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Sample records for human body louse

  1. Genome sequences of the human body louse and its primary endosymbiont provide insights into the permanent parasitic lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Kirkness, Ewen F.; Haas, Brian J.; Sun, Weilin; Braig, Henk R.; Perotti, M. Alejandra; Clark, John M.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Robertson, Hugh M.; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Elhaik, Eran; Gerlach, Daniel; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.; Elsik, Christine G.; Graur, Dan; Hill, Catherine A.; Veenstra, Jan A.; Walenz, Brian; Tubío, José Manuel C.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Rozas, Julio; Johnston, J. Spencer; Reese, Justin T.; Popadic, Aleksandar; Tojo, Marta; Raoult, Didier; Reed, David L.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Kraus, Emily; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Margam, Venu M.; Li, Hong-Mei; Meyer, Jason M.; Johnson, Reed M.; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; VanZee, Janice Pagel; Alvarez-Ponce, David; Vieira, Filipe G.; Aguadé, Montserrat; Guirao-Rico, Sara; Anzola, Juan M.; Yoon, Kyong S.; Strycharz, Joseph P.; Unger, Maria F.; Christley, Scott; Lobo, Neil F.; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Wang, NaiKuan; Dasch, Gregory A.; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Madey, Greg; Hannick, Linda I.; Bidwell, Shelby; Joardar, Vinita; Caler, Elisabet; Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C.; Cameron, Stephen; Bruggner, Robert V.; Regier, Allison; Johnson, Justin; Viswanathan, Lakshmi; Utterback, Terry R.; Sutton, Granger G.; Lawson, Daniel; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Venter, J. Craig; Strausberg, Robert L.; Collins, Frank H.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2010-01-01

    As an obligatory parasite of humans, the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) is an important vector for human diseases, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Here, we present genome sequences of the body louse and its primary bacterial endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola. The body louse has the smallest known insect genome, spanning 108 Mb. Despite its status as an obligate parasite, it retains a remarkably complete basal insect repertoire of 10,773 protein-coding genes and 57 microRNAs. Representing hemimetabolous insects, the genome of the body louse thus provides a reference for studies of holometabolous insects. Compared with other insect genomes, the body louse genome contains significantly fewer genes associated with environmental sensing and response, including odorant and gustatory receptors and detoxifying enzymes. The unique architecture of the 18 minicircular mitochondrial chromosomes of the body louse may be linked to the loss of the gene encoding the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein. The genome of the obligatory louse endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola encodes less than 600 genes on a short, linear chromosome and a circular plasmid. The plasmid harbors a unique arrangement of genes required for the synthesis of pantothenate, an essential vitamin deficient in the louse diet. The human body louse, its primary endosymbiont, and the bacterial pathogens that it vectors all possess genomes reduced in size compared with their free-living close relatives. Thus, the body louse genome project offers unique information and tools to use in advancing understanding of coevolution among vectors, symbionts, and pathogens. PMID:20566863

  2. The single mitochondrial chromosome typical of animals has evolved into 18 minichromosomes in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Barker, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of animals typically consist of a single circular chromosome that is ∼16-kb long and has 37 genes. Our analyses of the sequence reads from the Human Body Louse Genome Project and the patterns of gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization revealed a novel type of mt genome in the sucking louse, Pediculus humanus. Instead of having all mt genes on a single chromosome, the 37 mt genes of this louse are on 18 minicircular chromosomes. Each minicircular chromosome is 3–4 kb long and has one to three genes. Minicircular mt chromosomes are also present in the four other species of sucking lice that we investigated, but not in chewing lice nor in the Psocoptera, to which sucking lice are most closely related. We also report unequivocal evidence for recombination between minicircular mt chromosomes in P. humanus and for sequence variation in mt genes generated by recombination. The advantages of a fragmented mt genome, if any, are currently unknown. Fragmentation of mt genome, however, has coevolved with blood feeding in the sucking lice. It will be of interest to explore whether or not life history features are associated with the evolution of fragmented chromosomes. PMID:19336451

  3. Decreased detoxification genes and genome size make the human body louse an efficient model to study xenobiotic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Kang, Jae Soon; Min, Jee Sun; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Strycharz, Joseph P.; Johnson, Reed; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Margam, Venu M.; Sun, Weilin; Li, Hong-Mei; Xie, Jun; Wu, Jing; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Berenbaum, May R.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Clark, J. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, has one of the smallest insect genomes, containing ~10,775 annotated genes (Kirkness et al. 2010). Annotation of detoxification [cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), esterase (Est), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC transporter)] genes revealed that they are dramatically reduced in P. h. humanus compared to other insects except for Apis mellifera. There are 37 P450, 13 GST and 17 Est genes present in P. h. humanus, approximately half of that found in Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. The number of putatively functional ABC transporter genes in P. h. humanus and A. mellifera are the same (36) but both have fewer than An. gambiae (44) or D. melanogaster (65). The reduction of detoxification genes in P. h. humanus may be due to their simple life history, where they do not encounter a wide variety of xenobiotics. Neuronal component genes are highly conserved across different insect species as expected due to their critical function. Although reduced in number, P. h. humanus still retains at least a minimum repertoire of genes known to confer metabolic or toxicokinetic resistance to xenobiotics (e.g., Cyp3 clade P450s, Delta GSTs, B clade Ests and B/C subfamily ABC transporters), suggestive of its high potential for resistance development. PMID:20561088

  4. Utilization of the human louse genome to study insecticide resistance and innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. Marshall; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2015-01-01

    Since sequencing the human body louse genome, substantial advances have occurred in the utilization of the information gathered from louse genomes and transcriptomes. Comparatively, the body louse genome contains far fewer genes involved in environmental response, such as xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune response. Additionally, the body louse maintains a primary bacterial endosymbiont, Candidatus Riesia pediculicola, and a number of bacterial pathogens that it vectors, which have genomes that are also reduced in size. Thus, human louse genomes offer unique information and tools for use in advancing our understanding of coevolution among vectors, endosymbionts and pathogens. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the extent of pediculicide resistance, the availability of new pediculicides and information establishing this organism as an efficient model to study how xenobiotic metabolism, which is involved in insecticide resistance, is induced and how insects modify their innate immune response upon bacterial challenge resulting in enhanced vector competence. PMID:25987230

  5. Detection of a knockdown resistance mutation associated with permethrin resistance in the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis by use of melting curve analysis genotyping.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Benkouiten, Samir; Badiaga, Sékéné; Bitam, Idir; Rolain, Jean Marc; Brouqui, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Louse-borne diseases are prevalent in the homeless, and body louse eradication has thus far been unsuccessful in this population. We aim to develop a rapid and robust genotyping method usable in large field-based clinical studies to monitor permethrin resistance in the human body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. We assessed a melting curve analysis genotyping method based on real-time PCR using hybridization probes to detect the M815I-T917I-L920F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in the paraorthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) α subunit gene, which is associated with permethrin resistance. The 908-bp DNA fragment of the VSSC gene, encoding the α subunit of the sodium channel and encompassing the three mutation sites, was PCR sequenced from 65 lice collected from a homeless population. We noted a high prevalence of the 3 indicated mutations in the body lice collected from homeless people (100% for the M815I and L920F mutations and 56.73% for the T917I mutation). These results were confirmed by melting curve analysis genotyping, which had a calculated sensitivity of 100% for the M815I and T917I mutations and of 98% for the L920F mutation. The specificity was 100% for M815I and L920F and 96% for T917I. Melting curve analysis genotyping is a fast, sensitive, and specific tool that is fully compatible with the analysis of a large number of samples in epidemiological surveys, allowing the simultaneous genotyping of 96 samples in just over an hour (75 min). Thus, it is perfectly suited for the epidemiological monitoring of permethrin resistance in human body lice in large-scale clinical studies. PMID:22573588

  6. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent. PMID:26864790

  7. Determination of permethrin resistance allele frequency of human head louse populations by quantitative sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Deok Ho; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Strycharz, Joseph P; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2008-09-01

    A quantitative sequencing (QS) protocol that detects the frequencies of sodium channel mutations (M815I, T917I, and L920F) responsible for knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) was tested as a population genotyping method for use as a preliminary resistance monitoring tool. Genomic DNA fragments of the sodium channel a-subunit gene that encompass the three mutation sites were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-1 amplified from individual head lice with either resistant or susceptible genotypes, and combined in various ratios to generate standard DNA template mixtures for QS. After sequencing, the signal ratios between resistant and susceptible nucleotides were calculated and plotted against the corresponding resistance allele frequencies. Quadratic regression coefficients of the plots were close to 1, demonstrating that the signal ratios are highly correlated with the resistance allele frequencies. Resistance allele frequencies predicted by QS, using either "pooled DNA" (DNA extracted from individual louse specimens and pooled) or "pooled specimen DNA" (DNA simultaneously extracted from multiple louse specimens), agreed well with those determined by individual sequencing, confirming the reliability and accuracy of QS as a population genotyping method and validating our approach of using the pooled specimen DNA as the DNA template for QS. Our protocol for QS was determined to be highly reliable for the prediction of resistance allele frequencies higher than approximately 7.4% at the 95% confidence level. According to the resistance allele frequencies determined by QS, pyrethroid resistance varies substantially among different geographical regions, emphasizing the importance of early resistance detection and proper management strategies. PMID:18826035

  8. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, M Alejandra; Catalá, Silvia S; Ormeño, Analía del V; Żelazowska, Monika; Biliński, Szczepan M; Braig, Henk R

    2004-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later. PMID:15140268

  9. Determination of knockdown resistance allele frequencies in global human head louse populations using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Aboelghar, Gamal E.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pediculosis is the most prevalent parasitic infestation of humans. Resistance to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides is due to knockdown (kdr)-type point mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel α-subunit gene. Early detection of resistance is crucial for the selection of effective management strategies. RESULTS Kdr allele frequencies of lice from 14 countries were determined using serial invasive signal amplification reaction. Lice collected from Uruguay, UK and Australia had kdr allele frequencies of 100% while lice from Ecuador, Papua New Guinea, South Korea and Thailand had kdr allele frequencies of 0%. The remaining 7 countries investigated, including seven US populations, two Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, Czech Republic, Egypt and Israel, displayed variable kdr allele frequencies, ranging from 11% to 97%. CONCLUSION The newly developed and validated SISAR method is suitable for accurate monitoring of kdr allele frequencies in head lice. Proactive management is needed where kdr-type resistance is not yet saturated. Based on sodium channel insensitivity and its occurrence in louse populations resistant to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides, the T917I mutation appears a key marker for resistance. Results from the Egyptian population, however, indicate that phenotypic resistance of lice with single or double mutations (M815I and/or L920F) should also be determined. PMID:20564731

  10. Ovicidal Response of NYDA Formulations on the Human Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Using a Hair Tuft Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    STRYCHARZ, JOSEPH P.; LAO, ALICE R.; ALVES, ANNA-MARIA; CLARK, J. MARSHALL

    2012-01-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5–8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments. PMID:22493852

  11. Ovicidal response of NYDA formulations on the human head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) using a hair tuft bioassay.

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Lao, Alice R; Alves, Anna-Maria; Clark, J Marshall

    2012-03-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer's instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5-8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments. PMID:22493852

  12. Dispersal of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), and the chicken body louse, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch), among thirty strains of egg-type hens in a caged laying house.

    PubMed

    DeVaney, J A; Quisenberry, J H; Doran, B H; Bradley, J W

    1980-08-01

    From September 1978 through Februrary 1979, dispersal of uncontrolled, naturally occurring populations of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), and the chicken body louse, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzch) was studied on 30 strains of egg-type pullets reared to 20 weeks old on four growing rations before being housed for egg production. Hens representing all 30 strains and each of the four feeding regimens had mites. The northern fowl mite spread from initial infestations down the entire length of the house in 1 month; after four months, the chicken body louse had spread approximately two-thirds the length of a cage row in the house. Populations of the northern fowl mite increased from very light to extra heavy within 1 month and then began a slow decline. PMID:7413582

  13. Evolution of Extensively Fragmented Mitochondrial Genomes in the Lice of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Barker, Stephen C.; Herd, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral animals are featured by an extremely compact mitochondrial (mt) genome with 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, however, has its mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genomes of two other human lice: the head louse, P. capitis, and the pubic louse, Pthirus pubis. Comparison among the three human lice revealed the presence of fragmented mt genomes in their most recent common ancestor, which lived ∼7 Ma. The head louse has exactly the same set of mt minichromosomes as the body louse, indicating that the number of minichromosomes, and the gene content and gene arrangement in each minichromosome have remained unchanged since the body louse evolved from the head louse ∼107,000 years ago. The pubic louse has the same pattern of one protein-coding or rRNA gene per minichromosome (except one minichromosome with two protein-coding genes, atp6 and atp8) as the head louse and the body louse. This pattern is apparently ancestral to all human lice and has been stable for at least 7 Myr. Most tRNA genes of the pubic louse, however, are on different minichromosomes when compared with their counterparts in the head louse and the body louse. It is evident that rearrangement of four tRNA genes (for leucine, arginine and glycine) was due to gene-identity switch by point mutation at the third anticodon position or by homologous recombination, whereas rearrangement of other tRNA genes was by gene translocation between minichromosomes, likely caused by minichromosome split via gene degeneration and deletion. PMID:23042553

  14. Evolution of extensively fragmented mitochondrial genomes in the lice of humans.

    PubMed

    Shao, Renfu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Barker, Stephen C; Herd, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral animals are featured by an extremely compact mitochondrial (mt) genome with 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, however, has its mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genomes of two other human lice: the head louse, P. capitis, and the pubic louse, Pthirus pubis. Comparison among the three human lice revealed the presence of fragmented mt genomes in their most recent common ancestor, which lived ∼7 Ma. The head louse has exactly the same set of mt minichromosomes as the body louse, indicating that the number of minichromosomes, and the gene content and gene arrangement in each minichromosome have remained unchanged since the body louse evolved from the head louse ∼107,000 years ago. The pubic louse has the same pattern of one protein-coding or rRNA gene per minichromosome (except one minichromosome with two protein-coding genes, atp6 and atp8) as the head louse and the body louse. This pattern is apparently ancestral to all human lice and has been stable for at least 7 Myr. Most tRNA genes of the pubic louse, however, are on different minichromosomes when compared with their counterparts in the head louse and the body louse. It is evident that rearrangement of four tRNA genes (for leucine, arginine and glycine) was due to gene-identity switch by point mutation at the third anticodon position or by homologous recombination, whereas rearrangement of other tRNA genes was by gene translocation between minichromosomes, likely caused by minichromosome split via gene degeneration and deletion. PMID:23042553

  15. Hey! A Louse Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Hey! A Louse Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Louse Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! Hey! A Flea Bit ...

  16. The origin and distribution of human lice in the world.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Raoult, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Two genera of lice parasitize humans: Pthirus and Pediculus. The latter is of significant public health importance and comprises two ecotypes: the body louse and the head louse. These ecotypes are morphologically and genetically notably similar; the body louse is responsible for three infectious diseases: Louse-borne epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown that there are three obviously divergent clades of head lice (A, B and C), and only one clade of body lice is shared with head lice (clade A). Each clade has a unique geographic distribution. Lice have been parasitizing humans for millions of years and likely dispersed throughout the World with the human migrations out of Africa, so they can be good markers for studying human evolution. Here, we present an overview of the origin of human lice and their role in vector pathogenic bacteria that caused epidemics, and we review the association between lice clades and human migrations. PMID:24524985

  17. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  18. Magnetic human body communication.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques. PMID:26736639

  19. Gene expression in five salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Krøyer 1837) tissues.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Dalvin, Sussie; Furmanek, Tomasz; Malde, Ketil; Mæhle, Stig; Kvamme, Bjørn Olav; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L, is an important species both for traditional fishery and fish farming. Many Atlantic salmon stocks have been declining and a suspected main contributor to this decline is the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis); a parasitic copepod living off the salmonid hosts epidermal tissues and blood. Contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the molecular biology of the salmon louse we have utilized a microarray containing 11,100 salmon louse genes to study the gene expression patterns in selected tissues. This approach has yielded information about potential functions of the transcripts and tissues. Microarray analyses were preformed on subcuticular and frontal (neuronal and gland enriched tissue) tissues, as well as gut, ovary and testes of adult lice. Tissue specific transcriptomes were evident, allowing us to address main traits of functional partitioning between tissues and providing valuable insight into the biology of the louse. The results furthermore represent an important tool and resource for further experiments. PMID:24999079

  20. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens. PMID:26981235

  1. Cytogenetic Features of Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2015-09-01

    The genus Pediculus L. that parasitize humans comprise two subspecies: the head lice Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer and the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus De Geer. Despite the 200 yr of the first description of these two species, there is still a long debate about their taxonomic status. Some authors proposed that these organisms are separate species, conspecifics, or grouped in clades. The sequencing of both forms indicated that the difference between them is one gene absent in the head louse. However, their chromosomal number remains to be determined. In this study, we described the male and female karyotypes, and male meiosis of head and body lice, and examined the chromatin structure by means of C-banding. In P. h. humanus and P. h. capitis, the diploid chromosome complement was 2 n = 12 in both sexes. In oogonial prometaphase and metaphase and spermatogonial metaphase, it is evident that chromosomes lack of a primary constriction. No identifiable sex chromosomes or B chromosomes were observed in head and body lice. Neither chiasmata nor chromatin connections between homologous chromosomes were detected in male meiosis. The meiotic behaviour of the chromosomes showed that they are holokinetic. C-banding revealed the absence of constitutive heterochromatin. Our results provide relevant information to be used in mapping studies of genes associated with sex determination and environmental sensing and response. PMID:26336229

  2. Variability in human body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  3. [Wireless human body communication technology].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2014-12-01

    The Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a key part of the wearable monitoring technologies, which has many communication technologies to choose from, like Bluetooth, ZigBee, Ultra Wideband, and Wireless Human Body Communication (WHBC). As for the WHBC developed in recent years, it is worthy to be further studied. The WHBC has a strong momentum of growth and a natural advantage in the formation of WBAN. In this paper, we first briefly describe the technical background of WHBC, then introduce theoretical model of human-channel communication and digital transmission machine based on human channel. And finally we analyze various of the interference of the WHBC and show the AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping) technology which can effectively deal with the interference. PMID:25868265

  4. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  5. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  6. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2014-09-29

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  7. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    ScienceCinema

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2015-01-05

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  8. Seasonal dynamics and variation among sheep in densities of the sheep biting louse, Bovicola ovis.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Moon, R D; Brown, D R

    1998-02-01

    Cyclic patterns and variations among sheep in numbers of Bovicola ovis are described in Polypay and Columbia ewes that were initially infested with equal numbers of lice and penned indoors continuously for 2 years. Bovicola ovis populations were censused at 3-4-week intervals at 69 body sites on each animal. In the second year of the study, the ewes were reinfested and half were mated. Louse populations were monitored on the resulting lambs from birth until 25 weeks of age. Strong seasonal cycles in louse numbers were observed on the ewes, with peaks in spring and troughs in summer. These cycles occurred in the absence of shearing, direct solar radiation or rainfall. Populations began to decline when daily mean and maximum temperatures were 11.5 degrees C and 15 degrees C, respectively, well below temperatures thought to cause warm season decline. Louse densities on Polypay ewes were approximately 10 times higher than on Columbias at most inspections. There were also large differences among sheep within breeds and sheep counts were highly correlated among dates, both within and between years. One third of the ewes failed to become infested despite having lice applied on five separate occasions and being penned together with other infested sheep. Pregnancy and lactation did not significantly affect louse numbers on the ewes. There was a significant negative correlation between louse counts and weight gains in the lambs, and lamb counts were significantly correlated with those of their dams up until, but not after, weaning. It is suggested that sheep may exert regulatory influences on lice which contribute to cycles in B. ovis populations. PMID:9512991

  9. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  10. Pyrethroid tolerance in the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F; Wall, R

    2012-08-13

    Equine pediculosis is a significant health and welfare issue, particularly in elderly and chronically debilitated animals. Currently infestation is controlled predominantly using topically applied pyrethroid insecticides, allowing limited scope for the rotation of drugs and increasing the risk of selection for resistance. Here the insecticidal efficacies of two pyrethroid-based products against the louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys were examined in vitro. The products were cypermethrin (Deosect™, Pfizer Ltd., 5% (w/v) cypermethrin, cutaneous spray) and permethrin (Switch™, VetPlus Ltd., 4% (w/v) permethrin, pour-on). The pyrethroid efficacy was contrasted with that of the organophosphate diazinon, since the louse populations examined were unlikely to have had prior exposure to this compound. The efficacy of diluted pure permethrin, the excipient, butyl dioxitol and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in the presence of the pyrethroids, were also considered. At the concentrations recommended for animal application, neither 4% (w/v) permethrin, nor 0.1% (w/v) cypermethrin had any significant effect on the mortality of B. ocellatus and neither induced significantly more mortality than an acetone-only control. In contrast, 0.04% diazinon caused 70% mortality within 4h and 100% mortality after 24h exposure. The addition of a potential pyrethroid synergist, piperonyl butoxide, in combination with cypermethrin and permethrin, resulted in no significant increase in mortality. It is concluded that the population of lice tested display a high level of pyrethroid tolerance which is likely to reflect the development of resistance. Twenty-four hours after routine treatment of 10 donkeys with a pour-on permethrin product (Switch™, VetPlus Ltd., 4% (w/v) permethrin, pour-on) hair tufts taken from their flanks were not significantly insecticidal compared with hair from the midline application site, implying a low level of insecticide distribution

  11. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Previte, D; Olds, B P; Yoon, K; Sun, W; Muir, W; Paige, K N; Lee, S H; Clark, J; Koehler, J E; Pittendrigh, B R

    2014-04-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days post-infection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days post-infection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

  12. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Previte, D.; Olds, B. P.; Yoon, K.; Sun, W.; Muir, W.; Paige, K. N.; Lee, S. H.; Clark, J.; Koehler, J. E.; Pittendrigh, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days postinfection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days postinfection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

  13. Modeling Forces on the Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  14. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  15. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection. PMID:22171023

  16. New Window into the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  17. Automated fudicial labeling on human body data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewark, Erick A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

    1998-03-01

    The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner generates a high- resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The acquisition of anthropometric data from this data set is important for the development of custom sizing for the apparel industry. Software for locating anthropometric landmarks from a cloud of more than 200,000 three-dimensional data points, captured from a human subject, is presented. The first phase of identification is to locate externally placed fudicials on the human body using luminance information captured at scan time. The fudicials are then autonomously labeled and categorized according to their general position and anthropometric significance in the scan. Once registration of the landmarks is complete, body measurements may be extracted for apparel sizing.

  18. Nuclear Genetic Diversity in Human Lice (Pediculus humanus) Reveals Continental Differences and High Inbreeding among Worldwide Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ascunce, Marina S.; Toups, Melissa A.; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  19. Nuclear genetic diversity in human lice (Pediculus humanus) reveals continental differences and high inbreeding among worldwide populations.

    PubMed

    Ascunce, Marina S; Toups, Melissa A; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  20. [Micromorphology of the malpighian tubules in the louse Pediculus humanus corporis (Anoplura)].

    PubMed

    Chaĭka, S Iu

    1985-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubes in human louse Pediculus humanus corporis has been studied. The cells of the Malpighian tubules have the uniform structure: the apical surface is covered with microvilli, the basal plasmatic membrana forms relatively small invaginations. The microvilli are most developed in cells of the proximal department of the Malpighian tubules. Microvilli of the apical surface of the cells do not contain mitochondria which are localized mainly in supranuclear part of the cell. Cells are lined with a homogenous basal membrane. PMID:3986247

  1. [The solidarity of the human body].

    PubMed

    Bioy, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    The legal and bioethical regulation of the uses of the elements of the human body can be described by means of the concept of solidarity. From the French example, we can so show that the State tries to frame solidarities which already exist, for example between people who share the same genome, in the family, or, on the contrary, tent to impose or to direct the sharing of the human biological resources (organs, tissues, gametes, stem cell...). PMID:25272799

  2. Human recognition by body shape features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ming; Guan, Ling

    2005-03-01

    Non-invasive biometrics is of particular importance because of its application under surveillance environment. Although traditional research in this field is mostly focused on gait recognition, feature based on human body shape is one of the alternate choices we can rely on. Here we propose a body shape based identification system, trying to explore the its distinguishing power in biometrics. Robust image processing procedures such as Wiener filter are implemented to extract binary silhouettes from frontal-view human walking video. The Kalman filter, usually adopted as a powerful tool to facilitate tracking in computer vision applications, here functions as a reliable estimator to recover body shape information from the corrupted observations. The dynamically extracted static feature vectors are then compared to templates to achieve identification. We provide experimental results to demonstrate the performance of our system.

  3. Thermodynamics of Cooling a (Live) Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Harold

    1980-01-01

    Presents a practical problem to students in a junior-level thermodynamics course in which a human body regulates its own internal temperature. This problem can be utilized as well (with modification) in an introductory physics course for life science majors. (HM)

  4. Modeling forces on the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-11-01

    Several simulations involving the human body, using the simulation software Interactive Physics™, are used to analyze the forces during both static situations and dynamic collisions. The connection of the simulations with the biological sciences and with sports activities should make them appealing to both high school and college-level physics students.

  5. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  6. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  7. Two Bacterial Genera, Sodalis and Rickettsia, Associated with the Seal Louse Proechinophthirus fluctus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Julie M.; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema; Sweet, Andrew D.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly 10% to 15% of insect species host heritable symbiotic bacteria known as endosymbionts. The lice parasitizing mammals rely on endosymbionts to provide essential vitamins absent in their blood meals. Here, we describe two bacterial associates from a louse, Proechinophthirus fluctus, which is an obligate ectoparasite of a marine mammal. One of these is a heritable endosymbiont that is not closely related to endosymbionts of other mammalian lice. Rather, it is more closely related to endosymbionts of the genus Sodalis associated with spittlebugs and feather-chewing bird lice. Localization and vertical transmission of this endosymbiont are also more similar to those of bird lice than to those of other mammalian lice. The endosymbiont genome appears to be degrading in symbiosis; however, it is considerably larger than the genomes of other mammalian louse endosymbionts. These patterns suggest the possibility that this Sodalis endosymbiont might be recently acquired, replacing a now-extinct, ancient endosymbiont. From the same lice, we also identified an abundant bacterium belonging to the genus Rickettsia that is closely related to Rickettsia ricketsii, a human pathogen vectored by ticks. No obvious masses of the Rickettsia bacterium were observed in louse tissues, nor did we find any evidence of vertical transmission, so the nature of its association remains unclear. IMPORTANCE Many insects are host to heritable symbiotic bacteria. These heritable bacteria have been identified from numerous species of parasitic lice. It appears that novel symbioses have formed between lice and bacteria many times, with new bacterial symbionts potentially replacing existing ones. However, little was known about the symbionts of lice parasitizing marine mammals. Here, we identified a heritable bacterial symbiont in lice parasitizing northern fur seals. This bacterial symbiont appears to have been recently acquired by the lice. The findings reported here provide insights

  8. Electronic imaging of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Michael W.; Yates, Randall E.; Whitestone, Jennifer J.

    1992-09-01

    The Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory (USAF); the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology; the Washington University School of Medicine; and the Lister-Hill National Center for Biomedical Communication, National Library of Medicine are sponsoring a working group on electronic imaging of the human body. Electronic imaging of the surface of the human body has been pursued and developed by a number of disciplines including radiology, forensics, surgery, engineering, medical education, and anthropometry. The applications range from reconstructive surgery to computer-aided design (CAD) of protective equipment. Although these areas appear unrelated, they have a great deal of commonality. All the organizations working in this area are faced with the challenges of collecting, reducing, and formatting the data in an efficient and standard manner; storing this data in a computerized database to make it readily accessible; and developing software applications that can visualize, manipulate, and analyze the data. This working group is being established to encourage effective use of the resources of all the various groups and disciplines involved in electronic imaging of the human body surface by providing a forum for discussing progress and challenges with these types of data.

  9. Kinematic analysis of human body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yuhei; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Watanabe, Naoki; Yanagi, Shigeru

    1997-03-01

    The knowledge of analyzing a human motion can contribute to the treatment and the prevention of sports injuries or the investigation of welfare equipment. It is important to know the human motion by not only the medical field but the mechanical knowledge. The mechanical knowledge is expected to prevent the sports injuries or to design such as an artificial equipment. Here, we suggest a basic procedure to analyze a human motion from the view of the dynamical knowledge. Although the human body is composed of a lot of element and joint, if the slight movement on the joint such as dislocation and distortion is neglected, the human body can be replaced by a mechanical links system. On this assumption, we analyze an actual simple human motion. We take a picture of a simple arm motion from video cameras. And at the same time, we directly measure the vertical acceleration of the hand by an accelerometer. From the video image, we get the vertical acceleration of the hand with assuming the arm as two-links system. On the process of resolving the vertical acceleration of the hand, we introduce the Fourier series for filtering. Finally, we confirm the propriety of our suggested procedure by comparing the calculated acceleration of hand with the directly measured acceleration.

  10. Urate Handling in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, David; Liu, Sha; Miner, Jeffrey N

    2016-06-01

    Elevated serum urate concentration is the primary cause of gout. Understanding the processes that affect serum urate concentration is important for understanding the etiology of gout and thereby understanding treatment. Urate handing in the human body is a complex system including three major processes: production, renal elimination, and intestinal elimination. A change in any one of these can affect both the steady-state serum urate concentration as well as other urate processes. The remarkable complexity underlying urate regulation and its maintenance at high levels in humans suggests that this molecule could potentially play an interesting role other than as a mere waste product to be eliminated as rapidly as possible. PMID:27105641

  11. Small-Bodied Humans from Palau, Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.; De Klerk, Bonita; Quinn, Rhonda L.

    2008-01-01

    Newly discovered fossil assemblages of small bodied Homo sapiens from Palau, Micronesia possess characters thought to be taxonomically primitive for the genus Homo. Background Recent surface collection and test excavation in limestone caves in the rock islands of Palau, Micronesia, has produced a sizeable sample of human skeletal remains dating roughly between 940-2890 cal ybp. Principle Findings Preliminary analysis indicates that this material is important for two reasons. First, individuals from the older time horizons are small in body size even relative to “pygmoid” populations from Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and thus may represent a marked case of human insular dwarfism. Second, while possessing a number of derived features that align them with Homo sapiens, the human remains from Palau also exhibit several skeletal traits that are considered to be primitive for the genus Homo. Significance These features may be previously unrecognized developmental correlates of small body size and, if so, they may have important implications for interpreting the taxonomic affinities of fossil specimens of Homo. PMID:18347737

  12. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate. PMID:24111015

  13. Management and Treatment of Human Lice

    PubMed Central

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Doumbo, Ogobara K.

    2016-01-01

    Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of “Pediculus humanus”, “lice infestation”, “pediculosis”, and “treatment”; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin) in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance. PMID:27529073

  14. Management and Treatment of Human Lice.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of "Pediculus humanus", "lice infestation", "pediculosis", and "treatment"; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin) in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance. PMID:27529073

  15. Isomap transform for segmenting human body shapes.

    PubMed

    Cerveri, P; Sarro, K J; Marchente, M; Barros, R M L

    2011-09-01

    Segmentation of the 3D human body is a very challenging problem in applications exploiting volume capture data. Direct clustering in the Euclidean space is usually complex or even unsolvable. This paper presents an original method based on the Isomap (isometric feature mapping) transform of the volume data-set. The 3D articulated posture is mapped by Isomap in the pose of Da Vinci's Vitruvian man. The limbs are unrolled from each other and separated from the trunk and pelvis, and the topology of the human body shape is recovered. In such a configuration, Hoshen-Kopelman clustering applied to concentric spherical shells is used to automatically group points into the labelled principal curves. Shepard interpolation is utilised to back-map points of the principal curves into the original volume space. The experimental results performed on many different postures have proved the validity of the proposed method. Reliability of less than 2 cm and 3° in the location of the joint centres and direction axes of rotations has been obtained, respectively, which qualifies this procedure as a potential tool for markerless motion analysis. PMID:21360362

  16. Determinants of body weight regulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Moehlecke, Milene; Canani, Luis Henrique; Silva, Lucas Oliveira Junqueira E; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Friedman, Rogerio; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2016-04-01

    Body weight is regulated by the ability of hypothalamic neurons to orchestrate behavioral, endocrine and autonomic responses via afferent and efferent pathways to the brainstem and the periphery. Weight maintenance requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although several components that participate in energy homeostasis have been identified, there is a need to know in more detail their actions as well as their interactions with environmental and psychosocial factors in the development of human obesity. In this review, we examine the role of systemic mediators such as leptin, ghrelin and insulin, which act in the central nervous system by activating or inhibiting neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide protein, melanocortin, transcript related to cocaine and amphetamine, and others. As a result, modifications in energy homeostasis occur through regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We also examine compensatory changes in the circulating levels of several peripheral hormones after diet-induced weight loss. PMID:26910628

  17. Human body temperature - Its measurement and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Houdas, Y.; Ring, E.F.J.

    1982-01-01

    The terminology used in thermal physiology is examined, and principles of heat transfer are discussed, taking into account heat quantity, heat flux, temperature, pressure, quantities used in physiology, a number of common definitions, the equivalence between different forms of energy, the release of potential energy in living tissues, heat transfer without change of state, and heat transfer with change of state. Temperature and humidity measurement are considered along with man and his environment, the temperature distribution in the systems and tracts of the human body, physiological changes affecting the temperature distribution, problems of temperature regulation, questions of heat loss and conservation, acclimatization to heat and cold, and disorders of thermoregulation. Attention is given to possible thermal imaging applications, causes of temperature irregularities in the head and neck, common causes of increased temperatures of upper limbs, and thermography in disease. 193 references.

  18. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  19. Adiposity and human regional body temperature123

    PubMed Central

    Savastano, David M; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Brady, Sheila M; Reynolds, James C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human obesity is associated with increased heat production; however, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. To maintain normothermia, therefore, obese individuals must increase their heat dissipation. Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that temperature in a heat-dissipating region of the hand is elevated in obese adults. Design: Obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥ 30] and normal-weight (NW; body mass index = 18–25) adults were studied under thermoneutral conditions at rest. Core body temperature was measured by using ingested telemetric capsules. The temperatures of the third fingernail bed of the right hand and of abdominal skin from an area 1.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus were determined by using infrared thermography. Abdominal skin temperatures were also measured via adhesive thermistors that were placed over a prominent skin-surface blood vessel and over an adjacent nonvessel location. The groups were compared by analysis of covariance with age, sex, race, and room temperature as covariates. Results: Core temperature did not differ significantly between the 23 obese and 13 NW participants (P = 0.74). However, infrared thermography–measured fingernail-bed temperature was significantly higher in obese subjects than in NW subjects (33.9 ± 0.7°C compared with 28.6 ± 0.9°C; P < 0.001). Conversely, infrared thermography–measured abdominal skin temperature was significantly lower in obese subjects than in NW subjects (31.8 ± 0.2°C compared with 32.8 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.02). Nonvessel abdominal skin temperatures measured by thermistors were also lower in obese subjects (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese adults may provide a significant insulating layer that blunts abdominal heat transfer. Augmented heat release from the hands may offset heat retention in areas of the body with greater adiposity, thereby helping to maintain normothermia in

  20. Facilitated early cortical processing of nude human bodies.

    PubMed

    Alho, Jussi; Salminen, Nelli; Sams, Mikko; Hietanen, Jari K; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging has identified specialized neural systems supporting human body perception. Responses to nude vs. clothed bodies within this system are amplified. However, it remains unresolved whether nude and clothed bodies are processed by same cerebral networks or whether processing of nude bodies recruits additional affective and arousal processing areas. We recorded simultaneous MEG and EEG while participants viewed photographs of clothed and nude bodies. Global field power revealed a peak ∼145ms after stimulus onset to both clothed and nude bodies, and ∼205ms exclusively to nude bodies. Nude-body-sensitive responses were centered first (100-200ms) in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas, and subsequently (200-300ms) in affective-motivational areas including insula and anterior cingulate cortex. We conclude that visibility of sexual features facilitates early cortical processing of human bodies, the purpose of which is presumably to trigger sexual behavior and ultimately ensure reproduction. PMID:25960070

  1. The Human Body: A Unique Media Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Sandra D.

    1980-01-01

    The author asserts that the body is the first form of media which should be used with deaf students. Stages of the dance process are considered, including developing body movement, translating language into body movement, coordinating movement with music, and projecting emotional reactions to words through facial expression. (CL)

  2. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual. PMID:24771443

  3. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  4. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  5. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market. PMID:25164164

  6. Development of Preferences for the Human Body Shape in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle; Sim, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Two studies investigated development of infants' visual preferences for the human body shape. Results indicated that 18-month-olds had a reliable preference for scrambled body shapes over typical body shapes in line drawings, while 12- and 15-month-olds did not respond differentially. In condition using photographs, only 18-month-olds had reliable…

  7. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  8. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  9. Human Identification at a Distance Using Body Shape Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, N. K. A. M.; Yahya, M. F.; Shafie, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Shape of human body is unique from one person to another. This paper presents an intelligent system approach for human identification at a distance using human body shape information. The body features used are the head, shoulder, and trunk. Image processing techniques for detection of these body features were developed in this work. Then, the features are recognized using fuzzy logic approach and used as inputs to a recognition system based on a multilayer neural network. The developed system is only applicable for recognizing a person from its frontal view and specifically constrained to male gender to simplify the algorithm. In this research, the accuracy for human identification using the proposed method is 77.5%. Thus, it is proved that human can be identified at a distance using body shape information.

  10. Imaging the Human Body: Micro- and Nanostructure of Human Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Müller, Bert

    Computed tomography based on X-rays is known to provide the best spatial resolution of all clinical three-dimensional imaging facilities and currently reaches a fraction of a millimeter. Better spatial and density resolution is obtained by means of micro computed tomography well established in the field of materials science. It is also very supportive imaging human tissues down to the level of individual cells (Lareida et al. J. Microsc. 234:95, 2009). The article demonstrates the power of micro computed tomography for imaging parts of the human body such as teeth, inner ear, cerebellum, tumors, and urethral tissue with conventional X-ray sources and synchrotron radiation facilities in absorption and phase contrast modes. The second part of the chapter relies on scanning X-ray scattering of tooth slices (Müller et al. Eur. J. Clin. Nanomed. 3:30, 2010) to uncover the presence of nanostructures including their anisotropy and orientation. This imaging technique gives unrivalled insights for medical experts, which will have a major influence on fields such as dental and incontinence treatments.

  11. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  12. Beak condition and cage density determine abundance and spatial distribution of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, and chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mullens, B A; Chen, B L; Owen, J P

    2010-12-01

    Adult White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line strain W-36) were inoculated with either northern fowl mites or chicken body lice, and the ectoparasite populations were monitored over periods of 9 to 16 wk. Two beak conditions (beak trimmed or beak intact) and 2 housing densities (1 or 2 hens per 25 × 31 cm suspended wire cage) were tested. Populations of both ectoparasites were at least 10 times lower on beak-intact hens compared with populations on beak-trimmed hens. Cage density did not influence mite numbers, but higher numbers of lice (2 to 3 times) developed on hens held at the higher cage density. Louse distribution on the body and louse population age structure were also influenced by host beak condition. Beak-intact hens had a higher proportion of lice under the wings, whereas beak-trimmed hens had the majority of lice on the lower abdomen. Louse populations on beak-trimmed hens also comprised relatively more immature stages than populations found on beak-intact hens. The effects are likely related to decreased grooming efficiency by beak-trimmed hens and, in the case of lice, the higher host density. The high mite and louse populations on most commercial caged laying hens are probably a direct result of beak trimming. However, selection of more docile breeds that can be held without trimming may allow the hens themselves to reduce ectoparasites below economically damaging levels. This could benefit producers, animal welfare advocates, and human health by reducing 1) costs of beak trimming, 2) pesticide treatment costs (including human and bird chemical exposure concerns), and 3) objections to beak trimming from the animal welfare community. PMID:21076093

  13. 3D measurement of human upper body for gesture recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Khairunizam; Sawada, Hideyuki

    2007-10-01

    Measurement of human motion is widely required for various applications, and a significant part of this task is to identify motion in the process of human motion recognition. There are several application purposes of doing this research such as in surveillance, entertainment, medical treatment and traffic applications as user interfaces that require the recognition of different parts of human body to identify an action or a motion. The most challenging task in human motion recognition is to achieve the ability and reliability of a motion capture system for tracking and recognizing dynamic movements, because human body structure has many degrees of freedom. Many attempts for recognizing body actions have been reported so far, in which gestural motions have to be measured by some sensors first, and the obtained data are processed in a computer. This paper introduces the 3D motion analysis of human upper body using an optical motion capture system for the purpose of gesture recognition. In this study, the image processing technique to track optical markers attached at feature points of human body is introduced for constructing a human upper body model and estimating its three dimensional motion.

  14. Soluble HLA in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Aultman, D; Adamashvili, I; Yaturu, K; Langford, M; Gelder, F; Gautreaux, M; Ghali, G E; McDonald, J

    1999-03-01

    There is a growing body of information about the soluble forms of HLA in serum but there are only a few reports discussing sHLA in other body fluids. We quantitated sHLA-I and sHLA-II concentrations in sweat, saliva and tear samples from five normal individuals with known HLA-phenotypes. We also studied sweat samples from an additional 12 normal nonphenotyped subjects, as well as in CSF of 20 subjects with different illnesses, using solid phase enzyme linked immunoassay. Sweat, saliva and tears from normal subjects were found to contain very low or nondetectable amounts of sHLA-I. In contrast, sHLA-II molecules were found in each of these body fluids, although, with considerable variation between individuals. The presence of sHLA-II in saliva was further confirmed by Western-blotting. It was observed that sHLA-II having molecular mass of 43,900 and 18,100 daltons was comparable with that found in serum from normal individuals. In addition, no association of sHLA-II levels with allospecificities in either body fluid or in serum was apparent. The results of CSF sHLA concentrations in different diseases were as follows: (1) High CSF SHLA-I levels were measured during viral encephylitis (n = 3), while none of these patients contained sHLA-II in CSF; (2) The levels of sHLA-II, but not sHLA-I were elevated in CSF of patients during seizure (n = 6) and of patients with neonatal hepatitis (1 of 2) or with connective tissue disease accompanied with viral infection (n = 2); (3) No CSF sHLA-I or sHLA-II could be detected at polyneuropathy (n = 2), or in patients with syphilis (n = 3), or leukemia (n = 2) with evidence of neurologic involvement of central nervous system. Taken together, it may be concluded that the presence of sHLA in several body fluids is physiologically normal. It appears that sHLA-II is the predominant class of HLA molecules present in different body fluids. We propose that the system responsible for sHLA-II production in various body fluids must involve

  15. Study of electrical properties of meridian on human body surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Uematsu, Haruyuki; Otani, Nobuo

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the study of the subcutaneous electrical impedance on the human body surface. Measurements of the electrical impedance on five adult male subjects were carried out and analyzed for the possible detection of the acupuncture meridian lines of ancient Chinese medicine on the human body. The distribution of electrical impedance measured at 40 points over the volar side of the right upper limb of the subjects. The results show that electrical impedance varies at different locations of the human body surface, and the locations with lower electrical impedance coincide with the locations where the meridian is believed to exist.

  16. Lousy mums: patterns of vertical transmission of an amphibious louse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we document patterns of vertical transmission of the amphibious louse Antarctophthirus microchir (Echinophthiriidae) in pups of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from Patagonia. Vertical transmission is fundamental for the long-term stability of A. microchir populations because only pups stay long enough (1 month) on land for the louse to reproduce. A total of 72 pups ≤7 days old from a single rookery were captured and examined for lice. Infection parameters and population structure of A. microchir did not differ among pups collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the reproductive season, suggesting that patterns of early vertical transmission are not affected by the increase of rookery size during this period. Over 60% of 1-day-old pups were infected with A. microchir, and recruitment increased in pups up to 3 days old and then leveled off. In 1-day-old pups, significantly more adults than nymphs were found, but the pattern was reversed in older pups. The number of first-stage nymphs was significantly smaller than that of second- and third-stage nymphs, as it was the number of males vs. females, particularly in 1-day-old pups. Three non-exclusive hypotheses could account for these patterns, i.e., recruitment merely reflects the population structure of A. microchir is cows; the relative ability of lice to pass from cows onto pups increases in advanced instars; and/or natural selection favors transmission of adults, especially females, because they accrue greater fitness. The importance of latter hypothesis should not be underestimated in a species with a tight reproductive schedule. PMID:23828192

  17. In vivo measurement of human body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Price, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The female bed rest study has shown that, the response of women to prolonged recumbency of 2 to 3 weeks duration is very similar to that displayed by men. Some of the key findings in the women after 17 days of continuous recumbency are: (1) a decrease in plasma volume of 12-13 per cent; (2) a small decrease in total body water; (3) a decrease in total body potassium of 3 to 4 per cent; (4) a decrease in plasma potassium concentration of 4 to 5 per cent; (5) a decrease in total circulating plasma protein of 11 to 12 per cent; (6) a decrease in urinary norepinephrine excretion rate of 27 to 28 per cent; (7) a possible increase in urinary magnesium, calcium, and phosphate excretion rates; and (8) a possible increase in urinary citrate excretion rate.

  18. Standoff Human Identification Using Body Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Amidan, Brett G.; Boettcher, Evelyn J.; Lochtefeld, Darrell; Webb, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The ability to identify individuals is a key component of maintaining safety and security in public spaces and around critical infrastructure. Monitoring an open space is challenging because individuals must be identified and re-identified from a standoff distance nonintrusively, making methods like fingerprinting and even facial recognition impractical. We propose using body shape features as a means for identification from standoff sensing, either complementing other identifiers or as an alternative. An important challenge in monitoring open spaces is reconstructing identifying features when only a partial observation is available, because of the view-angle limitations and occlusion or subject pose changes. To address this challenge, we investigated the minimum number of features required for a high probability of correct identification, and we developed models for predicting a key body feature—height—from a limited set of observed features. We found that any set of nine randomly selected body measurements was sufficient to correctly identify an individual in a dataset of 4426 subjects. For predicting height, anthropometric measures were investigated for correlation with height. Their correlation coefficients and associated linear models were reported. These results—a sufficient number of features for identification and height prediction from a single feature—contribute to developing systems for standoff identification when views of a subject are limited.

  19. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones. PMID:26999159

  20. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones. PMID:26999159

  1. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized. PMID:27539355

  2. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration.

    PubMed

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-06-01

    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration. PMID:26485354

  3. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  4. [The need for a law concerning human body rights].

    PubMed

    Lachaux, B; Lemoine, P

    1991-01-01

    This new "turn of the century", at least in France, is marked by an increasing discrepancy between laws and new medical discoveries. Medical practitioners, scientists and researchers have had such a fantastic power and, as a consequence, the patients have never run such an important risk of loosing human dimensions. The basic question is the legal status of the human body. Until now, common law considers human being as a citizen whose liberty should be limited under certain conditions. However, this point of view poorly prepares to rule man as a creature of flesh and sentiment. There is an almost complete deficit of the legal statute of man in his globality, especially concerning the juridical status of the human body which is totally lacking as a whole in the french civil code. Human body represents a double legal problem: is its integrity a private or a public privilege? Are his dignity and identity really warranted for everyone? PMID:1669028

  5. Three-dimensional surface anthropometry: Applications to the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Peter R. M.; Rioux, Marc

    1997-09-01

    Anthropometry is the study of the measurement of the human body. By tradition this has been carried out taking the measurements from body surface landmarks, such as circumferences and breadths, using simple instruments like tape measures and calipers. Three-dimensional (3D) surface anthropometry enables us to extend the study to 3D geometry and morphology of mainly external human body tissues. It includes the acquisition, indexing, transmission, archiving, retrieval, interrogation and analysis of body size, shape, and surface together with their variability throughout growth and development to adulthood. While 3D surface anthropometry surveying is relatively new, anthropometric surveying using traditional tools, such as calipers and tape measures, is not. Recorded studies of the human form date back to ancient times. Since at least the 17th century 1 investigators have made attempts to measure the human body for physical properties such as weight, size, and centre of mass. Martin documented 'standard' body measurement methods in a handbook in 1928. 2 This paper reviews the past and current literature devoted to the applications of 3D anthropometry because true 3D scanning of the complete human body is fast becoming a reality. We attempt to take readers through different forms of technology which deal with simple forms of projected light to the more complex advanced forms of laser and video technology giving low and/or high resolution 3D data. Information is also given about image capture of size and shape of the whole as well as most component parts of the human body. In particular, the review describes with explanations a multitude of applications, for example, medical, product design, human engineering, anthropometry and ergonomics etc.

