Sample records for human brain morphology

  1. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

  2. Chronic cigarette smoking and heavy drinking in human immunodeficiency virus: consequences for neurocognition and brain morphology

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Rothlind, Johannes C.; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Studholme, Colin; Weiner, Michael W.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) and chronic cigarette smoking are common among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). Concurrent AUD in HIV is related to greater abnormalities in brain morphology and neurocognition than either condition alone. However, the potential influence of chronic smoking on brain morphology and neurocognition in those concurrently afflicted with AUD and HIV has not been examined. The goal of this retrospective analysis was to determine if chronic smoking affected neurocognition and brain morphology in a subsample of HIV-positive non–treatment-seeking heavy drinking participants (HD+) from our earlier work. Regional volumetric and neurocognitive comparisons were made among age-equivalent smoking HD+(n = 17), nonsmoking HD+(n = 27), and nonsmoking HIV-negative light drinking controls (n = 27) obtained from our original larger sample. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment evaluated multiple neurocognitive domains of functioning and for potential psychiatric comorbidities. Quantitative volumetric measures of neocortical gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), subcortical structures, and sulcal and ventricular cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance images. The main findings were (1) smoking HD+ performed significantly worse than nonsmoking HD+ on measures of auditory-verbal (AV) learning, AV memory, and cognitive efficiency; (2) relative to controls, smoking HD+ demonstrated significantly lower neocortical GM volumes in all lobes except the occipital lobe, while nonsmoking HD+ showed only lower frontal GM volume compared with controls; (3) in the HD+ group, regional brain volumes and neurocognition were not influenced by viremia, highly active antiretroviral treatment, or Center for Disease Control symptom status, and no interactions were apparent with these variables or smoking status. Overall, the findings suggested that the direct and/or indirect effects of chronic cigarette smoking created an additional burden on the integrity of brain neurobiology and neurocognition in this cohort of HIV-positive heavy drinkers. PMID:17923369

  3. Morphology and morphometry of the human embryonic brain: A three-dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Katayama, A; Nakashima, T; Yamada, S; Uwabe, C; Kose, K; Takakuwa, T

    2015-07-15

    The three-dimensional dynamics and morphology of the human embryonic brain have not been previously analyzed using modern imaging techniques. The morphogenesis of the cerebral vesicles and ventricles was analyzed using images derived from human embryo specimens from the Kyoto Collection, which were acquired with a magnetic resonance microscope equipped with a 2.35-T superconducting magnet. A total of 101 embryos between Carnegie stages (CS) 13 and 23, without apparent morphological damage or torsion in the brain ventricles and axes, were studied. To estimate the uneven development of the cerebral vesicles, the volumes of the whole embryo and brain, prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon with their respective ventricles were measured using image analyzing Amira™ software. The brain volume, excluding the ventricles (brain tissue), was 1.15±0.43mm(3) (mean±SD) at CS13 and increased exponentially to 189.10±36.91mm(3) at CS23, a 164.4-fold increase, which is consistent with the observed morphological changes. The mean volume of the prosencephalon was 0.26±0.15mm(3) at CS13. The volume increased exponentially until CS23, when it reached 110.99±27.58mm(3). The mean volumes of the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon were 0.20±0.07mm(3) and 0.69±0.23mm(3) at CS13, respectively; the volumes reached 21.86±3.30mm(3) and 56.45±7.64mm(3) at CS23, respectively. The ratio of the cerebellum to the rhombencephalon was approximately 7.2% at CS20, and increased to 12.8% at CS23. The ratio of the volume of the cerebral vesicles to that of the whole embryo remained nearly constant between CS15 and CS23 (11.6-15.5%). The non-uniform thickness of the brain tissue during development, which may indicate the differentiation of the brain, was visualized with surface color mapping by thickness. At CS23, the basal regions of the prosencephalon and rhombencephalon were thicker than the corresponding dorsal regions. The brain was further studied by the serial digital subtraction of layers of tissue from both the external and internal surfaces to visualize the core region (COR) of the thickening brain tissue. The COR, associated with the development of nuclei, became apparent after CS16; this was particularly visible in the prosencephalon. The anatomical positions of the COR were mostly consistent with the formation of the basal ganglia, thalamus, and pyramidal tract. This was confirmed through comparisons with serial histological sections of the human embryonic brain. The approach used in this study may be suitable as a convenient alternative method for estimating the development and differentiation of the neural ganglia and tracts. These findings contribute to a better understanding of brain and cerebral ventricle development. PMID:25934469

  4. The blind brain: how (lack of) vision shapes the morphological and functional architecture of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Pietrini, Pietro

    2014-11-01

    Since the early days, how we represent the world around us has been a matter of philosophical speculation. Over the last few decades, modern neuroscience, and specifically the development of methodologies for the structural and the functional exploration of the brain have made it possible to investigate old questions with an innovative approach. In this brief review, we discuss the main findings from a series of brain anatomical and functional studies conducted in sighted and congenitally blind individuals by our's and others' laboratories. Historically, research on the 'blind brain' has focused mainly on the cross-modal plastic changes that follow sensory deprivation. More recently, a novel line of research has been developed to determine to what extent visual experience is truly required to achieve a representation of the surrounding environment. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that most of the brain fine morphological and functional architecture is programmed to develop and function independently from any visual experience. Distinct cortical areas are able to process information in a supramodal fashion, that is, independently from the sensory modality that carries that information to the brain. These observations strongly support the hypothesis of a modality-independent, i.e. more abstract, cortical organization, and may contribute to explain how congenitally blind individuals may interact efficiently with an external world that they have never seen. PMID:24962172

  5. The cellular composition and morphological organization of the rostral migratory stream in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Kam, Monica; Curtis, Maurice A; McGlashan, Susan R; Connor, Bronwen; Nannmark, Ulf; Faull, Richard L M

    2009-05-01

    The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is the major pathway by which progenitor cells migrate from the subventricular zone (SVZ) to the olfactory bulb (OB) in rodents, rabbits and primates. However, the existence of an RMS within the adult human brain has been elusive. Immunohistochemical studies utilising cell-type specific markers for early progenitor cells (CD133), proliferating cells (PCNA), astrocytes and type B cells (GFAP) and migrating neuroblasts (PSA-NCAM), reveal that the adult human RMS is organized into layers containing glial cells, proliferating cells and neuroblasts. In addition, the RMS is arranged around a remnant of the ventricular cavity that extends from the SVZ to the OB as seen by immunohistological staining analysis and electron microscopy, showing the presence of basal bodies and a typical 9+2 arrangement of tubulin in tufts of cilia from all levels of the RMS. Overall, these findings suggest that a pathway of migratory progenitor cells similar to that seen in other mammals is present within the adult human brain and that this pathway could provide for neurogenesis in the human forebrain. These findings contribute to the scientific understanding of adult neurogenesis and establish the detailed cytoarchitecture of this novel neurogenic niche in the human brain. PMID:19159677

  6. Morphological patterns of the intraparietal sulcus and the anterior intermediate parietal sulcus of Jensen in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Zlatkina, Veronika; Petrides, Michael

    2014-12-22

    Distinct parts of the intraparietal sulcal cortex contribute to sensorimotor integration and visual spatial attentional processing. A detailed examination of the morphological relations of the different segments of the complex intraparietal sulcal region in the human brain in standard stereotaxic space, which is a prerequisite for detailed structure-to-function studies, is not available. This study examined the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the related sulcus of Jensen in magnetic resonance imaging brain volumes registered in the Montreal Neurological Institute stereotaxic space. It was demonstrated that the IPS is divided into two branches: the anterior ramus and the posterior ramus of the IPS, often separated by a submerged gyral passage. The sulcus of Jensen emerges between the anterior and posterior rami of the IPS, and its ventral end is positioned between the first and second caudal branches of the superior temporal sulcus. In a small number of brains, the sulcus of Jensen may merge superficially with the first caudal branch of the superior temporal sulcus. The above morphological findings are discussed in relation to previously reported functional neuroimaging findings and provide the basis for future exploration of structure-to-function relations in the posterior parietal region of individual subjects. PMID:25377465

  7. Lateralized Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Brain Morphology of 8-year-old Twins

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Uicheul; Fahim, Cherine; Perusse, Daniel; Evans, Alan C.

