessed by immunoprecipitation experiments of purified plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein-depleted plasma and confirmed by means of amino acid sequence analysis. Moreover, biotinylated synthetic peptide A beta 1-40 was traced in normal human plasma in in vitro experiments. As in the case of sA beta, biotinylated A beta 1-40 was specifically recovered in the HDL3 and VHDL fractions. This data together with the previous demonstration that A beta 1-40 is taken up into the brain via a specific mechanism and possibly as an A beta 1-40-ApoJ complex indicate a role for HDL3- and VHDL-containing ApoJ in the transport of the peptide in circulation and suggest their involvement in the delivery of sA beta across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:7802646

  4. Human-Specific SNP in Obesity Genes, Adrenergic Receptor Beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during Primate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Shin; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Udono, Toshifumi; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. Conclusions These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods. PMID:22937051

  5. Use of synthetic peptides to locate novel integrin alpha2beta1-binding motifs in human collagen III.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Nicolas; Hamaia, Samir W; Siljander, Pia R-M; Maddox, Ben; Peachey, Anthony R; Fernandez, Rafael; Foley, Loraine J; Slatter, David A; Jarvis, Gavin E; Farndale, Richard W

    2006-02-17

    A set of 57 synthetic peptides encompassing the entire triplehelical domain of human collagen III was used to locate binding sites for the collagen-binding integrin alpha(2)beta(1). The capacity of the peptides to support Mg(2+)-dependent binding of several integrin preparations was examined. Wild-type integrins (recombinant alpha(2) I-domain, alpha(2)beta(1) purified from platelet membranes, and recombinant soluble alpha(2)beta(1) expressed as an alpha(2)-Fos/beta(1)-Jun heterodimer) bound well to only three peptides, two containing GXX'GER motifs (GROGER and GMOGER, where O is hydroxyproline) and one containing two adjacent GXX'GEN motifs (GLKGEN and GLOGEN). Two mutant alpha(2) I-domains were tested: the inactive T221A mutant, which recognized no peptides, and the constitutively active E318W mutant, which bound a larger subset of peptides. Adhesion of activated human platelets to GER-containing peptides was greater than that of resting platelets, and HT1080 cells bound well to more of the peptides compared with platelets. Binding of cells and recombinant proteins was abolished by anti-alpha(2) monoclonal antibody 6F1 and by chelation of Mg(2+). We describe two novel high affinity integrin-binding motifs in human collagen III (GROGER and GLOGEN) and a third motif (GLKGEN) that displays intermediate activity. Each motif was verified using shorter synthetic peptides. PMID:16326707

  6. Assimilation of Real-Time Satellite And Human Sensor Networks for Modeling Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulov, O.; Halem, M.; Lary, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of underlying technologies needed to address the merging of a web of real time satellite sensor Web (SSW) and Human Sensor Web (HSW) needed to augment the US response to extreme events. As an initial prototyping step and use case scenario, we consider the development of two major system tools that can be transitioned from research to the responding operational agency for mitigating coastal oil spills. These tools consist of the capture of Situation Aware (SA) Social Media (SM) Data, and assimilation of the processed information into forecasting models to provide incident decision managers with interactive virtual spatial temporal animations superimposed with probabilistic data estimates. The system methodologies are equally applicable to the wider class of extreme events such as plume dispersions from volcanoes or massive fires, major floods, hurricane impacts, radioactive isotope dispersions from nuclear accidents, etc. A successful feasibility demonstration of this technology has been shown in the case of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill where Human Sensor Networks have been combined with a geophysical model to perform parameter assessments. Flickr images of beached oil were mined from the spill area, geolocated and timestamped and converted into geophysical data. This data was incorporated into General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME), a Lagrangian forecast model that uses near real-time surface winds, ocean currents, and satellite shape profiles of oil to generate a forecast of plume movement. As a result, improved estimates of diffusive coefficients and rates of oil spill were determined. Current approaches for providing satellite derived oil distributions are collected from a satellite sensor web of operational and research sensors from many countries, and a manual analysis is performed by NESDIS. A real time SA HSW processing system based on geolocated SM data from sources such as Twitter, Flickr, YouTube etc., greatly

  7. Beta 2 (CD18) and beta 1 (CD29) integrin mechanisms in migration of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and monocytes through lung fibroblast barriers: shared and distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Shang, X Z; Issekutz, A C

    1997-01-01

    Accumulation of leucocytes in inflamed lung tissue and alveolar space involves their migration through vascular endothelium and then lung connective tissue. As a model of this process, we investigated human polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) and monocyte migration through a biological barrier of human lung fibroblasts (HLF) grown on polycarbonate filters. Very few PMNL (1-2%) or monocytes (3-8%) migrated through the HLF barriers spontaneously. Migration increased to 48-53% of added PMNL and 17-24% of added monocytes, when a C5a chemotactic gradient was present. The monocyte migration induced by C5a was not inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to CD18 (beta 2 integrins). This CD18-independent migration was partially inhibited (35%) by mAb to gamma 5 of VLA-5 and completely inhibited by the combination of mAb to gamma 4 of VLA-4 with mAb to VLA-5, in the presence of mAb to CD18. In contrast, PMNL migration across HLF induced by C5a was partially inhibited by mAb to CD18 alone, but even with the addition of mAb to VLA-4, VLA-5 beta 1 and VLA-6, the greatest degree of inhibition was only 60%. Blocking the function of CD18 was not required to observe the inhibition by mAb to VLA-4, although the inhibitory effect of mAb to VLA-5 and VLA-6 alone or in combination was only observed when CD18 mechanisms were also blocked with anti-CD18 mAb. These results demonstrate that (a) both monocytes and PMNL can use either CD11/CD18 (beta 2 integrin) or beta 1 (CD49/CD29) integrins to migrate through HLF barriers; (b) in the case of monocytes, the VLA-4 and VLA-5 integrins account for essentially all the CD11/CD18-independent migration mechanisms; and (c) in contrast to monocytes, PMNL CD18-independent migration is mediated not only by VLA-4 and VLA-5, but also by VLA-6, and up to 40% of the migration appears to be via yet to be defined PMNL surface molecules. PMID:9497495

  8. Functionally graded beta-TCP/PCL nanocomposite scaffolds: in vitro evaluation with human fetal osteoblast cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Seher; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Yu, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    The engineering of biomimetic tissue relies on the ability to develop biodegradable scaffolds with functionally graded physical and chemical properties. In this study, a twin-screw-extrusion/spiral winding (TSESW) process was developed to enable the radial grading of porous scaffolds (discrete and continuous gradations) that were composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), beta-tricalciumphosphate (beta-TCP) nanoparticles, and salt porogens. Scaffolds with interconnected porosity, exhibiting myriad radial porosity, pore-size distributions, and beta-TCP nanoparticle concentration could be obtained. The results of the characterization of their compressive properties and in vitro cell proliferation studies using human fetal osteoblast cells suggest the promising nature of such scaffolds. The significant degree of freedom offered by the TSESW process should be an additional enabler in the quest toward the mimicry of the complex elegance of the native tissues. PMID:19296543

  9. The oligomerization of amyloid beta-protein begins intracellularly in cells derived from human brain.

    PubMed

    Walsh, D M; Tseng, B P; Rydel, R E; Podlisny, M B; Selkoe, D J

    2000-09-01

    The progressive aggregation and deposition of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in brain regions subserving memory and cognition is an early and invariant feature of Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of cognitive failure in aged humans. Inhibiting Abeta aggregation is therapeutically attractive because this process is believed to be an exclusively pathological event. Whereas many studies have examined the aggregation of synthetic Abeta peptides under nonphysiological conditions and concentrations, we have detected and characterized the oligomerization of naturally secreted Abeta at nanomolar levels in cultures of APP-expressing CHO cells [Podlisny, M. B., Ostaszewski, B. L., Squazzo, S. L., Koo, E. H., Rydell, R. E., Teplow, D. B., and Selkoe, D. J. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 9564-9570 (1); Podlisny, M. B., Walsh, D. M., Amarante, P., Ostaszewski, B. L., Stimson, E. R., Maggio, J. E., Teplow, D. B., and Selkoe, D. J. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 3602-3611 (2)]. To determine whether similar species occur in vivo, we probed samples of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and detected SDS-stable dimers of Abeta in some subjects. Incubation of CSF or of CHO conditioned medium at 37 degrees C did not lead to new oligomer formation. This inability to induce oligomers extracellularly as well as the detection of oligomers in cell medium very early during the course of pulse-chase experiments suggested that natural Abeta oligomers might first form intracellularly. We therefore searched for and detected intracellular Abeta oligomers, principally dimers, in primary human neurons and in neuronal and nonneural cell lines. These dimers arose intracellularly rather than being derived from the medium by reuptake. The dimers were particularly detectable in neural cells: the ratio of intracellular to extracellular oligomers was much higher in brain-derived than nonbrain cells. We conclude that the pathogenically critical process of Abeta oligomerization begins intraneuronally. PMID

  10. A study of membrane protein defects and alpha hemoglobin chains of red blood cells in human beta thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rouyer-Fessard, P.; Garel, M.C.; Domenget, C.; Guetarni, D.; Bachir, D.; Colonna, P.; Beuzard, Y. )

    1989-11-15

    The soluble pool of alpha hemoglobin chains present in blood or bone marrow cells was measured with a new affinity method using a specific probe, beta A hemoglobin chain labeled with ({sup 3}H)N-ethylmaleimide. This pool of soluble alpha chains was 0.067 {plus minus} 0.017% of hemoglobin in blood of normal adult, 0.11 {plus minus} 0.03% in heterozygous beta thalassemia and ranged from 0.26 to 1.30% in homozygous beta thalassemia intermedia. This elevated pool of soluble alpha chains observed in human beta thalassemia intermedia decreased 33-fold from a value of 10% of total hemoglobin in bone marrow cells to 0.3% in the most dense red blood cells. The amount of insoluble alpha chains was measured by using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in urea and Triton X-100. In beta thalassemia intermedia the amount of insoluble alpha chains was correlated with the decreased spectrin content of red cell membrane and was associated with a decrease in ankyrin and with other abnormalities of the electrophoretic pattern of membrane proteins. The loss and topology of the reactive thiol groups of membrane proteins was determined by using ({sup 3}H)N-ethylmaleimide added to membrane ghosts prior to urea and Triton X-100 electrophoresis. Spectrin and ankyrin were the major proteins with the most important decrease of thiol groups.

  11. Distribution of precursor amyloid-. beta. -protein messenger RNA in human cerebral cortex: relationship to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.A.; Higgins, G.A.; Young, W.G.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Wilson, M.C.; Morrison, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP), two neuropathological markers of Alzheimer disease, may both contain peptide fragments derived from the human amyloid ..beta.. protein. However, the nature of the relationship between NFT and NP and the source of the amyloid ..beta.. proteins found in each have remained unclear. The authors used in situ hybridization techniques to map the anatomical distribution of precursor amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA in the neocortex of brains from three subjects with no known neurologic disease and from five patients with Alzheimer disease. In brains from control subjects, positively hybridizing neurons were present in cortical regions and layers that contain a high density of neuropathological markers in Alzheimer disease, as well as in those loci that contain NP but few NFT. Quantitative analyses of in situ hybridization patterns within layers III and V of the superior frontal cortex revealed that the presence of high numbers of NFT in Alzheimer-diseased brains was associated with a decrease in the number of positively hybridizing neurons compared to controls and Alzheimer-diseased brains with few NFT. These findings suggest that the expression of precursor amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA may be a necessary but is clearly not a sufficient prerequisite for NFT formation. In addition, these results may indicate that the amyloid ..beta.. protein, present in NP in a given region or layer of cortex, is not derived from the resident neuronal cell bodies that express the mRNA for the precursor protein.

  12. Measles virus infection enhances IL-1 beta but reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Leopardi, R; Vainionpää, R; Hurme, M; Siljander, P; Salmi, A A

    1992-10-01

    Monocytes may play a role in the immunologic abnormalities caused by measles. The effect of measles virus (MV) infection on peripheral blood monocyte functions is poorly known. We report that MV-infected PBM have an altered pattern of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha production in response to stimulation with LPS and PMA in vitro. MV-infected peripheral blood monocytes produced higher amounts of IL-1 beta, whereas the production of TNF-alpha was reduced. The same effect was observed in the human monocytic cell line THP-1, which was used for RNA analysis. An increased steady-state level of IL-1 beta mRNA was observed in MV-infected cells, and the level of TNF-alpha mRNA was reduced. However, both IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha had about 50% increased transcription rate. Analysis of the mRNA stability after transcriptional block by actinomycin D showed that the TNF-alpha mRNA had a reduced half-life in MV-infected cells (about 30 vs 80 min in uninfected cells), whereas IL-1 beta mRNA stability was similar in uninfected and MV-infected cells. These results indicate that MV infection disturbs the immunoregulatory network by interfering with the monocyte functions. PMID:1527385

  13. Linking Regional Satellite Observations with Coupled Human-Ecological Systems in Global Drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, C.; Reynolds, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    The African Sahel has attracted consistent attention since a series of droughts in the 1970s and 1980s caused widespread famine and land degradation (desertification). These events spawned international conventions and sustained development efforts to increase food security and reverse poverty for the local populations, and to arrest environmental degradation. Since 1985, several studies using satellite data have described a general “greening” in response to increased rainfall trends. However, some areas show more greening while others less greening than can be explained by precipitation alone (Glob. Env. Change 15- 2005). The debated question is how to explain the residual changes: management, policy, human adaptation, or something else? Placing results in an human-ecological framework could help answer this question. Providing a meaningful assessment will allow national and international agencies to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative approaches to poverty alleviation and environmental restoration in drylands at regional and global scales.

  14. Induction of human beta-interferon synthesis with poly(rI . rC) in mouse cells transfected with cloned cDNA plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Pitha, P M; Ciufo, D M; Kellum, M; Raj, N B; Reyes, G R; Hayward, G S

    1982-01-01

    Human genomic DNA and plasmids carrying portions of the cDNA gene for human beta-interferon have been introduced into mouse Ltk- cells by cotransfection with a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene. One plasmid contains 840 base pairs of human DNA complementary to pre-beta-interferon mRNA inserted into pBR322, whereas the other plasmids have hybrid genes containing only the 560-base pair coding region inserted under the transcriptional control of the TK promoter. Constitutive interferon production could not be detected in any of the mouse TK+ cell lines tested. Nevertheless, synthesis of interferon could be induced by poly(rI . rC) treatment in at least 16 of these cell lines, including clones transfected with genomic DNA, the beta-interferon cDNA, and the TK-beta-interferon cDNA hybrid gene. The interferon produced was specific for human cells and could be neutralized by antiserum against human beta-interferon. In contrast to human fibroblast cells, in which the synthesis of induced beta-interferon is transient, the poly(rI . rC)-induced TK+ lines continued to produce beta-interferon for prolonged periods of time and did not respond to superinduction conditions. Therefore, in transfected mouse cells, the coding DNA sequence from the human beta-interferon gene, without any of the adjacent 3' or 5' flanking human DNA sequences, was sufficient both to direct synthesis of biologically active product and to respond to the specific induction system that operates in human cells. However, the mechanism that switches off the synthesis of induced interferon in human cells appears not to operate in mouse cells transfected with beta-interferon cDNA. PMID:6956863

  15. The fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway is important for decidualization of endometrial stromal cells in both humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jui-He; Chi, Maggie M-Y; Schulte, Maureen B; Moley, Kelle H

    2014-02-01

    Embryo implantation and development requires the endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) to undergo decidualization. This differentiation process requires glucose utilization, and blockade of the pentose phosphate pathway inhibits decidualization of ESCs both in vitro and in vivo. Glucose and fatty acids are energy substrates for many cell types, and fatty acid beta-oxidation is critical for embryo implantation. Here, we investigated whether beta-oxidation is required for decidualization of ESCs. As assessed by marker gene expression, decidualization of human primary ESCs was blocked by reducing activity of carnitine calmitoyltransferase I, the rate-limiting enzyme in beta-oxidation, either by short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing or by treatment with the inhibitor etomoxir. Ranolazine (RAN), a partial beta-oxidation inhibitor, blocked early decidualization of a human ESC line. However, decidualization resumed after several days, most likely due to a compensatory up-regulation of GLUT1 expression and an increase in glucose metabolism. Simultaneous inhibition of the beta-oxidation pathway with RAN and the pentose phosphate pathway with glucosamine (GlcN) impaired in vitro decidualization of human ESCs more strongly than inhibition of either pathway alone. These findings were confirmed in murine ESCs in vitro, and exposure to RAN plus GlcN inhibited decidualization in vivo in a deciduoma model. Finally, intrauterine implantation of time-release RAN and GlcN pellets reduced pup number. Importantly, pup number returned to normal after the end of the pellet-active period. This work indicates that both fatty acids and glucose metabolism pathways are important for ESC decidualization, and suggests novel pathways to target for the design of future nonhormonal contraceptives. PMID:24403548

  16. MicroRNA-320a suppresses human colon cancer cell proliferation by directly targeting {beta}-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian-Yong; Huang, Yi; Li, Ji-Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Lei; Meng, Yan-Ling; Yan, Bo; Bian, Yong-Qian; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Wei-Zhong; and others

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320a is downregulated in human colorectal carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of miR-320a inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Catenin is a direct target of miR-320a in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320a expression inversely correlates with mRNA expression of {beta}-catenin's target genes in human colon carcinoma. -- Abstract: Recent profile studies of microRNA (miRNA) expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-320a) in human colorectal carcinoma. However, its expression pattern and underlying mechanisms in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we performed real-time PCR to examine the expression levels of miR-320a in colon cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. And then, we investigated its biological functions in colon cancer cells by a gain of functional strategy. Further more, by the combinational approaches of bioinformatics and experimental validation, we confirmed target associations of miR-320a in colorectal carcinoma. Our results showed that miR-320a was frequently downregulated in cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues. And we demonstrated that miR-320a restoration inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation and {beta}-catenin, a functionally oncogenic molecule was a direct target gene of miR-320a. Finally, the data of real-time PCR showed the reciprocal relationship between miR-320a and {beta}-catenin's downstream genes in colon cancer tissues. These findings indicate that miR-320a suppresses the growth of colon cancer cells by directly targeting {beta}-catenin, suggesting its application in prognosis prediction and cancer treatment.

  17. Impaired beta-endorphin response to human corticotropin-releasing hormone in obese children.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, S; Petraglia, F; Iughetti, L; Marcellini, C; Lamborghini, A; Facchinetti, F; Genazzani, A R

    1988-09-01

    In order to evaluate the secretion of beta-endorphin in obese children and adolescents, we measured plasma beta-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels before and following administration of CRH (1 microgram/kg). Fourteen normal weight and 22 obese subjects (weight excess ranging from 30 to 98%) were studied. Plasma hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay directly in plasma (cortisol, ACTH) and after silicic acid extraction and Sephadex G-75 column chromatography (beta-endorphin). Basal beta-endorphin levels in obese children were significantly higher than in controls (14.7 +/- 1.8 vs 6.0 +/- 0.6 pmol/l; mean +/- SEM). No differences were found in basal ACTH and cortisol levels. CRH administration significantly increased beta-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels in normal subjects and ACTH and cortisol levels in obese subjects. Plasma beta-endorphin levels in obese children and adolescents did not show any significant increment. These data confirm the higher than normal beta-endorphin plasma levels in obese subjects in childhood and demonstrate that CRH is unable to increase beta-endorphin levels, suggesting an impairment of the hypothalamo-pituitary control mechanisms or an extra-anterior pituitary source. PMID:2842994

  18. Haemoglobin binding with haptoglobin. Localization of the haptoglobin-binding sites on the beta-chain of human haemoglobin by synthetic overlapping peptides encompassing the entire chain.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, N; Atassi, M Z

    1986-03-01

    A synthetic approach was employed to identify the haptoglobin-binding sites on the beta-chain of human haemoglobin. This approach consists of the synthesis of a series of consecutive overlapping peptides that, together, systematically represent the entire protein chain. Fourteen synthetic peptides (beta 1-15, beta 11-25 etc.) were examined for their ability to bind human haptoglobin by quantitative solid-phase radiometric titrations of 125I-labelled haptoglobin. Of these 14 peptides only peptides beta 11-25 and beta 131-146 bound haptoglobin significantly; peptide beta 21-35 exhibited a small binding activity as a consequence of the overlap with peptide beta 11-25. On this basis and by examination of the three-dimensional structure of haemoglobin, it was concluded that the beta-chain of haemoglobin has two binding sites for haptoglobin that reside in, but do not necessarily encompass all of, the regions beta 11-25 and beta 131-146. PMID:3718478

  19. Human dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase locus and the chromosome 9q34 region in alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Parsian. A.; Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.

    1994-09-01

    Human dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase (DBH) is responsible for conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine in catecholamine neurons. Potential inhibitors of this enzyme do exist, but they are generally not effective in vivo in reducing tissue concentrations of catecholamines. The gene for DBH has been localized to 9q34 by linkage analysis and in situ hybridization. Recently there have been reports indicating a suggestive evidence of linkage between DNA markers in 9q34 region and alcoholism. In order to test for this suggestive linkage, we have genotyped a sample of 134 subjects with alcoholism, 30 alcoholic families (n=302) and 92 normal controls. The alcoholic subjects are probands of multiple incidence families. The normal controls are an epidemiologically ascertained samples of middle-aged, unrelated individuals. The two groups were matched for sex and ethnic background. The markers used in this study were dinucleotide repeats in the DBH gene, and two highly informative (CA) markers (D9S64, D9S66) flanking the DBH gene. A preliminary affected-sib-pair analysis was carried out under two diagnostic schemes. Regardless of whether `probable` alcoholics are classified as unaffected (t=0.63) or affected (t=1.50), these data do not reveal a significant excess in DBH marker sharing among affected-sib-pairs. However, the comparison of the DBH marker allele frequencies between the unrelated alcoholic panel and the unrelated normal control panel was significant at the p=0.04 level.

  20. Analysis of a compartmental model of amyloid beta production, irreversible loss and exchange in humans

    PubMed Central

    Elbert, Donald L.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, and in particular Aβ42, are found in senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. A compartmental model of Aβ production, exchange and irreversible loss was recently developed to explain the kinetics of isotope-labeling of Aβ peptides collected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following infusion of stable isotope-labeled leucine in humans. The compartmental model allowed calculation of the rates of production, irreversible loss (or turnover) and short-term exchange of Aβ peptides. Exchange of Aβ42 was particularly pronounced in amyloid plaque-bearing participants. In the current work, we describe in much greater detail the characteristics of the compartmental model to two distinct audiences: physician-scientists and biokineticists. For physician-scientists, we describe through examples the types of questions the model can and cannot answer, as well as correct some misunderstandings of previous kinetic analyses applied to this type of isotope labeling data. For biokineticists, we perform a system identifiability analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the kinetic model to explore the global and local properties of the model. Combined, these analyses motivate simplifications from a more comprehensive physiological model to the final model that was previously presented. The analyses clearly demonstrate that the current dataset and compartmental model allow determination with confidence a single ‘turnover’ parameter, a single ‘exchange’ parameter and a single ‘delay’ parameter. When combined with CSF concentration data for the Aβ peptides, production rates may also be obtained. PMID:25497960

  1. Sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium in the human T-cell receptor beta (TCRB) locus.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyan, L; Eberle, M A; Clark, A G; Kruglyak, L; Nickerson, D A

    2001-08-01

    The T-cell receptor (TCR) plays a central role in the immune system, and > 90% of human T cells present a receptor that consists of the alpha TCR subunit (TCRA) and the beta subunit (TCRB). Here we report an analysis of 63 variable genes (BV), spanning 553 kb of TCRB that yielded 279 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Samples were drawn from 10 individuals and represent four populations-African American, Chinese, Mexican, and Northern European. We found nine variants that produce nonfunctional BV segments, removing those genes from the TCRB genomic repertoire. There was significant heterogeneity among population samples in SNP frequency (including the BV-inactivating sites), indicating the need for multiple-population samples for adequate variant discovery. In addition, we observed considerable linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r(2) > 0.1) over distances of approximately 30 kb in TCRB, and, in general, the distribution of r(2) as a function of physical distance was in close agreement with neutral coalescent simulations. LD in TCRB showed considerable spatial variation across the locus, being concentrated in "blocks" of LD; however, coalescent simulations of the locus illustrated that the heterogeneity of LD we observed in TCRB did not differ markedly from that expected from neutral processes. Finally, examination of the extended genotypes for each subject demonstrated homozygous stretches of >100 kb in the locus of several individuals. These results provide the basis for optimization of locuswide SNP typing in TCRB for studies of genotype-phenotype association. PMID:11438886

  2. Two ethnic-specific polymorphisms in the human beta pseudogene of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Pompei, F; Ciminelli, B M; Modiano, G

    1998-08-01

    Two polymorphic sites, -107 C-->T and -100 G-->C with respect to the cap site of the human beta pseudogene of the hemoglobin gene, are described. They have been studied in five European, one Indian, two Asian, and two sub-Saharan African populations. The -107 C-->T site turned out to be polymorphic in all five European populations and the Indian population (pooled q = 0.142 +/- 0.018) and in the two Asian populations (pooled q = 0.073 +/- 0.025), but it was monomorphic in the two sub-Saharan populations. On the contrary, the -100 G-->C site was polymorphic in the two sub-Saharan samples (q = 0.093 +/- 0.024), but the variant allele was not found in any of the European, Indian, or Asian samples. Thus this only 8-bp-long stretch of DNA is informative for estimating the extent of genetic admixture in sub-Saharan Africans. PMID:9686479

  3. Analysis of a compartmental model of amyloid beta production, irreversible loss and exchange in humans.

    PubMed

    Elbert, Donald L; Patterson, Bruce W; Bateman, Randall J

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, and in particular Aβ42, are found in senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. A compartmental model of Aβ production, exchange and irreversible loss was recently developed to explain the kinetics of isotope-labeling of Aβ peptides collected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following infusion of stable isotope-labeled leucine in humans. The compartmental model allowed calculation of the rates of production, irreversible loss (or turnover) and short-term exchange of Aβ peptides. Exchange of Aβ42 was particularly pronounced in amyloid plaque-bearing participants. In the current work, we describe in much greater detail the characteristics of the compartmental model to two distinct audiences: physician-scientists and biokineticists. For physician-scientists, we describe through examples the types of questions the model can and cannot answer, as well as correct some misunderstandings of previous kinetic analyses applied to this type of isotope labeling data. For biokineticists, we perform a system identifiability analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the kinetic model to explore the global and local properties of the model. Combined, these analyses motivate simplifications from a more comprehensive physiological model to the final model that was previously presented. The analyses clearly demonstrate that the current dataset and compartmental model allow determination with confidence a single 'turnover' parameter, a single 'exchange' parameter and a single 'delay' parameter. When combined with CSF concentration data for the Aβ peptides, production rates may also be obtained. PMID:25497960

  4. Effects of Genetically Modified Milk Containing Human Beta-Defensin-3 on Gastrointestinal Health of Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Yang, Yange; Shi, Zhaopeng; Gao, Ming-Qing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of genetically modified (GM) milk containing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) on mice by a 90-day feeding study. The examined parameters included the digestibility of GM milk, general physical examination, gastric emptying function, intestinal permeability, intestinal microflora composition of mice, and the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The emphasis was placed on the effects on gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to the fact that GI tract was the first site contacting with food and played crucial roles in metabolic reactions, nutrition absorption and immunity regulation in the host. However, the traditional methods for analyzing the potential toxicological risk of GM product pay little attention on GI health. In this study, the results showed GM milk was easy to be digested in simulated gastric fluid, and it did not have adverse effects on general and GI health compared to conventional milk. And there is little possibility of HGT. This study may enrich the safety assessment of GM product on GI health. PMID:27438026

  5. Stereoselective metabolism of famprofazone in humans: N-dealkylation and beta- and p-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Shin, H S

    1997-01-01

    Following administration of famprofazone to humans, the stereoselective metabolism from the drug to its known metabolites (+,-)-ephedrine, (+,-)-pseudoephedrine, (+,-)-norephedrine, (+,-)-norpseudoephedrine, (+,-)-p-hyroxyamphetamine, (+,-)-p-hydroxymethamphetamine, and (+,-)-p-hydroxynorephedrine was studied. The enantiomers of the metabolites were derivatized with alpha-methoxy-alpha -(trifluoromethyl)-phenylacetyl chloride (MPTA.Cl) as the chiral derivatizing agent for amino groups and N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) or N-methyl-N-triethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide (MTESTFA) as protecting agents of the hydroxyl groups. The diastereomeric derivatives were well separated by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and determined by mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring (SIM). (-)-Methamphetamine, (-)-amphetamine, (-)-p-hydroxyamphetamine, and (-)-p-hydroxymethamphetamine were exerted in greater amounts than their enantiomers after administration of racemic famprofazone; and (-)-ephedrine, (-)-pseudoephedrine, (-)-norephedrine, and (-)-norpseudoephedrine were found in higher concentration than their enantiomers. Famprofazone was metabolized by product and substrate stereoselective N-dealkylation, beta-hydroxylation, and p-hydroxylation, metabolites of which may be predominantly responsible for the side effects of famprofazone. PMID:9094203

  6. Production of bioactive human beta-defensin-4 in Escherichia coli using SUMO fusion partner.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Hong Wei; Zhang, Jia Xin; Zhang, Shuang Quan

    2010-07-01

    The human beta defensins-4 (hBD4) exhibit a broad range of antimicrobial properties and are thought to be ideal therapeutic agents because of their potential ability to circumvent the problems of acquired resistance often observed with other antimicrobial therapies. We report here the application of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion technology to the expression and purification of cationic antibacterial peptide hBD4. The fusion protein expressed in a soluble form was purified to a purity of 90% by Ni-IDA chromatography and 637 mg protein of interest was obtained per liter of fermentation culture. After the SUMO-hBD4 fusion protein was cleaved by the SUMO protease at 30 degrees C for 1 h, the cleaved sample was re-applied to a Ni-IDA. Finally, about 166 mg recombinant hBD4 was obtained from 1 L fermentation culture with no less than 96% purity and the recombinant hBD4 had similar antimicrobial properties to the synthetic hBD4. Thus, the SUMO-mediated peptide expression and purification system potentially could be employed for the production of recombinant cytotoxic peptides. PMID:20526896

  7. Mutations in the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene are associated with human norepinephrine deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chun-Hyung; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Cubells, Joseph F.; Cho, Sonhae; Biaggioni, Italo; Cohen, Bruce M.; Robertson, David; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2002-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), a key neurotransmitter of the central and peripheral nervous systems, is synthesized by dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) that catalyzes oxidation of dopamine (DA) to NE. NE deficiency is a congenital disorder of unknown etiology, in which affected patients suffer profound autonomic failure. Biochemical features of the syndrome include undetectable tissue and circulating levels of NE and epinephrine, elevated levels of DA, and undetectable levels of DBH. Here, we report identification of seven novel variants including four potentially pathogenic mutations in the human DBH gene (OMIM 223360) from analysis of two unrelated patients and their families. Both patients are compound heterozygotes for variants affecting expression of DBH protein. Each carries one copy of a T-->C transversion in the splice donor site of DBH intron 1, creating a premature stop codon. In patient 1, there is a missense mutation in DBH exon 2. Patient 2 carries missense mutations in exons 1 and 6 residing in cis. We propose that NE deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from heterogeneous molecular lesions at DBH. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Effects of Genetically Modified Milk Containing Human Beta-Defensin-3 on Gastrointestinal Health of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yange; Shi, Zhaopeng; Gao, Ming-Qing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of genetically modified (GM) milk containing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) on mice by a 90-day feeding study. The examined parameters included the digestibility of GM milk, general physical examination, gastric emptying function, intestinal permeability, intestinal microflora composition of mice, and the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The emphasis was placed on the effects on gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to the fact that GI tract was the first site contacting with food and played crucial roles in metabolic reactions, nutrition absorption and immunity regulation in the host. However, the traditional methods for analyzing the potential toxicological risk of GM product pay little attention on GI health. In this study, the results showed GM milk was easy to be digested in simulated gastric fluid, and it did not have adverse effects on general and GI health compared to conventional milk. And there is little possibility of HGT. This study may enrich the safety assessment of GM product on GI health. PMID:27438026

  9. Selective elution of HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin from human platelets by chloroquine diphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether chloroquine can specifically elute HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) from the platelet surface, quantitative immunofluorescence flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies were used to show that HLA antigens and beta 2-M were proportionally eluted from the platelet surface without affecting the membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. Second, an autoradiogram of electrophoresed I-125-labeled platelets showed that only beta 2-M but not other I-125-labeled membrane proteins could be eluted. Although HLA antigens were poorly labeled by I-125 and could not be detected on the autoradiogram, the eluted HLA antigens could be detected by anti-HLA monoclonal antibody and immunoblotting techniques. No loss of plasma membrane integrity was observed by transmission electron microscopy after chloroquine treatment of platelets. The results indicate that chloroquine selectively elutes HLA antigens and their noncovalently associated beta 2-M without affecting other integral platelet membrane proteins.

  10. Epitopes on the beta subunit of human muscle acetylcholine receptor recognized by CD4+ cells of myasthenia gravis patients and healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Moiola, L; Karachunski, P; Protti, M P; Howard, J F; Conti-Tronconi, B M

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the sequence regions of the human muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) beta subunit forming epitopes recognized by T helper cells in myasthenia gravis (MG), using overlapping synthetic peptides, 20 residues long, which screened the sequence of the AChR beta subunit. Since CD4+ lymphocytes from MG patients' blood did not respond to the peptides, we attempted propagation of beta subunit-specific T lines from six MG patients and seven healthy controls by cycles of stimulation of blood lymphocytes with the pooled peptides corresponding to the beta subunit sequence. CD4+ T lines were obtained from four patients and three controls. They secreted IL-2, not IL-4, suggesting that they comprised T helper type 1 cells. The T lines from MG patients could be propagated for several months. Three lines were tested with purified bovine muscle AChR and cross-reacted well with this antigen. All T lines were tested with the individual synthetic peptides present in the pool corresponding to the beta subunit sequence. Several beta subunit peptide sequences were recognized. Each line had an individual pattern of peptides recognition, but three sequence regions (peptides beta 181-200, beta 271-290, and the overlapping peptides beta 316-335 and beta 331-350) were recognized by most MG lines. The beta subunit-specific T lines from controls could be propagated for < 5 wk. Each line recognized several peptides, which frequently included the immunodominant regions listed above. Images PMID:7510715

  11. Human T-cell receptor v{beta} gene polymorphism and multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S.; Charmley, P.; Birchfield, R.I.; Concannon, P.