  6. Epidemiology and control of human head louse in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1983-12-01

    A survey of 4.112 primary school children living in and around Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, revealed that 12.9% of the children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. Indians (28.3%) and Malays (18.9%) have a higher prevalence than Chinese (4.6%). The higher prevalence among Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socio-economic status in the community; long hair also contributes to the higher rates of pediculosis among them. The prevalence rate was found to be related to socio-economic status, length of hair, family size, age, crowding and personal hygiene. Treatment with 0.2% and 0.5% malathion in coconut oil gave cure rates of 93% and 100%. Treatment with gammexane and actellic at 0.5% concentration gave a cure rate of 100% against adults and nymphs of Pediculus humanus capitis. PMID:6670116

  7. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain–machine interface research. PMID:26582986

  8. An implicit body representation underlying human position sense.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-06-29

    Knowing the body's location in external space is a fundamental perceptual task. Perceiving the location of body parts through proprioception requires that information about the angles of each joint (i.e., body posture) be combined with information about the size and shape of the body segments between joints. Although information about body posture is specified by on-line afferent signals, no sensory signals are directly informative about body size and shape. Thus, human position sense must refer to a stored body model of the body's metric properties, such as body part size and shape. The need for such a model has long been recognized; however, the properties of this model have never been systematically investigated. We developed a technique to isolate and measure this body model. Participants judged the location in external space of 10 landmarks on the hand. By analyzing the internal configuration of the locations of these points, we produced implicit maps of the mental representation of hand size and shape. We show that this part of the body model is massively distorted, in a reliable and characteristic fashion, featuring shortened fingers and broadened hands. Intriguingly, these distortions appear to retain several characteristics of primary somatosensory representations, such as the Penfield homunculus. PMID:20547858

  9. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  10. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  11. Size Variation in Small-Bodied Humans from Palau, Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent discoveries on Palau are claimed to represent the remains of small-bodied humans that may display evidence insular size reduction. This claim has yet to be statistically validated Methodology/Principal Findings Published postcranial specimens (n = 16) from Palau were assessed relative to recent small-bodied comparative samples. Resampling statistical approaches were employed to test specific hypotheses relating to body size in the Palau sample. Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied. Conclusions/Significance A single, homogenous body size morph is represented in early prehistoric postcrania from Palau. Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction. Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis. PMID:19088844

  12. Human motor adaptation in whole body motion

    PubMed Central

    Babič, Jan; Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The main role of the sensorimotor system of an organism is to increase the survival of the species. Therefore, to understand the adaptation and optimality mechanisms of motor control, it is necessary to study the sensorimotor system in terms of ecological fitness. We designed an experimental paradigm that exposed sensorimotor system to risk of injury. We studied human subjects performing uncon- strained squat-to-stand movements that were systematically subjected to non-trivial perturbation. We found that subjects adapted by actively compensating the perturbations, converging to movements that were different from their normal unperturbed squat-to-stand movements. Furthermore, the adapted movements had clear intrinsic inter-subject differences which could be explained by different adapta- tion strategies employed by the subjects. These results suggest that classical optimality measures of physical energy and task satisfaction should be seen as part of a hierarchical organization of optimality with safety being at the highest level. Therefore, in addition to physical energy and task fulfillment, the risk of injury and other possible costs such as neural computational overhead have to be considered when analyzing human movement. PMID:27608652

  13. Human motor adaptation in whole body motion.

    PubMed

    Babič, Jan; Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The main role of the sensorimotor system of an organism is to increase the survival of the species. Therefore, to understand the adaptation and optimality mechanisms of motor control, it is necessary to study the sensorimotor system in terms of ecological fitness. We designed an experimental paradigm that exposed sensorimotor system to risk of injury. We studied human subjects performing uncon- strained squat-to-stand movements that were systematically subjected to non-trivial perturbation. We found that subjects adapted by actively compensating the perturbations, converging to movements that were different from their normal unperturbed squat-to-stand movements. Furthermore, the adapted movements had clear intrinsic inter-subject differences which could be explained by different adapta- tion strategies employed by the subjects. These results suggest that classical optimality measures of physical energy and task satisfaction should be seen as part of a hierarchical organization of optimality with safety being at the highest level. Therefore, in addition to physical energy and task fulfillment, the risk of injury and other possible costs such as neural computational overhead have to be considered when analyzing human movement. PMID:27608652

  14. Natural User Interface Sensors for Human Body Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, J.

    2012-08-01

    The recent push for natural user interfaces (NUI) in the entertainment and gaming industry has ushered in a new era of low cost three-dimensional sensors. While the basic idea of using a three-dimensional sensor for human gesture recognition dates some years back it is not until recently that such sensors became available on the mass market. The current market leader is PrimeSense who provide their technology for the Microsoft Xbox Kinect. Since these sensors are developed to detect and observe human users they should be ideally suited to measure the human body. We describe the technology of a line of NUI sensors and assess their performance in terms of repeatability and accuracy. We demonstrate the implementation of a prototype scanner integrating several NUI sensors to achieve full body coverage. We present the results of the obtained surface model of a human body.

  15. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. PMID:26094042

  16. The Bugs Within Our Body: The Human Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Philpott, D J; Piquette-Miller, M

    2016-06-01

    The human microbiota is the ecological community of microorganisms that live within our bodies. Emerging evidence has revealed that dysregulation of the host-microbe symbiotic relationship contributes to the pathogenesis of a vast number of human diseases and impacts the efficacy and toxicity of therapeutic drugs. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the human microbiota is crucial to the development of therapeutic interventions that target the microbiota and also provides fundamental insights towards understanding intersubject variability in therapeutic outcomes. PMID:27160649

  17. [Heme-iron in the human body].

    PubMed

    Balla, József; Balla, György; Lakatos, Béla; Jeney, Viktória; Szentmihályi, Klára

    2007-09-01

    Iron is essential for all living organism, although in excess amount it is dangerous via catalyzing the formation of reactive oxygen species. Absorption of iron is strictly controlled resulting in a fine balance of iron-loss and iron-uptake. In countries where the ingestion of heme-iron is significant by meal, great part of iron content in the body originates from heme. Heme derived from food is absorbed by a receptor-mediated manner by enterocytes of small intestine then it is degraded in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. Iron released from the porphyrin ring leaves enterocytes as transferrin associated iron. Prosthetic group of several proteins contains heme, therefore, it is synthesized by all cells. One of the most significant heme proteins is hemoglobin which transports oxygen in the erythrocytes. Hemoglobin released from erythrocyte during intravascular hemolysis binds to haptoglobin and is taken up by cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. Oxidation of hemoglobin (ferro) to methemoglobin (ferri) is inhibited by the structure of hemoglobin although it is not hindered. Superoxide anion is also formed in the reaction that initiates further free radical reactions. In contrast to ferrohemoglobin, methemoglobin readily releases heme, therefore, oxidation of hemoglobin drives the formation of free heme in plasma. Heme binds to a plasma protein, hemopexin, and is internalized by cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage in a receptor-mediated manner, then degraded in reaction catalysed by heme oxygenase. Heme is also taken up by plasma lipoproteins and endothelial cells leading to oxidation of LDL and subsequent endothelial cell damage. The purpose of this work was to summarize the processes related to heme. PMID:17766221

  18. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. PMID:26467243

  19. The commerce of human body parts: an Eastern Orthodox response.

    PubMed

    Reardon, P H

    2000-08-01

    The Orthodox Church teaches that the bodies of those in Christ are to be regarded as sanctified by the hearing of the Word and faithful participation in the Sacraments, most particularly the Holy Eucharist; because of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit the consecrated bodies of Christians do not belong to them but to Christ; with respect to the indwelling Holy Spirit there is no difference between the bodies of Christians before and after death; whether before or after death, the Christian body is also to receive the same veneration; and notwithstanding the physical corruptions that the body endures by reason of death, there remains a strict continuity between the body in which the Christian dies and the body in which the Christian will rise again. That is to say, it is the very same reality that is sown in corruption and will be raised in incorruption. Given such consideration, the notion of "selling" and integral part of a human being is simply outside the realm of rational comprehension. Indeed, it is profoundly repugnant to those Orthodox Christian sentiments that are formed and nourished by the Church's sacramental teaching and liturgical worship. One does not sell or purchase that which has been consecrated in those solemn ways that the Church consecrates the human body. PMID:12171078

  20. Bacterial Endosymbiont of the Slender Pigeon Louse, Columbicola columbae, Allied to Endosymbionts of Grain Weevils and Tsetse Flies▿

    PubMed Central

    Fukatsu, Takema; Koga, Ryuichi; Smith, Wendy A.; Tanaka, Kohjiiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Sasaki-Fukatsu, Kayoko; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Dale, Colin; Clayton, Dale H.

    2007-01-01

    The current study focuses on a symbiotic bacterium found in the slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae (Insecta: Phthiraptera). Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that the symbiont belongs to the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and is allied to Sodalis glossinidius, the secondary symbiont of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) and also to the primary symbiont of grain weevils (Sitophilus spp.). Relative-rate tests revealed that the symbiont of C. columbae exhibits accelerated molecular evolution in comparison with the tsetse fly symbiont and the weevil symbiont. Whole-mount in situ hybridization was used to localize the symbiont and determine infection dynamics during host development. In first- and second-instar nymphs, the symbionts were localized in the cytoplasm of oval bacteriocytes that formed small aggregates on both sides of the body cavity. In third-instar nymphs, the bacteriocytes migrated to the central body and were finally located in the anterior region of the lateral oviducts, forming conspicuous tissue formations called ovarial ampullae. In adult females, the symbionts were transmitted from the ovarial ampullae to developing oocytes in the ovarioles. In adult males, the bacteriocytes often disappeared without migration. A diagnostic PCR survey of insects collected from Japan, the United States, Australia, and Argentina detected 96.5% (109/113) infection, with a few uninfected male insects. This study provides the first microbial characterization of a bacteriocyte-associated symbiont from a chewing louse. Possible biological roles of the symbiont are discussed in relation to the host nutritional physiology associated with the feather-feeding lifestyle. PMID:17766458

  1. Phylogenetics and population genetics of the louse fly, Lipoptena mazamae, from Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Trout, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L

    2010-09-01

    Louse flies, also known as deer keds (Lipoptena mazamae Rondani), infest cervids such as white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus and vector pathogens such as Anaplasma and Bartonella schoenbuchensis to cattle and humans, respectively. The population genetic structure of 30 L. mazamae collected from white-tailed deer in four regions of Arkansas, U.S.A., designated by county boundaries, was examined using DNA sequences of a 259-bp region of the mitochondrial DNA rRNA 16S gene. Of the 259 nucleotide characters, 33 were variable and 6 haplotypes were identified. Two haplotypes occurred only once (haplotype 3 and 4), whereas two other haplotypes occurred in 43% (haplotype 1 in two regions) and 40% (haplotype 6 in three regions) of the samples. Phylogenetic relationships of the six L. mazamae haplotypes were constructed with other Hippoboscid and Glossinid samples and two clades resulted. Clade 1 was located in the north and western Ozarks whereas clade 2 was found in the northern and eastern Ozarks. Results from the present study indicate that Lipoptena may be a polyphyletic genus; consequently, more research into genetic variation within this genus is necessary. PMID:20534010

  2. Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

  3. More-Realistic Digital Modeling of a Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogge, Renee

    2010-01-01

    A MATLAB computer program has been written to enable improved (relative to an older program) modeling of a human body for purposes of designing space suits and other hardware with which an astronaut must interact. The older program implements a kinematic model based on traditional anthropometric measurements that do provide important volume and surface information. The present program generates a three-dimensional (3D) whole-body model from 3D body-scan data. The program utilizes thin-plate spline theory to reposition the model without need for additional scans.

  4. Aptamer-Based Screens of Human Body Fluids for Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Albaba, Dania; Soomro, Sanam; Mohan, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aptamers have come to replace antibodies in high throughput multiplexed experiments. The aptamer-based biomarker screening technology, which kicked off in 2010, is capable of interrogating thousands of proteins in a very small sample volume. With this new technology, researchers hope to find clinically appropriate biomarkers for a myriad of illnesses by screening human body fluids. In this work, we have reviewed a total of eight studies utilizing aptamer-based biomarker screens of human body fluids, and have highlighted novel protein biomarkers discovered. PMID:27600232

  5. Biostereometric Data Processing In ERGODATA: Choice Of Human Body Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, J. C.; Mollard, R.; Sauvignon, M.; Amphoux, M.

    1983-07-01

    The definition of human body models was elaborated with anthropometric data from ERGODATA. The first model reduces the human body into a series of points and lines. The second model is well adapted to represent volumes of each segmentary element. The third is an original model built from the conventional anatomical points. Each segment is defined in space by a tri-angular plane located with its 3-D coordinates. This new model can answer all the processing possibilities in the field of computer-aided design (C.A.D.) in ergonomy but also biomechanics and orthopaedics.

  6. Analysis of Human Body Bipedal Stability for Neuromotor Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baritz, Mihaela; Cristea, Luciana; Rogozea, Liliana; Cotoros, Diana; Repanovici, Angela

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of different biomechanical aspects of balance and equilibrium is presented in the first part of the paper. We analyzed the posture, balance and stability of human body for a normal person and for a person with loco-motor or neuro-motor disabilities (in the second part). In the third part of the paper we presented the methodology and the experimental setup used to record the human body behavior in postural stability for persons with neuro-motors disabilities. The results and the conclusions are presented in the final part of the paper and also in the future work meant to establish the computer analysis for rehabilitation neuromotor disabilities.

  7. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition. PMID:9647623

  8. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. PMID:21538919

  9. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies. PMID:22111011

  10. A long term model of circulation. [human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative approach to modeling human physiological function, with a view toward ultimate application to long duration space flight experiments, was undertaken. Data was obtained on the effect of weightlessness on certain aspects of human physiological function during 1-3 month periods. Modifications in the Guyton model are reviewed. Design considerations for bilateral interface models are discussed. Construction of a functioning whole body model was studied, as well as the testing of the model versus available data.

  11. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo.

    PubMed

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area. PMID:26451147

  12. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo

    PubMed Central

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area. PMID:26451147

  13. Mixture toxicity effects of sea louse control agents in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephanie; Altenburger, Rolf; Sturm, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Caligid sea lice are ectoparasites causing major disease problems in industrial salmon farming. Sea louse control currently relies widely on parasiticides. Among non-target species, crustaceans are particularly susceptible to salmon delousing agents. Drug combinations have recently been suggested for sea louse control; however, no information is available on the non-target effects of such mixtures. To obtain first insights into combination effects of salmon parasiticides, acute toxicity tests with the crustacean model species Daphnia magna were conducted. Four compounds, including two organophosphates and two pyrethroids, were tested individually and in all pair-wise combinations at one fixed concentration ratio. For most combinations, observed toxicities were close to predictions assuming concentration additivity. However, deltamethrin and cypermethrin showed greater than predicted combination effects, while the inverse was observed for deltamethrin and malathion. The results demonstrate combination effects of anti-sea louse agents and suggest that predictions based on concentration additivity are in most cases protective. PMID:26401637

  14. BodyMap: a human and mouse gene expression database.

    PubMed

    Hishiki, T; Kawamoto, S; Morishita, S; Okubo, K

    2000-01-01

    BodyMap is a human and mouse gene expression database that has been maintained since 1993. It is based on site-directed 3'-ESTs collected from non-biased cDNA libraries constructed at Osaka University and contains >270 000 sequences from 60 human and 38 mouse tissues. The site-directed nature of the sequence tags allows unequivocal grouping of tags representing the same transcript and provides abundance information for each transcript in different parts of the body. Our collection of ESTs was compared periodically with other public databases for cross referencing. The histological resolution of source tissues and unique cloning strategy that minimized cloning bias enabled BodyMap to support three unique mRNA based experiments in silico. First, the recurrence information for clones in each library provides a rough estimate of the mRNA composition of each source tissue. Second, a user can search the entire data set with nucleotide sequences or keywords to assess expression patterns of particular genes. Third, and most important, BodyMap allows a user to select genes that have a desired expression pattern in humans and mice. BodyMap is accessible through the WWW at http://bodymap.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp PMID:10592203

  15. Nuclear body formation and PML body remodeling by the human cytomegalovirus protein UL35

    SciTech Connect

    Salsman, Jayme; Wang Xueqi; Frappier, Lori

    2011-06-05

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL35 gene encodes two proteins, UL35 and UL35a. Expression of UL35 in transfected cells results in the formation of UL35 nuclear bodies that associate with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. PML forms the basis for PML nuclear bodies that are important for suppressing viral lytic gene expression. Given the important relationship between PML and viral infection, we have further investigated the association of UL35 with PML bodies. We demonstrate that UL35 bodies form independently of PML and subsequently recruit PML, Sp100 and Daxx. In contrast, UL35a did not form bodies; however, it could bind UL35 and inhibit the formation of UL35 bodies. The HCMV tegument protein pp71 promoted the formation of UL35 bodies and the cytoplasmic localization of UL35a. Similarly, UL35a shifted pp71 to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that the interplay between UL35, UL35a and pp71 affects their subcellular localization and likely their functions throughout infection.

  16. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same. PMID:22844029

  17. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  18. A low power wearable transceiver for human body communication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Lian-Kang; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a low power transceiver designed for wearable medical healthcare system. Based on a novel energy-efficient wideband wireless communication scheme that uses human body as a transmission medium, the transceiver can achieve a maximum 15 Mbps data rate with total receiver sensitivity of -30 dBm. The chip measures only 0.56 mm(2) and was fabricated in the SMIC 0.18um 1P6M RF CMOS process. The RX consumes 5mW and TX dissipates 1mW with delivering power up to 10uW, which is suitable for the body area network short range application. Real-time medical information collecting through the human body is fully simulated. Architecture of the chip together with the detail characterizes from its wireless analog front-end are presented. PMID:19965236

  19. Young Scientists Explore the Human Body. Book 11 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities specifically focus on the human body and encourage a positive self-concept. The theme of the first section is air--the breath of…

  20. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  1. Science Teachers' Drawings of What Is inside the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report United States of America (USA) science teachers' understandings of the internal structures of the human body. The 71 science teachers who participated in this study attended a frog/pig, two-hour dissection workshop at the 2004 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conference in Atlanta, Georgia. The…

  2. The sri chakra as a symbol of the human body.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, P R

    1993-01-01

    Sri Chakra is the celebrated Yantra used in the worship of the primordial energy. The Chakra is conceived as a symbol of the human body. Some salient features of this symbolism are discussed in this article. An attempt has also been made to provide a short introduction to the Bhavanopanishad Prayogavidhi devised by Bhaskararaya, the doyen of Sri charka worshippers. PMID:22556608

  3. Of Human Bodies in Scientific Communication and Enculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, SungWon; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    How do students become enculturated and come to enact culture in ways that are new to them? This study probes the dialectical processes of enculturation, the central aspect of which is the role of human bodies in communication. For students, as for any individual, culture exists in terms of action possibilities that presuppose their…

  4. Combined Volatolomics for Monitoring of Human Body Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Broza, Yoav Y.; Zuri, Liat; Haick, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising approach for non-invasive, fast and potentially inexpensive diagnostics. Here, we present a new methodology for profiling the body chemistry by using the volatile fraction of molecules in various body fluids. Using mass spectrometry and cross-reactive nanomaterial-based sensors array, we demonstrate that simultaneous VOC detection from breath and skin would provide complementary, non-correlated information of the body's volatile metabolites profile. Eventually with further wide population validation studies, such a methodology could provide more accurate monitoring of pathological changes compared to the information provided by a single body fluid. The qualitative and quantitative methods presented here offers a variety of options for novel mapping of the metabolic properties of complex organisms, including humans. PMID:24714440

  5. Combined Volatolomics for Monitoring of Human Body Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broza, Yoav Y.; Zuri, Liat; Haick, Hossam

    2014-04-01

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising approach for non-invasive, fast and potentially inexpensive diagnostics. Here, we present a new methodology for profiling the body chemistry by using the volatile fraction of molecules in various body fluids. Using mass spectrometry and cross-reactive nanomaterial-based sensors array, we demonstrate that simultaneous VOC detection from breath and skin would provide complementary, non-correlated information of the body's volatile metabolites profile. Eventually with further wide population validation studies, such a methodology could provide more accurate monitoring of pathological changes compared to the information provided by a single body fluid. The qualitative and quantitative methods presented here offers a variety of options for novel mapping of the metabolic properties of complex organisms, including humans.

  6. Gamma resonance absorption. New approach in human body composition studies.

    PubMed

    Wielopolski, L; Vartsky, D; Pierson, R; Goldberg, M; Heymsfield, S; Yasumura, S; Melnychuk, S T; Sredniawski, J

    2000-05-01

    The main stream of body elemental analysis is based on the delayed, prompt, and inelastic neutron interactions with the main elements found in the human body, and subsequent analysis of the measured delayed or prompt gamma ray spectra. This methodology traditionally was, and still is, applied for whole body analysis and requires relatively high radiation doses. A new method, based on gamma nuclear resonance absorption (GNRA), is being established at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of its body composition program. The method is element specific with a high tomographic spatial-resolution capability, at a small fraction of the radiation dose used in the current system. The new system, with its components and capabilities, is described below. PMID:10865747

  7. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is

  8. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  9. Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Aznar, F Javier; Crespo, Enrique A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology. PMID:25449903

  10. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation.

  11. Human body scents: do they influence our behavior?

    PubMed

    Mildner, Sophie; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    Pheromonal communication in the animal world has been of great research interest for a long time. While extraordinary discoveries in this field have been made, the importance of the human sense of smell was of far lower interest. Humans are seen as poor smellers and therefore research about human olfaction remains quite sparse compared with other animals. Nevertheless amazing achievements have been made during the past 15 years. This is a collection of available data on this topic and a controversial discussion on the role of putative human pheromones in our modem way of living. While the focus was definitely put on behavioral changes evoked by putative human pheromones this article also includes other important aspects such as the possible existence of a human vomeronasal organ. If pheromones do have an influence on human behavior there has to be a receptor organ. How are human body scents secreted and turned into odorous substances? And how can con-specifics detect those very odors and transmit them to the brain? Apart from that the most likely candidates for human pheromones are taken on account and their impact on human behavior is shown in various detail. PMID:24427964

  12. Forward dynamics simulation of human body under tilting perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, D.; Pasha Zanoosi, A. A.; Sadeghi-Mehr, M.

    2012-02-01

    Human body uses different strategies to maintain its stability and these strategies vary from fixed-foot strategies to strategies which foot is moved in order to increase the support base. Tilting movement of foot is one type of the perturbations usually is exposed to human body. In the presence of such perturbations human body must employ appropriate reactions to prevent threats like falling. But it is not clear that how human body maintains its stability by central nervous system (CNS). At present study it is tried that by presenting a musculoskeletal model of human lower extremity with four links, three degrees of freedom (DOF) and eight skeletal muscles, the level of muscle activations causes the maintenance of stability, be investigated. Using forward dynamics solution, leads to a more general problem, rather than inverse dynamics. Hence, forward dynamics solution by forward optimization has been used for solving this highly nonlinear problem. To this end, first the system's equations of motion has been derived using lagrangian dynamics. Eight Hill-type muscles as actuators of the system were modeled. Because determination of muscle forces considering their number is an undetermined problem, optimization of an appropriate goal function should be practiced. For optimization problem, the characteristics of genetic algorithms as a method based on direct search, and the direct collocation method, has been profited. Also by considering requirements of problem, some constraints such as conservation of model stability are entered into optimization procedure. Finally to investigate validation of model, the results from optimization and experimental data are compared and good agreements are obtained.

  13. Evidence that head and body lice on homeless persons have the same genotype.

    PubMed

    Veracx, Aurélie; Rivet, Romain; McCoy, Karen D; Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Human head lice and body lice are morphologically and biologically similar but have distinct ecologies. They were shown to have almost the same basic genetic content (one gene is absent in head lice), but differentially express certain genes, presumably responsible for the vector competence. They are now believed to be ecotypes of the same species (Pediculus humanus) and based on mitochondrial studies, body lice have been included with head lice in one of three clades of human head lice (Clade A). Here, we tested whether head and body lice collected from the same host belong to the same population by examining highly polymorphic intergenic spacers. This study was performed on lice collected from five homeless persons living in the same shelter in which Clade A lice are prevalent. Lice were individually genotyped at four spacer loci. The genetic identity and diversity of lice from head and body populations were compared for each homeless person. Population genetic structure was tested between lice from the two body regions and between the lice from different host individuals.We found two pairs of head and body lice on the same homeless person with identical multi locus genotypes. No difference in genetic diversity was found between head and body louse populations and no evidence of significant structure between the louse populations was found, even after controlling for a possible effect of the host individual. More surprisingly, no structure was obvious between lice of different homeless persons.We believe that the head and body lice collected from our five subjects belong to the same population and are shared between people living in the same shelter. These findings confirm that head and body lice are two ecotypes of the same species and show the importance of implementing measures to prevent lice transmission between homeless people in shelters. PMID:23049889

  14. On the dynamics of a human body model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Passerello, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Equations of motion for a model of the human body are developed. Basically, the model consists of an elliptical cylinder representing the torso, together with a system of frustrums of elliptical cones representing the limbs. They are connected to the main body and each other by hinges and ball and socket joints. Vector, tensor, and matrix methods provide a systematic organization of the geometry. The equations of motion are developed from the principles of classical mechanics. The solution of these equations then provide the displacement and rotation of the main body when the external forces and relative limb motions are specified. Three simple example motions are studied to illustrate the method. The first is an analysis and comparison of simple lifting on the earth and the moon. The second is an elementary approach to underwater swimming, including both viscous and inertia effects. The third is an analysis of kicking motion and its effect upon a vertically suspended man such as a parachutist.

  15. Towards Whole-Body Fluorescence Imaging in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Sophie K.; Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Obrig, Hellmuth; Steinbrink, Jens; Mehnert, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF) whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i) allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii) can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG) was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (∼10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively). When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases. PMID:24391820

  16. Medical Sequencing at the Extremes of Human Body Mass

    PubMed Central

    Ahituv, Nadav ; Kavaslar, Nihan ; Schackwitz, Wendy ; Ustaszewska, Anna ; Martin, Joel ; Hébert, Sybil ; Doelle, Heather ; Ersoy, Baran ; Kryukov, Gregory ; Schmidt, Steffen ; Yosef, Nir ; Ruppin, Eytan ; Sharan, Roded ; Vaisse, Christian ; Sunyaev, Shamil ; Dent, Robert ; Cohen, Jonathan ; McPherson, Ruth ; Pennacchio, Len A. 

    2007-01-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significant heritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors to this phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of 58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96-Mb survey included 21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, as well as 37 genes that function in body weight–related pathways. We found that the monogenic obesity–associated gene group was enriched for rare nonsynonymous variants unique to the obese population compared with the lean population. In addition, computational analysis predicted a greater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort. Together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleles contribute to obesity in the population and provide a medical sequencing-based approach to detect them. PMID:17357083

  17. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

    2014-03-10

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 μA/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

  18. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system. PMID:27526187

  19. Telomerase RNA Accumulates in Cajal Bodies in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yusheng; Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Lukowiak, Andrew A.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The RNA component of the enzyme (hTR) provides the template for telomere synthesis, which is catalyzed by telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Little is known regarding the subcellular localization of hTR and hTERT and the pathway by which telomerase is assembled. Here we report the first glimpse of the detailed subcellular localization of endogenous hTR in human cells, which we obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our studies have revealed a distinctive hTR localization pattern in cancer cells. We have found that hTR accumulates within intranuclear foci called Cajal bodies in all typical tumor-derived cell lines examined (in which telomerase is active), but not in primary or ALT cells (where little or no hTERT is present). Accumulation of hTR in the Cajal bodies of primary cells is induced when hTERT is ectopically expressed. Moreover, we report that hTERT is also found in Cajal bodies. Our data suggest that Cajal bodies are involved in the assembly and/or function of human telomerase. PMID:14528011

  20. Modelling of electromagnetic wave interactions with the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Man-Faï; Wiart, Joe

    2005-07-01

    Electromagnetic modelling plays a more and more important role in the study of complex systems involving Maxwell phenomena, such as the interactions of radiowaves with the human body. Simulation then becomes a credible means in decision making, related to the engineering of complex electromagnetic systems. To increase confidence in the models with respect to reality, validation and uncertainty estimation methods are needed. The different dimensions of model validation are illustrated through dosimetry, i.e., quantification of human exposure to electromagnetic waves. To cite this article: M.-F. Wong, J. Wiart, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  1. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions. PMID:27356309

  2. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-02-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum - "The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly divides it into three main levels that are arranged "pyramid" style, in an ascending order of difficulty: 1. Analysis of system components—the ability to identify the components and processes existing in the human body system; 2. Synthesis of system components—ability to identify dynamic relations within the system; 3. Implementation—ability to generalize and identify patterns in the system, and to identify its hidden dimensions. The students in this study proved largely incapable of achieving systems thinking beyond the primary STH level of identifying components. An overwhelming majority if their responses corresponded to this level of the STH model, further indicating a pronounced favoring of structure over process, and of larger, macro elements over microscopic ones.

  3. Knockdown resistance allele frequencies in North American head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J; Hodgdon, Hilliary E; Poole, Bryan C; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall

    2014-03-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  4. Knockdown Resistance Allele Frequencies in North American Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Poole, Bryan C.; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E. Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  5. Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, Gen; Yoshimura, Takuya; Kuriyama, Kaoru; Nakai, Kazuma

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to the spinal column. This model has the spinal column and the support structures such as the muscles of the back and the abdomen. The spinal column is made by the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks that are considered the rigid body and the rotational spring and damper respectively. The parameter of this model is decided by the literature and the body type of the subject with respect to the mass and the model structure. And stiffness and damping parameters are searched by fitting the model simulation results to the experimental measured data with respect to the vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and the head and with respect to the driving-point apparent mass. In addition, the natural modes of the model compare with the result of experimental modal analysis. The influence of the abdomen and the muscles of the back are investigated by comparing three models with respect to above vibration characteristics. Three model are the proposed model, the model that has the spinal column and the model that has the muscles of the back in addition to the spinal column.

  6. Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice) and Pediculus humanus humanus (body lice): response to laboratory temperature and humidity and susceptibility to monoterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Mougabure Cueto, G; Picollo, M I

    2009-07-01

    Human pediculosis is produced by Pediculus humanus humanus (Linnaeus 1758) and Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767). Laboratory-reared body lice, susceptible to insecticides, were used as reference in toxicological studies on head lice. In this work, we evaluated the survival of both subspecies at different temperatures and relative humidities and we propose the optimal conditions for comparative bioassays. Moreover, we used these conditions to test the activity of three monoterpenoids against both lice. The results showed differential response to changes in temperature and humidity between both organisms. The survival of body lice ranged between 83% and 100% and was not affected for the tested conditions. The survival of head lice depended on temperature, humidity, and exposure time. The optimal conditions for head lice were 18 masculineC and 97% relative humidity at 18 h of exposition. The insecticidal activity of three monoterpenoids (pulegone, linalool, and 1,8-cineole), evaluated according the selected conditions by topical application, showed no significant differences between males of body and head lice. To conclude, as head lice required more special laboratory conditions than body lice, the optimal head lice conditions should be used in both organisms in comparative bioassays. Body louse is an appropriate organism for testing products against of head louse. PMID:19242723

  7. Modeling of interactions of electromagnetic fields with human bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Krzysztof

    Interactions of electromagnetic fields with the human body have been a subject of scientific interest and public concern. In recent years, issues in power line field effects and those of wireless telephones have been in the forefront of research. Engineering research compliments biological investigations by quantifying the induced fields in biological bodies due to exposure to external fields. The research presented in this thesis aims at providing reliable tools, and addressing some of the unresolved issues related to interactions with the human body of power line fields and fields produced by handheld wireless telephones. The research comprises two areas, namely development of versatile models of the human body and their visualisation, and verification and application of numerical codes to solve selected problems of interest. The models of the human body, which are based on the magnetic resonance scans of the body, are unique and differ considerably from other models currently available. With the aid of computer software developed, the models can be arranged to different postures, and medical devices can be accurately placed inside them. A previously developed code for modeling interactions of power line fields with biological bodies has been verified by rigorous, quantitative inter-laboratory comparison for two human body models. This code has been employed to model electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the magnetic field with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this case, the correct placement and representation of the pacemaker leads are critical, as simplified computations have been shown to result in significant errors. In modeling interactions of wireless communication devices, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) has become a de facto standard. The previously developed code has been verified by comparison with the analytical solution for a conductive sphere. While previously researchers limited their verifications to principal axes of the sphere

  8. Probiotics as flourishing benefactors for the human body.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Ilse J; Walker, W Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of the beneficial effects of various strains of probiotics in preventing and treating certain diseases. Currently, changed lifestyles as well as the increased use of antibiotics are significant factors challenging the preservation of a healthy intestinal microflora. The concept of probiotics is to restore and uphold a microflora advantageous for the human body. Probiotics are found in a number of fermented dairy products, infant formula, and dietary supplements. In the presence of prebiotics, which are nondigestible food ingredients favorable for probiotic growth, their survival in the intestine is ameliorated. PMID:16552297

  9. Diamond stabilization of ice multilayers at human body temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2007-08-01

    Diamond is a promising material for wear-resistant medical coatings. Here we report a remarkable increase in the melting point of ice resting on a diamond (111) surface modified with a submonolayer of Na+ . Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the interfacial ice bilayer melts at a temperature 130K higher than in free ice, and relatively thick ice films ( 2.6nm at 298K and 2.2nm at 310K ) are stabilized by dipole interactions with the substrate. This unique physical effect may enable biocompatibility-enhancing ice overcoatings for diamond at human body temperature.

  10. Photonic emission from human body controlled by will

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsueda, Hideaki

    2000-03-01

    Recent technology of photonic measurements provides direct observation of the weak modulation in the radiation from a human body, which may depends on psychological or mental conditions of the subject. We have been applying the photonic technology to detect the intensity modulation and spectra, from near ultraviolet to near infrared regime, to human subjects who claim healing ability in the art of qi and other Japanese holistic practices. The photomultiplier signal intensity has been observed to change in `on' and `off' and oscillatory manners, in accordance with the will of subjects. We will discuss the results of our optical as well as electrical measurements comprehensively, to investigate into this unexplored fields for the western science.

  11. Dynamic Propagation Channel Characterization and Modeling for Human Body Communication

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Zedong; Ma, Jingjing; Li, Zhicheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = −10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of −4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks. PMID:23250278

  12. Dissection of human vitreous body elements for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Skeie, Jessica M; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2011-01-01

    The vitreous is an optically clear, collagenous extracellular matrix that fills the inside of the eye and overlies the retina. (1,2) Abnormal interactions between vitreous substructures and the retina underlie several vitreoretinal diseases, including retinal tear and detachment, macular pucker, macular hole, age-related macular degeneration, vitreomacular traction, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and inherited vitreoretinopathies. (1,2) The molecular composition of the vitreous substructures is not known. Since the vitreous body is transparent with limited surgical access, it has been difficult to study its substructures at the molecular level. We developed a method to separate and preserve these tissues for proteomic and biochemical analysis. The dissection technique in this experimental video shows how to isolate vitreous base, anterior hyaloid, vitreous core, and vitreous cortex from postmortem human eyes. One-dimensional SDS-PAGE analyses of each vitreous component showed that our dissection technique resulted in four unique protein profiles corresponding to each substructure of the human vitreous body. Identification of differentially compartmentalized proteins will reveal candidate molecules underlying various vitreoretinal diseases. PMID:21304469

  13. Measuring accurate body parameters of dressed humans with large-scale motion using a Kinect sensor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanghao; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Li, Yang; Du, Sidan

    2013-01-01

    Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24064597

  14. Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from the widespread avian louse Colpocephalum turbinatum (Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Menoponidae).

    PubMed

    Peters, Maureen B; Whiteman, Noah K; Hagen, Cris; Parker, Patricia G; Glenn, Travis C

    2009-05-01

    We report eight novel microsatellite loci for Colpocephalum turbinatum, a parasitic louse of the endangered Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis). Two island populations of C. turbinatum (N = 30) were genotyped for each locus. We found between two and 12 alleles per locus, polymorphic information content from 0.268 to 0.798, observed heterozygosity from 0.067 to 0.667 and no linkage disequilibrium was detected between loci. These markers will be useful in understanding contemporary gene flow of C. turbinatum among islands in the Galápagos and in understanding transmission dynamics between B. galapagoensis hosts, within and between social groups. Because this louse is unusually widespread among avian host taxa, parasitizing at least 53 bird species in the Falconiformes, Strigiformes and Columbiformes, these markers are likely to be useful outside the context of the Galápagos Islands. PMID:21564787

  15. Bio-ecology of the louse, Upupicola upupae, infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, G P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007-08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75-82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented. PMID:21861650

  16. Molecular characterization and knock-down of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) prostaglandin E synthase.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Christiane; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Nilsen, Frank; Dalvin, Sussie

    2015-12-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a major parasite of salmonid fish in the marine environment. The interaction between the parasite and the host upon infection is not completely understood. However, it is clear that the parasite influences the host and its immune system. Prostaglandins produced by parasites such as flatworms, roundworms and ticks are documented or assumed to play a role in immunomodulation of the host. In the salmon louse, the effect of prostaglandins on the host is assumed, but remains to be documented. In this study, a salmon louse prostaglandin E2 synthase (LsPGES2) is characterized. Ontogenetic analysis showed that LsPGES2 is relatively stable expressed during development. The highest level of expression was seen in the free living stages, although elevated levels of LsPGES2 were also found in adult females. In copepodids, LsPGES2 is found around muscle cells, while it is observed in the reproductive organs of adult female lice. LsPGES2 expression was knocked-down by RNA interference in nauplii, but emerging copepodids did not display any changes in morphology nor ability to infect and develop to adult stages on fish. Additional knock-down of LsPGES2 in adult female lice did not produce any characteristic changes in phenotype nor reproductive output. It is concluded that under these experimental conditions, knock-down of LsPGES2 did not affect any essential functions of the salmon louse, neither in the free-living nor the parasitic stages. PMID:26348267

  17. Head louse control by suffocation due to blocking their oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The present study shows that head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) are killed by suffocation when submersed into the anti-louse shampoo Licener®, which contains a mild shampoo component and an extract of neem seeds after their oil components had been pressed off. It is shown that the inner tracheal system becomes completely filled by the very fluid product. Within 3-10 min, oxygen uptake is prohibited and death of all thus treated lice stages occurred. PMID:25990060

  18. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) in asylum seekers from Eritrea, the Netherlands, July 2015.

    PubMed

    Wilting, K R; Stienstra, Y; Sinha, B; Braks, M; Cornish, D; Grundmann, H

    2015-01-01

    Two patients from Eritrea, recently arrived in the Netherlands, presented with fever and were investigated for malaria. Bloodfilms showed spirochetes but no blood parasites. Louse-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis was diagnosed. Treatment was complicated by severe Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions in both patients. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of B. recurrentis infection in migrant populations who travel under crowded conditions, especially after passing through endemic areas such as Ethiopia and neighbouring countries. PMID:26250069

  19. Life history parameters of the cattle long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli.

    PubMed

    Colwell, D D

    2014-12-01

    Cattle sucking lice, Linognathus vituli (L.) (Phthiraptera: Linognathidae), were obtained from naturally infected cattle and maintained within 'arenas' affixed to the backs of cattle confined in controlled environment chambers maintained at a constant temperature of 15 °C. Temperatures measured within the arenas at an ambient temperature of 15 °C were constant at about 34 °C and only slightly above the temperature on nearby skin. The effect of temperature on egg development was determined using a gradient of temperatures between 25 °C and 41 °C. Eggs did not develop at temperatures of < 26 °C or > 39 °C. Survival of eggs was highest at temperatures of 30 °C and 35 °C. The earliest hatch was observed at 5 days post-oviposition (at 33-35 °C). Development was extended to as long as 13 days at the lower temperatures. Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were compared for lice kept at two densities in the arenas and showed there to be no effect of density on louse survival. Similarly, the mean number of eggs/louse/day over an 8-day period was not influenced by louse density. PMID:24890771

  20. Quantitative Validation of a Human Body Finite Element Model Using Rigid Body Impacts.

    PubMed

    Vavalle, Nicholas A; Davis, Matthew L; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2015-09-01

    Validation is a critical step in finite element model (FEM) development. This study focuses on the validation of the Global Human Body Models Consortium full body average male occupant FEM in five localized loading regimes-a chest impact, a shoulder impact, a thoracoabdominal impact, an abdominal impact, and a pelvic impact. Force and deflection outputs from the model were compared to experimental traces and corridors scaled to the 50th percentile male. Predicted fractures and injury severity measures were compared to evaluate the model's injury prediction capabilities. The methods of ISO/TS 18571 were used to quantitatively assess the fit of model outputs to experimental force and deflection traces. The model produced peak chest, shoulder, thoracoabdominal, abdominal, and pelvis forces of 4.8, 3.3, 4.5, 5.1, and 13.0 kN compared to 4.3, 3.2, 4.0, 4.0, and 10.3 kN in the experiments, respectively. The model predicted rib and pelvic fractures related to Abbreviated Injury Scale scores within the ranges found experimentally all cases except the abdominal impact. ISO/TS 18571 scores for the impacts studied had a mean score of 0.73 with a range of 0.57-0.83. Well-validated FEMs are important tools used by engineers in advancing occupant safety. PMID:25739950

  1. Improved analysis of malondialdehyde in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Jentzsch, A M; Bachmann, H; Fürst, P; Biesalski, H K

    1996-01-01

    The widely used TBA assay for lipid peroxidation was modified to minimize artefactual oxidative degradation of lipids during the assay. Formation of the TBA-MDA condensation product was studied with and without exclusion of oxygen, and the concentration effect of BHT addition was examined. Oxygen was depleted from the reaction mixture by extensive argon gassing. Exclusion of oxygen resulted in decreased TBARS production in plasma but not in standard solutions. High BHT concentrations resulted in a similar effect. At concentrations higher than 3 mmol/l BHT exclusion of oxygen had no additional effect. By measuring n-butanol extracts in a multititer plate reader this modified method was made suitable as a preliminary screening assay of human body fluids for lipid peroxidation. PMID:8746446

  2. The mechanism of aspirin reactions in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Alan; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Sohlberg, Karl; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2001-03-01

    We report first-principles (density functional theory) calculations of possible reaction pathways for the break-up of aspirin that leads to pain relief in the human body. An aspirin molecule consists of an acetyl group attached to a salicylate. Upon entering a membrane protein known as COX, the aspirin molecule is pulled apart. The acetyl group of the aspirin molecule attaches to SER-530, a serine residue that is located near the entrance of the COX protein channel. The resulting acetyl-serine residue effectively forms a gate within the COX channel blocking certain fatty acids from reaching the protein active site where they are converted into prostaglandins, the molecules that are responsible for the sensation of pain. An important new finding is that the aspirin molecule undergoes a transformation prior to breaking up.

  3. Treatment model of dengue hemorrhagic fever infection in human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Primasari, N.; Wijaya, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    The treatment model of DHF presented in this paper involves the dynamic of five time-dependent compartments, i.e. susceptible, infected, free virus particle, immune cell, and haematocrit level. The treatment model is investigated based on normalization of haematocrit level, which is expressed as intravenous fluid infusion control. We analyze the stability of the disease free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium. The numerical simulations will explain the dynamic of each compartment in human body. These results show particularly that infected compartment and free virus particle compartment are tend to be vanished in two weeks after the onset of dengue virus. However, these simulation results also show that without the treatment, the haematocrit level will decrease even though not up to the normal level. Therefore the effective haematocrit normalization should be done with the treatment control.

  4. Calculations of aspirin reaction mechanisms in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Alan; Sohlberg, Karl; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    1999-11-01

    We report quantum mechanical calculations of possible reaction pathways for the breakup of aspirin that lead to pain relief in the human body. Animations of the reactions will be shown. An aspirin molecule consists of an acetyl group attached to a salicylate. Upon entering a membrane protein known as COX, the aspirin molecule is pulled apart. The acetyl group of the aspirin molecule attaches to SER-530, a serine residue that is located near the entrance of the COX protein channel. The resulting acetyl-serine residue effectively forms a gate within the COX channel blocking certain fatty acids from reaching the protein active site where the fatty acids are converted into prostaglandins, the molecules that are responsible for inflammation and the sensation of pain.

  5. The human body as field of conflict between discourses.

    PubMed

    Kimsma, Gerrit K; Leeuwen, Evert van

    2005-01-01

    The approach to AIDS as a disease and a threat for social discrimination is used as an example to illustrate a conceptual thesis. This thesis is a claim that concerns what we call a medical issue or not, what is medicalised or needs to be demedicalised. In the friction between medicalisation and demedicalisation as discursive strategies the latter approach can only be effected through the employment of discourses or discursive strategies other than medicine, such as those of the law and of economics. These discourses each realise different values, promote a different subject, and have a different concept of man. The concept of discourse is briefly outlined against concepts such as the linear growth concept of science and the growth model of science as changes in paradigm. The issue of testing for AIDS shows a conflict between the medical and the legal discourse and illustrates the title of our contribution: the human body as field of conflict between discourses. PMID:16292608

  6. Earthsickness: circumnavigation and the terrestrial human body, 1520-1800.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Joyce E

    2012-01-01

    From their distinctive experience of going around the world, maritime circumnavigators concluded that their characteristic disease, sea scurvy, must result from their being away from land too long, much longer than any other sailors. They offered their scorbutic bodies as proof that humans were terrestrial creatures, physically suited to the earthly parts of a terraqueous globe. That arresting claim is at odds with the current literature on the cultural implications of European expansion, which has emphasized early modern colonists' and travelers' fear of alien places, and has concluded that they had a small and restricted geographic imagination that fell short of the planetary consciousness associated with the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. But circumnavigators did conceive of themselves as actors on a planetary scale, as creatures adapted to all of the land on Earth, not just their places of origin. PMID:23263345

  7. Comparison of Biodynamic Responses in Standing and Seated Human Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2000-12-01

    The dynamic responses of the human body in a standing position and in a sitting position have been compared. The apparent mass and transmissibilities to the head, six locations along the spine, and the pelvis were measured with eight male subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration. In both postures, the principal resonance in the apparent mass occurred in the range 5-6 Hz, with slightly higher frequencies and lower apparent mass in the standing posture. There was greater transmission of vertical vibration to the pelvis and the lower spine and greater relative motion within the lower spine in the standing posture than in the sitting posture at the principal resonance and at higher frequencies. Transmissibilities from the supporting surface (floor or seat) to the thoracic region had similar magnitudes for both standing and sitting subjects. The lumbar spine has less lordosis and may be more compressed and less flexible in the sitting posture than in the standing posture. This may have reduced the relative motions between lumbar vertebrae and both the supporting vibrating surface and the other vertebrae in the sitting posture. The characteristics of the vibration transmitted to the pelvis may have differed in the two postures due to different transmission paths. Increased forward rotation of the pelvis in the standing posture may have caused the differences in responses of the pelvis and the lower spine that were observed between the two postures.