    2010-01-01

    It has been increasing rapidly interest in understanding genetic effects on brain structure and function in recent years. In this study, we examined the genetic and environmental influences on the variation in cortical thickness and specific tissue volumes in a large cohort of 8-year-old healthy twins. The present study can provide a better estimation of the genetic and environmental effects by virtue of the homogeneously-aged pediatric twin pairs with a similar growing environment. We found that common environmental factors contributed significantly to the variations of the right lateral ventricle (36%) and corpus callosum (36%) volumes while genetic factors accounted for most of the phenotypic variance in other brain tissue volumes. In the case of cortical thickness, several regions in the left hemisphere showed statistically significant additive genetic factors, including the middle and inferior frontal gyri, lateral fronto-orbital and occipitotemporal gyri, pars opercularis, planum temporale, precentral and parahippocampal gyri, and the medial region of the primary somatosensory cortex. Relatively high common environmental influence (> 50%) was observed in the right anterior cingulate cortex and insula. Our findings indicate that the genetic and common environmental influences on individual human brain structural differences are lateralized, with the language-dominant left cerebral cortex under stronger genetic control than the right. PMID:20074649

  8. Quantitative morphology of human glioblastoma multiforme microvessels: structural basis of blood-brain barrier defect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Coomberl; P. A. Stewart; K. Hayakawa; C. L. Farrell; R. E Del Maestro

    1987-01-01

    Neoplastic invasion of the brain parenchyma results in a disruption of the ultrastructure of the blood vessel walls such that serum proteins extravasate into the surrounding tissue, resulting in cerebral edema. The structural changes involved are not well understood, since the pores through which serum constituents pass (permeability routes) in normal barrier vessels and in tumor vessels where the barrier

  9. A Geographic Cline of Skull and Brain Morphology among Individuals of European Ancestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trygve E. Bakken; Anders M. Dale; Nicholas J. Schork

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human skull and brain morphology are strongly influenced by genetic factors, and skull size and shape vary worldwide. However, the relationship between specific brain morphology and genetically-determined ancestry is largely unknown. Methods: We used two independent data sets to characterize variation in skull and brain morphology among individuals of European ancestry. The first data set is a historical sample

  10. Brain morphology is individual-specific information.

    PubMed

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2015-07-01

    The identification of individual differences in brain morphology is important to understand the background of individual differences in brain functions. In the present study, we investigated whether brain morphology is discernibly different among individuals and is personally identifiable information. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 215 healthy subjects scanned twice (scan interval = 1.0 ± 0.1 years), we performed brain recognition by image normalization using a voxel-based morphometry approach, feature extraction based on principal component analysis, and calculating the Euclidean distances between image pairs projected into the subspace. Even with only 32 dimensions used for projection, the rank-one identification rate was 99.5%. With ?112 dimensions used, the rank-one identification rate was 100%. At a false accept rate of 0.01%, the genuine accept rates were 95.8% and 100% with 32 and ?128 dimensions used for projection, respectively. There was little difference in the Euclidean distances among different combinations of scanners used or between probe-gallery image pairs with and without scanner upgrade. These results indicate that brain morphology can identify a specific individual; i.e., brain morphology is personally identifiable information. Individually different brain morphology may occur as a collection of differences in brain structures that reflect individual differences in a variety of performances and various psychological characteristics and behavior patterns, and may provide the background of individual differences in personality and brain function. PMID:25863137

  11. Automatic Mapping Extraction from Multiecho T2-Star Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images for Improving Morphological Evaluations in Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shaode; Xie, Yaoqin

    2013-01-01

    Mapping extraction is useful in medical image analysis. Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) replaced signal response to time course in tissue similarity mapping with signal response to TE changes in multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agent. Since different tissues are with different sensitivities to reference signals, a new algorithm is proposed by adding a sensitivity index to SCM. It generates two mappings. One measures relative signal strength (SSM) and the other depicts fluctuation magnitude (FMM). Meanwhile, the new method is adaptive to generate a proper reference signal by maximizing the sum of contrast index (CI) from SSM and FMM without manual delineation. Based on four groups of images from multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the capacity of SSM and FMM in enhancing image contrast and morphological evaluation is validated. Average contrast improvement index (CII) of SSM is 1.57, 1.38, 1.34, and 1.41. Average CII of FMM is 2.42, 2.30, 2.24, and 2.35. Visual analysis of regions of interest demonstrates that SSM and FMM show better morphological structures than original images, T2-star mapping and SCM. These extracted mappings can be further applied in information fusion, signal investigation, and tissue segmentation. PMID:24379892

  12. Inferential stereomorphology of human brain lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedye, John L.

    1980-07-01

    I very much appreciated the invitation to contribute a paper to this Symposium on Applications of Human Biostereometrics, as it provides a valuable opportunity for me to take a fresh look at a problemâ€""the cerebral localisation of psychological function"â€"in which I have been interested for many years. This interest grew out of considerations of the clinically important problem of how we should go about the task of relating the form of the changes in human behavior consequent upon damage to the human brain following, say, head injury, to the form of the changes in brain morphology which constitute that damage, and related issues.

  13. Brain morphological defects in prolidase deficient mice: first report.

    PubMed

    Insolia, V; Piccolini, V M

    2014-01-01

    Prolidase gene (PEPD) encodes prolidase enzyme, which is responsible for hydrolysis of dipeptides containing proline or hydroxyproline at their C-terminal end. Mutations in PEPD gene cause, in human, prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder. PD patients show reduced or absent prolidase activity and a broad spectrum of phenotypic traits including various degrees of mental retardation. This is the first report correlating PD and brain damages using as a model system prolidase deficient mice, the so called dark-like (dal) mutant mice. We focused our attention on dal postnatal brain development, revealing a panel of different morphological defects in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, such as undulations of the cerebral cortex, cell rarefaction, defects in cerebellar cortex lobulation, and blood vessels overgrowth. These anomalies might be ascribed to altered angiogenic process and loss of pial basement membrane integrity. Further studies will be directed to find a correlation between neuroarchitecture alterations and functional consequences. PMID:25308848

  14. Genomic imprinting effects of the X chromosome on brain morphology.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Jean-Francois; Hong, David S; Mazaika, Paul K; Raman, Mira; Sheau, Kristen; Marzelli, Matthew J; Hallmayer, Joachim; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that genomic imprinting, a process by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, can influence neurogenetic and psychiatric manifestations. While some data suggest possible imprinting effects of the X chromosome on physical and cognitive characteristics in humans, there is no compelling evidence that X-linked imprinting affects brain morphology. To address this issue, we investigated regional cortical volume, thickness, and surface area in 27 healthy controls and 40 prepubescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS), a condition caused by the absence of one X chromosome. Of the young girls with TS, 23 inherited their X chromosome from their mother (X(m)) and 17 from their father (X(p)). Our results confirm the existence of significant differences in brain morphology between girls with TS and controls, and reveal the presence of a putative imprinting effect among the TS groups: girls with X(p) demonstrated thicker cortex than those with X(m) in the temporal regions bilaterally, while X(m) individuals showed bilateral enlargement of gray matter volume in the superior frontal regions compared with X(p). These data suggest the existence of imprinting effects of the X chromosome that influence both cortical thickness and volume during early brain development, and help to explain variability in cognitive and behavioral manifestations of TS with regard to the parental origin of the X chromosome. PMID:23658194

  15. Genetics of human brain oscillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz

    2006-01-01

    In the last three decades, much emphasis has been placed on neural oscillations in vitro, in vivo, as well as in the human brain. These brain oscillations have been studied extensively in the resting electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as in the underlying evoked oscillations that make up the event-related potentials (ERPs). There are several approaches to elucidate the possible mechanisms