    1995-04-01

    Population-based genetic associations have been reported between RFLPs detected with probes corresponding to the genes encoding the {beta} chain of the T-cell receptor for antigen (RCRB) and a variety of autoimmune disorders. In the case of multiple sclerosis (MS), these studies have localized a putative disease-associated gene to a region of {approximately}110 kb in length, located within the TCRB locus. In the current study, all 14 known TCRBV (variable region) genes within the region of localization were mapped and identified. The nucleotide sequences of these genes were determined in a panel of six MS patients and six healthy controls, who were human-leukocyte antigen and TCRB-RFLP haplotype matched. Nine of the 14 TCRBV genes studied showed evidence of polymorphism. PCR-based assays for each of these polymorphic genes were developed, and allele and genotype frequencies were determined in a panel of DNA samples from 48 MS patients and 60 control individuals. No significant differences in allele, genotype, or phenotype frequencies were observed between the MS patients and controls for any of the 14 TCRBV-gene polymorphisms studied. In light of the extensive linkage disequilibrium across the region studied, the saturating numbers of polymorphisms examined, and the direct sequence analysis of all BV genes in the region, these results suggest that it is unlikely that germ-line polymorphism in the TCRBV locus makes a major contribution to MS susceptibility. The TCRBV coding region-specific markers generated in these studies, as well as the approach of testing for associations with specific functionally relevant polymorphic sites within individual BV genes, should be useful in the evaluation of the many reported disease associations involving the human TCRB region. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Disinfection of maxillofacial silicone elastomer using a novel antimicrobial agent: recombinant human beta-defensin-3.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Song, W; Feng, Z H; Zhao, Y T; Li, F; Tian, Y; Zhao, Y M

    2009-04-01

    Maxillofacial silicone elastomer, when used as a prosthesis, is in contact with wound surfaces and mucosa, and tends to be contaminated with microorganisms from a patient's saliva and blood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) on the reduction of two resistant bacteria species from the surface of maxillofacial silicone elastomer. HBD3 cDNA was amplified from total RNA, which had been extracted from human gingival epithelium by means of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Following this, the cDNA fragments were recombined in a prokaryotic expression vector. The constructed expression vectors pET-32a/HBD3 were transformed into Escherichia coli to obtain recombinant protein. After protein purification and refolding, the product was verified in classic antimicrobial experiments against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Specimens made of silicone elastomer A-2186, which had been contaminated with S. aureus or C. albicans, were immersed in rHBD3 or 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (a positive control) for 5 min, 10 min, 30 min, or 60 min. The active recombinant HBD3 obtained in the current study eliminated the S. aureus and C. albicans microorganism from the surface of the maxillofacial elastomer after a 30-min immersion. There was no statistically significant difference between the rHBD3 group and the sodium hypochlorite 5.25% group. In conclusion, rHBD3 exhibits antibacterial activity against oral pathogenic strains that adhere to maxillofacial elastomer, and may, thus, contribute to the prevention of infections caused by S. aureus and C. albicans. PMID:18841402

  13. Phosphorylation of Human Choline Kinase Beta by Protein Kinase A: Its Impact on Activity and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching Ching; Few, Ling Ling; Konrad, Manfred; See Too, Wei Cun

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase beta (CKβ) is one of the CK isozymes involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. CKβ is important for normal mitochondrial function and muscle development as the lack of the ckβ gene in human and mice results in the development of muscular dystrophy. In contrast, CKα is implicated in tumorigenesis and has been extensively studied as an anticancer target. Phosphorylation of human CKα was found to regulate the enzyme’s activity and its subcellular location. This study provides evidence for CKβ phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). In vitro phosphorylation of CKβ by PKA was first detected by phosphoprotein staining, as well as by in-gel kinase assays. The phosphorylating kinase was identified as PKA by Western blotting. CKβ phosphorylation by MCF-7 cell lysate was inhibited by a PKA-specific inhibitor peptide, and the intracellular phosphorylation of CKβ was shown to be regulated by the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a PKA activator. Phosphorylation sites were located on CKβ residues serine-39 and serine-40 as determined by mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Phosphorylation increased the catalytic efficiencies for the substrates choline and ATP about 2-fold, without affecting ethanolamine phosphorylation, and the S39D/S40D CKβ phosphorylation mimic behaved kinetically very similar. Remarkably, phosphorylation drastically increased the sensitivity of CKβ to hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibition by about 30-fold. These findings suggest that CKβ, in concert with CKα, and depending on its phosphorylation status, might play a critical role as a druggable target in carcinogenesis. PMID:27149373

  14. Characterization of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzyme expression in benign and malignant human prostate.

    PubMed

    Elo, J P; Akinola, L A; Poutanen, M; Vihko, P; Kyllönen, A P; Lukkarinen, O; Vihko, R

    1996-03-28

    In the present study, expressions of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) types 1, 2, and 3, 5alpha-reductase type 2 and human androgen receptor mRNAs were determined in 12 benign prostatic hyperplasia and 17 prostatic carcinoma specimens. 17HSD type 2 was found to be the principle isoenzyme expressed in the prostate. Significantly higher expressions of 17HSD type 2 and 5alpha-reductase type 2 were detected in benign prostatic hyperplasia compared with the carcinoma specimens. Expression of the androgen receptor in the 2 groups was not significantly different. 17HSD type 3 mRNA was not detected in any of the specimens investigated. Only low constructive expression of the 2.3 kb mRNA of 17HSD type 1 was seen. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that this did not lead to significant enzyme expression, only faint staining for the enzyme protein being detected, mainly in uroepithelial cells. No significant correlation was found between any of the mRNAs analysed, but the data on 5alpha-reductase type 2 mRNA support the presence of an increased proportion of 5alpha-dihydrotesterone in the hyperplastic prostate. In cultured PC-3 prostatic cancer cells and in the transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells, 17HSD type 2 was found exclusively to convert 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and testosterone into the less potent 17-keto compounds 5alpha-androstanedione and 4-androstenedione, respectively. We suggest that the 17HSD type 2 isoenzyme plays a part in the metabolic pathway, resulting in the inactivation of testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone locally in the prostate. The enzyme expressed in the prostate could, therefore, protect cells from excessive androgen action. PMID:8608963

  15. Insulin Attenuates Beta-Amyloid-Associated Insulin/Akt/EAAT Signaling Perturbations in Human Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojuan; Yang, Liling; Du, Heng; Sun, Qinjian; Wang, Xiang; Cong, Lin; Liu, Xiaohui; Yin, Ling; Li, Shan; Du, Yifeng

    2016-08-01

    The excitatory amino acid transporters 1 and 2 (EAAT1 and EAAT2), mostly located on astrocytes, are the main mediators for glutamate clearance in humans. Malfunctions of these transporters may lead to excessive glutamate accumulation and subsequent excitotoxicity to neurons, which has been implicated in many kinds of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, the specific mechanism of the glutamate system dysregulation remains vague. To explore whether the insulin/protein kinase B (Akt)/EAAT signaling in human astrocytes could be disturbed by beta-amyloid protein (Aβ) and be protected by insulin, we incubated HA-1800 cells with varying concentrations of Aβ1-42 oligomers and insulin. Then the alterations of several key substrates in this signal transduction pathway were determined. Our results showed that expressions of insulin receptor, phospho-insulin receptor, phospho-protein kinase B, phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin, and EAAT1 and EAAT2 were decreased by the Aβ1-42 oligomers in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05) and this trend could be recovered by insulin treatment (p < 0.05). However, the expressions of total Akt and mTOR were invariant (p > 0.05), and the mRNA levels of EAAT1 and EAAT2 were also unchanged (p > 0.05). Taken together, this study indicates that Aβ1-42 oligomers could cause disturbances in insulin/Akt/EAAT signaling in astrocytes, which might be responsible for AD onset and progression. Additionally, insulin can exert protective functions to the brain by modulating protein modifications or expressions. PMID:26358886

  16. In vitro bactericidal activity of recombinant human beta-defensin-3 against pathogenic bacterial strains in human tooth root canal.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Shi, Yong; Xiao, Mingzhen; Lu, Hong; Qu, Tiejun; Li, Ping; Wu, Gang; Tian, Yu

    2009-03-01

    Human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3), an endogenous antimicrobial peptide, has strong broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This study aimed to obtain recombinant HBD3 (rHBD3) and to test the hypothesis that the antimicrobial characteristics of HBD3 may offer an advantage over conventional medicine in reducing intracanal bacteria. Genetic engineering was used to obtain active rHBD3 and analysis revealed that it exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity at low micromolar concentrations against not only Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli but also against some critical pathogenic microbes in infected root canals, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. In an in vitro antibacterial experiment, rHBD3 significantly eliminated pathogenic bacteria in root canals. The ratio of bacterial death was up to 98%. We conclude that HBD3 has the potential to eliminate bacteria effectively and rapidly in the local microenvironment of the root canal system and that it may contribute to successful endodontic treatment. PMID:18775647

  17. Production, purification, and functional analysis of recombinant human and mouse 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7.

    PubMed

    Törn, Svea; Nokelainen, Pasi; Kurkela, Riitta; Pulkka, Anitta; Menjivar, Marta; Ghosh, Sikha; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Peltoketo, Hellevi; Isomaa, Veli; Vihko, Pirkko

    2003-05-23

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17HSDs) have a central role in the regulation of the biological activity of sex steroid hormones. There is increasing evidence that in addition to their importance in gonads, these hormones also have substantial metabolic roles in a variety of peripheral tissues. In the present study, the cDNA of human 17HSD type 7 was cloned. In silico, the gene corresponding to the cDNA was localized on chromosome 1q23, close to the locus of hereditary prostate cancer 1 (HPC1) (1q24-25) and primary open-angle glaucoma (GLC1A) (1q23-25). Further, a pseudogene was found on chromosome 1q44, close to the locus of predisposing for early-onset prostate cancer (PCaP) (1q42.2-43). Both human (h17HSD7) and mouse 17HSD type 7 (m17HSD7) were for the first time produced as recombinant proteins and purified for functional analyses. Further, kinetic parameters and specific activities were described. h17HSD7 converted estrone (E1) to a more potent estrogen, estradiol (E2), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a potent androgen, to an estrogenic metabolite 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (3betaA-diol) equally, thereby catalyzing the reduction of the keto group in either 17- or 3-position of the substrate. Minor 3betaHSD-like activity towards progesterone (P) and 20-hydroxyprogesterone (20-OH-P), leading to the inactivation of P by h17HSD7, was also detected. m17HSD7 efficiently catalyzed the reaction from E1 to E2 and moderately converted DHT to an inactive metabolite 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alphaA-diol) and to an even lesser degree 3betaA-diol. The mouse enzyme did not metabolize P or 20-OH-P. The expression of 17HSD type 7 was observed widely in human tissues, most distinctly in adrenal gland, liver, lung, and thymus. Based on the enzymatic characteristics and tissue distribution, we conclude that h17HSD7 might be an intracrine regulator of steroid metabolism, fortifying the estrogenic milieu in peripheral tissues. PMID:12732193

  18. MMP-14 is necessary but not sufficient for invasion of three-dimensional collagen by human muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Dane K.; Mouly, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-five known matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs), mediate cell invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM). In a comparative three-dimensional assay, we analyzed human and mouse satellite cells' competence to invade an artificial ECM (collagen I). We identified a single MMP that 1) is expressed by human muscle satellite cells; 2) is induced at the mRNA/protein level by adhesion to collagen I; and 3) is necessary for invasion into a collagen I matrix. Interestingly, murine satellite cells neither express this MMP, nor invade the collagen matrix. However, exogenous human MMP-14 is not sufficient to induce invasion of a collagen matrix by murine cells, emphasizing species differences. PMID:24898588

  19. MMP-14 is necessary but not sufficient for invasion of three-dimensional collagen by human muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Lund, Dane K; Mouly, Vincent; Cornelison, D D W

    2014-07-15

    The twenty-five known matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs), mediate cell invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM). In a comparative three-dimensional assay, we analyzed human and mouse satellite cells' competence to invade an artificial ECM (collagen I). We identified a single MMP that 1) is expressed by human muscle satellite cells; 2) is induced at the mRNA/protein level by adhesion to collagen I; and 3) is necessary for invasion into a collagen I matrix. Interestingly, murine satellite cells neither express this MMP, nor invade the collagen matrix. However, exogenous human MMP-14 is not sufficient to induce invasion of a collagen matrix by murine cells, emphasizing species differences. PMID:24898588

  20. CCAAT-binding factor regulates expression of the beta1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase gene in the BE2 human neuroblastoma cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Martin, Emil; Thomas, Anthony; Uray, Karen L.; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a cytosolic enzyme producing the intracellular messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) on activation with nitric oxide (NO). sGC is an obligatory heterodimer composed of alpha and beta subunits. We investigated human beta1 sGC transcriptional regulation in BE2 human neuroblastoma cells. The 5' upstream region of the beta1 sGC gene was isolated and analyzed for promoter activity by using luciferase reporter constructs. The transcriptional start site of the beta1 sGC gene in BE2 cells was identified. The functional significance of consensus transcriptional factor binding sites proximal to the transcriptional start site was investigated by site deletions in the 800-bp promoter fragment. The elimination of CCAAT-binding factor (CBF) and growth factor independence 1 (GFI1) binding cores significantly diminished whereas deletion of the NF1 core elevated the transcription. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) and Western analysis of proteins bound to biotinated EMSA probes confirmed the interaction of GFI1, CBF, and NF1 factors with the beta1 sGC promoter. Treatment of BE2 cells with genistein, known to inhibit the CBF binding to DNA, significantly reduced protein levels of beta1 sGC by inhibiting transcription. In summary, our study represents an analysis of the human beta1 sGC promoter regulation in human neuroblastoma BE2 cells and identifies CBF as a critically important factor in beta1 sGC expression.

  1. On the Use of Machine Vision Techniques to Detect Human Settlements in Satellite Images

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Sengupta, S K; Poland, D; Futterman, J A H

    2003-01-10

    The automated production of maps of human settlement from recent satellite images is essential to studies of urbanization, population movement, and the like. The spectral and spatial resolution of such imagery is often high enough to successfully apply computer vision techniques. However, vast amounts of data have to be processed quickly. In this paper, we propose an approach that processes the data in several different stages. At each stage, using features appropriate to that stage, we identify the portion of the data likely to contain information relevant to the identification of human settlements. This data is used as input to the next stage of processing. Since the size of the data has reduced, we can now use more complex features in this next stage. These features can be more representative of human settlements, and also more time consuming to extract from the image data. Such a hierarchical approach enables us to process large amounts of data in a reasonable time, while maintaining the accuracy of human settlement identification. We illustrate our multi-stage approach using IKONOS 4-band and panchromatic images, and compare it with the straight-forward processing of the entire image.

  2. Convergent BOLD and Beta-Band Activity in Superior Temporal Sulcus and Frontolimbic Circuitry Underpins Human Emotion Cognition.

    PubMed

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kohn, Philip D; Nash, Tiffany; Ianni, Angela; Coutlee, Christopher; Holroyd, Tom; Carver, Frederick W; Chen, Qiang; Cropp, Brett; Kippenhan, J Shane; Robinson, Stephen E; Coppola, Richard; Berman, Karen F

    2015-07-01

    The processing of social information in the human brain is widely distributed neuroanatomically and finely orchestrated over time. However, a detailed account of the spatiotemporal organization of these key neural underpinnings of human social cognition remains to be elucidated. Here, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in the same participants to investigate spatial and temporal neural patterns evoked by viewing videos of facial muscle configurations. We show that observing the emergence of expressions elicits sustained blood oxygenation level-dependent responses in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a region implicated in processing meaningful biological motion. We also found corresponding event-related changes in sustained MEG beta-band (14-30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the STS, consistent with the possible role of beta-band activity in visual perception. Dynamically evolving fearful and happy expressions elicited early (0-400 ms) transient beta-band activity in sensorimotor cortex that persisted beyond 400 ms, at which time it became accompanied by a frontolimbic spread (400-1000 ms). In addition, individual differences in sustained STS beta-band activity correlated with speed of emotion recognition, substantiating the behavioral relevance of these signals. This STS beta-band activity showed valence-specific coupling with the time courses of facial movements as they emerged into full-blown fearful and happy expressions (negative and positive coupling, respectively). These data offer new insights into the perceptual relevance and orchestrated function of the STS and interconnected pathways in social-emotion cognition. PMID:24464944

  3. Influence of static magnetic fields combined with human insulin-like growth factor 1 on human satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Birk, Richard; Sommer, J Ulrich; Haas, Dominik; Faber, Anne; Aderhold, Christoph; Schultz, Johannes D; Hoermann, Karl; Stern-Straeter, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering represents a promising research field, targeting the creation of new functional muscle tissue in vitro. The aim of the present study was to show the influence of static magnetic fields (SMF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), as enhancing stimuli on human satellite cell cultures, which are preferred sources of stem cells in engineering skeletal muscle tissue. To detect effects on myogenic maturation and proliferation, AlamarBlue® proliferation, assay and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of following markers was performed: desmin (DES), myogenic factor-5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen-1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and α1 actin (ACTA1). As a distinct marker of differentiation, immunohistochemical staining and fusion index determination was performed on satellite cell cultures stimulated with IGF1 and IGF1-plus-SMF with an intensity of 80 mT. Proliferation was increased by additional SMF application to IGF1-stimulated cell cultures on the first day of myogenesis. Relative gene expression of measured markers was increased by IGF1 application in the first days of myogenesis except for ACTA1. Additional SMF application enhanced this effect. Nevertheless we were unable to demonstrate the formation of contractile muscle tissue. Immunhistochemical staining verified muscle origin and all markers were displayed. PMID:25189891

  4. Structure of beta-glucan oligomer from laminarin and its effect on human monocytes to inhibit the proliferation of U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhongcun; Otaka, Kodo; Maoka, Takashi; Hidaka, Kumi; Ishijima, Sumio; Oda, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Masatake

    2005-03-01

    We analyzed the human monocyte-stimulating ability of laminarin from Eisenia bicyclis, lichenan from Cetraria islandica, and their oligomers depolymerized with endo-1,3-beta-glucanase from Arthrobacter sp. The respective beta-glucan oligomers with different degrees of polymerization (DP) were fractionated from hydrolytic products of laminarin and lichenan using gel-filtration chromatography. The monocyte-conditioned medium pre-cultured in the presence of a fraction of beta-glucan oligomer (DP>/=8) from laminarin exhibited inhibitory activity against the proliferation of human myeloid leukemia U937 cells, while those pre-cultured with other beta-glucan oligomers and the original laminarin and lichenan showed little or no activity. NMR analysis indicated that the beta-glucan oligomer (DP>/=8) has an average DP value of 13, and its ratio of beta-1,3- to beta-1,6-linkages in glucopyranose units was estimated to be 1.3:1. These results indicate that the beta-1,3-glucan oligomer with a higher content of beta-1,6-linkage stimulates monocytes to inhibit the proliferation of U937 cells. PMID:15784984

  5. Immunoreactive beta-endorphin increases after an aspartame chocolate drink in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Melchior, J C; Rigaud, D; Colas-Linhart, N; Petiet, A; Girard, A; Apfelbaum, M

    1991-11-01

    It has been claimed that sucrose intake induces a rise in beta-endorphins. In an attempt to discriminate between the sensorial and metabolic effects of sucrose intake in this process, the effects of two chocolate drinks were compared: one sweetened with 50 g of sucrose, the other with 80 mg of aspartame. Plasma beta-endorphin concentrations were more elevated after the aspartame drink than after sucrose or fasting, while insulin increased after drinking as much with aspartame as with sucrose. We suggest that the increase in beta-endorphin after aspartame edulcorated chocolate is related with insulin secretion in the absence of marked changes in blood glucose or with a direct effect of aspartame itself on beta-endorphin liberation. PMID:1805284

  6. Lateral mobility of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) in the plasma membrane of a human megakaryocyte.

    PubMed

    Schootemeijer, A; van Willigen, G; van der Vuurst, H; Tertoolen, L G; De Laat, S W; Akkerman, J W

    1997-01-01

    The migration of integrins to sites of cell-cell and cell-matrix contact is thought to be important for adhesion strengthening. We studied the lateral diffusion of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) in the plasma membrane of a cultured human megakaryocyte by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of FITC-labelled monovalent Fab fragments directed against the beta 3 subunit. The diffusion of beta 3 on the unstimulated megakaryocyte showed a lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of 0.37 x 10(-9) cm2/s and a mobile fraction of about 50%. Stimulation with ADP (20 microM) or alpha-thrombin (10 U/ml) at 22 degrees C induced transient decreases in both parameters reducing D to 0.21 x 10(-9) cm2/s and the mobile fraction to about 25%. The fall in D was observed within 1 min after stimulation but the fall in mobile fraction showed a lag phase of 5 min. The lag phase was absent in the presence of Calpain I inhibitor, where-as cytochalasin D completely abolished the decreased in mobile fraction. The data are compatible with the concept that cell activation induces anchorage of 50% of the mobile alpha IIb beta 3 (25% of the whole population of receptor) to the cytoplasmic actin filaments, although, as discussed, other rationals are not ruled out. PMID:9031465

  7. Biosynthesis of a biologically active single peptide chain containing the human common alpha and chorionic gonadotropin beta subunits in tandem.

    PubMed Central

    Sugahara, T; Pixley, M R; Minami, S; Perlas, E; Ben-Menahem, D; Hsueh, A J; Boime, I

    1995-01-01

    One of the distinguishing features of the gonadotropin and thyrotropin hormone family is their heterodimeric structure, consisting of a common alpha subunit and a hormone-specific beta subunit. Subunit assembly is vital to the function of these hormones: The conformation of the heterodimer is essential for controlling secretion, hormone-specific posttranslational modifications, and signal transduction. To address whether alpha and beta subunits can be synthesized as one chain and also maintain biological activity, a chimera composed of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) beta subunit genetically fused to the alpha subunit was constructed. The resulting polypeptide hCG molecule not only was efficiently secreted but also displayed an increased biological activity in vitro and in vivo. These data show that the alpha and hCG beta subunits encoded as a single chain retain a biologically active conformation similar to that seen in the heterodimer. This approach can be used to investigate structure-function relationships of the glycoprotein hormone family that were previously not tractable because of the absolute dependence on assembly for the biological response. Moreover, other bioactive multisubunit ligands can be engineered where the combination efficiency and specificity of heterodimers and homodimers are otherwise difficult to control. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7892221

  8. Regulation of interleukin-1 beta production by glucocorticoids in human monocytes: the mechanism of action depends on the activation signal.

    PubMed

    Hurme, M; Siljander, P; Anttila, H

    1991-11-14

    Glucocorticoids are known to downregulate interleukin-1 beta production in monocytic cells by two different mechanims: direct inhibition of the gene transcription and destabilization of the preformed interleukin-1 beta mRNA. Now we have examined the effect of the nature of the monocyte activating signal on these two inhibitory mechanims. When human monocytes were preincubated with dexamethasone for 1 hour and then stimulated either with bacterial lipopolysaccharide or phorbol myristate, it was found that dexamethasone inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1 beta protein production, but the phorbol myristate-induced production was increased 3-10 fold. This difference was also seen at the mRNA level. When dexamethasone was added to the cultures 3 hours after the stimulators, it clearly decreased the interleukin-1 beta mRNA levels regardless of the stimulator used (although the effect was clearly weaker on the PMA-induced mRNA). Thus these data suggest that the phorbol myristate-induced signal (prolonged protein kinase C activation?) cannot be inhibited by prior incubation with dexamethasone and it also protects the induced mRNA for the degradative action of dexamethasone. PMID:1953785

  9. Integrin {beta}1-dependent invasive migration of irradiation-tolerant human lung adenocarcinoma cells in 3D collagen matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Seiichiro; Haga, Hisashi; Yasuda, Motoaki; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Shirato, Hiroki; Nishioka, Takeshi

    2010-06-04

    Radiotherapy is one of the effective therapies used for treating various malignant tumors. However, the emergence of tolerant cells after irradiation remains problematic due to their high metastatic ability, sometimes indicative of poor prognosis. In this study, we showed that subcloned human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549P-3) that are irradiation-tolerant indicate high invasive activity in vitro, and exhibit an integrin {beta}1 activity-dependent migratory pattern. In collagen gel overlay assay, majority of the A549P-3 cells displayed round morphology and low migration activity, whereas a considerable number of A549P-3IR cells surviving irradiation displayed a spindle morphology and high migration rate. Blocking integrin {beta}1 activity reduced the migration rate of A549P-3IR cells and altered the cell morphology allowing them to assume a round shape. These results suggest that the A549P-3 cells surviving irradiation acquire a highly invasive integrin {beta}1-dependent phenotype, and integrin {beta}1 might be a potentially effective therapeutic target in combination with radiotherapy.

  10. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Santa-Coloma, T.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induced uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium.

  11. Human Beta-Defensin 3 Is Up-Regulated in Cutaneous Leprosy Type 1 Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Cogen, Anna L.; Walker, Stephen L.; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Neupane, Kapil D.; Khadge, Saraswoti; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Leprosy, a chronic granulomatous disease affecting the skin and nerves, is caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). The type of leprosy developed depends upon the host immune response. Type 1 reactions (T1Rs), that complicate borderline and lepromatous leprosy, are due to an increase in cell-mediated immunity and manifest as nerve damage and skin inflammation. Owing to the increase in inflammation in the skin of patients with T1Rs, we sought to investigate the activation of the innate immune system during reactionary events. Specifically, we investigated the expression levels of human beta-defensins (hBDs) 2 and 3 in the skin of patients with T1Rs, in keratinocytes, and in macrophages stimulated with M. leprae and corticosteroids. Results Skin biopsies from twenty-three patients with Type 1 reactions were found to have higher transcript levels of hBD3 as compared to fifteen leprosy patients without Type 1 reactions, as measured by qPCR. Moreover, we observed that keratinocytes but not macrophages up-regulated hBD2 and hBD3 in response to M. leprae stimulation in vitro. Corticosteroid treatment of patients with T1Rs caused a suppression of hBD2 and hBD3 in skin biopsies, as measured by qPCR. In vitro, corticosteroids suppressed M. leprae-dependent induction of hBD2 and hBD3 in keratinocytes. Conclusions This study demonstrates that hBD3 is induced in leprosy Type 1 Reactions and suppressed by corticosteroids. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that keratinocytes are responsive to M. leprae and lend support for additional studies on keratinocyte innate immunity in leprosy and T1Rs. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN31894035 PMID:23133681

  12. Evidence for increased beta-adrenoreceptor responsiveness induced by 14 days of simulated microgravity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Polet, J. L.; Engelke, K. A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Lane, L. D.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Eckberg, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We studied hemodynamic responses to alpha- and beta-receptor agonists in eight healthy men before and after 14 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that increased adrenoreceptor responsiveness is induced by prolonged exposure to simulated microgravity. Steady-state infusions of isoproterenol (Iso) at rates of 0.005, 0.01, and 0.02 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to assess beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Infusions of phenylephrine (PE) at rates of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to assess responsiveness of alpha 1-vascular adrenoreceptors. Slopes calculated from linear regressions between Iso and PE doses and changes in beat-to-beat heart rate, blood pressure, and leg vascular resistance (occlusion plethysmography) for each subject were used as an index of alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. HDT increased the slopes of heart rate (1,056 +/- 107 to 1,553 +/- 83 beats micrograms-1.kg-1.min-1; P = 0.014) and vasodilation (-469 +/- 111 to -1,446 +/- 309 peripheral resistance units.microgram-1.kg-1.min-1; P = 0.0224) to Iso infusion. There was no alteration in blood pressure or vascular resistance responses to PE infusion after HDT. Our results provide evidence that simulated microgravity causes selective increases in beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor responsiveness without affecting alpha 1-vascular adrenoreceptor responses.

  13. A worldwide analysis of human exposure to floods by using satellite nighttime lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Montanari, Alberto; Laio, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The recent occurrence of flood events across the globe, which represent the first cause of economic losses and human fatalities among natural disasters, has highlighted the urgent need of mitigation strategies to reduce flood risk. To date, expeditious procedures for a worldwide detailed spatio-temporal identification of human exposure to floods are still incomplete. To this end, we propose the use of satellite images of nighttime lights to identify the areas across the globe most at risk for flood damages. Nightlights are indeed a widely used proxy for population density and economic activity. Worldwide nocturnal lights along the river network, available as yearly average values from 1992 to 2012 at 1 km2 resolution, are first analysed from a temporal perspective in order to estimate their temporal trends. Our results revealed that the temporal evolution of nightlights can be reasonably associated with the temporal pattern of human exposure to floods. Nightlights are then correlated with global data of economic losses caused by flooding events. Our outcomes showed that nocturnal lights close to rivers are consistently related to flood damages. In particular, we found that increasing nightlights are associated to flood damage intensification. Our analysis may thus provide valuable information for better understanding the interactions between hydrology and society and identifying priorities for flood risk management.

  14. Terbutaline-induced desensitization of human lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors. Accelerated restoration of beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness by prednisone and ketotifen.

    PubMed Central

    Brodde, O E; Brinkmann, M; Schemuth, R; O'Hara, N; Daul, A

    1985-01-01

    We investigated, in 36 healthy volunteers, the effects of prednisone and ketotifen on recovery of lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density (determined by (-)-125iodocyanopindolol binding) and responsiveness (assessed by lymphocyte cyclic AMP [cAMP] responses to 10 microM (-)-isoprenaline) after desensitization by the beta 2-agonist terbutaline. Terbutaline (3 X 5 mg/d) decreased lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density by approximately 40-50%; concomitantly, lymphocyte cAMP responses to 10 microM (-)-isoprenaline were significantly reduced. After withdrawal of terbutaline beta 2-adrenoceptor, density and responsiveness gradually increased, reaching predrug levels after 4 d. Prednisone (1 X 100 mg orally) accelerated beta 2-adrenoceptor recovery; only 8-10 h after administration of the steroid beta 2-adrenoceptor density and cAMP responses to (-)-isoprenaline had reached values not significantly different from pretreatment levels. Similar effects were obtained with ketotifen (2 mg; thereafter 2 X 1 mg/d for 4 d): 24 h after application of the drug beta 2-adrenoceptor density and cAMP responses to (-)-isoprenaline had reached pretreatment levels. Furthermore, ketotifen simultaneously applied with terbutaline completely prevented terbutaline-induced decrease in lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density and responsiveness. Prednisone (1 X 100 mg orally) or ketotifen (2 mg; thereafter 2 X 1 mg/d for 2 d) had no significant influence on lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density in healthy volunteers not pretreated with terbutaline, but shifted the ratio high-to-low affinity state of the lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor toward high affinity state. We conclude that glucocorticoids as well as ketotifen can accelerate recovery of density and responsiveness of lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors desensitized by long-term treatment with beta 2-agonists. Such an effect may have clinical implications for preventing tachyphylaxis of asthmatic patients against therapy with beta 2-agonists. PMID

  15. Adult Human Pancreatic Islet Beta-Cells Display Limited Turnover and Long Lifespan as Determined by In-Vivo Thymidine Analog Incorporation and Radiocarbon Dating

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, S; Kushner, J A; Buchholz, B A; Meeker, A K; Stein, G M; Hsieh, M; Kirby, M; Pechhold, S; Liu, E H; Harlan, D M; Tisdale, J F

    2010-03-15

    Diabetes mellitus results from an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells. The adult human beta-cell's turnover rate remains unknown. We employed novel techniques to examine adult human islet beta-cell turnover and longevity in vivo. Subjects enrolled in NIH clinical trials received thymidine analogues [iododeoxyuridine (IdU) or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)] 8-days to 4-years prior to death. Archival autopsy samples from ten patients (aged 17-74 years) were employed to assess beta-cell turnover by scoring nuclear analog labeling within insulin staining cells. Human adult beta-cell longevity was determined by estimating the cells genomic DNA integration of atmospheric carbon-14 ({sup 14}C). DNA was purified from pancreatic islets isolated from cadaveric donors; whole islet prep DNA was obtained from a 15 year old donor, and purified beta-cell DNA was obtained from two donors (age 48 and 80 years). {sup 14}C levels were then determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Cellular 'birth date' was determined by comparing the subject's DNA {sup 14}C content relative to a well-established {sup 14}C atmospheric prevalence curve. In the two subjects less than age 20 years, 1-2% of the beta-cell nuclei co-stained for BrdU/IdU. No beta-cell nuclei co-stained in the eight patients more than 30 years old. Consistent with the BrdU/IdU turnover data, beta-cell DNA {sup 14}C content indicated the cells 'birth date' occurred within the subject's first 30 years of life. Under typical circumstances, adult human beta-cells and their cellular precursors are established by young adulthood.

  16. Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either alpha-carotene or beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Levy, J; Bosin, E; Feldman, B; Giat, Y; Miinster, A; Danilenko, M; Sharoni, Y

    1995-01-01

    The antiproliferative properties of lycopene, the major tomato carotenoid, were compared with those of alpha- and beta-carotene. Lycopene, delivered in cell culture medium from stock solutions in tetrahydrofuran, strongly inhibited proliferation of endometrial (Ishikawa), mammary (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H226) human cancer cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 1-2 microM; alpha- and beta-carotene were far less effective inhibitors. For example, in Ishikawa cells, a 4-fold higher concentration of alpha-carotene or a 10-fold higher concentration of beta-carotene was needed for the same order of growth suppression. The inhibitory effect of lycopene was detected after 24 hours of incubation, and it was maintained for at least three days. In contrast to cancer cells, human fibroblasts were less sensitive to lycopene, and the cells gradually escaped growth inhibition over time. In addition to its inhibitory effect on basal endometrial cancer cell proliferation, lycopene also suppressed insulin-like growth factor-I-stimulated growth. Insulin-like growth factors are major autocrine/paracrine regulators of mammary and endometrial cancer cell growth. Therefore, lycopene interference in this major autocrine/paracrine system may open new avenues for research on the role of lycopene in the regulation of endometrial cancer and other tumors. PMID:8610045

  17. A model of the complex between human {beta}-microseminoprotein and CRISP-3 based on NMR data

    SciTech Connect

    Ghasriani, Houman; Fernlund, Per; Udby, Lene; Drakenberg, Torbjoern

    2009-01-09

    {beta}-Microseminoprotein (MSP), a 10 kDa seminal plasma protein, forms a tight complex with cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) from granulocytes. The 3D structure of human MSP has been determined but there is as yet no 3D structure for CRISP-3. We have now studied the complex between human MSP and CRISP-3 with multidimensional NMR. {sup 15}N-HSQC spectra show substantial differences between free and complexed hMSP. Using several 3D-NMR spectra of triply labeled hMSP in complex with a recombinant N-terminal domain of CRISP-3, most of the backbone of hMSP could be assigned. The data show that only one side of hMSP, comprising {beta}-strands 1, 4, 5, and 8 are affected by the complex formation, indicating that {beta}-strands 1 and 8 form the main binding surface. Based on this we present a tentative structure for the hMSP-CRISP-3 complex using the known crystal structure of triflin as a model of CRISP-3.

  18. Production, purification, and crystallization of human interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme derived from an Escherichia coli expression system.

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, J. J.; Grasberger, B. L.; Trakshel, G.; Huston, E. E.; Helaszek, C. T.; Smallwood, A. M.; Ator, M. A.; Banks, T. M.; Brake, P. G.; Ciccarelli, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) is a cysteine protease that catalyzes the conversion of the inactive precursor form of IL-1 beta to an active mature form. The mature form of IL-1 beta is involved in mediating inflammatory responses and in the progression of autoimmune diseases. We recently reported on the production of active human ICE in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system (Wang XM et al., 1994, Gene 145:273-277). Because the levels of expression achieved with this system were limiting for the purpose of performing detailed biochemical and biophysical studies, we examined the production of ICE in Escherichia coli. By using a tac promoter-based expression system and fusion to thioredoxin we were able to recover high levels of active ICE protein. The expressed protein, which was distributed between the soluble and insoluble fractions, was purified to homogeneity from both fractions using a combination of classical and affinity chromatography. Comparisons of ICE derived from both fractions indicated that they were comparable in their specific activities, subunit composition, and sensitivities to specific ICE inhibitors. The combined yields of ICE obtained from the soluble and insoluble fractions was close to 1 mg/L of induced culture. Recombinant human ICE was crystallized in the presence of a specific ICE inhibitor in a form suitable for X-ray crystallographic analysis. This readily available source of ICE will facilitate the further characterization of this novel and important protease. PMID:8535252

  19. Sequence homology and immunologic cross-reactivity of human cytomegalovirus with HLA-DR beta chain: a means for graft rejection and immunosuppression.