  8. Study of human phonation in a full-body domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurabh, Shakti; Bodony, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The generation and propagation of the human voice is studied in two-dimensions using a full-body domain, using direct numerical simulation. The fluid/air in the vocal tract is modeled as a compressible and viscous fluid interacting with the non-linear, viscoelastic vocal folds (VF). The VF tissue material properties are multi-layered, with varying stiffness, and a finite-strain model is utilized and implemented in a quadratic finite element code. The fluid-solid domains are coupled through a boundary-fitted interface and utilize a Poisson equation-based mesh deformation method. The full-body domain includes the near VF region, the vocal tract, a simplified model of the soft palate and mouth, and extends out into the acoustic far-field. A new kind of inflow boundary condition based upon a quasi-one-dimensional formulation with constant sub-glottal volume velocity, which is linked to the VF movement, has been adopted. The sound pressure levels (SPL) measured are realistic and we analyze their connection to the VF dynamics and glottal and vocal tract geometries. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CAREER award number 1150439).

  9. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

  10. The biokinetics of ruthenium in the human body

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The biokinetics of ruthenium (Ru) in the human body is of interest due mainly to the potential for occupational or environmental exposure to 106Ru (T1/2 = 373.6 d) and 103Ru (T1/2 = 39.3 d), which typically represent a significant portion of the fission products in a reactor inventory. During reactor operations or nuclear fuel reprocessing these ruthenium isotopes may be present as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) vapor, a highly mobile form of ruthenium that has been involved in a number of cases of accidental exposure to 106Ru or 103Ru. This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for ruthenium and proposes a new respiratory model for inhaled RuO4 vapor, a new biokinetic for systemic (absorbed) ruthenium, and material-specific gastrointestinal absorption fractions for ruthenium. The proposed respiratory model for RuO4 differs from the current ICRP model mainly in that it depicts slower clearance of deposited activity from the respiratory tract and lower absorption to blood than depicted in the current ICRP model. The proposed systemic biokinetic model depicts more realistic paths of movement of absorbed ruthenium in the body than the current ICRP model and, in contrast to the present model, a less uniform distribution of systemic activity. Implications of the proposed models with regard to inhalation and ingestion dose coefficients for 106Ru are examined.

  11. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  12. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts

  13. Visual Coding of Human Bodies: Perceptual Aftereffects Reveal Norm-Based, Opponent Coding of Body Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…

  14. Building "Bob": A Project Exploring the Human Body at Western Illinois University Preschool Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouette, Scott

    2008-01-01

    When the children at Western Illinois University Preschool Center embarked on a study of human bodies, they decided to build a life-size model of a body, organ by organ from the inside out, to represent some of the things they were learning. This article describes the building of "Bob," the human body model, highlighting the children's problem…

  15. Macro And Microcosmus: Moon Influence On The Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchin, Giorgio

    Belief in the action of the macrocosmus, i.e., celestial bodies, on the microcosmus, i.e., on man, goes back to the dawn of human thinking. More specifically, lunar phases have been considered to act on behaviour and on physiological functions. This possible relationship has not only been taken for granted for many centuries in ancient medicine but also investigated in a number of modern published works, mainly on the issues of emergency activity; violent behaviour; car accidents; drug overdose; menses and birth; and mood disorders. Indeed, if the idea that the stars and planets may influence human health and behaviour can be traced so far in the past, it seems that not only the laymen but a high proportion of health professionals continue to hold this credence: recently, in New Orleans a questionnaire sent to 325 people indicated that 140 individuals (43%) held the opinion that lunar phenomena alter personal behaviour. Specifically, it came out that mental health professionals (social workers, clinical psychologists, nurses' aides) held this belief more strongly than other occupational groups (Vance, 1995). A short historical outline of some old beliefs and the results of contemporary research on this fascinating, time-honoured field, will be presented.

  16. Mapping implied body actions in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Moro, Valentina; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2006-07-26

    The human visual system is highly tuned to perceive actual motion as well as to extrapolate dynamic information from static pictures of objects or creatures captured in the middle of motion. Processing of implied motion activates higher-order visual areas that are also involved in processing biological motion. Imagery and observation of actual movements performed by others engenders selective activation of motor and premotor areas that are part of a mirror-neuron system matching action observation and execution. By using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we found that the mere observation of static snapshots of hands suggesting a pincer grip action induced an increase in corticospinal excitability as compared with observation of resting, relaxed hands, or hands suggesting a completed action. This facilitatory effect was specific for the muscle that would be activated during actual execution of the observed action. We found no changes in responsiveness of the tested muscles during observation of nonbiological entities with (e.g., waterfalls) or without (e.g., icefalls) implied motion. Thus, extrapolation of motion information concerning human actions induced a selective activation of the motor system. This indicates that overlapping motor regions are engaged in the visual analysis of physical and implied body actions. The absence of motor evoked potential modulation during observation of end posture stimuli may indicate that the observation-execution matching system is preferentially activated by implied, ongoing but not yet completed actions. PMID:16870739

  17. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  18. Feasibility study of in vivo partial body potassium determination in the human body using gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Lisa Marie

    This work investigates partial body potassium determination in the human body using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Potassium is an essential element in the human body that controls many of the enzyme systems and intra- and extra-cellular water flow. Potassium is symptomatic to several disease cases and has gender and ethnic variability. This work assesses the feasibility to measure partial body potassium in three specific regions: brain, arm, and leg, that are of interest to multiple sclerosis, chronic renal failure, and spinal cord injury, respectively. Three detector systems were constructed and their capabilities assessed. System characterization and analytical procedure for potassium evaluation and determination are presented together with experimental and initial clinical results. The results indicate that partial body potassium measurement is viable, statistically reproducible, and has potential clinical significance.

  19. Computational Electromagnetic Dosimetry of a Human Body in a Vehicle for Plane-wave Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa

    The present study investigated whole-body specific absorption rate of a human body in a vehicle cabin for plane-wave exposure. The rationale for this investigation is that fields in the vehicle without human have been enhanced in particular frequency region due to standing waves, and thus power absorption in the human body is of interest. For our computational results, the whole-body average specific absorption rate of the human in the vehicle was found to be 60% smaller than that in free space. The reason for this upset is that the standing wave over the vehicle cabin was suppressed due to power absorption by the human.

  20. Characterization of 17 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the mammal chewing louse Geomydoecus ewingi (Insecta: Phthiraptera) for population genetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Nessner, C E; Andersen, J J; Renshaw, M A; Giresi, M M; Light, J E

    2014-12-01

    We report 17 novel microsatellite loci in the parasitic chewing louse Geomydoecus ewingi, a common parasite of the pocket gopher, Geomys breviceps . Thirty-three G. ewingi individuals from 1 geographic locality and 3 pocket gopher hosts (populations) were genotyped at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 13. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.182 to 0.788. Four to 6 loci per louse population fell outside of Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) and examination of population structure also revealed substantial homozygote excess as well as significant structure among louse populations. These findings are likely the consequence of biological characteristics of the lice (low dispersal abilities, population bottlenecks, etc.), which can result in inbreeding. Notably, when all louse individuals were analyzed together as 1 population, a Wahlund effect was detected, supporting that louse populations are restricted to 1 host individual. The microsatellite markers characterized in this study will be useful in future studies exploring the population dynamics in host-parasite systems, potentially yielding a better understanding of the processes underlying symbiotic associations. PMID:24992004

  1. Mathematical modeling of the human body during water replacement and dehydration: body water changes.

    PubMed

    Downey, D; Seagrave, R C

    2000-03-01

    A model of the human body that integrates the variables involved in temperature regulation and blood gas transport within the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is presented here. It expands upon previous work to describe the competition between skin and muscles when both require increased blood flows during exercise and/or heat stress. First, a detailed study of the control relations used to predict skin blood flow was undertaken. Four other control relations employed in the model were also examined and modified as indicated by empirical results found in literature. Internal responses to exercise and/or heat stress can affect both thermoregulation and the cardiorespiratory system. Dehydration was studied in addition to complete water replacement during similar environmental and exercise situations. Control relations for skin blood flow and evaporative heat loss were modified and a water balance was added to study how the loss of water through sweat can be limiting. Runoff from sweating as a function of relative humidity was introduced along with evaporation, and these results were compared to data to validate the model. PMID:10784092

  2. Body futures: the case against marketing human organs.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, C J

    1987-06-01

    Creation of a market for the buying and selling of human organs for transplantation, even if it did allow supply to match demand, would be a serious mistake. Even if the market were fairly constructed, it might not dramatically increase the supply of transplantable organs, since donations likely would decrease if selling were allowed. Such a market would create a relative disadvantage for the poor, who would feel disproportionately greater pressure to sell their organs than would the wealthy. The possibility of realizing a profit from the organs of the dead could provide an incentive for murder or for doing less than we might to save lives. An organ market, where parts of a person are viewed as commodities, could lead to a general cheapening and coarsening of human relationships. Any organ selling system would create an economic relationship between buyer and seller, rather than a charitable one, raising quality control problems. The economic system, would drive out the volunteer donor system, sapping the altruistic bond that draws people together. Finally, an organ market presents a metaphysical threat in that it demeans our bodies to the status of articles to trade. An alternative to the current voluntary donor system and an organ market is to presume passive consent to organ donation with the right to informed refusal. Unless a record of the decedent's opposition to organ removal exists, the next of kin objects on being informed of the intent to remove organs, or the decedent was a member of a group known to oppose organ removal, we should presume a person's willingness to donate organs after death to save another person's life. PMID:10282295

  3. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-01

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements. PMID:715434

  4. [Morphometric evaluation of relative adipose tissue content in the human body].

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the mathematical models of the human body composition revealed main shortcomings of body mass index (A. Quetelet, 1832). This allowed to offer more accurate body mass index (BMI = M/H3), body build index [BBI = (BMI)1/2] and body fatness index (BFI = M/HC2), where (M), (H) and (C) signified the mass, height and wrist circumference correspondingly. PMID:23659047

  5. Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

  6. The Influence of Human Body Orientation on Distance Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Edgard; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi; de la Rosa, Stephan; Butz, Martin V.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Meilinger, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    People maintain larger distances to other peoples’ front than to their back. We investigated if humans also judge another person as closer when viewing their front than their back. Participants watched animated virtual characters (avatars) and moved a virtual plane toward their location after the avatar was removed. In Experiment 1, participants judged avatars, which were facing them as closer and made quicker estimates than to avatars looking away. In Experiment 2, avatars were rotated in 30 degree steps around the vertical axis. Observers judged avatars roughly facing them (i.e., looking max. 60 degrees away) as closer than avatars roughly looking away. No particular effect was observed for avatars directly facing and also gazing at the observer. We conclude that body orientation was sufficient to generate the asymmetry. Sensitivity of the orientation effect to gaze and to interpersonal distance would have suggested involvement of social processing, but this was not observed. We discuss social and lower-level processing as potential reasons for the effect. PMID:27014108

  7. Constraint, natural selection, and the evolution of human body form.

    PubMed

    Savell, Kristen R R; Auerbach, Benjamin M; Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-23

    Variation in body form among human groups is structured by a blend of natural selection driven by local climatic conditions and random genetic drift. However, attempts to test ecogeographic hypotheses have not distinguished between adaptive traits (i.e., those that evolved as a result of selection) and those that evolved as a correlated response to selection on other traits (i.e., nonadaptive traits), complicating our understanding of the relationship between climate and morphological distinctions among populations. Here, we use evolutionary quantitative methods to test if traits previously identified as supporting ecogeographic hypotheses were actually adaptive by estimating the force of selection on individual traits needed to drive among-group differentiation. Our results show that not all associations between trait means and latitude were caused by selection acting directly on each individual trait. Although radial and tibial length and biiliac and femoral head breadth show signs of responses to directional selection matching ecogeographic hypotheses, the femur was subject to little or no directional selection despite having shorter values by latitude. Additionally, in contradiction to ecogeographic hypotheses, the humerus was under directional selection for longer values by latitude. Responses to directional selection in the tibia and radius induced a nonadaptive correlated response in the humerus that overwhelmed its own trait-specific response to selection. This result emphasizes that mean differences between groups are not good indicators of which traits are adaptations in the absence of information about covariation among characteristics. PMID:27482101

  8. Wearable thermoelectric generator for harvesting human body heat energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Lee, Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the realization of a wearable thermoelectric generator (TEG) in fabric for use in clothing. A TEG was fabricated by dispenser printing of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 and Bi2Se0.3Te2.7 in a polymer-based fabric. The prototype consisted of 12 thermocouples connected by conductive thread over an area of 6 × 25 mm2. The device generated a power of 224 nW for a temperature difference of 15 K. When the TEG was used on the human body, the measured output power was 224 nW in an ambient temperature of 5 °C. The power of the TEG was affected by the movement of the wearer. A higher voltage was maintained while walking than in a stationary state. In addition, the device did not deform after it was bent and stretched several times. The prospect of using the TEG in clothing applications was confirmed under realistic conditions.

  9. Genome sequence of Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi, endosymbiont of chimpanzee lice, and genomic comparison of recently acquired endosymbionts from human and chimpanzee lice.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Bret M; Allen, Julie M; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Reed, David L

    2014-11-01

    The obligate-heritable endosymbionts of insects possess some of the smallest known bacterial genomes. This is likely due to loss of genomic material during symbiosis. The mode and rate of this erosion may change over evolutionary time: faster in newly formed associations and slower in long-established ones. The endosymbionts of human and anthropoid primate lice present a unique opportunity to study genome erosion in newly established (or young) symbionts. This is because we have a detailed phylogenetic history of these endosymbionts with divergence dates for closely related species. This allows for genome evolution to be studied in detail and rates of change to be estimated in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we sequenced the genome of the chimpanzee louse endosymbiont (Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi) and compared it with the closely related genome of the human body louse endosymbiont. From this comparison, we found evidence for recent genome erosion leading to gene loss in these endosymbionts. Although gene loss was detected, it was not significantly greater than in older endosymbionts from aphids and ants. Additionally, we searched for genes associated with B-vitamin synthesis in the two louse endosymbiont genomes because these endosymbionts are believed to synthesize essential B vitamins absent in the louse's diet. All of the expected genes were present, except those involved in thiamin synthesis. We failed to find genes encoding for proteins involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin or any complete exogenous means of salvaging thiamin, suggesting there is an undescribed mechanism for the salvage of thiamin. Finally, genes encoding for the pantothenate de novo biosynthesis pathway were located on a plasmid in both taxa along with a heat shock protein. Movement of these genes onto a plasmid may be functionally and evolutionarily significant, potentially increasing production and guarding against the deleterious effects of mutation. These data add to a growing

  10. Identification of a Sex-Linked SNP Marker in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, John B.; Christie, Hayden R. L.; Bassett, David I.; Bron, James E.; Skuce, Philip J.; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study’s observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies. PMID:24147087

  11. A human body model for efficient numerical characterization of UWB signal propagation in wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hooi Been; Baumann, Dirk; Li, Er-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) is a new enabling system with promising applications in areas such as remote health monitoring and interpersonal communication. Reliable and optimum design of a WBAN system relies on a good understanding and in-depth studies of the wave propagation around a human body. However, the human body is a very complex structure and is computationally demanding to model. This paper aims to investigate the effects of the numerical model's structure complexity and feature details on the simulation results. Depending on the application, a simplified numerical model that meets desired simulation accuracy can be employed for efficient simulations. Measurements of ultra wideband (UWB) signal propagation along a human arm are performed and compared to the simulation results obtained with numerical arm models of different complexity levels. The influence of the arm shape and size, as well as tissue composition and complexity is investigated. PMID:21062677

  12. Can head louse repellents really work? Field studies of piperonal 2% spray

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christine M.; Burgess, Nazma A.; Kaufman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background. Many families find regular checking of children’s heads for head louse infestation too onerous and would prefer to be able to prevent infestation by use of a topical application that deters lice from infesting the head. Identification in the laboratory of a repellent activity for piperonal provided the basis for developing a spray product to repel lice. Methods. A proof of principle field study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, compared the effect of using 2% piperonal spray with that of a placebo in 105 children and adults from three communities with infestation levels close to 100%. All participants were treated for infestation and subsequent incidence of reinfestation monitored daily by investigators. A second randomised, controlled, double blind, study in North London, UK, evaluated the effect of the product in normal use. One hundred and sixty-three children from schools with a high level (20–25%) of infestation were treated and confirmed louse free and randomly divided between 2% piperonal, a placebo spray, and a control group for up to 22 weeks. Parents applied the spray and monitored for infestation. Regular investigator visits confirmed the parental monitoring and replenished supplies of spray. Results. In Dhaka, over 18 days there were only 4 infestations in the piperonal group and 8 in the placebo group. This difference was not significant (p = 0.312). In North London, there were 41 cases of infestation over the course of the study. Although there were fewer infestations in the piperonal group, analysis of time to first infestation showed a no significant (p = 0.4368) difference between groups. Conclusion. Routine use of 2% piperonal spray in communities with a high prevalence of head louse infestation may provide some protection from infestation. However, the difference between use of the product and no active intervention was sufficiently small that regular checking for presence of lice is likely to be a more practical and cost effective approach

  13. Characterization of 10 microsatellite loci in an avian louse, Degeeriella regalis (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae).

    PubMed

    Peters, Maureen B; Hagen, Cris; Whiteman, Noah K; Parker, Patricia G; Glenn, Travis C

    2009-05-01

    We isolated and characterized 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci in an ischnoceran louse, Degeeriella regalis, which parasitizes the threatened Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and other falconiform birds. The loci were screened across 30 individuals from two island populations in the Galápagos Islands. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 28. Polymorphic information content ranged from 0.14 to 0.94 and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.67. These markers will be valuable in comparative population genetics studies in this species, which is the focus of a long-term population and disease ecology research program. PMID:21564777

  14. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase. PMID:25958462

  15. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  16. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ∼35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. PMID:25540216

  17. Odorant receptor-based discovery of natural repellents of human lice.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Julien; Xu, Pingxi; Yoon, Kyong S; Clark, John M; Leal, Walter S

    2015-11-01

    The body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, is an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite and an important insect vector that mediates the transmission of diseases to humans. The analysis of the body louse genome revealed a drastic reduction of the chemosensory gene repertoires when compared to other insects, suggesting specific olfactory adaptations to host specialization and permanent parasitic lifestyle. Here, we present for the first time functional evidence for the role of odorant receptors (ORs) in this insect, with the objective to gain insight into the chemical ecology of this vector. We identified seven putative full-length ORs, in addition to the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco), and expressed four of them in the Xenopus laevis oocytes system. When screened with a panel of ecologically-relevant odorants, PhumOR2 responded to a narrow set of compounds. At the behavior level, both head and body lice were repelled by the physiologically-active chemicals. This study presents the first evidence of the OR pathway being functional in lice and identifies PhumOR2 as a sensitive receptor of natural repellents that could be used to develop novel efficient molecules to control these insects. PMID:26494014

  18. Representational Momentum for the Human Body: Awkwardness Matters, Experience Does Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Margaret; Lancaster, Jessy; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of the human body appears to involve predictive simulations that project forward to track unfolding body-motion events. Here we use representational momentum (RM) to investigate whether implicit knowledge of a learned arbitrary system of body movement such as sign language influences this prediction process, and how this compares to…

  19. A New Clade of African Body and Head Lice Infected by Bartonella quintana and Yersinia pestis-Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Davoust, Bernard; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases-specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively-that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C. Here, we describe a fourth mitochondrial clade, Clade D, comprising head and body lice. Clade D may be a vector of B. quintana and Y. pestis, which is prevalent in a highly plague-endemic area near the Rethy Health District, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:26392158

  20. Mapping multisensory parietal face and body areas in humans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruey-Song; Chen, Ching-fu; Tran, Alyssa T; Holstein, Katie L; Sereno, Martin I

    2012-10-30

    Detection and avoidance of impending obstacles is crucial to preventing head and body injuries in daily life. To safely avoid obstacles, locations of objects approaching the body surface are usually detected via the visual system and then used by the motor system to guide defensive movements. Mediating between visual input and motor output, the posterior parietal cortex plays an important role in integrating multisensory information in peripersonal space. We used functional MRI to map parietal areas that see and feel multisensory stimuli near or on the face and body. Tactile experiments using full-body air-puff stimulation suits revealed somatotopic areas of the face and multiple body parts forming a higher-level homunculus in the superior posterior parietal cortex. Visual experiments using wide-field looming stimuli revealed retinotopic maps that overlap with the parietal face and body areas in the postcentral sulcus at the most anterior border of the dorsal visual pathway. Starting at the parietal face area and moving medially and posteriorly into the lower-body areas, the median of visual polar-angle representations in these somatotopic areas gradually shifts from near the horizontal meridian into the lower visual field. These results suggest the parietal face and body areas fuse multisensory information in peripersonal space to guard an individual from head to toe. PMID:23071340

  1. Computerized Simulation Of Whole Body Dynamics: Aspects Of Human Movement Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Ronald L.; Zernicke, Ronald F.

    1982-02-01

    Recent developments in the modeling of multi-body system dynamics are incorporated into an integrated, computer-oriented method for analyzing human body motion. The formulation, which represents the human body as a set of 17 finite, rigid-body segments including hands, feet, arms, legs, head, neck, and upper and lower torso, also accounts for the effects of connective tissues and muscles with non-linear springs and dampers at the connections of the linked rigid-bodies. Specific application of this biomathematical modeling of the body segments includes the estimation of musculoskeletal injury potential during aircraft and land vehicular crashes. With the integration of the output dynamics of the model, the injury profiles of the occupants, and human tissue tolerance limits, a more complete analysis and reconstruction of the details of the human occupant trajectory responses and injury incurrence can be made.

  2. Human body motion tracking based on quantum-inspired immune cloning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hong; Yue, Lichuan; Jiao, Licheng; Wu, Xing

    2009-10-01

    In a static monocular camera system, to gain a perfect 3D human body posture is a great challenge for Computer Vision technology now. This paper presented human postures recognition from video sequences using the Quantum-Inspired Immune Cloning Algorithm (QICA). The algorithm included three parts. Firstly, prior knowledge of human beings was used, the key joint points of human could be detected automatically from the human contours and skeletons which could be thinning from the contours; And due to the complexity of human movement, a forecasting mechanism of occlusion joint points was addressed to get optimum 2D key joint points of human body; And then pose estimation recovered by optimizing between the 2D projection of 3D human key joint points and 2D detection key joint points using QICA, which recovered the movement of human body perfectly, because this algorithm could acquire not only the global optimal solution, but the local optimal solution.

  3. Tensor body: real-time reconstruction of the human body and avatar synthesis from RGB-D.

    PubMed

    Barmpoutis, Angelos

    2013-10-01

    Real-time 3-D reconstruction of the human body has many applications in anthropometry, telecommunications, gaming, fashion, and other areas of human-computer interaction. In this paper, a novel framework is presented for reconstructing the 3-D model of the human body from a sequence of RGB-D frames. The reconstruction is performed in real time while the human subject moves arbitrarily in front of the camera. The method employs a novel parameterization of cylindrical-type objects using Cartesian tensor and b-spline bases along the radial and longitudinal dimension respectively. The proposed model, dubbed tensor body, is fitted to the input data using a multistep framework that involves segmentation of the different body regions, robust filtering of the data via a dynamic histogram, and energy-based optimization with positive-definite constraints. A Riemannian metric on the space of positive-definite tensor splines is analytically defined and employed in this framework. The efficacy of the presented methods is demonstrated in several real-data experiments using the Microsoft Kinect sensor. PMID:23974673

  4. Plastic detection comb better than visual screening for diagnosis of head louse infestation.

    PubMed

    Balcioglu, C; Burgess, I F; Limoncu, M E; Sahin, M T; Ozbel, Y; Bilaç, C; Kurt, O; Larsen, K S

    2008-10-01

    Finding lice can be difficult in head louse infestation. We compared a new louse detection comb with visual inspection. All children in two rural Turkish schools were screened by the two methods. Those with lice were offered treatment and the results monitored by detection combing. Children with nits only were re-screened to identify latent infestations. Using visual inspection we found 214/461 children (46%) with nits but only 30 (6.5%) with live lice. In contrast detection combing found 96 (21%) with live lice, of whom 20 had no nits. Detection combing was 3.84 times more effective than visual inspection for finding live lice. Only 10/138 (7.2%) children with nits and no lice were found to have active infestation by day 16. We found that the detection comb is significantly (P<0.001) more effective than visual screening for diagnosis; that nits are not a good indicator of active infestation; and that treatment with 1% permethrin was 89.6% effective. PMID:18177517

  5. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  6. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F; Kay, Katrina; Burgess, Nazma A; Brunton, Elizabeth R

    2011-01-01

    Background This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil- based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product. Methods We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment. Results The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P < 0.01) more effective than the lotion for both intention to treat (62.2% versus 34.8% successful treatment) and per-protocol (74.3% versus 36.8% success) groups. Post-treatment assessments showed the necessity for repeat treatment, but that a 9-day interval was too long because if eggs hatched after the first treatment, the lice could grow old enough to lay eggs before the second treatment. Conclusion The soya oil-based shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant. PMID:22915928

  7. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed

    Peacock, Stephanie J; Connors, Brendan M; Krkosek, Martin; Irvine, James R; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host-parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

  8. EST and mitochondrial DNA sequences support a distinct Pacific form of salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Ryosuke; Yasuike, Motoshige; Leong, Jong; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Cooper, Glenn A; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Robb, Adrienne; Davidson, William S; Jones, Simon R M; Koop, Ben F

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid sequences from approximately 15,000 salmon louse expressed sequence tags (ESTs), the complete mitochondrial genome (16,148bp) of salmon louse, and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes from 68 salmon lice collected from Japan, Alaska, and western Canada support a Pacific lineage of Lepeophtheirus salmonis that is distinct from that occurring in the Atlantic Ocean. On average, nuclear genes are 3.2% different, the complete mitochondrial genome is 7.1% different, and 16S rRNA and COI genes are 4.2% and 6.1% different, respectively. Reduced genetic diversity within the Pacific form of L. salmonis is consistent with an introduction into the Pacific from the Atlantic Ocean. The level of divergence is consistent with the hypothesis that the Pacific form of L. salmonis coevolved with Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus spp.) and the Atlantic form coevolved with Atlantic salmonids (Salmo spp.) independently for the last 2.5-11 million years. The level of genetic divergence coincides with the opportunity for migration of fish between the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins via the Arctic Ocean with the opening of the Bering Strait, approximately 5 million years ago. The genetic differences may help explain apparent differences in pathogenicity and environmental sensitivity documented for the Atlantic and Pacific forms of L. salmonis. PMID:18574633

  9. Using and respecting the dead human body: an anatomist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Jones, D Gareth

    2014-09-01

    In his stimulating article enquiring into what the living owe the dead, Wilkinson (2013, Clin. Anat. DOI: 10.1002/ca.22263) sought to unpack a range of ethical questions of considerable interest to anatomists. In this, he looked closely at the extent to which we are or are not to respect all the prior wishes of the deceased, and the implications of this for the role of the family in providing consent, the use of unclaimed bodies, and the public display of bodies. Some of his conclusions challenge widely encountered views by anatomists. In this response I have re-visited these topics in an attempt to ground his arguments in the experience of anatomists, by emphasizing the many intimate connections that exist between each of these areas. The following emerge as issues for further debate. I accept that the wishes of the deceased are preeminent, so that authorities should make every effort to abide by these. This reiterates the importance of body bequests over against unclaimed bodies, and provides a context for assessing the role of family consent. This has repercussions for all activities employing dead bodies, from the dissecting room to public plastination exhibitions. In determining the extent to which the wishes of the deceased are followed the input of other interested parties is a relevant consideration. An ethical assessment of the public display of bodies needs to take into account the nature of the plastination process. PMID:24753363

  10. Validation of Human Body Model VIRTHUMAN and its Implementation in Crash Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroslav Maňas, Ing.; Luděk Kovář, Ing.; Jan Petřík, Ing.; Hana Čechová, Ing.; Stanislav Špirk, Ing.

    Standard virtual prototyping approach of passive safety field is based on virtual models of dummies, but human body models become to be more and more important for specific crash scenarios. VIRTHUMAN is human body model based on MBS (Multi-Body Structure) approach. The model consists of movable rigid segments, which represent proper mass of each human part and enables to evaluate injury criteria describing safety risks during crash scenarios. There is evident advantage of the MBS approach in simple preparation of crash configuration—human body positioning, reasonable calculation times and mainly its applicability for robust designs development respecting variety of human population. The project VIRTHUMAN is directed on development of scaling technique enabling to generate human model based on the standard anthropometric inputs. The contribution describes status of the VIRTHUMAN model, procedures of its validation and results in standard crash scenarios.

  11. Observation of temperature trace, induced by changing of temperature inside the human body, on the human body skin using commercially available IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possibility of temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body due to water drinking. We use as a computer code that is available for treatment of images captured by commercially available IR camera, manufactured by Flir Corp., as well as our developed computer code for computer processing of these images. Using both codes we demonstrate clearly changing of human body skin temperature induced by water drinking. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden samples and substances concealed inside the human body using non-destructive control without X-rays using. Early we have demonstrated such possibility using THz radiation. Carried out experiments can be used for counter-terrorism problem solving. We developed original filters for computer processing of images captured by IR cameras. Their applications for computer processing of images results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras.

  12. Treatment of natural infestations of the biting louse (Werneckiella equi) on horses using triflumuron, a benzoylurea derivative insect growth regulator.

    PubMed

    Lowden, Stewart; Gray, Stephen; Dawson, Kim

    2007-09-30

    The horse biting louse (Werneckiella equi) is a common global equine ectoparasite. To our knowledge, benzoyl(phenyl)urea insecticides (triflumuron, diflubenzuron) commonly used as sheep lousicides, have not been evaluated for efficacy against W. equi. The aim of this study was to determine louse control efficacy, general wellness and dermal safety following triflumuron application as a backline pour-on to horses. Two efficacy trials using 25 adult naturally infested lousy horses, and a dermal safety trial using 10 adult louse-free horses were conducted over a 14-month period. Lousy animals were selected by assessment of their lice status prior to treatment. For the efficacy trial, the triflumuron product was applied at a dose of 2.5mg triflumuron per kg bodyweight (1 mL product per 10 kg bodyweight). For the safety study, triflumuron was applied at a 3x clinical dose of 7.5 mg triflumuron per kg bodyweight (3 mL product per 10 kg bodyweight). In our first efficacy trial, 100% lousicidal efficacy was achieved by day 44 post-treatment. In our second trial, no lice were identified on horses by day 71 post-treatment. In the safety trial, no adverse effects were seen. Results of this study demonstrate that the off-label, experimental pour-on application of triflumuron at 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight is convenient, highly effective and safe (at 3x the clinical dose) for the treatment of the horse biting louse, W. equi. PMID:17689014

  13. Chlorpyrifos for control of the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus (Nitzsch) (Anoplura, Haematopinidae) during winter.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M A; Schaalje, G B

    1985-01-01

    Two groups (A and C) of range cows were treated in February with chlorpyrifos (16 mL Dursban 44/cow) for the control of heavy infestations of the short-nosed cattle louse. Group A was treated in 1977 and group C in 1979 and each treated group was compared with a separate untreated group. Some of the treated cows were identified as carriers of louse infestation (subgroups A1 and C1), while others were noncarriers (subgroups A2 and C2). The maximum level of reduction in louse populations was 99% at week 4 posttreatment in subgroup A1, 99% from weeks 2-16 posttreatment in subgroup A2, 92% at week 3 posttreatment in subgroup C1 and 100% at weeks 15-17 in subgroup C2. Clinically, the treated cows, which were anemic at the time of treatment, recovered from anemia during the posttreatment period of 25 weeks for group A and 17 weeks for group C. Remission of anemia also occurred in the two untreated groups, possibly because of natural summer decline in louse population. The treatment had no effect on the whole blood cholinesterase of the cows and the treated cows showed no signs of organophosphorous toxicity. PMID:2416414

  14. How long do louse eggs take to hatch? A possible answer to an age-old riddle.

    PubMed

    Burgess, I F

    2014-06-01

    There are no rigorous data on how long eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), take to hatch. Pediculicide users often report reinfestations after apparently successful treatments in the absence of infective contacts. This study aimed to resolve the question of whether some louse eggs hatch after the completion of treatment, thereby giving rise to a new infestation. Data were extracted from the records of lice collected after treatments in 20 clinical intervention trials. All datasets were eliminated except those in which only newly hatched louse nymphs were found prior to the final assessment. This excluded the possibility that new eggs were laid after the first treatment and thus any young lice found must have originated from eggs laid before the start of treatment. This identified 23 of 1895 (1.2%) records with evidence of louse nymphs emerging at 13 days or more after the first treatment, 3–6 days longer than previous estimates. Current treatment regimens for pediculicides of two applications 7–10 days apart appear inadequate, which may explain continuing infestation in the community. Therefore, it is suggested that a revised approach using three treatments applied at intervals of 1 week should prevent the survival of any nymphs and their development into a new generation of adults. PMID:24987776

  15. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  16. Presence and effects of the dog louse Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga, Trichodectidae) on wolves and coyotes from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Thiel, R.P.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The dog louse was found on 19 wolves (Canis lupus) and six coyotes (C. latrans) from Minnesota and Wisconsin during the July-February, 1973 through 1983, period. No evidence was found that lice had any serious effect on wolf survival.

  17. Human body impedance for electromagnetic hazard analysis in the VLF to MF band

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, H.; Chatterjee, I.; Gandhi, O.P.

    1984-08-01

    A knowledge of the average electrical impedance of the human body is essential for the analysis of electromagnetic hazards in the VLF to MF band. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the average body impedance of several human subjects as a function of frequency. Measurements were carried out with the subjects standing barefoot on a ground plane and touching various metal electrodes with the hand or index finger. The measured impedance includes the electrode polarization and skin impedances, spread impedance near the electrode, body impedance, stray capacitance between the body surface and ground, and inductance due to the body and grounding strap. These components are separated and simplified equivalent circuits are presented for body impedance of humans exposed to free-space electromagnetic waves as well as in contact with large ungrounded metallic objects therein.

  18. The venality of human body parts and products in French law and common law.

    PubMed

    Haoulia, Naima

    2012-03-01

    The successive bioethics laws in France have constantly argued that the human body is not for sale and consecrated an absolute principle of free and anonymous donations, whether of semen, ova, blood, tissues or organs. Nonetheless, this position is not shared by all countries. These legal divergences upset today our moral principles and the development of these practices leads us to question the legal status of human biological material and its gradual commodification. This paper outlines the current law principles that protect people's interests in their bodies, excised body parts and tissues without conferring the rights of full legal ownership in French law and in Common law. Contrary to what many people believe, people do not legally 'own' their bodies, body parts or tissues. However, they do have some legal rights in relation to their bodies and excised body material. For lawyers, the exact relationship people have with their bodies has raised a host of complex questions and long debates about the status we should grant to human body parts. The significance of this issue is due to two reasons:first, because of the imperative protection we have to assure to human dignity and then, because of the economic value which is attached to human products. PMID:22530322

  19. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; <-0.010 g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (<0.05%) for lean and fat; -23 and -5 g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good

  20. [Human body meridian spatial decision support system for clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian. PMID:26946752

  1. Why the way we consider the body matters – Reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body

    PubMed Central

    Schicktanz, Silke

    2007-01-01

    Background Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy. Results The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed locus, always historically and culturally transformed. The author goes on to suggest a methodological approach that dialectically considers embodiment from four different perspectives: as bodily self-determination, as respect for the bodily unavailability of the other, as care for bodily individuality; and lastly, as acknowledgement of bodily-constituted communities. These four perspectives encompass autonomy in two of its main interpretations: as the capability of a person to act independent of external forces, and as the moral ideal of pursuing individual wishes by means of role distance, self-limitation and universalization. Various bioethical cases are utilized to show how the four perspectives on the body can complement one another. Conclusion The way we consider the body matters. The author's dialectical method allows a premise-critical identification and exploration of bioethical problems concerning the body. The method is potentially applicable to other bioethical problems. PMID:18053201

  2. Diagram of Calcium Movement in the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  3. Creating a Tiny Human Body on a Chip

    ScienceCinema

    Hunsberger, Maren; Soscia, Dave; Moya, Monica

    2016-03-16

    LLNL science communicator Maren Hunsberger takes us "Inside the Lab" to learn about the iChip (In-vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. "One application of the iChip system would be to develop new pharmaceutical drugs," explains Dave Soscia, LLNL postdoc. "When you test in a mouse for example, it's not as close to the human system as you can get. If we can take human cells and put them on devices and actually mimic the structure and function of the organ systems in the human, we can actually replace animal testing and even make a better system for testing pharmaceutical drugs."

  4. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. PMID:25689145

  5. [Inclusion Bodies are Formed in SFTSV-infected Human Macrophages].

    PubMed

    Jin, Cong; Song, Jingdong; Han, Ying; Li, Chuan; Qiu, Peihong; Liang, Mifang

    2016-01-01

    The severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a new member in the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae identified in China. The SFTSV is also the causative pathogen of an emerging infectious disease: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy, the intracellular distribution of nucleocapsid protein (NP) in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells was investigated with serial doses of SFTSV at different times after infection. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrafine intracellular structure of SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells at different times after infection. SFTSV NP could form intracellular inclusion bodies in infected THP-1 cells. The association between NP-formed inclusion bodies and virus production was analyzed: the size of the inclusion body formed 3 days after infection was correlated with the viral load in supernatants collected 7 days after infection. These findings suggest that the inclusion bodies formed in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells could be where the SFTSV uses host-cell proteins and intracellular organelles to produce new viral particles. PMID:27295879

  6. Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

  7. Taking a "Giant Tour" to Explore the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Helping children to visualise what is inside them and how their bodies work can be a challenge, since teachers are often reliant on secondary sources or investigations that can only measure outward signs (such as pulse rate). Another way is to involve the children in an imaginative role-play exercise where they explore the insides of a…

  8. Human body surface area: measurement and prediction using three dimensional body scans.

    PubMed

    Tikuisis, P; Meunier, P; Jubenville, C E

    2001-08-01

    The development of three dimensional laser scanning technology and sophisticated graphics editing software have allowed an alternative and potentially more accurate determination of body surface area (BSA). Raw whole-body scans of 641 adults (395 men and 246 women) were obtained from the anthropometric data base of the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource project. Following surface restoration of the scans (i.e. patching and smoothing), BSA was calculated. A representative subset of the entire sample population involving 12 men and 12 women (G24) was selected for detailed measurements of hand surface area (SAhand) and ratios of surface area to volume (SA/VOL) of various body segments. Regression equations involving wrist circumference and arm length were used to predict SAhand of the remaining population. The overall [mean (SD)] of BSA were 2.03 (0.19) and 1.73 (0.19) m2 for men and women, respectively. Various prediction equations were tested and although most predicted the measured BSA reasonably closely, residual analysis revealed an overprediction with increasing body size in most cases. Separate non-linear regressions for each sex yielded the following best-fit equations (with root mean square errors of about 1.3%): BSA (cm2) = 128.1 x m0.44 x h0.60 for men and BSA = 147.4 x m0.47 x h0.55 for women, where m, body mass, is in kilograms and h, height, is in centimetres. The SA/VOL ratios of the various body segments were higher for the women compared to the men of G24, significantly for the head plus neck (by 7%), torso (19%), upper arms (15%), forearms (20%), hands (18%), and feet (11%). The SA/VOL for both sexes ranged from approximately 12.m-1 for the pelvic region to 104-123.m-1 for the hands, and shape differences were a factor for the torso and lower leg. PMID:11560080

  9. The Knee Joint Loose Body as a Source of Viable Autologous Human Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Melrose, J.

    2016-01-01

    Loose bodies are fragments of cartilage or bone present in the synovial fluid. In the present study we assessed if loose bodies could be used as a source of autologous human chondrocytes for experimental purposes. Histochemical examination of loose bodies and differential enzymatic digestions were undertaken, the isolated cells were cultured in alginate bead microspheres and immunolocalisations were undertaken for chondrogenic markers such as aggrecan, and type II collagen. Isolated loose body cells had high viability (≥90% viable), expressed chondrogenic markers (aggrecan, type II collagen) but no type I collagen. Loose bodies may be a useful source of autologous chondrocytes of high viability. PMID:27349321

  10. Revisiting the importance of common body motion in human action perception.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Steven M; Lu, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Human actions are complex dynamic stimuli comprised of two principle motion components: 1) common body motion, which represents the translation of the body when a person moves through space, and 2) relative limb movements, resulting from articulation of limbs after factoring out common body motion. Historically, most research in biological motion has focused primarily on relative limb movements while discounting the role of common body motion in human action perception. The current study examined the relative contribution of posture change resulting from relative limb movements and translation of body position resulting from common body motion in discriminating human walking versus running actions. We found that faster translation speeds of common body motion evoked significantly more responses consistent with running when discriminating ambiguous actions morphed between walking and running. Furthermore, this influence was systematically modulated by the uncertainty associated with intrinsic cues as determined by the degree of limited-lifetime spatial sampling. The contribution of common body motion increased monotonically as the reliability of inferring posture changes on the basis of intrinsic cues decreased. These results highlight the importance of translational body movements and their interaction with posture change as a result of relative limb movements in discriminating human actions when visual input information is sparse and noisy. PMID:26603043

  11. The evolution of body size and shape in the human career.

    PubMed

    Jungers, William L; Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Richmond, Brian G

    2016-07-01

    Body size is a fundamental biological property of organisms, and documenting body size variation in hominin evolution is an important goal of palaeoanthropology. Estimating body mass appears deceptively simple but is laden with theoretical and pragmatic assumptions about best predictors and the most appropriate reference samples. Modern human training samples with known masses are arguably the 'best' for estimating size in early bipedal hominins such as the australopiths and all members of the genus Homo, but it is not clear if they are the most appropriate priors for reconstructing the size of the earliest putative hominins such as Orrorin and Ardipithecus The trajectory of body size evolution in the early part of the human career is reviewed here and found to be complex and nonlinear. Australopith body size varies enormously across both space and time. The pre-erectus early Homo fossil record from Africa is poor and dominated by relatively small-bodied individuals, implying that the emergence of the genus Homo is probably not linked to an increase in body size or unprecedented increases in size variation. Body size differences alone cannot explain the observed variation in hominin body shape, especially when examined in the context of small fossil hominins and pygmy modern humans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298459

  12. Heteroplasmy in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Human Lice and Ticks Revealed by High Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haoyu; Barker, Stephen C.; Burger, Thomas D.; Raoult, Didier; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    The typical mitochondrial (mt) genomes of bilateral animals consist of 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The mt genomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, and the human head louse, Pediculus capitis, however, are extensively fragmented and contain 20 minichromosomes, with one to three genes on each minichromosome. Heteroplasmy, i.e. nucleotide polymorphisms in the mt genome within individuals, has been shown to be significantly higher in the mt cox1 gene of human lice than in humans and other animals that have the typical mt genomes. To understand whether the extent of heteroplasmy in human lice is associated with mt genome fragmentation, we sequenced the entire coding regions of all of the mt minichromosomes of six human body lice and six human head lice from Ethiopia, China and France with an Illumina HiSeq platform. For comparison, we also sequenced the entire coding regions of the mt genomes of seven species of ticks, which have the typical mitochondrial genome organization of bilateral animals. We found that the level of heteroplasmy varies significantly both among the human lice and among the ticks. The human lice from Ethiopia have significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than those from China and France (Pt<0.05). The tick, Amblyomma cajennense, has significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than other ticks (Pt<0.05). Our results indicate that heteroplasmy level can be substantially variable within a species and among closely related species, and does not appear to be determined by single factors such as genome fragmentation. PMID:24058467

  13. Heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial genomes of human lice and ticks revealed by high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Haoyu; Barker, Stephen C; Burger, Thomas D; Raoult, Didier; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    The typical mitochondrial (mt) genomes of bilateral animals consist of 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The mt genomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, and the human head louse, Pediculus capitis, however, are extensively fragmented and contain 20 minichromosomes, with one to three genes on each minichromosome. Heteroplasmy, i.e. nucleotide polymorphisms in the mt genome within individuals, has been shown to be significantly higher in the mt cox1 gene of human lice than in humans and other animals that have the typical mt genomes. To understand whether the extent of heteroplasmy in human lice is associated with mt genome fragmentation, we sequenced the entire coding regions of all of the mt minichromosomes of six human body lice and six human head lice from Ethiopia, China and France with an Illumina HiSeq platform. For comparison, we also sequenced the entire coding regions of the mt genomes of seven species of ticks, which have the typical mitochondrial genome organization of bilateral animals. We found that the level of heteroplasmy varies significantly both among the human lice and among the ticks. The human lice from Ethiopia have significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than those from China and France (Pt<0.05). The tick, Amblyomma cajennense, has significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than other ticks (Pt<0.05). Our results indicate that heteroplasmy level can be substantially variable within a species and among closely related species, and does not appear to be determined by single factors such as genome fragmentation. PMID:24058467

  14. Aggregation of Human Eyelid Adipose-derived Stem Cells by Human Body Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeonhwa; Yun, Sujin; Yang, Hye Jin; Yoon, A Young; Kim, Haekwon

    2012-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most frequently used serum for the cultivation of mammalian cells. However, since animal-derived materials might not be appropriate due to safety issues, allogeneic human serum (HS) has been used to replace FBS, particularly for the culture of human cells. While there has been a debate about the advantages of HS, its precise effect on human adult stem cells have not been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HS on the human eyelid adipose stem cells (HEACs) in vitro. When HEACs were cultivated in a medium containing 10% HS, many cells moved into several spots and aggregated there. The phenomenon was observed as early as 9 days following 10% HS treatment, and 12 days following 5% HS plus 5% FBS treatment. However, the aggregation was never observed when the same cells were cultivated with 10% FBS or bovine serum albumin. To examine whether cell density might affect the aggregation, cells were seeded with different densities on 12-well dish. Until the beginning of aggregation, cells seeded at low densities exhibited the longest culture period of 16 days whereas cells seeded at high densities showed the shortest period of 9 days to form aggregation. The number of cells was 15.1±0.2×104 as the least for the low density group, and 29.3±2.8×104 as the greatest for the high density group. When human cord blood serum or normal bovine serum was examined for the same effect on HEACs, interestingly, cord blood serum induced the aggregation of cells whereas bovine serum treatment has never induced. When cells were cultivated with 10% HS for 9 days, they were obtained and analyzed by RT-PCR. Compared to FBS-cultivated HEACs, HS-cultivated HEACs did not express VIM, and less expressed GATA4, PALLD. On the other hand, HS-cultivated HEACs expressed MAP2 more than FBS-cultivated HEACs. In conclusion, human adult stem cells could move and form aggregates by the treatment with human body fluids. PMID:25949109

  15. Contact-free determination of human body segment parameters by means of videometric image processing of an anthropomorphic body model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatze, Herbert; Baca, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    The development of noninvasive techniques for the determination of biomechanical body segment parameters (volumes, masses, the three principal moments of inertia, the three local coordinates of the segmental mass centers, etc.) receives increasing attention from the medical sciences (e,.g., orthopaedic gait analysis), bioengineering, sport biomechanics, and the various space programs. In the present paper, a novel method is presented for determining body segment parameters rapidly and accurately. It is based on the video-image processing of four different body configurations and a finite mass-element human body model. The four video images of the subject in question are recorded against a black background, thus permitting the application of shape recognition procedures incorporating edge detection and calibration algorithms. In this way, a total of 181 object space dimensions of the subject's body segments can be reconstructed and used as anthropometric input data for the mathematical finite mass- element body model. The latter comprises 17 segments (abdomino-thoracic, head-neck, shoulders, upper arms, forearms, hands, abdomino-pelvic, thighs, lower legs, feet) and enables the user to compute all the required segment parameters for each of the 17 segments by means of the associated computer program. The hardware requirements are an IBM- compatible PC (1 MB memory) operating under MS-DOS or PC-DOS (Version 3.1 onwards) and incorporating a VGA-board with a feature connector for connecting it to a super video windows framegrabber board for which there must be available a 16-bit large slot. In addition, a VGA-monitor (50 - 70 Hz, horizontal scan rate at least 31.5 kHz), a common video camera and recorder, and a simple rectangular calibration frame are required. The advantage of the new method lies in its ease of application, its comparatively high accuracy, and in the rapid availability of the body segment parameters, which is particularly useful in clinical practice

  16. A Science and Technology Excursion-based Unit of Work: The Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit of work based on a few systems of the human body. Stretches students' learning beyond the classroom into the local community by going on an excursion to Kalgoorlie Regional Hospital. (ASK)

  17. A remarkable new genus and a new species of chewing louse (Phthiraptera, Ischnocera, Philopteridae) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Michel P.; Cicchino, Armando C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of chewing louse as Bobdalgleishia, and its type species Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus sp. n. (Phthiraptera) belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are described. Adults of the new species are fully described, illustrated and compared morphologically with the type species of Motmotnirmus Mey & Barker, 2014, which is its closest relative. The type host of Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus is a subspecies of the great jacamar Jacamerops aureus ridgwayi Todd, 1943, an endemic Amazonian bird distributed in northern Brazil, and the type locality is the State of Pará. Bobdalgleishia is a remarkable genus with unique morphological and chaetotaxic characters which readily separate it from other members of the Brueelia-complex, in particular by having the first two marginal temporal and ocular setae very long. PMID:26798280

  18. Toxicity of essential and non-essential oils against the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Talbert, R; Wall, R

    2012-10-01

    The toxicity of six plant essential oils to the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys, was examined in laboratory bioassays. The oils examined were: tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). All except camphor oil showed high levels of toxicity, with significant dose-dependent mortality and an LC(50) at concentrations of below 2% (v/v). Hundred percent mortality was achieved at concentrations of 5-10% (v/v). Two essential oil components: eugenol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol showed similar levels of toxicity. The data suggest that these botanical products may offer environmentally and toxicologically safe, alternative veterinary pediculicides for the control of ectoparasitic lice. PMID:22177577

  19. Cognitive Analysis of Chinese-English Metaphors of Animal and Human Body Part Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical cognition arises from the mapping of two conceptual domains onto each other. According to the "Anthropocentrism", people tend to know the world first by learning about their bodies including Apparatuses. Based on that, people begin to know the material world, and the human body part metaphorization emerges as the times…

  20. Evaluation of Human Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Because the etiologic agents of these infections are abundant in nature, their isolation from biopsy material or sterile body fluids is needed to document infection. This review evaluates and discusses different human body fluids used to diagnose fungal infections. PMID:23984401

  1. Human cells lacking coilin and Cajal bodies are proficient in telomerase assembly, trafficking and telomere maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanlian; Deng, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Hu, Qian; Liu, Haiying; Songyang, Zhou; Ma, Wenbin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The RNA component of human telomerase (hTR) localizes to Cajal bodies, and it has been proposed that Cajal bodies play a role in the assembly of telomerase holoenzyme and telomerase trafficking. Here, the role of Cajal bodies was examined in Human cells deficient of coilin (i.e. coilin-knockout (KO) cells), in which no Cajal bodies are detected. In coilin-KO cells, a normal level of telomerase activity is detected and interactions between core factors of holoenzyme are preserved, indicating that telomerase assembly occurs in the absence of Cajal bodies. Moreover, dispersed hTR aggregates and forms foci specifically during S and G2 phase in coilin-KO cells. Colocalization of these hTR foci with telomeres implies proper telomerase trafficking, independent of Cajal bodies. Therefore, telomerase adds similar numbers of TTAGGG repeats to telomeres in coilin-KO and controls cells. Overexpression of TPP1-OB-fold blocks cell cycle-dependent formation of hTR foci and inhibits telomere extension. These findings suggest that telomerase assembly, trafficking and extension occur with normal efficiency in Cajal bodies deficient human cells. Thus, Cajal bodies, as such, are not essential in these processes, although it remains possible that non-coilin components of Cajal bodies and/or telomere binding proteins (e.g. TPP1) do play roles in telomerase biogenesis and telomere homeostasis. PMID:25477378

  2. Bovicola tibialis (Phthiraptera:Trichodectidae): occurrence of an exotic chewing louse on cervids in North America.

    PubMed

    Mertins, James W; Mortenson, Jack A; Bernatowicz, Jeffrey A; Hall, P Briggs

    2011-01-01

    Through a recent (2003-2007) survey of ectoparasites on hoofed mammals in western North America, a literature review, and examination of archived museum specimens, we found that the exotic deer-chewing louse, Bovicola tibialis (Piaget), is a long-term, widespread resident in the region. The earliest known collection was from Salt Spring Island, Canada, in 1941. We found these lice on the typical host, that is, introduced European fallow deer (Dama dama L.), and on Asian chital (Axis axis [Erxleben] ), native Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus [Richardson] ), and Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. h. hemionus [Rafinesque]) x black-tailed deer hybrids. Chital and the hybrid deer are new host records. All identified hosts were known to be or probably were exposed to fallow deer. Geographic records include southwestern British Columbia, Canada; Marin and Mendocino Counties, California; Deschutes, Lincoln, and Linn Counties, Oregon; Yakima and Kittitas Counties, Washington; Curry County, New Mexico; and circumstantially, at least, Kerr County, Texas. All but the Canadian and Mendocino County records are new. Bovicola tibialis displays a number of noteworthy similarities to another exotic deer-chewing louse already established in the region, that is, Damalinia (Cervicola) sp., which is associated with a severe hair-loss syndrome in black-tailed deer. We discuss longstanding problems with proper identification of B. tibialis, the probability that it occurs even more widely in the United States, and the prospects for it to cause health problems for North American deer. Additional information gathered since our active survey establishes further new distribution and host records for B. tibialis. PMID:21337942

  3. Construction of a mathematical model of the human body, taking the nonlinear rigidity of the spine into account

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glukharev, K. K.; Morozova, N. I.; Potemkin, B. A.; Solovyev, V. S.; Frolov, K. V.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model of the human body was constructed, under the action of harmonic vibrations, in the 2.5-7 Hz frequency range. In this frequency range, the model of the human body as a vibrating system, with concentrated parameters is considered. Vertical movements of the seat and vertical components of vibrations of the human body are investigated.