  16. Genetics of human brain oscillations.

    PubMed

    Begleiter, Henri; Porjesz, Bernice

    2006-05-01

    In the last three decades, much emphasis has been placed on neural oscillations in vitro, in vivo, as well as in the human brain. These brain oscillations have been studied extensively in the resting electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as in the underlying evoked oscillations that make up the event-related potentials (ERPs). There are several approaches to elucidate the possible mechanisms of these brain oscillations. One approach is to look at the neurophysiology and neurochemistry involved in generating and modulating these oscillations. Another more recent approach is to examine the genetic underpinnings of these neural oscillations. It is proposed that the genetic underpinnings of these oscillations are likely to stem from regulatory genes which control the neurochemical processes of the brain, and therefore influence neural function. Genetic analyses of human brain oscillations may identify genetic loci underlying the functional organization of human neuroelectric activity. Brain oscillations represent important correlates of human information processing and cognition. They represent highly heritable traits that are less complex and more proximal to gene function than either diagnostic labels or traditional cognitive measures. Therefore these oscillations may be utilized as phenotypes of cognition and as valuable tools for the understanding of some complex genetic disorders. Genetic loci that have been recently identified regarding both resting and evoked brain oscillations involving the GABAergic and cholinergic neurotransmitter systems of the brain are discussed. It is concluded that the advent of genomics and proteomics and a fuller understanding of gene regulation will open new horizons on the critical electrical events so essential for human brain function. PMID:16540194

  17. Functional brain development in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Johnson

    2001-01-01

    There is a continuing debate in developmental neuroscience about the importance of activity-dependent processes. The relatively delayed rate of development of the human brain, compared with that of other mammals, might make it more susceptible to the influence of postnatal experience. The human infant is well adapted to capitalize on this opportunity through primitive biases to attend to relevant stimuli

  18. Cellular migration and morphological complexity in the caecilian brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Schmidt; Marvalee H. Wake

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of the tectum mesencephali and the medial pallium is studied in species representing the six families of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) in order to determine whether differences in brain morphology are related to function, phylogenetic history, or life history strate- gies. In general, the caecilian tectum is characterized by simplification in having little to no lamination and few migrated

  19. Magnetite biomineralization in the human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Kirschvink, J L; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, A; Woodford, B J

    1992-01-01

    Although the mineral magnetite (Fe3O4) is precipitated biochemically by bacteria, protists, and a variety of animals, it has not been documented previously in human tissue. Using an ultrasensitive superconducting magnetometer in a clean-lab environment, we have detected the presence of ferromagnetic material in a variety of tissues from the human brain. Magnetic particle extracts from solubilized brain tissues examined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and elemental analyses identify minerals in the magnetite-maghemite family, with many of the crystal morphologies and structures resembling strongly those precipitated by magnetotactic bacteria and fish. These magnetic and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements imply the presence of a minimum of 5 million single-domain crystals per gram for most tissues in the brain and greater than 100 million crystals per gram for pia and dura. Magnetic property data indicate the crystals are in clumps of between 50 and 100 particles. Biogenic magnetite in the human brain may account for high-field saturation effects observed in the T1 and T2 values of magnetic resonance imaging and, perhaps, for a variety of biological effects of low-frequency magnetic fields. Images PMID:1502184

  20. Brain power. The human brain may be the most

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    BigPicture on Brain power. The human brain may be the most complex structure in the universe out on page 3. Now you see it... Optical illusions such as this help us understand how the brain works neuroscientists say that if the brain were simple enough to be understood, we would not be clever enough

  1. Decoding Patterns of Human Brain Activity

    E-print Network

    Tong, Frank

    Decoding Patterns of Human Brain Activity Frank Tong and Michael S. Pratte Psychology Department be decoded from noninvasive measures of human brain activity. Analyses of brain activ- ity patterns can into a neuroimaging lab and asked to lie back comfortably on a padded bed ta- ble, which is slowly glided into a brain

  2. Epigenetics in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Isaac; Peter, Cyril J; Mitchell, Amanda; Straubhaar, Juerg; Rogaev, Evgeny; Akbarian, Schahram

    2013-01-01

    Many cellular constituents in the human brain permanently exit from the cell cycle during pre- or early postnatal development, but little is known about epigenetic regulation of neuronal and glial epigenomes during maturation and aging, including changes in mood and psychosis spectrum disorders and other cognitive or emotional disease. Here, we summarize the current knowledge base as it pertains to genome organization in the human brain, including the regulation of DNA cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation, and a subset of (altogether >100) residue-specific histone modifications associated with gene expression, and silencing and various other functional chromatin states. We propose that high-resolution mapping of epigenetic markings in postmortem brain tissue or neural cultures derived from induced pluripotent cells (iPS), in conjunction with transcriptome profiling and whole-genome sequencing, will increasingly be used to define the molecular pathology of specific cases diagnosed with depression, schizophrenia, autism, or other major psychiatric disease. We predict that these highly integrative explorations of genome organization and function will provide an important alternative to conventional approaches in human brain studies, which mainly are aimed at uncovering group effects by diagnosis but generally face limitations because of cohort size. PMID:22643929

  3. Structural Brain Correlates of Human Sleep Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Saletin, Jared M.; van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is strongly conserved within species, yet marked and perplexing inter-individual differences in sleep physiology are observed. Combining EEG sleep recordings and high-resolution structural brain imaging, here we demonstrate that the morphology of the human brain offers one explanatory factor of such inter-individual variability. Grey matter volume in interoceptive and exteroceptive cortices correlated with the expression of slower NREM sleep spindle frequencies, supporting their proposed role in sleep protection against conscious perception. Conversely, and consistent with an involvement in declarative memory processing, grey matter volume in bilateral hippocampus was associated with faster NREM sleep spindle frequencies. In contrast to spindles, grey matter volume in the homeostatic sleep-regulating center of the basal forebrain/hypothalamus, together with the medial prefrontal cortex, accounted for individual differences in NREM slow wave oscillations. Together, such findings indicate that the qualitative and quantitative expression of human sleep physiology is significantly related to anatomically specific differences in macroscopic brain structure. PMID:23770411

  4. Brain bases of morphological processing in young children.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Maria M; Ip, Ka I; Shih Ju Hsu, Lucy; Tardif, Twila; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2015-08-01

    How does the developing brain support the transition from spoken language to print? Two spoken language abilities form the initial base of child literacy across languages: knowledge of language sounds (phonology) and knowledge of the smallest units that carry meaning (morphology). While phonology has received much attention from the field, the brain mechanisms that support morphological competence for learning to read remain largely unknown. In the present study, young English-speaking children completed an auditory morphological awareness task behaviorally (n?=?69, ages 6-12) and in fMRI (n?=?16). The data revealed two findings: First, children with better morphological abilities showed greater activation in left temporoparietal regions previously thought to be important for supporting phonological reading skills, suggesting that this region supports multiple language abilities for successful reading acquisition. Second, children showed activation in left frontal regions previously found active in young Chinese readers, suggesting morphological processes for reading acquisition might be similar across languages. These findings offer new insights for developing a comprehensive model of how spoken language abilities support children's reading acquisition across languages. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2890-2900, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25930011

  5. Decoding Patterns of Human Brain Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Tong; Michael S. Pratte

    Considerable information about mental states can be decoded from noninvasive measures of human brain activity. Analyses of brain activity patterns can reveal what a person is seeing, perceiving, attending to, or remembering. Moreover, multidimensional models can be used to investigate how the brain encodes complex visual scenes or abstract semantic information. Such feats of “brain reading” or “mind reading,” though

  6. Decoding Patterns of Human Brain Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Tong; Michael S. Pratte

    2012-01-01

    Considerable information about mental states can be decoded from noninvasive measures of human brain activity. Analyses of brain activity patterns can reveal what a person is seeing, perceiving, attending to, or remembering. Moreover, multidimensional models can be used to investigate how the brain encodes complex visual scenes or abstract semantic information. Such feats of “brain reading” or “mind reading,” though

  7. Social cognition and brain morphology: implications for developmental brain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Lazar, Steven M; Boomer, K B; Mitchel, Aaron D; Michael, Andrew M; Moore, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R?>?L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R?>?L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R?>?L asymmetry of the caudate.These findings extend the brain-behavior links observed in neurodevelopmental disorders to the normal distribution of traits in a healthy sample. PMID:24788335

  8. Chinese Visible Human Brain Image Segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunjie Chen; Jianwei Zhang; Ann Heng Pheng; Deshen Xia