    PubMed Central

    Fujinami, R S; Nelson, J A; Walker, L; Oldstone, M B

    1988-01-01

    A peptide (Leu-Gly-Arg-Pro-Asp-Glu-Asp-Ser-Ser-Ser-Ser-Ser-Ser-Ser-Cys) that was identical to residues 82 through 96 of a predicted protein of 208 amino acids from the immediate-early region (IE-2) nucleic acid sequence of human cytomegalovirus was chemically synthesized. By computer analysis, the first five amino acids of this peptide showed sequence homology to the beta chain of the human histocompatibility complex HLA-DR. The homologous amino acids, 53 through 57, were located in a region that is conserved between the human DR beta chain and the beta chain of the H-2 class II histocompatibility antigen for mice. The shared region between the IE-2 protein and DR beta chain were similar in both hydrophilicity and predicted beta-turn potential. The IE-2 viral peptide induced antibodies that specifically recognized the human DR beta chain. These observations describe a protein encoded by the IE-2 region of human cytomegalovirus that contains sequence homology and shows immunologic cross-reactivity with a conserved domain of HLA-DR and suggest a mechanism to explain how human cytomegalovirus infection contributes to graft rejection after transplantation. Images PMID:2446012

  20. Interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-8 gene expression in human aural cholesteatomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, C S; Lee, C H; Chung, J W; Kim, C D

    1996-03-01

    Bone destruction is a common characteristic feature of chronic otitis media, especially aural cholesteatoma. A number of immunohistochemical studies have suggested that interleukin-1 (IL-1) may be responsible for cholesteatomatous bone destruction. We designed this study to present the mRNA expression patterns of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-8, which can induce and activate the leukocyte, the major reservoir of potent proteolytic enzymes. Total RNAs were extracted from aural cholesteatomas, external auditory canal skin (EACS), postauricular skin (PAS), and granulation tissues and transcribed into cDNAs. cDNAs were amplified by using PCR technique with primers for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8, and beta-actin. Amplified products were hybridized with each internal probe and the relative density was measured. In granulation tissues, the relative density of IL-1 alpha was greater than that of other tissues. The ratio of IL-1 beta and IL-8 of aural cholesteatoma was significantly higher than that of EACS and PAS. We suggest that both of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta may play a role in the pathological changes, and that IL-8, which is mainly produced from cholesteatomatous epithelium, may have an important role in the pathological changes of cholesteatomas. PMID:8725537

  1. Photolabeling of the alpha-neuraminidase/beta-galactosidase complex from human placenta with a photoreactive neuraminidase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, T.G.; Louie, A.; Potier, M. )

    1990-11-30

    Photolabeling of the alpha-neuraminidase/beta-galactosidase complex in human placenta was carried out using the radioactive photoprobe, 9-S-(4-azido-3,5-3H-2-nitrophenyl)-5-acetamido-2,6 anhydro-2,3,5,9- tetradeoxy-9- thio-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-enonic acid. Two intensely labeled bands at 61 and 46 kD were detected with autoradiography. Labeling of the 46 kD protein was blocked with the inclusion of the surfactant Triton X-100 in the photolysis mixture, indicating a nonspecific, hydrophobic interaction. The 61 kD protein was protected from labeling only when the neuraminidase inhibitor 2,3 dehydro N-acetyl neuraminic acid (1 mM) was present during photolysis. These results suggest that the neuraminidase activity resides among the proteins in the 61 kD molecular weight range comigrating with the lysosomal beta-galactosidase, under denaturing conditions.

  2. TGF{beta}-mediated formation of pRb-E2F complexes in human myeloid leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiaotang

    2008-05-02

    TGF{beta} is well known for its inhibitory effect on cell cycle G1 checkpoint kinases. However, its role in the control of pRb-E2F complexes is not well established. TGF{beta} inhibits phosphorylation of pRb at several serine and threonine residues and regulates the association of E2F transcription factors with pRb family proteins. Recent studies found that predominantly E2F-4, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) are found to bind to corresponding E2F-responsive promoters in G0/G1 phase. As cells progress through mid-G1, p130-E2F4 complex are replaced by p107-E2F4 followed by activators E2F1, 2, and 3. pRb was not detectable in the promoters containing the E2F-responsive site in cycling cells but was associated with E2F4-p130 complexes or E2F4-p107 complexes during G0/G1 phase. In human myeloid leukemia cell line, MV4-11, TGF{beta} upregulated pRb-E2F-4 and p130-E2F-4, and downregulated p107-E2F-4 complexes. However, pRB-E2F1 and pRb-E2F3 complexes were found in proliferating cells but not in TGF{beta} arrested G1 cells. In addition, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) could not detect pRb-E2F DNA-binding activities either in S or G1 phase but exhibited the existence of p107-E2F4 in proliferating cells and p130-E2F4 complexes in TGF{beta}-arrested G1 cells, respectively. Our data suggest that p107 and p130, but not pRb, and the repressor E2F, but not activator E2Fs, play a critical role in regulating E2F-responsive gene expression in TGF{beta}-mediated cell cycle control in human myeloid leukemia cells.

  3. A Novel Di-Leucine Motif at the N-Terminus of Human Organic Solute Transporter Beta Is Essential for Protein Association and Membrane Localization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuhua; Soroka, Carol J; Sun, An-Qiang; Backos, Donald S; Mennone, Albert; Suchy, Frederick J; Boyer, James L

    2016-01-01

    The heteromeric membrane protein Organic Solute Transporter alpha/beta is the major bile acid efflux transporter in the intestine. Physical association of its alpha and beta subunits is essential for their polarized basolateral membrane localization and function in the transport of bile acids and other organic solutes. We identified a highly conserved acidic dileucine motif (-EL20L21EE) at the extracellular amino-tail of organic solute transporter beta from multiple species. To characterize the role of this protein interacting domain in the association of the human beta and alpha subunits and in membrane localization of the transporter, Leu20 and Leu21 on the amino-tail of human organic solute transporter beta were replaced with alanines by site-directed mutagenesis. Co-immunoprecipitation study in HEK293 cells demonstrated that substitution of the leucine residues with alanines prevented the interaction of the human beta mutant with the alpha subunit. Membrane biotinylation demonstrated that the LL/AA mutant eliminated membrane expression of both subunits. Computational-based modelling of human organic solute transporter beta suggested that the LL/AA mutation substantially alters both the structure and lipophilicity of the surface, thereby not only affecting the interaction with the alpha subunit but also possibly impacting the capacity of the beta subunit to traffick through the cell and interact with the membrane. In summary, our findings indicate that the dileucine motif in the extracellular N-terminal region of human organic solute transporter beta subunit plays a critical role in the association with the alpha subunit and in its polarized plasma membrane localization. PMID:27351185

  4. A Novel Di-Leucine Motif at the N-Terminus of Human Organic Solute Transporter Beta Is Essential for Protein Association and Membrane Localization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuhua; Soroka, Carol J.; Sun, An-Qiang; Backos, Donald S.; Mennone, Albert; Suchy, Frederick J.; Boyer, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The heteromeric membrane protein Organic Solute Transporter alpha/beta is the major bile acid efflux transporter in the intestine. Physical association of its alpha and beta subunits is essential for their polarized basolateral membrane localization and function in the transport of bile acids and other organic solutes. We identified a highly conserved acidic dileucine motif (-EL20L21EE) at the extracellular amino-tail of organic solute transporter beta from multiple species. To characterize the role of this protein interacting domain in the association of the human beta and alpha subunits and in membrane localization of the transporter, Leu20 and Leu21 on the amino-tail of human organic solute transporter beta were replaced with alanines by site-directed mutagenesis. Co-immunoprecipitation study in HEK293 cells demonstrated that substitution of the leucine residues with alanines prevented the interaction of the human beta mutant with the alpha subunit. Membrane biotinylation demonstrated that the LL/AA mutant eliminated membrane expression of both subunits. Computational-based modelling of human organic solute transporter beta suggested that the LL/AA mutation substantially alters both the structure and lipophilicity of the surface, thereby not only affecting the interaction with the alpha subunit but also possibly impacting the capacity of the beta subunit to traffick through the cell and interact with the membrane. In summary, our findings indicate that the dileucine motif in the extracellular N-terminal region of human organic solute transporter beta subunit plays a critical role in the association with the alpha subunit and in its polarized plasma membrane localization. PMID:27351185

  5. Antisense targeting of TGF-{beta}1 augments BMP-induced upregulation of osteopontin, type I collagen and Cbfa1 in human Saos-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Zhong-Jian . E-mail: zshen2@wisc.edu; Kook Kim, Sang; Youn Jun, Do; Park, Wan; Ho Kim, Young; Malter, James S.; Jo Moon, Byung . E-mail: bjmoon@mail.knu.ac.kr

    2007-04-15

    Despite commonalities in signal transduction in osteoblasts from different species, the role of TGF-{beta}1 on bone formation remains elusive. In particular, the role of autocrine TGF-{beta}1 on human osteoblasts is largely unknown. Here we show the effect of TGF-{beta}1 knock-down on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts induced by BMP2. Treatment with antisense TGF-{beta}1 moderately increased the rate of cell proliferation, which was completely reversed by the exogenous addition of TGF-{beta}1. Notably, TGF-{beta}1 blockade significantly enhanced BMP2-induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding osteopontin, type I collagen and Cbfa1, which was suppressed by exogenous TGF-{beta}1. Moreover, TGF-{beta}1 knock-down increased BMP2-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5 as well as their nuclear import, which paralleled a reduction of inhibitory Smad6. These data suggest autocrine TGF-{beta}1 antagonizes BMP signaling through modulation of inducible Smad6 and the activity of BMP specific Smad1/5.

  6. Mapping of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor [beta]3 gene (CHRNB3) within chromosome 8p11. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Koyama; Sudo, Kazunori; Nakamura, Yusuke )

    1994-05-15

    The authors have used an exon amplification method to construct a transcriptional map for human chromosome 8. With this method, transcribed sequences from defined regions of genomic DNA can be efficiently isolated using cosmid clones mapped to human chromosome 8. Cosmid DNAs were digested with BglII and BamHI and ligated into a BamHI site of an exon trapping vector, pSPL1. Transfection of the subcloned DNAs into Cos7 cells, isolation of cytoplasmic RNA, synthesis of cDNA by reverse transcriptase, and amplification of spliced fragments were performed according to the method described by Buckler et al. Amplified fragments were subcloned into a plasmid, pBluescriptII, and sequenced by the dideoxy chain termination method. Sequence analysis to search for similarity or identity to known genes with the program FASTA detected complete identity of one (ET634-2) of these exon amplification fragments, 227 bp in length, to the nucleotide sequence at 1138-1364 of the cDNA for the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) [beta]3 gene. This transcribed fragment, containing a part of the human nAChR [beta]3 gene, was isolated from cosmid clone cCI8-328, which was previously mapped to 8p11.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Localization of this gene to chromosome agreed with the results of previous mapping experiments using somatic hybrid cell lines.

  7. Evidence for Increased Beta-Adrenoreceptor Responsiveness Induced by 14 Days of Simulated Microgravity in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Polet, Jill L.; Engelke, Keith A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Lane, Lynda D.

    1996-01-01

    We studied hemodynamic responses to alpha and beta receptor agonists in 8 healthy men ( 38+- 2 yrs) before and after 14 days of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that increased adrenergic responsiveness is induced by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Immediately following a 30-min baseline period, a steady-state infusion of isoproterenol (ISO) was used to assess beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic responsiveness. ISO was infused at three graded constant rates of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02 ug/kg/min. After heart rate and blood pressure had been allowed to return to baseline levels following ISO infusion graded infusion of phenylephrine (PE) was used to assess responsiveness of alpha I-vascular receptors. PE was infused at three graded constant rates of 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 ug/kg/min. Each infusion interval for both drugs was 9 min. During the infusions, constant monitoring of beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate was performed and leg blood flow was measured with occlusion plethysmography at each infusion level. The slopes calculated from linear regressions between ISO and PE doses and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and leg vascular resistance for each subject were used to represent alpha- and beta- adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Fourteen days HDT increased the slopes of heart rate (1056 +- 107 to 1553 +- 83 beats/ug/kg/min; P= 0.014) and vasodilation (-469ft +- 111 to -l446 +- 309 PRU/ug/kg/min; P =0.0224) to ISO infusion. There was no alteration in blood pressure or vascular resistance responses to PE infusion after HDT. Our results provide evidence that microgravity causes selective increases in beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic responsiveness without affecting alpha 1-vascular responses.

  8. Beta dose calculation in human arteries for various brachytherapy seed types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Woo

    This dissertation explores beta dose profile of microspheres packed in arteries, various source geometries of 142Pr that can be used for therapeutic purpose, and dose backscatter factors for selected beta sources. A novel treatment method by injecting microspheres into feeding arteries of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is under pre-clinical investigation. To optimize radiation dose to the clinically important area, i.e. arterial wall, preliminary dosimetric studies were needed. Monte Carlo calculations were performed for several geometries simulating arteries filled with microspheres packed by random packing methods. Arterial radii used in the simulation varied from 50 mum to 3 mm; microsphere radii varied from 10 mum to 0.7 mm. Dose varied significantly as a function of microsphere size, for constant arterial sizes. For the same sizes of arteries, significant dose increase was observed because of inter-artery exposure for large arteries (>0.1 cm rad.) filled with large microspheres (>0.03 cm rad.). Dose increase between small arteries (<0.03 cm rad.) was less significant. The dose profiles of prototype 142Pr beta brachytherapy sources were calculated using MCNP 4C Monte Carlo code as well as dose point kernel (DPK) for selected cases. Dose profiles were similar to beta sources currently used indicating that 142Pr can substitute for current sources for certain cases and the DPK was closely matched with MCNP result. Backscattering of electrons is a prominent secondary effect in beta dosimetry. The backscattering is closely correlated with factors such as geometry of source and scattering material, and composition of scattering material. The backscattering factors were calculated for selected beta sources that are currently used as well as potentially useful sources for therapeutic purpose. The factors were calculated as a function of distance from the interface between water and scatterers. These factors were fit by a simple function for future incorporation into

  9. Interaction of disintegrins with the alpha IIb beta 3 receptor on resting and activated human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    McLane, M A; Kowalska, M A; Silver, L; Shattil, S J; Niewiarowski, S

    1994-01-01

    Viper venom disintegrins contain the RGD/KGD motif. They inhibit platelet aggregation and cell adhesion, but show structural and functional heterogeneity. We investigated the interaction of four prototypic disintegrins with alpha IIb beta 3 expressed on the surface of resting and activated platelets. The binding affinity (Kd) of 125I-albolabrin, 125I-echistatin, 125I-bitistatin and 125I-eristostatin toward resting platelets was 294, 153, 48 and 18 nM respectively. The Kd value for albolabrin decreased 3-fold and 6-fold after ADP- or thrombin-induced activation. The Kd values for bitistatin and echistatin also decreased with ADP, but there was no further decrease with thrombin. In contrast, eristostatin bound with the same high affinity to resting and activated platelets. The pattern of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-eristostatin and FITC-albolabrin binding to resting and activated platelets was consistent with observations using radiolabelled material. Eristostatin showed faster and more irreversible binding to platelets, and greater potency compared with albolabrin in inducing conformational neo-epitopes in beta 3. The anti-alpha IIb beta 3 monoclonal antibody OP-G2 that is RGD-dependent inhibited disintegrin binding to activated platelets more strongly than binding to resting platelets and it inhibited the binding to platelets of albolabrin more strongly than eristostatin. The specificity of disintegrin interaction with alpha IIb beta 3 was confirmed by demonstrating cross-linking of these peptides to alpha IIb beta 3 on normal platelets, but not to thrombasthenic platelets deficient in alpha IIb beta 3. Images Figure 6 PMID:8042985

  10. Thymosin Beta-4 Suppresses Osteoclastic Differentiation and Inflammatory Responses in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Im; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Won-Jung; Lee, Soojung; Cha, Hee-Jae; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports suggest that thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a key regulator for wound healing and anti-inflammation. However, the role of Tβ4 in osteoclast differentiation remains unclear. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate Tβ4 expression in H2O2-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), the effects of Tβ4 activation on inflammatory response in PDLCs and osteoclastic differentiation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), and identify the underlying mechanism. Methods Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and Western blot analyses were used to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Osteoclastic differentiation was assessed in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) using conditioned medium (CM) from H2O2-treated PDLCs. Results Tβ4 was down-regulated in H2O2-exposed PDLCs in dose- and time-dependent manners. Tβ4 activation with a Tβ4 peptide attenuated the H2O2-induced production of NO and PGE2 and up-regulated iNOS, COX-2, and osteoclastogenic cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17) as well as reversed the effect on RANKL and OPG in PDLCs. Tβ4 peptide inhibited the effects of H2O2 on the activation of ERK and JNK MAPK, and NF-κB in PDLCs. Furthermore, Tβ4 peptide inhibited osteoclast differentiation, osteoclast-specific gene expression, and p38, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation in RANKL-stimulated BMMs. In addition, H2O2 up-regulated Wnt5a and its cell surface receptors, Frizzled and Ror2 in PDLCs. Wnt5a inhibition by Wnt5a siRNA enhanced the effects of Tβ4 on H2O2-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and osteoclastogenic cytokines as well as helping osteoclastic differentiation whereas Wnt5a activation by Wnt5a peptide reversed it. Conclusion In conclusion, this study demonstrated, for the first time, that Tβ4 was down-regulated in ROS-stimulated PDLCs as well as Tβ4 activation exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and anti-osteoclastogenesis in vitro

  11. The IE2 regulatory protein of human cytomegalovirus induces expression of the human transforming growth factor beta1 gene through an Egr-1 binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Y D; Chiou, C J; Choi, K S; Yi, Y; Michelson, S; Kim, S; Hayward, G S; Kim, S J

    1996-01-01

    Increases in transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA and biological activity in the early phase of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in fibroblasts are paralleled by increased TGF-beta1-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene activity. To determine how CMV infection transactivates the TGF-beta1 promoter, we examined the effects of the cotransfected IE2 regulatory protein of human CMV on 5'-deleted TGF-beta1 promoter-CAT reporter genes in transient DNA transfection assays. Two upstream TGF-beta1 promoter regions each containing an Egr-1 consensus site were shown to be important for IE2-induced transactivation in a cell type that displayed greatly reduced nonspecific activity. Furthermore, transfer of an Egr-l site from between positions -125 and -98, but not point mutant versions of this site, to a heterologous promoter also conveyed IE2 responsiveness. Addition of an IE2 expression vector or use of the U373 A45 astrocytoma cell line expressing IE2 also produced synergistic stimulation of GAL4-Egr-l-mediated activation of a target promoter containing GAL4 binding sites. The 80-kDa IE2 protein present in A45 cells proved to selectively bind to glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Egr-1 beads. The results of in vitro protein binding assays also revealed that an intact in vitro-translated IE2 protein bound directly to the GST-Egr-1 fusion protein through the zinc finger domain of the Egr-1 protein and that this binding activity was abolished by deletion of parts of the zinc finger DNA-binding domain. Similarly, the Egr-1 protein was found to associate preferentially with a small region within the C-terminal half of the IE2 protein adjacent to the DNA-binding and dimerization domains that are important for both transactivation and downregulation. We conclude from these observations that IE2 may regulate transcription of the TGF-beta1 gene as well as other potential cellular targets by virtue of its ability to interact with the Egr-1 DNA

  12. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung-Kyun; Lee, Haa-Yung; Pan, Huiqi; Takeshita, Tamotsu; Park, Raekil; Cha, Kiweon; Andalibi, Ali; Lim, David J

    2006-01-01

    Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization) in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM). Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway. PMID:16433908

  13. Facilitation of Learning by Social-Emotional Feedback in Humans Is Beta-Noradrenergic-Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihov, Yoan; Mayer, Simon; Musshoff, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Kendrick, Keith M.; Hurlemann, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in dynamic environments critically depends on the ability to learn rapidly and flexibly from the outcomes of prior choices. In social environments, facial expressions of emotion often serve as performance feedback and thereby guide declarative learning. Abundant evidence implicates beta-noradrenergic signaling in the modulatory…

  14. In vivo binding of trimethylpsoralen detects DNA structural alterations associated with transcribing regions in the human beta-globin cluster.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ruiz, A; Zhang, Q; Shen, C K

    1995-12-01

    In order to increase our knowledge about the mechanisms that regulate expression of human beta-like globin genes, we have used a novel technique to analyze the chromatin structure in living cells. This approach allowed us to detect specific DNA regions in vivo where nucleosome folding or unconstrained DNA supercoiling in erythroid cells differs from that in non-erythroid cells. In this method, we use 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) as a probe capable of detecting altered chromatin conformations. Our results show that TMP binds to DNA with a higher affinity over the regions in the locus that are actively expressed, including both the promoter and the transcribed region. This higher affinity detected when comparing erythroid cells with non-erythroid cells does not extend to other regions inside the beta-globin cluster. Our data suggest that the observed effect is likely due to nucleosome displacement. Alternatively, it could result from localized DNA supercoiling, but not from widespread torsional stress across the entire beta-like globin locus as hypothesized previously. PMID:7499429

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the human mismatch repair protein MutS[beta

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Quincy; Orans, Jillian; Hast, Michael A.; Iyer, Ravi R.; Changela, Anita; Modrich, Paul L.; Beese, Lorena S.

    2012-03-16

    MutS{beta} is a eukaryotic mismatch repair protein that preferentially targets extrahelical unpaired nucleotides and shares partial functional redundancy with MutS{alpha} (MSH2-MSH6). Although mismatch recognition by MutS{alpha} has been shown to involve a conserved Phe-X-Glu motif, little is known about the lesion-binding mechanism of MutS{beta}. Combined MSH3/MSH6 deficiency triggers a strong predisposition to cancer in mice and defects in msh2 and msh6 account for roughly half of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer mutations. These three MutS homologs are also believed to play a role in trinucleotide repeat instability, which is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. The baculovirus overexpression and purification of recombinant human MutS{beta} and three truncation mutants are presented here. Binding assays with heteroduplex DNA were carried out for biochemical characterization. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protein bound to a heteroduplex DNA substrate are also reported.

  16. RANTES and MIP-1beta mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: transcript quantification using NASBA technology.

    PubMed

    Romano, J W; Shurtliff, R N; Lee, E M; Cornelison, R; Than, S; Kaplan, M H; Ginocchio, C C

    2001-09-01

    The importance of chemokines in the immune response, as well as in a range of specific disease states, is becoming increasingly apparent. The role of CC- (or beta-) chemokines and their receptors in the pathology and mechanisms of HIV-1 infection has served to intensify interest in these factors. Although the functionality of these factors resides in their protein forms, assays for the detection and quantification of these protein factors in clinical samples are not readily available. Consequently, we designed NASBA-based assays for the quantification of the mRNA encoding two members of the CC-chemokine family: RANTES and MIP-1beta. The NASBA-based assays are extremely sensitive, accurate, and reproducible across a dynamic range of at least four orders of magnitude. Inter-assay performance is comparable to intra-assay performance. We applied these methods to the analysis of normal human PBMC and PBMC from HIV-1 infected individuals. Although MIP-1beta mRNA levels are higher than RANTES levels in both populations, RANTES levels in HIV-1+ patients are higher than in normal individuals. The utility of these assays in longitudinal studies of specific subpopulations of cells, as well as their potential use in clinical diagnostics, is discussed. PMID:11470292

  17. A pseudodeficiency allele (D152N) of the human {beta}-glucuronidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Vervoort, R.; Liebaers, I.; Lissens, W.

    1995-10-01

    We present evidence that a 480G{r_arrow}A transition in the coding region of the {Beta}glucuronidase gene, which results in an aspartic-acid-to-asparagine substitution at amino acid position 152 (D152N), produces a pseudodeficiency allele (GUSBp) that leads to greatly reduced levels of {Beta}-glucuronidase activity without apparent deleterious consequences. The 48OG{r_arrow}A mutation was found initially in the pseudodeficient mother of a child with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPSVII), but it was not on her disease-causing allele, which carried the L176F mutation. The 480G{r_arrow}A change was also present in an unrelated individual with another MPSVII allele who had unusually low {Beta}-glucuronidase activity, but whose clinical symptoms were probably unrelated to {Beta}-glucuronidase deficiency. This individual also had an R357X mutation, probably on his second allele. We screened 100 unrelated normal individuals for the 480G{r_arrow}A mutation with a PCR method and detected one carrier. Reduced {Beta}-glucuronidase activity following transfection of COS cells with the D152N cDNA supported the causal relationship between the D152N allele and pseudodeficiency. The mutation reduced the fraction of expressed enzyme that was secreted. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the reduced activity in COS cells was due to accelerated intracellular turnover of the D152N enzyme. They also suggested that a potential glycosylation site created by the mutation is utilized in {approximately}50% of the enzyme expressed. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Amygdalin (Laetrile) and prunasin beta-glucosidases: distribution in germ-free rat and in human tumor tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Newmark, J; Brady, R O; Grimley, P M; Gal, A E; Waller, S G; Thistlethwaite, J R

    1981-01-01

    Amygdalin, the gentiobioside derivative of mandelonitrile commonly referred to as Laetrile, is presently under intensive investigation as a potential cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Because of this interest, we investigated the activity of beta-glucosidases that cleave glucose from amygdalin and from prunasin (mandelonitrile monoglucoside) in tissues from germ-free rats and in normal and neoplastic human tissues. Rat and human small intestinal mucosa contain high levels of activity of glucosidases that act on both of these cyanogenic glucosides. Release of glucose from these compounds was not detected in any of the human neoplastic tissues examined in the present study. These observations are consistent with reports of cyanide toxicity through the oral use of amygdalin or prunasin and pose serious questions concerning the alleged tumoricidal effect of amygdalin. PMID:6796962

  19. The expression of the TGF beta 1 gene in the first trimester human eye and other embryonic organs.

    PubMed

    Hyldahl, L; Engström, W; Schofield, P

    1990-09-01

    We have examined the expression of the transforming growth factor beta 1 gene in a variety of tissues in the developing human embryo. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of TGF B1 mRNA in the 10-12 week old eye as well as in most first trimester organs with the notable exception of the yolk sack. In an attempt to determine the topographical distribution of TGF B1 transcripts within the eye, we found that messenger RNA levels were higher in the posterior regions of the eye globe. PMID:2279276

  20. Separation of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and immunoglobulin G by a miniaturized size exclusion chromatography column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongmo; Chae, Junseok

    2009-04-01

    This report describes a miniaturized size exclusion chromatography column that effectively preseparates raw samples for medical point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The minicolumn is constructed of polydimethylsiloxane fabricated on a glass slide. The minicolumn separates 300 ng/ml of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) from an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-rich solution (100 μg/ml) in 7.7 min, with 2.23 resolution and 0.018 mm plate height. The complete analyte discrimination shows potential for the sample preparation stage of POCT devices for cancer screening, prognosis, and monitoring.

  1. Contributions of arginines-43 and -94 of human choriogonadotropin. beta. to receptor binding and activation as determined by oligonucleotide-based mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Chen; Puett, D. )

    1991-10-22

    Members of the glycoprotein hormone family contain a common {alpha} subunit and a hormone-specific {beta} subunit. Human choriogonadotropin (hCG) {beta} is a 145 amino acid residue protein glycosylated at 6 positions (2 N-linked and 4 O-linked oligosaccharides). In an effort to elucidate receptor determinants on hCG{beta}, the authors have used site-directed mutagenesis to prepare and express several mutant cDNAs with replacements at arginines-43 and -94. Arg-43 is invariant in all known mammalian CG/lutropin {beta} amino acid sequences, and Arg-94 is conserved in 10 of the 12 sequences. Moreover, various studies involving synthetic peptides and enzymatic digestions of intact {beta} chains suggest that these residues may be important in hCG receptor binding. Point mutants were made in which these two arginines were replaced with the corresponding residues in human follitropin {beta}, Leu-43 and Asp-94. The wild-type and mutant {beta} chains were expressed in CHO cells containing a stably integrated gene for bovine {alpha}, and heterodimer formation occurred. These heterologous gonadotropins were active in assays using transformed Leydig cells, competitive binding with standard {sup 125}I-hCG, and cAMP and progesterone production, but the potency was considerably less than that associated with the hCG{beta} wild-type-containing gonadotropin. The double-mutant protein Arg-43 to Leu/Arg-94 to Asp also associated with bovine {alpha}, but the resultant heterodimer exhibited only low activity. Replacement but the Lys-43-containing {beta} chain appeared to exhibit a low degree of subunit association or reduced stability relative to the expressed hCG{beta} wild type. These results demonstrate that arginines-43 and -94 contribute to receptor binding through a positive charge.

  2. Beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids and their coenzyme A derivatives by human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Derwas, N; Poulos, A

    1987-05-01

    The beta-oxidation of lignoceric acid (C24:0), hexacosanoic acid (C26:0), and their coenzyme A derivatives was investigated in human skin fibroblast homogenates. The cofactor requirements for oxidation of lignoceric acid and hexacosanoic acid were identical but were different from their coenzyme A derivatives. For example, lignoceric acid and hexacosanoic acid oxidation was strictly ATP dependent whereas the oxidation of the corresponding coenzyme A derivatives was ATP independent. Also the rate of oxidation of coenzyme A derivatives of lignoceric acid or hexacosanoic acid was much higher compared to the free fatty acids. In patients with Zellweger's syndrome, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and infantile Refsum's disease, the beta-oxidation of lignoceric and hexacosanoic acids was defective whereas the oxidation of their corresponding coenzyme A derivatives was nearly normal. The results presented in this communication suggest strongly that the beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids occurs exclusively in peroxisomes. However, the coenzyme A derivatives of very-long-chain fatty acids can be oxidized in mitochondria as well as in peroxisomes. The inability of the mitochondrial system to oxidize free fatty acids may be due to its inability to convert them to their corresponding coenzyme A derivatives. Our results suggest that a specific very-long-chain fatty acyl CoA synthetase may be required for the activation of the free fatty acids and that this synthetase may be deficient in patients with Zellweger's syndrome and possibly X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, as well. The results presented suggest that substrate specificity and the subcellular localization of the synthetase may regulate the beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids in the cell. PMID:2437859

  3. Linkage of two human pregnancy-specific. beta. sub 1 -glycoprotein genes: One is associated with hydatidiform mole

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, K.K.; Watanabe, Shuichiro; Lei, Kejian; Chou, D.Y.; Plouzek, C.A.; Deng, Hweichuang; Torres, J.; Chou, J.Y. )

    1990-08-01

    A genomic clone containing two linked human pregnancy-specific {beta}{sub 1}-glycoprotein (PS{beta}G) genes has been isolated and characterized. The two genes are arranged in the same 5{prime} {yields} 3{prime} orientation; the 3{prime} region (including the A2 and B-C exons) of the upstream gene, PSGGA, is linked to the 5{prime} region (including the 5{prime}/L and L/N exons) of PSGGB, the downstream gene. Depending upon the domains compared, PSGGA and PSGGB share 92-98% nucleotide and 86-95% amino acid sequence identity with PSG93, the most abundant PS{beta}G transcript. Northern blot hybridization performed with a PSGGB-specific oligonucleotide probe to the N domain revealed that PSGGB or a PSGGB-like gene encodes a major 1.7-kilobase mRNA in hydatidiform mole tissues and a major 2.0-kilobase mRNA in term placenta tissues. Moreover, the PSGGB-specific probe hybridized most strongly with mRNA from molar trophoblastic tissue, suggesting that the PSGGB-like species may be the gene preferentially expressed in gestational trophoblastic disease. Additionally, the sequence of a 2,315-base-pair PS{beta}G cDNA (PSG95) that contains an N-A1-A2-B2-C domain arrangement is reported. The coding region of PSG95 is identical to the previously reported cDNA clones PSG1d and FL-NCA, but PSG95 contains an additional 518 and 523 base pairs in the 3{prime} end as compared with PSG1d and FL-NCA, respectively.

  4. Active macrophage-associated TGF-beta co-localizes with type I procollagen gene expression in atherosclerotic human pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, L.; Milder, J.; Gold, L.; Botney, M.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular remodeling in adult atherosclerotic pulmonary arteries is characterized by discrete areas of neointimal smooth muscle cell extracellular matrix gene expression in close proximity to non-foamy macrophages, suggesting regulation by local macrophage-associated factors. The purpose of these studies was to begin addressing the role of putative macrophage-associated factors such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), by determining the spatial relationship between TGF-beta and neointimal matrix gene expression in human atherosclerotic pulmonary arteries. For example, the participation of TGF-beta in vascular remodeling could be inferred by its colocalization with non-foamy macrophages in areas of active matrix synthesis. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated focal neointimal procollagen gene expression in close association with non-foamy but not foamy macrophages. Immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific anti-TGF-beta antibodies demonstrated all three isoforms of TGF-beta associated with non-foamy macrophages, but foamy macrophages were not immunoreactive. Neointimal and medial smooth muscle cells stained lightly. In contrast, intense TGF-beta immunoreactivity was also associated with medial smooth muscle cells in normal nonremodeling vessels. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies specific for latent TGF-beta was similar to immunohistochemistry for mature TGF-beta in both remodeling and nonremodeling vessels. Finally, using an antibody specific for active TGF-beta 1, immunoreactivity was only seen in non-foamy neointimal macrophages but not in foamy macrophages or medial smooth muscle cells from hypertensive or normal vessels. These observations suggest non-foamy macrophages may participate in modulating matrix gene expression in atherosclerotic remodeling via a TGF-beta-dependent mechanism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7747808

  5. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  6. Generation of human muscle fibers and satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chal, Jérome; Al Tanoury, Ziad; Hestin, Marie; Gobert, Bénédicte; Aivio, Suvi; Hick, Aurore; Cherrier, Thomas; Nesmith, Alexander P; Parker, Kevin K; Pourquié, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Progress toward finding a cure for muscle diseases has been slow because of the absence of relevant cellular models and the lack of a reliable source of muscle progenitors for biomedical investigation. Here we report an optimized serum-free differentiation protocol to efficiently produce striated, millimeter-long muscle fibers together with satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in vitro. By mimicking key signaling events leading to muscle formation in the embryo, in particular the dual modulation of Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway signaling, this directed differentiation protocol avoids the requirement for genetic modifications or cell sorting. Robust myogenesis can be achieved in vitro within 1 month by personnel experienced in hPSC culture. The differentiating culture can be subcultured to produce large amounts of myogenic progenitors amenable to numerous downstream applications. Beyond the study of myogenesis, this differentiation method offers an attractive platform for the development of relevant in vitro models of muscle dystrophies and drug screening strategies, as well as providing a source of cells for tissue engineering and cell therapy approaches. PMID:27583644

  7. Characterization of human plasma apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins in the high density lipoprotein size range: focus on pre-beta1-LpE, pre-beta2-LpE, and alpha-LpE.

    PubMed

    Krimbou, L; Tremblay, M; Davignon, J; Cohn, J S

    1997-01-01

    We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to separate and characterize human plasma apolipoprotein (apo) E-containing lipoproteins in the high density lipoprotein (HDL) size range. Lipoproteins were separated from whole plasma by electrophoresis (according to charge) in a 0.75% agarose gel, and then in the second dimension (according to size) in a 2-15% non-denaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel. ApoE-containing lipoproteins were detected by radiography after electrotransfer of lipoproteins to nitrocellulose membranes and incubation with 125I-labeled affinity-purified polyclonal apoE antibody. ApoE-containing lipoproteins in the HDL size range had a particle size ranging from 9 to 18.5 nm in diameter and could be characterized as having either gamma, pre-beta1-, pre-beta2- or alpha-electrophoretic mobility (designated gamma-LpE, pre-beta1-LpE, pre-beta2LpE, and alpha-LpE respectively). gamma-LpE and a substantial proportion of pre-beta1- and pre-beta2-LpE did not co-migrate with apoA-I, apoA-II, apoC-III, or apoB-100. Subsequent experiments focused on the pre-beta1-LpE, pre-beta2LpE, and alpha-LpE subfractions, which represented > 95% of apoE in HDL-sized lipoproteins. Storage of plasma at 4 degrees C or in vitro incubation of plasma at 37 degrees C caused a relative decrease in pre-beta1-LpE and increase in alpha-LpE. Normolipidemic patients with an apoE 2/2 phenotype tended to have increased levels of alpha-LpE, whereas apoE 4/4 subjects tended to have a greater proportion of HDL-apoE as pre-beta1-LpE. Decrease in plasma HDL apoE concentration after an oral fat load was associated with a reduction in the plasma concentration of all HDL-apoE subfractions. These results demonstrate that: 1) apoE-containing HDL are heterogeneous in size and charge; 2) pre-beta1-LpE is a relatively labile HDL subfraction; 3) HDL-apoE subfraction distribution is dependent on apoE phenotype; and 4) all apoE-containing HDL subfractions participate in the plasma transfer of apo

  8. Sodium and potassium currents in freshly isolated and in proliferating human muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, M; Widmer, H; Baroffio, A; Aubry, J P; Krause, R M; Kaelin, A; Bader, C R

    1994-01-01

    1. Human muscle satellite cells (SC) were studied either immediately after dissociation of muscle biopsies or later, as they proliferated in culture. A purification procedure combined with clonal cultures ensured that electrophysiological recordings were done in myogenic cells. Hoechst staining for the DNA attested that cells were mononucleated. 2. The goals of this study were to examine (i) whether the electrophysiological properties of freshly isolated SC resembled those of SC that proliferated in culture for several weeks, (ii) whether freezing and thawing affected these properties, and (iii) whether SC constituted a homogeneous population. 3. We found that there were only subtle differences between the electrophysiological results obtained in freshly isolated SC and in proliferating SC with or without previous freezing and thawing. Most SC expressed two voltage-gated currents, a TTX-resistant Na+ current and a calcium-activated potassium current (IK, Ca). 4. The level of expression of the Na+ current and of IK, Ca was affected in a different way by cellular proliferation; the normalized Na+ conductance (pS pF-1) of proliferating cells resembled that of freshly isolated SC, whereas the IK, Ca conductance increased 10 times. The analysis of the amplitude distributions of the Na+ current and of IK, Ca in the various SC preparations suggested that there was only one class of SC. PMID:8021836

  9. Novel Confocal Microscopic and Flow Cytometric Based Assays to Visualize and Detect the (Beta)2-Adrenergic Receptor in Human Lymphocyte and Mononuclear Cell Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B. E.; Nelman, M. A.; Sams, C. F.; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D.