  4. Approach to extracting the human body framework from a color image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Chiu, Shu-Shu

    2001-09-01

    Extracting human body framework from images is up to now an open and significant problem in general. We propose a systematic approach which strictly follows the fundamental assumption: only one front-viewed standing human body dressing clothes with long sleeves and long trousers can be extracted from an image in this paper. Three main steps devised in our approach to extract the human body framework are face detection, segmentation of clothes and trousers regions, and positioning all human body parts. The face detection was performed by means of face skin color extraction and face template matching. Based on the determined hue quantization and color texture features, a texture similarity measure was designed for the segmentation of clothes and trousers. In accordance with the entropy concept of information theory, the homogeneous and inhomogeneous information was derived from similarity measurements of a human body image. Then the useful images transformed respectively from the found homogeneous and inhomogeneous information were combined with the defined relationships of a human body framework to locate the trunk region, arm parts, the hip region and leg parts. Experiments have confirmed the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  5. Quantitative assessment of human body shape using Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Martin; Rohlf, F. J.; Hsiao, Hongwei

    2004-04-01

    Fall protection harnesses are commonly used to reduce the number and severity of injuries. Increasing the efficiency of harness design requires the size and shape variation of the user population to be assessed as detailed and as accurately as possible. In light of the unsatisfactory performance of traditional anthropometry with respect to such assessments, we propose the use of 3D laser surface scans of whole bodies and the statistical analysis of elliptic Fourier coefficients. Ninety-eight male and female adults were scanned. Key features of each torso were extracted as a 3D curve along front, back and the thighs. A 3D extension of Elliptic Fourier analysis4 was used to quantify their shape through multivariate statistics. Shape change as a function of size (allometry) was predicted by regressing the coefficients onto stature, weight and hip circumference. Upper and lower limits of torso shape variation were determined and can be used to redefine the design of the harness that will fit most individual body shapes. Observed allometric changes are used for adjustments to the harness shape in each size. Finally, the estimated outline data were used as templates for a free-form deformation of the complete torso surface using NURBS models (non-uniform rational B-splines).

  6. Digitization of the human body in the present-day economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on the historic development of human body digitization and on the actual state of commercially available technology. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than ten years. One of the main users of this technology was the entertainment industry. Every new movie excited with attractive visual effects, but only few people knew that the most thrilling cuts were realized by using virtual persons. The faces and bodies of actors were digitized and the "virtual twin" replaced the actor in the movie. Nowadays, the state of the human body digitization is so high that it is not possible any more to distinguish the real actor from the virtual one. Indeed, for the rush technical development has to be thanked the movie industry, which was one of the strong economic motors for this technology. Today, with the possibility of a massive cost reduction given by new technologies, methods for digitization of the human body are used also in other fields of application, such as ergonomics, medical applications, computer games, biometry and anthropometrics. With the time, this technology becomes interesting also for sport, fitness, fashion and beauty. A large expansion of human body digitization is expected in the near future. To date, different technologies are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. They can be divided into three distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their differences and characteristics and expresses clues for the selection of the adequate method. Practical examples of commercial exploitation of human body digitization are also presented and new interesting perspectives are introduced.

  7. Digitization of the human body in the present-day economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we report on the historic development of human body digitization and on the actual state of commercially available technology. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than ten years. One of the main users of this technology was the entertainment industry. Every new movie excited with attractive visual effects, but only few people knew that the most thrilling cuts were realized by using virtual persons. The faces and bodies of actors were digitized and the "virtual twin" replaced the actor in the movie. Nowadays, the state of the human body digitization is so high that it is not possible any more to distinguish the real actor from the virtual one. Indeed, for the rush technical development has to be thanked the movie industry, which was one of the strong economic motors for this technology. Today, with the possibility of a massive cost reduction given by new technologies, methods for digitization of the human body are used also in other fields of application, such as ergonomics, medical applications, computer games, biometry and anthropometrics. With the time, this technology becomes interesting also for sport, fitness, fashion and beauty. A large expansion of human body digitization is expected in the near future. To date, different technologies are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. They can be divided into three distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their differences and characteristics and expresses clues for the selection of the adequate method. Practical examples of commercial exploitation of human body digitization are also presented and new interesting perspectives are introduced.

  8. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ionizing radiation in body fluids and serological evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, P.D.; Sarin, P.S.; Humphreys, J.C.; Eubanks, W.G.; Sun, D.; Hocken, D.G.; Thornton, A.; Adams, D.E.; Simic, M.G. )

    1989-11-01

    A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Experiments conducted indicate that an X-ray absorbed dose of 25 krad was required to completely inactivate HIV. This does not alter forensically important constituents such as enzymes and proteins in body fluids. This method of inactivation of HIV cannot be used on body fluids which will be subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing.

  9. Statistical multi-path exposure method for assessing the whole-body SAR in a heterogeneous human body model in a realistic environment.

    PubMed

    Vermeeren, Günter; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the whole-body absorption in a human in a realistic environment requires a statistical approach covering all possible exposure situations. This article describes the development of a statistical multi-path exposure method for heterogeneous realistic human body models. The method is applied for the 6-year-old Virtual Family boy (VFB) exposed to the GSM downlink at 950 MHz. It is shown that the whole-body SAR does not differ significantly over the different environments at an operating frequency of 950 MHz. Furthermore, the whole-body SAR in the VFB for multi-path exposure exceeds the whole-body SAR for worst-case single-incident plane wave exposure by 3.6%. Moreover, the ICNIRP reference levels are not conservative with the basic restrictions in 0.3% of the exposure samples for the VFB at the GSM downlink of 950 MHz. The homogeneous spheroid with the dielectric properties of the head suggested by the IEC underestimates the absorption compared to realistic human body models. Moreover, the variation in the whole-body SAR for realistic human body models is larger than for homogeneous spheroid models. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity of the tissues and the irregular shape of the realistic human body model compared to homogeneous spheroid human body models. PMID:23124484

  10. Human body burdens of chemicals used in plastic manufacture

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Holger M.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2009-01-01

    In the last decades, the availability of sophisticated analytical chemistry techniques has facilitated measuring trace levels of multiple environmental chemicals in human biological matrices (i.e. biomonitoring) with a high degree of accuracy and precision. As biomonitoring data have become readily available, interest in their interpretation has increased. We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure and risk assessment using phthalates and bisphenol A as examples of chemicals used in the manufacture of plastic goods. We present and review the most relevant research on biomarkers of exposure for phthalates and bisphenol A, including novel and most comprehensive biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States. We discuss several factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information. PMID:19528056

  11. Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations). This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia). Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today. PMID:20100333

  12. Human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzofurans associated with toxicity based on the yusho and yucheng incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.J.; Gasiewicz, T.A.; Brown, J.F. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are one group of man-made toxicants for which reasonably extensive data exist relevant to dose-response relationships in humans. Examination of contaminated food oil consumption from the yusho (Japan) poisoning incident indicates the mean uptake or body burden of 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) equivalents (PEQ) associated with nausea and anorexia to be 4.4 micrograms/kg body wt and that associated with chloracne to be 5.9 micrograms/kg. For the yucheng (Taiwan) poisoning incident, blood measurements for chloracne show a similar body burden of 4.0 micrograms/kg. The latter value is toxicologically equivalent to a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (TEQ) body burden of 2.0 micrograms/kg body wt or about 150 micrograms for an adult person. This corresponds to an adipose tissue level of about 10 micrograms/kg fat, and is comparable to that known to cause chloracne in rhesus monkeys. These body burdens on a TEQ basis are more than 200 times higher than the average current levels of PCDDs/PCDFs found in North American populations and are the first to relate human body burdens of PCDFs with a known effect and to compare them to animal data. Since the effects reported may not be the most sensitive indicator of human toxicity, lower body burdens could be associated with more subtle toxicological events.

  13. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition. PMID:26034269

  14. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Bolter, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4–5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition. PMID:26034269

  15. Simulation of SAR in the Human Body to Determine Effects of RF Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michiyama, Tetsuyuki; Nikawa, Yoshio

    The body area network (BAN) has attracted attention because of its potential for high-grade wireless communication technology and its safety and high durability. Also, human area transmission of a BAN propagating at an ultra-wide band (UWB) has been demonstrated recently. When considering the efficiency of electromagnetic (EM) propagation inside the human body for BAN and hyperthermia treatment using RF, it is important to determine the mechanism of EM dissipation in the human body. A body heating system for hyperthermia must deposit EM energy deep inside the body. Also, it is important that the EM field generated by the implant system is sufficiently strong. In this study, the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution is simulated using an EM simulator to consider the biological transmission mechanism and its effects. To utilize the EM field distribution using an implant system for hyperthermia treatment, the SAR distribution inside the human body is simulated. As a result, the SAR distribution is concentrated on the surface of human tissue, the muscle-bolus interface, the pancreas, the stomach, the spleen and the regions around bones. It can also be concentrated in bone marrow and cartilage. From these results, the appropriate location for the implant system is revealed on the basis of the current distribution and differences in the wave impedance of interfacing tissues. The possibility of accurate data transmission and suitable treatment planning is confirmed.

  16. [Human, transhuman, posthuman. Representations of the body between incompleteness and enhancement].

    PubMed

    Maestrutti, Marina

    2011-01-01

    "Posthuman" is often used to indicate some position, practice, perspective and vision concerning the future of human beings closely related to the use of contemporary technologies. This contribution would like to analyze some conceptions of the notion of posthuman and to present it as a possible form of "non-anthropocentric" thought which considers technological changes as non-human realities strictly involved in the construction and the definition of what constitutes a human being (and his body) and its predicates. Contrary to anthropocentrism which has characterized Western thought from humanism up to the extreme outcomes of transhumanism, non-anthropocentric posthumanism shows how the human being, who has always been the product of hybridization with the non-human (environment, animals and techniques), is built not only by his own strength but always through his partnership and his environment. The idea of enhancement of the body by technology to reach another stage of human evolution is one of the constant elements characterizing transhumanism. Posthumanism suggests no longer considering the interface with technology as an ergonomic relationship with an external tool that just extends the human body, but as a hybrid, or interpenetration that questions the separation of the body and its centrality. In this perspective, the question is not of simply establishing which is a good use of a technology but, every time, of redefining ourselves in our perspectives and our predicates with regard to what a technology allows and opens up to us. PMID:22238907

  17. Automated measurement of human body shape and curvature using computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Jeremy D.; Hobson, Clifford A.; Dangerfield, Peter H.

    1993-06-01

    A system to measure the surface shape of the human body has been constructed. The system uses a fringe pattern generated by projection of multi-stripe structured light. The optical methodology used is fully described and the algorithms used to process acquired digital images are outlined. The system has been applied to the measurement of the shape of the human back in scoliosis.

  18. NIH Human Microbiome Project defines normal bacterial makeup of the body

    Cancer.gov

    Microbes inhabit just about every part of the human body, living on the skin, in the gut, and up the nose. Sometimes they cause sickness, but most of the time, microorganisms live in harmony with their human hosts, providing vital functions essential for

  19. Reshuffling transcriptional circuits: how microorganisms adapt to colonize the human body

    PubMed Central

    De, Sonakshi; Pérez, J Christian

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred taxa of microorganisms—including bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes—inhabit the human body. What did it take for these species to become stable residents of humans? Recent reports illustrate how evolutionary changes in transcriptional circuits played a pivotal role in the adaptation of single-celled eukaryotes to colonize mammals. PMID:25483603

  20. Accurate human tissue characterization for energy-efficient wireless on-body communications.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín; del Valle, Pablo García; Ayala, José L

    2013-01-01

    The demand for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) is rapidly increasing due to the revolution in wearable systems demonstrated by the penetration of on-the-body sensors in hospitals, sports medicine and general health-care practices. In WBSN, the body acts as a communication channel for the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, where losses are mainly due to absorption of power in the tissue. This paper shows the effects of the dielectric properties of biological tissues in the signal strength and, for the first time, relates these effects with the human body composition. After a careful analysis of results, this work proposes a reactive algorithm for power transmission to alleviate the effect of body movement and body type. This policy achieves up to 40.8% energy savings in a realistic scenario with no performance overhead. PMID:23752565

  1. Accurate Human Tissue Characterization for Energy-Efficient Wireless On-Body Communications

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín; del Valle, Pablo García; Ayala, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) is rapidly increasing due to the revolution in wearable systems demonstrated by the penetration of on-the-body sensors in hospitals, sports medicine and general health-care practices. In WBSN, the body acts as a communication channel for the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, where losses are mainly due to absorption of power in the tissue. This paper shows the effects of the dielectric properties of biological tissues in the signal strength and, for the first time, relates these effects with the human body composition. After a careful analysis of results, this work proposes a reactive algorithm for power transmission to alleviate the effect of body movement and body type. This policy achieves up to 40.8% energy savings in a realistic scenario with no performance overhead. PMID:23752565

  2. Size heterogeneity of epidermal growth factor in human body fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pesonen, K.; Viinikka, L.; Koskimies, A.; Banks, A.R.; Nicolson, M.; Perheentupa, J.

    1987-06-29

    The authors measured the concentration of immunoreactive (IR) hEGF in various body fluids by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and evaluated its size heterogeneity by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography combined with RIA or with time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TR-IFMA). Mean concentration was 80 ng/ml in urine, 65 ng/ml in milk, 50 ng/ml in seminal plasma, 25 ng/ml in armpit sweat, 1 ng/ml in breast sweat, 0.3 ng/ml in third-trimester amniotic fluid, 3 ng/ml in saliva, 1.5 ng/ml in tears and 0.3 ng/ml in gastric juice. All the fluids except armpit sweat and gastric juice contained two to five molecular sizes of IR-hEGF. As well as the 6200-dalton (6.2kDa) hEGF the authors found at least four other different molecular sizes with approximate weights of greater than or equal to300, 150, 70 and 20 kDa. The authentic 6.2kDa form made up >90% of the total IR-hEGF in all except the amniotic fluid where its proportion was 71%, and the seminal plasma where the proportion could not be determined. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  3. The horizontal apparent mass of the standing human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2011-06-01

    The driving-point dynamic responses of standing people (e.g. their mechanical impedance or apparent mass) influence their dynamic interactions with structures on which they are supported. The apparent mass of the standing body has been reported previously for vertical excitation but not for lateral or fore-and-aft excitation. Twelve standing male subjects were exposed to fore-and-aft and lateral random vibration over the frequency range 0.1-5.0 Hz for 180 s at four vibration magnitudes: 0.016, 0.0315, 0.063, and 0.125 m s -2 rms. With lateral excitation at 0.063 m s -2 rms, subjects also stood with three separations of the feet. The dynamic forces measured at the driving-point in each of the three translational axes (i.e. fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical) showed components not linearly related to the input vibration, and not seen in previous studies with standing subjects exposed to vertical vibration or seated subjects exposed to vertical or horizontal vibration. A principal peak in the lateral apparent mass around 0.5 Hz tended to decrease in both frequency and magnitude with increasing magnitude of vibration and increase with increasing separation of the feet. The fore-and-aft apparent mass appeared to peak at a frequency lower than the lowest frequency used in the study.

  4. Motor expertise modulates the unconscious processing of human body postures.

    PubMed

    Güldenpenning, Iris; Koester, Dirk; Kunde, Wilfried; Weigelt, Matthias; Schack, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about the cognitive background of unconscious visuomotor control of complex sports movements. Therefore, we investigated the extent to which novices and skilled high-jump athletes are able to identify visually presented body postures of the high jump unconsciously. We also asked whether or not the manner of processing differs (qualitatively or quantitatively) between these groups as a function of their motor expertise. A priming experiment with not consciously perceivable stimuli was designed to determine whether subliminal priming of movement phases (same vs. different movement phases) or temporal order (i.e. natural vs. reversed movement order) affects target processing. Participants had to decide which phase of the high jump (approach vs. flight phase) a target photograph was taken from. We found a main effect of temporal order for skilled athletes, that is, faster reaction times for prime-target pairs that reflected the natural movement order as opposed to the reversed movement order. This result indicates that temporal-order information pertaining to the domain of expertise plays a critical role in athletes' perceptual capacities. For novices, data analyses revealed an interaction between temporal order and movement phases. That is, only the reversed movement order of flight-approach pictures increased processing time. Taken together, the results suggest that the structure of cognitive movement representation modulates unconscious processing of movement pictures and points to a functional role of motor representations in visual perception. PMID:21769547

  5. Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body.

    PubMed

    Sender, Ron; Fuchs, Shai; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-01

    Reported values in the literature on the number of cells in the body differ by orders of magnitude and are very seldom supported by any measurements or calculations. Here, we integrate the most up-to-date information on the number of human and bacterial cells in the body. We estimate the total number of bacteria in the 70 kg "reference man" to be 3.8·1013. For human cells, we identify the dominant role of the hematopoietic lineage to the total count (≈90%) and revise past estimates to 3.0·1013 human cells. Our analysis also updates the widely-cited 10:1 ratio, showing that the number of bacteria in the body is actually of the same order as the number of human cells, and their total mass is about 0.2 kg. PMID:27541692

  6. Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body

    PubMed Central

    Milo, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Reported values in the literature on the number of cells in the body differ by orders of magnitude and are very seldom supported by any measurements or calculations. Here, we integrate the most up-to-date information on the number of human and bacterial cells in the body. We estimate the total number of bacteria in the 70 kg "reference man" to be 3.8·1013. For human cells, we identify the dominant role of the hematopoietic lineage to the total count (≈90%) and revise past estimates to 3.0·1013 human cells. Our analysis also updates the widely-cited 10:1 ratio, showing that the number of bacteria in the body is actually of the same order as the number of human cells, and their total mass is about 0.2 kg. PMID:27541692

  7. Genomic Characterization and Phylogenetic Position of Two New Species in Rhabdoviridae Infecting the Parasitic Copepod, Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Økland, Arnfinn Lodden; Nylund, Are; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Blindheim, Steffen; Watanabe, Kuninori; Grotmol, Sindre; Arnesen, Carl-Erik; Plarre, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11 600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses. PMID:25402203

  8. Detection of human interaction from a distance using salient body behaviour modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; Gong, Shaogang

    2006-09-01

    Understanding far and close proximity human-human interaction observed from a distance is a necessary step towards automated suspicious or antisocial behaviour detection. Most previous work on human-human interaction has made the implicit assumption that interactions occur only at immediate spatial and temporal proximity between the subjects concerned. We propose a more realistic application of human-human interaction detection from surveillance data where the subjects of interest tend to be represented by few pixels relative to the rest of the scene. The subjects are represented by relatively few pixels since surveillance cameras are usually placed to maximise area coverage therefore there is a significant distance between the camera and the physical scene. This in itself is not so much of a disadvantage when we consider that interactions among subjects can occur between quite large distances in space. Our technique uses a spatial and temporal saliency measure to extract and select features using modifications to Kadir and Brady's scale saliency and Hung and Gong's temporal saliency algorithms respectively. From this, a hierarchical multi-scale model of a single person, his/her body pose and groups of people is formed. A person is represented by an elliptic blob where prominent oval-shaped parts are formed into a configuration. Interactions are identified by finding temporally correlated salient changes (we call events) in the probability distributions of our multi-scale configuration model. In this paper we will show how pose or configuration based models of the human body can provide a rich framework for modelling human-human interactive body behaviour even when body parts are occluded. In particular, the framework is suitable for extracting salient features from the human body where each part is represented by a few pixels in each image frame. The work is highly relevant to the development of automated systems for suspicious and antisocial behaviour detection

  9. Terrain Classification From Body-Mounted Cameras During Human Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Anantrasirichai, Nantheera; Burn, Jeremy; Bull, David

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for terrain type classification based on monocular video captured from the viewpoint of human locomotion. A texture-based algorithm is developed to classify the path ahead into multiple groups that can be used to support terrain classification. Gait is taken into account in two ways. Firstly, for key frame selection, when regions with homogeneous texture characteristics are updated, the frequency variations of the textured surface are analyzed and used to adaptively define filter coefficients. Secondly, it is incorporated in the parameter estimation process where probabilities of path consistency are employed to improve terrain-type estimation. When tested with multiple classes that directly affect mobility-a hard surface, a soft surface, and an unwalkable area-our proposed method outperforms existing methods by up to 16%, and also provides improved robustness. PMID:25420277

  10. Reirradiation Human Spinal Cord Tolerance for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun; Ma, Lijun; Weinberg, Vivian; Gibbs, Iris C.; Chao, Sam; Chang, Ung-Kyu; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Angelov, Liliyanna; Chang, Eric L.; Sohn, Moon-Jun; Soltys, Scott G.; Letourneau, Daniel; Ryu, Sam; Gerszten, Peter C.; Fowler, Jack; Wong, C. Shun; and others

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the treatment for patients with spine metastases who initially received conventional external beam radiation (EBRT) and were reirradiated with 1-5 fractions of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) who did or did not subsequently develop radiation myelopathy (RM). Methods and Materials: Spinal cord dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for 5 RM patients (5 spinal segments) and 14 no-RM patients (16 spine segments) were based on thecal sac contours at retreatment. Dose to a point within the thecal sac that receives the maximum dose (P{sub max}), and doses to 0.1-, 1.0-, and 2.0-cc volumes within the thecal sac were reviewed. The biologically effective doses (BED) using {alpha}/{beta} = 2 Gy for late spinal cord toxicity were calculated and normalized to a 2-Gy equivalent dose (nBED = Gy{sub 2/2}). Results: The initial conventional radiotherapy nBED ranged from {approx}30 to 50 Gy{sub 2/2} (median {approx}40 Gy{sub 2/2}). The SBRT reirradiation thecal sac mean P{sub max} nBED in the no-RM group was 20.0 Gy{sub 2/2} (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.8-29.2), which was significantly lower than the corresponding 67.4 Gy{sub 2/2} (95% CI, 51.0-83.9) in the RM group. The mean total P{sub max} nBED in the no-RM group was 62.3 Gy{sub 2/2} (95% CI, 50.3-74.3), which was significantly lower than the corresponding 105.8 Gy{sub 2/2} (95% CI, 84.3-127.4) in the RM group. The fraction of the total P{sub max} nBED accounted for by the SBRT P{sub max} nBED for the RM patients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 and that for the no-RM patients ranged from 0.04 to 0.53. Conclusions: SBRT given at least 5 months after conventional palliative radiotherapy with a reirradiation thecal sac P{sub max} nBED of 20-25 Gy{sub 2/2} appears to be safe provided the total P{sub max} nBED does not exceed approximately 70 Gy{sub 2/2}, and the SBRT thecal sac P{sub max} nBED comprises no more than approximately 50% of the total nBED.

  11. Position Estimation Method of Medical Implanted Devices Using Estimation of Propagation Velocity inside Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Makoto; Kohno, Ryuji

    Wireless communication devices in the field of medical implant, such as cardiac pacemakers and capsule endoscopes, have been studied and developed to improve healthcare systems. Especially it is very important to know the range and position of each device because it will contribute to an optimization of the transmission power. We adopt the time-based approach of position estimation using ultra wideband signals. However, the propagation velocity inside the human body differs in each tissue and each frequency. Furthermore, the human body is formed of various tissues with complex structures. For this reason, propagation velocity is different at a different point inside human body and the received signal so distorted through the channel inside human body. In this paper, we apply an adaptive template synthesis method in multipath channel for calculate the propagation time accurately based on the output of the correlator between the transmitter and the receiver. Furthermore, we propose a position estimation method using an estimation of the propagation velocity inside the human body. In addition, we show by computer simulation that the proposal method can perform accurate positioning with a size of medical implanted devices such as a medicine capsule.

  12. Robotic Reconnaissance Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic reconnaissance missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near- Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the direction of the Human Exploration and Operations Missions Directorate (HEOMD), given NASA's recent interest in NEAs and the Martian moons as potential human destinations [1]. The action team

  13. [ON HUMAN BODY REACTION TO A CHANGED GEOMAGNETIC BACKGROUND].

    PubMed

    Sterlikova, I V

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to test the concept about existence of a heliobiological relation in the Earth's middle-latitude region for which to analyze, as an example, frequency of circulatory disease exacerbation, mental and behavior disorders, and respiratory diseases (bronchial asthma). The subject and object of the experimental statistic survey have been dwellers of city of Murom (Vladimir region) located in middle-latitude geomagnetic region Φ ≈ 53 degrees. The source material in the investigation was medical data of the Murom ambulance service and geophysical data of the Borok geomagnetic observatory (Yaroslavl region). The survey went on 3 years from February, 1985 till December, 1987 and coincided with the rise of the 11th solar cycle. The largest number of calls to the ambulance service due to acute circulatory condition, mental or behavior disorders, respiratory diseases (bronchial asthma particularly) and their fatal outcome fell on periods of long absence of high-frequency geomagnetic pulsation within the frequency range of human biorhythms. PMID:26554135

  14. Nonlinearity in apparent mass and transmissibility of the supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-07-01

    Resonance frequencies evident in the apparent mass and the transmissibility of the human body decrease with increasing vibration magnitude, but the mechanisms responsible for this nonlinearity have not been established. This experiment was designed to explore the effects of body location on the nonlinearity of the body in supine postures. In a group of 12 male subjects, the apparent mass and transmissibility to the sternum, upper abdomen, and lower abdomen were measured in three postures (relaxed semi-supine, flat supine and constrained semi-supine) with vertical random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at seven vibration magnitudes (nominally 0.0313, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 ms -2 rms). In all three postures, the apparent mass resonance frequencies and the primary peak frequencies in the transmissibilities to the upper and lower abdomen decreased with increases in vibration magnitude from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. Nonlinearity generally apparent in transmissibility to the abdomen was less evident in transmissibility to the sternum and less evident in transmissibilities to the abdomen at vibration magnitudes less than 0.125 ms -2 rms. The nonlinearity was more apparent in the flat supine posture than in the semi-supine postures. The findings are consistent with the nonlinearity being associated with the response of soft tissues, more likely a consequence of passive thixotropy than muscle activity.

  15. Validation of Shoulder Response of Human Body Finite-Element Model (GHBMC) Under Whole Body Lateral Impact Condition.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    In previous shoulder impact studies, the 50th-percentile male GHBMC human body finite-element model was shown to have good biofidelity regarding impact force, but under-predicted shoulder deflection by 80% compared to those observed in the experiment. The goal of this study was to validate the response of the GHBMC M50 model by focusing on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics under a whole-body lateral impact condition. Five modifications, focused on material properties and modeling techniques, were introduced into the model and a supplementary sensitivity analysis was done to determine the influence of each modification to the biomechanical response of the body. The modified model predicted substantially improved shoulder response and peak shoulder deflection within 10% of the observed experimental data, and showed good correlation in the scapula kinematics on sagittal and transverse planes. The improvement in the biofidelity of the shoulder region was mainly due to the modifications of material properties of muscle, the acromioclavicular joint, and the attachment region between the pectoralis major and ribs. Predictions of rib fracture and chest deflection were also improved because of these modifications. PMID:26753830

  16. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  17. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  18. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  19. The impact of body worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results. Clin. Anat. 29:439-445, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26789643

  20. Analysis of measured data of human body based on error correcting frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Aiyan; Peipei, Gao; Shang, Xiaomei

    2014-04-01

    Anthropometry is to measure all parts of human body surface, and the measured data is the basis of analysis and study of the human body, establishment and modification of garment size and formulation and implementation of online clothing store. In this paper, several groups of the measured data are gained, and analysis of data error is gotten by analyzing the error frequency and using analysis of variance method in mathematical statistics method. Determination of the measured data accuracy and the difficulty of measured parts of human body, further studies of the causes of data errors, and summarization of the key points to minimize errors possibly are also mentioned in the paper. This paper analyses the measured data based on error frequency, and in a way , it provides certain reference elements to promote the garment industry development.

  1. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment. PMID:12361774

  2. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  3. Body image concerns of psoriasis patients as reflected in human figure drawings.

    PubMed

    Leichtman, S R; Burnett, J W; Robinson, H M

    1981-10-01

    Human figure drawings of patients with severe (n = 85) and mild (n = 38) psoriasis were compared on dimensions of nudity, sexual overemphasis, and omissions of exposed body parts. For female patients significant differences were found for percentages of undressed figures and omissions. For male patients only omissions were significant. When compared to 30 patients with other mild dermatologic conditions, mildly affected psoriatic males drew significantly fewer omissions. Discussion of results focussed on body image concerns of dermatology patients as related to issues of nudity, sexuality, and exhibition of exposed body parts. PMID:7288544

  4. On the dynamics of chain systems. [applications in manipulator and human body models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Passerello, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-oriented method for obtaining dynamical equations of motion for chain systems is presented. A chain system is defined as an arbitrarily assembled set of rigid bodies such that adjoining bodies have at least one common point and such that closed loops are not formed. The equations of motion are developed through the use of Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle. The method and procedure is illustrated with an elementary study of a tripod space manipulator. The method is designed for application with systems such as human body models, chains and cables, and dynamic finite-segment models.

  5. Transient interaction model of electromagnetic field generated by lightning current pulses and human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iváncsy, T.; Kiss, I.; Szücs, L.; Tamus, Z. Á.

    2015-10-01

    The lightning current generates time-varying magnetic field near the down- conductor and the down-conductors are mounted on the wall of the buildings where residential places might be situated. It is well known that the rapidly changing magnetic fields can generate dangerous eddy currents in the human body.The higher duration and gradient of the magnetic field can cause potentially life threatening cardiac stimulation. The coupling mechanism between the electromagnetic field and the human body is based on a well-known physical phenomena (e.g. Faradays law of induction). However, the calculation of the induced current is very complicated because the shape of the organs is complex and the determination of the material properties of living tissues is difficult, as well. Our previous study revealed that the cardiac stimulation is independent of the rising time of the lightning current and only the peak of the current counts. In this study, the authors introduce an improved model of the interaction of electromagnetic fields of lighting current near down-conductor and human body. Our previous models are based on the quasi stationer field calculations, the new improved model is a transient model. This is because the magnetic field around the down-conductor and in the human body can be determined more precisely, therefore the dangerous currents in the body can be estimated.

  6. Are Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, able to perceive human body orientation?

    PubMed

    Ritter, Erich K; Amin, Raid

    2014-05-01

    The present study examines the potential capability of Caribbean reef sharks to perceive human body orientation, as well as discussing the sharks' swimming patterns in a person's vicinity. A standardized video method was used to record the scenario of single SCUBA divers kneeling in the sand and the approach patterns of sharks, combined with a control group of two divers kneeling back-to-back. When approaching a single test-subject, significantly more sharks preferred to swim outside the person's field of vision. The results suggest that these sharks are able to identify human body orientation, but the mechanisms used and factors affecting nearest distance of approach remain unclear. PMID:24305995

  7. Machine Learning Methods for Classifying Human Physical Activity from On-Body Accelerometers

    PubMed Central

    Mannini, Andrea; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2010-01-01

    The use of on-body wearable sensors is widespread in several academic and industrial domains. Of great interest are their applications in ambulatory monitoring and pervasive computing systems; here, some quantitative analysis of human motion and its automatic classification are the main computational tasks to be pursued. In this paper, we discuss how human physical activity can be classified using on-body accelerometers, with a major emphasis devoted to the computational algorithms employed for this purpose. In particular, we motivate our current interest for classifiers based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). An example is illustrated and discussed by analysing a dataset of accelerometer time series. PMID:22205862

  8. Genome Sequence of Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi, Endosymbiont of Chimpanzee Lice, and Genomic Comparison of Recently Acquired Endosymbionts from Human and Chimpanzee Lice

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Bret M.; Allen, Julie M.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Reed, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The obligate-heritable endosymbionts of insects possess some of the smallest known bacterial genomes. This is likely due to loss of genomic material during symbiosis. The mode and rate of this erosion may change over evolutionary time: faster in newly formed associations and slower in long-established ones. The endosymbionts of human and anthropoid primate lice present a unique opportunity to study genome erosion in newly established (or young) symbionts. This is because we have a detailed phylogenetic history of these endosymbionts with divergence dates for closely related species. This allows for genome evolution to be studied in detail and rates of change to be estimated in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we sequenced the genome of the chimpanzee louse endosymbiont (Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi) and compared it with the closely related genome of the human body louse endosymbiont. From this comparison, we found evidence for recent genome erosion leading to gene loss in these endosymbionts. Although gene loss was detected, it was not significantly greater than in older endosymbionts from aphids and ants. Additionally, we searched for genes associated with B-vitamin synthesis in the two louse endosymbiont genomes because these endosymbionts are believed to synthesize essential B vitamins absent in the louse’s diet. All of the expected genes were present, except those involved in thiamin synthesis. We failed to find genes encoding for proteins involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin or any complete exogenous means of salvaging thiamin, suggesting there is an undescribed mechanism for the salvage of thiamin. Finally, genes encoding for the pantothenate de novo biosynthesis pathway were located on a plasmid in both taxa along with a heat shock protein. Movement of these genes onto a plasmid may be functionally and evolutionarily significant, potentially increasing production and guarding against the deleterious effects of mutation. These data add to a growing

  9. The human carotid body transcriptome with focus on oxygen sensing and inflammation – a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mkrtchian, Souren; Kåhlin, Jessica; Ebberyd, Anette; Gonzalez, Constancio; Sanchez, Diego; Balbir, Alexander; Kostuk, Eric W; Shirahata, Machiko; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I

    2012-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well studied in animals, corresponding data for the human CB are missing. In this study we used five surgically removed human CBs to characterize the CB transcriptome with microarray and PCR analyses, and compared the results with mice data. In silico approaches demonstrated a unique gene expression profile of the human and mouse CB transcriptomes and an unexpected upregulation of both human and mouse CB genes involved in the inflammatory response compared to brain and adrenal gland data. Human CBs express most of the genes previously proposed to be involved in oxygen sensing and signalling based on animal studies, including NOX2, AMPK, CSE and oxygen sensitive K+ channels. In the TASK subfamily of K+ channels, TASK-1 is expressed in human CBs, while TASK-3 and TASK-5 are absent, although we demonstrated both TASK-1 and TASK-3 in one of the mouse reference strains. Maxi-K was expressed exclusively as the spliced variant ZERO in the human CB. In summary, the human CB transcriptome shares important features with the mouse CB, but also differs significantly in the expression of a number of CB chemosensory genes. This study provides key information for future functional investigations on the human carotid body. PMID:22615433

  10. Present status of head louse (Pediculus capitis) infestation among school children in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Kuo, C L; Hsu, H M; Chow, C Y

    1991-04-01

    In December 1990, 35 children in one kindergarten; 7,870 children in twenty-six primary schools and 2,657 students in three junior high schools in Kou-Hu, Ku-Keng and Szu-Hu Districts in Yunlin County, Taiwan, were examined by naked eye observation (NEO) for head louse infestation. The overall infestation rate was 16%. The infestation rate was highest in Kou-Hu (25%) and lowest in Ku-Keng (8%). The rate was higher among primary school children (21%) than among junior high school students (2%). The infestation rate of girls (34% in primary school children and 4% in junior high school students) was higher than that of boys (9%, less than 1% respectively). Among the primary school children the rate was highest in girls in grade 5 (39%) and boys in grade 4 (14%). The lowest rates were in girls in grade 6 (27%) and in boys in grades 5 and 6 (6%). In junior high school students, the rate of grade 1 (4%) was higher than those of grade 2 (less than 1%) and 3 (less than 1%). PMID:2030521

  11. Comparison of antibiotic regimens for treating louse-borne relapsing fever: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerrier, Gilles; Doherty, Tom

    2011-09-01

    The optimum treatment for louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) has not been fully established. Eliminating spirochetes is often associated with the potentially lethal Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR). The objective of this meta-analysis was to review the evidence supporting the use of antibiotics usually employed for treating LBRF. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing antibiotics in LBRF. The primary outcome was mortality, whilst JHR rates, relapse rates, time to fever clearance and time to spirochete disappearance were secondary outcomes. Six RCTs performed in Ethiopia were included. Trials were small and often of limited quality, using single-dose therapy with either penicillin or tetracycline. There was no significant difference between tetracycline and penicillin with regard to mortality rate. Although there was significant heterogeneity between the five trials comparing the rate of JHRs, three of them showed a significant benefit in favour of penicillin. The risk of relapse was reduced with tetracycline. Tetracycline use was associated with a lower mean fever clearance time. Tetracycline appears to be the most efficient drug but also appears to be associated with a higher rate of JHRs. Alternative regimens to treat LBRF should be investigated. PMID:21803390

  12. Transcriptome mining: Multigene panel to test delousing drug response in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2016-02-01

    Controlling infestations of copepodid ectoparasites in the salmon industry is increasingly problematic given higher instances of drug resistance or loss of sensitivity. Despite the importance of this issue, the molecular mechanisms and genes implicated in resistance/susceptibility are only scarcely understood. The objective of the present study was to identify and evaluate the expression levels of candidate genes associated with delousing drug response in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. From RNA-seq data obtained for adult male and female sea lice, 62.48 M reads were assembled in 70,349 high-quality contigs. BLASTX analysis against UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot and the ESTs available for crustaceans in the NCBI database identified 870 transcripts previously related to genes associated with delousing drug response. Furthermore, 14 candidate genes were validated through RT-qPCR and were evaluated with deltamethrin and azamethiphos bioassays. The results evidenced an overregulation of genes involved in ion transport in salmon lice treated with deltamethrin, while those treated with azamethiphos evidenced an overregulation of genes such as cytochrome P450, Carboxylesterase, and acetylcholine receptors. The present study provides a multigene panel to test delousing drug response to pyrethroids and organophosphates in a highly prevalent pathogen of the Chilean salmon industry. PMID:26723558

  13. Robotic Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration and planetary defense. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. These data can also be applied for gaining an understanding of pertinent small body physical characteristics that would also be beneficial for formulating future impact mitigation procedures. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the

  14. Interactive Structure (EUCLID) For Static And Dynamic Representation Of Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Ch.; Steck, R.

    1983-07-01

    A specific software (EUCLID) for static and dynamic representation of human models is described. The data processing system is connected with ERGODATA and used in interactive mode by intrinsic or specific functions. More or less complex representations in 3-D view of models of the human body are developed. Biostereometric and conventional anthropometric raw data from the data bank are processed for different applications in ergonomy.

  15. Human Factors Lessons Learned from Flight Testing Wingless Lifting Body Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960s, NASA, the Air Force, and now private industry have attempted to develop an operational human crewed reusable spacecraft with a wingless, lifting body configuration. This type of vehicle offers increased mission flexibility and greater reentry cross range than capsule type craft, and is particularly attractive due to the capability to land on a runway. That capability, however, adds complexity to the human factors engineering requirements of developing such aircraft.

  16. Human phthiriasis. Can dermoscopy really help dermatologists? Entodermoscopy: a new dermatological discipline on the edge of entomology.

    PubMed

    Scanni, G

    2012-02-01

    The diagnosis of human phtiriasis (often referred to as the "crab" or the "pubic louse") can be more difficult than other types of pediculosis (Pediculus corporis and Pediculus capitis) because this insect has a smaller body of 1.2 x 0.8 mm, may be lighter in color, not as mobile and therefore harder to see to the naked eye. Can dermoscopy aid to perform a better analysis of the skin? The clinical experience developed in two patients gives an affirmative answer, moreover adding useful information of insect and its eggs already known to entomologists but never used in dermatological diagnosis. The identification in vivo can distinguish Phthirus pubis from other skin signs while the conical shape of the operculum and the wide fixing sleeve of egg to hair, tells what species of louse is infesting, even if the insect is unavailable or nits are elsewhere from the pubic area. Entodermoscopy, provided that dermatologists have some knowledge of entomology, therefore promises advantages over standard microscopic examination. PMID:22370575

  17. a Modal Analysis of Whole-Body Vertical Vibration, Using a Finite Element Model of the Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, S.; Griffin, M. J.

    1997-02-01

    A two-dimensional model of human biomechanical responses to whole-body vibration has been developed, by using the finite element method. Beam, spring and mass elements were used to model the spine, viscera, head, pelvis and buttocks tissue in the mid-sagittal plane. The model was developed by comparison of the vibration mode shapes with those previously measured in the laboratory. At frequencies below 10 Hz, the model produced seven modes which coincided well with the measurements. The principal resonance of the driving point response at about 5 Hz consisted of an entire body mode, in which the head, spinal column and the pelvis move almost rigidly, with axial and shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis occurring in phase with a vertical visceral mode. The second principal resonance at about 8 Hz corresponded to a rotational mode of the pelvis, with a possible contribution from a second visceral mode. A shift of the principal resonance of the driving point response, when changing posture, was achieved only by changing the axial stiffness of the buttocks tissue. It is suggested that an increase in contact area between the buttocks and the thighs and the seat surface, when changing posture from erect to slouched, may decrease the axial stiffness beneath the pelvis, with a non-linear force-deflection relationship of tissue resulting in decreases in the natural frequencies. A change in posture from erect to slouched also increased shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis in the entire body mode, and the natural frequency was decreased as a result of the much lower shear stiffness of tissue compared to the axial stiffness.