    2008-01-01

    The Visible Human data set provides researchers with digital cross-sections of the human body. Many institutions use the Visible Human for research and teaching purposes. In this paper, we would like to share our experience in analyse the Chinese Visible Human (CVH) Brain images. We introduce some methods, such as skull stripping, de-noise, etc, to segment the Brain images and

  9. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG Lei; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin

  10. Brain Size, Cranial Morphology, Climate, and Time Machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth L. Beals; Courtland L. Smith; Stephen M. Dodd

    1984-01-01

    INCREASING CRANIAL CAPACITY has historically been associ- ated with increasing complexity of society. The resultant ten- dency has been to think of humans with larger brains as mentally more capable. Gene-pool (racial affinity) and somatic (body- size) explanations have also been advanced to account for the braincase variation. We offer an alternative hypothesis that suggests that hominid expansion into regions

  11. Longitudinal Characterization of Brain Atrophy of a Huntington Disease Mouse Model by Automated Morphological Analyses of Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangyang; Peng, Qi; Li, Qing; Jahanshad, Neda; Hou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Mali; Masuda, Naoki; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Miller, Michael I.; Mori, Susumu; Ross, Christopher A.; Duan, Wenzhen

    2010-01-01

    Mouse models of human diseases play crucial roles in understanding disease mechanisms and developing therapeutic measures. Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by striatal atrophy that begins long before the onset of motor symptoms. In symptomatic HD, striatal volumes decline predictably with disease course. Thus, imaging based volumetric measures have been proposed as outcomes for presymptomatic as well as symptomatic clinical trials of HD. Magnetic resonance imaging of the mouse brain structures is becoming widely available and has been proposed as one of the biomarkers of disease progression and drug efficacy testing. However, three-dimensional and quantitative morphological analyses of the brains are not straightforward. In this paper, we describe a tool for automated segmentation and voxel-based morphological analyses of the mouse brains. This tool was applied to a well-established mouse model of Huntington disease, the R6/2 transgenic mouse strain. Comparison between the automated and manual segmentation results showed excellent agreement in most brain regions. The automated method was able to sensitively detect atrophy as early as 3 weeks of age and accurately follow disease progression. Comparison between ex vivo and in vivo MRI suggests that the ex vivo end-point measurement of brain morphology is also a valid approach except for the morphology of the ventricles. This is the first report of longitudinal characterization of brain atrophy in a mouse model of Huntington’s disease by using automatic morphological analysis. PMID:19850133

  12. Fast and intuitive segmentation of gyri of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Florian; Hahn, Horst K.

    2015-03-01

    The cortical surface of the human brain consists of a large number of folds forming valleys and ridges, the gyri and sulci. Often, it is desirable to perform a segmentation of a brain image into these underlying structures in order to assess parameters relative to these functional components. Typical examples for this include measurements of cortical thickness for individual functional areas, or the correlation of functional areas derived from fMRI data to corresponding anatomical areas seen in structural imaging. In this paper, we present a novel interactive technique, that allows for fast and intuitive segmentation of these functional areas from T1-weighted MR images of the brain. Our segmentation approach is based exclusively on morphological image processing operations, eliminating the requirement for explicit reconstruction of the brains surface.

  13. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Saboori, Parisa; Sadegh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology.

  14. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae.

    PubMed

    Saboori, Parisa; Sadegh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology. PMID:26090230

  15. Printable Preview Human Brain Mapping 2009 Print

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    States Introduction: Diffusion imaging is a relatively new and powerful method to measure the 3D profile datasets with 94 diffusion-sensitized gradient directions. We used the data as in [5]. 3D structural brainPrintable Preview Human Brain Mapping 2009 Print Abstract Number: 1997 Submitted By: Luminita Vese

  16. Electrophysiological Evaluation of Human Brain Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence W. Picton; Margot J. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    The complex development of the human brain during infancy can only be understood by convergent structural, functional, and behavioral measurements. The evaluation of event-related potentials (ERPs) is the most effective current way to look at infant brain function. ERP paradigms can be used to examine the simple transmission of sensory information to the cortex and the discrimination of this information

  17. Methods Towards Invasive Human Brain Computer Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Methods Towards Invasive Human Brain Computer Interfaces Thomas Navin Lal1 , Thilo Hinterberger2 there has been growing interest in the develop- ment of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The field has mainly been driven by the needs of completely paralyzed patients to communicate. With a few exceptions

  18. Essential Fatty Acids and Human Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Yu Chang; Jen-Yin Chen

    2009-01-01

    3 Abstract- The human brain is nearly 60 percent fat. We've learned in recent years that fatty acids are among the most crucial molecules that determine your brain's integrity and ability to perform. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required for maintenance of optimal health but they can not synthesized by the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Clinical

  19. Research Article Human Brain Activity Time-

    E-print Network

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    Research Article Human Brain Activity Time- Locked to Narrative Event Boundaries Nicole K. Speer into a series of events in order to understand and remember the text. In this study, subjects read brief narratives describing every- day activities while brain activity was recorded with functional magnetic

  20. Interoperable atlases of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Amunts, K; Hawrylycz, M J; Van Essen, D C; Van Horn, J D; Harel, N; Poline, J-B; De Martino, F; Bjaalie, J G; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Dehaene, S; Valdes-Sosa, P; Thirion, B; Zilles, K; Hill, S L; Abrams, M B; Tass, P A; Vanduffel, W; Evans, A C; Eickhoff, S B

    2014-10-01

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of human brain mapping approaches at various spatial and temporal scales. Together, these have provided a large fundus of information on many different aspects of the human brain including micro- and macrostructural segregation, regional specialization of function, connectivity, and temporal dynamics. Atlases are central in order to integrate such diverse information in a topographically meaningful way. It is noteworthy, that the brain mapping field has been developed along several major lines such as structure vs. function, postmortem vs. in vivo, individual features of the brain vs. population-based aspects, or slow vs. fast dynamics. In order to understand human brain organization, however, it seems inevitable that these different lines are integrated and combined into a multimodal human brain model. To this aim, we held a workshop to determine the constraints of a multi-modal human brain model that are needed to enable (i) an integration of different spatial and temporal scales and data modalities into a common reference system, and (ii) efficient data exchange and analysis. As detailed in this report, to arrive at fully interoperable atlases of the human brain will still require much work at the frontiers of data acquisition, analysis, and representation. Among them, the latter may provide the most challenging task, in particular when it comes to representing features of vastly different scales of space, time and abstraction. The potential benefits of such endeavor, however, clearly outweigh the problems, as only such kind of multi-modal human brain atlas may provide a starting point from which the complex relationships between structure, function, and connectivity may be explored. PMID:24936682

  1. The human parental brain: In vivo neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Swain, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Interacting parenting thoughts and behaviors, supported by key brain circuits, critically shape human infants’ current and future behavior. Indeed, the parent–infant relationship provides infants with their first social environment, forming templates for what they can expect from others, how to interact with them and ultimately how they go on to themselves to be parents. This review concentrates on magnetic resonance imaging experiments of the human parent brain, which link brain physiology with parental thoughts and behaviors. After reviewing brain imaging techniques, certain social cognitive and affective concepts are reviewed, including empathy and trust—likely critical to parenting. Following that is a thorough study-by-study review of the state-of-the-art with respect to human neuroimaging studies of the parental brain—from parent brain responses to salient infant stimuli, including emotionally charged baby cries and brief visual stimuli to the latest structural brain studies. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic–midbrain–limbic–paralimbic–cortical circuits act in concert to support parental brain responses to infants, including circuits for limbic emotion response and regulation. Thus, a model is presented in which infant stimuli activate sensory analysis brain regions, affect corticolimbic limbic circuits that regulate emotional response, motivation and reward related to their infant, ultimately organizing parenting impulses, thoughts and emotions into coordinated behaviors as a map for future studies. Finally, future directions towards integrated understanding of the brain basis of human parenting are outlined with profound implications for understanding and contributing to long term parent and infant mental health. PMID:21036196

  2. Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila K. Singh; Cynthia Hawkins; Ian D. Clarke; Jeremy A. Squire; Jane Bayani; Takuichiro Hide; R. Mark Henkelman; Michael D. Cusimano; Peter B. Dirks