    2006-01-01

    The data show that immunophenotyping of leukocyte populations with (beta)2AR is possible with the commercially available Ab, although the FC assay is limited to the IST as a result of the Ab binding site to the intracellular C-terminus of the 2AR. The FC assay has applications for measuring alterations in total (beta)2AR in human leukocyte populations as changes in fluorescence. In addition, CM confirms that both surface and intracellular compartments stain positively for the (beta)2AR and can be used for qualitative assays that screen for changes in receptor compartmentalization and localization.

  10. Characterization of a chromosome-specific chimpanzee alpha satellite subset: Evolutionary relationship to subsets on human chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, P.E.; Gosden, J.; Lawson, D.

    1996-04-15

    Alpha satellite DNA is a tandemly repeated DNA family found at the centromeres of all primate chromosomes examined. The fundamental repeat units of alpha satellite DNA are diverged 169- to 172-bp monomers, often found to be organized in chromosome-specific higher-order repeat units. The chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens (HSA)), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes (PTR) and Pan paniscus), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) share a remarkable similarity and synteny. It is of interest to ask if alpha satellite arrays at centromeres of homologous chromosomes between these species are closely related (evolving in an orthologous manner) or if the evolutionary processes that homogenize and spread these arrays within and between chromosomes result in nonorthologous evolution of arrays. By using PCR primers specific for human chromosome 17-specific alpha satellite DNA, we have amplified, cloned, and characterized a chromosome-specific subset from the PTR chimpanzee genome. Hybridization both on Southern blots and in situ as well as sequence analysis show that this subset is most closely related, as expected, to sequences on HSA 17. However, in situ hybridization reveals that this subset is not found on the homologous chromosome in chimpanzee (PTR 19), but instead on PTR 12, which is homologous to HSA 2p. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  11. A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Floeter, Mary Kay; Hattori, Noriaki; Hallett, Mark

    2008-03-01

    To explore the reliability of a high performance brain-computer interface (BCI) using non-invasive EEG signals associated with human natural motor behavior does not require extensive training. We propose a new BCI method, where users perform either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window. Nine healthy volunteers, one stroke survivor with right-sided hemiparesis and one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in this study. Subjects did not receive BCI training before participating in this study. We investigated tasks of both physical movement and motor imagery. The surface Laplacian derivation was used for enhancing EEG spatial resolution. A model-free threshold setting method was used for the classification of motor intentions. The performance of the proposed BCI was validated by an online sequential binary-cursor-control game for two-dimensional cursor movement. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization were observed when subjects sustained or stopped either motor execution or motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity over sensorimotor area provided the largest discrimination. With simple model-free classification of beta band EEG activity from a single electrode (with surface Laplacian derivation), the online classifications of the EEG activity with motor execution/motor imagery were: >90%/~80% for six healthy volunteers, >80%/~80% for the stroke patient and ~90%/~80% for the ALS patient. The EEG activities of the other three healthy volunteers were not classifiable. The sensorimotor beta rhythm of EEG associated with human natural motor behavior can be used for a reliable and high performance BCI for both healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training.

  12. Distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors in failing human myocardium. Implications for mechanisms of down-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Murphree, S.S.; Saffitz, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The density of beta-adrenergic receptors is reduced in crude membranes prepared from failing human myocardium. We used quantitative autoradiography of radioligand binding sites in intact tissue slices to determine whether the total tissue content of receptors is reduced and to characterize the transmural distribution of receptors in cardiac myocytes and the coronary vasculature in hearts obtained from nine cardiac transplant patients with severe congestive failure. Binding of (125Iodo)cyanopindolol to transmural slices of human myocardium was rapid, saturable, stereoselective, and displaceable by agonists and antagonists with an appropriate rank order of potency. Binding isotherms in four normal and nine failing ventricles showed a significant reduction in the total tissue content of beta-receptors in failing myocardium (38.3 +/- 2.0 fmol/mg protein) compared with normal tissue (52.4 +/- 1.7 fmol/mg protein, p = 0.038). In the normal ventricles, the greatest receptor density was observed autoradiographically in myocytic regions of the subendocardium. Receptor density of the coronary arterioles was approximately 70% of that in adjacent myocytic regions. The density of binding sites in both myocytic regions and arterioles was diminished in all regions of the failing ventricles, but down-regulation was due primarily to a selective reduction of beta-receptors of subendocardial myocytes (63 +/- 5% of subepicardial receptor density vs. 115 +/- 6% in controls, p less than 0.0001). These observations indicate that down-regulation occurs nonuniformly in the transmural distribution and thus is likely not related simply to elevated circulating catecholamine levels.

  13. Characterization of Beta-lactamases in Faecal Enterobacteriaceae Recovered from Healthy Humans in Spain: Focusing on AmpC Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Porres-Osante, Nerea; Sáenz, Yolanda; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    The intestinal tract is a huge reservoir of Enterobacteriaceae, some of which are opportunist pathogens. Several genera of these bacteria harbour intrinsic antibiotic resistance genes, such as ampC genes in species of Citrobacter, Enterobacter or Escherichia genera. In this work, beta-lactamases and other resistance mechanisms have been characterized in Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from healthy human faecal samples, focusing on the ampC beta-lactamase genes. Fifty human faecal samples were obtained, and 70 Enterobacteriaceae bacteria were isolated: 44 Escherichia coli, 4 Citrobacter braakii, 9 Citrobacter freundii, 8 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Proteus mirabilis, 1 Proteus vulgaris, 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Serratia sp. and 1 Cronobacter sp. A high percentage of resistance to ampicillin was detected (57%), observing the AmpC phenotype in 22 isolates (31%) and the ESBL phenotype in 3 isolates. AmpC molecular characterization showed high diversity into bla CMY and bla ACT genes from Citrobacter and Enterobacter species, respectively, and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis demonstrated low clonality among them. The prevalence of people colonized by strains carrying plasmid-mediated ampC genes obtained in this study was 2%. The unique plasmid-mediated bla AmpC identified in this study was the bla CMY-2 gene, detected in an E. coli isolate ascribed to the sequence type ST405 which belonged to phylogenetic group D. The hybridization and conjugation experiments demonstrated that the ISEcp1-bla CMY-2-blc structure was carried by a ~78-kb self-transferable IncK plasmid. This study shows a high polymorphism among beta-lactamase genes in Enterobacteriaceae from healthy people microbiota. Extensive AmpC-carrier studies would provide important information and could allow the anticipation of future global health problems. PMID:25501887

  14. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from spiked human sputum by Q-beta replicase-amplified assay.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, J S; Liu, J; Buxton, D; Stone, B; Nietupski, R; Olive, D M; King, W; Klinger, J D

    1995-01-01

    We report on a rapid, sensitive, Q-Beta replicase-amplified nucleic acid hybridization assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from spiked human sputum. Specimens were processed by either an N-acetyl-L-cysteine-NaOH or a 2% NaOH digestion-decontamination method and then washed to neutralize the pH of the cell pellet. The washed sputum pellets were heated at 100 degrees C to inactivate the M. tuberculosis organisms. The heat-inactivated samples were mechanically lysed at 5,000 rpm for 6 min in the GENE-TRAK Sample Processing Instrument in the presence of zirconium oxide beads and a buffer containing guanidine thiocyanate. The released nucleic acid was subjected to the GENE-TRAK Q-Beta replicase-amplified, dual-capture assay. The assay sensitivity was 10(3) purified rRNA targets or 1 CFU of M. tuberculosis spiked into M. tuberculosis-negative human sputum. There was a low level of noise because of the limitations of performing a signal amplification assay in an open system. High levels of other mycobacterial rRNA (approximately 10(7) organisms), including rRNAs of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium gordonae, did not interfere with the sensitivity of the assay. PMID:7536213

  15. Lycopene and beta-carotene induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gloria, Nathalie Fonseca; Soares, Nathalia; Brand, Camila; Oliveira, Felipe Leite; Borojevic, Radovan; Teodoro, Anderson Junger

    2014-03-01

    Lycopene and beta-carotene are carotenoids widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, with potential anticancer activity. Epidemiological trials rarely provide evidence for the mechanisms of action of these compounds, and their biological effects at different times of treatment are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of carotenoids on the cell cycle and cell viability in human breast cancer cell lines. Human breast cell lines were treated with carotenoids (0.5-10 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Cell viability was monitored using the MTT method (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; thiazolyl blue). The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and apoptotic cells were identified by annexin/propidium iodide (PI) biomarkers. Our data showed a significant decrease in the number of viable breast cancer cells on treatment with carotenoids. Carotenoids also promoted cell-cycle arrest followed by decreased cell viability in the majority of cell lines after 96 h, compared to controls. Furthermore, an increase in apoptosis was observed in cell lines when cells were treated with carotenoids. Our findings show the capacity of lycopene and beta-carotene to inhibit cell proliferation, arrest the cell cycle in different phases, and increase apoptosis. These findings indicate that the effect was cell type-dependent and that carotenoids are potential agents for biological interference with cancer. PMID:24596385

  16. Characterization of and modulation by a beta-subunit of a human maxi KCa channel cloned from myometrium.

    PubMed

    Wallner, M; Meera, P; Ottolia, M; Kaczorowski, G J; Latorre, R; Garcia, M L; Stefani, E; Toro, L

    1995-01-01

    cDNAs encoding functional maxi KCa channel alpha-subunits (hslo) were cloned from human myometrium. Northern blot analysis revealed a high abundance of mRNA in human uterine smooth muscle. Calcium- and voltage-activated K+ currents were recorded from Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with hslo cRNA and compared with currents after reconstitution of oocyte membranes expressing cloned maxi KCa channels. The expressed channels displayed characteristics of native maxi KCa channels, including large conductance (280 pS in symmetrical 110 mM K+), calcium sensitivity, kinetics and pharmacology. Currents were activated by niflumic acid; blocked by tetraethylammonium, charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin; and were insensitive to lemakalim, pinacidil, apamin and 4-aminopyridine. Coexpression with the beta-subunit, cloned from bovine trachea smooth muscle, dramatically increased the apparent calcium sensitivity as evident from a leftward shift of the voltage-activation curves. Half maximal activation (V1/2), measured in 10 microM Ca2+, was 12 +/- 18 mV (+/- SD, n = 62) for the alpha-subunit alone and -87 +/- 10 mV (+/- SD, n = 39) in presence of the beta-subunit. PMID:8821792

  17. Cellular growth and survival are mediated by beta 1 integrins in normal human breast epithelium but not in breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Howlett, Anthony R; Bailey, Nina; Damsky, Caroline; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    1994-11-28

    We previously established a rapid three-dimensional assay for discrimination of normal and malignant human breast epithelial cells using a laminin-rich reconstituted basement membrane. In this assay, normal epithelial cells differentiate into well-organized acinar structures whereas tumor cells fail to recapitulate this process and produce large, disordered colonies. The data suggest that breast acinar morphogenesis and differentiation is regulated by cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions and that these interactions are altered in malignancy. Here, we investigated the role of ECM receptors (integrins) in these processes and report on the expression and function of potential laminin receptors in normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. Immmunocytochemical analysis showed that normal and carcinoma cells in a three-dimensional substratum express profiles of integrins similar to normal and malignant breast tissues in situ. Normal cells express {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}3, {alpha}6, {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin subunits, whereas breast carcinoma cells show variable losses, disordered expression, or down regulation of these subunits. Function-blocking experiments using inhibitory antiintegrin subunit antibodies showed a >5-fold inhibition of the formation of acinar structures by normal cells in the presence of either anti-{beta}1 or anti-{alpha}3 antibodies, whereas anti-{alpha}2 or -{alpha}6 had little or no effect. In experiments where collagen type I gels were used instead of basement membrane, acinar morphogenesis was blocked by anti-{beta}1 and -{alpha}2 antibodies but not by anti-{alpha}3. These data suggest a specificity of integrin utilization dependent on the ECM ligands encountered by the cell. The interruption of normal acinar morphogenesis by anti-integrin antibodies was associated with an inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Function-blocking antibodies had no inhibitory effect on the rate of tumor cell growth, survival or

  18. Impact of Inhibitors and L2 Antibodies upon the Infectivity of Diverse Alpha and Beta Human Papillomavirus Types

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Kihyuck; Jiang, Rosie; Wang, Joshua W.; Jagu, Subhashini; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Roden, Richard B. S.

    2014-01-01

    The licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines elicit type-restricted immunity but do not target cutaneous HPV types of the beta genus that are associated with non-melanoma skin cancer in immune-compromised patients, and it is unclear if these diverse types share a common mechanism of infection. Residues 11-88 of minor capsid protein L2 contain cross-protective epitopes, and vaccination with concatamers of this region derived from as many as eight alpha HPV (L2 α11-88x8) is being developed as an alternative prophylactic vaccine with potentially broader efficacy. There is also interest in developing broadly protective topical microbicides, such as carrageenan or heparin that block HPV receptor interactions, or small molecule inhibitors of infection. Here we have examined several inhibitors of HPV infection and antisera to L2 α11-88x8 for their breadth of activity against infection by 34 HPV types from within both the alpha and beta families using pseudovirions (PsV) carrying a luciferase reporter as surrogates for native virus. We observed that both heparin and carrageenan prevented infection by mucosatropic HPV types, but surprisingly PsV of several epidermotropic alpha4 and beta HPV types exhibited increased infectivity especially at low inhibitor concentrations. Furin and γ-secretase inhibitors and L2 α11-88x8 antiserum blocked infection by all HPV PsV types tested. These findings suggest that the distinct tropism of mucosal and cutaneous HPV may reflect distinct cell surface receptor interactions, but a common uptake mechanism dependent upon furin and γ-secretase proteolytic activities. Carrageenan, which is being tested as a vaginal microbicide, broadly inhibited infection by the high-risk mucosatropic HPV PsV, but not most skin tropic alpha and beta HPV. Vaccination with an L2 multimer derived exclusively from alpha papillomavirus sequences induced antibodies that broadly neutralized PsV of all 34 HPVs from within both the alpha and beta families

  19. Genetic mapping of the beta 1 GABA receptor gene to human chromosome 4, using a tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M; Lucas-Derse, S; Bolos, A; O'Brien, S J; Kirkness, E F; Fraser, C M; Goldman, D

    1991-01-01

    As more coding loci for functional human genes are described, there is a growing need to identify DNA polymorphisms in specific genes. By examining DNA sequences within the introns of the beta 1 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor gene, GABARB1, we found a tetranucleotide repeat sequence (GATA). Amplification of this region by using PCR revealed seven alleles and a high degree of polymorphism (PIC = .75) in human populations. DNAs from the CEPH families were typed for the GABARB1 intron polymorphism and were analyzed with respect to 20 linked markers on chromosome 4. The results permit placement of GABARB1 on the linkage map of chromosome 4, between D4S104 and ALB. These results affirm that sequence analysis of noncoding segments included within or adjacent to functional genes has value as a strategy to detect highly informative polymorphisms. Images Figure 2 PMID:1652891

  20. Type 1 Ig-E mediated allergy to human insulin, insulin analogues and beta-lactam antibiotics*

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Pedro; Barros, Luísa; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Insulin, a crucial therapeutic agent for diabetes mellitus, has been rarely associated with hypersensitivity events. We present a 69-year-old type-2 diabetic patient with urticariform lesions on the sites of subcutaneous injection of insulin. The patient denied any known allergies, except for an unspecific cutaneous reaction after intramuscular penicillin administration in childhood. Prick tests revealed positive reactions to all tested human insulins and insulin analogues. Serum IgE levels were above normal range and RAST tests were positive for human, bovine and porcine insulins, as well as beta-lactams. Type 1 IgE-mediated allergy to insulin analogues demands a prompt diagnosis and represents a significant therapeutic challenge in diabetic patients. PMID:23197216

  1. Bacillus anthracis capsule activates caspase-1 and induces interleukin-1beta release from differentiated THP-1 and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min-Hee; Ahn, Hae-Jeong; Ha, Hyun-Joon; Park, Jungchan; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Bong-Su; Oh, Hee-Bok; Rhie, Gi-Eun

    2010-01-01

    The poly-gamma-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule is one of the major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis, which causes a highly lethal infection. The antiphagocytic PGA capsule disguises the bacilli from immune surveillance and allows unimpeded growth of bacilli in the host. Recently, efforts have been made to include PGA as a component of anthrax vaccine; however, the innate immune response of PGA itself has been poorly investigated. In this study, we characterized the innate immune response elicited by PGA in the human monocytic cell line THP-1, which was differentiated into macrophages with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (hMoDCs). PGA capsules were isolated from the culture supernatant of either the pXO1-cured strain of B. anthracis H9401 or B. licheniformis ATCC 9945a. PGA treatment of differentiated THP-1 cells and hMoDCs led to the specific extracellular release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in a dose-dependent manner. Evaluation of IL-1beta processing by Western blotting revealed that cleaved IL-1beta increased in THP-1 cells and hMoDCs after PGA treatment. Enhanced processing of IL-1beta directly correlated with increased activation of its upstream regulator, caspase-1, also known as IL-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE). The extracellular release of IL-1beta in response to PGA was ICE dependent, since the administration of an ICE inhibitor prior to PGA treatment blocked induction of IL-1beta. These results demonstrate that B. anthracis PGA elicits IL-1beta production through activation of ICE in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells and hMoDCs, suggesting the potential for PGA as a therapeutic target for anthrax. PMID:19737897

  2. Aberrant expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in association with transforming growth factor-beta1 in urinary bladder lesions in humans after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Alina; Morimura, Keiichirou; Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Vozianov, Alexander; Fukushima, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the molecular pathways of cell-cell communication in chronic inflammatory processes associated with long-term low-dose urinary bladder exposure to ionizing radiation in people without major disease living more than 19 years in radio-contaminated areas of Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. Patterns of components of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex, and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were immunohistochemically evaluated in urinary bladder biopsies from 52 males with benign prostate hyperplasia and 8 females with chronic cystitis (group 1). For comparison, 25 males and 6 females living in non-contaminated areas of Ukraine were also investigated (group 2). Fourteen patients with primary urothelial carcinomas, which were operated on before the Chernobyl accident, were included as a carcinoma group. Chronic proliferative atypical cystitis ('Chernobyl cystitis') was observed in group 1 patients. Foci of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were found in 51 (85%) and 34 (57%) of the 60 cases, respectively. Chronic cystitis with areas of dysplasia was detected in only 4 (13%) cases of 31 group 2 patients. Statistically significant differences in immunohistochemical scores for TGF-beta1 in the urothelium and lamina propria, iNOS in the urothelium and both beta-catenin and E-cadherin in the cytoplasm were observed between groups 1 and 2 with marked expression in group 1. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 overexpression and alteration in E-cadherin/beta-catenin complexes in bladder urothelium might play a crucial role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis in humans exposed to long-term low-dose ionizing radiation. PMID:16367920

  3. GLUT2 (SLC2A2) is not the principal glucose transporter in human pancreatic beta cells: implications for understanding genetic association signals at this locus.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Laura J; van de Bunt, Martijn; Braun, Matthias; Frayn, Keith N; Clark, Anne; Gloyn, Anna L

    2011-12-01

    SLC2A2 encoding glucose transporter -2 (GLUT2) acts as the primary glucose transporter and sensor in rodent pancreatic islets and is widely assumed to play a similar role in humans. In healthy adults SLC2A2 variants are associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose (fpg) concentrations but physiological characterisation does not support a defect in pancreatic beta-cell function. Interspecies differences can create barriers for the follow up of disease association signals. We hypothesised that GLUT2 is not the principal glucose transporter in human beta-cells and that SLC2A2 variants exert their effect on fpg levels through defects in other tissues. SLC2A1-4 (GLUT 1-4) mRNA expression levels were determined in human and mouse islets, beta-cells, liver, muscle and adipose tissue by qRT-PCR whilst GLUT1-3 protein levels were examined by immunohistochemistry. The presence of all three glucose transporters was demonstrated in human and mouse islets and purified beta-cells. Quantitative expression profiling demonstrated that Slc2a2 is the predominant glucose transporter (expression >10 fold higher that Slc2a1) in mouse islets whilst SLC2A1 and SLC2A3 predominate in both human islets and beta-cells (expression 2.8 and 2.7 fold higher than SLC2A2 respectively). Our data therefore suggest that GLUT2 is unlikely to be the principal glucose transporter in human beta-cells and that SLC2A2 defects in other metabolic tissues drive the observed differences in glucose levels between carriers of SLC2A2 variants. Direct extrapolation from rodent to human islet glucose transporter activity is unlikely to be appropriate. PMID:21920790

  4. Human interleukin 1. beta. (IL-1. beta. ), a more powerful inducer of bone demineralization than interleukin 1. cap alpha. IL-1. cap alpha. ), parathyroid hormone (PTH) or prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, R.C.; Hodges, Y.C.; Allison, A.C.

    1986-03-01

    Effects of human IL-1..cap alpha.. and IL-1..beta.., prepared by recombinant DNA technology on cultures of rat fetal long bones, prelabelled with /sup 45/Ca were studied. IL-1..beta.. was found to be the most powerful inducer of bone calcium loss so far known. Maximal activity (2.5 times the control rate of calcium loss) was induced by IL-1..beta.. at concentrations between 1 x 10/sup -10/ M to 6 x 10/sup -12/ M. With IL-1..cap alpha.. maximal activity (1.5 times the control rate of calcium loss) was obtained at 6 x 10/sup -10/ M. With bovine PTH (1-34) maximal activity (1.8 times the control rate of calcium loss) was obtained at 1 x 10/sup -8/ M. With PGE/sub 2/ maximal activity (1.6 times the control rate of calcium loss) was obtained at 1 x 10/sup -7/ M. The calcium loss induced by IL-1..beta.. was inhibited in the presence of 1 x 10/sup -7/ M indomethacin, 5 x 10/sup -5/ M naproxen or ketorolac, or 5 x 10/sup -6/ M cyclohexamide. These findings suggest that protein synthesis and prostaglandin formation are required to mediate bone demineralization induced by IL-1..beta...

  5. Absorption and excretion of conjugated flavonols, including quercetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside by human volunteers after the consumption of onions.

    PubMed

    Aziz, A A; Edwards, C A; Lean, M E; Crozier, A

    1998-09-01

    Flavonols are polyphenols found ubiquitously in plants and plant-products. Flavonols, particularly quercetin, are potent antioxidants in vitro and their intake has been associated inversely with the incidence of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation in plasma and excretion in urine of flavonol glucosides following ingestion of lightly fried onions. Five healthy volunteers followed a low-flavonoid diet for 3 days. On day 4, after an overnight fast, subjects were given 300 g of lightly fried yellow onions which contain conjugates of quercetin and isorhamnetin, including quercetin-3,4 '-diO-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and quercetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside. Blood collection was carried out at 0 min, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 24h after the supplement. In addition, subjects collected all their urine for 24h following the onion supplement. Isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and quercetin-4 '-O-beta-glucoside accumulated in plasma with maximum levels, defined as proportion of intake, of 10.7+/-2.6% and 0.13+/-0.03% respectively. The time of the quercetin-4'glucoside peak plasma concentration was 1.3+/-0.2 h after the ingestion of onions while a value of 1.8+/-0.7 h was obtained for isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside. Excretion in urine, as a proportion of intake, was 17.4+/-8.3% for isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and 0.2+/-0.1% for quercetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside. Possible reasons for the accumulation and excretion of isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside in proportionally much higher amounts than quercetin-4'-glucoside are discussed. It is concluded that flavonols are absorbed into the bloodstream as glucosides and minor structural differences affect markedly both the level of accumulation and the extent to which the conjugates are excreted. PMID:9802557

  6. Memantine treatment decreases levels of secreted Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (A beta) peptide in the human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, Balmiki; Banerjee, Pradeep K; Greig, Nigel H; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2010-02-01

    Memantine, an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, is a FDA-approved drug used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have documented protective roles of memantine against amyloid beta (A beta) peptide-mediated damage to neurons in both in vitro and in vivo models. Memantine is also effective in reducing amyloid burden in the brain of APP transgenic mice. However, the exact mechanism by which memantine provides protection against A beta-mediated neurodegenerative cascade, including APP metabolism, remains to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the effect of memantine on levels of the secreted form of A beta precursor protein (APP), secreted A beta and cell viability markers under short/acute conditions. We treated neuronal SK-N-SH cells with 10 microM memantine and measured levels of secreted total APP (sAPP), APP alpha isoform and A beta((1-40)) in a time dependent manner for up to 24h. Memantine significantly decreased the levels of the secreted form of sAPP, sAPP alpha and A beta((1-40)) compared to vehicle treated cells. This change started as early as 8h and continued for up to 24h of drug treatment. Unlike sAPP, a slight non-significant increase in total intracellular APP level was observed in 24-h treated memantine cells. Taken together, these results suggest a role for memantine in the transport or trafficking of APP molecules away from the site of their proteolytic cleavage by the secretase enzymes. Such a novel property of memantine warrants further study to define its therapeutic utility. PMID:19948208

  7. Mechanism of inhibition of human leucocyte elastase by beta-lactams. 2. Stability, reactivation kinetics, and products of beta-lactam-derived E-I complexes.

    PubMed

    Green, B G; Chabin, R; Mills, S; Underwood, D J; Shah, S K; Kuo, D; Gale, P; Maycock, A L; Liesch, J; Burgey, C S

    1995-11-01

    The monocyclic beta-lactams reported by Knight et al. [Knight, W. B., et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 8160; Chabin, R., et al. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 8970] as inhibitors of human leucocyte elastase (HLE) produce stable HLE-inhibitor complexes that slowly reactivate with half-lives ranging from less than 1 to 15 h at 37 degrees C. The complexes produced between PPE and two C-3 dimethyl-substituted beta-lactams are less stable than those produced between HLE and analogous C-3 diethyl-substituted lactams. The stability of the HLE-I complexes is governed primarily by the structure of the substituted urea portion of the inhibitors and not by the identity or presence of a leaving group at C-4 of the lactam ring. In some cases substitutions on the urea portion of the inhibitors yielded complexes that displayed biphasic reactivation kinetics. This suggests the presence of at least two different complexes. The stereochemistry of the leaving group at C-4 has a small effect on the stability of the final complex (1.3-2-fold); therefore, the identity of the final complex is dependent upon the initial stereochemistry at that position. The stability of the complexes was relatively insensitive to hydroxylamine, which suggests that the acyl-enzymes are protected from nucleophilic "rescue". The rate of reactivation of the complex derived from L-680,833,[S-R*,S*)]-4-[(1-(((1-(4- methylphenyl)butyl)amino)carbonyl)-3,3-diethyl-2-oxo-4-azetidinyl)ben zeneacetic acid, was pH independent, while the L-684,481, (R)-(1-(((1-(4-methylphenyl)butyl)amino)carbonyl)-3,3-diethyl-2-azeti din one generated complex displayed a pH-dependent reactivation rate. In the latter case, the increase in reactivation rate with pH displayed a pKa of 7.2. This is consistent with the requirement for base catalysis by the active site histidine to regenerate enzymatic activity. Reactivation of the L-680,833-derived complex produced different products as a function of pH, suggesting two different pH-dependent routes

  8. Towards an automated monitoring of human settlements in South Africa using high resolution SPOT satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, T.; Mudau, N.; Mangara, P.; Pesaresi, M.

    2015-04-01

    Urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa are growing at an unprecedented pace. Much of this growth is taking place in informal settlements. In South Africa more than 10% of the population live in urban informal settlements. South Africa has established a National Informal Settlement Development Programme (NUSP) to respond to these challenges. This programme is designed to support the National Department of Human Settlement (NDHS) in its implementation of the Upgrading Informal Settlements Programme (UISP) with the objective of eventually upgrading all informal settlements in the country. Currently, the NDHS does not have access to an updated national dataset captured at the same scale using source data that can be used to understand the status of informal settlements in the country. This pilot study is developing a fully automated workflow for the wall-to-wall processing of SPOT-5 satellite imagery of South Africa. The workflow includes an automatic image information extraction based on multiscale textural and morphological image features extraction. The advanced image feature compression and optimization together with innovative learning and classification techniques allow a processing of the SPOT-5 images using the Landsat-based National Land Cover (NLC) of South Africa from the year 2000 as low-resolution thematic reference layers as. The workflow was tested on 42 SPOT scenes based on a stratified sampling. The derived building information was validated against a visually interpreted building point data set and produced an accuracy of 97 per cent. Given this positive result, is planned to process the most recent wall-to-wall coverage as well as the archived imagery available since 2007 in the near future.

  9. Regulatory effects of interleukin (IL)-1, interferon-beta, and IL-4 on the production of IL-1 receptor antagonist by human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Juge-Aubry, Cristiana E; Somm, Emmanuel; Chicheportiche, Rachel; Burger, Danielle; Pernin, Agnès; Cuénod-Pittet, Brigitte; Quinodoz, Pierre; Giusti, Vittorio; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Meier, Christoph A

    2004-06-01

    Adipose tissue is the source of production and site of action of several pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines. We have recently shown that white adipose tissue (WAT) is a major producer of the antiinflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Because IL-1Ra serum levels are elevated 7-fold in human obesity and an excess of this protein has been implicated in the acquired resistance to leptin and insulin, we investigated the regulation of IL-1Ra in human WAT. We demonstrate that IL-1Ra is mainly produced by adipocytes, rather than the stromal fraction of WAT, and that IL-1alpha and beta, as well as interferon-beta (IFN-beta), strongly up-regulate the expression and secretion of IL-1Ra in WAT. Moreover, human WAT expresses the receptors and proteins known to be required for the action of IL-1 (IL-1 receptor type I, IL-1 receptor accessory protein) and IFN-beta (IFN-alpha/beta receptor subunits 1 and 2). Finally, human WAT actively secretes these regulatory cytokines, suggesting that they up-regulate IL-1Ra through a local autocrine/paracrine action, which is hypothesized to play a regulatory role in adipogenesis and metabolism. PMID:15181037

  10. Neogenesis and proliferation of {beta}-cells induced by human betacellulin gene transduction via retrograde pancreatic duct injection of an adenovirus vector

    SciTech Connect

    Tokui, Yae . E-mail: ytokui@imed2.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kozawa, Junji; Yamagata, Kazuya; Zhang, Jun; Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Okita, Kohei; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Namba, Mitsuyoshi; Shimomura, Iichiro; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro |

    2006-12-01

    Betacellulin (BTC) has been shown to have a role in the differentiation and proliferation of {beta}-cells both in vitro and in vivo. We administered a human betacellulin (hBTC) adenovirus vector to male ICR mice via retrograde pancreatic duct injection. As a control, we administered a {beta}-galactosidase adenovirus vector. In the mice, hBTC protein was mainly overexpressed by pancreatic duct cells. On immunohistochemical analysis, we observed features of {beta}-cell neogenesis as newly formed insulin-positive cells in the duct cell lining or islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) closely associated with the ducts. The BrdU labeling index of {beta}-cells was also increased by the betacellulin vector compared with that of control mice. These results indicate that hBTC gene transduction into adult pancreatic duct cells promoted {beta}-cell differentiation (mainly from duct cells) and proliferation of pre-existing {beta}-cells, resulting in an increase of the {beta}-cell mass that improved glucose tolerance in diabetic mice.

  11. Beta-aescin: a potent natural inhibitor of proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang-Ping; Li, Lian-Da; Wu, Li-Mao

    2008-07-01

    Beta-aescin, a natural triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of Chinese horse chestnut (Aesculus chinensis), is known to generate a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects. In the present study, the authors investigated the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of beta-aescin in human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cell line in vitro. The anti-proliferative effects were detected by CFU-K562 colony formation and cell viability assay. The apoptotic effects were analysed by morphological analysis, annexin V assay, DNA fragmentation assay and flow cytometry DNA content analysis. The results showed that beta-aescin exhibited potent dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effects in K562 cells. Morphological evidence of apoptosis, a significant increase of annexin V+ and PI- cells (early apoptotic) and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, were observed in cells treated with beta-aescin. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that beta-aescin could lead to an accumulation of sub G1 population in K562 cells, and suggesting a potential G1 phase accumulation in cell cycle profile of K562 cells. Our findings revealed that beta-aescin is a potent natural inhibitor of proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in K562 cells, and beta-aescin may be a candidate lead compound to explore potential antileukemia drugs. PMID:18452082

  12. Factor-binding element in the human c-myc promoter involved in transcriptional regulation by transforming growth factor. beta. 1 and by the retinoblastoma gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Pietenpol, J.A.; Stein, R.W.; Moses, H.L. ); Muenger, K.; Howley, P.M. )

    1991-11-15

    Previous studies have shown that transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation involves suppression of c-myc transcription, and indirect evidence has suggested that the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) may be involved in this process. In this study, transient expression of pRB in skin keratinocytes was shown to repress transcription of the human c-myc promoter region was required for regulation by both TGF-{beta}1 and pRB. These sequences, termed the TGF-{beta} control element (TCE), lie between positions {minus}86 and {minus}63 relative to the P1 transcription start site. Oligonucleotides containing the TCE bound to several nuclear factors in mobility-shift assays using extracts from cells with or without normal pRB. Binding of some factors was inhibited by TGF-{beta}1 treatment of TGF-{beta}-sensitive but not TGF-{beta}-insensitive cells. These data indicate that pRB can suppress c-myc transcription and growth inhibition.

  13. The Human-Technological Interface: An Analysis of a Satellite Communication Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Valerie A. C.; Murphy, Peter J.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of distance education methods that involve direct interaction between the student and communications satellite technology is discussed, drawing on experiences in British Columbia adult distance education programs using interactive instructional television and other modern technologies. (MSE)

  14. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, M. E.; Gersonde, I.; Meinke, M.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J.

    2005-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar+ laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm-1, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm2. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  15. Structure of the iSH2 domain of Human phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 beta Subunit Reveals Conformational Plasticity in the Interhelical Turn Region

    SciTech Connect

    C Schauder; L Ma; R Krug; G Montelione; R Guan

    2011-12-31

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) proteins actively trigger signaling pathways leading to cell growth, proliferation and survival. These proteins have multiple isoforms and consist of a catalytic p110 subunit and a regulatory p85 subunit. The iSH2 domain of the p85 {beta} isoform has been implicated in the binding of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A viruses. Here, the crystal structure of human p85 {beta} iSH2 determined to 3.3 {angstrom} resolution is reported. The structure reveals that this domain mainly consists of a coiled-coil motif. Comparison with the published structure of the bovine p85 {beta} iSH2 domain bound to the influenza A virus nonstructural protein 1 indicates that little or no structural change occurs upon complex formation. By comparing this human p85 {beta} iSH2 structure with the bovine p85 {beta} iSH2 domain, which shares 99% sequence identity, and by comparing the multiple conformations observed within the asymmetric unit of the bovine iSH2 structure, it was found that this coiled-coil domain exhibits a certain degree of conformational variability or 'plasticity' in the interhelical turn region. It is speculated that this plasticity of p85 {beta} iSH2 may play a role in regulating its functional and molecular-recognition properties.