  18. Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: discomfort caused by sinusoidal vibration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Frequency weightings for predicting vibration discomfort assume the same frequency-dependence at all magnitudes of vibration, whereas biodynamic studies show that the frequency-dependence of the human body depends on the magnitude of vibration. This study investigated how the frequency-dependence of vibration discomfort depends on the acceleration and the force at the subject-seat interface. Using magnitude estimation, 20 males and 20 females judged their discomfort caused by sinusoidal vertical acceleration at 13 frequencies (1-16 Hz) at magnitudes from 0.1 to 4.0 ms(-2) r.m.s. The frequency-dependence of their equivalent comfort contours depended on the magnitude of vibration, but was less dependent on the magnitude of dynamic force than the magnitude of acceleration, consistent with the biodynamic non-linearity of the body causing some of the magnitude-dependence of equivalent comfort contours. There were significant associations between the biodynamic responses and subjective responses at all frequencies in the range 1-16 Hz. Practitioner Summary: Vertical seat vibration causes discomfort in many forms of transport. This study provides the frequency-dependence of vibration discomfort over a range of vibration magnitudes and shows how the frequency weightings in the current standards can be improved. PMID:24730710

  19. Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: biodynamic responses to sinusoidal and random vibration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of biodynamic responses of the seated human body on the frequency, magnitude and waveform of vertical vibration has been studied in 20 males and 20 females. With sinusoidal vibration (13 frequencies from 1 to 16 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.1-1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s.) and with random vibration (1-16 Hz) at the same magnitudes, the apparent mass of the body was similar with random and sinusoidal vibration of the same overall magnitude. With increasing magnitude of vibration, the stiffness and damping of a model fitted to the apparent mass reduced and the resonance frequency decreased (from 6.5 to 4.5 Hz). Male and female subjects had similar apparent mass (after adjusting for subject weight) and a similar principal resonance frequency with both random and sinusoidal vibration. The change in biodynamic response with increasing vibration magnitude depends on the frequency of the vibration excitation, but is similar with sinusoidal and random excitation. PMID:24730687

  20. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. PMID:26250623

  1. REVIEW: A review of in vivo experimental methods to determine the composition of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, J. F.

    1996-05-01

    This review of experimental methods employed in the measurement of the composition of the human body covers the developments that have occurred over the past 30 years. Early methods such as hydrodensitometry and skinfold anthropometry have been superseded by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. The measurement of the whole-body abundance of certain elements by isotopic dilution, neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence can give important information of clinical significance, but neutron activation facilities remain available in only a few centres worldwide. The relatively simple, rapid and risk-free electrical methods such as multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, which can be employed at the bedside, have been found to be more complicated in their interpretation. Electromagnetic methods may only measure the composition of the human body at its surface. X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have not yet been employed much in body composition measurements. Some models for the composition of the human body are reviewed.

  2. Inertial orientation tracker having automatic drift compensation for tracking human head and other similarly sized body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A self contained sensor apparatus generates a signal that corresponds to at least two of the three orientational aspects of yaw, pitch and roll of a human-scale body, relative to an external reference frame. A sensor generates first sensor signals that correspond to rotational accelerations or rates of the body about certain body axes. The sensor may be mounted to the body. Coupled to the sensor is a signal processor for generating orientation signals relative to the external reference frame that correspond to the angular rate or acceleration signals. The first sensor signals are impervious to interference from electromagnetic, acoustic, optical and mechanical sources. The sensors may be rate sensors. An integrator may integrate the rate signal over time. A drift compensator is coupled to the rate sensors and the integrator. The drift compensator may include a gravitational tilt sensor or a magnetic field sensor or both. A verifier periodically measures the orientation of the body by a means different from the drift sensitive rate sensors. The verifier may take into account characteristic features of human motion, such as stillness periods. The drift compensator may be, in part, a Kalman filter, which may utilize statistical data about human head motion.

  3. The Contribution of the Human Body in Young Children's Explanations About Shadow Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herakleioti, Evagelia; Pantidos, Panagiotis

    2016-02-01

    This paper begins with the view that the generation of meaning is a multimodal process. Props, drawings, graphs, gestures, as well as speech and written text are all mediators through which students construct new knowledge. Each semiotic context makes a unique contribution to the conceptualization of scientific entities. The human body, in particular, can function as a factor in both representation and explanation, serving as a link between verbal discourse and setting. Considering this perspective, a body-based activity was designed for kindergarten children, involving the concept of a shadow. The 3-D arrangement of the light from the light source, the human body (the obstacle), and the resulting shadow plays a central role. Using their own bodies as obstacles to the light, the children were able to explore the direction of the light and to change the relative positions of the light source and the obstacle. They formed hypotheses and were able to test them by moving on the stage. This body-centered activity explicitly incorporates the rectilinear movement of light into the process of shadow formation, while also providing learning through direct experience. Positive effects on learning were achieved for the group of children who participated in the activity, while the video analysis showed that many of the children were able to use their bodies to transfer to a different setting the embodied knowledge they acquired. This, according to researchers in the field of science education, is a powerful indication of conceptual change.

  4. Human Body 3D Posture Estimation Using Significant Points and Two Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Teng-Chang; Du, Wei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) human posture estimation system that locates 3D significant body points based on 2D body contours extracted from two cameras without using any depth sensors. The 3D significant body points that are located by this system include the head, the center of the body, the tips of the feet, the tips of the hands, the elbows, and the knees. First, a linear support vector machine- (SVM-) based segmentation method is proposed to distinguish the human body from the background in red, green, and blue (RGB) color space. The SVM-based segmentation method uses not only normalized color differences but also included angle between pixels in the current frame and the background in order to reduce shadow influence. After segmentation, 2D significant points in each of the two extracted images are located. A significant point volume matching (SPVM) method is then proposed to reconstruct the 3D significant body point locations by using 2D posture estimation results. Experimental results show that the proposed SVM-based segmentation method shows better performance than other gray level- and RGB-based segmentation approaches. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the 3D posture estimation results in different postures. PMID:24883422

  5. [Neural representation of human body schema and corporeal self-consciousness].

    PubMed

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo

    2014-04-01

    The human brain processes every sensation evoked by altered posture and builds up a constantly changing postural model of the body. This is called a body schema, and somatic signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints, i.e. proprioceptive signals, largely contribute its formation. Recent neuroimaging techniques have revealed neuronal substrates for human body schema. A dynamic limb position model seems to be computed in the central motor network (represented by the primary motor cortex). Here, proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals from muscle spindles are transformed into motor commands, which may underlie somatic perception of limb movement and facilitate its efficient motor control. Somatic signals originating from different body parts are integrated in the course of hierarchical somatosensory processing, and activity in higher-order somatosensory parietal cortices is capable of representing a postural model of the entire body. The left fronto-parietal network associates internal motor representation with external object representation, allowing the embodiment of external objects. In contrast, the right fronto-parietal regions connected by the most inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus fibers seem to have the functions of monitoring bodily states and updating body schema. We hypothesize that activity in these right-sided fronto-parietal regions is deeply involved in corporeal self-consciousness. PMID:24748084

  6. Human pediculosis: a critical health problem and what about nursing policy?

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Abdel, Fadil Eman Ebrahim; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-12-01

    Lice infestation on the human body (also known as pediculosis) is very common. Cases number in the hundreds of millions worldwide. Three distinct presentations of lice infection exist and each is caused by a unique parasite. Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) is by far and away the most common infestation and favors no particular socioeconomic group. A genetically close "cousin," Pediculus humanus corporis, is responsible for body lice and is more commonly associated with poverty, overcrowding, and poor hygiene. Pubic lice (crabs) are caused by Pthirus pubis and is transmitted by intimate and/or sexual contact. No doubt, human lice infestation is an increasing problem worldwide, Apart from being an irritating and a shaming human ecto-parasite, they transmit serious infectious diseases; epidemic or classical typhus, epidemic relapsing fever as well as Trench fever. Eradication of lice infestation prevents transmission of infectious diseases. People who live and work in close proximity to louse-infested individuals may secondarily acquire lice even if they regularly wash their clothes and have good hygiene. Thus, all louse-infested persons and workers in close contact with such persons should periodically inspected and use long-acting safe insecticides. Human lice can be treated with agents such as DDT, malathion, and lindane, but reports of resistance to one or more of them have recently appeared. Pyrethroid permethrin when applied as a dust or spray to clothing or bedding is highly effective against lice and is the delousing agent of choice. Fabric treated with permethrin retains toxicity to lice even after 20 washings, thereby offering significant long-term passive protection against epidemic typhus. Itching may continue even after all lice are destroyed. This happens because of a lingering allergic reactionto their bites. Over-the-counter cortisone (corticosteroid) creams or calamine lotion may help. PMID:23469630

  7. Metabolic changes in humans following total body irradiation. Report for February 1960-October 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-29

    These studies are designed to obtain new information about the metabolic effects of total body and partial body irradiation so as to have a better understanding of the acute and subacute effects of irradiation in the human. The initial studies are pointed toward the elucidation of biological indicators of radiation effects in humans. The major parameters being investigated at present are urinary amino aciduria and alterations in immunological patterns. Certain other parameters such as creatine and creatinine excretion and hematological effects are also being followed. The long-term program envisions carrying out the various observations at dose levels of 100 rad and gradually increasing the dose to 150, 200, 250 and 300 rad. Eventually doses up to 600 rad are anticipated. Also comparison of effects of radiomimetic drugs with total body radiation will be studied.

  8. Bacterial Community Variation in Human Body Habitats Across Space and Time

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Elizabeth K.; Lauber, Christian L.; Hamady, Micah; Fierer, Noah; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Knight, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating the biogeography of bacterial communities on the human body is critical for establishing healthy baselines from which to detect differences associated with diseases. To obtain an integrated view of the spatial and temporal distribution of the human microbiota, we surveyed bacteria from up to 27 sites in 7–9 healthy adults on four occasions. We found that community composition was determined primarily by body habitat. Within habitats, interpersonal variability was high, while individuals exhibited minimal temporal variability. Several skin locations harbored more diverse communities than the gut and mouth, and skin locations differed in their community assembly patterns. These results indicate that our microbiota, although personalized, varies systematically across body habitats and time: such trends may ultimately reveal how microbiome changes cause or prevent disease. PMID:19892944

  9. A novel RF resonator for human-body MRI at 3 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Hyeok-Woo; Cho, Young-Ki; Yoo, Hyoungsuk

    2014-03-01

    A square-slot-loaded (SSL) radio-frequency (RF) resonator using a microstrip transmission line (MTL) is designed for human-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 T MRI. The SSL RF resonator shows improved RF magnetic fields resulting in more homogenous fields near the center of the phantom than traditional RF resonators using MTL. A multichannel body coil using the SSL RF resonators is also simulated and provides improved parallel excitation performance. In addition, RF shimming for homogenization can be effectively controlled by adjusting the inputs to the eight resonators. Numerical results are obtained by using a spherical phantom and a realistic human-body model at 3 T to calculate the B {1/+} fields.

  10. The Contribution of the Human Body in Young Children's Explanations about Shadow Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herakleioti, Evagelia; Pantidos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    This paper begins with the view that the generation of meaning is a multimodal process. Props, drawings, graphs, gestures, as well as speech and written text are all mediators through which students construct new knowledge. Each semiotic context makes a unique contribution to the conceptualization of scientific entities. The human body, in…

  11. A Computational Technique to Determine the Angular Displacement, Velocity and Momentum of a Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, James G.; Wilson, Barry D.

    The angular momentum of a human body derived from both the angular velocity and angular displacement, utilizing cinematographic records has not been adequately assessed, prior to this study. Miller (1970) obtained the angular momentum but only during the airborne phase of activity. The method used by Ramey (1973) involved a force platform, but…

  12. Biodynamic characteristics of upper limb reaching movements of the seated human under whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heon-Jeong; Martin, Bernard J

    2013-02-01

    Simulation of human movements is an essential component for proactive ergonomic analysis and biomechanical model development (Chaffin, 2001). Most studies on reach kinematics have described human movements in a static environment, however the models derived from these studies cannot be applied to the analysis of human reach movements in vibratory environments such as in-vehicle operations. This study analyzes three-dimensional joint kinematics of the upper extremity in reach movements performed in static and specific vibratory conditions and investigates vibration transmission to shoulder, elbow, and hand along the body path during pointing tasks. Thirteen seated subjects performed reach movements to five target directions distributed in their right hemisphere. The results show similarities in the characteristics of movement patterns and reach trajectories of upper body segments for static and dynamic environments. In addition, vibration transmission through upper body segments is affected by vibration frequency, direction, and location of the target to be reached. Similarities in the pattern of movement trajectories revealed by filtering vibration-induced oscillations indicate that coordination strategy may not be drastically different in static and vibratory environments. This finding may facilitate the development of active biodynamic models to predict human performance and behavior under whole body vibration exposure. PMID:22814094

  13. New equivalent-electrical circuit model and a practical measurement method for human body impedance.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Koyu; Kinjo, Ichiko; Zamami, Aki; Irei, Kotoyo; Nagayama, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Human body impedance analysis is an effective tool to extract electrical information from tissues in the human body. This paper presents a new measurement method of impedance using armpit electrode and a new equivalent circuit model for the human body. The lowest impedance was measured by using an LCR meter and six electrodes including armpit electrodes. The electrical equivalent circuit model for the cell consists of resistance R and capacitance C. The R represents electrical resistance of the liquid of the inside and outside of the cell, and the C represents high frequency conductance of the cell membrane. We propose an equivalent circuit model which consists of five parallel high frequency-passing CR circuits. The proposed equivalent circuit represents alpha distribution in the impedance measured at a lower frequency range due to ion current of the outside of the cell, and beta distribution at a high frequency range due to the cell membrane and the liquid inside cell. The calculated values by using the proposed equivalent circuit model were consistent with the measured values for the human body impedance. PMID:26406074

  14. Using Form and Function Analogy Object Boxes to Teach Human Body Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Furletti, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the use of form and function analogy object boxes to more traditional lecture and worksheet instruction during a 10th-grade unit on human body systems. The study was conducted with two classes (N = 32) of mixed ability students at a high-needs rural high school in central New York State. The study used a pretest/posttest…

  15. Human Body Explorations: Hands-On Investigations of What Makes Us Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalumuck, Karen E.

    This book presents science activities on the human body with materials that can be purchased in a grocery store or pharmacy. Each activity includes an explorer and facilitator guide. Activities include: (1) "Naked Egg"; (2) "Cellular Soap Opera"; (3) "Acid in Your Stomach"; (4) "How Much Do You C?"; (5) "How Sweet It Is"; (6) "Milk Makes Me…

  16. Dichotomous Identification Keys: A Ladder to Higher Order Knowledge about the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej

    2006-01-01

    We tried to enrich teaching human anatomy in high school biology lessons. Students construct dichotomous identification keys to the cells, tissues, organs, or body parts. By doing this, students have achieved higher-order cognitive levels of knowledge because construction of such keys is based on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students found…

  17. Human adaptations for the visual assessment of strength and fighting ability from the body and face

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Aaron; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Selection in species with aggressive social interactions favours the evolution of cognitive mechanisms for assessing physical formidability (fighting ability or resource-holding potential). The ability to accurately assess formidability in conspecifics has been documented in a number of non-human species, but has not been demonstrated in humans. Here, we report tests supporting the hypothesis that the human cognitive architecture includes mechanisms that assess fighting ability—mechanisms that focus on correlates of upper-body strength. Across diverse samples of targets that included US college students, Bolivian horticulturalists and Andean pastoralists, subjects in the US were able to accurately estimate the physical strength of male targets from photos of their bodies and faces. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that subjects were extracting cues of strength that were largely independent of height, weight and age, and that corresponded most strongly to objective measures of upper-body strength—even when the face was all that was available for inspection. Estimates of women's strength were less accurate, but still significant. These studies are the first empirical demonstration that, for humans, judgements of strength and judgements of fighting ability not only track each other, but accurately track actual upper-body strength. PMID:18945661

  18. How dieting makes some fatter: from a perspective of human body composition autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Dulloo, Abdul G; Jacquet, Jean; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Dieting makes you fat - the title of a book published in 1983 - embodies the notion that dieting to control body weight predisposes the individual to acquire even more body fat. While this notion is controversial, its debate underscores the large gap that exists in our understanding of basic physiological laws that govern the regulation of human body composition. A striking example is the key role attributed to adipokines as feedback signals between adipose tissue depletion and compensatory increases in food intake. Yet, the relative importance of fat depletion per se as a determinant of post-dieting hyperphagia is unknown. On the other hand, the question of whether the depletion of lean tissues can provide feedback signals on the hunger-appetite drive is rarely invoked, despite evidence that food intake during growth is dominated by the impetus for lean tissue deposition, amidst proposals for the existence of protein-static mechanisms for the regulation of growth and maintenance of lean body mass. In fact, a feedback loop between fat depletion and food intake cannot explain why human subjects recovering from starvation continue to overeat well after body fat has been restored to pre-starvation values, thereby contributing to 'fat overshooting'. In addressing the plausibility and mechanistic basis by which dieting may predispose to increased fatness, this paper integrates the results derived from re-analysis of classic longitudinal studies of human starvation and refeeding. These suggest that feedback signals from both fat and lean tissues contribute to recovering body weight through effects on energy intake and thermogenesis, and that a faster rate of fat recovery relative to lean tissue recovery is a central outcome of body composition autoregulation that drives fat overshooting. A main implication of these findings is that the risk of becoming fatter in response to dieting is greater in lean than in obese individuals. PMID:22475574

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term. PMID:17449580

  20. Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during longitudinal horizontal whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    The resonance frequencies in frequency response functions of the human body (e.g. apparent mass and transmissibility) decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear biodynamic response is found with various sitting and standing postures requiring postural control. The present study measured the apparent mass of the body in a relaxed semi-supine posture with two types of longitudinal horizontal vibration (in the z-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ms -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 3.7 to 2.4 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. A nonlinear response was apparent in both the horizontal ( z-axis) apparent mass and the vertical ( x-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. With intermittent random vibration, as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass decreased from 3.2 to 2.5 Hz whereas, with continuous random vibration over the same range of magnitudes, the resonance frequency decreased from 3.4 to 2.4 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms) was 0.6 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 0.9 Hz with the continuous random vibration. With intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration at the same magnitudes. The responses were consistent with passive thixotropy being a primary cause of nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration, although reflex activity of the muscles may also have an influence.

  1. Realtime Reconstruction of an Animating Human Body from a Single Depth Camera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin; Cheng, Zhi-Quan; Lai, Chao; Martin, Ralph R; Dang, Gang

    2016-08-01

    We present a method for realtime reconstruction of an animating human body,which produces a sequence of deforming meshes representing a given performance captured by a single commodity depth camera. We achieve realtime single-view mesh completion by enhancing the parameterized SCAPE model.Our method, which we call Realtime SCAPE, performs full-body reconstruction without the use of markers.In Realtime SCAPE, estimations of body shape parameters and pose parameters, needed for reconstruction, are decoupled. Intrinsic body shape is first precomputed for a given subject, by determining shape parameters with the aid of a body shape database. Subsequently, per-frame pose parameter estimation is performed by means of linear blending skinning (LBS); the problem is decomposed into separately finding skinning weights and transformations. The skinning weights are also determined offline from the body shape database,reducing online reconstruction to simply finding the transformations in LBS. Doing so is formulated as a linear variational problem;carefully designed constraints are used to impose temporal coherence and alleviate artifacts. Experiments demonstrate that our method can produce full-body mesh sequences with high fidelity. PMID:26390493

  2. Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for individual human body segments.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Arens, E; Hui, Z; Oguro, M

    1997-05-01

    Human thermal physiological and comfort models will soon be able to simulate both transient and spatial inhomogeneities in the thermal environment. With this increasing detail comes the need for anatomically specific convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for the human body. The present study used an articulated thermal manikin with 16 body segments (head, chest, back, upper arms, forearms, hands, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs, feet) to generate radiative heat transfer coefficients as well as natural- and forced-mode convective coefficients. The tests were conducted across a range of wind speeds from still air to 5.0 m/s, representing atmospheric conditions typical of both indoors and outdoors. Both standing and seated postures were investigated, as were eight different wind azimuth angles. The radiative heat transfer coefficient measured for the whole-body was 4.5 W/m2 per K for both the seated and standing cases, closely matching the generally accepted whole-body value of 4.7 W/m2 per K. Similarly, the whole-body natural convection coefficient for the manikin fell within the mid-range of previously published values at 3.4 and 3.3 W/m2 per K when standing and seated respectively. In the forced convective regime, heat transfer coefficients were higher for hands, feet and peripheral limbs compared to the central torso region. Wind direction had little effect on convective heat transfers from individual body segments. A general-purpose forced convection equation suitable for application to both seated and standing postures indoors was hc = 10.3v0.6 for the whole-body. Similar equations were generated for individual body segments in both seated and standing postures. PMID:9195861

  3. Exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in human body fluids. A short review.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Latiff, Aishah A; Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Rosma, Ahmad

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed. PMID:23606045

  4. Electromagnetic field interactions with the human body: Observed effects and theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard.

  5. NEAR-FIELD CHARACTERIZATION OF RECONFIGURABLE NARROWBAND ANTENNA IN THE PROXIMITY OF THE HUMAN BODY

    SciTech Connect

    Elshafiey, Ibrahim; Sheta, Abdel-Fattah; Alkanhal, Majeed A.; Mohra, Ashraf; AlOrainy, Abdullah

    2009-03-03

    Reconfigurable antennas have been suggested recently for use in various mobile systems. These systems are usually operated in the vicinity of human body, leading to mutual interaction with body tissues. A nondestructive evaluation method is developed to characterize a reconfigurable antenna designed to cover the GSM-900/DCS-1800 bands. Modeling based on FDTD is performed of the antenna in free space and in proximity to the human head. Results reveal frequency shift, and variations in the matching and bandwidth, depending on antenna orientation with respect to the head. Experimental setup is also used to characterize the SAR values in human head. A six-degree-of-freedom robot is implemented to scan a head phantom using specialized sensors and head simulating liquids. The developed system provides a tool for guiding the design of the new category of reconfigurable antennas.

  6. Pre-existent vertebral rotation in the human spine is influenced by body position.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Michiel M A; Vincken, Koen L; Kemp, Bastiaan; Obradov, Marina; De Kleuver, Marinus; Viergever, Max A; Castelein, René M; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2010-01-01

    Human bipedalism appears to be a prerequisite for the development of idiopathic scoliosis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of different positions of the human spine on vertebral rotation in vivo. Thirty asymptomatic volunteers underwent MRI scanning of the spine in three different body positions; upright, quadrupedal-like and supine. Vertebral rotation in the local transverse plane was measured and compared at different spinal levels between the three body positions. It was shown that in all three positions the mid and lower thoracic vertebrae were predominantly rotated to the right. However, rotation was significantly less in certain areas of the spine in the quadrupedal-like position than in both the standing upright and supine positions. We hypothesize that the erect position of the human spine, but also the supine position, increases dorsally directed shear loads that may increase the tendency of certain spinal segments to rotate. PMID:20543402

  7. Input files with ORNL—mathematical phantoms of the human body for MCNP-4B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstić, D.; Nikezić, D.

    2007-01-01

    Protection against ionizing radiation requires information on the absorbed doses in organs of the human body. Implantation of many dosimeters in the human body is undesirable (or impossible), so the doses in organs are not measurable and some kind of dose calculation has to be applied. Calculation of doses in organs requests: (a) an exact description of the geometry of organs, (b) the chemical constitution of tissues, and (c) appropriate computer programs. The first two items, (a) and (b), make a so-called "phantom". In another words, the "phantom of a human body" is a mathematical representation of the human body including all other relevant information. All organs are represented with geometrical bodies (like cylinders, ellipsoids, tori, cones etc.), which are described with suitable mathematical equations. A corresponding chemical constitution for various types of organ tissues is also defined. MCNP-4B ( Monte Carlo N- Particle) is often used as transport code. Users of this software prepare an "input file" providing all necessary information for program execution. This information includes: (a) source definition—type of ionizing radiation, energy spectrum, and geometry of the source; (b) target definition—material constitution, geometry, location in respect to the source etc.; (c) characterization of absorbing media between the source and target; (d) output tally, etc. This paper presents input files with "human phantoms" for the MCNP-4B code. The input files with "phantoms" were prepared based on publications issued by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Seven input files relating to different age groups (newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 years, as well as, male and female adults) are presented here. A test example and comparison with other data found in literature are also given. Program summaryTitle of program: INPUT FILES, AMALE, AFEMALE, AGE15, AGE10, AGE5, AGE01, NEWB Catalogue identifier:ADYF_v1_0 Program summary URL

  8. Why does it matter how we regulate the use of human body parts?

    PubMed

    Goold, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    Human tissue and body parts have been used in one way or another for millennia. They have been preserved and displayed, both in museums and public shows. Real human hair is used for wigs, while some artists even use human tissue in their works. Blood, bone marrow, whole organs and a host of other structures and human substances are all transplanted into living persons to treat illness. New life can be created from gametes through in vitro fertilisation (IVF), while the creation of cell lines keeps tissue alive indefinitely. These uses create significant challenges for the legal system in the UK. The major challenge for the law is to balance the competing demands of those groups who have vested interests in human tissue-researchers, medical practitioners, patients, families, the community and the police, among many others. It must provide sufficient control to users of tissue, but also take account of the fact that our bodies hold psychological importance for us while we live and, after we die, for those we leave behind. To some degree the law has been successful, but we still lack a comprehensive, coherent approach to the regulation of human tissue. Partially as a reaction to this lack of a comprehensive approach, some commentators have turned to applying the concept of property to human tissue means to achieve regulatory outcomes they support. PMID:24336398

  9. Anatomists' views on human body dissection and donation: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José Luis; Moxham, Bernard John

    2014-12-01

    A survey was conducted to test three hypotheses: anatomists believe that dissection by students conveys not just anatomical knowledge but also essential skills and attitudes, including professionalism; anatomists approve of the donation of their own bodies or body parts/organs for medical/health-care training and research; attitudes towards body dissection and donation are not dependent upon gender or upon the extent of teaching experience, but are related to transcendental convictions relating to beliefs in the afterlife. Eighty-one anatomists, from 29 countries responded to the survey; 80% indicated that they required medical/health-care students to dissect human cadavers (60% females-86% males, p=0.02). Most teachers recorded that dissection was an instrument for training undergraduate students, an instrument for the development of professional skills, and an instrument to help to control emotions in the future doctor rather than being only a means of teaching/learning anatomy facts. Males were more receptive to the concept that dissection helps to control emotions in the future doctor (p=0.02). Most teachers (75%) said they were willing to donate their bodies, 41% saying they would donate body organs only, 9% would donate their entire bodies only, 25% would separately donate organs and also the entire body. The willingness to donate increased significantly with the years of teaching experience (p=0.04). Teachers who were not believers in the afterlife were more likely to donate their organs/bodies than were believers (p=0.03). Our findings showed that anatomists' attitudes towards body dissection and donation are dependent upon gender, upon the extent of teaching experience, and upon transcendental convictions. PMID:25048843

  10. [Differentiation of human amniotic fluid stem cells into cardiomyocytes through embryonic body formation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Chen, Shuai; Cheng, Xiang; Dou, Zhongying; Wang, Huayan

    2008-09-01

    To isolate human amniotic fluid stem cells (hASCs) and induce hASCs into cardiomyocytes after forming the embryonic bodies. We cultivated hASCs isolated from the amniotic fluid continually for over 42 passages. The biological characteristics of hASCs were detected by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and flow cytometer, hASCs at 10-15th passage were suspension cultured to form embryonic bodies that were induced to cardiomyocytes. Fibroblastoid-type hASCs were obtained. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that hASCs were positive for some specific makers of the embryonic stem cell. hASCs could form embryonic bodies that were alkaline-phosphatase positive and expressed fgf5, zeta-globin and alpha-fetoprotein. The embryonic bodies could differentiate into cardiomyocytes showing alpha-actin positive and Tbx5, Nkx2.5, GATA4 and alpha-MHC positive. We conclued that hASCs obtained from human amniotic fluid could differentiate into cardiomyocytes through the formation of embryonic bodies. PMID:19160841

  11. i-bodies, Human Single Domain Antibodies That Antagonize Chemokine Receptor CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Katherine; Dolezal, Olan; Cao, Benjamin; Nilsson, Susan K; See, Heng B; Pfleger, Kevin D G; Roche, Michael; Gorry, Paul R; Pow, Andrew; Viduka, Katerina; Lim, Kevin; Lu, Bernadine G C; Chang, Denison H C; Murray-Rust, Thomas; Kvansakul, Marc; Perugini, Matthew A; Dogovski, Con; Doerflinger, Marcel; Zhang, Yuan; Parisi, Kathy; Casey, Joanne L; Nuttall, Stewart D; Foley, Michael

    2016-06-10

    CXCR4 is a G protein-coupled receptor with excellent potential as a therapeutic target for a range of clinical conditions, including stem cell mobilization, cancer prognosis and treatment, fibrosis therapy, and HIV infection. We report here the development of a fully human single-domain antibody-like scaffold termed an "i-body," the engineering of which produces an i-body library possessing a long complementarity determining region binding loop, and the isolation and characterization of a panel of i-bodies with activity against human CXCR4. The CXCR4-specific i-bodies show antagonistic activity in a range of in vitro and in vivo assays, including inhibition of HIV infection, cell migration, and leukocyte recruitment but, importantly, not the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells. Epitope mapping of the three CXCR4 i-bodies AM3-114, AM4-272, and AM3-523 revealed binding deep in the binding pocket of the receptor. PMID:27036939

  12. Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Qi, Fugui; Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor's respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person's head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors. PMID:27073860

  13. Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor’s respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person’s head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors. PMID:27073860

  14. The modeling of the whole human body and the simulations of the waveguide intra-body communication by using the finite-element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yong; Chu, Yingfang; Zhang, Kai; Kang, Bangzhi; Hao, Qun

    2010-11-01

    The simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of the intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, the method for modeling the whole human body based on the finite-element method is proposed, while a finite-element model of the whole human body used for the simulations of the waveguide intra-body communication has been developed. Finally, the simulations of the waveguide IBC with different signal transmission paths have been achieved by using the developed finite-element model. Moreover, both the potential distributions and the signal attenuations of the simulation results are discussed in detail, which indicate that the proposed method and model offer the significant advantages in the theoretical analysis and the system design of the waveguide intra-body communication.

  15. Heartworm (Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) and seal louse (Echinophthirius horridus) infections in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North and Baltic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Kristina; Schwanke, Eva; Hahn, Kerstin; Wohlsein, Peter; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-07-01

    The seal louse (Echinophthirius [E.] horridus) and the heartworm (Acanthocheilonema [A.] spirocauda) are parasites of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). Little is known about the role of the seal louse as a potential vector and its role for the development and transmission of heartworm larvae to their final host, the harbour seal. The life-cycle of the heartworm is still not fully understood. For the presented study, findings of 1191 stranded harbour seals collected along the North- and Baltic Sea coast between 1996 and 2013 were examined. 4.4% (n = 53) of these harbour seals were infected with adult heartworms and 3.4% (n = 40) harbour seals carried seal lice. The highest prevalence and level of infection with adult heartworms (A. spirocauda) (9.3%) and seal lice (E. horridus) (8.9%) were found on yearling harbour seals (7-18 months) compared to neonate and adult seals. Investigating seal lice (n = 35) for larval heartworm stages one larvae was encountered in an ethanol-fixated seal louse. During a health monitoring survey of live harbour seals, 109 animals were captured and examined during spring and autumn between 2008 and 2014. Blood samples were taken and microfilariae were discovered in blood smears in 41% (n = 45) of the examined harbour seals. Yearling seals (n = 21) showed higher prevalence (86%) and level of infection with microfilariae than adults. Microfilariae were identified as A. spirocauda by sequencing the species-specific COI gene in 24 blood samples. The high prevalence of microfilariae of A. spirocauda in blood samples (41%) is in contrast to the low prevalence of mature infections/adult specimens in stranded seals (4.4%) investigated. Although rare parasites of seals, the recent increase in prevalence of heartworm and seal lice in stranded seals and the relatively high occurrence of microfilaria in the free-ranging population underscore the importance of further studies investigating the immunology of infections and their transmission pathways, as

  16. Modeling of a honeycomb-shaped pyroelectric energy harvester for human body heat harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Jo, Sung-Eun; Ahn, Hye-Rin; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Pyroelectric conversion can be used for thermal energy harvesting in lieu of thermoelectric conversion. In the case of human body energy harvesting, the general pyroelectric energy harvester (PEH) cannot be applied because the weak body heat can hardly penetrate the protecting layer to reach the pyroelectric material. This paper presents the realization of a honeycomb-shaped PEH (H-PEH) and a modeling method of the electrode and hole areas. The fabricated H-PEH successfully generated electrical energy using human body heat. The H-PEH with a 1:1.5 electrode-and-hole area ratio showed the best performance. To verify the human energy harvesting, we evaluated the characteristics of conventional PEH and H-PEH when body heat was used as a heat source. The maximum power of the H-PEH was 0.06 and 0.16 μW at wind velocities of 2 and 4 m s-1, respectively. These output power values of the H-PEH were 200 and 224% larger than those of the PEH, respectively, according to the wind velocity.

  17. Humans and seasonal climate variability threaten large-bodied coral reef fish with small ranges.

    PubMed

    Mellin, C; Mouillot, D; Kulbicki, M; McClanahan, T R; Vigliola, L; Bradshaw, C J A; Brainard, R E; Chabanet, P; Edgar, G J; Fordham, D A; Friedlander, A M; Parravicini, V; Sequeira, A M M; Stuart-Smith, R D; Wantiez, L; Caley, M J

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are among the most species-rich and threatened ecosystems on Earth, yet the extent to which human stressors determine species occurrences, compared with biogeography or environmental conditions, remains largely unknown. With ever-increasing human-mediated disturbances on these ecosystems, an important question is not only how many species can inhabit local communities, but also which biological traits determine species that can persist (or not) above particular disturbance thresholds. Here we show that human pressure and seasonal climate variability are disproportionately and negatively associated with the occurrence of large-bodied and geographically small-ranging fishes within local coral reef communities. These species are 67% less likely to occur where human impact and temperature seasonality exceed critical thresholds, such as in the marine biodiversity hotspot: the Coral Triangle. Our results identify the most sensitive species and critical thresholds of human and climatic stressors, providing opportunity for targeted conservation intervention to prevent local extinctions. PMID:26839155

  18. Humans and seasonal climate variability threaten large-bodied coral reef fish with small ranges

    PubMed Central

    Mellin, C.; Mouillot, D.; Kulbicki, M.; McClanahan, T. R.; Vigliola, L.; Bradshaw, C. J. A.; Brainard, R. E.; Chabanet, P.; Edgar, G. J.; Fordham, D. A.; Friedlander, A. M.; Parravicini, V.; Sequeira, A. M. M.; Stuart-Smith, R. D.; Wantiez, L.; Caley, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are among the most species-rich and threatened ecosystems on Earth, yet the extent to which human stressors determine species occurrences, compared with biogeography or environmental conditions, remains largely unknown. With ever-increasing human-mediated disturbances on these ecosystems, an important question is not only how many species can inhabit local communities, but also which biological traits determine species that can persist (or not) above particular disturbance thresholds. Here we show that human pressure and seasonal climate variability are disproportionately and negatively associated with the occurrence of large-bodied and geographically small-ranging fishes within local coral reef communities. These species are 67% less likely to occur where human impact and temperature seasonality exceed critical thresholds, such as in the marine biodiversity hotspot: the Coral Triangle. Our results identify the most sensitive species and critical thresholds of human and climatic stressors, providing opportunity for targeted conservation intervention to prevent local extinctions. PMID:26839155

  19. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  20. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Inter-subject variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-02-01

    The biodynamic responses of the seated human body to whole-body vibration vary considerably between people, but the reasons for the variability are not well understood. This study was designed to determine how the physical characteristics of people affect their apparent mass and whether inter-subject variability is influenced by the magnitude of vibration and the support of a seat backrest. The vertical apparent masses of 80 seated adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) were measured at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with four backrest conditions (no backrest, upright rigid backrest, reclined rigid backrest, reclined foam backrest) and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Relationships between subject physical characteristics (age, gender, weight, and anthropometry) and subject apparent mass were investigated with multiple regression models. The strongest predictor of the modulus of the vertical apparent mass at 0.6 Hz, at resonance, and at 12 Hz was body weight, with other factors having only a marginal effect. After correction for other variables, the principal resonance frequency was most consistently associated with age and body mass index. As age increased from 18 to 65 years, the resonance frequency increased by up to 1.7 Hz, and when the body mass index was increased from 18 to 34 kg m -2 the resonance frequency decreased by up to 1.7 Hz. These changes were greater than the 0.9-Hz increase in resonance frequency between sitting without a backrest and sitting with a reclined rigid backrest, and greater than the 1.0-Hz reduction in resonance frequency when the magnitude of vibration increased from 0.5 to 1.5 m s -2 rms. It is concluded that the effects of age, body mass index, posture, vibration magnitude, and weight should be taken into account when defining the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body.

  1. A fast Gauss-Newton optimizer for estimating human body orientation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Keun; Park, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a quaternion-based Gauss-Newton optimizer for tracking human body orientation using inertial/magnetic sensors. Since a computationally efficient and robust algorithm for estimating orientation is critical for low-cost and real-time ambulatory purposes, the optimizer is formulated using a virtual rotation concept in order to decrease the computing time. In addition, to guard against the effects of fast body motions and temporary ferromagnetic disturbances, a situational measurement vector selection procedure is adopted in conjunction with the Gauss-Newton optimizer. PMID:19163001

  2. Dual-body magnetic helical robot for drilling and cargo delivery in human blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonseo; Jeon, Seungmun; Nam, Jaekwang; Jang, Gunhee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a novel dual-body magnetic helical robot (DMHR) manipulated by a magnetic navigation system. The proposed DMHR can generate helical motions to navigate in human blood vessels and to drill blood clots by an external rotating magnetic field. It can also generate release motions which are relative rotational motions between dual-bodies to release the carrying cargos to a target region by controlling the magnitude of an external magnetic field. Constraint equations were derived to selectively manipulate helical and release motions by controlling external magnetic fields. The DMHR was prototyped and various experiments were conducted to demonstrate its motions and verify its manipulation methods.

  3. Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

  4. Rab11a Is Essential for Lamellar Body Biogenesis in the Human Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Reynier, Marie; Allart, Sophie; Gaspard, Elise; Moga, Alain; Goudounèche, Dominique; Serre, Guy; Simon, Michel; Leprince, Corinne

    2016-06-01

    Most of the skin barrier function is attributable to the outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, which is composed of flattened, anucleated cells called corneocytes surrounded by a lipid-enriched lamellar matrix. The composition of the stratum corneum is directly dependent on the underlying granular keratinocytes, which are the last living cells in the stratified epidermis. Many components present in the intercorneocyte matrix are delivered by the underlying granular keratinocytes through a secretion process dependent on lysosome-related organelles called lamellar bodies. Because of the importance of lamellar bodies in the maintenance of the epidermal barrier, the mechanisms regulating their biogenesis must be better understood. In this study, we show that the Rab11a GTPase is highly expressed in terminally differentiated keratinocytes, where it is partly associated with lamellar bodies. Rab11a silencing in three-dimensional in vitro reconstructed human epidermis induces a barrier defect, a decrease in the amount of lipid found in the stratum corneum, a reduction in lamellar body density and secretion areas in granular keratinocytes, and the mis-sorting of lamellar body cargoes being driven to the lysosomal degradation pathway. Our results highlight the importance of Rab11a-dependent regulation of lamellar body biogenesis in keratinocytes and consequently on epidermal barrier homeostasis. PMID:26872604

  5. Body orientation and face orientation: two factors controlling apes' behavior from humans.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Juliane; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2004-10-01

    A number of animal species have evolved the cognitive ability to detect when they are being watched by other individuals. Precisely what kind of information they use to make this determination is unknown. There is particular controversy in the case of the great apes because different studies report conflicting results. In experiment 1, we presented chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos with a situation in which they had to request food from a human observer who was in one of various attentional states. She either stared at the ape, faced the ape with her eyes closed, sat with her back towards the ape, or left the room. In experiment 2, we systematically crossed the observer's body and face orientation so that the observer could have her body and/or face oriented either towards or away from the subject. Results indicated that apes produced more behaviors when they were being watched. They did this not only on the basis of whether they could see the experimenter as a whole, but they were sensitive to her body and face orientation separately. These results suggest that body and face orientation encode two different types of information. Whereas face orientation encodes the observer's perceptual access, body orientation encodes the observer's disposition to transfer food. In contrast to the results on body and face orientation, only two of the tested subjects responded to the state of the observer's eyes. PMID:15034765

  6. Defining the proteome of human iris, ciliary body, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingbo; Kirby, David; Dufresne, Craig; Chen, Yan; Turner, Randi; Ferri, Sara; Edward, Deepak P; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Semba, Richard D

    2016-04-01

    The iris is a fine structure that controls the amount of light that enters the eye. The ciliary body controls the shape of the lens and produces aqueous humor. The retinal pigment epithelium and choroid (RPE/choroid) are essential in supporting the retina and absorbing light energy that enters the eye. Proteins were extracted from iris, ciliary body, and RPE/choroid tissues of eyes from five individuals and fractionated using SDS-PAGE. After in-gel digestion, peptides were analyzed using LC-MS/MS on an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. In iris, ciliary body, and RPE/choroid, we identified 2959, 2867, and 2755 nonredundant proteins with peptide and protein false-positive rates of <0.1% and <1%, respectively. Forty-three unambiguous protein isoforms were identified in iris, ciliary body, and RPE/choroid. Four "missing proteins" were identified in ciliary body based on ≥2 proteotypic peptides. The mass spectrometric proteome database of the human iris, ciliary body, and RPE/choroid may serve as a valuable resource for future investigations of the eye in health and disease. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifiers PXD001424 and PXD002194. PMID:26834087

  7. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H.; Mougey, E.H.

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Effects of intermittent fasting on body composition and clinical health markers in humans.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; La Bounty, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Intermittent fasting is a broad term that encompasses a variety of programs that manipulate the timing of eating occasions by utilizing short-term fasts in order to improve body composition and overall health. This review examines studies conducted on intermittent fasting programs to determine if they are effective at improving body composition and clinical health markers associated with disease. Intermittent fasting protocols can be grouped into alternate-day fasting, whole-day fasting, and time-restricted feeding. Alternate-day fasting trials of 3 to 12 weeks in duration appear to be effective at reducing body weight (≈3%-7%), body fat (≈3-5.5 kg), total cholesterol (≈10%-21%), and triglycerides (≈14%-42%) in normal-weight, overweight, and obese humans. Whole-day fasting trials lasting 12 to 24 weeks also reduce body weight (≈3%-9%) and body fat, and favorably improve blood lipids (≈5%-20% reduction in total cholesterol and ≈17%-50% reduction in triglycerides). Research on time-restricted feeding is limited, and clear conclusions cannot be made at present. Future studies should examine long-term effects of intermittent fasting and the potential synergistic effects of combining intermittent fasting with exercise. PMID:26374764

  9. Identification and characterisation of hemocyanin of the fish louse Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    PubMed

    Pinnow, Pauline; Fabrizius, Andrej; Pick, Christian; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Hemocyanin transports oxygen in the hemolymph of many arthropod species. Within the crustaceans, this copper-containing protein was thought to be restricted to Malacostraca, while other crustacean classes were assumed to employ hemoglobin or lack any respiratory protein. Only recently it has become evident that hemocyanins also occur in Remipedia and Ostracoda. Here we report for the first time the identification and characterisation of hemocyanin in the fish louse Argulus, which belongs to the class of Branchiura. This finding indicates that hemocyanin was the principal oxygen carrier in the stem lineage of the pancrustaceans, but has been lost independently multiple times in crustacean taxa. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of two hemocyanin subunits of Argulus foliaceus by a combination of RT-PCR, RACE and Illumina sequencing of the transcriptome. In addition, one full-length and one partial cDNA sequence were derived from the transcriptome data of Argulus siamensis. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of at least two hemocyanin subunits in A. foliaceus, which are expressed at the mRNA level at a 1:3.5 ratio. The addition to the branchiuran hemocyanin subunits to a multiple sequence alignment of arthropod, hemocyanins improved the phylogenetic resolution within the pancrustacean hemocyanins. Malacostracan, ostracod and branchiuran hemocyanins are distinct from the hexapod and remipede hemocyanins, reinforcing the hypothesis of a close relationship of Remipedia and Hexapoda. Notably, the ostracod hemocyanins are paraphyletic with respect to the branchiuran hemocyanins, indicating ancient divergence and differential loss of distinct subunit types. PMID:26515963

  10. Visualization of particle flux in the human body on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, Premkumar B.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2002-01-01

    For a given galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment, information on the particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, that varies with respect to the topographical altitude on the Martian surface, are needed for planning exploration missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission with its Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has been providing precise topographical surface map of the Mars. With this topographical data, the particle flux at the Martian surface level through the CO2 atmospheric shielding for solar minimum and solar maximum conditions are calculated. These particle flux calculations are then transported first through an anticipated shielding of a conceptual shelter with several water equivalent shield values (up to 50 g/cm2 of water in steps of 5 g/cm2) considered to represent a surface habitat, and then into the human body. Model calculations are accomplished utilizing the HZETRN, QMSFRG, and SUM-MARS codes. Particle flux calculations for 12 different locations in the human body were considered from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs (BFO). Visualization of particle flux in the human body at different altitudes on the Martian surface behind a known shielding is anticipated to provide guidance for assessing radiation environment risk on the Martian surface for future human missions.

  11. Visualization of particle flux in the human body on the surface of Mars.

    PubMed

    Saganti, Premkumar B; Cucinotta, Francis A; Wilson, John W; Schimmerling, Walter

    2002-12-01

    For a given galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment, information on the particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, that varies with respect to the topographical altitude on the Martian surface, are needed for planning exploration missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission with its Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has been providing precise topographical surface map of the Mars. With this topographical data, the particle flux at the Martian surface level through the CO2 atmospheric shielding for solar minimum and solar maximum conditions are calculated. These particle flux calculations are then transported first through an anticipated shielding of a conceptual shelter with several water equivalent shield values (up to 50 g/cm2 of water in steps of 5 g/cm2) considered to represent a surface habitat, and then into the human body. Model calculations are accomplished utilizing the HZETRN, QMSFRG, and SUM-MARS codes. Particle flux calculations for 12 different locations in the human body were considered from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs (BFO). Visualization of particle flux in the human body at different altitudes on the Martian surface behind a known shielding is anticipated to provide guidance for assessing radiation environment risk on the Martian surface for future human missions. PMID:12793743

  12. Three-dimensional modeling of supine human and transport system under whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2013-06-01

    The development of predictive computer human models in whole-body vibration has shown some success in predicting simple types of motion, mostly for seated positions and in the uniaxial vertical direction. The literature revealed only a handful of papers that tackled supine human modeling in response to vertical vibration. The objective of this work is to develop a predictive, multibody, three-dimensional human model to simulate the supine human and underlying transport system in response to multidirectional whole-body vibration. A three-dimensional dynamic model of a supine human and its underlying transport system is presented in this work to predict supine-human biodynamic response under three-dimensional input random whole-body vibration. The proposed supine-human model consists of three interconnected segments representing the head, torso-arms, and pelvis-legs. The segments are connected via rotational and translational joints that have spring-damper components simulating the three-dimensional muscles and tissuelike connecting elements in the three x, y, and z directions. Two types of transport systems are considered in this work, a rigid support and a long spinal board attached to a standard military litter. The contact surfaces between the supine human and the underlying transport system are modeled using spring-damper components. Eight healthy supine human subjects were tested under combined-axis vibration files with a magnitude of 0.5 m/s2 (rms) and a frequency content of 0.5-16 Hz. The data from seven subjects were used in parameter identification for the dynamic model using optimization schemes in the frequency domain that minimize the differences between the magnitude and phase of the predicted and experimental transmissibility. The predicted accelerations in the time and frequency domains were comparable to those gathered from experiments under different anthropometric, input vibration, and transport conditions under investigation. Based on the

  13. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans.