    2004-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells with stem cell properties. Although the existence of CSCs in human leukaemia is established, little evidence exists for CSCs in solid tumours, except for breast cancer. Recently, we prospectively isolated a CD133+ cell subpopulation from human brain tumours that exhibited stem

  3. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    PubMed Central

    Brøchner, Christian B.; Holst, Camilla B.; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6–21st weeks post-conception) and adults using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Antibodies against claudin-11, BLBP, collagen 1, SSEA-4, MAP2, YKL-40, and its receptor IL-13R?2 and EAAT1 were used to describe morphological characteristics and functional aspects of the outer brain barriers. Claudin-11 was a reliable marker of the arachnoid blood-CSF barrier. Collagen 1 delineated the subarachnoid space and stained pial surface layer. BLBP defined radial glial end feet layer and SSEA-4 and YKL-40 were present in both leptomeningeal cells and end feet layer, which transformed into glial limitans. IL-13R?2 and EAAT1 were present in the end feet layer illustrating transporter/receptor presence in the outer CSF-brain barrier. MAP2 immunostaining in adult brain outlined the lower border of glia limitans; remnants of end feet were YKL-40 positive in some areas. We propose that outer brain barriers are composed of at least 3 interfaces: blood-CSF barrier across arachnoid barrier cell layer, blood-CSF barrier across pial microvessels, and outer CSF-brain barrier comprising glial end feet layer/pial surface layer. PMID:25852456

  4. Synchronization phenomena in human epileptic brain networks.

    PubMed

    Lehnertz, Klaus; Bialonski, Stephan; Horstmann, Marie-Therese; Krug, Dieter; Rothkegel, Alexander; Staniek, Matthäus; Wagner, Tobias

    2009-09-30

    Epilepsy is a malfunction of the brain that affects over 50 million people worldwide. Epileptic seizures are usually characterized by an abnormal synchronized firing of neurons involved in the epileptic process. In human epilepsy the exact mechanisms underlying seizure generation are still uncertain as are mechanisms underlying seizure spreading and termination. There is now growing evidence that an improved understanding of the epileptic process can be achieved through the analysis of properties of epileptic brain networks and through the analysis of interactions in such networks. In this overview, we summarize recent methodological developments to assess synchronization phenomena in human epileptic brain networks and present findings obtained from analyses of brain electromagnetic signals recorded in epilepsy patients. PMID:19481573

  5. Cholesterol metabolites exported from human brain.

    PubMed

    Iuliano, Luigi; Crick, Peter J; Zerbinati, Chiara; Tritapepe, Luigi; Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Poirot, Marc; Wang, Yuqin; Griffiths, William J

    2015-07-01

    The human brain contains approximately 25% of the body's cholesterol. The brain is separated from the circulation by the blood brain barrier. While cholesterol will not passes this barrier, oxygenated forms of cholesterol can cross the barrier. Here by measuring the difference in the oxysterol content of blood plasma in the jugular vein and in a forearm vein by mass spectrometry (MS) we were able to determine the flux of more than 20 cholesterol metabolites between brain and the circulation. We confirm that 24S-hydroxycholesterol is exported from brain at a rate of about 2-3mg/24h. Gas chromatography (GC)-MS data shows that the cholesterol metabolites 5?-hydroxy-6-oxocholesterol (3?,5?-dihydroxycholestan-6-one), 7?-hydroxycholesterol and 7-oxocholesterol, generally considered to be formed through reactive oxygen species, are similarly exported from brain at rates of about 0.1, 2 and 2mg/24h, respectively. Although not to statistical significance both GC-MS and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS methods indicate that (25R)26-hydroxycholesterol is imported to brain, while LC-MS indicates that 7?-hydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-enoic acid is exported from brain. PMID:25668615

  6. Automatic morphology-based brain segmentation (MBRASE) from MRI-T1 data.

    PubMed

    Stokking, R; Vincken, K L; Viergever, M A

    2000-12-01

    A method called morphology-based brain segmentation (MBRASE) has been developed for fully automatic segmentation of the brain from T1-weighted MR image data. The starting point is a supervised segmentation technique, which has proven highly effective and accurate for quantitation and visualization purposes. The proposed method automates the required user interaction, i.e., defining a seed point and a threshold range, and is based on the simple operations thresholding, erosion, and geodesic dilation. The thresholds are detected in a region growing process and are defined by connections of the brain to other tissues. The method is first evaluated on three computer simulated datasets by comparing the automated segmentations with the original distributions. The second evaluation is done on a total of 30 patient datasets, by comparing the automated segmentations with supervised segmentations carried out by a neuroanatomy expert. The comparison between two binary segmentations is performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The automated segmentations are found to be accurate and robust. Consequently, the proposed method can be used as a default segmentation for quantitation and visualization of the human brain from T1-weighted MR images in routine clinical procedures. PMID:11112404

  7. Imaging the Addicted Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Kassed, Cheryl A.; Chang, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques enable researchers to observe drug actions and consequences as they occur and persist in the brains of abusing and addicted individuals. This article presents the five most commonly used techniques, explains how each produces images, and describes how researchers interpret them. The authors give examples of key findings illustrating how each technique has extended and deepened our knowledge of the neurobiological bases of drug abuse and addiction, and they address potential clinical and therapeutic applications. PMID:17514067

  8. Making Human Connectome Faster: GPU Acceleration of Brain Network Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Di Wu; Tianji Wu; Yi Shan; Yu Wang; Yong He; Ningyi Xu; Huazhong Yang

    2010-01-01

    The research on complex Brain Networks plays a vital role in understanding the connectivity patterns of the human brain and disease-related alterations. Recent studies have suggested a noninvasive way to model and analyze human brain networks by using multi-modal imaging and graph theoretical approaches. Both the construction and analysis of the Brain Networks require tremendous computation. As a result, most

  9. Neuronal nicotinic receptors in the human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Paterson; Agneta Nordberg

    2000-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a family of ligand gated ion channels which are widely distributed in the human brain. Multiple subtypes of these receptors exist, each with individual pharmacological and functional profiles. They mediate the effects of nicotine, a widely used drug of abuse, are involved in a number of physiological and behavioural processes and are additionally implicated

  10. CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN AND BRAIN BLOOD FLOW IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been shown that with increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and associated decrease in blood oxygen-carrying capacity, a compensatory increase in brain-blood flow (BBF) develops. he BBF response in humans has been shown to be quite variable. wo experiments were conducted in wh...

  11. Human intelligence and brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E.; Haier, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other. PMID:21319494

  12. Methylomic trajectories across human fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Helen; Hannon, Eilis; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Smith, Rebecca; Wong, Chloe C Y; O'Donovan, Michael C; Bray, Nicholas J; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Epigenetic processes play a key role in orchestrating transcriptional regulation during development. The importance of DNA methylation in fetal brain development is highlighted by the dynamic expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases during the perinatal period and neurodevelopmental deficits associated with mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. However, our knowledge about the temporal changes to the epigenome during fetal brain development has, to date, been limited. We quantified genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation at ? 400,000 sites in 179 human fetal brain samples (100 male, 79 female) spanning 23 to 184 d post-conception. We identified highly significant changes in DNA methylation across fetal brain development at >7% of sites, with an enrichment of loci becoming hypomethylated with fetal age. Sites associated with developmental changes in DNA methylation during fetal brain development were significantly underrepresented in promoter regulatory regions but significantly overrepresented in regions flanking CpG islands (shores and shelves) and gene bodies. Highly significant differences in DNA methylation were observed between males and females at a number of autosomal sites, with a small number of regions showing sex-specific DNA methylation trajectories across brain development. Weighted gene comethylation network analysis (WGCNA) revealed discrete modules of comethylated loci associated with fetal age that are significantly enriched for genes involved in neurodevelopmental processes. This is, to our knowledge, the most extensive study of DNA methylation across human fetal brain development to date, confirming the prenatal period as a time of considerable epigenomic plasticity. PMID:25650246