  16. Nucleotide sequences of the arb genes, which control beta-glucoside utilization in Erwinia chrysanthemi: comparison with the Escherichia coli bgl operon and evidence for a new beta-glycohydrolase family including enzymes from eubacteria, archeabacteria, and humans.

    PubMed Central

    el Hassouni, M; Henrissat, B; Chippaux, M; Barras, F

    1992-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi, unlike other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, is able to metabolize the beta-glucosides, arbutin, and salicin. A previous genetic analysis of the E. chrysanthemi arb genes, which mediate beta-glucoside metabolism, suggested that they were homologous to the Escherichia coli K-12 bgl genes. We have now determined the nucleotide sequence of a 5,065-bp DNA fragment containing three genes, arbG, arbF, and arbB. Deletion analysis, expression in minicell systems, and comparison with sequences of other proteins suggest that arbF and arbB encode a beta-glucoside-specific phosphotransferase system-dependent permease and a phospho-beta-glucosidase, respectively. The ArbF amino acid sequence shares 55% identity with that of the E. coli BglF permease and contains most residues thought to be important for a phosphotransferase. One change, however, was noted, since BglF Arg-625, presumably involved in phosphoryl transfer, was replaced by a Cys residue in ArbF. An analysis of the ArbB sequence led to the definition of a protein family which contained enzymes classified as phospho-beta-glucosidases, phospho-beta-galactosidases, beta-glucosidases, and beta-galactosidases and originating from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, archebacteria, and mammals, including humans. An analysis of this family allowed us (i) to speculate on the ways that these enzymes evolved, (ii) to identify a glutamate residue likely to be a key amino acid in the catalytic activity of each protein, and (iii) to predict that domain II of the human lactate-phlorizin hydrolase, which is involved in lactose intolerance, is catalytically nonactive. A comparison between the untranslated regions of the E. chrysanthemi arb cluster and the E. coli bgl operon revealed the conservation of two regions which, in the latter, are known to terminate transcription under noninducing conditions and be the target of the BglG transcriptional antiterminator under

  17. NOVEL AMYLOID-BETA SPECIFIC scFv and VH ANTIBODY FRAGMENTS FROM HUMAN AND MOUSE PHAGE DISPLAY ANTIBODY LIBRARIES

    PubMed Central

    Medecigo, M.; Manoutcharian, K.; Vasilevko, V.; Govezensky, T.; Munguia, M. E.; Becerril, B.; Luz-Madrigal, A.; Vaca, L.; Cribbs, D. H.; Gevorkian, G.

    2010-01-01

    Anti-amyloid immunotherapy has been proposed as an appropriate therapeutic approach for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Significant efforts have been made towards the generation and assessment of antibody-based reagents capable of preventing and clearing amyloid aggregates as well as preventing their synaptotoxic effects. In this study, we selected a novel set of human anti-amyloid-beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42) recombinant monoclonal antibodies in a single chain fragment variable (scFv) and a single domain (VH) formats. We demonstrated that these antibody fragments recognize in a specific manner amyloid beta deposits in APP/Tg mouse brains, inhibit toxicity of oligomeric Aβ1-42 in neuroblastoma cell cultures in a concentration-dependently manner and reduced amyloid deposits in APP/Tg2576 mice after intracranial administration. These antibody fragments recognize epitopes in the middle/C-terminus region of Aβ, which makes them strong therapeutic candidates due to the fact that most of the Aβ species found in the brains of AD patients display extensive N-terminus truncations/modifications. PMID:20451261

  18. Interleukin 1 regulates synthesis of amyloid beta-protein precursor mRNA in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Goldgaber, D; Harris, H W; Hla, T; Maciag, T; Donnelly, R J; Jacobsen, J S; Vitek, M P; Gajdusek, D C

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed the modulation of amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP) gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The level of the APP mRNA transcripts increased as HUVEC reached confluency. In confluent culture the half-life of the APP mRNA was 4 hr. Treatment of the cells with human-recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or heparin-binding growth factor 1 enhanced the expression of APP gene in these cells, but calcium ionophore A23187 and dexamethasone did not. The protein kinase C inhibitor 1-(isoquinolinsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7) inhibited IL-1-mediated increase of the level of APP transcripts. To map IL-1-responsive elements of the APP promoter, truncated portions of the APP promoter were fused to the human growth hormone reporter gene. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into mouse neuroblastoma cells, and the cell medium was assayed for the human growth hormone. A 180-base-pair region of the APP promoter located between position -485 and -305 upstream from the transcription start site was necessary for IL-1-mediated induction of the reporter gene. This region contains the upstream transcription factor AP-1 binding site. These results suggest that IL-1 upregulates APP gene expression in HUVEC through a pathway mediated by protein kinase C, utilizing the upstream AP-1 binding site of the APP promoter. Images PMID:2508093

  19. Human neuroblastoma cells express alpha and beta platelet-derived growth factor receptors coupling with neurotrophic and chemotactic signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, T; Sano, K; Tsukamoto, T; Ito, M; Takaishi, T; Nakata, H; Nakamura, H; Chihara, K

    1993-01-01

    Both platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A- and B-chains are expressed in mammalian neurons, but their precise roles still remain to be clarified. In the present studies, we examined the expression of two PDGF receptor genes in human tumor cell lines derived from neural crest. The expression of alpha and/or beta PDGF receptors was detected in a wide variety of neural crest-derived human tumor cell lines such as neuroblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and Ewing's sarcoma by RNA blot analysis, and confirmed by immunoblot analysis. We have also demonstrated that PDGF receptors on the human neuroblastoma cell lines were biologically functional. Accordingly, chemotactic and mitogenic activities were induced by either PDGF-AA or PDGF-BB in serum-free medium. PDGF isoforms as well as nerve growth factor induced morphological changes showing neuronal cell maturation. Moreover, PDGF coordinately increased the levels of the transcript of the midsize neurofilament gene. The neuroblastoma cell lines also expressed the transcripts of PDGF A- and B-chains. These findings suggest that PDGF isoforms are involved not only in the promotion of the neuroblastoma cell growth, but also in neuronal cell migration, growth, and differentiation in human brain development. Images PMID:8376577

  20. Transforming growth factor beta 1 increases the stability of p21/WAF1/CIP1 protein and inhibits CDK2 kinase activity in human colon carcinoma FET cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, JianGen; Ammanamanchi, Sudhakar; Ko, Tien C; Brattain, Michael G

    2003-06-15

    We examined transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) effects on cell cycle progression of human colon carcinoma FET cells. TGF-beta 1 inhibited DNA synthesis and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity after release from growth arrest in association with induction of the p21 CDK inhibitor, whereas cyclins, CDKs, and p27 protein levels remained relatively unchanged. The decrease in CDK2 kinase activity was the result of increased p21 association with cyclin A-CDK2 and cyclin E-CDK2. TGF-beta 1 treatment in late G(1) showed reduced induction of p21 protein levels in association with increased DNA synthesis. Consequently, p21 induction in early G(1) is critical for TGF-beta 1 inhibition of CDK2 kinase activity. Although TGF-beta 1 treatments in late G(1) failed to induce p21 protein, p21 mRNA induction was observed in late G(1) and in S phase. Further analysis showed that TGF-beta 1 treatment in early G(1) increases p21 protein stability throughout the G(1) and S phases of the cell cycle. Our results demonstrate that TGF-beta 1 stimulation of p21 is regulated at the posttranscriptional and transcriptional levels. This is a novel mechanism of TGF-beta 1 inhibition requiring early G(1) induction and stabilization of p21 protein, which binds to and inhibits cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin A-CDK2 kinase activity rather than direct modulation of cyclin or CDK protein levels as seen in other systems. PMID:12810668

  1. Beta-escin, a natural triterpenoid saponin from Chinese horse chestnut seeds, depresses HL-60 human leukaemia cell proliferation and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang P; Wu, Li M; Jiang, Yan L; Wang, Wen X; Li, Lian D

    2008-09-01

    Beta-escin, a natural triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is known to generate a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the apoptotic and antiproliferative activity of beta-escin in HL-60 human acute myeloid leukaemia cells. Antiproliferative activity was examined by soft agar colony assay and the trypan blue exclusion method. Apoptotic activity was evaluated by morphological analysis, annexin V analysis, DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. The results showed that beta-escin caused a significant inhibition of HL-60 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Morphological evidence of apoptosis, including vacuolization, apoptotic nuclei fragmentation and apoptotic body formation, was observed in cells treated with 30 microg mL(-1) of beta-escin for 24, 48 and 72 h. A significant increase in the population of annexin V+ and PI- cells (early apoptotic) among the total cells was observed in cells treated with beta-escin (30-50 microg mL(-1)) for 24 h (P<0.001). Typical DNA ladders, DNA with a unit length of about 180 bp, were detected in cells treated with beta-escin (30-50 microg mL(-1)) for 48 h by agarose gel electrophoresis. Flow cytometry cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-escin (30-50 microg mL(-1)) induced G1-S arrest and led to a significant accumulation of the sub-G1 population in HL-60 cells (P<0.05). Taken together, the results demonstrate that beta-escin is a potent natural inhibitor of cell proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in HL-60 acute myeloid leukaemia cells. The results indicate that beta-escin may be a useful candidate agent for exploring potential antileukaemic drugs. PMID:18718126

  2. Expression of two human beta-adrenergic receptors in Escherichia coli: functional interaction with two forms of the stimulatory G protein.

    PubMed Central

    Freissmuth, M; Selzer, E; Marullo, S; Schütz, W; Strosberg, A D

    1991-01-01

    When expressed in Escherichia coli, the human beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors retain their ligand binding specificity. Their functional integrity was investigated by analyzing receptor-guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory (G) protein coupling by using two splice variants of the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein Gs synthesized in E. coli (rGs alpha-S and rGs alpha-L) and the beta gamma subunits of G protein purified from bovine brain. In competition binding experiments with (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol and (-)-isoproterenol, rGs alpha-S.beta gamma and rGs alpha-L.beta gamma reconstituted guanine nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding with comparable affinities, whereas rGs alpha PT, a mutant of rGs alpha-L with an altered carboxyl terminus, and a recombinant subtype of the alpha subunit of the inhibitory G protein, rGi alpha-1, were approximately 20- and approximately 200-fold less potent, respectively. A comparison of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor expressed in E. coli with the beta 2-receptor in S49 murine lymphoma cyc- cell membranes revealed a similar affinity of rGs alpha-S and rGs alpha-L for the recombinant and native receptors. After stable incorporation of rGs alpha-S.beta gamma into E. coli membranes, receptor-G protein coupling was also verified by determining the isoproterenol-mediated acceleration of the rate for guanine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate binding. These results show that (i) receptor-G protein coupling can be reconstituted in E. coli using recombinant components and that (ii) such an approach may be more generally used to evaluate coupling preferences between defined molecular species of receptors and G-protein subunits. PMID:1656450

  3. Genomic organization of alpha satellite DNA on human chromosome 7: evidence for two distinct alphoid domains on a single chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Waye, J S; England, S B; Willard, H F

    1987-01-01

    A complete understanding of chromosomal disjunction during mitosis and meiosis in complex genomes such as the human genome awaits detailed characterization of both the molecular structure and genetic behavior of the centromeric regions of chromosomes. Such analyses in turn require knowledge of the organization and nature of DNA sequences associated with centromeres. The most prominent class of centromeric DNA sequences in the human genome is the alpha satellite family of tandemly repeated DNA, which is organized as distinct chromosomal subsets. Each subset is characterized by a particular multimeric higher-order repeat unit consisting of tandemly reiterated, diverged alpha satellite monomers of approximately 171 base pairs. The higher-order repeat units are themselves tandemly reiterated and represent the most recently amplified or fixed alphoid sequences. We present evidence that there are at least two independent domains of alpha satellite DNA on chromosome 7, each characterized by their own distinct higher-order repeat structure. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of a 6-monomer higher-order repeat unit, which is present in approximately 500 copies per chromosome 7, as well as those of a less-abundant (approximately 10 copies) 16-monomer higher-order repeat unit. Sequence analysis indicated that these repeats are evolutionarily distinct. Genomic hybridization experiments established that each is maintained in relatively homogeneous tandem arrays with no detectable interspersion. We propose mechanisms by which multiple unrelated higher-order repeat domains may be formed and maintained within a single chromosomal subset. Images PMID:3561394

  4. CD133 expression correlates with membrane beta-catenin and e-cadherin loss from human hair follicle placodes during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Denise; Yang, Chao-Chun; Plikus, Maksim; Ito, Mayumi; Rivera, Charlotte; Treffeisen, Elsa; Doherty, Laura; Spata, Michelle; Millar, Sarah E.; Cotsarelis, George

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies suggest that the major events of human hair follicle development are similar to those in mice, but detailed analyses of this process are lacking. In mice, hair follicle placode ‘budding’ is initiated by invagination of Wnt-induced epithelium into the underlying mesenchyme. Modification of adherens junctions is clearly required for budding. Snail-mediated downregulation of adherens junction component E-cadherin is important for placode budding in mice. Beta-catenin, another adherens junction component, has been more difficult to study due to its essential functions in Wnt signaling, a prerequisite for hair follicle placode induction. Here, we show that a subset of human invaginating hair placode cells expresses the stem cell marker CD133 during early morphogenesis. CD133 associates with membrane beta-catenin in early placodes and its continued expression correlates with loss of beta-catenin and E-cadherin from the cell membrane at a time when E-cadherin transcriptional repressors Snail and Slug are not implicated. Stabilization of CD133 via anti-CD133 antibody treatment of human fetal scalp explants depresses beta-catenin and E-cadherin membrane localization. We discuss this unique correlation and suggest a hypothetical model whereby CD133 promotes morphogenesis in early hair follicle placodes through the localized removal of membrane beta-catenin proteins and subsequent adherens junction dissolution. PMID:25010141

  5. Interferon-beta downregulates expression of VLA-4 antigen and antagonizes interferon-gamma-induced expression of HLA-DQ on human peripheral blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Soilu-Hänninen, M; Salmi, A; Salonen, R

    1995-07-01

    We have studied the effect of recombinant human IFN-beta on the basal and IFN-gamma-induced expression of adhesion molecules and class II MHC antigens on human peripheral blood monocytes and on ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) expression of a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EAhy 926). We show that IFN-beta downregulates both basal and IFN-gamma-induced expression of VLA-4 (very late activation antigen-4) antigen on monocytes, but has no effect on the expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, L-selectin, CD18, ICAM-1, beta 1-integrin or CD44 on monocytes or ICAM-1 on EAhy 926 cells. We also show that IFN-beta antagonizes the IFN-gamma-induced expression of HLA-DQ-antigen, but not HLA-DR or HLA-DP antigens on monocyte surface. These findings may partially explain the beneficial effect of IFN-beta in multiple sclerosis, since VLA-4-antigen is critical for leukocyte recruitment into inflamed brain and downregulation of HLA-class II expression diminishes antigen presenting capacity of monocytes. PMID:7642754

  6. Galectin-1 as a fusion partner for the production of soluble and folded human {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase-T7 in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Pasek, Marta; Boeggeman, Elizabeth; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Qasba, Pradman K.

    2010-04-09

    The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli often leads to inactive aggregated proteins known as the inclusion bodies. To date, the best available tool has been the use of fusion tags, including the carbohydrate-binding protein; e.g., the maltose-binding protein (MBP) that enhances the solubility of recombinant proteins. However, none of these fusion tags work universally with every partner protein. We hypothesized that galectins, which are also carbohydrate-binding proteins, may help as fusion partners in folding the mammalian proteins in E. coli. Here we show for the first time that a small soluble lectin, human galectin-1, one member of a large galectin family, can function as a fusion partner to produce soluble folded recombinant human glycosyltransferase, {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase-7 ({beta}4Gal-T7), in E. coli. The enzyme {beta}4Gal-T7 transfers galactose to xylose during the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide linker sequence attached to a Ser residue of proteoglycans. Without a fusion partner, {beta}4Gal-T7 is expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies. We have designed a new vector construct, pLgals1, from pET-23a that includes the sequence for human galectin-1, followed by the Tev protease cleavage site, a 6x His-coding sequence, and a multi-cloning site where a cloned gene is inserted. After lactose affinity column purification of galectin-1-{beta}4Gal-T7 fusion protein, the unique protease cleavage site allows the protein {beta}4Gal-T7 to be cleaved from galectin-1 that binds and elutes from UDP-agarose column. The eluted protein is enzymatically active, and shows CD spectra comparable to the folded {beta}4Gal-T1. The engineered galectin-1 vector could prove to be a valuable tool for expressing other proteins in E. coli.

  7. Novel dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes as potent modulators of human P-glycoprotein dependent multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Torres-Romero, David; Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2009-12-21

    P-Glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression is one factor contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells and represents one drawback in the treatment of cancer. In an attempt to find more specific and less toxic anticancer MDR-reversal agents, we report herein the isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of nine new (, and ) and seven known (, and ) dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Celastrus vulcanicola. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, CD studies and biogenetic means. All the compounds were assayed on human MDR1-transfected NIH-3T3 cells, in order to determine their ability to reverse the MDR phenotype due to Pgp overexpression. Six compounds from these series (, , , , and ) showed an effectiveness that was similar to (or higher than) the classical Pgp reversal agent verapamil for the reversal of resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine. The structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:20024113

  8. In vitro antiviral efficacy of the ganciclovir complexed with beta-cyclodextrin on human cytomegalovirus clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Nicolazzi, Céline; Venard, Véronique; Le Faou, Alain; Finance, Chantal

    2002-05-01

    The toxicity of the compounds currently used in the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in immunocompromised hosts may force the treatment to be discontinued. The aim of this study was to improve the antiviral activity of ganciclovir (GCV), one the most widely used drug, by complexing it with beta-cyclodextrin. Cyclodextrins (cds) have the property to form inclusion complexes with a great number of molecules and to enhance bioavailability and biological properties of these molecules. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of complexed GCV against several strains of HCMV: AD169, a reference strain, RCL-1, a laboratory mutant resistant to GCV, and four clinical isolates. The complexed GCV was more effective than free GCV against all HCMV strains tested. Cds as carriers for antiviral drugs would represent a useful adjunct to classical treatment procedures. They may make it possible to administer lower doses, thus reducing the toxic side effects of the drugs. PMID:12062397

  9. Nucleotide sequence heterogeneity of alpha satellite repetitive DNA: a survey of alphoid sequences from different human chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Waye, J S; Willard, H F

    1987-01-01

    The human alpha satellite DNA family is composed of diverse, tandemly reiterated monomer units of approximately 171 basepairs localized to the centromeric region of each chromosome. These sequences are organized in a highly chromosome-specific manner with many, if not all human chromosomes being characterized by individually distinct alphoid subsets. Here, we compare the nucleotide sequences of 153 monomer units, representing alphoid components of at least 12 different human chromosomes. Based on the analysis of sequence variation at each position within the 171 basepair monomer, we have derived a consensus sequence for the monomer unit of human alpha satellite DNA which we suggest may reflect the monomer sequence from which different chromosomal subsets have evolved. Sequence heterogeneity is evident at each position within the consensus monomer unit and there are no positions of strict nucleotide sequence conservation, although some regions are more variable than others. A substantial proportion of the overall sequence variation may be accounted for by nucleotide changes which are characteristic of monomer components of individual chromosomal subsets or groups of subsets which have a common evolutionary history. PMID:3658703

  10. The occurrence of cpb2-toxigenic Clostridium perfringens and the possible role of the beta2-toxin in enteric disease of domestic animals, wild animals and humans.

    PubMed

    van Asten, Alphons J A M; Nikolaou, Georgios N; Gröne, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    The virulence of Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium causing enteritis and enterotoxaemia in domestic and wild animals and humans, results largely from its ability to produce toxins. In 1997, an unknown toxin of C. perfringens, the beta2-toxin, and its encoding gene cpb2 were described. Since that time numerous studies have been published dealing with a possible association of cpb2-harbouring strains of C. perfringens and the occurrence of enteric disease in domestic and wild animals and humans. This article offers an overview of the current literature on the spread and pathological significance of cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens. Unambiguous conclusions on the prevalence of cpb2 and the contribution of beta2-toxin to the disease cannot be drawn from existing studies but in some animal species a strong correlation between the presence of cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens, the beta2-toxin and enteric disease has been reported. PMID:19101180

  11. Human cardiac stem cells exhibit mesenchymal features and are maintained through Akt/GSK-3{beta} signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Tateishi, Kento |; Ashihara, Eishi; Honsho, Shoken |; Takehara, Naofumi; Nomura, Tetsuyaital |; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Ueyama, Tomomi; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Yaku, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Hiroaki |. E-mail: matsubah@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Oh, Hidemasa . E-mail: hidemasa@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-01-19

    Recent evidence suggested that human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) may have the clinical application for cardiac repair; however, their characteristics and the regulatory mechanisms of their growth have not been fully investigated. Here, we show the novel property of hCSCs with respect to their origin and tissue distribution in human heart, and demonstrate the signaling pathway that regulates their growth and survival. Telomerase-active hCSCs were predominantly present in the right atrium and outflow tract of the heart (infant > adult) and had a mesenchymal cell-like phenotype. These hCSCs expressed the embryonic stem cell markers and differentiated into cardiomyocytes to support cardiac function when transplanted them into ischemic myocardium. Inhibition of Akt pathway impaired the hCSC proliferation and induced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) enhanced their growth and survival. We conclude that hCSCs exhibit mesenchymal features and that Akt/GSK-3{beta} may be crucial modulators for hCSC maintenance in human heart.

  12. Platelet-released growth factors induce the antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin-2 in primary keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Andreas; Lammel, Justus; Rademacher, Franziska; Groß, Justus; Siggelkow, Markus; Lippross, Sebastian; Klüter, Tim; Varoga, Deike; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Pufe, Thomas; Cremer, Jochen; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations [e.g. Vivostat platelet-rich fibrin (PRF(®) )] are thrombocyte concentrate lysates that support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal and infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide expressed in human keratinocytes exhibiting potent antimicrobial activity against wound-related bacteria. In this study, we analysed the influence of PRGF on hBD-2 expression in human primary keratinocytes and the influence of Vivostat PRF(®) on hBD-2 expression in experimentally generated skin wounds in vivo. Treatment of primary keratinocytes with PRGF caused a significant increase in hBD-2 gene and protein expressions in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The use of blocking antibodies revealed that the PRGF-mediated hBD-2 induction was partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor and the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). Luciferase gene reporter assays indicated that the hBD-2 induction through PRGF required activation of the transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1), but not of NF-kappaB. In concordance with these cell culture data, Vivostat PRF(®) induced hBD-2 expression when applied to experimentally generated skin wounds. Together, our results indicate that the induction of hBD-2 by thrombocyte concentrate lysates can contribute to the observed beneficial effects in the treatment of chronic and infected wounds. PMID:26843467

  13. Thymosin Beta-4 Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Enhances Human Nucleus Pulposus Cell Proliferation and Reduces Cell Apoptosis and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Yi; Zhu, Qing-San; Wang, Yi-Wei; Yin, Ruo-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thymosin beta-4 (TB-4) is considered key roles in tissue development, maintenance and pathological processes. The study aimed to prove TB-4 positive biological function on nucleus pulposus (NP) cell apoptosis and slowing the process of cell aging while increasing the cell proliferation. Methods: TB-4 recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) was constructed and induced to human NP cells. Cell of same group were cultured without gene modification as controlled group. Proliferation capacity and cell apoptosis were observed during 6 passages of the cells. Morphology and expression of the TB-4 gene were documented as parameter of cell activity during cell passage. Results: NP cells with TB-4 transfection has normal TB-4 expression and exocytosis. NP cells with TB-4 transfection performed significantly higher cell activity than that at the control group in each generation. TB-4 recombinant AAV-transfected human NP cells also show slower cell aging, lower cell apoptosis and higher cell proliferation than control group. Conclusions: TB-4 can prevent NP cell apoptosis, slow NP cell aging and promote NP cell proliferation. AAV transfection technique was able to highly and stably express TB-4 in human NP cells, which may provide a new pathway for innovation in the treatment of intervertebral disc degenerative diseases. PMID:26021512

  14. Beta-Carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  15. A novel C/EBP beta-YY1 complex controls the cell-type-specific activity of the human papillomavirus type 18 upstream regulatory region.

    PubMed Central

    Bauknecht, T; See, R H; Shi, Y

    1996-01-01

    The human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) upstream regulatory region (URR) controls viral gene transcription in a cell-type-specific manner. The HPV-18 URR is active in HeLa cells but inactive in HepG2 cells. The activating activity of YY1 in HeLa cells is dependent on its functional interactions with the switch region which is critical for the HPV-18 URR activity in HeLa cells. Here, we show that a protein complex composed of C/EBP beta and YY1 binds the switch region which is detected only in HeLa cells, not in HepG2 cells. Transfection of C/EBP beta into HepG2 cells restored the formation of the C/EBP beta-YY1-switch region complex, accompanied by increased transcription directed by the HPV-18 URR. Mutations in the switch region that abolished the complex formation also abrogated C/EBP beta-induced transcriptional activation. This provides a strong correlation between the binding of the C/EBP beta-YY1 complex to the switch region and cell-type-specific URR activity. Taken together, we have identified a novel C/EBP beta-YY1 complex that binds the switch region and contributes to cell-type-specific HPV-18 URR activity. PMID:8892890

  16. Solution structure of the N-terminal A domain of the human voltage-gated Ca2+channel beta4a subunit.

    PubMed

    Vendel, Andrew C; Rithner, Christopher D; Lyons, Barbara A; Horne, William A

    2006-02-01

    Ca2+ channel beta subunits regulate trafficking and gating (opening and closing) of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel alpha1 subunits. Based on primary sequence comparisons, they are thought to be modular structures composed of five domains (A-E) that are related to the large family of membrane associated guanylate-kinase (MAGUK) proteins. The crystal structures of the beta subunit core, B-D, domains have recently been reported; however, very little is known about the structures of the A and E domains. The N-terminal A domain is a hypervariable region that differs among the four subtypes of Ca2+ channel beta subunits (beta1-beta4). Furthermore, this domain undergoes alternative splicing to create multiple N-terminal structures within a given gene class that have distinct effects on gating. We have solved the solution structure of the A domain of the human beta4a subunit, a splice variant that we have shown previously to have alpha1 subunit subtype-specific effects on Ca2+ channel trafficking and gating. PMID:16385006

  17. Cross-talk between Smad and p38 MAPK signalling in transforming growth factor {beta} signal transduction in human glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dziembowska, Magdalena; Danilkiewicz, Malgorzata; Wesolowska, Aleksandra; Zupanska, Agata; Chouaib, Salem; Kaminska, Bozena . E-mail: bozenakk@nencki.gov.pl

    2007-03-23

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-{beta}) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Malignant tumour cells often do not respond to TGF-{beta} by growth inhibition, but retain responsiveness to cytokine in regulating extracellular matrix deposition, cell adhesion, and migration. We demonstrated that TGF-{beta}1 does not affect viability or proliferation of human glioblastoma T98G, but increases transcriptional responses exemplified by induction of MMP-9 expression. TGF-{beta} receptors were functional in T98G glioblastoma cells leading to SMAD3/SMAD4 nuclear translocation and activation of SMAD-dependent promoter. In parallel, a selective activation of p38 MAPK, and phosphorylation of its substrates: ATF2 and c-Jun proteins were followed by a transient activation of AP-1 transcription factor. Surprisingly, an inhibition of p38 MAPK with a specific inhibitor, SB202190, abolished TGF-inducible activation of Smad-dependent promoter and decreased Smad2 phosphorylation. It suggests an unexpected interaction between Smad and p38 MAPK pathways in TGF-{beta}1-induced signalling.

  18. Induction of multiple programmed cell death pathways by IFN-beta in human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Koty, P P; Mayotte, J; Levitt, M L

    1999-02-25

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and keratinocyte transglutaminase (kTG), as well as the cross-linked envelopes (CLE) that they form, have been associated with squamous differentiation and programmed cell death in epithelial cells. When interferon-beta (IFN-beta) was used to stimulate differentiation and programmed cell death in the human lung cancer cell lines NCI-H596 and NCI-H226, the cells underwent a decrease in cellular density. In NCI-H596 IFN-beta caused an increase in kTG activity and DNA fragmentation in the lower density cells, which were significantly slower growing than control cells. However, in the higher density cells, which were only slightly slower growing than control cells, IFN-beta caused an increase in tTG activity and CLE competence. Dual-parameter flow cytometry demonstrated that IFN-beta-induced squamous differentiation preceded programmed cell death. Treatment of NCI-H596 cells with monodansylcadaverine, a transglutaminase inhibitor, prevented the increase in CLE competence, but did not inhibit DNA fragmentation. These results suggest that IFN-beta can induce NCI-H596 cells to enter multiple cell death pathways and that these pathways are not only differentiation related, but may also be growth driven. PMID:10047455

  19. Effect of Interleukin-1beta and Dehydroepiandrosterone on the Expression of Lumican and Fibromodulin in Fibroblast-Like Synovial Cells of the Human Temporomandibular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, K.; Kiga, N.; Shinohara, Y.; Tojyo, I.; Fujita, S.

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported that temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are more prevalent in women than in men. It has recently been proposed that sex hormones such as estrogen, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are involved with the pathogenesis of TMDs. Although studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen and testosterone and the restoration of TMDs, the relationship between DHEA and TMDs is unknown. The synovial tissue of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is made up of connective tissue with an extracellular matrix (ECM) composed of collagen and proteoglycan. One proteoglycan family, comprised of small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans (SLRPs), was found to be involved in collagen fibril formation and interaction. In recent years, the participation of SLRPs such as lumican and fibromodulin in the internal derangement of TMJ has been suggested. Although these SLRPs may contribute to the restoration of the synovium, their effect is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of DHEA, a sex hormone, on the expression of lumican and fibromodulin in human temporomandibular specimens and in cultured human TMJ fibroblast-like synovial cells in the presence or absence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). In the in vivo study, both normal and osteoarthritic (OA) human temporomandibular synovial tissues were immunohistochemically examined. In the in vitro study, five fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) cell lines were established from human TMJ synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis. The subcultured cells were then incubated for 3, 6, 12 or 24 h with/without IL-1beta (1 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of DHEA (10 μM). The gene expression of lumican and fibromodulin was examined using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and their protein expression was examined using immunofluorescent staining. We demonstrated that the expression of lumican differs from that

  20. Evaluating the potential of poly(beta-amino ester) nanoparticles for reprogramming human fibroblasts to become induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Nupura S; Wahlin, Karl J; Zack, Donald J; Green, Jordan J

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene delivery can potentially be used as a therapeutic for treating genetic diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, as well as an enabling technology for regenerative medicine. A central challenge in many gene delivery applications is having a safe and effective delivery method. We evaluated the use of a biodegradable poly(beta-amino ester) nanoparticle-based nonviral protocol and compared this with an electroporation-based approach to deliver episomal plasmids encoding reprogramming factors for generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from human fibroblasts. Methods A polymer library was screened to identify the polymers most promising for gene delivery to human fibroblasts. Feeder-independent culturing protocols were developed for nanoparticle-based and electroporation-based reprogramming. The cells reprogrammed by both polymeric nanoparticle-based and electroporation-based nonviral methods were characterized by analysis of pluripotency markers and karyotypic stability. The hiPSC-like cells were further differentiated toward the neural lineage to test their potential for neurodegenerative retinal disease modeling. Results 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end-terminated poly(1,4-butanediol diacry-late-co-4-amino-1-butanol) polymer (B4S4E7) self-assembled with plasmid DNA to form nanoparticles that were more effective than leading commercially available reagents, including Lipofectamine® 2000, FuGENE® HD, and 25 kDa branched polyethylenimine, for nonviral gene transfer. B4S4E7 nanoparticles showed effective gene delivery to IMR-90 human primary fibroblasts and to dermal fibroblasts derived from a patient with retinitis pigmentosa, and enabled coexpression of exogenously delivered genes, as is needed for reprogramming. The karyotypically normal hiPSC-like cells generated by conventional electroporation, but not by poly(beta-amino ester) reprogramming, could be differentiated toward the neuronal lineage, specifically

  1. High glucose concentration induces the overexpression of transforming growth factor-beta through the activation of a platelet-derived growth factor loop in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Di Paolo, S.; Gesualdo, L.; Ranieri, E.; Grandaliano, G.; Schena, F. P.

    1996-01-01

    High glucose concentration has been shown to induce the overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 mRNA and protein in different cell types, including murine mesangial cells, thus possibly accounting for the expansion of mesangial extracellular matrix observed in diabetic glomerulopathy. In the present study, we evaluated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain and PDGF-beta receptor gene expression in human mesangial cells (HMCs) exposed to different concentrations of glucose and then sought a possible relationship between a PDGF loop and the modulation of TGF-beta 1 expression. HMC [3H]thymidine incorporation was upregulated by 30 mmol/L glucose (HG) up to 24 hours, whereas it was significantly inhibited at later time points. Neutralizing antibodies to PDGF BB abolished the biphasic response to HG, whereas anti-TGF-beta antibodies reversed only the late inhibitory effect of hyperglycemic medium. HG induced an early and persistent increase of PDGF B-chain gene expression, as evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, whereas PDGF-beta receptor mRNA increased by twofold after 6 hours, thereafter declining at levels 70% lower than in controls after 24 hours. 125I-Labeled PDGF BB binding studies in HMCs exposed to HG for 24 hours confirmed the decrease of PDGF-beta receptor expression. TGF-beta 1-specific transcripts showed 43 and 78% increases after 24 and 48 hours of incubation in HG, respectively, which was markedly diminished by anti-PDGF BB neutralizing antibodies or suramin. We conclude that HG induces an early activation of a PDGF loop that, in turn, causes an increase of TGF-beta 1 gene expression, thus modulating both HMC proliferation and mesangial matrix production. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8952542

  2. Using satellite remote sensing and household survey data to assess human health and nutrition response to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Molly E; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vectorborne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis. PMID:25132700

  3. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B.; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis.

  4. beta-Dystroglycan modulates the interplay between actin and microtubules in human-adhered platelets.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Suárez-Sánchez, Rocío; Hernández-González, Enrique; Galván, Iván

    2008-05-01

    To maintain the continuity of an injured blood vessel, platelets change shape, secrete granule contents, adhere, aggregate, and retract in a haemostatic plug. Ordered arrays of microtubules, microfilaments, and associated proteins are responsible for these platelet responses. In full-spread platelets, microfilament bundles in association with other cytoskeleton proteins are anchored in focal contacts. Recent studies in migrating cells suggest that co-ordination and direct physical interaction of microtubules and actin network modulate adhesion development. In platelets, we have proposed a feasible association between these two cytoskeletal systems, as well as the participation of the dystrophin-associated protein complex, as part of the focal adhesion complex. The present study analysed the participation of microtubules and actin during the platelet adhesion process. Confocal microscopy, fluorescence resonance transfer energy and immunoprecipitation assays were used to provide evidence of a cross-talk between these two cytoskeletal systems. Interestingly, beta-dystroglycan was found to act as an interplay protein between actin and microtubules and an additional communication between these two cytoskeleton networks was maintained through proteins of focal adhesion complex. Altogether our data are indicative of a dynamic co-participation of actin filaments and microtubules in modulating focal contacts to achieve platelet function. PMID:18341635

  5. Unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Brozek, John; Derudas, Bruno; Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte; Staels, Bart; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia

    2009-08-28

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an 'alternative' anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPAR{gamma} promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPAR{beta}/{delta} in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPAR{alpha}. Here, we show that in contrast to PPAR{gamma}, expression of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} overall does not correlate with the expression of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.

  6. Exploring Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production Using Earth Observation Satellites and Statistical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, M.; Bounoua, L.