    PubMed

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C; Klaessens, John H G M; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J

    2013-09-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature using different readout measurements. In two independent studies, male and female participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a non-stressful control task. Core temperature (intestinal and temporal artery) and peripheral temperature (facial and body skin temperature) were measured. Compared to the control condition, stress exposure decreased intestinal temperature but did not affect temporal artery temperature. Stress exposure resulted in changes in skin temperature that followed a gradient-like pattern, with decreases at distal skin locations such as the fingertip and finger base and unchanged skin temperature at proximal regions such as the infra-clavicular area. Stress-induced effects on facial temperature displayed a sex-specific pattern, with decreased nasal skin temperature in females and increased cheek temperature in males. In conclusion, the amplitude and direction of stress-induced temperature changes depend on the site of temperature measurement in humans. This precludes a direct translation of the preclinical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in which core temperature uniformly rises in response to stress to the human situation. Nevertheless, the effects of stress result in consistent temperature changes. Therefore, the present study supports the inclusion of body temperature as a physiological readout parameter of stress in future studies. PMID:23790072

  14. Body sensor network-based strapdown orientation estimation: application to human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Misgeld, Berno J E; Rüschen, Daniel; Kim, Saim; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, inertial and magnetic sensors are considered for real-time strapdown orientation tracking of human limb or robotic segment orientation. By using body sensor network integrated triaxial gyrometer, accelerometer, and magnetometer measurements, two orientation estimation filters are presented and subsequently designed for bias insensitive tracking of human gait. Both filters use quaternions for rotation representation, where preprocessing accelerometer and magnetometer data is conducted with the quaternion based estimation algorithm (QUEST) as a reference filter input. This results in a significant reduction of the complexity and calculation cost on the body sensor network. QUEST-based preprocessed attitude data is used for the designed extended Kalman filter (EKF) and a new complementary sliding mode observer. EKF-QUEST and complementary sliding mode observer are designed and tested in simulations and subsequently validated with a reference motion tracking system in treadmill tests. PMID:24187297

  15. Biomagnetism: Measuring and Imaging the Natural and Disease Fields from the Human Body

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Edward

    2001-01-17

    Biomagnetism involves the measurement of the magnetic fields emanating from biological tissue with emphasis on human beings. The fields are small, ranging from femto- to pico-Tesla and are measured with sensitive instruments; typically SQUIDs with sensitivities of several fT. An example of natural field measurements is magnetoencephalography where large SQUID arrays are being used to image magnetic sources in normal and abnormal human brain behavior arising from neuronal currents. A new area of biomagnetism involves the use of targeted magnetic nanoparticles in the early detection of disease. These superparamagnetic particles offer unique characteristics for localizing disease sites ranging from various types of cancer to neurological diseases. By using small pulsed magnetic polarizing fields, SQUID sensors detect small numbers of cells in the body targeted by antibody-labeled nanoparticles through their decaying remanence fields. Localization of these biomagnetic sources in the body involves theoretical modeling of the inverse electromagnetic problem.

  16. Estimating Three-Dimensional Orientation of Human Body Parts by Inertial/Magnetic Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2011-01-01

    User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation. PMID:22319365

  17. Body temperature-related structural transitions of monotremal and human hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Digel, I; Maggakis-Kelemen, Ch; Zerlin, K F; Linder, Pt; Kasischke, N; Kayser, P; Porst, D; Temiz Artmann, A; Artmann, G M

    2006-10-15

    In this study, temperature-related structural changes were investigated in human, duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, body temperature T(b) = 31-33 degrees C), and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus, body temperature T(b) = 32-33 degrees C) hemoglobin using circular dichroism spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The average hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) and fractional (normalized) change in the ellipticity (F(obs)) at 222 +/- 2 nm of hemoglobin were measured. The temperature was varied stepwise from 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C. The existence of a structural transition of human hemoglobin at the critical temperature T(c) between 36-37 degrees C was previously shown by micropipette aspiration experiments, viscosimetry, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on light-scattering measurements, this study proves the onset of molecular aggregation at T(c). In two different monotremal hemoglobins (echidna and platypus), the critical transition temperatures were found between 32-33 degrees C, which are close to the species' body temperature T(b). The data suggest that the correlation of the structural transition's critical temperature T(c) and the species' body temperature T(b) is not mere coincidence but, instead, is a more widespread structural phenomenon possibly including many other proteins. PMID:16844747

  18. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes using whole-body human finite element (FE) models representing occupants with different obesity levels. In this study, the geometry of THUMS 4 midsize male model was varied using mesh morphing techniques with target geometries defined by statistical models of external body contour and exterior ribcage geometry. Models with different body mass indices (BMIs) were calibrated against cadaver test data under high-speed abdomen loading and frontal crash conditions. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of BMI on occupant injuries in frontal crashes based on the Taguchi method while controlling for several vehicle design parameters. Simulations of obese occupants predicted significantly higher risks of injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in frontal crashes compared with non-obese occupants, which is consistent with previous field data analyses. These higher injury risks are mainly due to the increased body mass and relatively poor belt fit caused by soft tissues for obese occupants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a parametric human FE model to investigate the obesity effects on occupant responses in frontal crashes. PMID:24666169

  19. Dynamics and associations of microbial community types across the human body.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Schloss, Patrick D

    2014-05-15

    A primary goal of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was to provide a reference collection of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences collected from sites across the human body that would allow microbiologists to better associate changes in the microbiome with changes in health. The HMP Consortium has reported the structure and function of the human microbiome in 300 healthy adults at 18 body sites from a single time point. Using additional data collected over the course of 12-18 months, we used Dirichlet multinomial mixture models to partition the data into community types for each body site and made three important observations. First, there were strong associations between whether individuals had been breastfed as an infant, their gender, and their level of education with their community types at several body sites. Second, although the specific taxonomic compositions of the oral and gut microbiomes were different, the community types observed at these sites were predictive of each other. Finally, over the course of the sampling period, the community types from sites within the oral cavity were the least stable, whereas those in the vagina and gut were the most stable. Our results demonstrate that even with the considerable intra- and interpersonal variation in the human microbiome, this variation can be partitioned into community types that are predictive of each other and are probably the result of life-history characteristics. Understanding the diversity of community types and the mechanisms that result in an individual having a particular type or changing types, will allow us to use their community types to assess disease risk and to personalize therapies. PMID:24739969

  20. The two types of stethoscope systems for respiration system diagnostics of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abashkin, Vladimir; Achimova, Elena

    2003-12-01

    An acoustic multimode fiber optic sensors for medical diagnostics based upon the shutter principle has been elaborated with semiconductor laser diode as light source. The construction and the method of component preparation are described. Other type of stethoscope is electrical one. Both stethoscopes are four channels. The kinetics and dynamic vibrations and sounds of the human body can be detected, acquired and then processing by personal computer for medical diagnostics.

  1. What's wrong with the dead body? Use of the human cadaver in medical education.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lisa M

    2002-01-21

    A 2000 survey of Australian medical schools showed that use of anatomical dissection and autopsies for teaching has declined. Opinions vary between schools as to the effect on teaching of anatomy and pathology. However, exposure to the dissected human body may have benefits beyond this teaching, including inculcating the trait of "detached concern", teaching about medical fallibility and uncertainty, and raising issues of death and dying. PMID:11936290

  2. [Forensic medical assessment of injuries to the human body and clothes caused by a crossbow arrow].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the data published in the special literature revealed the lack of information for the objective comprehensive forensic medical evaluation of injuries to the human body and clothes caused by the arrows from different models of crossbows. Morphological characteristics of injuries were shown to strongly depend on the design features of the arrows. This fact can be used to differentiate between injuries inflicted by crossbow arrows and other types of missile weapons. PMID:21866845

  3. Predictive discomfort of supine humans in whole-body vibration and shock environments.

    PubMed

    DeShaw, Jonathan; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a predictive model to evaluate discomfort associated with supine humans during transportation, where whole-body vibration and repeated shock are predominant. The proposed model consists of two parts: (i) static discomfort resulting from body posture, joint limits and ambient discomfort; and (ii) dynamic discomfort resulting from the relative motion between the body segments as a result of transmitted vibration. Twelve supine subjects were exposed to single and 3D random vibrations and 3D shocks mixed with vibrations. The subjects' reported discomfort and biodynamic response were analysed under different support conditions, including a rigid surface, a stretcher and a stretcher with a spinal backboard. The results demonstrated good correlations between the predictive discomfort and the reported discomfort for the different conditions under consideration, with R(2) = 0.69-0.94 for individual subjects and R(2) = 0.94 for the group mean. The results also indicated a strong relationship between the head-neck and trunk angular velocities and discomfort during supine transportation. Practitioner Summary: The quantification of discomfort of supine humans under vibration and shocks by using a predictive model is an important contribution to this field, whereby the efficacy of different transport systems can be compared. The predictive discomfort model can be used as design criteria for ergonomic enhancement in supine transportation of humans. PMID:26280381

  4. The Natural Aerodynamic Sampling of Trace Signals from the Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowadia, H. A.; Strine, S. B.; Johnson, T. E.; Settles, G. S.

    1996-11-01

    Aviation security requires the detection of explosive devices concealed on the human body. However, the transport and sampling of trace signals generated by such devices are poorly understood. It was previously assumed that such a signal remains near its source unless actively dislodged. This neglects the action of natural convective heat and mass transfer from the body. In present work the motion of the human thermal plume is visualized by schlieren. Human subjects are studied in a dispersal chamber which collects the body plume and filters it. Using only such "natural sampling," 50g of explosive simulant dinitrotoluene concealed beneath the clothing yielded an easily-detectible 1.1ng signal in 6s sampling time. A compact explosive vapor generator was also developed to provide trace signals of known strength. The efficiency of trace sampling and the relative levels transported by molecules vs. particles are also addressed. A foundation is thus laid for explosive detection portals for aviation security screening. (Research supported by FAA Grant 93-G-052.)

  5. Accurate estimation of human body orientation from RGB-D sensors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Zhang, Yongdong; Tang, Sheng; Tang, Jinhui; Hong, Richang; Li, Jintao

    2013-10-01

    Accurate estimation of human body orientation can significantly enhance the analysis of human behavior, which is a fundamental task in the field of computer vision. However, existing orientation estimation methods cannot handle the various body poses and appearances. In this paper, we propose an innovative RGB-D-based orientation estimation method to address these challenges. By utilizing the RGB-D information, which can be real time acquired by RGB-D sensors, our method is robust to cluttered environment, illumination change and partial occlusions. Specifically, efficient static and motion cue extraction methods are proposed based on the RGB-D superpixels to reduce the noise of depth data. Since it is hard to discriminate all the 360 (°) orientation using static cues or motion cues independently, we propose to utilize a dynamic Bayesian network system (DBNS) to effectively employ the complementary nature of both static and motion cues. In order to verify our proposed method, we build a RGB-D-based human body orientation dataset that covers a wide diversity of poses and appearances. Our intensive experimental evaluations on this dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:23893759

  6. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors. PMID:27190650

  7. Conduction of Electrical Current to and Through the Human Body: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Raymond M.; Geddes, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to explain ways in which electric current is conducted to and through the human body and how this influences the nature of injuries. Methods: This multidisciplinary topic is explained by first reviewing electrical and pathophysiological principles. There are discussions of how electric current is conducted through the body via air, water, earth, and man-made conductive materials. There are also discussions of skin resistance (impedance), internal body resistance, current path through the body, the let-go phenomenon, skin breakdown, electrical stimulation of skeletal muscles and nerves, cardiac dysrhythmias and arrest, and electric shock drowning. After the review of basic principles, a number of clinically relevant examples of accident mechanisms and their medical effects are discussed. Topics related to high-voltage burns include ground faults, ground potential gradient, step and touch potentials, arcs, and lightning. Results: The practicing physician will have a better understanding of electrical mechanisms of injury and their expected clinical effects. Conclusions: There are a variety of types of electrical contact, each with important characteristics. Understanding how electric current reaches and travels through the body can help the clinician understand how and why specific accidents occur and what medical and surgical problems may be expected. PMID:19907637

  8. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching.

    PubMed

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this "highly informed" group of potential donors. PMID:27190650

  9. [Hypothermia--mechanism of action and pathophysiological changes in the human body].

    PubMed

    Sosnowski, Przemysław; Mikrut, Kinga; Krauss, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the physiological responses and pathophysiological changes induced by hypothermia. Normal body function depends on its ability to maintain thermal homeostasis. The human body can be divided arbitrarily into two thermal compartments: a core compartment (trunk and head), with precisely regulated temperature around 37°C, and a peripheral compartment (skin and extremities) with less strictly controlled temperature, and lower than the core temperature. Thermoregulatory processes occur in three phases: afferent thermal sensing, central regulation, mainly by the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, and efferent response. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses including cutaneous vasoconstriction, shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis, and behavioral changes. Alterations of body temperature associated with impaired thermoregulation, decreased heat production or increased heat loss can lead to hypothermia. Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature below 35ºC, and may be classified according to the origin as accidental (e.g. caused by exposure to a cold environment, drugs, or illness) or intentional (i.e. therapeutic), or by the degree of hypothermia as mild, moderate or severe. Classification by temperature is not universal. Lowering of body temperature disrupts the physiological processes at the molecular, cellular and system level, but hypothermia induced prior to cardiosurgical or neurosurgical procedures, by the decrease in tissue oxygen demand, can reduce the risk of cerebral or cardiac ischemic damage. Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended as a clinical procedure in situations characterized by ischemia, such as cardiac arrest, stroke and brain injuries. PMID:25614675

  10. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  11. Residual and ovicidal efficacy of essential oil-based formulations in vitro against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Sands, B; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils have shown good experimental potential as novel veterinary ectoparasiticides. However, if they are to be used as veterinary products, they must be available in formulations that are suitable for practical application against specific ectoparasites. Here, the efficacies of formulations containing 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oil, in combination with two emulsifiers [a surfactant, 5% (w/v) N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (SLS), and a soluble polymer, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], with or without 10% coconut oil, were tested in contact bioassays against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Residual activity was quantified in open and closed containers; ovicidal efficacy was also examined. Exposure to either of 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oils with SLS or PVP resulted in louse mortality of 100%, but when coconut oil was included as an excipient, significantly lower efficacy was recorded. However, the formulations became significantly less effective after 2 h in open containers and 40 h in closed containers. The results confirm that the residual activity of essential oils is relatively transitory and the addition of 10% coconut oil does not prolong the period of insecticidal activity by slowing essential oil evaporation. Too short a period of residual activity is likely to be a significant impediment to the effective practical use of essential oils. However, unlike many synthetic pediculicides, the essential oils tested here were highly ovicidal, which suggests that prolonged residual activity may not be essential to kill newly hatched nymphs after treatment. PMID:26522385

  12. A model of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent mass of the human body reflects gross movements caused by whole-body vibration and can be used to predict the influence of body dynamics on seat transmissibility. With vertical excitation, various models fit the measured vertical apparent mass of the human body, but experiments also show high fore-and-aft forces on the seat (the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass) that have not influenced current models. This paper defines a model that predicts the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical excitation. A three degree-of-freedom model with vertical, fore-and-aft and rotational (i.e. pitch) degrees of freedom has been developed with twelve model parameters (representing inertia, stiffness, damping, and geometry) optimised to the measured vertical apparent mass and the measured fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the body. The model provides close fits to the moduli and phases for both median data and the responses of 12 individual subjects. The optimum model parameters found by fitting to the median apparent mass of 12 subjects were similar to the medians of the same parameters found by fitting to the individual apparent masses of the same 12 subjects. The model suggests the seated human body undergoes fore-and-aft motion on a seat when exposed to vertical excitation, with the primary resonance frequency of the apparent mass arising from vertical motion of the body. According to the model, changes in the vertical, fore-and-aft, or rotational degree of freedom have an effect on the resonance in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass.

  13. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-05-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references.

  14. Dose evaluation based on 24Na activity in the human body at the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    PubMed

    Momose, T; Tsujimura, N; Tasaki, T; Kanai, K; Kurihara, O; Hayashi, N; Shinohara, K

    2001-09-01

    24Na in the human body, activated by neutrons emitted at the JCO criticality accident, was observed for 62 subjects, where 148 subjects were measured by the whole body counter of JNC Tokai Works. The 148 subjects, including JCO employees and the contractors, residents neighboring the site and emergency service officers, were measured by the whole-body counter. The neutron-energy spectrum around the facility was calculated using neutron transport codes (ANISN and MCNP), and the relation between an amount of activated sodium in human body and neutron dose was evaluated from the calculated neutron energy spectrum and theoretical neutron capture probability by the human body. The maximum 24Na activity in the body was 7.7 kBq (83 Bq(24Na)/g(23Na)) and the relevant effective dose equivalent was 47 mSv. PMID:11791757

  15. Molecular characterisation and functional analysis of LsChi2, a chitinase found in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis, Krøyer 1838).

    PubMed

    Eichner, Christiane; Harasimczuk, Ewa; Nilsen, Frank; Grotmol, Sindre; Dalvin, Sussie

    2015-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis spp.) is an economically important parasite on Atlantic salmon reared in aquaculture globally. Production and degradation of chitin, a major component of the exoskeleton, is the target of some pesticides (Di/Teflubenzuron) used in management of lice on farmed fish. These chemicals inhibit molting of the salmon louse leading to the death of the parasite. We found three chitinases (LsChi1, LsChi2 and LsChi4) in the salmon louse genome. Sequence analysis and phylogeny showed that they belong to the GH18 type of chitinase group and show high sequence similarity to chitinases found in other crustaceans and in insects. Expression patterns were different for all three chitinases suggesting different functions during louse development. Furthermore, the function of LsChi2 was further explored through the use of RNA interference and infection trials. Copepodids with knock down of LsChi2 transcripts were deformed and showed a highly reduced infection success. PMID:25643862

  16. Stability of carbon nanotube yarn biofuel cell in human body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-07-01

    High performance with stability, easy-handling electrodes, and biofluid-flow controllable system with mechanical strength of the biofuel cell can be considered as the critical issues for future human body implant. These three challenges are sufficiently considered by using the effective platform regarding the high surface area from multi-walled carbon nanotube-conducting polymer with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), and size/shape dependent flexible yarn electrodes for the implantation of biofuel cell. High power biofuel cell of mW cm-2 range in physiological condition (low glucose-containing phosphate buffered saline solution and human blood serum) controlling the stirring degree is also first demonstrated for future implantation in this study. Biofuel cells for future implantation in human body vitally require long-term stability and high power outputs. We have demonstrated that a high-surface area yarn-based biofuel cell retained over 70% of its initial power output after an extended 20 days period of continuous operation in human blood serum, while delivering a power density of ∼1.0 mW cm-2. Subsequently, our enhanced enzymatic biofuel cell system would be potentially used as an innovative power source for the next generation implantable electronics.

  17. Effect of Human Movement on Galvanic Intra-Body Communication during Single Gait Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I. W.; Razak, A. H. A.; Ahmad, A.; Salleh, M. K. M.

    2015-11-01

    Intra-body communication (IBC) is a communication system that uses human body as a signal transmission medium. From previous research, two coupling methods of IBC were concluded which are capacitive coupling and galvanic coupling. This paper investigates the effect of human movement on IBC using the galvanic coupling method. Because the human movement is control by the limb joint, the knee flexion angle during gait cycle was used to examine the influence of human movement on galvanic coupling IBC. The gait cycle is a cycle of people walking that start from one foot touch the ground till that foot touch the ground again. Frequency range from 300 kHz to 200MHz was swept in order to investigate the signal transmission loss and the result was focused on operating frequency 70MHz to 90MHz. Results show that the transmission loss varies when the knee flexion angle increased. The highest loss of signal at frequency range between 70MHz to 90 MHz was 69dB when the knee flexion angle is 50° and the minimum loss was 51dB during the flexion angle is 5°.

  18. Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37

  19. Detection and Classification of Human Body Odor Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Wongchoosuk, Chatchawal; Lutz, Mario; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-01-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) has been designed and equipped with software that can detect and classify human armpit body odor. An array of metal oxide sensors was used for detecting volatile organic compounds. The measurement circuit employs a voltage divider resistor to measure the sensitivity of each sensor. This E-nose was controlled by in-house developed software through a portable USB data acquisition card with a principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm implemented for pattern recognition and classification. Because gas sensor sensitivity in the detection of armpit odor samples is affected by humidity, we propose a new method and algorithms combining hardware/software for the correction of the humidity noise. After the humidity correction, the E-nose showed the capability of detecting human body odor and distinguishing the body odors from two persons in a relative manner. The E-nose is still able to recognize people, even after application of deodorant. In conclusion, this is the first report of the application of an E-nose for armpit odor recognition. PMID:22399995

  20. Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on cutaneous vasodilation during body heating in humans.

    PubMed

    Shastry, S; Dietz, N M; Halliwill, J R; Reed, A S; Joyner, M J

    1998-09-01

    We sought to examine further the potential role of nitric oxide (NO) in the neurally mediated cutaneous vasodilation in nonacral skin during body heating in humans. Six subjects were heated with a water-perfused suit while cutaneous blood flow was measured by using laser-Doppler flowmeters placed on both forearms. The NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) was given selectively to one forearm via a brachial artery catheter after marked cutaneous vasodilation had been established. During body heating, oral temperature increased by 1.1 +/- 0.1 degreesC while heart rate increased by 30 +/- 6 beats/min. Mean arterial pressure stayed constant at 84 +/- 2 mmHg. In the experimental forearm, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler) decreased to 86 +/- 5% of the peak response to heating (P < 0.05 vs. pre-L-NMMA values) after L-NMMA infusion. In some subjects, L-NMMA caused CVC to fall by approximately 30%; in others, it had little impact on the cutaneous circulation. CVC in the control arm showed a similar increase with heating, then stayed constant while L-NMMA was given to the contralateral side. These results demonstrate that NO contributes modestly, but not consistently, to cutaneous vasodilation during body heating in humans. They also indicate that NO is not the only factor responsible for the dilation. PMID:9729554

  1. Metabolic constraint imposes tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Despite a general trend for larger mammals to have larger brains, humans are the primates with the largest brain and number of neurons, but not the largest body mass. Why are great apes, the largest primates, not also those endowed with the largest brains? Recently, we showed that the energetic cost of the brain is a linear function of its numbers of neurons. Here we show that metabolic limitations that result from the number of hours available for feeding and the low caloric yield of raw foods impose a tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons, which explains the small brain size of great apes compared with their large body size. This limitation was probably overcome in Homo erectus with the shift to a cooked diet. Absent the requirement to spend most available hours of the day feeding, the combination of newly freed time and a large number of brain neurons affordable on a cooked diet may thus have been a major positive driving force to the rapid increased in brain size in human evolution. PMID:23090991

  2. Equivalent dynamical complexity in a many-body quantum and collective human system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Ashkenazi, Josef; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Quiroga, Luis

    2011-03-01

    Proponents of Complexity Science believe that the huge variety of emergent phenomena observed throughout nature, are generated by relatively few microscopic mechanisms. Skeptics however point to the lack of concrete examples in which a single mechanistic model manages to capture relevant macroscopic and microscopic properties for two or more distinct systems operating across radically different length and time scales. Here we show how a single complexity model built around cluster coalescence and fragmentation, can cross the fundamental divide between many-body quantum physics and social science. It simultaneously (i) explains a mysterious recent finding of Fratini et al. concerning quantum many-body effects in cuprate superconductors (i.e. scale of 10-9 - 10-4 meters and 10-12 - 10-6 seconds), (ii) explains the apparent universality of the casualty distributions in distinct human insurgencies and terrorism (i.e. scale of 103 - 106 meters and 104 - 108 seconds), (iii) shows consistency with various established empirical facts for financial markets, neurons and human gangs and (iv) makes microscopic sense for each application. Our findings also suggest that a potentially productive shift can be made in Complexity research toward the identification of equivalent many-body dynamics in both classical and quantum regimes.

  3. Diversity of key players in the microbial ecosystems of the human body.

    PubMed

    Jordán, Ferenc; Lauria, Mario; Scotti, Marco; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Praveen, Paurush; Morine, Melissa; Priami, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Coexisting bacteria form various microbial communities in human body parts. In these ecosystems they interact in various ways and the properties of the interaction network can be related to the stability and functional diversity of the local bacterial community. In this study, we analyze the interaction network among bacterial OTUs in 11 locations of the human body. These belong to two major groups. One is the digestive system and the other is the female genital tract. In each local ecosystem we determine the key species, both the ones being in key positions in the interaction network and the ones that dominate by frequency. Beyond identifying the key players and discussing their biological relevance, we also quantify and compare the properties of the 11 networks. The interaction networks of the female genital system and the digestive system show totally different architecture. Both the topological properties and the identity of the key groups differ. Key groups represent four phyla of prokaryotes. Some groups appear in key positions in several locations, while others are assigned only to a single body part. The key groups of the digestive and the genital tracts are totally different. PMID:26514870

  4. Diversity of key players in the microbial ecosystems of the human body

    PubMed Central

    Jordán, Ferenc; Lauria, Mario; Scotti, Marco; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Praveen, Paurush; Morine, Melissa; Priami, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Coexisting bacteria form various microbial communities in human body parts. In these ecosystems they interact in various ways and the properties of the interaction network can be related to the stability and functional diversity of the local bacterial community. In this study, we analyze the interaction network among bacterial OTUs in 11 locations of the human body. These belong to two major groups. One is the digestive system and the other is the female genital tract. In each local ecosystem we determine the key species, both the ones being in key positions in the interaction network and the ones that dominate by frequency. Beyond identifying the key players and discussing their biological relevance, we also quantify and compare the properties of the 11 networks. The interaction networks of the female genital system and the digestive system show totally different architecture. Both the topological properties and the identity of the key groups differ. Key groups represent four phyla of prokaryotes. Some groups appear in key positions in several locations, while others are assigned only to a single body part. The key groups of the digestive and the genital tracts are totally different. PMID:26514870

  5. An Objective Evaluation of Mass Scaling Techniques Utilizing Computational Human Body Finite Element Models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew L; Scott Gayzik, F

    2016-10-01

    Biofidelity response corridors developed from post-mortem human subjects are commonly used in the design and validation of anthropomorphic test devices and computational human body models (HBMs). Typically, corridors are derived from a diverse pool of biomechanical data and later normalized to a target body habitus. The objective of this study was to use morphed computational HBMs to compare the ability of various scaling techniques to scale response data from a reference to a target anthropometry. HBMs are ideally suited for this type of study since they uphold the assumptions of equal density and modulus that are implicit in scaling method development. In total, six scaling procedures were evaluated, four from the literature (equal-stress equal-velocity, ESEV, and three variations of impulse momentum) and two which are introduced in the paper (ESEV using a ratio of effective masses, ESEV-EffMass, and a kinetic energy approach). In total, 24 simulations were performed, representing both pendulum and full body impacts for three representative HBMs. These simulations were quantitatively compared using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO-TS18571 standard. Based on these results, ESEV-EffMass achieved the highest overall similarity score (indicating that it is most proficient at scaling a reference response to a target). Additionally, ESEV was found to perform poorly for two degree-of-freedom (DOF) systems. However, the results also indicated that no single technique was clearly the most appropriate for all scenarios. PMID:27457051

  6. Human body temperature and new approaches to constructing temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines

    PubMed Central

    White, Matthew D.; Bosio, Catharine M.; Duplantis, Barry N.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the live human and animal vaccines that are currently in use are attenuated by virtue of their temperature-sensitive (TS) replication. These vaccines are able to function because they can take advantage of sites in mammalian bodies that are cooler than the core temperature, where TS vaccines fail to replicate. In this article, we discuss the distribution of temperature in the human body, and relate how the temperature differential can be exploited for designing and using TS vaccines. We also examine how one of the coolest organs of the body, the skin, contains antigen-processing cells that can be targeted to provoke the desired immune response from a TS vaccine. We describe traditional approaches to making TS vaccines, and highlight new information and technologies that are being used to create a new generation of engineered TS vaccines. We pay particular attention to the recently described technology of substituting essential genes from Arctic bacteria for their homologues in mammalian pathogens as a way of creating TS vaccines. PMID:21626408

  7. Health sensor for human body by using infrared, acoustic energy and magnetic signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jerry

    2013-05-01

    There is a general chain of events that applies to infections. Human body infection could causes by many different types of bacteria and virus in different areas or organ systems. In general, doctor can't find out the right solution/treatment for infections unless some certain types of bacteria or virus are detected. These detecting processes, usually, take few days to one week to accomplish. However, some infections of the body may not be able to detect at first round and the patient may lose the timing to receive the proper treatment. In this works, we base on Chi's theory which is an invisible circulation system existed inside the body and propose a novel health sensor which summarizes human's infrared, acoustic energy and magnetic signature and find out, in minutes, the most possible area or organ system that cause the infection just like what Chi-Kung master can accomplish. Therefore, the detection process by doctor will be shortened and it raises the possibility to give the proper treatment to the patient in the earliest timing.

  8. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population

    PubMed Central

    M. Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I. Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m2] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  9. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of residual bodies in aged cultured human glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, E.; Fredriksson, B.A.; Brunk, U.

    1980-01-01

    Secondary lysosomes of the residual body type are frequent in nondividing cells from phase III cultures of human glial cells. These organelles have previously been shown to be analogous to lipofuscin granules of postmitotic cells in vivo. Most recent studies favor the assumption that residual bodies mainly result from incomplete degradation within the lysosomal vacuome of endogenous cellular components such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Since iron occurs in several metalloenzymes produced by such organelles, it should then be possible to demonstrate accumulated iron within residual bodies. X-ray dispersive analysis of sectioned biological material is often hampered by diffusion and dissolution during preparation, as well as by too low a concentration of the elements. In this study we cultured glial cells on Formvar-coated gold grids and studied them unsectioned, after brief glutaraldehyde fixation and freeze-drying, in a transmission electron microscope at 100 kV in TEM and STEM mode. It was then possible to demonstrate iron in residual bodies of aged cells, presumably because the type of preparation utilized does not permit much dissolution.

  10. Laser ablation for mineral analysis in the human body: integration of LIFS with LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Liska, Miroslav; Kaiser, Josef; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Beddows, David C.; Belenkevitch, Alexander; Morris, Gavin W.; Telle, Helmut H.

    1999-01-01

    Trace mineral analysis of the body is invaluable in biology, medicine and dentistry when considering the role of mineral nutrition and metabolism in the context of maintaining human health. The presence of key elements in the body, such as boron, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, silicon and zinc are known to be of vital importance, but are often found to be present in inadequate quantity. In sharp contrast, the accumulation of other elements, such as aluminum, cadmium, lead and mercury is less favorable, since frequently these metals are already toxic at extremely low concentration levels, interfering with essential chemical processing of vitamins and minerals. Here we report on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to the analysis of important minerals and toxic elements within the body. Samples from different parts of the body have been studied, including specimens of skin tissue, finger nails and teeth. It is particularly noteworthy that specific sample preparation was not needed for any of these laser spectroscopic measurements, but that specimens could be used as taken from the source.

  11. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population.

    PubMed

    M Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-03-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m(2)] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  12. Adjustments to de Leva-anthropometric regression data for the changes in body proportions in elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Ho Hoang, Khai-Long; Mombaur, Katja

    2015-10-15

    Dynamic modeling of the human body is an important tool to investigate the fundamentals of the biomechanics of human movement. To model the human body in terms of a multi-body system, it is necessary to know the anthropometric parameters of the body segments. For young healthy subjects, several data sets exist that are widely used in the research community, e.g. the tables provided by de Leva. None such comprehensive anthropometric parameter sets exist for elderly people. It is, however, well known that body proportions change significantly during aging, e.g. due to degenerative effects in the spine, such that parameters for young people cannot be used for realistically simulating the dynamics of elderly people. In this study, regression equations are derived from the inertial parameters, center of mass positions, and body segment lengths provided by de Leva to be adjustable to the changes in proportion of the body parts of male and female humans due to aging. Additional adjustments are made to the reference points of the parameters for the upper body segments as they are chosen in a more practicable way in the context of creating a multi-body model in a chain structure with the pelvis representing the most proximal segment. PMID:26338096

  13. Lost and found: The identification process of human bodies recovered from the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Duijst, Wilma; Passier, Charlotte; Oude Grotebevelsborg, Bernice; de Kat, Dorothee; van Daalen, Marjolijn; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2016-07-01

    Files of the Dutch bureau of missing persons at the North Sea (BVPN) were investigated to analyse the process that led to identification of human bodies recovered from the North Sea between 1980 and 2013. Of the 94 cases that were analysed 41.5% was identified by the family, 23.4% by the use of DNA and 17% by the use of the dental status. The linking pin for the identification was the place where the body was found (14.9%), the general appearance (12.8%), jewellery (11.6%) and media attention (9.6%). In only a few cases the DNA or fingerprint database was used for identification. When a person is not reported missing the identification is problematic because of the lack of antemortem data. National and international databases of people who have gone missing, can help solve this problem. PMID:27107563

  14. The indirect measurement of biomechanical forces in the moving human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluss, Melanie; Laws, Kenneth; Martin, Natalie; Nowicki, T. Scott; Mira, Allan

    2006-02-01

    Inexpensive experimental techniques now exist for indirectly measuring forces within the moving human body. These techniques involve nontrivial applications of basic physical principles, have practical uses, and are appropriate for undergraduate experimentation. A two-dimensional video motion analysis is used to find the accelerations of various parts of the body, and anatomical geometry is used to determine specific biomechanical forces and torques. The simple movement of a dancer landing from a vertical jump is analyzed through the use of a theoretical model of the leg to find the forces in the tendons attached to the knee. It is shown that these forces can be sufficiently large to lead to injury if jumps are performed repetitively.

  15. Noninvasive measurement of current in the human body for electromagnetic dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, M J; Babij, T M

    1993-05-01

    Minimally perturbing, resistive, nonferrous probes were developed for noninvasively measuring hazardous currents induced in the human body by electromagnetic fields at 1 to 200 MHz. Each probe has a resistive toroidal coil that is placed around the leg or other body member. An electrostatic shield is required to limit capacitive coupling. A new shielded test fixture provides TEM fields for calibration with a VSWR less than 1.1 from 1 to 200 MHz. A man-sized phantom was exposed to the near-field of a vertical monopole antenna at 29.9 MHz, and the value of the current measured in the leg with our probe is in reasonable agreement with measured heating. Analyses and experiments show that commercial ferrous current probes modify the circuit in which they are used, changing the current being measured. Less change is caused by our nonferrous current probes. PMID:8225330

  16. Membrane Vesicles Nucleate Mineralo-organic Nanoparticles and Induce Carbonate Apatite Precipitation in Human Body Fluids*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Cheng, Wei-Yun; He, Chao-Chih; Ojcius, David M.; Young, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted by various cells are associated with human diseases, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. The possibility that MVs may induce the formation of mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) and ectopic calcification has not been investigated so far. Here, we isolated MVs ranging in size between 20 and 400 nm from human serum and FBS using ultracentrifugation and sucrose gradient centrifugation. The MV preparations consisted of phospholipid-bound vesicles containing the serum proteins albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1; the mineralization-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase; and the exosome proteins TNFR1 and CD63. Notably, we observed that MVs induced mineral precipitation following inoculation and incubation in cell culture medium. The mineral precipitates consisted of round, mineralo-organic NPs containing carbonate hydroxyapatite, similar to previous descriptions of the so-called nanobacteria. Annexin V-immunogold staining revealed that the calcium-binding lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) was exposed on the external surface of serum MVs. Treatment of MVs with an anti-PS antibody significantly decreased their mineral seeding activity, suggesting that PS may provide nucleating sites for calcium phosphate deposition on the vesicles. These results indicate that MVs may represent nucleating agents that induce the formation of mineral NPs in body fluids. Given that mineralo-organic NPs represent precursors of calcification in vivo, our results suggest that MVs may initiate ectopic calcification in the human body. PMID:23990473

  17. In Vitro Studies Evaluating Leaching of Mercury from Mine Waste Calcine Using Simulated Human Body Fluids

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) studies were carried out on samples of mercury (Hg) mine-waste calcine (roasted Hg ore) by leaching with simulated human body fluids. The objective was to estimate potential human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne calcine particulates and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing calcines. Mine waste calcines collected from Hg mines at Almadén, Spain, and Terlingua, Texas, contain Hg sulfide, elemental Hg, and soluble Hg compounds, which constitute primary ore or compounds formed during Hg retorting. Elevated leachate Hg concentrations were found during calcine leaching using a simulated gastric fluid (as much as 6200 μg of Hg leached/g sample). Elevated Hg concentrations were also found in calcine leachates using a simulated lung fluid (as much as 9200 μg of Hg leached/g), serum-based fluid (as much as 1600 μg of Hg leached/g), and water of pH 5 (as much as 880 μg of Hg leached/g). The leaching capacity of Hg is controlled by calcine mineralogy; thus, calcines containing soluble Hg compounds contain higher leachate Hg concentrations. Results indicate that ingestion or inhalation of Hg mine-waste calcine may lead to increased Hg concentrations in the human body, especially through the ingestion pathway. PMID:20491469

  18. Major histocompatibility complex peptide ligands as olfactory cues in human body odour assessment

    PubMed Central

    Milinski, Manfred; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas; Boehm, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In many animal species, social communication and mate choice are influenced by cues encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The mechanism by which the MHC influences sexual selection is a matter of intense debate. In mice, peptide ligands of MHC molecules activate subsets of vomeronasal and olfactory sensory neurons and influence social memory formation; in sticklebacks, such peptides predictably modify the outcome of mate choice. Here, we examine whether this evolutionarily conserved mechanism of interindividual communication extends to humans. In psychometric tests, volunteers recognized the supplementation of their body odour by MHC peptides and preferred ‘self’ to ‘non-self’ ligands when asked to decide whether the modified odour smelled ‘like themselves’ or ‘like their favourite perfume’. Functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that ‘self’-peptides specifically activated a region in the right middle frontal cortex. Our results suggest that despite the absence of a vomeronasal organ, humans have the ability to detect and evaluate MHC peptides in body odour. This may provide a basis for the sensory evaluation of potential partners during human mate choice. PMID:23345577

  19. Robust human body model injury prediction in simulated side impact crashes.

    PubMed

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a parametric methodology to robustly predict occupant injuries sustained in real-world crashes using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM). One hundred and twenty near-side impact motor vehicle crashes were simulated over a range of parameters using a Toyota RAV4 (bullet vehicle), Ford Taurus (struck vehicle) FE models and a validated human body model (HBM) Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Three bullet vehicle crash parameters (speed, location and angle) and two occupant parameters (seat position and age) were varied using a Latin hypercube design of Experiments. Four injury metrics (head injury criterion, half deflection, thoracic trauma index and pelvic force) were used to calculate injury risk. Rib fracture prediction and lung strain metrics were also analysed. As hypothesized, bullet speed had the greatest effect on each injury measure. Injury risk was reduced when bullet location was further from the B-pillar or when the bullet angle was more oblique. Age had strong correlation to rib fractures frequency and lung strain severity. The injuries from a real-world crash were predicted using two different methods by (1) subsampling the injury predictors from the 12 best crush profile matching simulations and (2) using regression models. Both injury prediction methods successfully predicted the case occupant's low risk for pelvic injury, high risk for thoracic injury, rib fractures and high lung strains with tight confidence intervals. This parametric methodology was successfully used to explore crash parameter interactions and to robustly predict real-world injuries. PMID:26158552

  20. Membrane vesicles nucleate mineralo-organic nanoparticles and induce carbonate apatite precipitation in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Cheng, Wei-Yun; He, Chao-Chih; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D

    2013-10-18

    Recent studies indicate that membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted by various cells are associated with human diseases, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. The possibility that MVs may induce the formation of mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) and ectopic calcification has not been investigated so far. Here, we isolated MVs ranging in size between 20 and 400 nm from human serum and FBS using ultracentrifugation and sucrose gradient centrifugation. The MV preparations consisted of phospholipid-bound vesicles containing the serum proteins albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1; the mineralization-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase; and the exosome proteins TNFR1 and CD63. Notably, we observed that MVs induced mineral precipitation following inoculation and incubation in cell culture medium. The mineral precipitates consisted of round, mineralo-organic NPs containing carbonate hydroxyapatite, similar to previous descriptions of the so-called nanobacteria. Annexin V-immunogold staining revealed that the calcium-binding lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) was exposed on the external surface of serum MVs. Treatment of MVs with an anti-PS antibody significantly decreased their mineral seeding activity, suggesting that PS may provide nucleating sites for calcium phosphate deposition on the vesicles. These results indicate that MVs may represent nucleating agents that induce the formation of mineral NPs in body fluids. Given that mineralo-organic NPs represent precursors of calcification in vivo, our results suggest that MVs may initiate ectopic calcification in the human body. PMID:23990473

  1. Human UBL5 protein interacts with coilin and meets the Cajal bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Švéda, Martin; Častorálová, Markéta; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš; Knejzlík, Zdeněk

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Localization of the UBL5 protein in Hela cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy and biochemical fractionation. •Colocalization of UBL5 with Cajal bodies was observed. •Interaction of UBL5 with coilin was proven by pull-down. -- Abstract: UBL5 protein, a structural homologue of ubiquitin, was shown to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and transcription regulation in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. However, role of the UBL5 human orthologue is still elusive. In our study, we observed that endogenous human UBL5 that was localized in the nucleus, partially associates with Cajal bodies (CBs), nuclear domains where spliceosomal components are assembled. Simultaneous expression of exogenous UBL5 and coilin resulted in their nuclear colocalization in HeLa cells. The ability of UBL5 to interact with coilin was proved by GST pull-down assay using coilin that was either in vitro translated or extracted from HEK293T cells. Further, our results showed that the UBL5–coilin interaction was not influenced by coilin phosphorylation. These results suggest that UBL5 could be targeted to CBs via its interaction with coilin. Relation between human UBL5 protein and CBs is in the agreement with current observations about yeast orthologue Hub1 playing important role in alternative splicing.

  2. Major histocompatibility complex peptide ligands as olfactory cues in human body odour assessment.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas; Boehm, Thomas

    2013-03-22

    In many animal species, social communication and mate choice are influenced by cues encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The mechanism by which the MHC influences sexual selection is a matter of intense debate. In mice, peptide ligands of MHC molecules activate subsets of vomeronasal and olfactory sensory neurons and influence social memory formation; in sticklebacks, such peptides predictably modify the outcome of mate choice. Here, we examine whether this evolutionarily conserved mechanism of interindividual communication extends to humans. In psychometric tests, volunteers recognized the supplementation of their body odour by MHC peptides and preferred 'self' to 'non-self' ligands when asked to decide whether the modified odour smelled 'like themselves' or 'like their favourite perfume'. Functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that 'self'-peptides specifically activated a region in the right middle frontal cortex. Our results suggest that despite the absence of a vomeronasal organ, humans have the ability to detect and evaluate MHC peptides in body odour. This may provide a basis for the sensory evaluation of potential partners during human mate choice. PMID:23345577

  3. Selected aspects of the action of cobalt ions in the human body.

    PubMed

    Czarnek, Katarzyna; Terpiłowska, Sylwia; Siwicki, Andrzej K

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is widespread in the natural environment and can be formed as an effect of anthropogenic activity. This element is used in numerous industrial applications and nuclear power plants. Cobalt is an essential trace element for the human body and can occur in organic and inorganic forms. The organic form is a necessary component of vitamin B12 and plays a very important role in forming amino acids and some proteins in nerve cells, and in creating neurotransmitters that are indispensable for correct functioning of the organism. Its excess or deficiency will influence it unfavourably. Salts of cobalt have been applied in medicine in the treatment of anaemia, as well as in sport as an attractive alternative to traditional blood doping. Inorganic forms of cobalt present in ion form, are toxic to the human body, and the longer they are stored in the body, the more changes they cause in cells. Cobalt gets into the body in several ways: firstly, with food; secondly by the respiratory system; thirdly, by the skin; and finally, as a component of biomaterials. Cobalt and its alloys are fundamental components in orthopaedic implants and have been used for about 40 years. The corrosion of metal is the main problem in the construction of implants. These released metal ions may cause type IV inflammatory and hypersensitivity reactions, and alternations in bone modelling that lead to aseptic loosening and implant failure. The ions of cobalt released from the surface of the implant are absorbed by present macrophages, which are involved in many of the processes associated with phagocytose orthopaedic biomaterials particles and release pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin. PMID:26557039

  4. Expression of leptin and leptin receptor isoforms in the rat and human carotid body.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Rucinski, Marcin; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; De Caro, Raffaele

    2011-04-18

    Leptin is known to play a role in the modulation of metabolism and control of breathing acting mainly on central nervous structures, although additional actions on peripheral arterial chemoreceptors have also been suggested in the literature. We therefore examined by means of immunohistochemistry the expression of leptin and leptin receptors in the carotid bodies of rats and humans. Leptin expression and relative expression of leptin receptor isoforms were also studied in rats by real-time PCR. No leptin or leptin receptor immunoreactivities were visible in the type II cells of either series. In rat carotid bodies, diffuse positive stainings for leptin and leptin receptors (both with antibody recognizing all receptor isoforms and antibody specific for Ob-Rb) were observed in type I cells. In human carotid bodies, the mean percentage (±standard error) of leptin immunoreactive type I cells was 39.4%±5.1% and the percentages of leptin receptor immunoreactive type I cells were 57.3%±3.9% with antibody recognizing all receptor isoforms and 33.3%±4.2% with antibody specific for isoform Ob-Rb. Double immunofluorescences with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (type I cell marker) and anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (type II cell markers) confirmed the selective location of leptin and Ob-Rb in type I cells. Real-time PCR showed the expression of leptin and Ob-Ra, Ob-Rb, Ob-Rc and Ob-Rf isoform mRNA in the rat carotid body, levels of expression being Ob-Rf>Ob-Rc>Ob-Ra>Ob-Rb. Ob-Re mRNA was not detected. The above findings suggest a role of circulating or locally produced leptin in the regulation of chemoreceptor discharge and/or metabolic sensing function, by means of direct action on type I cells. PMID:21334312

  5. A paradigm for human body finite element model integration from a set of regional models.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A B; Gayzik, F S; Moreno, D P; Rhyne, A C; Vavalle, N A; Stitzel, J D

    2012-01-01

    Computational modeling offers versatility, scalability, and cost advantages to researchers in the trauma and injury biomechanics communities. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) is a group of government, industry, and academic researchers developing human body models (HBMs) that aim to become the standard tool to meet this growing research need. The objective of this study is to present the methods used to develop the average seated male occupant model (M50, weight = 78 kg, height = 175 cm) from five separately validated body region models (BRMs). BRMs include the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and a combined pelvis and lower extremity model. Modeling domains were split at the atlanto-occipital joint, C7-T1 boundary, diaphragm, abdominal cavity (peritoneum/retroperitoneum), and the acetabulum respectively. BRM meshes are based on a custom CAD model of the seated male built from a multi-modality imaging protocol of a volunteer subject found in literature.[1] Various meshing techniques were used to integrate the full body model (FBM) including 1-D beam and discrete element connections (e.g. ligamentous structures), 2D shell nodal connections (e.g. inferior vena cava to right atrium), 3D hexahedral nodal connections (e.g. soft tissue envelope connections between regions), and contact definitions varying from tied (muscle insertions) to sliding (liver and diaphragm contact). The model was developed in a general-purpose finite element code, LS-Dyna (LTSC, Livermore, CA) R4.2.1., and consists of 1.95 million elements and 1.3 million nodes. The element breakdown by type is 41% hexahedral, 33.7% tetrahedral, 19.5% quad shells and 5% tria shell. The integration methodology presented highlights the viability of using a collaborative development paradigm for the construction of HBMs, and will be used as template for expanding the suite of GHBMC models. PMID:22846315

  6. Selected aspects of the action of cobalt ions in the human body

    PubMed Central

    Terpiłowska, Sylwia; Siwicki, Andrzej K.