  13. Native Mutant Huntingtin in Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sapp, Ellen; Valencia, Antonio; Li, Xueyi; Aronin, Neil; Kegel, Kimberly B.; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Young, Anne B.; Wexler, Nancy; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of huntingtin (htt). Analysis of human postmortem brain lysates by SDS-PAGE and Western blot reveals htt as full-length and fragmented. Here we used Blue Native PAGE (BNP) and Western blots to study native htt in human postmortem brain. Antisera against htt detected a single band broadly migrating at 575–850 kDa in control brain and at 650–885 kDa in heterozygous and Venezuelan homozygous HD brains. Anti-polyglutamine antisera detected full-length mutant htt in HD brain. There was little htt cleavage even if lysates were pretreated with trypsin, indicating a property of native htt to resist protease cleavage. A soluble mutant htt fragment of about 180 kDa was detected with anti-htt antibody Ab1 (htt-(1–17)) and increased when lysates were treated with denaturants (SDS, 8 m urea, DTT, or trypsin) before BNP. Wild-type htt was more resistant to denaturants. Based on migration of in vitro translated htt fragments, the 180-kDa segment terminated ?htt 670–880 amino acids. If second dimension SDS-PAGE followed BNP, the 180-kDa mutant htt was absent, and 43–50 kDa htt fragments appeared. Brain lysates from two HD mouse models expressed native full-length htt; a mutant fragment formed if lysates were pretreated with 8 m urea + DTT. Native full-length mutant htt in embryonic HD140Q/140Q mouse primary neurons was intact during cell death and when cell lysates were exposed to denaturants before BNP. Thus, native mutant htt occurs in brain and primary neurons as a soluble full-length monomer. PMID:22375012

  14. The Human Brain Project and neuromorphic computing.

    PubMed

    Calimera, Andrea; Macii, Enrico; Poncino, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how the brain manages billions of processing units connected via kilometers of fibers and trillions of synapses, while consuming a few tens of Watts could provide the key to a completely new category of hardware (neuromorphic computing systems). In order to achieve this, a paradigm shift for computing as a whole is needed, which will see it moving away from current "bit precise" computing models and towards new techniques that exploit the stochastic behavior of simple, reliable, very fast, lowpower computing devices embedded in intensely recursive architectures. In this paper we summarize how these objectives will be pursued in the Human Brain Project. PMID:24139655

  15. Differences in qualitative brain morphology findings in schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder and normal volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard R. J. Lewine; Patricia Hudgins; Frank Brown; Jane Caudle; S. Craig Risch

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and type of qualitative brain morphologic anomaly as a function of sex and diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were evaluated by an experienced neuroradiologist blind to diagnosis. The scans of 325 individuals (108 schizophrenic, 20 schizoaffective, 27 major depressive, 20 bipolar and 150 healthy volunteers) were categorized into one of five groups: normal, hyperintensity

  16. Morphological changes in the heart, lungs and brain after experimental cavopulmonary anastomosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Darbinyan; L. D. Krymskii

    1959-01-01

    The authors studied the morphological changes occurring in the heart, lungs and brain after placing the cavopulmonary anastomosis. Experiments performed on 21 dogs established that prolonged occlusion of the superior vena cava during placing the cavopulmonary anastomosis may cause the development of diapedetic hemorrhages in the brain substance. The placing of cavopulmonary anastomosis may cause the development of fibrinous pleurisy

  17. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) mediates the development of sex-specific brain morphology

    E-print Network

    Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) mediates the development of sex-specific brain morphology March 1, 2000) Steroid hormone action during brain development exerts profound effects on reproductive physiology and behavior that last into adulthood. A variety of in vitro studies indicate that steroid

  18. Infrasounds and biorhythms of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary; McGlothlin, James

    2002-05-01

    Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and infrasound has begun a new public health hazard. Evaluations of annoyance of (LFN) on human occupational health were based on standards where reactions of human auditory system and vibrations of parts of human body were small. Significant sensitivity has been observed on the central nervous system from infrasonic waves especially below 10 Hz. Observed follow-up effects in the brain gives incentive to study the relationship between parameters of waves and reactions obtained of biorhythms (EEG) and heart action (EKG). New results show the impact of LFN on the electrical potentials of the brain are dependent on the pressure waves on the human body. Electrical activity of circulatory system was also affected. Signals recorded in industrial workplaces were duplicated by loudspeakers and used to record data from a typical LFN spectra with 5 and 7 Hz in a laboratory chamber. External noise, electromagnetic fields, temperature, dust, and other elements were controlled. Results show not only a follow-up effect in the brain but also a result similar to arrhythmia in the heart. Relaxations effects were observed of people impacted by waves generated from natural sources such as streams and waterfalls.

  19. Mapping human brain activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mazziotta, J C

    1994-09-01

    A wide range of structural and functional techniques now exists to map the human brain in health and disease. These approaches span the gamut from external tomographic imaging devices (positron-emission tomography, single photon-emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography), to surface detectors (electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation), to measurements made directly on the brain's surface or beneath it (intrinsic signal imaging, electrocorticography). The noninvasive methods have been combined to provide unique and previously unavailable insights into the macroscopic organization of the functional neuroanatomy of human vision, sensation, hearing, movement, language, learning, and memory. All methods have been applied to patients with neurologic, neurosurgical, and psychiatric disease and have provided a rapidly expanding knowledge of the pathophysiology of diseases such as epilepsy, cerebrovascular disease, neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, mental illness, and addiction states. In addition, these new methods have become a mainstay of preoperative surgical planning and the monitoring of pharmacologic or surgical (transplantation) interventions. Most recently, the ability to observe the reorganization of the human nervous system after acute injury, such as occurs with cerebral infarction or head trauma, or in the course of a progressive degenerative process such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, may provide new insights and methods in the rapidly expanding field of neurorehabilitation. Our newfound ability to generate maps and databases of human brain development, maturation, skill acquisition, aging, and disease states is both an exciting and formidable task. PMID:7975566

  20. Changes in brain morphology in albinism reflect reduced visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Holly; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Davies, George; Chambers, Claire; Gouws, Andre; Hoffmann, Michael; Morland, Antony B

    2014-07-01

    Albinism, in humans and many animal species, has a major impact on the visual system, leading to reduced acuity, lack of binocular function and nystagmus. In addition to the lack of a foveal pit, there is a disruption to the routing of the nerve fibers crossing at the optic chiasm, resulting in excessive crossing of fibers to the contralateral hemisphere. However, very little is known about the effect of this misrouting on the structure of the post-chiasmatic visual pathway, and the occipital lobes in particular. Whole-brain analyses of cortical thickness in a large cohort of subjects with albinism showed an increase in cortical thickness, relative to control subjects, particularly in posterior V1, corresponding to the foveal representation. Furthermore, mean cortical thickness across entire V1 was significantly greater in these subjects compared to controls and negatively correlated with visual acuity in albinism. Additionally, the group with albinism showed decreased gyrification in the left ventral occipital lobe. While the increase in cortical thickness in V1, also found in congenitally blind subjects, has been interpreted to reflect a lack of pruning, the decreased gyrification in the ventral extrastriate cortex may reflect the reduced input to the foveal regions of the ventral visual stream. PMID:23039995

  1. Variation in brain morphology associated with ecological adaptation in Sciurinae

    E-print Network

    Gillean, Robert William

    1968-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Plate IV, Figure 4 Cerebellum of Citellus mexicanus, sagittal section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Plate V, Figure 5 Cerebellum of Tamias striatus, sagittal section. Plate VI, Figu=e 6 Brain of Sciurus carolinensis, lateral view. 78... Plate VII, Figure 7 Brain of Sciurus ~ni er, lateral view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Pl t Pff, P Bure 8 B aiu f C'tell e ~a'e t e, lateral view. 80 Plate VIII, Figure 9 Brain of' Citellus mexicanus, lateral view...