    2004-12-01

    A unique combination of satellite and socio-economic data were used to explore the relationship between human consumption and the carbon cycle. Biophysical models were applied to consumption data to estimate the annual amount of Earth's terrestrial net primary production humans require for food, fiber and fuel using the same modeling architecture as satellite-supported NPP measurements. The amount of Earth's NPP required to support human activities is a powerful measure of the aggregate human impacts on the biosphere and indicator of societal vulnerability to climate change. Equations were developed estimating the amount of landscape-level NPP required to generate all the products consumed by 230 countries including; vegetal foods, meat, milk, eggs, wood, fuel-wood, paper and fiber. The amount of NPP required was calculated on a per capita basis and projected onto a global map of population to create a spatially explicit map of NPP-carbon demand in units of elemental carbon. NPP demand was compared to a map of Earth's average annual net primary production or supply created using 17 years (1982-1998) of AVHRR vegetation index to produce a geographically accurate balance sheet of terrestrial NPP-carbon supply and demand. Globally, humans consume 20 percent of Earth's total net primary production on land. Regionally the NPP-carbon balance percentage varies from 6 to over 70 percent and locally from near 0 to over 30,000 percent in major urban areas. The uneven distribution of NPP-carbon supply and demand, indicate the degree to which various human populations rely on NPP imports, are vulnerable to climate change and suggest policy options for slowing future growth in NPP demand.

  7. Loss of E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion due to mutation of the beta-catenin gene in a human cancer cell line, HSC-39.

    PubMed Central

    Kawanishi, J; Kato, J; Sasaki, K; Fujii, S; Watanabe, N; Niitsu, Y

    1995-01-01

    Detachment of cell-cell adhesion is indispensable for the first step of invasion and metastasis of cancer. This mechanism is frequently associated with the impairment of either E-cadherin expression or function. However, mechanisms of such abnormalities have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the function of E-cadherin was completely abolished in the human gastric cancer cell line HSC-39, despite the high expression of E-cadherin, because of mutations in one of the E-cadherin-associated cytoplasmic proteins, beta-catenin. Although immunofluorescence staining of HSC-39 cells by using an anti-E-cadherin antibody (HECD-1) revealed the strong and uniform expression of E-cadherin on the cell surface, cell compaction and cell aggregation were not observed in this cell. Western blotting (immunoblotting) using HECD-1 exhibited a 120-kDa band which is equivalent to normal E-cadherin. Northern (RNA) blotting demonstrated a 4.7-kb band, the same as mature E-cadherin mRNA. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled proteins with HECD-1 revealed three bands corresponding to E-cadherin, alpha-catenin, and gamma-catenin and a 79-kDa band which was apparently smaller than that of normal beta-catenin, indicating truncated beta-catenin. The 79-kDa band was immunologically identified as beta-catenin by using immunoblotting with anti-beta-catenin antibodies. Examination of beta-catenin mRNA by the reverse transcriptase-PCR method revealed a transcript which was shorter than that of normal beta-catenin. The sequencing of PCR product for beta-catenin confirmed deletion in 321 bases from nucleotides +82 to +402. Southern blotting of beta-catenin DNA disclosed mutation at the genomic level. Expression vectors of Beta-catenin were introduced into HSC-39 cells by transfection. In the obtained transfectants, E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesiveness was recovered, as revealed by cell compaction, cell aggregation, and immunoflourescence staining. From these

  8. Definition of a Skp2-c-Myc Pathway to Expand Human Beta-cells

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Shiwani; Roel, Chris; Tanwir, Mansoor; Wills, Rachel; Perianayagam, Nidhi; Wang, Peng; Fiaschi-Taesch, Nathalie M.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance and reduced functional β-cell mass. Developmental differences, failure of adaptive expansion and loss of β-cells via β-cell death or de-differentiation have emerged as the possible causes of this reduced β-cell mass. We hypothesized that the proliferative response to mitogens of human β-cells from T2D donors is reduced, and that this might contribute to the development and progression of T2D. Here, we demonstrate that the proliferative response of human β-cells from T2D donors in response to cdk6 and cyclin D3 is indeed dramatically impaired. We show that this is accompanied by increased nuclear abundance of the cell cycle inhibitor, p27kip1. Increasing nuclear abundance of p27kip1 by adenoviral delivery decreases the proliferative response of β-cells from non-diabetic donors, mimicking T2D β-cells. However, while both p27kip1 gene silencing and downregulation by Skp2 overexpression increased similarly the proliferative response of human β-cells, only Skp2 was capable of inducing a significant human β-cell expansion. Skp2 was also able to double the proliferative response of T2D β-cells. These studies define c-Myc as a central Skp2 target for the induction of cell cycle entry, expansion and regeneration of human T2D β-cells. PMID:27380896

  9. Phenotypes of Myopathy-Related Beta-Tropomyosin Mutants in Human and Mouse Tissue Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hussein, Saba; Rahl, Karin; Moslemi, Ali-Reza; Tajsharghi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in TPM2 result in a variety of myopathies characterised by variable clinical and morphological features. We used human and mouse cultured cells to study the effects of β-TM mutants. The mutants induced a range of phenotypes in human myoblasts, which generally changed upon differentiation to myotubes. Human myotubes transfected with the E41K-β-TMEGFP mutant showed perinuclear aggregates. The G53ins-β-TMEGFP mutant tended to accumulate in myoblasts but was incorporated into filamentous structures of myotubes. The K49del-β-TMEGFP and E122K-β-TMEGFP mutants induced the formation of rod-like structures in human cells. The N202K-β-TMEGFP mutant failed to integrate into thin filaments and formed accumulations in myotubes. The accumulation of mutant β-TMEGFP in the perinuclear and peripheral areas of the cells was the striking feature in C2C12. We demonstrated that human tissue culture is a suitable system for studying the early stages of altered myofibrilogenesis and morphological changes linked to myopathy-related β-TM mutants. In addition, the histopathological phenotype associated with expression of the various mutant proteins depends on the cell type and varies with the maturation of the muscle cell. Further, the phenotype is a combinatorial effect of the specific amino acid change and the temporal expression of the mutant protein. PMID:24039757

  10. On the quantitative evaluation of edge detection schemes and their comparison with human performance. [image processing of satellite photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fram, J. R.; Deutsch, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for the quantitative evaluation of edge detection schemes is presented. It is used to assess the performance of three such schemes using a specially-generated set of images containing noise. The ability of human subjects to distinguish the edges in the presence of noise is also measured and compared with that of the edge detection schemes. The edge detection schemes are used on a high-resolution satellite photograph with varying degrees of noise added in order to relate the quantitative comparison to real-life imagery.

  11. Elevated D-glucose concentrations modulate TGF-beta 1 synthesis by human cultured renal proximal tubular cells. The permissive role of platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A. O.; Steadman, R.; Topley, N.; Williams, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis is a marker of progression of renal impairment in diabetic nephropathy. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 is one of a group of pro-fibrotic cytokines and growth factors that have been associated with the development of interstitial fibrosis. We have examined the modulating influence of glucose on the production of TGF-beta 1 by cultured human proximal tubular cells. Incubation of growth-arrested human proximal tubular cells (HPTC) (72 hours in serum free medium) in 25 mmol/L D-glucose resulted in increased expression of TGF-beta 1 mRNA (as assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). This was apparent after 6 hours and increased up to 120 hours exposure. TGF-beta 1 secretion, however, as measured by specific enzyme-linked immunoassay, was unaffected by exposure to 25 mmol/L D-glucose. Sequential stimulation of HPTC, first with 25 mmol/L D-glucose for 48 hours and then with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms, resulted in a dose-dependent secretion of TGF-beta 1. Pre-exposure to 5 mmol/L D-glucose or 25 mmol/L L-glucose did not prime for TGF-beta 1 release. At 50 ng/ml PDGF this effect was greatest for the AA isoform (AA 31.4 +/- 7.1, AB 20.98 +/- 8.9, BB 7.8 +/- 2.2, P < 0.05 for all versus control, n = 3, mean +/- SEM ng/10(6) cells/24 hours). These effects were blocked by the addition of antibody to the PDGF alpha-receptor. TGF-beta 1 secretion was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with cyclohexamide, but was not affected by pretreatment with actinomycin D. Stimulation of HPTC with a single dose of PDGF induced TGF-beta 1 mRNA; however, only after application of a second dose of PDGF (after TGF-beta 1 mRNA induction) did TGF-beta 1 protein secretion occur. We also demonstrated that PDGF stimulation of HPTC induced an inherently more stable TGF-beta 1 mRNA transcript. These findings demonstrate that elevated D-glucose concentration alone is insufficient to lead to increased TGF-beta 1

  12. beta-2 Microglobulin values among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative, HIV-positive asymptomatic, and HIV-positive symptomatic Ugandans.

    PubMed Central

    Piwowar, E M; Tugume, S B; Grant, R M; Lutalo, T; Pattishall, K; Katongole-Mbidde, E

    1995-01-01

    Mean serum beta-2 microglobulin levels among healthy human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative and asymptomatic and symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive Ugandans were found to be 2.35, 3.75, and 5.06 mg/liter, respectively (P < 0.001). The upper limit of the normal range (3.5 mg/liter) is higher in this African population than that reported elsewhere. PMID:7697536

  13. Certain canine weakly beta-hemolytic intestinal spirochetes are phenotypically and genotypically related to spirochetes associated with human and porcine intestinal spirochetosis.

    PubMed Central

    Duhamel, G E; Muniappa, N; Mathiesen, M R; Johnson, J L; Toth, J; Elder, R O; Doster, A R

    1995-01-01

    Four canine weakly beta-hemolytic intestinal spirochetes associated with intestinal spirochetosis (IS-associated WBHIS) were compared with IS-associated human and porcine WBHIS and the type species for Serpulina hyodysenteriae and S. innocens by using phenotypic and genotypic parameters. The IS-associated canine, human, and porcine WBHIS belonged to a phyletic group distinct from but related to previously described Serpulina type species. PMID:7559984

  14. [Kinetics of lipid peroxidation induced by UV beta rays in human keratinocyte and fibroblast cultures].

    PubMed

    Perez, S; Sergent, O; Morel, P; Chevanne, M; Dubos, M P; Cillard, P; Cillard, J

    1995-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation has been implicated in skin damage by ultraviolet radiation. The aim of the study was to determine the kinetic of lipid peroxidation induced by ultraviolet beta (UVB) in adult keratinocytes and fibroblasts in culture. The keratinocytes were obtained from a single primary culture and the fibroblasts were in the same subculture (4 to 10 transfers). For UVB irradiation, the cells were maintained in a small volume of Hanks balanced salt solution and were irradiated (0.75, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 Jcm-2). Then cells were cultured for 3 to 48 hours. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by free MDA determination in both extracellular medium and cells using a size exclusion chromatography coupled to an HPLC procedure. In addition, LDH release in culture media was evaluated as in indice of cytotoxicity. An increase of total free MDA was observed 3 hours after cell irradiation which was dose-dependent from 0.75 to 3 Jcm-2 for keratinocytes and fibroblasts. MDA was detected both in cells and in culture media. As soon as 3 hours after irradiation 90% in total MDA was present in the culture media. Kinetic of lipid peroxidation: for 0.75 Jcm-2, an elevation of MDA was observed 12 hours after irradiation in both cultures. A further increase in MDA was noted 24 hours after fibroblasts irradiation but not in irradiated keratinocytes. LDH release in culture media increased with post irradiation time until 48 hours. The cytotoxic effect of UVB irradiation on keratinocytes and fibroblasts cultures was shown by an enhancement of lipid peroxidation which was detectable during 48 hours after irradiation. An increase of LDH release was observed simultaneously. PMID:8521093

  15. Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the human HSD11K gene encoding the kidney (type 2) isozyme of 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.K.; Rogerson, F.M.; Mune, T.; White, P.C.

    1995-09-01

    11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11{beta}HSD) converts glucocorticoids to inactive products and is thus thought to confer specificity for aldosterone on the type I mineralocorticoid receptor in the kidney. Recent studies indicate the presence of at least two isozymes of 11{beta}HSD. In vitro, the NAD{sup +}-dependent kidney (type 2) isozyme catalyzes 11{beta}-dehydrogenase but not reductase reactions, whereas the NADP{sup +}-dependent liver (type 1) isozyme catalyzes both reactions. We have now characterized the human gene encoding kidney 11{beta}HSD (HSD11K). A bacteriophage P1 clone was isolated after screening a human genomic library by hybridization with sheep HSD11K cDNA. The gene consists of 5 exons spread over 6 kb. The nucleotide binding domain lies in the first exon are GC-rich (80%), suggesting that the gene may be transcriptionally regulated by factors that recognize GC-rich sequences. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes with a positive P1 clone localized the gene to chromosome 16q22. In contrast, the HSD11L (liver isozyme) gene is located on chromosome 1 and contains 6 exons; the coding sequences of these genes are only 21% identical. HSD11K is expressed at high levels in the placenta and kidney of midgestation human fetuses and at lower levels in lung and testes. Different transcriptional start sites are utilized in kidney and placenta. These data should be applicable to genetic analysis of the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess, which may represent a deficiency of 11{beta}HSD. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Reactive oxygen species mediate arsenic induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis through Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in human colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhuo; Wang Xin; Cheng Senping; Sun Lijuan; Son, Young-Ok; Yao Hua; Li Wenqi; Budhraja, Amit; Li Li; Shelton, Brent J.; Tucker, Thomas; Arnold, Susanne M.; Shi Xianglin

    2011-10-15

    Long term exposure to arsenic can increase incidence of human cancers, such as skin, lung, and colon rectum. The mechanism of arsenic induced carcinogenesis is still unclear. It is generally believed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play an important role in this process. In the present study, we investigate the possible linkage between ROS, {beta}-catenin and arsenic induced transformation and tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, DLD1 cells. Our results show that arsenic was able to activate p47{sup phox} and p67{sup phox}, two key proteins for activation of NADPH oxidase. Arsenic was also able to generate ROS in DLD1 cells. Arsenic increased {beta}-catenin expression level and its promoter activity. ROS played a major role in arsenic-induced {beta}-catenin activation. Treatment of DLD1 cells by arsenic enhanced both transformation and tumorigenesis of these cells. The tumor volumes of arsenic treated group were much larger than those without arsenic treatment. Addition of either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase reduced arsenic induced cell transformation and tumor formation. The results indicate that ROS are involved in arsenic induced cell transformation and tumor formation possible through Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line DLD1 cells. - Highlights: > Arsenic activates NADPH oxidase and increases reactive oxygen species generation in DLD1 cells. > Arsenic increases {beta}-catenin expression. > Inhibition of ROS induced by arsenic reduce {beta}-catenin expression. > Arsenic increases cell transformation in DLD1 cells and tumorigenesis in nude mice. > Blockage of ROS decrease cell transformation and tumorigenesis induced by arsenic.

  17. Constitutive and inflammatory induction of alpha and beta chemokines in human first trimester forebrain astrocytes and neurons.

    PubMed

    Bakhiet, Moiz; Mousa, Alyaa; Seiger, Ake; Andersson, Jan

    2002-05-01

    Chemokine effects on leukocyte infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) are key events in the inflammatory processes of neuroimmunologic and neuroinfectious diseases. Because, chemokines may play important roles in proliferation and differentiation of brain cells and in the initiation and progression of CNS inflammatory disorders, we analyzed constitutive and inflammatory-induced expression of alpha and beta chemokines in human first trimester forebrain cells. Constitutive induction of IL-8, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MCP-1 and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (Rantes) was detected in cryostat sections of embryonic forebrains in an age-dependent manner. Dissociated cell cultures were studied for spontaneous chemokine induction and after stimulation with the trypanosome lymphocyte triggering factor (TLTF), a novel trypanokine secreted by African trypanosomes that triggers a complex of immune responses. LPS and variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) were used as controls. In cultures, unstimulated cells expressed minimal chemokine levels except for Rantes. In response to TLTF and LPS, but not VSG, all chemokines were highly induced at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and age-dependent manner. Combined assays (in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry) revealed that astrocytes and neurons are major sources for chemokines. These results illustrate the ability of resident brain cells to constitutively express chemokine genes, which may suggest an important role for chemokines during brain development. Furthermore, TLTF-induced chemokine expression in astrocytes and neurons indicate the capacity of TLTF to provoke neuroinflammation in the brain, which may have important therapeutic implications for the neurological manifestations of African trypanosomiasis. PMID:12009570

  18. Primary and secondary structural determinants in the receptor binding sequence. beta. -(38-57) from human luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Keutmann, H.T.; Charlesworth, M.C.; Kitzmann, K.; Mason, K.A.; Johnson, L.; Ryan, R.J.

    1988-12-13

    The intercysteine loop sequence 38-57 in the ..beta.. subunit has been shown to be a determinant for expression of biological activity in human lutropin (hLH) and choriogonadotropin (hCG). Together with other sequences, the 38-57 region may contribute to a multicomponent receptor binding domain in hLH/hCG. Because the structural features influencing activity in this important region are not easy to evaluate in the full-length subunit, the authors have used analogues of hLH..beta..-(38-57) prepared by solid-phase synthesis. The peptides were tested for inhibition of /sup 125/I-labeled hCG binding to rat ovarian membrane receptors. Secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) and by reactivity with antibodies to the native 38-57 peptide. An analogue lacking the 38-57 disulfide linkage retained 20% receptor binding and full immunoreactivity. Far-ultraviolet CD profiles were essentially identical with those of the disulfide-intact peptide; a transition from 10% to 30% ..cap alpha..-helix in 90% trifluoroethanol was characteristic of both. The peptide thus appears not to require the disulfide bridge to retain a looped conformation with amphipathic secondary structure. An essential positive charge at position 43 was shown by complete loss of activity upon substitution of Asp or Ala for the Arg found in all known species of LH. These results indicate that the 38-57 sequence is a relatively rigid and structurally autonomous region, not merely a series of residues constrained passively into a loop by a disulfide linkage. It includes segments of ordered structure, probably including both amphipathic helical and turn sequences. Evidence from studies of other hormones suggests that this region may be important to binding and specificity in the glycoprotein hormones as a group.

  19. Requirement of a novel splicing variant of human histone deacetylase 6 for TGF-{beta}1-mediated gene activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Yan; Nguyen, Hong T.; Lasky, Joseph A.; Cao, Subing; Li, Cui; Hu, Jiyao; Guo, Xinyue; Burow, Matthew E.; Shan, Bin

    2010-02-19

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) belongs to the family of class IIb HDACs and predominantly deacetylates non-histone proteins in the cytoplasm via the C-terminal deacetylase domain of its two tandem deacetylase domains. HDAC6 modulates fundamental cellular processes via deacetylation of {alpha}-tubulin, cortactin, molecular chaperones, and other peptides. Our previous study indicates that HDAC6 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells. In the current study, we identify a novel splicing variant of human HDAC6, hHDAC6p114. The hHDAC6p114 mRNA arises from incomplete splicing and encodes a truncated isoform of the hHDAC6p114 protein of 114 kDa when compared to the major isoform hHDAC6p131. The hHDAC6p114 protein lacks the first 152 amino acids from N-terminus in the hHDAC6p131 protein, which harbors a nuclear export signal peptide and 76 amino acids of the N-terminal deacetylase domain. hHDAC6p114 is intact in its deacetylase activity against {alpha}-tubulin. The expression hHDAC6p114 is elevated in a MCF-7 derivative that exhibits an EMT-like phenotype. Moreover, hHDAC6p114 is required for TGF-{beta}1-activated gene expression associated with EMT in A549 cells. Taken together, our results implicate that expression and function of hHDAC6p114 is differentially regulated when compared to hHDAC6p131.

  20. An insilico approach to high altitude pulmonary edema - Molecular modeling of human beta2 adrenergic receptor and its interaction with Salmeterol & Nifedipine.

    PubMed

    Chandramoorthi, Gayathri Devi; Piramanayagam, Shanmughavel; Marimuthu, Parthiban

    2008-09-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of protein targets from genomic data has the potential to accelerate researches pertaining to drug discovery. Human beta(2) adrenergic receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane helices, and is important in pharmaceutical targeting on pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. The human beta(2) adrenergic receptor has been found to play a very important role in the pathogenesis of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). In the present study, a high quality of protein 3D structure has been predicted for the human beta(2) adrenergic receptor sequence with primary accession number P07550. Homologous template protein sequence with known 3D structure was identified and the template-query protein sequence validation was done by multiple sequence alignment method. The homology model was performed through Modeller and depended on the quality of the sequence alignment by BLAST, template structure and the consolidated result performed by Gene silico meta-server. The statistical verification of the generated model was evaluated by PROCHECK which revealed that the structure modeled through Modeller to be of good quality with 84.1% of residues in the most favored region. Docking studies were carried out after modeling with two well known ligands namely Salmeterol and Nifedipine, and the fitness score revealed that Salmeterol has a higher fitness score than Nifedipine. Estimation of binding affinity by X-Score revealed that Salmeterol had -10.40 binding affinity while Nifedipine showed -9.62 binding affinity. From the present study, it can be concluded that the generated model of human beta(2) adrenergic receptor can be used for further studies related to this receptor and Salmeterol was found to have a high binding affinity with human beta(2) adrenergic receptor. PMID:18512086

  1. Sialylation of Integrin beta1 is Involved in Radiation-Induced Adhesion and Migration in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Minyoung; Lee, Hae-June; Seo, Woo Duck; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Previously, we reported that radiation-induced ST6 Gal I gene expression was responsible for an increase of integrin beta1 sialylation. In this study, we have further investigated the function of radiation-mediated integrin beta1 sialylation in colon cancer cells. Methods and Materials: We performed Western blotting and lectin affinity assay to analyze the expression and level of sialylated integrin beta1. After exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), adhesion and migration of cells were measured by in vitro adhesion and migration assay. Results: IR increased sialylation of integrin beta1 responsible for its increased protein stability and adhesion and migration of colon cancer cells. However, for cells with an N-glycosylation site mutant of integrin beta1 located on the I-like domain (Mu3), these effects were dramatically inhibited. In addition, integrin beta1-mediated radioresistance was not observed in cells containing this mutant. When sialylation of integrin beta1 was targeted with a sulfonamide chalcone compound, inhibition of radiation-induced sialylation of integrin beta1 and inhibition of radiation-induced adhesion and migration occurred. Conclusion: The increase of integrin beta1 sialylation by ST6 Gal I is critically involved in radiation-mediated adhesion and migration of colon cancer cells. From these findings, integrin beta1 sialylation may be a novel target for overcoming radiation-induced survival, especially radiation-induced adhesion and migration.

  2. Beta-carotene conversion to vitamin A decreases as the dietary dose increases in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that high doses of B-carotene limit its conversion to vitamin A, yet this effect has not been well established in humans. A feeding study was conducted in which volunteers consumed two doses of deuterium labeled B-carotene on two occasions, with B-carotene and vitamin A respon...

  3. Conversion of Human Steroid 5[beta]-Reductase (AKR1D1) into 3[beta]-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Single Point Mutation E120H: Example of Perfect Enzyme Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Christianson, David W.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2012-10-10

    Human aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) and AKR1C enzymes are essential for bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. AKR1D1 catalyzes the 5{beta}-reduction of {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroids, whereas AKR1C enzymes are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). These enzymes share high sequence identity and catalyze 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH to an electrophilic carbon but differ in that one residue in the conserved AKR catalytic tetrad, His120 (AKR1D1 numbering), is substituted by a glutamate in AKR1D1. We find that the AKR1D1 E120H mutant abolishes 5{beta}-reductase activity and introduces HSD activity. However, the E120H mutant unexpectedly favors dihydrosteroids with the 5{alpha}-configuration and, unlike most of the AKR1C enzymes, shows a dominant stereochemical preference to act as a 3{beta}-HSD as opposed to a 3{alpha}-HSD. The catalytic efficiency achieved for 3{beta}-HSD activity is higher than that observed for any AKR to date. High resolution crystal structures of the E120H mutant in complex with epiandrosterone, 5{beta}-dihydrotestosterone, and {Delta}{sup 4}-androstene-3,17-dione elucidated the structural basis for this functional change. The glutamate-histidine substitution prevents a 3-ketosteroid from penetrating the active site so that hydride transfer is directed toward the C3 carbonyl group rather than the {Delta}{sup 4}-double bond and confers 3{beta}-HSD activity on the 5{beta}-reductase. Structures indicate that stereospecificity of HSD activity is achieved because the steroid flips over to present its {alpha}-face to the A-face of NADPH. This is in contrast to the AKR1C enzymes, which can invert stereochemistry when the steroid swings across the binding pocket. These studies show how a single point mutation in AKR1D1 can introduce HSD activity with unexpected configurational and stereochemical preference.

  4. Human beta-defensin 1, a new animal toxin-like blocker of potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing; Xie, Zili; Yang, Weishan; Zhao, Yonghui; Xiang, Fang; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Chen, Zongyun; Wu, Yingliang

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of human β-defensin 2 (hBD2), as a Kv1.3 channel inhibitor with the unique molecular mechanism and novel immune modulatory function, suggests that human β-defensins are a novel class of channel ligands. Here, the function and mechanism of the human β-defensin 1 (hBD1) binding to potassium channels was investigated. Based on the structural similarity between hBD1 and Kv1.3 channel-sensitive hBD2, hBD1 was found to selectively inhibit human and mouse Kv1.3 channels with IC50 values of 11.8 ± 3.1 μM and 13.2 ± 4.0 μM, respectively. Different from hBD2 modifying Kv1.3 channel activation and increasing activation time constant, hBD1 did not affect the activation feature of both human and mouse Kv1.3 channels. In comparison with hBD2 simultaneously interacting with the extracellular S1-S2 linker and pore region of Kv1.3 channel, the chimeric channel and mutagenesis experiments showed that hBD1 only bound to the extracellular pore region of Kv1.3 channel instead of extracellular S1-S2 linker or S3-S4 linker. Together, these findings enhance knowledge of hBD1 as a new immune-related Kv1.3 channel blocker and highlight the major functional differences between hBD1 and hBD2 to explore in future research. PMID:26854370

  5. Expression of human beta-defensins 1 and 2 in kidneys with chronic bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Jan; Retz, Margitta; Harder, Jürgen; Krams, Matthias; Kellner, Udo; Hartmann, Julia; Hohgräwe, Kerstin; Raffenberg, Uta; Gerber, Martin; Loch, Tillmann; Weichert-Jacobsen, Klaus; Stöckle, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Background Constitutive expression and localization of antimicrobial human β-defensin-1 (HBD-1) in human kidneys as a potential mechanism of antimicrobial defense has been previously reported. Inducible expression of human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2) has been described in various epithelial organs but not for the urogenital tract. Methods We investigated the gene- and protein expression of HBD-1 and HBD-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry in 15 normal human kidney samples and 15 renal tissues with chronic bacterial infection. Additionally, cell culture experiments were performed to study HBD gene expression by real-time RT-PCR in response to inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β as well as lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria. Results Constitutive HBD-1 gene- and protein expression was detected in normal renal tissue and kidneys with chronic infection. As a novel finding, inducible HBD-2 gene- and protein expression was demonstrated in tubulus epithelia with chronic infection but not in normal renal tissue. In pyelonephritic kidneys HBD-1 and HBD-2 expression showed a similar pattern of localizaton in distal tubules, loops of Henle and in collecting ducts of the kidney. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR of kidney derived cell lines stimulated with inflammatory agents TNF-α, IL-1β and LPS revealed a strong increase in relative HBD-2 transcription level and also a slight increase in relative HBD-1 transcription level. Conclusions Upregulated HBD-2 expression in renal tubulus epithelium indicates a role of a wider range of human defensins for antimicrobial host defense in the urogenital tract than previously recognized. PMID:12238953

  6. ATS-6 - A satellite for human needs. [Health, Education, Telecommunications Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, A. A.; Johnston, W. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    On May 30, 1974, NASA launched the ATS-6 experimental communications satellite into a geosynchronous orbit at a station centered over the United States. The 1400 kg satellite was designed to be body-stabilized with a 3-axis control system capable of precision offset pointing. It deployed a 9.1 meter (30 foot) parabolic reflector antenna with a transponder that covered a frequency range from VHF through C-band. The high RF gains obtained with the antenna were to be used for many dramatic communications experiments, one of which was the Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment (HET), a demonstration of direct broadcast of color television to low cost terminals in remote regions of the United States. More than 120 terminals with 3-meter antennas were deployed in Alaska, Washington, the Rocky Mountains, and Appalachia to provide educational and health services to selected community centers. After 11 months of nearly continuous service, the performance of both the satellite and the experiment have exceeded all expectations.

  7. Beta-casomorphin (BCM) and human colonic lamina propria lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Elitsur, Y; Luk, G D

    1991-01-01

    BCM is a milk-derived peptide with opiate-like properties which is absorbed through the gastrointestinal mucosa. It has been shown to affect gastrointestinal motility, absorption and secretion. Recently, modulation of the immune system by BCM was also reported. In this study we investigated the in vitro effect of BCM on the human mucosal immune response as represented by lamina propria lymphocyte (LPL) proliferation. Results show that BCM significantly inhibited concanavalin A (ConA) stimulated LPL DNA synthesis. BCM also inhibited ornithine decarboxylase activity (ODC) in ConA-stimulated LPL. Although BCM also inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulated LPL DNA synthesis, the degree of inhibition was much lower than in ConA-stimulated LPL. The anti-proliferative effect of BCM was reversed by the opiate receptor antagonist, neloxone. Our results suggest that BCM may affect the human mucosal immune system, possibly via the opiate receptor. PMID:1893631

  8. A histone arginine methylation localizes to nucleosomes in satellite II and III DNA sequences in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Applying supervised learning/classification techniques to epigenomic data may reveal properties that differentiate histone modifications. Previous analyses sought to classify nucleosomes containing histone H2A/H4 arginine 3 symmetric dimethylation (H2A/H4R3me2s) or H2A.Z using human CD4+ T-cell chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data. However, these efforts only achieved modest accuracy with limited biological interpretation. Here, we investigate the impact of using appropriate data pre-processing —deduplication, normalization, and position- (peak-) finding to identify stable nucleosome positions — in conjunction with advanced classification algorithms, notably discriminatory motif feature selection and random forests. Performance assessments are based on accuracy and interpretative yield. Results We achieved dramatically improved accuracy using histone modification features (99.0%; previous attempts, 68.3%) and DNA sequence features (94.1%; previous attempts, <60%). Furthermore, the algorithms elicited interpretable features that withstand permutation testing, including: the histone modifications H4K20me3 and H3K9me3, which are components of heterochromatin; and the motif TCCATT, which is part of the consensus sequence of satellite II and III DNA. Downstream analysis demonstrates that satellite II and III DNA in the human genome is occupied by stable nucleosomes containing H2A/H4R3me2s, H4K20me3, and/or H3K9me3, but not 18 other histone methylations. These results are consistent with the recent biochemical finding that H4R3me2s provides a binding site for the DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) that methylates satellite II and III DNA. Conclusions Classification algorithms applied to appropriately pre-processed ChIP-Seq data can accurately discriminate between histone modifications. Algorithms that facilitate interpretation, such as discriminatory motif feature selection, have the added potential to impart information about underlying

  9. Human beta-defensin-3 producing cells in septic implant loosening.

    PubMed

    Levón, Jaakko; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Mackiewicz, Zygmunt; Coer, Andrej; Trebse, Rihard; Waris, Eero; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2015-02-01

    Human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3) has been found in synovial fluid and later in periprosthetic tissues in septic joint implant loosening. The aim of the present study was to identify its cellular sources. Tissue samples from 12 patients were analyzed. A fully automatic Leica BOND MAX staining robot was used. Affinity-purified rabbit anti-human hBD-3 IgG was applied in a two-layer horse radish peroxidase/anti-rabbit-labeled polymer method. Double immunofluorescence of hBD3 together with CD68, CD31, heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and mast cell tryptase (MCT) staining was done. Human BD-3 was found in monocyte/macrophage-like cells, vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts-like cells, but was weakly expressed in foreign body giant cells and negative in neutrophils. Human BD-3 was found in CD68 and CD31 immunoreactive cells, whereas HSP47 and MCT positive cells were hBD-3 negative. Immunostaining of hBD-3 was strong in some tissue areas but weak or absent in others. Monocyte/macrophages and endothelial cells were established in this study as the major cellular sources of hBD-3 in septic loosening, but fibroblasts and foreign body giant cells can also contribute to its production. The heterogeneous topological staining of hBD-3 suggests local regulation, possibly by bacterial products, damage-associated molecular patterns and cytokines. The results explain the increased synovial fluid/tissue concentrations of hBD-3 in septic loosening. PMID:25655501

  10. The onset of labor alters corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor variant expression in human myometrium: putative role of interleukin-1beta.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Danijela; Vatish, Manu; Gu, Mei; Slater, Donna; Newton, Rob; Lehnert, Hendrik; Grammatopoulos, Dimitris K

    2007-07-01

    CRH targets the human myometrium during pregnancy. The efficiency of CRH actions is determined by expression of functional receptors (CRH-R), which are dynamically regulated. Studies in myometrial tissue biopsies using quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the onset of labor, term or preterm, is associated with a significant 2- to 3-fold increase in CRH-R1 mRNA levels. Detailed analysis of myometrial CRH-R1 mRNA variants showed a decline of the pro-CRH-R1 mRNA encoding the CRH-R1beta variant during labor and increased mRNA levels of CRH-R1d mRNA. Studies in myometrial cells identified IL-1beta as an important regulator of myometrial CRH-R1 gene expression because prolonged treatment of myometrial cells with IL-1beta (1 ng/ml) for 18 h induced expression of CRH-R1 mRNA levels by 1.5- to 2-fold but significantly attenuated CRH-R1beta mRNA expression by 70%. In contrast, IL-1beta had no effect on CRH-R1d mRNA expression. Studies using specific inhibitors suggest that ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and downstream nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB mediate IL-1beta effects on myometrial CRH-R1 gene. However, the increased CRH-R1 mRNA expression was associated with a dampening of the receptor efficacy to activate the adenylyl cyclase/cAMP signaling cascade. Thus, our findings suggest that IL-1beta is an important regulator of CRH-R1 expression and functional activity, and this interaction might play a role in the transition of the uterus from quiescence to active contractions necessary for the onset of parturition. PMID:17431005

  11. Failure of Clindamycin To Eradicate Infection with Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci Inducibly Resistant to Clindamycin in an Animal Model and in Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James S.; Lepak, Alex J.; Thompson, George R.; Craig, William A.; Andes, David R.; Sabol-Dzintars, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible clindamycin resistance in beta-hemolytic streptococci remains an underrecognized phenomenon of unknown clinical significance. We performed an evaluation of inducible clindamycin resistance using an animal model as well as retrospectively reviewing the charts of patients treated with clindamycin monotherapy who were infected with beta-hemolytic streptococci inducibly resistant to clindamycin. The neutropenic mouse thigh model of infection was used to evaluate the in vivo activity of clindamycin against beta-hemolytic streptococci, including isolates susceptible, inducibly resistant, or constitutively resistant to clindamycin. The clinical microbiology laboratory information system and pharmacy databases were cross-referenced to identify patients with infections due to inducibly clindamycin-resistant beta-hemolytic streptococci who were treated with clindamycin monotherapy. Medical records of these patients were reviewed to evaluate microbiologic and clinical outcomes. Inducible clindamycin resistance resulted in impaired killing of beta-hemolytic streptococci in the animal model. Though suppressed initially, compared to those with constitutive resistance (P = 0.0429), by 48 h, colony counts of inducibly clindamycin-resistant organisms were similar to those of constitutively resistant isolates (P = 0.1142). In addition, we identified 8 patients infected with inducibly clindamycin-resistant beta-hemolytic streptococci who experienced clinical and microbiologic failure when treated with clindamycin monotherapy. These patients either improved initially and subsequently failed or never responded to clindamycin therapy. We have demonstrated in a murine model of infection and from human cases that inducible clindamycin resistance in beta-hemolytic streptococci is clinically significant. Routine testing and reporting by clinical laboratories should be encouraged and alternative antimicrobial agents considered when these organisms are encountered in clinical care

  12. Towards a ligand targeted enzyme prodrug therapy: single round panning of a beta-lactamase scaffold library on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Girja S; Murray, Christopher J; Estabrook, Melodie; Shen, Guang-Ping; Schellenberger, Volker; Krag, David N

    2007-05-15

    A novel beta-lactamase scaffold library in which the target-binding moiety is built into the enzyme was generated using phage display technology. The binding element is composed of a fully randomized 8 amino acid loop inserted at position between Y34 and K37 on the outer surface of Enterobacter cloacae P99 cephalosporinase (beta-lactamase, E.C. 3.5.2.6) with all library members retaining catalytic activity. The frequency and diversity of amino acids distributions in peptide inserts from library clones were analyzed. The complexity of the randomized loop appears consistent with standards of other types of phage display library systems. The library was panned against SKBR3 human breast cancer cells in 1 round using rolling circle amplification of phage DNA to recover bound phage. Individual beta-lactamase clones, independent of phage, were rapidly assessed for their binding to SKBR3 cells using a simple high throughput screen based on cell-bound beta-lactamase activity. SKBR3 cell-binding beta-lactamase enzymes were also shown to bind specifically using an immunochemical method. Selected beta-lactamase clones were further studied for their protein expression, enzyme activity and binding to nontumor cell-lines. Overall, the approach outlined here offers the opportunity of rapidly selecting targeted beta-lactamase ligands that may have a potential for their use in enzyme prodrug therapy with cephalosporin-based prodrugs. It is expected that a similar approach will be useful in developing tumor-targeting molecules of several other enzyme candidates of cancer prodrug therapy. PMID:17285581

  13. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Rapid Prototyped Three-Dimensional Hydroxyapatite/Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Canciani, Elena; Dellavia, Claudia; Ferreira, Lorena Maria; Giannasi, Chiara; Carmagnola, Daniela; Carrassi, Antonio; Brini, Anna Teresa

    2016-05-01

    In the study, we assess a rapid prototyped scaffold composed of 30/70 hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium-phosphate (β-TCP) loaded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) to determine cell proliferation, differentiation toward osteogenic lineage, adhesion and penetration on/into the scaffold.In this in vitro study, hASCs isolated from fat tissue discarded after plastic surgery were expanded, characterized, and then loaded onto the scaffold. Cells were tested for: viability assay (Alamar Blue at days 3, 7 and Live/Dead at day 32), differentiation index (alkaline phosphatase activity at day 14), scaffold adhesion (standard error of the mean analysis at days 5 and 18), and penetration (ground sections at day 32).All the hASC populations displayed stemness markers and the ability to differentiate toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages.Cellular vitality increased between 3 and 7 days, and no inhibitory effect by HA/β-TCP was observed. Under osteogenic stimuli, scaffold increased alkaline phosphatase activity of +243% compared with undifferentiated samples. Human adipose-derived stem cells adhered on HA/β-TCP surface through citoplasmatic extensions that occupied the macropores and built networks among them. Human adipose derived stem cells were observed in the core of HA/β-TCP. The current combination of hASCs and HA/β-TCP scaffold provided encouraging results. If authors' data will be confirmed in preclinical models, the present engineering approach could represent an interesting tool in treating large bone defects. PMID:27092915

  14. Beta-catenin is elevated in human benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens compared to histologically normal prostate tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Tyler M; Vezina, Chad M; Huang, Wei; Marker, Paul C; Peterson, Richard E; Ricke, William A

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is linked to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as incomplete bladder emptying, urinary frequency and urgency. Mechanisms responsible for BPH are not fully known. Here, we tested whether beta-catenin (CTNNB1) immunostaining intensity and distribution differ in human glandular BPH tissue specimens compared to normal prostate tissue. Multiplex immunostaining of CTNNB1, its putative transcriptional target gene lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1), and the epithelial marker E-cadherin were examined in clinical human prostate specimens with or without histological BPH (pure epithelial or mixed stromal-epithelial nodules). BPH specimens were obtained from 24 men who experienced LUTS and underwent transurethral resection of the prostate surgery. Control specimens were tumor-adjacent histologically normal prostate tissue from 48 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. The resulting multispectral images were unmixed and optical densities recorded to quantify staining abundance, cellular (membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear) and tissue localization (stromal versus epithelial), and determination of percentage of CTNNB1-positive cells. The following CTNNB1 indices were significantly higher in BPH compared to normal prostate tissue: overall staining intensity, staining intensity in prostate stromal cell membranes, cytoplasm and nuclei, and prostate epithelial cell nuclei. The following LEF1 indices were significantly lower in BPH compared to tumor-adjacent normal prostate tissue: stromal LEF1 staining intensity, percentage of LEF1-positive stromal cells, and intensity of LEF1 staining in stromal cell membranes, cytoplasm, and nuclei. The percentage of stromal cells with CTNNB1+/LEF1- nuclei was higher and percentage of stromal cells with CTNNB1-/LEF1+ nuclei was lower in BPH compared to tumor-adjacent normal prostate tissues. These results support the hypothesis that CTNNB1 expression increases in specific BPH tissue

  15. Mass spectrometric measurement of [beta]-endorphin and methionine enkephalin in human pituitaries. Tumors and post-mortem controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmierz, Jozef J.; Dass, Chhabil; Robertson, James T.; Desiderio, Dominic M.