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is widespread in the natural environment and can be formed as an effect of anthropogenic activity. This element is used in numerous industrial applications and nuclear power plants. Cobalt is an essential trace element for the human body and can occur in organic and inorganic forms. The organic form is a necessary component of vitamin B12 and plays a very important role in forming amino acids and some proteins in nerve cells, and in creating neurotransmitters that are indispensable for correct functioning of the organism. Its excess or deficiency will influence it unfavourably. Salts of cobalt have been applied in medicine in the treatment of anaemia, as well as in sport as an attractive alternative to traditional blood doping. Inorganic forms of cobalt present in ion form, are toxic to the human body, and the longer they are stored in the body, the more changes they cause in cells. Cobalt gets into the body in several ways: firstly, with food; secondly by the respiratory system; thirdly, by the skin; and finally, as a component of biomaterials. Cobalt and its alloys are fundamental components in orthopaedic implants and have been used for about 40 years. The corrosion of metal is the main problem in the construction of implants. These released metal ions may cause type IV inflammatory and hypersensitivity reactions, and alternations in bone modelling that lead to aseptic loosening and implant failure. The ions of cobalt released from the surface of the implant are absorbed by present macrophages, which are involved in many of the processes associated with phagocytose orthopaedic biomaterials particles and release pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin. PMID:26557039

  7. Yes, there is a medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Randy J.; Grothe, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) is a collection of brainstem neurons that function within the ascending auditory pathway. MNTB neurons are associated with a number of anatomical and physiological specializations which make these cells especially well-equipped to provide extremely fast and precise glycinergic inhibition to its target neurons in the superior olivary complex and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The inhibitory influence of MNTB neurons plays essentials roles in the localization of sound sources and encoding temporal features of complex sounds. The morphology, afferent and efferent connections and physiological response properties of MNTB neurons have been well-characterized in a number of laboratory rodents and some carnivores. Furthermore, the MNTB has been positively identified in all mammals examined, ranging from opossum and mice to chimpanzees. From the early 1970s through 2009, a number of studies denied the existence of the MNTB in humans and consequentially, the existence of this nucleus in the human brain has been debated for nearly 50 years. The absence of the MNTB from the human brain would negate current principles of sound localization and would require a number of novel adaptations, entirely unique to humans. However, a number of recent studies of human post-mortem tissue have provided evidence supporting the existence of the MNTB in humans. It therefore seems timely to review the structure and function of the MNTB, critically review the literature which led to the denial of the human MNTB and then review recent investigations supporting the existence of the MNTB in the human brain. PMID:25873865

  8. Study of variation in human upper body parameters and motion for use in robotics based simulation.

    PubMed

    Lura, Derek J; Carey, Stephanie L; Dubey, Rajiv V

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the variations in human upper body motion of subjects completing activities of daily living. This study was completed to serve as a reference to evaluate the quality of simulated of human motion. In this paper we define the variation in motion as the variation in subjects' parameters (link lengths), joint angles, and hand positions, for a given task. All of these variations are related by forward kinematic equations. Motion data from eight healthy right hand dominant adults performing three activities of daily living (brushing hair, drinking from a cup, and opening a door) were collected using an eight camera Vicon motion analysis system. Subject parameters were calculated using relative positions of functional joint center locations between segments. Joint angles were calculated by Euler angle rotations between body segments. Hand position was defined as the origin of the hand frame relative to the pelvis frame. The variance of recorded human motion was analyzed based on the standard deviations of subject parameters, joint angles, and hand positions. Variances in joint angles were found to be similar in magnitude to root mean squared error of kinematics based motion simulation. To evaluate the relative variance, the forward kinematic solutions of the trials were found after removing subject parameter variance and reducing joint angle variance. The variance in the forward kinematic solution was then compared to the recorded hand position variance. Reductions in subject parameter and joint angle variance produced a proportionally much smaller reduction in the calculated hand position variance. Using the average instead of individual subject parameters had only a small impact on hand position variance. Modifying joint angles to reduce variance had a greater impact on the calculated hand position variance than using average subject parameters, but was still a relatively small change. Future work will focus on using these results to create formalized

  9. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Effect of seat backrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on various characteristics of the seat and the dynamic response of the human body. The dynamic response of the body can be represented by its apparent mass, but the effect of the seat on the apparent mass of the body is not well understood. This study was designed to quantify the effect of foam and rigid backrests on the vertical apparent mass of the human measured at the seat surface supporting the body. The apparent masses of 12 subjects were measured during exposure to random vertical vibration (1.0 ms -2 rms from 0.125 to 40 Hz) in a seat with a rigid backrest, in the same rigid seat with three thicknesses of foam backrest (50, 100 and 150 mm), and in the same seat with no backrest. The backrests were inclined at various angles: 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25° and 30° for the rigid and 100 mm foam backrests, and 0°, 10°, 20° and 30° for the 50 and 150 mm foam backrests. With all vertical backrests (i.e., 0° inclination), there were resonances in the apparent mass of the body around 5 and 10 Hz. With no backrest, the apparent mass was increased at frequencies less than the resonance frequency but decreased at frequencies between 8 and 20 Hz, relative to the apparent mass with the vertical rigid and foam backrests. With the rigid backrest, the primary resonance frequencies in the apparent mass increased with increasing backrest inclination. With the foam backrests, the resonance frequencies decreased with increasing backrest inclination. At frequencies less than the primary resonance, the apparent mass decreased with increasing backrest inclination, particularly with the rigid backrest. Between 8 and 15 Hz, the apparent mass decreased with increasing inclination, most notably with the foam backrests. At inclinations less than 30°, there was little effect of foam thickness on the apparent mass, but at 30° an increase in the thickness of the foam decreased the frequency of the first resonances. Since

  10. Engineering Strategies for the Formation of Embryoid Bodies from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pettinato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are powerful tools for regenerative therapy and studying human developmental biology, attributing to their ability to differentiate into many functional cell types in the body. The main challenge in realizing hPSC potential is to guide their differentiation in a well-controlled manner. One way to control the cell differentiation process is to recapitulate during in vitro culture the key events in embryogenesis to obtain the three developmental germ layers from which all cell types arise. To achieve this goal, many techniques have been tested to obtain a cellular cluster, an embryoid body (EB), from both mouse and hPSCs. Generation of EBs that are homogeneous in size and shape would allow directed hPSC differentiation into desired cell types in a more synchronous manner and define the roles of cell–cell interaction and spatial organization in lineage specification in a setting similar to in vivo embryonic development. However, previous success in uniform EB formation from mouse PSCs cannot be extrapolated to hPSCs possibly due to the destabilization of adherens junctions on cell surfaces during the dissociation into single cells, making hPSCs extremely vulnerable to cell death. Recently, new advances have emerged to form uniform human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from dissociated single cells of hPSCs. In this review, the existing methods for hEB production from hPSCs and the results on the downstream differentiation of the hEBs are described with emphases on the efficiency, homogeneity, scalability, and reproducibility of the hEB formation process and the yield in terminal differentiation. New trends in hEB production and directed differentiation are discussed. PMID:25900308

  11. Engineering Strategies for the Formation of Embryoid Bodies from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pettinato, Giuseppe; Wen, Xuejun; Zhang, Ning

    2015-07-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are powerful tools for regenerative therapy and studying human developmental biology, attributing to their ability to differentiate into many functional cell types in the body. The main challenge in realizing hPSC potential is to guide their differentiation in a well-controlled manner. One way to control the cell differentiation process is to recapitulate during in vitro culture the key events in embryogenesis to obtain the three developmental germ layers from which all cell types arise. To achieve this goal, many techniques have been tested to obtain a cellular cluster, an embryoid body (EB), from both mouse and hPSCs. Generation of EBs that are homogeneous in size and shape would allow directed hPSC differentiation into desired cell types in a more synchronous manner and define the roles of cell-cell interaction and spatial organization in lineage specification in a setting similar to in vivo embryonic development. However, previous success in uniform EB formation from mouse PSCs cannot be extrapolated to hPSCs possibly due to the destabilization of adherens junctions on cell surfaces during the dissociation into single cells, making hPSCs extremely vulnerable to cell death. Recently, new advances have emerged to form uniform human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from dissociated single cells of hPSCs. In this review, the existing methods for hEB production from hPSCs and the results on the downstream differentiation of the hEBs are described with emphases on the efficiency, homogeneity, scalability, and reproducibility of the hEB formation process and the yield in terminal differentiation. New trends in hEB production and directed differentiation are discussed. PMID:25900308

  12. Handling and storage of human body fluids for analysis of extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Yuana, Yuana; Böing, Anita N.; Grootemaat, Anita E.; van der Pol, Edwin; Hau, Chi M.; Cizmar, Petr; Buhr, Egbert; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2015-01-01

    Because procedures of handling and storage of body fluids affect numbers and composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs), standardization is important to ensure reliable and comparable measurements of EVs in a clinical environment. We aimed to develop standard protocols for handling and storage of human body fluids for EV analysis. Conditions such as centrifugation, single freeze–thaw cycle, effect of time delay between blood collection and plasma preparation and storage were investigated. Plasma is the most commonly studied body fluid in EV research. We mainly focused on EVs originating from platelets and erythrocytes and investigated the behaviour of these 2 types of EVs independently as well as in plasma samples of healthy subjects. EVs in urine and saliva were also studied for comparison. All samples were analysed simultaneously before and after freeze–thawing by resistive pulse sensing, nanoparticle tracking analysis, conventional flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission (scanning) electron microscopy. Our main finding is that the effect of centrifugation markedly depends on the cellular origin of EVs. Whereas erythrocyte EVs remain present as single EVs after centrifugation, platelet EVs form aggregates, which affect their measured concentration in plasma. Single erythrocyte and platelet EVs are present mainly in the range of 100–200 nm, far below the lower limit of what can be measured by conventional FCM. Furthermore, the effects of single freeze–thaw cycle, time delay between blood collection and plasma preparation up to 1 hour and storage up to 1 year are insignificant (p>0.05) on the measured concentration and diameter of EVs from erythrocyte and platelet concentrates and EVs in plasma, urine and saliva. In conclusion, in standard protocols for EV studies, centrifugation to isolate EVs from collected body fluids should be avoided. Freezing and storage of collected body fluids, albeit their insignificant effects, should be performed identically for

  13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and spectral imaging analysisof human oocytes and first polar bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Weier, Jingly F.; Oter Renom, Maria; Zheng,Xuezhong; Colls, Pere; Nureddin, Aida; Pham, Chau D.; Chu, Lisa W.; Racowsky, Catherine; Munne, Santiago

    2004-10-06

    We investigated the frequencies of abnormalities involving either chromosome 1, 16, 18 or 21 in failed-fertilized human oocytes.While abnormalities involving chromosome 16 showed an age-dependant increase, results for the other chromosomes did not show statistically significant differences between the three age groups <35 yrs, 35-39 yrs, and >39 yrs. The scoring of four chromosomes is likely to underestimate the true rate of aneuploid cells. Thus, for a pilot study investigating a more comprehensive analysis of oocytes and their corresponding first polar bodies (1PBs), we developed a novel 8-probe chromosome enumeration scheme using FISH and SIm.

  14. Present knowledge about specific absorption rates inside a human body exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Garn, J.; Gabriel, C.

    1995-02-01

    We have compiled results of scientific investigations about the relationship between external field-strengths and specific absorption rates inside the human body. The data were normalized to SAR-values that form the basis for current safety standards. Results were compared to exposure limits given in these standard. This comparison should serve as a reference for the selection of reliable reference levels for personal protection against thermal effects in radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The need to measure and monitor ankle/wrist currents to protect some exposed workers is explained. The study has also highlighted a scarcity of dosimetric data at frequencies below 3 MHz. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  15. [ROLE OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AND DIFFERENCES IN THE DETOXIFICATION OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN THE HUMAN BODY].

    PubMed

    Mogilenkova, L A; Rembovskiy V R

    2016-01-01

    There are given modern views on the role of genetic polymorphism on the detoxification of chemical substances and individual sensitivity in workers to the development of diseases associated with xenobiotics metabolism disorders. In the search for genetic markers of occupationally caused diseases it is promising to study allelomorphs of genes responsible for the polyfunctional response of the human body, including genes involved in xenobiotic biotransformation. There is substantiated the expediency of compilation and introduction of genetic passports for stuff occupied at hazardous chemical enterprises. PMID:27266025

  16. Characterizing the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human and surrogate targets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weixin; Niu, Yuqing; Bykanova, Lucy; Laurence, Peter; Link, Norman

    2010-12-01

    This study used a combined experimental and modeling approach to characterize and quantify the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human surrogate targets during the 10-1000 μs range that is crucial to evaluating the protective effectiveness of body armor against blunt injuries. Ballistic tests incorporating high-speed flash X-ray measurements were performed to acquire the deformations of bullets and body armor samples placed against ballistic clay and gelatin targets with images taken between 10 μs and 1 ms of the initial impact. Finite element models (FEMs) of bullet, armor, and gelatin and clay targets were developed with material parameters selected to best fit model calculations to the test measurements. FEMs of bullet and armor interactions were then assembled with a FEM of a human torso and FEMs of clay and gelatin blocks in the shape of a human torso to examine the effects of target material and geometry on the interaction. Test and simulation results revealed three distinct loading phases during the interaction. In the first phase, the bullet was significantly slowed in about 60 μs as it transferred a major portion of its energy into the body armor. In the second phase, fibers inside the armor were pulled toward the point of impact and kept on absorbing energy until about 100 μs after the initial impact when energy absorption reached its peak. In the third phase, the deformation on the armor's back face continued to grow and energies inside both armor and targets redistributed through wave propagation. The results indicated that armor deformation and energy absorption in the second and third phases were significantly affected by the material properties (density and stiffness) and geometrical characteristics (curvature and gap at the armor-target interface) of the targets. Valid surrogate targets for testing the ballistic resistance of the armor need to account for these factors and produce the same armor deformation and energy absorption as on a

  17. Photonic sensors: On land, under the seas and in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton, Barry E.

    1995-08-01

    The unique features of fibre optic sensors have sparked wide spread interest in applications that provide new sensor capabilities or offer cost or performance benefits over existing sensors. Photonic sensors are small, lightweight, electrically passive, and immune to electromagnetic interference, making them attractive for industrial, ocean, military, and medical applications. Many of the attributes of optical sensing can be and are being applied today in a wide spectrum of applications areas. However, the oceans and the human body present many challenges in bringing optical sensing to these unique environments.

  18. Teacher-to-Teacher: A Unit Plan for Teaching Human Body Systems to Gifted and Talented Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Rebecca

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a unit plan designed to allow students to thoroughly investigate a human body system through a series of learning activities, and to teach the body system to other students using the products of their research. Methods, objectives, and an evaluation of the unit are discussed. (CW)

  19. Cross-sectional study of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in human fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge on the normative spinal growth is relevant in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. The present study determines the height, transverse and sagittal diameters, cross sectional area, and volume of individual C1–S5 vertebral bodies. Material and methods Using the methods of computed tomography (CT), digital image analysis, and statistics, the size of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17–30 weeks was examined. Results All the 5 examined parameters changed significantly with gestational age (p < 0.01). The mean height of vertebral bodies revealed an increase from the atlas (2.39 ±0.54 mm) to L2 (4.62 ±0.97 mm), stabilized through L3–L4 (4.58 ±0.92 mm, 4.61 ±0.84 mm), and then was decreasing to S5 (0.43 ±1.06 mm). The mean transverse diameter of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (1.20 ±1.96 mm) to L1 (6.24 ±1.46 mm), so as to stabilize through L2–L3 (6.12 ±1.65, 6.12 ±1.61 mm), and finally was decreasing to S5 (0.26 ±0.96 mm). There was an increase in sagittal diameter of vertebral bodies from the atlas (0.82 ±1.34 mm) to T7 (4.76 ±0.85 mm), its stabilization for T8–L4 (4.73 ±0.86 mm, 4.71 ±1.02 mm), and then a decrease in values to S5 (0.21 ±0.75 mm) was observed. The values for cross-sectional area of vertebral bodies were increasing from the atlas (2.95 ±5.25 mm2) to L3 (24.92 ±11.07 mm2), and then started decreasing to S5 (0.48 ±2.09 mm2). The volumetric growth of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (8.60 ±16.40 mm3) to L3 (122.16 ±74.73 mm3), and then was decreasing to S5 (1.60 ±7.00 mm3). Conclusions There is a sharp increase in size of fetal vertebral bodies between the atlas and the axis, and a sharp decrease in size within the sacral spine. In human fetuses the vertebral body growth is characterized by maximum values in sagittal diameter for T7, in transverse diameter for L1, in height for L2, and in both cross-sectional area and volume for

  20. Nonlinearity in the vertical transmissibility of seating: the role of the human body apparent mass and seat dynamic stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufano, Saverio; Griffin, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of a seat in reducing vibration depends on the characteristics of the vibration, the dynamic characteristics of the seat, and the dynamic characteristics of the person sitting on the seat. However, it is not known whether seat cushions influence the dynamic response of the human body, whether the human body influences the dynamic response of seat cushions, or the relative importance of human body nonlinearity and seat nonlinearity in causing nonlinearity in measures of seat transmissibility. This study was designed to investigate the nonlinearity of the coupled seat and human body systems and to compare the apparent mass of the human body supported on rigid and foam seats. A frequency domain model was used to identify the dynamic parameters of seat foams and investigate their dependence on the subject-sitting weight and hip breadth. With 15 subjects, the force and acceleration at the seat base and acceleration at the subject interface were measured during random vertical vibration excitation (0.25-25 Hz) at each of five vibration magnitudes, (0.25-1.6 ms-2 r.m.s.) with four seating conditions (rigid flat seat and three foam cushions). The measurements are presented in terms of the subject's apparent mass on the rigid and foam seat surfaces, and the transmissibility and dynamic stiffness of each of the foam cushions. Both the human body and the foams showed nonlinear softening behaviour, which resulted in nonlinear cushion transmissibility. The apparent masses of subjects sitting on the rigid seat and on foam cushions were similar, but with an apparent increase in damping when sitting on the foams. The foam dynamic stiffness showed complex correlations with characteristics of the human body, which differed between foams. The nonlinearities in cushion transmissibilities, expressed in terms of changes in resonance frequencies and moduli, were more dependent on human body nonlinearity than on cushion nonlinearity.

  1. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yuhwai; Su, Chauchin; Ho, Yingchieh

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest. Materials and Methods The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal. Results A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k−50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz−2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB. Conclusion The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the

  2. Recombinant human thrombopoietin promotes hematopoietic reconstruction after severe whole body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Bowen; Wang, Sihan; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Jingxue; Fan, Zeng; Lv, Yang; Zhang, Xiuyuan; He, Lijuan; Chen, Lin; Xia, Huanzhang; Li, Yanhua; Pei, Xuetao

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human thrombopoietin (rHuTPO) is a drug that is used clinically to promote megakaryocyte and platelet generation. Here, we report the mitigative effect of rHuTPO (administered after exposure) against severe whole body irradiation in mice. Injection of rHuTPO for 14 consecutive days following exposure significantly improved the survival rate of lethally irradiated mice. RHuTPO treatment notably increased bone marrow cell density and LSK cell numbers in the mice after sub-lethal irradiation primarily by promoting residual HSC proliferation. In lethally irradiated mice with hematopoietic cell transplantation, rHuTPO treatment increased the survival rate and enhanced hematopoietic cell engraftment compared with the placebo treatment. Our observations indicate that recombinant human TPO might have a therapeutic role in promoting hematopoietic reconstitution and HSC engraftment. PMID:26403418

  3. WearDY: Wearable dynamics. A prototype for human whole-body force and motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latella, Claudia; Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Nori, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Motion capture is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications towards human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of dynamic information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for human wearable dynamic (WearDY) motion capture for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. Our conceptual framework encompasses traditional passive markers based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational framework for estimating dynamic quantities originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present preliminary experimental analysis of our framework on subjects performing a two Degrees-of-Freedom bowing task and we estimate the motion and dynamic quantities. We discuss the implication of our proposal towards the design of a novel wearable force and motion capture suit and its applications.

  4. Power generation from human body motion through magnet and coil arrays with magnetic spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Yufeng; Kim, Eun Sok

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a hand-held electromagnetic energy harvester which can be used to harvest tens of mW power level from human body motion. A magnet array, aligned to a coil array for maximum magnetic flux change, is suspended by a magnetic spring for a resonant frequency of several Hz and is stabilized horizontally by graphite sheets for reducing the friction. An analytical model of vibration-driven energy harvester with magnetic spring through magnet and coil arrays is developed to explore the power generation from vibrations at low frequency and large amplitude. When the energy harvester (occupying 120 cc and weighing 180 g) is placed in a backpack of a human walking at various speeds, the power output increases as the walking speed increases from 0.45 m/s (slow walking) to 3.58 m/s (slow running), and reaches 32 mW at 3.58 m/s.

  5. Earthing: health implications of reconnecting the human body to the Earth's surface electrons.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T; Oschman, James L; Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits-including better sleep and reduced pain-from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance. PMID:22291721

  6. Distribution of trace elements in the human body determined by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, M.; Suzuki-Yasumoto, M.; Amano, K.; Terai, M.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and instrumental semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometry were used for analysis of 20 trace elements in 10 autopsied human organs and tissues (liver, kidney, cerebrum, cerebellum, heart, muscle, pancreas, spleen, lung, and aorta) from 63 Japanese persons, whose ages ranged from 15 days to 85 yr. Distributions of aluminum, bromine, magnesium, manganese, rubidium, selenium, and vanadium in human body were almost uniform. High concentrations of cadmium were found in kidney and liver samples. There was a high mercury concentration in the liver, kidney, and brain samples. Concentrations of other elements (arsenic, gold, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, indium, antimony, selenium, titanium, and zinc) in each organ or tissue are also presented in this paper.

  7. Three-dimensional display of inside of human body by holographic stereogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Koki; Akiyama, Iwaki; Shoji, Hideo; Sumiya, Daigaku; Wada, Tuneyo; Katsuma, Hidetoshi; Itoh, Koichi

    1991-07-01

    The plain white light reconstructed holographic stereogram (PW-HS) is made from the element holograms using photographs of many different viewpoints. It is useful when making a hologram of an object of which a hologram can not be made directly. To see the inside of the human body visually in the 3-D image, the authors apply the technique of holographic stereogram (HS) to the ultrasound B-mode images of the human fetus and display the 3-D image directly. The authors clarify the condition of making HS, then consider the quality of the reconstructed image. This system is applied to medical diagnosis and the effectiveness of this method is made clear.

  8. A brief history of the discovery of the circulation of blood in the human body.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mohammad-Hossein; Nayernouri, Touraj; Azizi, Farzaneh

    2008-05-01

    The present article describes briefly the development of the theories regarding the circulation of blood in humans, from the time of Galen (second century C.E.) to the work of William Harvey (17th century C.E.).We shall summarize the views of Galen together with those of two prominent Iranian physicians of the Middle Ages (Razi and Ahwazi known in the West as Rhazes and Haly Abbas respectively) as well as that of Ibn-Nafis from Damascus (the discoverer of the pulmonary circulation) and the Spanish physician and cleric Michael Servetus and finally the definitive work of William Harvey, the English physician who described the mechanism of both the systemic and pulmonary circulation of blood in the human body. PMID:18426332

  9. Multicamera 3D modeling system to digitize human head and body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Kouta; Matsumoto, Yukinori; Emi, Tetsuichi

    2001-04-01

    A multi-camera 3D modeling system to digitize a human head and body is presented in this paper. The main features of this system are as follows: 1) Fast capturing: Both of texture images and pattern images can be taken within a few seconds using multiple digital still cameras which are set around the target human. Slide projectors are also set to provide a color line patterned light on the target for pattern image capturing, 2) Realistic Shape and Texture: The whole shape and photo-realistic textures of the human head including hair can be digitized at a time on a personal computer, and 3) Hybrid Algorithm: Our modeling algorithm is based on a hybrid method where the Shape-from-Silhouette technique and the Active-Stereo technique are combined. In the first step, the rough shape of the target is estimated in a voxel space using our Extended Shape-from-Silhouette method. In the next step, the shape is refined based on the depth-map data that is calculated using a multi-camera active stereo method. This combination makes up for the shortcomings of each method. Our system has been applied to the digitizing several Japanese people using sixteen cameras for texture image capturing and twelve cameras and two projectors for pattern image capturing. Its capturing time is approximately three seconds and calculation time is about 15-20 minutes on a personal computer with the Pentium-III processor (600MHz) and 512MB memory to digitize the whole shape as well as the texture of the human head and body.

  10. Calculation of the electric field resulting from human body rotation in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos Sánchez, Clemente; Glover, Paul; Power, Henry; Bowtell, Richard

    2012-08-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that the electric field and current density induced in the human body by movement in and around magnetic resonance imaging installations can exceed regulatory levels. Although it is possible to measure the induced electric fields at the surface of the body, it is usually more convenient to use numerical models to predict likely exposure under well-defined movement conditions. Whilst the accuracy of these models is not in doubt, this paper shows that modelling of particular rotational movements should be treated with care. In particular, we show that v  ×  B rather than -(v  ·  ∇)A should be used as the driving term in potential-based modelling of induced fields. Although for translational motion the two driving terms are equivalent, specific examples of rotational rigid-body motion are given where incorrect results are obtained when -(v  ·  ∇)A is employed. In addition, we show that it is important to take into account the space charge which can be generated by rotations and we also consider particular cases where neglecting the space charge generates erroneous results. Along with analytic calculations based on simple models, boundary-element-based numerical calculations are used to illustrate these findings.

  11. Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P < 0.01). Transfer function gain analysis showed that the heat stress reduced dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.001) without significantly affecting the gain in the low-frequency range (P = 0.63). These data suggest that whole body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

  12. Representational Momentum for the Human Body: Awkwardness Matters, Experience Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Margaret; Lancaster, Jessy; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of the human body appears to involve predictive simulations that project forward to track unfolding body-motion events. Here we use representational momentum (RM) to investigate whether implicit knowledge of a learned arbitrary system of body movement such as sign language influences this prediction process, and how this compares to implicit knowledge of biomechanics. Experiment 1 showed greater RM for sign language stimuli in the correct direction of the sign than in the reverse direction, but unexpectedly this held true for non-signers as well as signers. Experiment 2 supported two biomechanical explanations for this result (an effect of downward movement, and an effect of the direction that the movement had actually been performed by the model), and Experiments 3 and 4 found no residual enhancement of RM in signers when these factors were controlled. In fact, surprisingly, the opposite was found: signers showed reduced RM for signs. Experiment 5 verified the effect of biomechanical knowledge by testing arm movements that are easy to perform in one direction but awkward in the reverse direction, and found greater RM for the easy direction. We conclude that while perceptual prediction is shaped by implicit knowledge of biomechanics (the awkwardness effect), it is surprisingly insensitive to expectations derived from learned movement patterns. Results are discussed in terms of recent findings on the mirror system. PMID:20510405

  13. Human Body Parts Tracking and Kinematic Features Assessment Based on RSSI and Inertial Sensor Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Blumrosen, Gaddi; Luttwak, Ami

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN), capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts' displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs. PMID:23979481

  14. Human and Robotic Mission to Small Bodies: Mapping, Planning and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neffian, Ara V.; Bellerose, Julie; Beyer, Ross A.; Archinal, Brent; Edwards, Laurence; Lee, Pascal; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the requirements, performs a gap analysis and makes a set of recommendations for mapping products and exploration tools required to support operations and scientific discovery for near- term and future NASA missions to small bodies. The mapping products and their requirements are based on the analysis of current mission scenarios (rendezvous, docking, and sample return) and recommendations made by the NEA Users Team (NUT) in the framework of human exploration. The mapping products that sat- isfy operational, scienti c, and public outreach goals include topography, images, albedo, gravity, mass, density, subsurface radar, mineralogical and thermal maps. The gap analysis points to a need for incremental generation of mapping products from low (flyby) to high-resolution data needed for anchoring and docking, real-time spatial data processing for hazard avoidance and astronaut or robot localization in low gravity, high dynamic environments, and motivates a standard for coordinate reference systems capable of describing irregular body shapes. Another aspect investigated in this study is the set of requirements and the gap analysis for exploration tools that support visualization and simulation of operational conditions including soil interactions, environment dynamics, and communications coverage. Building robust, usable data sets and visualisation/simulation tools is the best way for mission designers and simulators to make correct decisions for future missions. In the near term, it is the most useful way to begin building capabilities for small body exploration without needing to commit to specific mission architectures.

  15. Tocopheryl acetate 20% spray for elimination of head louse infestation: a randomised controlled trial comparing with 1% permethrin creme rinse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tocopheryl acetate is viscous oily fluid used in a range of preparations for skin and scalp care in Italy. Observational and in vitro data have suggested a high level of efficacy against head louse infestation. The purpose of this investigation was to confirm the activity of tocopheryl acetate in a clinical setting in comparison with a standard widely used preparation. Methods A spray formulation containing tocopheryl acetate 20% in cyclomethicone was compared with permethrin 1% creme rinse for treatment of head louse infestation in a randomised, assessor blind, trial. Forty-five people were treated on two occasions 7 days apart. The spray was applied to dry hair for 20 minutes then washed. Participants treated with permethrin washed their hair and towel dried it before treatment for 10 minutes. Assessments were made by dry detection combing 1, 6, 9, and 14 days after first treatment. Results The tocopheryl acetate 20% spray was significantly (p = 0.033) more effective than permethrin 1%, using intention to treat worst case analysis, in which there were 13/23 (56.5%) successful treatments for tocopheryl acetate compared with 5/22 (22.7%) for permethrin. After unprecedented issues of re-infestation within households had been taken into account the underlying cure rate was 17/23 (73.9%) for tocopheryl acetate compared with 5/22 (22.7%), Odds Ratio 9.63 (95% CI, 2.46 to 37.68) (p < 0.001). Conclusions The tocopheryl acetate spray was significantly more effective than the permethrin product, was cosmetically acceptable, and not affected by current problems with resistance. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45553737. PMID:24004959

  16. Identification and characterization of an esterase involved in malathion resistance in the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Deok Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Ho; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2014-06-01

    Enhanced malathion carboxylesterase (MCE) activity was previously reported to be involved in malathion resistance in the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (Gao et al., 2006 [8]). To identify MCE, the transcriptional profiles of all five esterases that had been annotated to be catalytically active were determined and compared between the malathion-resistant (BR-HL) and malathion-susceptible (KR-HL) strains of head lice. An esterase gene, designated HLCbE3, exhibited approximately 5.4-fold higher transcription levels, whereas remaining four esterases did not exhibit a significant increase in their transcription in BR-HL, indicating that HLCbE3 may be the putative MCE. Comparison of the entire cDNA sequences of HLCbE3 revealed no sequence differences between the BR-HL and KR-HL strains and suggested that no single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with enhanced MCE activity. Two copies of the HLCbE3 gene were observed in BR-HL, implying that the over-transcription of HLCbE3 is due to the combination of a gene duplication and up-regulated transcription. Knockdown of HLCbE3 expression by RNA interference in the BR-HL strain led to increases in malathion susceptibility, confirming the identity of HLCbE3 as a MCE responsible for malathion resistance in the head louse. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that HLCbE3 is a typical dietary esterase and belongs to a clade containing various MCEs involved in malathion resistance. PMID:24974112

  17. RNA-Seq Analysis Using De Novo Transcriptome Assembly as a Reference for the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the economic and environmental impacts that sea lice infestations have on salmon farming worldwide, genomic data generated by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing for different developmental stages, sexes, and strains of sea lice is still limited or unknown. In this study, RNA-seq analysis was performed using de novo transcriptome assembly as a reference for evidenced transcriptional changes from six developmental stages of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. EST-datasets were generated from the nauplius I, nauplius II, copepodid and chalimus stages and from female and male adults using MiSeq Illumina sequencing. A total of 151,788,682 transcripts were yielded, which were assembled into 83,444 high quality contigs and subsequently annotated into roughly 24,000 genes based on known proteins. To identify differential transcription patterns among salmon louse stages, cluster analyses were performed using normalized gene expression values. Herein, four clusters were differentially expressed between nauplius I–II and copepodid stages (604 transcripts), five clusters between copepodid and chalimus stages (2,426 transcripts), and six clusters between female and male adults (2,478 transcripts). Gene ontology analysis revealed that the nauplius I–II, copepodid and chalimus stages are mainly annotated to aminoacid transfer/repair/breakdown, metabolism, molting cycle, and nervous system development. Additionally, genes showing differential transcription in female and male adults were highly related to cytoskeletal and contractile elements, reproduction, cell development, morphogenesis, and transcription-translation processes. The data presented in this study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource available for C. rogercresseyi, which should be used for future genomic studies linked to host-parasite interactions. PMID:24691066

  18. [Louse-borne-relapsing-fever in refugees from the Horn of Africa; a case series of 25 patients].

    PubMed

    Seilmaier, M; Guggemos, W; Wieser, A; Fingerle, V; Balzer, L; Fenzl, T; Hoch, M; von Both, U; Schmidt, H U; Wendtner, C M; Strobel, E

    2016-07-01

    Background | Relapsing fever is divided into tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) and louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF). This report describes 25 refugees from East Africa who were diagnosed to suffer from LBRF within a period of 6 month only at a single hospital in Munich / Germany. Material & Methods | The aim was to point out common clinical features as well as laboratory findings and clinical symptoms before and after initiation of treatment in 25 patients with louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF) who were diagnosed and treated at Klinikum München Schwabing from August 2015 to January 2016. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest case series of LBRF in the western world for decades. Main focus of the investigation was put on clinical aspects. Results | All 25 patients suffered from acute onset of high fever with chills, headache and severe prostration. Laboratory analysis showed high CRP and a marked thrombocytopenia. A Giemsa blood stain was procured immediately in order to look for malaria. In the blood smear spirochetes with typical shape and aspect of borrelia species could be detected.The further PCR analysis confirmed infection with Borrelia recurrentis. Treatment with Doxycycline was started forthwith. The condition improved already on the second day after treatment was started and all were restored to health in less than a week. Apart from a mild to moderate Jarisch-Herxheimer-reaction we didn`t see any side effects of the therapy. Conclusion | LBRF has to be taken into account in feverish patients who come as refugees from East-Africa. It seems that our patients belong to a cluster which probably has its origin in Libya and more patients are to be expected in the near future. As LBRF might cause outbreaks in refugee camps it is pivotal to be aware of this emerging infectious disease in refugees from East-Africa. PMID:27404939

  19. Identification of capacitive MEMS accelerometer structure parameters for human body dynamics measurements.

    PubMed

    Benevicius, Vincas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Gaidys, Rimvydas

    2013-01-01

    Due to their small size, low weight, low cost and low energy consumption, MEMS accelerometers have achieved great commercial success in recent decades. The aim of this research work is to identify a MEMS accelerometer structure for human body dynamics measurements. Photogrammetry was used in order to measure possible maximum accelerations of human body parts and the bandwidth of the digital acceleration signal. As the primary structure the capacitive accelerometer configuration is chosen in such a way that sensing part measures on all three axes as it is 3D accelerometer and sensitivity on each axis is equal. Hill climbing optimization was used to find the structure parameters. Proof-mass displacements were simulated for all the acceleration range that was given by the optimization problem constraints. The final model was constructed in Comsol Multiphysics. Eigenfrequencies were calculated and model's response was found, when vibration stand displacement data was fed into the model as the base excitation law. Model output comparison with experimental data was conducted for all excitation frequencies used during the experiments. PMID:23974151

  20. Investigation of in-body path loss in different human subjects for localization of capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Ara, Perzila; Cheng, Shaokoon; Heimlich, Michael; Dutkiewicz, Eryk

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in capsule endoscopy have highlighted the need for accurate techniques to estimate the location of a capsule endoscope. A highly accurate location estimation of a capsule endoscope in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in the range of several millimeters is a challenging task. This is mainly because the radio-frequency signals encounter high loss and a highly dynamic channel propagation environment. Therefore, an accurate path-loss model is required for the development of accurate localization algorithms. This paper presents an in-body path-loss model for the human abdomen region at 2.4 GHz frequency. To develop the path-loss model, electromagnetic simulations using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method were carried out on two different anatomical human models. A mathematical expression for the path-loss model was proposed based on analysis of the measured loss at different capsule locations inside the small intestine. The proposed path-loss model is a good approximation to model in-body RF propagation, since the real measurements are quite infeasible for the capsule endoscopy subject. PMID:26737527

  1. Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki

    The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.

  2. Thermoelectric generator placed on the human body: system modeling and energy conversion improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lossec, M.; Multon, B.; Ben Ahmed, H.; Goupil, C.

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on the production of electricity using a thermoelectric generator placed on the human body connected to a dc-dc converter. The small difference in temperature between the hot heat source (e.g. the human body, Tb = 37 °C) and the cold heat source (e.g. ambient air, Ta = 22 °C), associated with a poor quality thermal coupling (mainly with the cold source), leads to a very low temperature gradient at the thermoelectric generator terminals and hence low productivity. Under these use conditions, the present article proposes an analysis of various ways to improve productivity given a surface capture system. Furthermore, we demonstrated, in this particular context, that maximizing the recovered electric power proves to be a different problem from that of maximizing efficiency, e.g. the figure of merit Z. We therefore define a new factor ZE, depending on the physical characteristics of thermoelectric materials, that maximizes electric power in the particular case where the thermal coupling is poor. Finally, this study highlights the benefit of sub-optimization of the power extracted from the thermoelectric generator to further improve efficiency of the overall system. We show that, given the conversion efficiency of the dc-dc converter, the maximum power point of the overall system is no more reached when the output voltage of the thermoelectric generator is equal to half of its electromotive force.

  3. Identification of Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer Structure Parameters for Human Body Dynamics Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Benevicius, Vincas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Gaidys, Rimvydas

    2013-01-01

    Due to their small size, low weight, low cost and low energy consumption, MEMS accelerometers have achieved great commercial success in recent decades. The aim of this research work is to identify a MEMS accelerometer structure for human body dynamics measurements. Photogrammetry was used in order to measure possible maximum accelerations of human body parts and the bandwidth of the digital acceleration signal. As the primary structure the capacitive accelerometer configuration is chosen in such a way that sensing part measures on all three axes as it is 3D accelerometer and sensitivity on each axis is equal. Hill climbing optimization was used to find the structure parameters. Proof-mass displacements were simulated for all the acceleration range that was given by the optimization problem constraints. The final model was constructed in Comsol Multiphysics. Eigenfrequencies were calculated and model's response was found, when vibration stand displacement data was fed into the model as the base excitation law. Model output comparison with experimental data was conducted for all excitation frequencies used during the experiments. PMID:23974151

  4. Voltammetry of naltrexone in commercial formulation and human body fluids: Quantification and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Mohamed M; El-Desoky, Hanaa S; Abdel-Galeil, Mohamed M

    2011-06-01

    Naltrexone HCl (NAL.HCl) has been reduced at the mercury electrode in Britton-Robinson universal buffer of pH values 2-11 with a mechanism involving the quasi-reversible uptake of the first transferring electron followed by a rate-determining protonation step of its C=O double bond at position C-6. Simple, sensitive, selective and reliable linear-sweep and square-wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry methods have been described for trace quantitation of NAL.HCl in bulk form, commercial formulation and human body fluids without the necessity for sample pretreatment and/or time-consuming extraction steps prior to the analysis. Limits of quantitation of 6.0×10(-9)M and 8.0×10(-10)M NAL.HCl in bulk form or commercial formulation and of 9.0×10(-9) and 1.0×10(-9)M NAL.HCl in spiked human serum samples were achieved by the described linear and square-wave stripping voltammetry methods, respectively. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug in human plasma samples of healthy volunteers following the administration of an oral single dose of 50mg NAL.HCl (one Revia(®) tablet) were estimated by means of the described square-wave stripping voltammetry method without interferences from the drug's metabolites and/or endogenous human plasma constituents. The estimated pharmacokinetic parameters were favorably compared with those reported in literature. PMID:21371948

  5. Total body phylloquinone and its turnover in human subjects at two levels of vitamin K intake.

    PubMed

    Olson, Robert E; Chao, Jean; Graham, Donna; Bates, Margaret W; Lewis, Jessica H

    2002-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the total body phylloquinone and its metabolic turnover in human subjects using a tracer dose of [5-H3]phylloquinone containing 4 MBq/mmol. Seven subjects aged 22 to 49 years were given 0.3 microg isotopic phylloquinone intravenously on a control diet (75 microg phylloquinone/d) and blood, urine and faeces were sampled periodically for 6 d. Five of these subjects were studied a second time after 3-8 weeks on a low-vitamin K diet (8 microg/d). The changes in the radioactivity of plasma phylloquinone with time were analysed by the method of residuals and fitted to a curve composed of two exponential components. The size of the exchangeable body pool was calculated by isotope dilution. Plasma phylloquinone levels fell during vitamin K restriction but the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors did not change. After injection the first exponential decay curve t1/2 was 1.0 (sd 0.47) h in the subjects on the control diet and 0.49 (sd 0.27) h after vitamin K restriction. On the control diet, the second exponential t1/2 was 27.6 (sd 124) h that did not change on the low-vitamin K diet ( (sd 13.5) h). These results indicate that the turnover time for phylloquinone in human subjects is about 1.5 d. Urinary excretion of 3H-metabolites ranged from 30 % of the administered dose on the control diet to 38 % on the restricted diet and had the same turnover rate as the second component of the plasma decay curves. The exchangeable body pool of phylloquinone declined from about 1.0 microg/kg before restriction to lower values after vitamin K restriction. The faecal excretion of phylloquinone and its metabolites fell from 32 % of the administered dose on the control diet to 13 % on the restricted diet. PMID:12067424

  6. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the human body: clinical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wang, G.-J.; Shumay, E.; Telang, F.; Thanos, P.; Alexoff, D.

    2010-12-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most toxic of the drugs of abuse, which may reflect its distribution and accumulation in the body. However no studies have measured methamphetamine's organ distribution in the human body. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used in conjunction with [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine to measure its whole-body distribution and bioavailability as assessed by peak uptake (% Dose/cc), rate of clearance (time to reach 50% peak-clearance) and accumulation (area under the curve) in healthy participants (9 Caucasians and 10 African Americans). Methamphetamine distributed through most organs. Highest uptake (whole organ) occurred in lungs (22% Dose; weight {approx}1246 g), liver (23%; weight {approx}1677 g) and intermediate in brain (10%; weight {approx}1600 g). Kidneys also showed high uptake (per/cc basis) (7%; weight 305 g). Methamphetamine's clearance was fastest in heart and lungs (7-16 minutes), slowest in brain, liver and stomach (>75 minutes), and intermediate in kidneys, spleen and pancreas (22-50 minutes). Lung accumulation of [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine was 30% higher for African Americans than Caucasians (p < 0.05) but did not differ in other organs. The high accumulation of methamphetamine, a potent stimulant drug, in most body organs is likely to contribute to the medical complications associated with methamphetamine abuse. In particular, we speculate that methamphetamine's high pulmonary uptake could render this organ vulnerable to infections (tuberculosis) and pathology (pulmonary hypertension). Our preliminary findings of a higher lung accumulation of methamphetamine in African Americans than Caucasians merits further investigation and questions whether it could contribute to the infrequent use of methamphetamine among African Americans.

  7. Wild salmonids and sea louse infestations on the west coast of Scotland: sources of infection and implications for the management of marine salmon farms.

    PubMed

    Butler, James R A

    2002-06-01

    The sea louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer) is a major health problem for both farmed and wild salmonids. This paper investigates louse epidemiology and management in the salmon-farming zone of western Scotland. Based on a review of the marine ecology of wild salmon (Salmo salar L) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L), and catch and farm production statistics, best estimates were made for numbers of wild and farm hosts present in coastal waters in March-June 2000. Applying data for ovigerous female louse infections and fecundity, the sources and risks of larval transmission to wild salmon and sea trout were modelled. Farm salmon in the second spring of production were the primary host group (98% of fish), while numbers of wild salmonids (< 1%) and escaped farm salmon (2%) were relatively insignificant. Farm salmon produced 97% of louse eggs at high levels (eight ovigerous lice per fish), and 78% at low levels (one per fish). Wild salmonids produced < 1% of eggs under both scenarios, but escaped farm salmon produced 3% and 21%, respectively. All hosts potentially cross-infect one another, but farm salmon are more likely to infect wild and farm smolts, and also other farm salmon. Monitoring of lice on sea trout in June 1998-2000 by the Association of West Coast Fisheries Trusts corroborated the model's conclusions. Localised epizootics occurred every year and coincided with the presence of ovigerous lice on local farms. In areas of mixed-year class production on farms, epizootics were evident every spring, but occurred every second spring in areas of single-year class production. In 1998-2000 at least 14-40% of sea trout were infected with potentially lethal infestations of lice. Ovigerous louse levels of < 0.005 per fish were required on farm salmon in the spring of 2000 to produce less eggs than those emitted by wild salmonids. With the industry's continued expansion, and thus increased numbers of farm salmon, a target of zero ovigerous lice will be required on farms

  8. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Murbach, Manuel; Christ, Andreas; Cabot, Eugenia; Kuster, Niels

    2011-08-01

    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm3 of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  9. Characterizing the importance of free space in the numerical human body models.

    PubMed

    Chebil, Omar; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Behr, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The geometric fidelity of the inner organs on finite-element model (FEM) of the human body and the choice to use discontinuous mesh engender the appearance of empty spaces that do not reflect the real-life situation of human body cavities. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of these empty spaces on the behavior of a simplified FEM built with three different structures in interaction which properties are relevant with the abdominal cavity. This FEM is made up of a large sphere (peritoneum) containing two hemispheres (liver and spleen). The space between peritoneum and inner organs was defined with two different approaches and assessed under impact conditions. The first is a meshfree space (Mfs) approach, e.g., consider the space as a perfect gas. The second approach, meshed space (MS), entailed adding volumetric elements in the empty space. From each approach, one optimal configuration was identified regarding the recorded force versus compression, the mobility of inner organs, and the space incompressibility. This space has a considerable influence on the behavior of the FEM and mainly on the applied loadings of inner organs (difference reaching 70% according to the configuration). For the first approach, the incompressible gas is designated because it guarantees space incompressibility (vf/vi = 1) and inner organs loading with the lowest delay (for high impact velocity: Peak force = 89 N, compression 47%). For the second approach, the discontinuous volumetric mesh is preferred because it promotes space incompressibility (vf/vi = 0.94) and acceptable force reaction (for high impact velocity: Peak force = 97 N, compression 49%). The current study shows the importance of this space on the human FEMs cavities behavior and proposes two configurations able to be used in a future study including detailed FEM. PMID:25565256

  10. Learning about the Human Body. Superific Science Book IV. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Designed to supplement a basic life science or biology program, this document provides teachers with experiential learning activities dealing with the human body. The learning activities vary in the length of time needed for their completion, and require a minimum of equipment and materials. The activities focus on: (1) the human skeleton; (2)…

  11. Peripheral Microvascular Responses to Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure Stresses in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckley, T. M.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The response of the cutaneous microcirculation to orthostatic stress varies along the length of the body due to the interaction of central controls with regional responses to local blood pressure. We hypothesize that artificial orthostatic stresses such as Gz centrifugation and LBNP differ from whole-body tilting in terms of the distribution of microvascular blood flow. Cutaneous microvascular flows were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry at the neck, thigh, and leg of 15 normal subjects. Volunteers underwent stepwise head-up tilt (HUT) and short- and long-arm centrifugation protocols from supine control (0 Gz) to 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, and 0 Gz at the feet, for 30-s periods with 10-s transitions between levels. The same subjects underwent a corresponding supine LBNP protocol, up to 100 mmHg (in 20 mmHg increments) and back to zero pressure, which produced transmural pressure across blood vessels in the foot approximately equal to the HUT protocol. In general, application of all orthostatic stresses produced significant flow reductions in the lower body (p less than 0.05) and inconsistent changes in the neck. At low levels of each stress (0.4 Gz, 40 mmHg), LBNP generated the greatest relative reduction in flow in the lower body (-66.9+/-5.7%, thigh; -60.6 +/-5.7%, leg, mean +/- SE). HUT caused a less severe flow reduction than LBNP at the thigh and leg (-39.9 +/- 8.1% and -55.9+/-4.8%), while the effects induced by both forms of centrifugation were the least profound. Higher levels of each stress generally resulted in similar responses. These responses exhibit a consistent relationship to hypothesized changes in local microvascular transmural pressure, suggesting that myogenic and veno-arteriolar reflexes play a significant role in determining microvascular perfusion during orthostatic stress.