  2. Broadband Criticality of Human Brain Network Synchronization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred G. Kitzbichler; Marie L. Smith; Søren R. Christensen; Ed Bullmore

    2009-01-01

    Self-organized criticality is an attractive model for human brain dynamics, but there has been little direct evidence for its existence in large-scale systems measured by neuroimaging. In general, critical systems are associated with fractal or power law scaling, long-range correlations in space and time, and rapid reconfiguration in response to external inputs. Here, we consider two measures of phase synchronization:

  3. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  4. Spatiotemporal transcriptome of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyo Jung; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Cheng, Feng; Zhu, Ying; Xu, Xuming; Li, Mingfeng; Sousa, André M. M.; Pletikos, Mihovil; Meyer, Kyle A.; Sedmak, Goran; Guennel, Tobias; Shin, Yurae; Johnson, Matthew B.; Krsnik, Željka; Mayer, Simone; Fertuzinhos, Sofia; Umlauf, Sheila; Lisgo, Steven N.; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Mane, Shrikant; Hyde, Thomas M.; Huttner, Anita; Reimers, Mark; Kleinman, Joel E.; Šestan, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Summary Here we report the generation and analysis of genome-wide exon-level transcriptome data from 16 brain regions comprising the cerebellar cortex, mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, and 11 areas of the neocortex. The dataset was generated from 1,340 tissue samples collected from one or both hemispheres of 57 postmortem human brains, spanning from embryonic development to late adulthood and representing males and females of multiple ethnicities. We also performed genotyping of 2.5 million SNPs and assessed copy number variations for all donors. Approximately 86% of protein-coding genes were found to be expressed using stringent criteria, and over 90% of these were differentially regulated at the whole transcript or exon level across regions and/or time. The majority of these spatiotemporal differences occurred before birth, followed by an increase in the similarity among regional transcriptomes during postnatal lifespan. Genes were organized into functionally distinct co-expression networks, and sex differences were present in gene expression and exon usage. Finally, we demonstrate how these results can be used to profile trajectories of genes associated with neurodevelopmental processes, cell types, neurotransmitter systems, autism, and schizophrenia, as well as to discover associations between SNPs and spatiotemporal gene expression. This study provides a comprehensive, publicly available dataset on the spatiotemporal human brain transcriptome and new insights into the transcriptional foundations of human neurodevelopment. PMID:22031440

  5. NeuroimagingDecoding mental states from brain activity in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraint Rees; John-Dylan Haynes

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in human neuroimaging have shown that it is possible to accurately decode a person's conscious experience based only on non-invasive measurements of their brain activity. Such 'brain reading' has mostly been studied in the domain of visual perception, where it helps reveal the way in which individual experiences are encoded in the human brain. The same approach can

  6. Near infrared Raman spectra of human brain lipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Krafft; Lars Neudert; Thomas Simat; Reiner Salzer

    2005-01-01

    Human brain tissue, in particular white matter, contains high lipid content. These brain lipids can be divided into three principal classes: neutral lipids including the steroid cholesterol, phospholipids and sphingolipids. Major lipids in normal human brain tissue are phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, sphingomyelin, galactocerebrosides, gangliosides, sulfatides and cholesterol. Minor lipids are cholesterolester and triacylglycerides. During transformation from normal

  7. Neural Control: Closed-Loop Human Brain Reading

    E-print Network

    Földiák, Peter

    Neural Control: Closed-Loop Human Brain Reading Closed-loop experimental testing of single medial computations in the brain based on the averaged activity of millions of neurons. Knowing when and where surgically implanted in the brains of human patients for the treatment of epilepsy make it possible to record

  8. Human blood-brain barrier leptin receptor. Binding and endocytosis in isolated human brain microvessels.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, P L; Maccagnan, T J; Pardridge, W M

    1997-01-01

    The peripheral production of leptin by adipose tissue and its putative effect as a signal of satiety in the central nervous system suggest that leptin gains access to the regions of the brain regulating energy balance by crossing the brain capillary endothelium, which constitutes the blood-brain barrier in vivo. The present experiments characterize the binding and internalization of mouse recombinant leptin in isolated human brain capillaries, an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier. Incubation of 125I-leptin with isolated human brain capillaries resulted in temperature-dependent binding: at 37 degrees C, approximately 65% of radiolabeled leptin was bound per milligram of capillary protein. Two-thirds of the bound radioactivity was resistant to removal by acid wash, demonstrating endocytosis of 125I-leptin into capillary cells. At 4 degrees C, binding to isolated capillaries was reduced to approximately 23%/mg of protein, the majority of which was acid wash resistant. Binding of 125I-leptin to brain capillary endothelial plasma membranes was saturable, described by a two-site binding model with a high-affinity dissociation constant of 5.1+/-2.8 nM and maximal binding capacity of 0.34+/-0.16 pmol/mg of membrane protein. Addition of porcine insulin or insulin-like growth factor at a final concentration of 100 nM had a negligible effect on leptin binding. These results provide evidence for a leptin receptor that mediates saturable, specific, temperature-dependent binding and endocytosis of leptin at the human blood-brain barrier. PMID:9011568

  9. Population Differences in Brain Morphology and Microstructure among Chinese, Malay, and Indian Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jordan; Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad Farid; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    We studied a sample of 75 Chinese, 73 Malay, and 29 Indian healthy neonates taking part in a cohort study to examine potential differences in neonatal brain morphology and white matter microstructure as a function of ethnicity using both structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We first examined the differences in global size and morphology of the brain among the three groups. We then constructed the T2-weighted MRI and DTI atlases and employed voxel-based analysis to investigate ethnic differences in morphological shape of the brain from the T2-weighted MRI, and white matter microstructure measured by fractional anisotropy derived from DTI. Compared with Malay neonates, the brains of Indian neonates’ tended to be more elongated in anterior and posterior axis relative to the superior-inferior axis of the brain even though the total brain volume was similar among the three groups. Although most anatomical regions of the brain were similar among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates, there were anatomical variations in the spinal-cerebellar and cortical-striatal-thalamic neural circuits among the three populations. The population-related brain regions highlighted in our study are key anatomical substrates associated with sensorimotor functions. PMID:23112850

  10. Immunoregulatory cells in human decidua : morphology, immunohistochemistry and function

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Immunoregulatory cells in human decidua : morphology, immunohistochemistry and function Judith N of potentially immunocompetent cells in human decidua. However, their roles both in vitro and in vivo remain pregnancy have led to investigation of immunoregulatory function by decidualised endometrium. Human decidua

  11. Phenotypic integration of brain size and head morphology in Lake Tanganyika Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenotypic integration among different anatomical parts of the head is a common phenomenon across vertebrates. Interestingly, despite centuries of research into the factors that contribute to the existing variation in brain size among vertebrates, little is known about the role of phenotypic integration in brain size diversification. Here we used geometric morphometrics on the morphologically diverse Tanganyikan cichlids to investigate phenotypic integration across key morphological aspects of the head. Then, while taking the effect of shared ancestry into account, we tested if head shape was associated with brain size while controlling for the potentially confounding effect of feeding strategy. Results The shapes of the anterior and posterior parts of the head were strongly correlated, indicating that the head represents an integrated morphological unit in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. After controlling for phylogenetic non-independence, we also found evolutionary associations between head shape, brain size and feeding ecology. Conclusions Geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative analyses revealed that the anterior and posterior parts of the head are integrated, and that head morphology is associated with brain size and feeding ecology in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes. In light of previous results on mammals, our results suggest that the influence of phenotypic integration on brain diversification is a general process. PMID:24593160

  12. Evolution, development, and plasticity of the human brain: from molecules to bones.

    PubMed

    Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Bienvenu, Thibault; Stefanacci, Lisa; Muotri, Alysson R; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomical, molecular, and paleontological evidence is examined in light of human brain evolution. The brain of extant humans differs from the brains of other primates in its overall size and organization, and differences in size and organization of specific cortical areas and subcortical structures implicated into complex cognition and social and emotional processing. The human brain is also characterized by functional lateralizations, reflecting specializations of the cerebral hemispheres in humans for different types of processing, facilitating fast and reliable communication between neural cells in an enlarged brain. The features observed in the adult brain reflect human-specific patterns of brain development. Compared to the brains of other primates, the human brain takes longer to mature, promoting an extended period for establishing cortical microcircuitry and its modifications. Together, these features may underlie the prolonged period of learning and acquisition of technical and social skills necessary for survival, creating a unique cognitive and behavioral niche typical of our species. The neuroanatomical findings are in concordance with molecular analyses, which suggest a trend toward heterochrony in the expression of genes implicated in different functions. These include synaptogenesis, neuronal maturation, and plasticity in humans, mutations in genes implicated in neurite outgrowth and plasticity, and an increased role of regulatory mechanisms, potentially promoting fast modification of neuronal morphologies in response to new computational demands. At the same time, endocranial casts of fossil hominins provide an insight into the timing of the emergence of uniquely human features in the course of evolution. We conclude by proposing several ways of combining comparative neuroanatomy, molecular biology and insights gained from fossil endocasts in future research. PMID:24194709