    1991-12-01

    Two opioid neuropeptides, [beta]-endorphin (BE), which derives from the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor, and methionine enkephalin (DE), which derives from proenkephalin A, were quantified with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) in individual human pituitaries (post-mortem) and in tumor pituitaries (post-surgery) in a study to clarify the molecular processes that occur in tumor formation. FAB-MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode linked the precursor ion (the MH+ ion) of the peptide with a fragment ion that was unique to each neuropeptide to increase significantly the molecular specificity of these quantitative analytical measurements. The ME was quantified as the intact pentapeptide, whereas BE1-31 was quantified via its tryptic fragment BE20-24 (NAIIK). Two corresponding stable isotope-incorporated peptides, [2H5-4Phe]-ME and [2H4-22Ile]-BE1-31,human respectively, were used as the internal standards. The amount of each neuropeptide quantified in control post-mortem pituitaries (n = 8) was 75.2 ± 29.6(s.e.m.) pmol ME mg-1 protein, and in the pituitary tumor samples (n = 5), 25.0 ± 7.6 pmol ME mg-1 protein and 36.0 ± 14.8 pmol BE mg-1 protein. The difference in the BE content between the control and tumor pituitaries was significant (p = 0.004), and reflected an aberrant metabolism of the POMC system in those human pituitary tumor tissues.

  16. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) antagonizes transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-induced collagen lattice contraction by human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, J S; Kim, J Y; Cho, J Y; Kang, J S; Yu, Y H

    2000-12-01

    Wound contraction plays an important role in healing, but in extreme conditions, it may lead to excessive scar formation and pathological wound contracture. To date, the key regulator of excessive contracture is known to be transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1). In this study, we have evaluated epidermal growth factor (EGF) antagonism in fibroblast-populated collagen lattice (FPCL) gel contraction, which has been generally used as an in vitro model thought to mimic wound contraction in vivo. As expected, TGF-beta1 treatment enhanced normal fibroblast-induced collagen gel contraction in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, EGF did not affect normal gel formation, but significantly antagonized TGF-beta1-induced gel formation (p<0.05 at 100 ng/ml), whereas the other growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), did not altered either normal or TGF-beta1-induced gel contractions. Similarly, EGF treatment, but not PDGF, also significantly suppressed TGF-beta1 release that was autologously elicited by TGF-beta1 treatment (p<0.01 at 100 ng/ml). Therefore, the results suggest that EGF may negatively regulate the role of TGF-beta1 through attenuating autologous release of TGF-beta1. PMID:11145189

  17. Characterization of cDNAs of the human pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein family, a new subfamily of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q.X.; Tease, L.A.; Shupert, W.L.; Chan, W.Y. )

    1990-03-20

    Three highly homologous cDNAs encoding human pregnancy-specific {beta}1-glycoprotein (SP1) were isolated from a human placental cDNA library. These cDNAs share >90% nucleotide homology in their coding sequences, and >79% of the encoded amino acids are homologous. Proteins encoded by these cDNAs are very similar to members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family and contain repeating domains, conserved disulfided bridges, and {beta}-sheet structure typical of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. However, the high degree of sequence homology and relatively lesser degree of glycosylation among the SP1 proteins suggest that they exist as a unique family instead of being members of the CEA family. Both soluble and potentially membrane-bound forms of SP1 proteins were present in the placenta. Northern blot analysis using specific probes confirmed the expression of multiple mRNA species in human term placenta.

  18. Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylated at both linker and COOH-terminal regions transmit malignant TGF-beta signal in later stages of human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Koichi; Kitano, Chiaki; Murata, Miki; Sekimoto, Go; Yoshida, Katsunori; Uemura, Yoshiko; Seki, Toshihito; Taketani, Shigeru; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2009-07-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta initially inhibits growth of mature epithelial cells. Later, however, autocrine TGF-beta signaling acts in concert with the Ras pathway to induce a proliferative and invasive phenotype. TGF-beta activates not only TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI) but also Ras-associated kinases, which differentially phosphorylate the mediators Smad2 and Smad3 to create distinct phosphorylated forms: COOH-terminally phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2C and pSmad3C) and both linker and COOH-terminally phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C). In this study, we investigated actions of pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C in cancer progression. TGF-beta inhibited cell growth by down-regulating c-Myc oncoprotein through the pSmad2C and pSmad3C pathway; TGF-beta signaling, in turn, enhanced cell growth by up-regulating c-Myc through the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4-dependent pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C pathways in cell nuclei. Alternatively, TbetaRI and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) together created cytoplasmic pSmad2L/C, which entered the nucleus and stimulated cell invasion, partly by up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9. In 20 clinical samples, pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C showed nuclear localization at invasion fronts of all TGF-beta-producing human metastatic colorectal cancers. In vitro kinase assay confirmed that nuclear CDK4 and cytoplasmic JNK obtained from the tumor tissue could phosphorylate Smad2 or Smad3 at their linker regions. We suggest that CDK4, together with JNK, alters tumor-suppressive TGF-beta signaling to malignant characteristics in later stages of human colorectal cancer. The linker phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 may represent a target for intervention in human metastatic cancer. PMID:19531654

  19. Assaying Human Myogenic Progenitor Cell Activity by Reconstitution of Muscle Fibers and Satellite Cells in Immunodeficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Parker, Maura H

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the functional myogenic potential of various human cell populations is an important step in the preclinical evaluation of cell transplantation as a means to treat human muscle disease and degeneration. Culture systems allow one to gage the potential of cell populations to proliferate and undergo myogenic differentiation under specific conditions. An in vivo assay evaluates the ability of cells to differentiate and generate muscle fibers within a natural environment, and importantly, evaluates the potential of donor cells to reconstitute the satellite cell niche. In this chapter, we describe a technique for isolating mononuclear cells from human muscle samples, and a method of xenotransplantation for assessing functional myogenic potential in vivo. Briefly, cell populations are injected into the pre-irradiated and regenerating muscle of immunodeficient mice. The injected muscle is frozen at specific time points after injection and cryosections analyzed by immunostaining. The number of human dystrophin-expressing fibers and the number of Pax7(+) human lamin A/C(+) nuclei are determined, which provides a quantitative method of comparing the in vivo functional potential of cell populations. PMID:27492175

  20. DNA methylation profiles in the human genes for tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta in subpopulations of leukocytes and in leukemias.

    PubMed Central

    Kochanek, S; Radbruch, A; Tesch, H; Renz, D; Doerfler, W

    1991-01-01

    The genomic sequencing technique has been applied to assess the state of methylation in the DNA from human leukocyte subpopulations from healthy individuals and in the DNA from several individuals with myeloid or lymphatic leukemias or non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Leukocyte populations were purified by the high-gradient magnetic cell sorting technique. In the human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene segment between nucleotides 300 and 1150, the specific methylation profile in the DNA from human granulocytes and monocytes is maintained in three cases of myeloid leukemia. In one such case, all 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine residues have been replaced by cytidine. In a chronic lymphatic T-cell leukemia, all 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine residues have been substituted by cytidine. In normal B lymphocytes, in two cases of chronic lymphatic B-cell leukemias and two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, all 5'-CG-3' sequences in this gene segment are devoid of methylation. In the TNF-beta gene, DNA methylation is decreased in several examples of acute or chronic myeloid leukemias in comparison to normal human granulocytes or monocytes, whose DNA is almost completely methylated between nucleotides 700 and 900. In human T and B lymphocytes, the main producers of TNF-beta, in three instances of chronic lymphatic leukemias and two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, all 5'-CG-3' sequences are unmethylated in this region. The DNA from the human HeLa cell line is highly methylated at all 5'-CG-3' sequences in the TNF-alpha and -beta genes. The TNF-alpha gene is transcribed in the cells of one case of acute myeloid leukemia in which the analyzed region of the TNF-alpha gene is completely unmethylated. The TNF-beta gene is not transcribed in any of the malignant cells tested. Images PMID:2062856

  1. Angiogenic gene signature in human pancreatic cancer correlates with TGF-beta and inflammatory transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Craven, Kelly E; Gore, Jesse; Wilson, Julie L; Korc, Murray

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are hypovascular, but overexpress pro-angiogenic factors and exhibit regions of microvasculature. Using RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we previously reported that ~12% of PDACs have an angiogenesis gene signature with increased expression of multiple pro-angiogenic genes. By analyzing the recently expanded TCGA dataset, we now report that this signature is present in ~35% of PDACs but that it is mostly distinct from an angiogenesis signature present in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). These PDACs exhibit a transcriptome that reflects active TGF-β signaling, and up-regulation of several pro-inflammatory genes, and many members of JAK signaling pathways. Moreover, expression of SMAD4 and HDAC9 correlates with endothelial cell abundance in PDAC tissues. Concomitantly targeting the TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) kinase with SB505124 and JAK1-2 with ruxolitinib suppresses JAK1 phosphorylation and blocks proliferative cross-talk between human pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and human endothelial cells (ECs), and these anti-proliferative effects were mimicked by JAK1 silencing in ECs. By contrast, either inhibitor alone does not suppress their enhanced proliferation in 3D co-cultures. These findings suggest that targeting both TGF-β and JAK1 signaling could be explored therapeutically in the 35% of PDAC patients whose cancers exhibit an angiogenesis gene signature. PMID:26586478

  2. Angiogenic gene signature in human pancreatic cancer correlates with TGF-beta and inflammatory transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Julie L.; Korc, Murray

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are hypovascular, but overexpress pro-angiogenic factors and exhibit regions of microvasculature. Using RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we previously reported that ∼12% of PDACs have an angiogenesis gene signature with increased expression of multiple pro-angiogenic genes. By analyzing the recently expanded TCGA dataset, we now report that this signature is present in ∼35% of PDACs but that it is mostly distinct from an angiogenesis signature present in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). These PDACs exhibit a transcriptome that reflects active TGF-β signaling, and up-regulation of several pro-inflammatory genes, and many members of JAK signaling pathways. Moreover, expression of SMAD4 and HDAC9 correlates with endothelial cell abundance in PDAC tissues. Concomitantly targeting the TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) kinase with SB505124 and JAK1-2 with ruxolitinib suppresses JAK1 phosphorylation and blocks proliferative cross-talk between human pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and human endothelial cells (ECs), and these anti-proliferative effects were mimicked by JAK1 silencing in ECs. By contrast, either inhibitor alone does not suppress their enhanced proliferation in 3D co-cultures. These findings suggest that targeting both TGF-β and JAK1 signaling could be explored therapeutically in the 35% of PDAC patients whose cancers exhibit an angiogenesis gene signature. PMID:26586478

  3. Generation of Functional Beta-Like Cells from Human Exocrine Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Maria J.; Muir, Kenneth R.; Docherty, Hilary M.; McGowan, Neil W. A.; Forbes, Shareen; Heremans, Yves; Heimberg, Harry; Casey, John; Docherty, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor mediated lineage reprogramming of human pancreatic exocrine tissue could conceivably provide an unlimited supply of islets for transplantation in the treatment of diabetes. Exocrine tissue can be efficiently reprogrammed to islet-like cells using a cocktail of transcription factors: Pdx1, Ngn3, MafA and Pax4 in combination with growth factors. We show here that overexpression of exogenous Pax4 in combination with suppression of the endogenous transcription factor ARX considerably enhances the production of functional insulin-secreting β-like cells with concomitant suppression of α-cells. The efficiency was further increased by culture on laminin-coated plates in media containing low glucose concentrations. Immunocytochemistry revealed that reprogrammed cultures were composed of ~45% islet-like clusters comprising >80% monohormonal insulin+ cells. The resultant β-like cells expressed insulin protein levels at ~15–30% of that in adult human islets, efficiently processed proinsulin and packaged insulin into secretory granules, exhibited glucose responsive insulin secretion, and had an immediate and prolonged effect in normalising blood glucose levels upon transplantation into diabetic mice. We estimate that approximately 3 billion of these cells would have an immediate therapeutic effect following engraftment in type 1 diabetes patients and that one pancreas would provide sufficient tissue for numerous transplants. PMID:27243814

  4. Production of tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta by human mononuclear leukocytes stimulated with mitogens, bacteria, and malarial parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, A; Staugas, R E; Rowan-Kelly, B; Bresatz, S; Kumaratilake, L M; Rzepczyk, C M; Adolf, G R

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta (TNF-alpha and TNF-beta) are multifaceted polypeptide cytokines which may mediate some of the significant changes in cellular homeostasis which accompany the invasion of the mammalian host by viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Although it is well established that bacterial lipopolysaccharide is a potent inducer of TNF-alpha, there is still very little known of the types of agents which can trigger the production of TNFs in mononuclear leukocytes. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring TNF-alpha and TNF-beta, we examined the capacity of various T-lymphocyte and beta-lymphocyte mitogens as well as microbial components to stimulate production of these cytokines in culture. The mitogens phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen induced production of both TNF-alpha and TNF-beta, while whole-killed Staphylococcus aureus and Bordetella pertussis, like lipopolysaccharide, were potent inducers of TNF-alpha but failed to stimulate TNF-beta production. TNF-alpha production was detectable within 1 h after stimulation, while TNF-beta production was not detected until after 8 h of culture. The bacterial products tetanus toxoid, purified protein derivative, pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertussis toxin were all able to induce TNF-alpha and TNF-beta production. Disrupted (frozen-thawed) Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes were also potent inducers of TNF-alpha and TNF-beta. The results demonstrated that a wide variety of microbial components are inducers of TNF-alpha. Some may not only be more effective than lipopolysaccharide but can also induce TNF-beta production. Furthermore, evidence is presented showing that TNF-beta but not TNF-alpha production correlates with lymphoproliferation. PMID:2254024

  5. Cloning and sequence of a cDNA coding for the human beta-migrating endothelial-cell-type plasminogen activator inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Ny, T; Sawdey, M; Lawrence, D; Millan, J L; Loskutoff, D J

    1986-01-01

    A lambda gt11 expression library containing cDNA inserts prepared from human placental mRNA was screened immunologically using an antibody probe developed against the beta-migrating plasminogen activator inhibitor (beta-PAI) purified from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Thirty-four positive clones were isolated after screening 7 X 10(5) phages. Three clones (lambda 1.2, lambda 3, and lambda 9.2) were randomly picked and further characterized. These contained inserts 1.9, 3.0, and 1.9 kilobases (kb) long, respectively. Escherichia coli lysogenic for lambda 9.2, but not for lambda gt11, produced a fusion protein of 180 kDa that was recognized by affinity-purified antibodies against the bovine aortic endothelial cell beta-PAI and had beta-PAI activity when analyzed by reverse fibrin autography. The largest cDNA insert was sequenced and shown to be 2944 base pairs (bp) long. It has a large 3' untranslated region [1788 bp, excluding the poly(A) tail] and contains the entire coding region of the mature protein but lacks the initiation codon and part of the signal peptide coding region at the 5' terminus. The two clones carrying the 1.9-kb cDNA inserts were partially sequenced and shown to be identical to the 3.0-kb cDNA except that they were truncated, lacking much of the 3' untranslated region. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080 was performed using the 3.0-kb cDNA as hybridization probe. Two distinct transcripts, 2.2 and 3.0 kb, were detected, suggesting that the 1.9-kb cDNA may have been copied from the shorter RNA transcript. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was aligned with the NH2-terminal sequence of the human beta-PAI. Based on this alignment, the mature human beta-PAI is 379 amino acids long and contains an NH2-terminal valine. The deduced amino acid sequence has extensive (30%) homology with alpha 1-antitrypsin and antithrombin III, indicating that the beta

  6. Raman spectroscopic measurements of beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, M. E.; Gerzonde, I.; Ey, S.; Brandt, Nikolai N.; Albrecht, Hansjoerg; Gonchukov, Sergei A.; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2004-08-01

    The antioxidant β-carotene and lycopene substances were detected non-invasively, in vivo in human skin using resonance Raman spectroscopy. Both substances were detected simultaneously. To distinguish between the substances, the Raman signals were excited at 488 nm and 514,5 nm simultaneously using a multilane Ar+ laser. The application of a fiber based optical imaging system allowed the detection of β-carotene and lycopene on any skin area. The disturbance of the measurements because of non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a measuring area of 28 mm2. The minimum power density for registration of the Raman signals and their optimum relation was determined. The Raman spectroscopic method is well suited for the evaluation of the efficacy of topically or systematically applied amounts of β-carotene and lycopene.

  7. Expression of Beta-Defensin 131 Promotes an Innate Immune Response in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Jong; Lee, Jaehyouk; Myung, Soon Chul

    2015-01-01

    Previously, using the Illumina HumanHT-12 microarray we found that β-defensin 131 (DEFB131), an antimicrobial peptide, is upregulated in the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 upon stimulation with lipoteichoic acid (LTA; a gram-positive bacterial component), than that in the untreated RWPE-1 cells. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of DEFB131 in RWPE-1 cells during bacterial infection. We examined the intracellular signaling pathways and nuclear responses in RWPE-1 cells that contribute to DEFB131 gene induction upon stimulation with LTA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to determine whether NF-κB directly binds to the DEFB131 promoter after LTA stimulation in RWPE-1 cells. We found that DEFB131 expression was induced by LTA stimulation through TLR2 and p38MAPK/NF-κB activation, which was evident in the phosphorylation of both p38MAPK and IκBα. We also found that SB203580 and Bay11-7082, inhibitors of p38MAPK and NF-κB, respectively, suppressed LTA-induced DEFB131 expression. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NF-κB directly binds to the DEFB131 promoter, suggesting that NF-κB is a direct regulator, and is necessary for LTA-induced DEFB131 expression in RWPE-1 cells. Interestingly, with DEFB131 overexpression in RWPE-1 cells, the accumulation of mRNA and protein secretion of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12α) and chemokines (CCL20, CCL22, and CXCL8) were significantly enhanced. In addition, DEFB131-transfected RWPE-1 cells markedly induced chemotactic activity in THP-1 monocytes. We concluded that DEFB131 induces cytokine and chemokine upregulation through the TLR2/NF-κB signaling pathway in RWPE-1 cells during bacterial infection and promotes an innate immune response. PMID:26649771

  8. Conservation of the Human Integrin-Type Beta-Propeller Domain in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Bhanupratap; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.; Denessiouk, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface receptors with key functions in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Integrin α and β subunits are present throughout the metazoans, but it is unclear whether the subunits predate the origin of multicellular organisms. Several component domains have been detected in bacteria, one of which, a specific 7-bladed β-propeller domain, is a unique feature of the integrin α subunits. Here, we describe a structure-derived motif, which incorporates key features of each blade from the X-ray structures of human αIIbβ3 and αVβ3, includes elements of the FG-GAP/Cage and Ca2+-binding motifs, and is specific only for the metazoan integrin domains. Separately, we searched for the metazoan integrin type β-propeller domains among all available sequences from bacteria and unicellular eukaryotic organisms, which must incorporate seven repeats, corresponding to the seven blades of the β-propeller domain, and so that the newly found structure-derived motif would exist in every repeat. As the result, among 47 available genomes of unicellular eukaryotes we could not find a single instance of seven repeats with the motif. Several sequences contained three repeats, a predicted transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic motif associated with some integrins, but otherwise differ from the metazoan integrin α subunits. Among the available bacterial sequences, we found five examples containing seven sequential metazoan integrin-specific motifs within the seven repeats. The motifs differ in having one Ca2+-binding site per repeat, whereas metazoan integrins have three or four sites. The bacterial sequences are more conserved in terms of motif conservation and loop length, suggesting that the structure is more regular and compact than those example structures from human integrins. Although the bacterial examples are not full-length integrins, the full-length metazoan-type 7-bladed β-propeller domains are present, and sometimes two tandem

  9. N-terminus three residues deletion mutant of human beta-defensin 3 with remarkably enhanced salt-resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Guo, Feng; Wang, Qin; Fang, Huali; Li, Zhan; Wang, Dehui; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we designed and synthesized three N-terminal deletion analogs of human beta-defensin 3 (hBD-3), namely, hBD-3Δ4, hBD-3Δ7, and hBD-3Δ10, to determine the effect of N-terminal residues on the antibacterial activity and salt resistance of these peptides. The antibacterial activities and salt resistance of hBD-3 and its analogs were tested against a broad range of standard and clinically isolated strains. The deletion of nine N-terminal residues significantly reduced the antibacterial activity of hBD-3 against most of tested strains, particularly Klebsiella pneumonia. Compared with hBD-3 and other analogs, the analog with a deletion of three residues, hBD-3Δ4, exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial activity against almost all the tested strains, especially Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium, at high NaCl concentrations. Given its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and high salt resistance, hBD-3Δ4 could serve as a promising template for new therapeutic antimicrobial agents. PMID:25706284

  10. Cloning of the {beta}3 chain gene (LAMB3) of human laminin 5, a candidate gene in junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    SciTech Connect

    Pulkkinen, L.; Christiano, A.M.; Uitto, J.

    1995-01-01

    Laminin 5 consists of three polypeptides, {alpha}3, {beta}3, and {gamma}2, encoded by the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, respectively. In this study, we have elucidated the exon-intron organization of the human LAMB3 gene. Characterization of five overlapping {lambda} phage DNA clones revealed that the gene was approximately 29 kb in size. Subsequent sequence data revealed that the gene consisted of 23 exons that varied from 64 to 379 bp in size, accounting for the full-length cDNA with an open reading frame of 3516 hp encoding 1172 amino acids. Comparison of the LAMB3 gene structure with the previously characterized LAMB1 gene revealed that LAMB3 was considerably more compact. Knowledge of the exon-intron organization of the LAMB3 gene will facilitate elucidation of mutations in patients with the junctional forms of epidermolysis bullosa, some of which have been associated with mutations in the laminin 5 genes. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Occurrence of Multidrug Resistant Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce Retailed for Human Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Deepa; Rana, Sonia Walia; Walia, Sandeep; Walia, Satish K.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a global problem exacerbated by the dissemination of resistant bacteria via uncooked food, such as green leafy vegetables. New strains of bacteria are emerging on a daily basis with novel expanded antibiotic resistance profiles. In this pilot study, we examined the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria against five classes of antibiotics on iceberg lettuce retailed in local convenience stores in Rochester, Michigan. In this study, 138 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies from 9 iceberg lettuce samples were randomly picked and tested for antibiotic resistance. Among these isolates, the vast majority (86%) demonstrated resistance to cefotaxime, and among the resistant bacteria, the majority showed multiple drug resistance, particularly against cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Three bacterial isolates (2.17%) out of 138 were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. Two ESBL producers (T1 and T5) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae, an opportunistic pathogen with transferable sulfhydryl variable- (SHV-) and TEM-type ESBLs, respectively. The DNA sequence analysis of the blaSHV detected in K. pneumoniae isolate T1 revealed 99% relatedness to blaSHV genes found in clinical isolates. This implies that iceberg lettuce is a potential reservoir of newly emerging and evolving antibiotic resistant bacteria and its consumption poses serious threat to human health. PMID:26064922

  12. Cloning of the beta 3 chain gene (LAMB3) of human laminin 5, a candidate gene in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, L; Gerecke, D R; Christiano, A M; Wagman, D W; Burgeson, R E; Uitto, J

    1995-01-01

    Laminin 5 consists of three polypeptides, alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2, encoded by the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, respectively. In this study, we have elucidated the exon-intron organization of the human LAMB3 gene. Characterization of five overlapping lambda phage DNA clones revealed that the gene was approximately 29 kb in size. Subsequent sequence data revealed that the gene consisted of 23 exons that varied from 64 to 379 bp in size, accounting for the full-length cDNA with an open reading frame of 3516 bp encoding 1172 amino acids. Comparison of the LAMB3 gene structure with the previously characterized LAMB1 gene revealed that LAMB3 was considerably more compact. Knowledge of the exon-intron organization of the LAMB3 gene will facilitate elucidation of mutations in patients with the junctional forms of epidermolysis bullosa, some of which have been associated with mutations in the laminin 5 genes. PMID:7774918

  13. Regeneration of periodontal tissues in non-human primates with rhGDF-5 and beta-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Emerton, K B; Drapeau, S J; Prasad, H; Rohrer, M; Roffe, P; Hopper, K; Schoolfield, J; Jones, A; Cochran, D L

    2011-12-01

    The application of growth factors has been advocated in support of periodontal regeneration. Recombinant human growth and differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family, has been used to encourage periodontal tissue regeneration. This study evaluated the dose response of rhGDF-5 lyophilized onto beta-tricalcium phosphate (bTCP) granules for periodontal tissue regeneration in a baboon model. Periodontal defects were created bilaterally in 12 baboons by a split-mouth design. Plaque was allowed to accumulate around wire ligatures to create chronic disease. After 2 mos, the ligatures were removed, and a notch was placed at the base of the defect. Two teeth on each side of the mouth were randomly treated with bTCP only, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg rhGDF-5/g bTCP. Animals were sacrificed 5 mos post-treatment, with micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis performed. After 5 mos, analysis showed alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament formation in all treatment groups, with a dose-dependent increase in rhGDF-5-treated groups. Height of periodontal tissues also increased with the addition of rhGDF-5, and the amount of residual graft material decreased with rhGDF-5 treatment. Therefore, rhGDF-5 delivered on bTCP demonstrated effective regeneration of all 3 tissues critical for periodontal repair. PMID:21940517

  14. Effect of dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin concentrations on the pulmonary delivery of recombinant human growth hormone dry powder in rats.

    PubMed

    Jalalipour, Monireh; Najafabadi, Abdolhossien Rouholamini; Gilani, Kambiz; Esmaily, Hadi; Tajerzadeh, Hosnieh

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this article is to prepare and characterize inhalable dry powders of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), and assess their efficacy for systemic delivery of the protein in rats. The powders were prepared by spray drying using dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbetaCD) at different molar ratios in the initial feeds. Size exclusive chromatography was performed in order to determine protecting effect of DMbetaCD on the rhGH aggregation during spray drying. By increasing the concentration of DMbetaCD, rhGH aggregation was decreased from 9.67 (in the absence of DMbetaCD) to 0.84% (using DMbetaCD at 1000 molar ratio in the spray solution). The aerosol performance of the spray dried (SD) powders was evaluated using Andersen cascade impactor. Fine particle fraction values of 53.49%, 33.40%, and 23.23% were obtained using DMbetaCD at 10, 100, and 1000 molar ratio, respectively. In vivo studies showed the absolute bioavailability of 25.38%, 76.52%, and 63.97% after intratracheal insufflation of the powders produced after spray drying of the solutions containing DMbetaCD at 10, 100, and 1000 molar ratio, respectively in rat. In conclusion, appropriate cyclodextrin concentration was achieved considering the protein aggregation and aerosol performance of the SD powders and the systemic absorption following administration through the rat lung. PMID:18384154

  15. Antiproliferative effect of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin in vitro and in human tumour xenografted athymic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, P. Y.; Bressolle, F.; Pinguet, F.

    1998-01-01

    The anti-tumour activity of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MEBCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide known for its interaction with the plasma membrane, was investigated in vitro and in vivo and compared with that of doxorubicin (DOX) in the human tumour models MCF7 breast carcinoma and A2780 ovarian carcinoma. In vitro proliferation was assessed using the MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out using xenografted Swiss nude mice injected weekly i.p. with MEBCD at 300 or 800 mg kg(-1) or DOX at 2 mg kg(-1), during 2 months. Under these conditions, MEBCD was active against MCF7 and A2780 cell lines and tumour xenografts. For each tumour model, the tumoral volume of the xenografted mice treated with MEBCD was at least twofold reduced compared with the control group. In the MCF7 model, MEBCD (800 mg kg(-1)) was more active than DOX (2 mg kg(-1)). After 56 days of treatment with MEBCD, no toxicologically meaningful differences were observed in macroscopic and microscopic parameters compared with controls. The accumulation of MEBCD in normal and tumour tissues was also assessed using a chromatographic method. Results indicated that after a single injection of MEBCD, tumour, liver and kidneys accumulated the highest concentrations of MEBCD. These results provided a basis for the potential therapeutic application of MEBCD in cancer therapy. PMID:9820174

  16. Harmonic force spectroscopy reveals a force-velocity curve from a single human beta cardiac myosin motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Jongmin; Nag, Suman; Vestergaard, Christian; Mortensen, Kim; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Spudich, James

    2014-03-01

    A muscle contracts rapidly under low load, but slowly under high load. Its molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated, however. During contraction, myosins in thick filaments interact with actin in thin filaments in the sarcomere, cycling between a strongly bound (force producing) state and a weakly bound (relaxed) state. Huxley et al. have previously proposed that the transition from the strong to the weak interaction can be modulated by a load. We use a new method we call ``harmonic force spectroscopy'' to extract a load-velocity curve from a single human beta cardiac myosin II motor. With a dual-beam optical trap, we hold an actin dumbbell over a myosin molecule anchored to the microscope stage that oscillates sinusoidally. Upon binding, the motor experiences an oscillatory load with a mean that is directed forward or backward, depending on binding location We find that the bound time at saturating [ATP] is exponentially correlated with the mean load, which is explained by Arrhenius transition theory. With a stroke size measurement, we obtained a load-velocity curve from a single myosin. We compare the curves for wild-type motors with mutants that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, to understand the effects on the contractile cycle

  17. The cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor down-regulates interleukin-1beta-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ali, M Aktar; Nandi, Animesh; Carreon, Peter; Choy, Hak; Saha, Debabrata

    2006-02-01

    Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently observed in several human cancers, including lung, colon, and head and neck. Malignancies are also associated with the dysregulation of cell cycle events and concomitant elevated activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). CDK2 is a key cell cycle regulatory protein that controls the transition of cells from G(1) to S phase. In this study, we furnish several lines of evidence that show a functional role for the CDK2 in interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced COX-2 expression in H358 human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line by blocking CDK2 activity. First, we show that BMS-387032, a potent CDK2 inhibitor, blocks IL-1beta-induced expression as well as steady-state mRNA levels of COX-2. Second, we show that small interfering RNA that abrogates CDK2 expression also blocks IL-1beta-induced COX-2 expression. Third, results from in vitro kinase assays clearly show that IL-1beta induces CDK2 activity in H358 cells and this activity is significantly inhibited by BMS-387032. Moreover, CDK2 inhibition blocks IL-1beta-induced binding to the NF-IL6 element of the COX-2 promoter and inhibits transcription of the COX-2 gene. We also observed that BMS-387032 does not inhibit endogenous expression of COX-2 or prostaglandin synthesis in lung carcinoma cells. Finally, we provide evidence showing that IL-1beta-induced signaling events, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, phosphorylated AKT, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, are not inhibited by CDK2 inhibitor. Taken together, the data suggest that CDK2 activity may play an important event in the IL-1beta-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis and might represent a novel target for BMS-387032. PMID:16452236

  18. TGF-{beta} signals the formation of a unique NF1/Smad4-dependent transcription repressor-complex in human diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Luciakova, Katarina; Kollarovic, Gabriel; Kretova, Miroslava; Sabova, Ludmila; Nelson, B. Dean

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} TGF-{beta} induces the formation of unique nuclear NF1/Smad4 complexes that repress expression of the ANT-2 gene. {yields} Repression is mediated through an NF1-dependent repressor element in the promoter. {yields} The formation of NF1/Smad4 complexes and the repression of ANT2 are prevented by inhibitors of p38 kinase and TGF-{beta} RI. {yields} NF1/Smad complexes implicate novel role for NF1 and Smad proteins in the regulation of growth. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the formation of a unique nuclear NF1/Smad complex in serum-restricted fibroblasts that acts as an NF1-dependent repressor of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene (ANT2) [K. Luciakova, G. Kollarovic, P. Barath, B.D. Nelson, Growth-dependent repression of human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) transcription: evidence for the participation of Smad and Sp family proteins in the NF1-dependent repressor complex, Biochem. J. 412 (2008) 123-130]. In the present study, we show that TGF-{beta}, like serum-restriction: (a) induces the formation of NF1/Smad repressor complexes, (b) increases binding of the complexes to the repressor elements (Go elements) in the ANT2 promoter, and (c) inhibits ANT2 expression. Repression of ANT2 by TGF-{beta} is eliminated by mutating the NF1 binding sites in the Go repressor elements. All of the above responses to TGF-{beta} are prevented by inhibitors of TGF-{beta} RI and MAPK p38. These inhibitors also prevent NF1/Smad4 repressor complex formation and repression of ANT2 expression in serum-restricted cells, suggesting that similar signaling pathways are initiated by TGF-{beta} and serum-restriction. The present finding that NF1/Smad4 repressor complexes are formed through TGF-{beta} signaling pathways suggests a new, but much broader, role for these complexes in the initiation or maintenance of the growth-inhibited state.