  12. Human body tracking using LMS-VSMM from monocular video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hong; Chen, Zhichao; Jiao, LC; Fan, Youjian

    2011-06-01

    A new model-based human body tracking framework with learned-based theory is proposed in this paper. This framework introduces a likely model set-variable structure multiple models (LMS-VSMM) to track articulated human motion in monocular images sequences. The key joint points are selected as image feature, which are detected automatically and the undetected points are estimated with Particle filters, multiple motion models are learned from CMU motion capture database with ridge regression method to direct tracking. In tracking, motion models currently in effect switches from one to another in order to match the present human motion mode. The motion model is activated according to the change in projection angle of kinematic chain, and topological and compatibility relationship among them. It is terminated according to their model probabilities. And likely model set schemes of VSMM is used to estimate the quaternion vectors of joints rotation. Experiments using two videos demonstrate this tracking framework is efficient with respect to 3D pose and 2D projection.

  13. Whole-Body Human Inverse Dynamics with Distributed Micro-Accelerometers, Gyros and Force Sensing †

    PubMed Central

    Latella, Claudia; Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Romano, Francesco; Traversaro, Silvio; Nori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Human motion tracking is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications that require human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of estimation of real-time kinetics information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for a human soft wearable force tracking for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. The early stage of our framework encompasses traditional passive marker based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational technique for estimating dynamic quantities, originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present experimental analysis on subjects performing a two degrees-of-freedom bowing task, and we estimate the motion and kinetics quantities. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. We discuss the possible use of this technique in the design of a novel soft wearable force tracking device and its potential applications. PMID:27213394

  14. Whole-Body Human Inverse Dynamics with Distributed Micro-Accelerometers, Gyros and Force Sensing.

    PubMed

    Latella, Claudia; Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Romano, Francesco; Traversaro, Silvio; Nori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Human motion tracking is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications that require human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of estimation of real-time kinetics information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for a human soft wearable force tracking for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. The early stage of our framework encompasses traditional passive marker based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational technique for estimating dynamic quantities, originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present experimental analysis on subjects performing a two degrees-of-freedom bowing task, and we estimate the motion and kinetics quantities. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. We discuss the possible use of this technique in the design of a novel soft wearable force tracking device and its potential applications. PMID:27213394

  15. Assessment of physical activity of the human body considering the thermodynamic system.

    PubMed

    Hochstein, Stefan; Rauschenberger, Philipp; Weigand, Bernhard; Siebert, Tobias; Schmitt, Syn; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2016-01-01

    Correctly dosed physical activity is the basis of a vital and healthy life, but the measurement of physical activity is certainly rather empirical resulting in limited individual and custom activity recommendations. Certainly, very accurate three-dimensional models of the cardiovascular system exist, however, requiring the numeric solution of the Navier-Stokes equations of the flow in blood vessels. These models are suitable for the research of cardiac diseases, but computationally very expensive. Direct measurements are expensive and often not applicable outside laboratories. This paper offers a new approach to assess physical activity using thermodynamical systems and its leading quantity of entropy production which is a compromise between computation time and precise prediction of pressure, volume, and flow variables in blood vessels. Based on a simplified (one-dimensional) model of the cardiovascular system of the human body, we develop and evaluate a setup calculating entropy production of the heart to determine the intensity of human physical activity in a more precise way than previous parameters, e.g. frequently used energy considerations. The knowledge resulting from the precise real-time physical activity provides the basis for an intelligent human-technology interaction allowing to steadily adjust the degree of physical activity according to the actual individual performance level and thus to improve training and activity recommendations. PMID:26296149

  16. Human Airway Epithelial Cell Responses to Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Exposure: Nanorope-Residual Body Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Panessa-Warren, Barbara J.; Warren, John B.; Kisslinger, Kim; Crosson, Kenya; Maye, Mathew M.

    2012-11-01

    This investigation examines the 'first contact responses' of in vitro human epithelial airway cells exposed to unrefined single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) [containing metal catalyst, carbon black, amorphous carbon, graphitic shells, and SWCNTs], and refined acid/peroxide cleaned and cut SWCNTs at low and high dose exposures (0.16 ug/L and 1.60 ug/L) for 2, 3 and 3.5 hours. FTIR, X-ray compositional analysis, morphological TEM analysis and UV-Vis were used to physicochemically characterize the SWCNTs in this study. Following SWCNT exposure to human lung NCI-H292 epithelial monolayers, the airway cells were prepared for light microscopy vital staining, or fixed in glutaraldehyde for SEM/TEM imaging to determine SWCNT binding, uptake, intracellular processing and organellar/SWCNT fate within the exposure period. At 2 hr exposures to both unrefined Carbolex, and refined SWCNTs (at both high and low doses), there were no increases in lung cell necrosis compared to controls. However high dose, 3 hr exposures to unrefined Carbolex material produced severe cell damage (apical and basal plasma membrane holes, decreased mitochondria, numerous intracellular vesicles containing nanomaterial and membrane fragments) and increased cell necrosis. The refined SWCNTs exposed for 3 hr at low dose produced no increase in cell death, although high dose exposure produced significant cell death. By TEM, Acid/peroxide cleaned SWCNT 3 hr exposures at high and low doses, revealed SWCNTs attachment to cell surface mucin, and SWCNT uptake into the cells during membrane recycling. Membranes and SWCNTs were seen within cytoplasmic lamellar body-type vesicles, where vesicular contents were bio-degraded, eventually forming long SWCNT-nanoropes, which were subsequently released into the cytoplasm as clusters of attached nanoropes, as the vesicle membranes fragmented. These Nanorope-Residual Bodies did not cause damage to the surrounding organelles or cytoplasm, and seemed very stabile in the

  17. Induction of micronuclei in cultured human lymphocytes with the mixture of highly toxic organochlorine compounds retained in human body.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, J; Nagayama, M; Iida, T; Hirakawa, H; Matsueda, T

    1997-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of mixture of the organochlorine compounds, which very resembled their contamination profile of healthy Japanese people in its composition, on the induction of micronuclei in human whole-blood cultures in order to clarify their genotoxicity as a whole. The following results were obtained. Regardless of the presence or absence of 7, 8-benzoflavone (ANF) in the blood culture system, we observed a fairly good dose-response relationship between the concentration of the mixture and the induction of micronuclei. In particular, we found that 50% effective concentration of the mixture of the organochlorine chemicals was considered only about 7 times greater level over the average concentration in the healthy people, namely 70ppt as 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD, in the absence of ANF and about 5 times more than that in the presence of ANF. Based on these results, the mixture was regarded as extremely genotoxic. Our human bodies, however, have already been contaminated with a variety of chemicals including PCDDs, PCDFs and Co-PCBs and accordingly one of the most important problems to be solved is a further comprehensive genotoxicity and health consequences due to these chemicals to the descendants. PMID:9194340

  18. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  19. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9–11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9–11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of −1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=−1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  20. Estimation of the whole-body averaged SAR of grounded human models for plane wave exposure at respective resonance frequencies.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akimasa; Yanase, Kazuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Chan, Kwok Hung; Fujiwara, Osamu; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Conil, Emmanuelle; Wiart, Joe

    2012-12-21

    According to the international guidelines, the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) is used as a metric of basic restriction for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. It is well known that the WBA-SAR largely depends on the frequency of the incident wave for a given incident power density. The frequency at which the WBA-SAR becomes maximal is called the 'resonance frequency'. Our previous study proposed a scheme for estimating the WBA-SAR at this resonance frequency based on an analogy between the power absorption characteristic of human models in free space and that of a dipole antenna. However, a scheme for estimating the WBA-SAR in a grounded human has not been discussed sufficiently, even though the WBA-SAR in a grounded human is larger than that in an ungrounded human. In this study, with the use of the finite-difference time-domain method, the grounded condition is confirmed to be the worst-case exposure for human body models in a standing posture. Then, WBA-SARs in grounded human models are calculated at their respective resonant frequencies. A formula for estimating the WBA-SAR of a human standing on the ground is proposed based on an analogy with a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna. First, homogenized human body models are shown to provide the conservative WBA-SAR as compared with anatomically based models. Based on the formula proposed here, the WBA-SARs in grounded human models are approximately 10% larger than those in free space. The variability of the WBA-SAR was shown to be ±30% even for humans of the same age, which is caused by the body shape. PMID:23202273

  1. Is nitric oxide involved in cutaneous vasodilation during body heating in humans?

    PubMed

    Dietz, N M; Rivera, J M; Warner, D O; Joyner, M J

    1994-05-01

    The neurotransmitter responsible for neurogenic vasodilation in human skin during body heating is unknown. We sought to determine whether the vasodilating substance nitric oxide (NO) is involved in this phenomenon. Six subjects were heated for 50 min by use of a water-perfused suit while forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured with plethysmography and skin blood flow (SkBF) was measured by the laser-Doppler method in both arms. In one forearm, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an NO synthase blocker, was infused into the brachial artery. Bolus doses of L-NMMA (< or = 4 mg/min) for 5 min were given to blunt NO-mediated vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (ACh, 64 micrograms/min). A continuous infusion of L-NMMA (< or = 1.0 mg/min) was used during body heating to maintain NO synthase blockade. In the forearm receiving L-NMMA, FBF was 1.8 +/- 0.3 ml.100 ml-1.min-1 before drug infusion and rose to 9.5 +/- 1.3 ml.100 ml-1.min-1 with ACh. After L-NMMA infusion, FBF was 1.3 +/- 0.2 ml.100 ml-1.min-1 and rose to 2.6 +/- 0.4 ml.100 ml-1.min-1 with ACh (both P < 0.05 vs. pre-L-NMMA). Similar changes in SkBF were seen with ACh and L-NMMA, confirming that the drugs reached cutaneous vessels. With body heating, oral temperature increased by 1.2 degrees C, heart rate increased by 34 beats/min, and mean arterial pressure remained constant at approximately 75 mmHg. FBF in the treated forearm rose to 11.5 +/- 2.1 vs. 12.6 +/- 1.7 ml.100 ml-1.min-1 in the control forearm (P > 0.05, control vs. treated response).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7520431

  2. Whole body sweat collection in humans: an improved method with preliminary data on electrolyte content.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, S M; Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    Previous methods used to collect human sweat for electrolyte analysis have been criticized because they involve only regional sampling or because of methodological problems associated with whole body-washdown techniques. An improved method for collection of whole body sweat from exercising subjects is described. It involved construction of a plastic frame that supports a large plastic bag within which the subject exercises. The subject and the equipment are washed with distilled, deionized water before exercise begins. After exercise is completed, the subject and equipment are again washed with water containing a marker not present in sweat (ammonium sulfate). Total sweat loss is calculated from the change in body mass, and the volume of sweat not evaporated is calculated from dilution of the added marker. Recovery of added water was 102 +/- 2% (SD) of the added volume, and recovery of added electrolytes was 99 +/- 2% for sodium, 98 +/- 9% for potassium, and 101 +/- 4% for chloride. Repeated trials (n = 4) on five subjects to establish the reproducibility of the method gave a coefficient of variation of 17 +/- 5% for sodium, 23 +/- 6% for potassium, and 15 +/- 6% for chloride. These values include the biological variability between trials as well as the error within the method. The biological variability thus appears to be far greater than the methodological error. Normal values for the composition of sweat induced by exercise in a hot, humid environment in healthy young men and women were (in mM) 50.8 +/- 16.5 sodium, 4.8 +/- 1.6 potassium, 1.3 +/- 0.9 calcium, 0.5 +/- 0.5 magnesium, and 46.6 +/- 13.1 chloride. PMID:9029235

  3. Using frequency analysis to improve the precision of human body posture algorithms based on Kalman filters.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alberto; Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J; Olivares, G

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of miniaturized inertial sensors many systems have been developed within the last decade to study and analyze human motion and posture, specially in the medical field. Data measured by the sensors are usually processed by algorithms based on Kalman Filters in order to estimate the orientation of the body parts under study. These filters traditionally include fixed parameters, such as the process and observation noise variances, whose value has large influence in the overall performance. It has been demonstrated that the optimal value of these parameters differs considerably for different motion intensities. Therefore, in this work, we show that, by applying frequency analysis to determine motion intensity, and varying the formerly fixed parameters accordingly, the overall precision of orientation estimation algorithms can be improved, therefore providing physicians with reliable objective data they can use in their daily practice. PMID:26337122

  4. Analysis of dose-LET distribution in the human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Tsuda, S; Sakamoto, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Niita, K

    2003-01-01

    For the purposes of radiological protection, it is important to analyse profiles of the particle field inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons, since they can produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities. Therefore Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate dose distributions in terms of the linear energy transfer of ionising particles (dose-LET distribution) using a newly developed particle transport code (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS) for incidences of neutrons, protons and pions with energies from 100 MeV to 200 GeV. Based on these calculations, it was found that more than 80% and 90% of the total deposition energies are attributed to ionisation by particles with LET below 10 keV microm(-1) for the irradiations of neutrons and the charged particles, respectively. PMID:14653335

  5. Online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes of a human body

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M

    2013-07-31

    We have developed a method for online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes (MMs) of a human body (transport scattering coefficient, scattering anisotropy factor, haemoglobin concentration, degrees of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries with blood) from measurements of spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection. The method is based on regression relationships between linearly independent components of the measured light signals and the unknown parameters of MMs, obtained by simulation of the radiation transfer in the MM under conditions of its general variability. We have proposed and justified the calibration-free fibre-optic method for determining the concentration of haemoglobin in MMs by measuring the light signals diffusely reflected by the tissue in four spectral regions at two different distances from the illumination spot. We have selected the optimal wavelengths of optical probing for the implementation of the method. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  6. Ferromagnetic contamination in the lungs and other organs of the human body.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D

    1973-05-18

    Contaminating particles which are ferromagnetic have been found in the human body. Their distribution was measured by applying an external magnetic field to the torso for a short time, and then, in a shielded room, mapping the steady magnetic field around the torso due to the magnetized particles. Maps of subjects show various distributions, including particles in the stomach from food cans and in the lungs from are welding. The fields from these two sources are strong enough to be detected with a flux-gate magnetometer, without the need for a shielded room. This simplicity of detection of larger amounts of ferromagnetic contamination suggests that this method may be used in two applications: in detecting the presence of large amounts of asbestos (ferromagnetic and harmful) in the lungs of asbestos workers, and in tests of the condition of the lung where FE(3)O(4) dust (ferromagnetic and harmless) would be used as an inhaled tracer material. PMID:4702572

  7. Visual assessment of the radiation distribution in the ISS Lab module: visualization in the human body.

    PubMed

    Saganti, P B; Zapp, E N; Wilson, J W; Cucinotta, F A

    2001-01-01

    The US Lab module of the International Space Station (ISS) is a primary working area where the crewmembers are expected to spend majority of their time. Because of the directionality of radiation fields caused by the Earth shadow, trapped radiation pitch angle distribution, and inherent variations in the ISS shielding, a model is needed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. We present the calculated radiation dose (rem/yr) values for over 3,000 different points in the working area of the Lab module and estimated radiation dose values for over 25,000 different points in the human body for a given ambient radiation environment. These estimated radiation dose values are presented in a three dimensional animated interactive visualization format. Such interactive animated visualization of the radiation distribution can be generated in near real-time to track changes in the radiation environment during the orbit precession of the ISS. PMID:11770523

  8. Visual assessment of the radiation distribution in the ISS Lab module: visualization in the human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Zapp, E. N.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The US Lab module of the International Space Station (ISS) is a primary working area where the crewmembers are expected to spend majority of their time. Because of the directionality of radiation fields caused by the Earth shadow, trapped radiation pitch angle distribution, and inherent variations in the ISS shielding, a model is needed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. We present the calculated radiation dose (rem/yr) values for over 3,000 different points in the working area of the Lab module and estimated radiation dose values for over 25,000 different points in the human body for a given ambient radiation environment. These estimated radiation dose values are presented in a three dimensional animated interactive visualization format. Such interactive animated visualization of the radiation distribution can be generated in near real-time to track changes in the radiation environment during the orbit precession of the ISS.

  9. Optical system for monitoring the internal image of foods and the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisha, Nur; Fugang, Lee; Genta, Tsuneaki; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2011-10-01

    We present a technique for monitoring alien substances in foods and blood vessels in the human body. A prototype of the system using near-infrared rays is developed, and its applicability to food is analyzed in detail. The system developed is basically composed of an optical source and a CMOS sensor. Some optical components adjusted at 850-nm band are also set in the system. The system can monitor organic alien substances intentionally added to foods and blood vessels. The clarity of the image increased with decreasing water content and homogeneous material density. The resolving power of the images was confirmed to be about 100 μm. This technique will be useful for our safety and health in our daily lives.

  10. 3D measurement of the human body for apparel mass customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bugao; Lin, Sheng; Chen, Tong

    2000-12-01

    An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body-scanning system using the multi-line triangulation technique, and methods for body size extraction and body modeling. The scanning system can rapidly acquire the surface data of a body, provide accurate body dimensions, many of which are not measurable with conventional methods, and also construct a body form based on the scanned data as a digital model of the body for 3D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment.

  11. Body Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, K. Allen

    1989-01-01

    Described are activities for measuring the human body. The activities include measurements and calculations, calculating volume and density, problems related to body measurement, and using a nomogram. Several charts, illustrations, and a nomogram are provided. (YP)

  12. Enhancement of natural background gamma-radiation dose around uranium microparticles in the human body

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, John E.; Hugtenburg, Richard P.; Green, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing controversy surrounds the adverse health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions. The biological effects of gamma-radiation arise from the direct or indirect interaction between secondary electrons and the DNA of living cells. The probability of the absorption of X-rays and gamma-rays with energies below about 200 keV by particles of high atomic number is proportional to the third to fourth power of the atomic number. In such a case, the more heavily ionizing low-energy recoil electrons are preferentially produced; these cause dose enhancement in the immediate vicinity of the particles. It has been claimed that upon exposure to naturally occurring background gamma-radiation, particles of DU in the human body would produce dose enhancement by a factor of 500–1000, thereby contributing a significant radiation dose in addition to the dose received from the inherent radioactivity of the DU. In this study, we used the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc to accurately estimate the likely maximum dose enhancement arising from the presence of micrometre-sized uranium particles in the body. We found that although the dose enhancement is significant, of the order of 1–10, it is considerably smaller than that suggested previously. PMID:19776147

  13. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases whole-body energy expenditure in humans: roles of brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Mami; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Sugie, Hiroki; Saito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora extract (KP) has been reported to have a preventive effect on obesity in mice, probably by increasing energy expenditure (EE). The aims of the current study were to examine the acute effects of KP ingestion on whole-body EE in humans and to analyze its relation to the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a site of non-shivering thermogenesis. After an oral ingestion of an ethanol extract of KP, EE increased significantly, showing a maximal increase of 229±69 kJ/d at 60 min, while it did not change after placebo ingestion. To evaluate BAT activity, the subjects underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, and divided into two groups with high- and low-BAT activities. A similar and greater response of EE to KP ingestion was observed in the high-BAT group (351±50 kJ/d at 60 min), but not in the low activity group. Placebo ingestion did not cause any significant EE change in either group. These results indicate that a single oral ingestion of the KP extract can potentially increase whole-body EE probably through the activation of BAT in healthy men, and may be useful as an anti-obesity regimen. PMID:25994142

  14. Upper body contributions to power generation during rapid, overhand throwing in humans.

    PubMed

    Roach, Neil T; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2014-06-15

    High-speed and accurate throwing is a distinctive human behavior. Achieving fast projectile speeds during throwing requires a combination of elastic energy storage at the shoulder, as well as the transfer of kinetic energy from proximal body segments to distal segments. However, the biomechanical bases of these mechanisms are not completely understood. We used inverse dynamics analyses of kinematic data from 20 baseball players fitted with four different braces that inhibit specific motions to test a model of power generation at key joints during the throwing motion. We found that most of the work produced during throwing is generated at the hips, and much of this work (combined with smaller contributions from the pectoralis major) is used to load elastic elements in the shoulder and power the rapid acceleration of the projectile. Despite rapid angular velocities at the elbow and wrist, the restrictions confirm that much of the power generated to produce these distal movements comes from larger proximal segments, such as the shoulder and torso. Wrist hyperextension enhances performance only modestly. Together, our data also suggest that heavy reliance on elastic energy storage may help explain some common throwing injuries and can provide further insight into the evolution of the upper body and when our ancestors first developed the ability to produce high-speed throws. PMID:24675564

  15. The mitochondrial genome of the screamer louse Bothriometopus (phthiraptera: ischnocera): effects of extensive gene rearrangements on the evolution of the genome.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stephen L; Johnson, Kevin P; Whiting, Michael F

    2007-11-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome rearrangement has generally been studied with respect to the phenomenon itself, focusing on their phylogenetic distribution and causal mechanisms. Rearrangements have additional significance through effects on substitution, transcription, and mRNA processing. Lice are an ideal group in which to study the interactions between rearrangements and these factors due to the heightened rearrangement rate within this group. The entire mt genome of the screamer louse Bothriometopus was sequenced and compared to previously sequenced louse genomes. The mt genome is 15,564 bp, circular, and all genes are encoded on the same strand. The gene arrangement differs radically from both other louse species and the ancestral insect. Nucleotide composition is A+T biased, but there is no skew which may be due to reversal of replication direction or a transcriptional effect. Bothriometopus has both tRNA duplication and concerted evolution which has not been observed previously. Eleven of the 13 protein-coding genes have 3' end stem-loop structures which may allow mRNA processing without flanking tRNAs and so facilitate gene rearrangements. There are five candidate control regions capable of forming stem-loop structures. Two are structurally more similar to the control regions of other insect species than those of other lice. Analyses of Bothriometopus demonstrate that louse mt genomes, in addition to being extensively rearranged, differ significantly from most insect species in nucleotide composition biases, tRNA evolution, protein-coding gene structures and putative signaling sites such as the control region. These may be either a cause or a consequence of gene rearrangements. PMID:17925995

  16. First record of a louse fly, Stilbometopa impressa (Bigot), and new host for Microlynchia pusilla (Speiser) (Hippoboscidae) from the Cape Region, Baja California Sur, México.

    PubMed

    Llinas, J; Jiménez, M L

    1996-04-01

    Nine of thirty California quail (Callipepla californica achrustera) captured in autumn of 1992, 17 km west of La Paz, Baja California Sur, México, were parasitized by louse flies. We identified eight Microlynchia pusilla and three Stilbometopa impressa from 30 quails in the ratio of 2.75:1. These are the first records of S. impressa for Cape Region and the first time either fly has been reported from the California quail in Baja California Sur. PMID:8722274

  17. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) diagnosed in 15 refugees from northeast Africa: epidemiology and preventive control measures, Bavaria, Germany, July to October 2015.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Martin; Wieser, Andreas; Löscher, Thomas; Margos, Gabriele; Pürner, Friedrich; Zühl, Jürgen; Seilmaier, Michael; Balzer, Lukas; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Rack-Hoch, Anita; von Both, Ulrich; Hauptvogel, Katja; Schönberger, Katharina; Hautmann, Wolfgang; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We report 15 imported louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) cases in refugees in Bavaria, Germany. One patient died. Epidemiological findings confirmed that all were young males from the Horn of Africa (12 from Somalia), who had similar migration routes converging in Sudan continuing through Libya and Italy. The majority likely acquired their infection during migration. Healthcare workers should be aware of LBRF in refugees passing through north Africa to ensure correct treatment and preventive measures. PMID:26538532

  18. Comparison of Kriging and Moving Least Square Methods to Change the Geometry of Human Body Models.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Erwan; Lafon, Yoann; Petit, Philippe; Beillas, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Finite Element Human Body Models (HBM) have become powerful tools to study the response to impact. However, they are typically only developed for a limited number of sizes and ages. Various approaches driven by control points have been reported in the literature for the non-linear scaling of these HBM into models with different geometrical characteristics. The purpose of this study is to compare the performances of commonly used control points based interpolation methods in different usage scenarios. Performance metrics include the respect of target, the mesh quality and the runability. For this study, the Kriging and Moving Least square interpolation approaches were compared in three test cases. The first two cases correspond to changes of anthropometric dimensions of (1) a child model (from 6 to 1.5 years old) and (2) the GHBMC M50 model (Global Human Body Models Consortium, from 50th to 5th percentile female). For the third case, the GHBMC M50 ribcage was scaled to match the rib cage geometry derived from a CT-scan. In the first two test cases, all tested methods provided similar shapes with acceptable results in terms of time needed for the deformation (a few minutes at most), overall respect of the targets, element quality distribution and time step for explicit simulation. The personalization of rib cage proved to be much more challenging. None of the methods tested provided fully satisfactory results at the level of the rib trajectory and section. There were corrugated local deformations unless using a smooth regression through relaxation. Overall, the results highlight the importance of the target definition over the interpolation method. PMID:26660750

  19. Electric shock and the human body - or 'Is it amps or volts that kill you, sir?'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Colin

    1986-11-01

    One of the experiences that children seem to find most exciting in the school science laboratory is the hair raising one of being charged up using a van de Graaf generator and receiving small electric shocks. Children are quite rightly concerned about when electricity might hurt them and what its effects are. They are motivated by science directly concerned with the human body, with obvious impact on their lives. This is particularly important for girls, who often seem to find other aspects of electricity amongst the least interesting topics in science. Here is an opportunity for the teacher to build on immediate and genuine curiosity. Pupils are already well aware that mains electricity at 240 V can be lethal, yet the teacher seems strangely happy to expose them here to what he claims is tens of thousands of volts! They ask questions such as 'Is it amps of volts that kill you?' with a genuine desire to try and resolve the paradox. When young pupils see an oscilloscope for the first time, they often immediately associate it with the heart monitor seen on a TV hospital drama. ('He's dead sir!' they say, as you show them the timebase operating in the absence of an input signal). They use a microphone to try and detect an ECG signal without success. The real heart monitor works in a totally different way, and that it is in fact quite closely related to the action of electric shocks. The article is a summary of the reading the author undertook to try and cure his ignorance of the interaction between electricity and the human body, so that he could make something of this spontaneous interest on the part of the pupils. It also provides background material for A-level potential medical students, who often study physics without seeing its direct relevance to medicine.

  20. A kinematic model to estimate effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Yamada, T.

    2013-05-01

    The great earthquake occurred in the north-east area in Japan in March 11, 2011. Facility system to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was completely destroyed by the following giant tsunami. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive substances had leaked and diffused in the vicinity of this station. Radiological internal exposure became a serious social issue both in Japan and all over the world. The present study provides an easily understandable, kinematic-based model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body by simplifying the complicated mechanism of metabolism. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a sophisticated model, which is well-known as a standard method to calculate the effective dose for radiological protection. However, owing to that ICRP method is fine, it is rather difficult for non-professional people of radiology to gasp the whole images of the movement and the influences of radioactive substances in a human body. Therefore, in the present paper we propose a newly-derived and easily-understandable model to estimate the effective dose. The present method is very similar with the traditional and conventional tank model in hydrology. Ingestion flux of radioactive substances corresponds to rain intensity and the storage of radioactive substances to the water storage in a basin in runoff analysis. The key of the present method is to estimate the energy radiated in the radioactive nuclear disintegration of an atom by using classical theory of β decay and special relativity for various kinds of radioactive atoms. The parameters used in this model are only physical half-time and biological half-time, and there are no operational parameters or coefficients to adjust our theoretical runoff to ICRP. Figure shows the time-varying effective dose with ingestion duration, and we can confirm the validity of our model. The time-varying effective dose with

  1. Changes in body core temperatures and heat balance after an abrupt release of lower body negative pressure in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Minoru; Shido, Osamu

    1994-03-01

    Changes in body core temperature ( T cor) and heat balance after an abrupt release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were investigated in 5 volunteers under the following conditions: (1) an ambient temperature ( T a) of 20 °C or (2) 35 °C, and (3) T a of 25 °C with a leg skin temperature of 30°C or (4) 35°C. The leg skin temperature was controlled with water perfusion devices wound around the legs. Rectal ( T re), tympanic ( T ty) and esophageal ( T es) temperatures, skin temperatures (7 sites) and oxygen consumption were measured. The intensity of LBNP was adjusted so that the amount of blood pooled in the legs was the same under all conditions. When a thermal balance was attained during LBNP, application of LBNP was suddenly halted. The skin temperatures increased significantly after the release of LBNP under all conditions, while oxygen consumption hardly changed. The release of LBNP caused significant falls in T cor s under conditions (1) and (3), but lowered T cor s very slightly under conditions (2) and (4). The changes in T es were always more rapid and greater than those of T ty and T re. The falls in T ty and T re appeared to be explained by changes in heat balance, whereas the sharp drop of T es could not be explained especially during the first 8 min after the release of LBNP. The results suggest that a fall in T cor after a release of LBNP is attributed to an increase in heat loss due to reflexive skin vasodilation and is dependent on the temperature of venous blood returning from the lower body. It is presumed that T es may not be an appropriate indicator for T cor when venous return changes rapidly.

  2. Sex, Body Mass Index, and Dietary Fiber Intake Influence the Human Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dominianni, Christine; Sinha, Rashmi; Goedert, James J.; Pei, Zhiheng; Yang, Liying; Hayes, Richard B.; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the composition of the human gut microbiome is important in the etiology of human diseases; however, the personal factors that influence the gut microbiome composition are poorly characterized. Animal models point to sex hormone-related differentials in microbiome composition. In this study, we investigated the relationship of sex, body mass index (BMI) and dietary fiber intake with the gut microbiome in 82 humans. We sequenced fecal 16S rRNA genes by 454 FLX technology, then clustered and classified the reads to microbial genomes using the QIIME pipeline. Relationships of sex, BMI, and fiber intake with overall gut microbiome composition and specific taxon abundances were assessed by permutational MANOVA and multivariate logistic regression, respectively. We found that sex was associated with the gut microbiome composition overall (p=0.001). The gut microbiome in women was characterized by a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (p=0.03). BMI (>25 kg/m2 vs. <25 kg/m2) was associated with the gut microbiome composition overall (p=0.05), and this relationship was strong in women (p=0.03) but not in men (p=0.29). Fiber from beans and from fruits and vegetables were associated, respectively, with greater abundance of Actinobacteria (p=0.006 and false discovery rate adjusted q=0.05) and Clostridia (p=0.009 and false discovery rate adjusted q=0.09). Our findings suggest that sex, BMI, and dietary fiber contribute to shaping the gut microbiome in humans. Better understanding of these relationships may have significant implications for gastrointestinal health and disease prevention. PMID:25874569

  3. Effect of voluntary periodic muscular activity on nonlinearity in the apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical random whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2006-12-01

    The principal resonance frequency in the driving-point impedance of the human body decreases with increasing vibration magnitude—a nonlinear response. An understanding of the nonlinearities may advance understanding of the mechanisms controlling body movement and improve anthropodynamic modelling of responses to vibration at various magnitudes. This study investigated the effects of vibration magnitude and voluntary periodic muscle activity on the apparent mass resonance frequency using vertical random vibration in the frequency range 0.5-20 Hz. Each of 14 subjects was exposed to 14 combinations of two vibration magnitudes (0.25 and 2.0 m s -2 root-mean square (rms)) in seven sitting conditions: two without voluntary periodic movement (A: upright; B: upper-body tensed), and five with voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending; D: folding-stretching arms from back to front; E: stretching arms from rest to front; F: folding arms from elbow; G: deep breathing). Three conditions with voluntary periodic movement significantly reduced the difference in resonance frequency at the two vibration magnitudes compared with the difference in a static sitting condition. Without voluntary periodic movement (condition A: upright), the median apparent mass resonance frequency was 5.47 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.39 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. With voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending), the resonance frequency was 4.69 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.59 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. It is concluded that back muscles, or other muscles or tissues in the upper body, influence biodynamic responses of the human body to vibration and that voluntary muscular activity or involuntary movement of these parts can alter their equivalent stiffness.

  4. ROCK Inhibitor Is Not Required for Embryoid Body Formation from Singularized Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pettinato, Giuseppe; Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S.; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    We report a technology to form human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from singularized human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) without the use of the p160 rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor (ROCKi) or centrifugation (spin). hEB formation was tested under four conditions: +ROCKi/+spin, +ROCKi/-spin, -ROCKi/+spin, and -ROCKi/-spin. Cell suspensions of BG01V/hOG and H9 hESC lines were pipetted into non-adherent hydrogel substrates containing defined microwell arrays. hEBs of consistent size and spherical geometry can be formed in each of the four conditions, including the -ROCKi/-spin condition. The hEBs formed under the -ROCKi/-spin condition differentiated to develop the three embryonic germ layers and tissues derived from each of the germ layers. This simplified hEB production technique offers homogeneity in hEB size and shape to support synchronous differentiation, elimination of the ROCKi xeno-factor and rate-limiting centrifugation treatment, and low-cost scalability, which will directly support automated, large-scale production of hEBs and hESC-derived cells needed for clinical, research, or therapeutic applications. PMID:25365581

  5. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  6. Whole-body vibration training induces hypertrophy of the human patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R

    2016-08-01

    Animal studies suggest that regular exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) induces an anabolic response in bone and tendon. However, the effects of this type of intervention on human tendon properties and its influence on the muscle-tendon unit function have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV training on the patellar tendon mechanical, material and morphological properties, the quadriceps muscle architecture and the knee extension torque-angle relationship. Fifty-five subjects were randomized into either a vibration, an active control, or an inactive control group. The active control subjects performed isometric squats on a vibration platform without vibration. Muscle and tendon properties were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry. Vibration training induced an increase in proximal (6.3%) and mean (3.8%) tendon cross-sectional area, without any appreciable change in tendon stiffness and modulus or in muscle architectural parameters. Isometric torque at a knee angle of 90° increased in active controls (6.7%) only and the torque-angle relation remained globally unchanged in all groups. The present protocol did not appreciably alter knee extension torque production or the musculo-tendinous parameters underpinning this function. Nonetheless, this study shows for the first time that WBV elicits tendon hypertrophy in humans. PMID:26173589

  7. Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity—a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events. PMID:22757749

  8. ROCK inhibitor is not required for embryoid body formation from singularized human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pettinato, Giuseppe; Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    We report a technology to form human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from singularized human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) without the use of the p160 rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor (ROCKi) or centrifugation (spin). hEB formation was tested under four conditions: +ROCKi/+spin, +ROCKi/-spin, -ROCKi/+spin, and -ROCKi/-spin. Cell suspensions of BG01V/hOG and H9 hESC lines were pipetted into non-adherent hydrogel substrates containing defined microwell arrays. hEBs of consistent size and spherical geometry can be formed in each of the four conditions, including the -ROCKi/-spin condition. The hEBs formed under the -ROCKi/-spin condition differentiated to develop the three embryonic germ layers and tissues derived from each of the germ layers. This simplified hEB production technique offers homogeneity in hEB size and shape to support synchronous differentiation, elimination of the ROCKi xeno-factor and rate-limiting centrifugation treatment, and low-cost scalability, which will directly support automated, large-scale production of hEBs and hESC-derived cells needed for clinical, research, or therapeutic applications. PMID:25365581

  9. Polychromatic spectral pattern analysis of ultra-weak photon emissions from a human body.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Iwasa, Torai; Tada, Mika

    2016-06-01

    Ultra-weak photon emission (UPE), often designated as biophoton emission, is generally observed in a wide range of living organisms, including human beings. This phenomenon is closely associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during normal metabolic processes and pathological states induced by oxidative stress. Application of UPE extracting the pathophysiological information has long been anticipated because of its potential non-invasiveness, facilitating its diagnostic use. Nevertheless, its weak intensity and UPE mechanism complexity hinder its use for practical applications. Spectroscopy is crucially important for UPE analysis. However, filter-type spectroscopy technique, used as a conventional method for UPE analysis, intrinsically limits its performance because of its monochromatic scheme. To overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, the authors developed a polychromatic spectroscopy system for UPE spectral pattern analysis. It is based on a highly efficient lens systems and a transmission-type diffraction grating with a highly sensitive, cooled, charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. Spectral pattern analysis of the human body was done for a fingertip using the developed system. The UPE spectrum covers the spectral range of 450-750nm, with a dominant emission region of 570-670nm. The primary peak is located in the 600-650nm region. Furthermore, application of UPE source exploration was demonstrated with the chemiluminescence spectrum of melanin and coexistence with oxidized linoleic acid. PMID:27082276

  10. Erythropoietin enhances whole body lipid oxidation during prolonged exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Corinne; Connes, Philippe; Ben Saad, Helmi; Mercier, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Animal studies have suggested that erythropoietin, besides its well-known hematopoietic effects, can modulate metabolism and prevent fat accumulation. We investigated the effects of repeated injections of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) on the balance of substrate oxidation during aerobic exercise in humans. Twelve healthy aerobically trained males received subcutaneously either moderate dose of EPO (50 U/kg, EPO) or saline injections (NaCl 0.9 %, control) three times a week for 4 weeks. Body weight, % fat, maximal aerobic capacity, and substrate utilization during exercise were assessed before and after treatment, while hemoglobin and hematocrit were monitored regularly during the treatment. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation were evaluated via indirect calorimetry, during a submaximal exercise performed at 75 % of the participants' maximal aerobic capacity (V̇(O2max)) for 60 min. Results showed that 4 weeks of EPO treatment significantly enhanced fat oxidation (+56 % in EPO versus -9 % in control) during exercise, independent of its effects on hematological parameters or V̇(O2max). This study shows that EPO can modulate substrate utilization during exercise, leading to enhanced fat utilization and lower use of carbohydrates. This opens new research directions exploring whether systemic EPO levels, in physiological conditions, participate to the modulation of fat oxidation. PMID:25567744

  11. Human Ghrelin Mitigates Intestinal Injury and Mortality after Whole Body Irradiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Weng Lang; Jacob, Asha; Aziz, Monowar; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of ionizing radiation has led to the realization of the danger associated with radiation exposure. Although studies in radiation countermeasures were initiated a half century ago, an effective therapy for a radiomitigator has not been identified. Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone, and administration of ghrelin is protective in animal models of injuries including radiation combined injury. To test whether ghrelin can be protective in whole body irradiaton (WBI) alone, male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with human ghrelin (20 nmol/rat) daily for 6 days starting at either 24 h or 48 h after 10 Gray (Gy) WBI and survival outcome was examined. The 10 Gy WBI produced a LD70/30 model in SD rats (30% survival in 30 days). The survival rate in rats treated with ghrelin starting at 24 h was significantly improved to 63% and when treatment was initiated at 48 h, the survival remained at 61%. At 7 days post WBI, plasma ghrelin was significantly reduced from the control value. Ghrelin treatment starting at 24 h after WBI daily for 6 days improved histological appearance of the intestine, reduced gut permeability, serum endotoxin levels and bacterial translocation to the liver by 38%, 42% and 61%, respectively at day 7 post WBI. Serum glucose and albumin were restored to near control levels with treatment. Ghrelin treatment also attenuated WBI-induced intestinal apoptosis by 62% as evidenced by TUNEL staining. The expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-xl was decreased by 38% in the vehicle and restored to 75% of the control with ghrelin treatment. Increased expression of intestinal CD73 and pAkt were observed with ghrelin treatment, indicating protection of the intestinal epithelium after WBI. These results indicate that human ghrelin attenuates intestinal injury and mortality after WBI. Thus, human ghrelin can be developed as a novel mitigator for radiation injury. PMID:25671547

  12. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human Ciliary Body Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Sarah F.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; Bossers, Koen; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Nagtegaal, Martijn; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular signatures for the NPE and PE and studied possible new clues for glaucoma. Methods We isolated NPE and PE cells from seven healthy human donor eyes using laser dissection microscopy. Next, we performed RNA isolation, amplification, labeling and hybridization against 44×k Agilent microarrays. For microarray conformations, we used a literature study, RT-PCRs, and immunohistochemical stainings. We analyzed the gene expression data with R and with the knowledge database Ingenuity. Results The gene expression profiles and functional annotations of the NPE and PE were highly similar. We found that the most important functionalities of the NPE and PE were related to developmental processes, neural nature of the tissue, endocrine and metabolic signaling, and immunological functions. In total 1576 genes differed statistically significantly between NPE and PE. From these genes, at least 3 were cell-specific for the NPE and 143 for the PE. Finally, we observed high expression in the (N)PE of 35 genes previously implicated in molecular mechanisms related to glaucoma. Conclusion Our gene expression analysis suggested that the NPE and PE of the CB were quite similar. Nonetheless, cell-type specific differences were found. The molecular machineries of the human NPE and PE are involved in a range of neuro-endocrinological, developmental and immunological functions, and perhaps glaucoma. PMID:23028713

  13. [The model of geometrical human body phantom for calculating tissue doses in the service module of the International Space Station].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, V A; Mitrikas, V G

    2007-01-01

    The model of a geometrical human body phantom developed for calculating the shielding functions of representative points of the body organs and systems is similar to the anthropomorphic phantom. This form of phantom can be integrated with the shielding model of the ISS Russian orbital segment to make analysis of radiation loading of crewmembers in different compartments of the vehicle. Calculation of doses absorbed by the body systems in terms of the representative points makes it clear that doses essentially depend on the phantom spatial orientation (eye direction). It also enables the absorbed dose evaluation from the shielding functions as the mean of the representative points and phantom orientation. PMID:18672518

  14. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body. PMID:26712210

  15. Additive effects of affective arousal and top-down attention on the event-related brain responses to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Kirjavainen, Ilkka; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-12-01

    The early visual event-related 'N170 response' is sensitive to human body configuration and it is enhanced to nude versus clothed bodies. We tested whether the N170 response as well as later EPN and P3/LPP responses to nude bodies reflect the effect of increased arousal elicited by these stimuli, or top-down allocation of object-based attention to the nude bodies. Participants saw pictures of clothed and nude bodies and faces. In each block, participants were asked to direct their attention towards stimuli from a specified target category while ignoring others. Object-based attention did not modulate the N170 amplitudes towards attended stimuli; instead N170 response was larger to nude bodies compared to stimuli from other categories. Top-down attention and affective arousal had additive effects on the EPN and P3/LPP responses reflecting later processing stages. We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger. PMID:25224182

  16. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    PubMed

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, Tatiana; Leentjes, Sarah; Janaway, Rob C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2012-04-10

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6 months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6 months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams. PMID:22030481

  17. Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    Nonlinear biodynamic responses are evident in many studies of the apparent masses of sitting and standing subjects in static postures that require muscle activity for postural control. In the present study, 12 male subjects adopted a relaxed semi-supine posture assumed to involve less muscle activity than during static sitting and standing. The supine subjects were exposed to two types of vertical vibration (in the x-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 m s -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 10.35 to 7.32 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 m s -2 rms. This nonlinear response was apparent in both the vertical ( x-axis) apparent mass and in the horizontal ( z-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. As the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 m s -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass with intermittent random vibration decreased from 9.28 to 8.06 Hz whereas, over the same range of magnitudes with continuous random vibration, the resonance frequency decreased from 9.62 to 7.81 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms) was 1.37 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 1.71 with the continuous random vibration. With the intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration of the same magnitudes. The response was typical of thixotropy that may be a primary cause of the nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration.

  18. Novel joint TOA/RSSI-based WCE location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takahiro; Anzai, Daisuke; Jianqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel joint time of arrival (TOA)/received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human tissues. Generally, TOA-based localization can achieve much higher localization accuracy than other radio frequency-based localization techniques, whereas wireless signals transmitted from a WCE pass through various kinds of human body tissues, as a result, the propagation velocity inside a human body should be different from one in free space. Because the variation of propagation velocity is mainly affected by the relative permittivity of human body tissues, instead of pre-measurement for the relative permittivity in advance, we simultaneously estimate not only the WCE location but also the relative permittivity information. For this purpose, this paper first derives the relative permittivity estimation model with measured RSSI information. Then, we pay attention to a particle filter algorithm with the TOA-based localization and the RSSI-based relative permittivity estimation. Our computer simulation results demonstrates that the proposed tracking methods with the particle filter can accomplish an excellent localization accuracy of around 2 mm without prior information of the relative permittivity of the human body tissues. PMID:25571605

  19. Possibility of passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing of objects placed inside the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2014-06-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. We demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. We discuss some physical experiments, in which a person drinks hot, and warm, and cold water and he eats. After computer processing of images captured by passive THz camera TS4 we may see the pronounced temperature trace on skin of the human body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. Our investigation allows to increase field of the passive THz camera using for the detection of objects concealed in the human body because the difference in temperature between object and parts of human body will be reflected on the human skin. However, modern passive THz cameras have not enough resolution in a temperature to see this difference. That is why, we use computer processing to enhance the camera resolution for this application. We consider images produced by THz passive cameras manufactured by Microsemi Corp., and ThruVision Corp.

  20. Similarity of nannobacterial lifeforms in cultures, in the human body, in minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, R.

    Nearly a dozen labs world-wide have succeeded in culturing minute organisms in the 50-200 nm size range, so the characterization of nannobacteria as some form of "life" is no longer arguable. Within the human body, they are found in blood, kidney stones, dental plaque, arterial disease and cataracts as shown by the Kajander group in Finland, and by our work with Mayo Clinic (e.g. Folk et al., 2001 GSA abs.). Nannobacteria can be concentrated in waters from hot springs, lakes, rivers and the sea. Their charged cell walls attract ions thus triggering precipitation of such varied authigenic minerals as aragonite, calcite, dolomite and siderite; sulfur, pyrite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite; phosphates; chalcedony quartz; and smectite, illite, kaolinite, chlorite and palygorskite clay. So it should be no surprise that on Mars, with reactive FeMg minerals, subsurface (and once surface) water, and internal heat, nannobacteria would be able to thrive both in vein-fill carbonates (McKay et al, 1996) and on the altered surfaces of unstable pyroxenes (Folk and Taylor, in press Met. &Plan. S i., 2002). Striking identities of sizes, shapes, and colonial affinitiesc are found between Martian nannobacteria and those in clays from Sicily and elsewhere (Folk and Lynch, 1997 SPIE). Extraterrestrial forms range from spheroids and ovoids of 30-80 nm, to worm- and caterpillar-shaped objects (40 X 150 nm) and chains of 40 nm beads. Even in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite, groups of 40- 150 nm bodies resembly earthly Streptococcus and Staphylococcus are found (Folk and Lynch 1998 SPIE). The highly-matured nature of the kerogen-like carbon in Allende demonstrates that it is not the result of earthly contamination; furthermore Allende contains clay minerals which demand the former presence of some water, a requirement for biology.The only objection to the claimed discovery of extraterrestrial life in the form of nannobacteria is the Old Testament view that God created life only on Earth and