  19. Antitumor activities of interferon alpha, beta, and gamma and their combinations on human melanoma cells in vitro: changes of proliferation, melanin synthesis, and immunophenotype.

    PubMed

    Garbe, C; Krasagakis, K; Zouboulis, C C; Schröder, K; Krüger, S; Stadler, R; Orfanos, C E

    1990-12-01

    The antitumor activities of human interferon (IFN) alpha, beta, and gamma alone or in combination were studied on four human melanoma cell lines (StML-11, StML-12, StML-14, and SKMel-28) in various concentrations (1-50,000 IU/ml IFN alpha, 0.1-1000 IU/ml IFN beta, 1-10,000 IU/ml IFN gamma) in vitro. In all experiments IFN beta exhibited the most potent antiproliferative effect of all IFN tested. After 3 d of incubation a 50% growth inhibition was achieved with 20-40 IU/ml for natural IFN beta and with 600-1200 U/ml for recombinant IFN gamma. Substantially higher doses (7,000 to more than 50,000 IU/ml) of recombinant IFN alpha 2a were required to achieve a 50% growth inhibition. A strong synergistic antiproliferative activity resulted from the combination of IFN alpha with IFN gamma and IFN beta with IFN gamma. None of the IFN tested induced terminal differentiation of melanoma cells in vitro. The formation of dendrites was inhibited, and the portion of differentiated cells in vitro was reduced after treatment with IFN in comparison to the untreated controls (untreated controls: 100%; portion of differentiated cells after treatment with IFN alpha: 58%-74%, IFN beta: 48%-96%, IFN gamma: 10%-33%). The melanin synthesis was slightly elevated after treatment with IFN alpha (untreated controls: 100%; after treatment with IFN alpha: 103%-157%, ns.) and decreased significantly after treatment with IFN beta (49%-71%, p less than 0.05) as well as with IFN gamma (80%-88%, ns.). Cell surface markers were modulated varyingly by the IFN: HLA-I antigens were enhanced by all IFN, with IFN beta emerging as the most potent inducer. Only IFN gamma, however, induced a de novo expression of HLA-DR and -DQ antigens and increased the expression of the ICAM-1 molecule and of the melanoma progression marker A.1.43. Possibly, these findings indicate a biologically more aggressive phenotype of melanoma cells. PMID:2124247

  20. Purification and characterization of the wild type and truncated human cystathionine beta-synthase enzymes expressed in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Frank, Nina; Kent, Jana O; Meier, Markus; Kraus, Jan P

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we describe the expression and characterization of recombinant human cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) in Escherichia coli. We have used a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein vector and incorporated a cleavage site with a long hinge region which allows for the independent folding of CBS and its fusion partner. In addition, our construct has the added benefit of yielding a purified CBS which only contains one extra glycine amino acid residue at the N-terminus. In our two-step purification procedure we are able to obtain a highly pure enzyme in sufficient quantities for crystallography and other physical chemical methods. We have investigated the biochemical and catalytic properties of purified full-length human CBS and of two truncation mutants lacking the C-terminal domain or both the N-terminal heme-binding and the C-terminal regulatory regions. Specifically, we have determined the pH optima of the different CBS forms and their kinetic and spectral properties. The full-length and the C-terminally truncated enzyme had a broad pH 8.5 optimum while the pH optimum of the N- and C- terminally truncated enzyme was sharp and shifted to pH 9. Furthermore, we have shown unequivocally that CBS binds one mole of heme per subunit by determining both the heme and the iron content of the enzyme. The activity of the enzyme was unaffected by the redox status of the heme iron. Finally, we show that CBS is stimulated by S-adenosyl- l-methionine but not its analogs. PMID:18060852

  1. Inducible expression of beta defensins by human respiratory epithelial cells exposed to Aspergillus fumigatus organisms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprophytic mould, is responsible for life-threatening, invasive pulmonary diseases in immunocompromised hosts. The role of the airway epithelium involves a complex interaction with the inhaled pathogen. Antimicrobial peptides with direct antifungal and chemotactic activities may boost antifungal immune response. Results The inducible expression of defensins by human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells and A549 pneumocyte cells exposed to A. fumigatus was investigated. Using RT-PCR and real time PCR, we showed an activation of hBD2 and hBD9 defensin genes: the expression was higher in cells exposed to swollen conidia (SC), compared to resting conidia (RC) or hyphal fragments (HF). The kinetics of defensin expression was different for each one, evoking a putative distinct function for each investigated defensin. The decrease of defensin expression in the presence of heat-inactivated serum indicated a possible link between defensins and the proteins of the host complement system. The presence of defensin peptide hBD2 was revealed using immunofluorescence that showed a punctual cytoplasmic and perinuclear staining. Quantification of the cells stained with anti hBD2 antibody demonstrated that SC induced a greater number of cells that synthesized hBD2, compared to RC or HF. Labelling of the cells with anti-hBD-2 antibody showed a positive immunofluorescence signal around RC or SC in contrast to HF. This suggests co-localisation of hBD2 and digested conidia. The HBD2 level was highest in the supernatants of cells exposed to SC, as was determined by sandwich ELISA. Experiments using neutralising anti-interleukine-1β antibody reflect the autocrine mechanism of defensin expression induced by SC. Investigation of defensin expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels demonstrated the requirement of transcription as well as new protein synthesis during A. fumigatus defensin induction. Finally, induced defensin expression in

  2. Fluorometric determination of 2'-beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate, the active metabolite of a new anti-human immunodeficiency virus drug, in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Dai, F; Kelley, J A; Zhang, H; Malinowski, N; Kavlick, M F; Lietzau, J; Welles, L; Yarchoan, R; Ford, H

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive precolumn derivatization method has been developed to measure the 5'-triphosphate of 2'-beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (F-ddA, lodenosine), a new anti-HIV drug, in human lymphocytes by HPLC using fluorescence detection. Reaction of chloroacetaldehyde with F-ddA triphosphate in extracts from human lymphocytes produces a highly fluorescent etheno adduct. This derivative is then separated and quantitated by reverse-phase paired-ion chromatography. Degradation of natural nucleic acid ribosides, such as ATP, using periodate oxidation simplifies the chromatogram and minimizes interference with detection of the target analyte. This method, modeled using cultured MOLT-4 T-lymphocytes, achieves a linear detector response for peak area measurements over the range 2.5 to 22.5 pmol (50-450 nM using 50 microl sample). Analyte recovery is greater than 90%, and the method achieves a limit of detection and limit of quantitation of 1.4 and 2.5 pmol per HPLC injection (50 microl sample containing cellular extract from 2.5 x 10(6) cells), respectively. Application of this method to measure F-ddATP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients treated with F-ddA at 3.2 mg/kg twice daily for 22 days shows F-ddATP levels which range from 1.5 to 3.5 pmol/10(6) cells. PMID:11141306

  3. A large spectrum of alpha and beta papillomaviruses are detected in human stool samples.

    PubMed

    Di Bonito, Paola; Della Libera, Simonetta; Petricca, Sabrina; Iaconelli, Marcello; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Graffeo, Rosalia; Accardi, Luisa; La Rosa, Giuseppina

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been detected in urban wastewaters, demonstrating that epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage through the washing of skin and mucous membranes. Papillomavirus shedding through faeces is still an unexplored issue. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of HPVs in stool samples. We analysed 103 faecal specimens collected from hospitalized patients with diarrhoea using validated primers able to detect α, β and γ HPVs. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. A total of 15 sequences were characterized from the faecal samples. Thirteen samples (12.6 %) were positive for nine genotypes belonging to the α and β genera: HPV32 (LR, α1), HPV39 (HR, α7), HPV44 (LR, α10), HPV8 (β1), HPV9, HPV23, HPV37, HPV38 and HPV120 (β2). Two putative novel genotypes of the β genus, species 1 and 2, were also detected. The tissue(s) of origin is unknown, since faeces can collect HPVs originating from or passing through the entire digestive system. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the occurrence and diversity of HPVs in faecal samples. Results from this study demonstrate that HPVs can find their way into sewage as a consequence of shedding in the faeces. This highlights the need for further studies aimed at understanding the prevalence of HPV in different water environments and the potential for waterborne transmission. PMID:25398789

  4. Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid metabolism in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Evidence for peroxisomal beta-oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, J A; Figard, P H; Spector, A A

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether the peroxisome is responsible for hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) oxidation, 12- and 15-HETE oxidation was measured in normal and peroxisomal deficient skin fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger's (cerebrohepatorenal) syndrome. When incubated for 1 h with normal fibroblasts, reverse phase HPLC indicated that 24% of the 12-HETE radioactivity was converted to one major polar metabolite. Chemical derivatization followed by reverse phase HPLC and TLC indicated that this metabolite is 8-hydroxyhexadecatrienoic acid [16:3(8-OH)]. Similarly, 33% of the added 15-HETE was also converted to a more polar metabolite. Neither 12- nor 15-HETE were converted to any metabolites by the peroxisomal deficient (Zellweger) cells. No defect in HETE oxidation was found in other human fibroblast cell lines with diverse metabolic abnormalities. Zellweger fibroblasts accumulated increased amounts of 12-HETE, compared with normal fibroblasts. As in the normal cells, most of the 12-HETE incorporated into Zellweger fibroblasts was present in the choline and ethanolamine phosphoglycerides. Protein synthesis, lysosomal acid lipase activity, and mitochondrial butyrate oxidation were not impaired in the Zellweger fibroblasts. Since the Zellweger cells do not convert 12- and 15-HETE to oxidative metabolites, peroxisomes appear to be the cellular organelle responsible for HETE oxidation. Images PMID:2318972

  5. New Alzheimer amyloid beta responsive genes identified in human neuroblastoma cells by hierarchical clustering.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Markus; Ittrich, Carina; Wiedmann, Verena; Knyazev, Yuri; Weninger, Annette; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Hartmann, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal degeneration and cell loss. Abeta(42), in contrast to Abeta(40), is thought to be the pathogenic form triggering the pathological cascade in AD. In order to unravel overall gene regulation we monitored the transcriptomic responses to increased or decreased Abeta(40) and Abeta(42) levels, generated and derived from its precursor C99 (C-terminal fragment of APP comprising 99 amino acids) in human neuroblastoma cells. We identified fourteen differentially expressed transcripts by hierarchical clustering and discussed their involvement in AD. These fourteen transcripts were grouped into two main clusters each showing distinct differential expression patterns depending on Abeta(40) and Abeta(42) levels. Among these transcripts we discovered an unexpected inverse and strong differential expression of neurogenin 2 (NEUROG2) and KIAA0125 in all examined cell clones. C99-overexpression had a similar effect on NEUROG2 and KIAA0125 expression as a decreased Abeta(42)/Abeta(40) ratio. Importantly however, an increased Abeta(42)/Abeta(40) ratio, which is typical of AD, had an inverse expression pattern of NEUROG2 and KIAA0125: An increased Abeta(42)/Abeta(40) ratio up-regulated NEUROG2, but down-regulated KIAA0125, whereas the opposite regulation pattern was observed for a decreased Abeta(42)/Abeta(40) ratio. We discuss the possibilities that the so far uncharacterized KIAA0125 might be a counter player of NEUROG2 and that KIAA0125 could be involved in neurogenesis, due to the involvement of NEUROG2 in developmental neural processes. PMID:19707560

  6. Operon for Biosynthesis of Lipstatin, the Beta-Lactone Inhibitor of Human Pancreatic Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Tingli; Zhang, Daozhong; Lin, Shuangjun; Long, Qingshan; Wang, Yemin; Ou, Hongyu; Kang, Qianjin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Lipstatin, isolated from Streptomyces toxytricini as a potent and selective inhibitor of human pancreatic lipase, is a precursor for tetrahydrolipstatin (also known as orlistat, Xenical, and Alli), the only FDA-approved antiobesity medication for long-term use. Lipstatin features a 2-hexyl-3,5-dihydroxy-7,10-hexadecadienoic-β-lactone structure with an N-formyl-l-leucine group attached as an ester to the 5-hydroxy group. It has been suggested that the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid β-lactone moiety of lipstatin in S. toxytricini is derived from Claisen condensation between two fatty acid substrates, which are derived from incomplete oxidative degradation of linoleic acid based on feeding experiments. In this study, we identified a six-gene operon (lst) that was essential for the biosynthesis of lipstatin by large-deletion, complementation, and single-gene knockout experiments. lstA, lstB, and lstC, which encode two β-ketoacyl–acyl carrier protein synthase III homologues and an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase homologue, were indicated to be responsible for the generation of the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid backbone. Subsequently, the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene lstE and the putative formyltransferase gene lstF were involved in decoration of the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid chain with an N-formylated leucine residue. Finally, the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-homologous gene lstD might be responsible for the reduction of the β-keto group of the biosynthetic intermediate, thereby facilitating the formation of the unique β-lactone ring. PMID:25239907

  7. Crystal Structure of Human Liver delta {4}-3-Ketosteroid 5 beta-Reductase (AKR1D1) and Implications for Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Di Costanzo,L.; Drury, J.; Penning, T.; Christianson, D.

    2008-01-01

    AKR1D1 (steroid 5{beta}-reductase) reduces all 4-3-ketosteroids to form 5{beta}-dihydrosteroids, a first step in the clearance of steroid hormones and an essential step in the synthesis of all bile acids. The reduction of the carbon-carbon double bond in an a,{beta}-unsaturated ketone by 5{beta}-reductase is a unique reaction in steroid enzymology because hydride transfer from NADPH to the {beta}-face of a 4-3-ketosteroid yields a cis-A/B-ring configuration with an {approx}90 bend in steroid structure. Here, we report the first x-ray crystal structure of a mammalian steroid hormone carbon-carbon double bond reductase, human 4-3-ketosteroid 5{beta}-reductase (AKR1D1), and its complexes with intact substrates. We have determined the structures of AKR1D1 complexes with NADP+ at 1.79- and 1.35- Angstroms resolution (HEPES bound in the active site), NADP+ and cortisone at 1.90- Angstroms resolution, NADP+ and progesterone at 2.03- Angstroms resolution, and NADP+ and testosterone at 1.62- Angstroms resolution. Complexes with cortisone and progesterone reveal productive substrate binding orientations based on the proximity of each steroid carbon-carbon double bond to the re-face of the nicotinamide ring of NADP+. This orientation would permit 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH. Each steroid carbonyl accepts hydrogen bonds from catalytic residues Tyr58 and Glu120. The Y58F and E120A mutants are devoid of activity, supporting a role for this dyad in the catalytic mechanism. Intriguingly, testosterone binds nonproductively, thereby rationalizing the substrate inhibition observed with this particular steroid. The locations of disease-linked mutations thought to be responsible for bile acid deficiency are also revealed.

  8. Immunogenicity of Recombinant Human Interferon Beta-1b in Immune-Tolerant Transgenic Mice Corresponds with the Biophysical Characteristics of Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Abdolvahab, Mohadeseh Haji; Fazeli, Ahmad; Halim, Andhyk; Sediq, Ahmad S; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza; Schellekens, Huub

    2016-04-01

    Determining to what extent biophysical characteristics of aggregates affect immunogenicity of therapeutic interferon beta-1b. Three recombinant human interferon beta-1b (rhIFNβ-1b) samples with different levels of aggregates generated by copper oxidation, thermal stress, or left untreated, as well as Avonex(®) drug substance and Betaferon(®) drug product, were injected intraperitoneally in nontransgenic and interferon beta transgenic FVB/N mice 5 times per week for 3 weeks. Antibodies against interferon beta were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), fluid imaging microscopy, and resonant mass measurement, as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, were used to characterize and quantitate aggregates in the 3 rhIFNβ preparations, to correlate biophysical characteristics with immunogenicity. In immune-tolerant interferon beta transgenic FVB/N mice, Betaferon drug product showed the highest immunogenicity, while Avonex drug substance showed the lowest level of immunogenicity. Of the 3 forms of rhIFNβ-1b, copper-oxidized rhIFNβ-1b showed lower immunogenicity than thermally stressed rhIFNβ-1b, despite containing larger aggregates. Both copper-oxidized rhIFNβ-1b and thermally stressed rhIFNβ-1b exhibited changes in protein structure as shown using fluorescence spectroscopy and RP-HPLC. Nontransgenic, nonimmune-tolerant FVB/N mice generated high antibody titers against all interferon beta samples tested. The level of immunogenicity and the breaking of tolerance in FVB/N transgenic mice are not only related to the level of aggregation but also depend on the size and structure of the aggregates. PMID:26835734

  9. Whole-body biodistribution, radiation absorbed dose and brain SPECT imaging with iodine-123-{beta}-CIT in healthy human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Seibyl, J.P.; Wallace, E.; Smith, E.O.; Stabin, M.; Baldwin, R.M.; Zoghbi, S.; Zea-Ponce, Y.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, W.Y.; Neumeyer, J.L. ||

    1994-05-01

    SPECT imaging with {sup 123}I-labeled methyl 3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2{beta}-carboxylate ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT) in nonhuman primates has shown brain striatal activity, which primarily reflects binding to the dopamine transporter. The biodistribution and calculated radiation-absorbed doses of [{sup 123}]{beta}-CIT administered to eight healthy subjects were measured with attention to the accurate determination of organ time-activity data. Whole-body transmission images were obtained with a scanning line source for attenuation correction of the emission images. Following administration of 92.5 {+-} 22.2 MBq (2.5 {+-} 0.6 mCi) of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT, subjects were imaged with a whole-body imager every 30 min for 3 hr, every 60 min for the next 3 hr and at 12, 24 and 38 hr postinjection. Regional body conjugate counts were converted to microcuries of activity, with a calibration factor determined in a separate experiment using a distributed source of {sup 123}I. The peak brain uptake represented 14% of the injected dose, with 2% of the activity approximately overlying the striatal region. Highest radiation-absorbed doses were to the lung (0.1 mGy/MBq, 0.38 rads/mCi), liver (0.087 mGy/MBq, 0.32 rads/mCi) and lower large intestine (0.053 mGy/MBq, 0.20 rads/mCi). Iodine-123-{beta}-CIT is a promising SPECT agent for imaging of the dopamine transporter in humans with favorable dosimetry and high brain uptake. 18 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. A Chromosome 8 Gene-Cluster Polymorphism with Low Human Beta-Defensin 2 Gene Copy Number Predisposes to Crohn Disease of the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Fellermann, Klaus; Stange, Daniel E.; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schmalzl, Hartmut; Wehkamp, Jan; Bevins, Charles L.; Reinisch, Walter; Teml, Alexander; Schwab, Matthias; Lichter, Peter; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Stange, Eduard F.

    2006-01-01

    Defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides that protect the intestinal mucosa against bacterial invasion. It has been suggested that deficient defensin expression may underlie the chronic inflammation of Crohn disease (CD). The DNA copy number of the beta-defensin gene cluster on chromosome 8p23.1 is highly polymorphic within the healthy population, which suggests that the defective beta-defensin induction in colonic CD could be due to low beta-defensin–gene copy number. Here, we tested this hypothesis, using genomewide DNA copy number profiling by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction analysis of the human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) gene. We showed that healthy individuals, as well as patients with ulcerative colitis, have a median of 4 (range 2–10) HBD-2 gene copies per genome. In a surgical cohort with ileal or colonic CD and in a second large cohort with inflammatory bowel diseases, those with ileal resections/disease exhibited a normal median HBD-2 copy number of 4, whereas those with colonic CD had a median of only 3 copies per genome (P=.008 for the surgical cohort; P=.032 for the second cohort). Overall, the copy number distribution in colonic CD was shifted to lower numbers compared with controls (P=.002 for both the surgical cohort and the cohort with inflammatory bowel diseases). Individuals with ⩽3 copies have a significantly higher risk of developing colonic CD than did individuals with ⩾4 copies (odds ratio 3.06; 95% confidence interval 1.46–6.45). An HBD-2 gene copy number of <4 was associated with diminished mucosal HBD-2 mRNA expression (P=.033). In conclusion, a lower HBD-2 gene copy number in the beta-defensin locus predisposes to colonic CD, most likely through diminished beta-defensin expression. PMID:16909382

  11. Wi-Fi and satellite-based location techniques for intelligent agricultural machinery controlled by a human operator.

    PubMed

    Drenjanac, Domagoj; Tomic, Slobodanka; Agüera, Juan; Perez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems' (GNSS) receivers carried by the human operator: (1) an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2) an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK)-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1) a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI) from the wireless environment; and (2) the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the autonomous tractor. From

  12. Wi-Fi and Satellite-Based Location Techniques for Intelligent Agricultural Machinery Controlled by a Human Operator

    PubMed Central

    Drenjanac, Domagoj; Tomic, Slobodanka; Agüera, Juan; Perez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems’ (GNSS) receivers carried by the human operator: (1) an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2) an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK)-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1) a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI) from the wireless environment; and (2) the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the autonomous tractor

  13. Sample preparation on polymeric solid phase extraction sorbents for liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis of human whole blood--a study on a number of beta-agonists and beta-antagonists.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Martin; Sabanovic, Alma

    2006-07-01

    Alternative strategies for sample preparation of human blood samples were evaluated including protein precipitation (PP) and solid phase extraction (SPE) on Waters Oasis polymeric columns. Gradient chromatography within 15 min was performed on a Hypersil Polar-RP column combined with a Sciex API 2000 triple quadrupol instrument equipped with an electro-spray interface. Beta-agonists and beta-antagonists available on the Swedish market were included in the study. A combination of zinc sulphate and ethanol was found effective for PP. A clear supernatant was achieved that either could be injected directly on the LC-MS-MS system for analysis or transferred to a SPE column for further extraction and analyte concentration. Retention on the hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced sorbent HLB as well as the mixed mode cationic MCX and anionic MAX sorbents were investigated. On HBL the relative lipophilicity of the target analytes was investigated. At a high pH when the amino alcohols are deprotonised the more non-polar analytes (e.g., carvediol, betaxolol, bisoprolol and propranolol) were well retained on the sorbent and for the majority methanol content higher than 50% in water (v/v) was needed for elution. Some analytes though, with additional weak acidic functionalities (fenoterol, salbutamol, sotalol, and terbutaline) were poorly retained. On MAX the retention of these weak acids was improved when loaded under basic conditions but under neutral conditions analyte recoveries was comparable with HLB. On MCX all the analytes were well retained allowing a wash step of 100% methanol at neutral and low pH. By applying the supernatant from PP in combination with an additional portion of aqueous formic acid (2%) the analytes could be loaded and retained. High extraction recoveries were found for most analytes but for a few, significant losses were seen during PP (e.g., formoterol) and/or evaporation (e.g., fenoterol, formoterol, labetalol and terbutaline). The effectiveness of the

  14. The structures of the human calcium channel {alpha}{sub 1} subunit (CACNL1A2) and {beta} subunit (CACNLB3) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yuichiro; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Li, Qing

    1995-05-20

    Calcium influx in pancreatic {beta}-cells is regulated mainly by L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) and triggers insulin secretion. The {alpha}{sub 1} subunit (CACN4) and the {beta} subunit ({beta}{sub 3}) of VDCCs, both of which are expressed in pancreatic islets, are major components for the VDCC activity, and so they may play a critical role in the regulation of insulin secretion. The authors have determined the structures of the human CACN4 (CACNL1A2) and the human {beta}{sub 3} (CACNLB3) genes. The CACNL1A2 gene spans more than 155 kb and has 49 exons. Most of the positions interrupted by introns are well conserved between the CACNL1A2 gene and the previously reported L-type VDCC {alpha}{sub 1} subunit, CACNL1A1, gene. On the other hand, the CACNLB3 gene distributes in {approximately} 8 kb and comprises 13 exons, most of which are located together within {approximately} 5 kb. Comparisons of the genomic sequences of CACNL1A2 with the previously reported cDNA sequences indicate that there are a number of polymorphisms in the human CACNL1A2 gene. In addition, the PCR-SSCP procedure of exon 1 of CACNL1A2 revealed a change from 7 to 8 ATG trinucleotide repeats in a patient with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), resulting in an addition of methionine at the amino-terminus of CACN4. The determination of the structures of the human CACNL1A2 and CACNLB3 genes should facilitate study of the role of these genes in the development of NIDDM and also other genetic diseases such as long QT syndrome. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-human beta-endorphin to cell lines possessing either mu or delta type opioid binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Keren, O.; Gioannini, T.L.; Hiller, J.M.; Simon, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Affinity crosslinking of human /sup 125/I-beta-Endorphin to cell lines possessing either mu or delta binding sites was carried out. Autoradiography of SDS-PAGE gels from these crosslinked cell lines revealed that these two sites contain major peptide subunits that differ in molecular size. This confirms our earlier finding in mammalian brain which demonstrated separate and distinct subunits for mu and delta opioid receptors.

  16. Antibodies against the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone can decrease the clearance of human chorionic gonadotropin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Gunsalus, G L; Sundaram, K; Thau, R B

    1984-06-01

    Contraceptive vaccines based on active immunization against gonadotropic hormones are being investigated in humans and other primates. Immunization against the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH beta) reduces fertility in rhesus monkeys by inducing inadequate luteal phases and preventing corpus luteum rescue by rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG). These effects result from the cross-reactions of the oLH beta-antibodies with rhCG and rhLH. We used human CG (hCG), which also cross-reacts strongly with anti-oLH beta to examine how the circulating oLH beta-antibodies affect the metabolic clearance rates (MCR) of hCG in rhesus monkeys. 125I-hCG was injected into four nonimmunized and seven immunized monkeys and blood was collected at frequent intervals over 7 days. Total and immunoprecipitable radioactivity did not differ significantly, suggesting that the radioactivity in the plasma consisted almost entirely of 125I-hCG. This was confirmed by column chromatography. The MCR (mean +/- SE) was significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in six immunized monkeys (0.35 +/- 0.06 liters/day) as compared to controls (1.19 +/- 0.09 liters/day). The hCG disappearance curve in control monkeys was best described by a two-compartmental system (slow and fast) while an additional third (intermediate) compartment of distribution was typical for immunized animals. The half-lives of hCG for the two exponentials corresponding to the slow and fast components of distribution were not significantly different between the two groups. One immunized monkey had a MCR (1.44 liters/day) that was much greater than the MCR of the other six.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6507705

  17. Selective turnover of the essential fatty acid ester components of estradiol-17 beta lipoidal derivatives formed by human mammary cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Martyn, P; Smith, D L; Adams, J B

    1987-10-01

    The properties of fatty acyl coenzyme A: estradiol-17 beta acyl transferase in microsomes derived from pooled human mammary cancer tissue have been examined. A pH optimum of 5.5 was found and addition of long-chained fatty acyl CoAs increased estradiol-17 beta (E2) 17-monoacyl ester synthesis; the apparent Km for E2 being 8 microM when oleoyl CoA, linolenoyl CoA or palmitoyl CoA were employed. Testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and 5-androsterone-3 beta, 17 beta-diol acted as competitive inhibitors with Ki values of 36, 36 and 46 microM, respectively. The composition of E2 fatty acyl esters (E2-L) formed by incubation of [3H]E2 with human mammary cancer tissue and human mammary cancer cell lines has been determined by HPLC. Although the composition of E2-L in estrogen receptor negative cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-330) was generally similar to that found for MCF-7 cells (estrogen receptor positive) and pooled human mammary cancer tissue, the former cell lines contained a 3-fold higher relative concentration of E2-17 beta stearate. MCF-7 cells were exposed to 30 nM [3H]E2 and the composition of the isolated [3H]E2-L fraction studied at various time intervals. At 0.5 h, the intracellular concentration of E2-L was 1.8 +/- 0.4 (SEM) pmol/mg DNA which increased to values of 3.6 +/- 0.6 and 4.3 +/- 0.5 at 4 h and 16 h, respectively. In the subsequent 3 h following transfer to medium lacking [3H]E2, the concentration of E2-L declined to 3.7 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg DNA. The subfraction of E2-L composed of E2-17 beta arachidonate, linolenate and docosahexaenoate, was seen to decline in relative abundance after 0.5 h and to reach significantly lower relative levels at 16 h, and again in the 3 h period following estrogen withdrawal. The data suggests that these components, derived from essential fatty acids, are more metabolically active. This may then provide a new lead to link these novel estrogen derivatives with the established relationship between unsaturated fatty acids

  18. Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Modulates the Functional Expression of the Neurokinin-1 Receptor in Human Keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Sandrine Le; Borbely, Gabor; Słoniecka, Marta; Backman, Ludvig J.; Danielson, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a cytokine involved in a variety of processes, such as differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. TGF-β1 has also been shown to delay the internalization of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1 R) after its activation by its ligand, the neuropeptide substance P (SP). NK-1 R comprises two naturally occurring variants, a full-length and a truncated form, triggering different cellular responses. SP has been shown to affect important events in the cornea – such as stimulating epithelial cell proliferation – processes that are involved in corneal wound healing and thus in maintaining the transparency of the corneal stroma. An impaired signaling through NK-1 R could thus impact the visual quality. We hypothesize that TGF-β1 modulates the expression pattern of NK-1 R in human corneal stroma cells, keratocytes. The purpose of this study was to test that hypothesis. Methods: Cultures of primary keratocytes were set up with cells derived from healthy human corneas, obtained from donated transplantation graft leftovers, and characterized by immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Immunocytochemistry for TGF-β receptors and NK-1 R was performed. Gene expression was assessed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results: Expression of TGF-β receptors was confirmed in keratocytes in vitro. Treating the cells with TGF-β1 significantly reduced the gene expression of NK-1 R. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry for NK-1 R demonstrated that it is specifically the expression of the full-length isotype of the receptor that is reduced after treatment with TGF-β1, which was also confirmed with qPCR using a specific probe for the full-length receptor. Conclusions: TGF-β1 down-regulates the gene expression of the full-length variant of NK-1 R in human keratocytes, which might impact its signaling pathway and thus explain the known delay in internalization after activation by SP seen with TGF-β1 treatment

  19. Determination of mass loss and mass transfer rates of Algol (Beta Persei) from the analysis of absorption lines in the UV spectra obtained by the IUE satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, Kristen

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archive of high-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the eclipsing semi-detached binary star, Algol ([beta] Persei, HD 19356), taken from September 1978 to September 1989, is analyzed in order to characterize the movement of gas within and from this system. Light curves are constructed, using a total of 1647 continuum level measurements. These results support the semidetached status of this interacting binary star. Radial velocities, residual intensities, full width half maxima (FWHM), line asymmetries, and equivalent widths of UV absorption lines for aluminum, magnesium, iron, and silicon in a range of ionization states are determined and analyzed. For selected epochs, we were able to isolate gas stream and photospheric contributions by an examination of the differences between spectral line shapes. We observed variations in line shape and strength, with orbital phase and epoch, indicating the presence of stable gas streams and circumstellar gas, and periods of increased mass-transfer activity associated with transient gas streams. The 1989 data indicates moderate activity. This epoch was examined most closely since it provides the greatest phase coverage. Spectral line profiles in 1978 and 1984 have the strongest gas-flow absorption components, indicating that these are the epochs of the greatest activity. The dense phase coverage in September 1989 allows us to measure the mass loss rate from Algol B into Algol A which is of order ~10 -14 [Special characters omitted.] /yr. Since the highest gas-flow velocities are in the 100 kilometer per second range, well below escape velocity, we conclude that systemic mass loss due to gas flow is small for the Algol system.

  20. Alternative sites of transcription initiation upstream of the canonical cap site in human gamma-globin and beta-globin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Grindlay, G J; Lanyon, W G; Allan, M; Paul, J

    1984-01-01

    Using S1 mapping and primer extension analysis, we have identified a number of human kappa-globin and beta-globin 5' RNA termini originating in the 200 bp upstream of the canonical mRNA cap sites. Upstream initiation sites have previously been reported for the human epsilon-globin gene (4,5) and the present work indicates that this is a general feature of the human beta-type globin genes. We have attempted to identify features common to such sites between the three genes. One site 170 bp upstream of the major beta-globin cap site and a site 1400 bp upstream of the major epsilon-globin cap site are located near putative PolIII promoter sequences and may therefore be transcribed by this enzyme. Alternative initiation sites located 200 bp and 50-100 bp upstream of the epsilon-globin and kappa-globin cap sites respectively are located within S1 hypersensitive regions of chromatin. Images PMID:6701091

  1. Assignment of human {alpha}-synuclein (SNCA) and {beta}-synuclein (SNCB) genes to chromosomes 4q21 and 5q35

    SciTech Connect

    Spillantini, M.G.; Goedert, M.; Divane, A.

    1995-05-20

    The authors previously identified two human brain proteins of 140 and 134 amino acids by virtue of their reactivity with a monoclonal antibody raised against a tangle preparation from Alzheimer disease brain. The 140-amino-acid protein is homologous to synuclein from Torpedo electroplaques and rat brain and identical to the precursor of the non-A{beta} component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaques. The 134-amino-acid protein is homologous to bovine phosphoneuroprotein 14. In view fo the fact that both proteins are 61% identical in sequence, they have called them {alpha}-synuclein and {beta}-synuclein, respectively. Both proteins are present in nerve terminals, where they may be involved in the events mediating exocytosis of synaptic vesicles following nerve stimulation. They have now determined the chromosomal localizations of the {alpha}-synuclein and {beta}-synuclein genes. To map the two genes analyzed a panel of monochromosomal human-rodent somatic cell hybride by polymerase chain reaction and performed fluorescence in situ hybridization on metaphase spreads f human chromosomes.

  2. The polyoma virus enhancer cannot substitute for DNase I core hypersensitive sites 2-4 in the human beta-globin LCR.

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, K; Liu, Q; Bungert, J; Engel, J D

    1999-01-01

    The polyoma virus enhancer (PyE) is capable of conferring integration position-independent expression to linked genes in stably transfected erythroid cells after joining to DNase I hypersensitive site (HS) 5 of the human beta-globin locus control region (LCR). In attempting to separate the chromatin opening activity of the LCR from its enhancer activity and to investigate contributions of the individual HS core elements to LCR function, the human beta-globin LCR HS2, HS3 and HS4 core elements were replaced with the PyE within the context of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) bearing the whole locus. We show here that, in contrast to its function in cultured cells, the PyE is unable to replace HS core element function in vivo. We found that the PyE substitution mutant LCR is unable to provide either chromatin opening or transcriptional potentiating activity at any erythroid developmental stage in transgenic mice. These data provide direct evidence that the human beta-globin LCR core elements specify unique functions that cannot be replaced by a ubiquitous enhancer activity. PMID:10454609

  3. Binding of the 68-kilodalton protein of Mycobacterium avium to alpha(v)beta3 on human monocyte-derived macrophages enhances complement receptor type 3 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, T; Rao, S P; Catanzaro, A

    1997-01-01

    Attachment to and uptake by host cells are important early events in the pathogenesis of intracellular organisms such as Mycobacterium avium. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) are known to express multiple surface receptors that play a role in binding to and uptake of M. avium. These include complement receptor type 3 (CR3), fibronectin receptor, mannose receptor, and transferrin receptor. In addition to these, we have previously reported that the integrin receptor alpha(v)beta3 also plays a role