  13. Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Roland M.; Friederici, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge. PMID:23301101

  14. Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Roland M; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge. PMID:23301101

  15. Growth Simulation of Human Embryo Brain S. Czanner

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    Growth Simulation of Human Embryo Brain S. Czanner , R. Durikovic and H. Inoue Software Department of human embryo is chang- ing through a long time in the body of mother. So it is very difficult to observe necessary for their stud- ies. But to create the realistic human embryo brain models and to do

  16. Craniofacial levels and the morphological maturation of the human skull

    PubMed Central

    Bastir, Markus; Rosas, Antonio; O’Higgins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the human skull achieves adult size through a superior–inferior gradient of maturation. Because the basicranium matures in size before the face, it has been suggested that the form of the basicranium might have ontogenetic knock-on effects on that of the face. However, although sequential spatially organized maturation of size is well described in the cranium, the maturation of skull shape is not. Knowledge of the maturation of shape is important, nevertheless, because it is claimed that the early determination of the spatial configuration of basicranial components, where the facial skeleton attaches, is relevant in the spatio-temporal ontogenetic cascade from basicranium to face. This paper examines the ontogeny of various components of the human skull in 28 individuals from the longitudinal Denver Growth Study. Sixty-six landmarks and semilandmarks were digitized on 228 X-rays and analysed using geometric morphometric methods. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for centroid size support previous studies suggesting a supero-inferior gradient of growth maturation (size over time), while developmental maturation (shape over time) is more complex. A sequence of shape maturation is described, in which the earliest structure to mature in shape was the midline cranial base (7–8 years), followed by the lateral cranial floor (11–12), midline neurocranium (9–10) and facial and mandibular structures (15–16). The absolute ages of shape maturation of the latter three depended on the criterion of maturity used, which was not the case for the basicranial components. Additionally, ontogenetic dissociations were found between the maturation of size and shape of the midline cranial base and lateral floor, possibly underlining its role as structural ‘interface’ between brain and facial ontogeny. These findings imply potential for bidirectional developmental influences between the lateral cranial floor and the face until about 11–12 years. The findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for palaeoanthropology and especially the evolutionary and developmental bases of skull morphological variation. PMID:17062021

  17. The shape of the human language-ready brain

    PubMed Central

    Boeckx, Cedric; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Our core hypothesis is that the emergence of our species-specific language-ready brain ought to be understood in light of the developmental changes expressed at the levels of brain morphology and neural connectivity that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals–Denisovans and that gave us a more globular braincase configuration. In addition to changes at the cortical level, we hypothesize that the anatomical shift that led to globularity also entailed significant changes at the subcortical level. We claim that the functional consequences of such changes must also be taken into account to gain a fuller understanding of our linguistic capacity. Here we focus on the thalamus, which we argue is central to language and human cognition, as it modulates fronto-parietal activity. With this new neurobiological perspective in place, we examine its possible molecular basis. We construct a candidate gene set whose members are involved in the development and connectivity of the thalamus, in the evolution of the human head, and are known to give rise to language-associated cognitive disorders. We submit that the new gene candidate set opens up new windows into our understanding of the genetic basis of our linguistic capacity. Thus, our hypothesis aims at generating new testing grounds concerning core aspects of language ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:24772099

  18. Age-related reorganizational changes in modularity and functional connectivity of human brain networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Birn, Rasmus M; Boly, Mélanie; Meier, Timothy B; Nair, Veena A; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-11-01

    The human brain undergoes both morphological and functional modifications across the human lifespan. It is important to understand the aspects of brain reorganization that are critical in normal aging. To address this question, one approach is to investigate age-related topological changes of the brain. In this study, we developed a brain network model using graph theory methods applied to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from two groups of normal healthy adults classified by age. We found that brain functional networks demonstrated modular organization in both groups with modularity decreased with aging, suggesting less distinct functional divisions across whole brain networks. Local efficiency was also decreased with aging but not with global efficiency. Besides these brain-wide observations, we also observed consistent alterations of network properties at the regional level in the elderly, particularly in two major functional networks-the default mode network (DMN) and the sensorimotor network. Specifically, we found that measures of regional strength, local and global efficiency of functional connectivity were increased in the sensorimotor network while decreased in the DMN with aging. These results indicate that global reorganization of brain functional networks may reflect overall topological changes with aging and that aging likely alters individual brain networks differently depending on the functional properties. Moreover, these findings highly correspond to the observation of decline in cognitive functions but maintenance of primary information processing in normal healthy aging, implying an underlying compensation mechanism evolving with aging to support higher-level cognitive functioning. PMID:25183440

  19. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D.; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Boltze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams) were acquired on a 1.5 T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight (BW), age, and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM) and white (WM) matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and BW explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species. PMID:26089780

  20. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes.

    PubMed

    Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H; Fonov, Vladimir S; Boltze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams) were acquired on a 1.5 T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight (BW), age, and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM) and white (WM) matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and BW explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species. PMID:26089780

  1. Exercises in Anatomy, Connectivity, and Morphology using Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Philip; Peck, Joshua; Brumberg, Joshua C.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory instruction of neuroscience is often limited by the lack of physical resources and supplies (e.g., brains specimens, dissection kits, physiological equipment). Online databases can serve as supplements to material labs by providing professionally collected images of brain specimens and their underlying cellular populations with resolution and quality that is extremely difficult to access for strictly pedagogical purposes. We describe a method using two online databases, the Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA), that freely provide access to data from working brain scientists that can be modified for laboratory instruction/exercises. Neuromorpho.org is the first neuronal morphology database that provides qualitative and quantitative data from reconstructed cells analyzed in published scientific reports. The Neuromorpho.org database contains cross species and multiple neuronal phenotype datasets which allows for comparative examinations. The ABA provides modules that allow students to study the anatomy of the rodent brain, as well as observe the different cellular phenotypes that exist using histochemical labeling. Using these tools in conjunction, advanced students can ask questions about qualitative and quantitative neuronal morphology, then examine the distribution of the same cell types across the entire brain to gain a full appreciation of the magnitude of the brain’s complexity. PMID:25838808

  2. Sex Differences in Human Brain Size and the General Meaning of Differences in Brain Size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Peters

    1991-01-01

    Contrary to commonly held convictions, there is no clear association between brain size and body parameters in humans. Within sexes, once age and health status are controlled for, there is no significant association between brain size and body height for females. For males, body height accounts for no more than .04% of the variance in brain size. The relation between

  3. The Human Brain Project: social and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nikolas

    2014-06-18

    Focusing on the Human Brain Project, I discuss some social and ethical challenges raised by such programs of research: the possibility of a unified knowledge of "the brain," balancing privacy and the public good, dilemmas of "dual use," brain-computer interfaces, and "responsible research and innovation" in governance of emerging technologies. PMID:24945767

  4. Exercises in Anatomy, Connectivity, and Morphology using Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas.

    PubMed

    Chu, Philip; Peck, Joshua; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory instruction of neuroscience is often limited by the lack of physical resources and supplies (e.g., brains specimens, dissection kits, physiological equipment). Online databases can serve as supplements to material labs by providing professionally collected images of brain specimens and their underlying cellular populations with resolution and quality that is extremely difficult to access for strictly pedagogical purposes. We describe a method using two online databases, the Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA), that freely provide access to data from working brain scientists that can be modified for laboratory instruction/exercises. Neuromorpho.org is the first neuronal morphology database that provides qualitative and quantitative data from reconstructed cells analyzed in published scientific reports. The Neuromorpho.org database contains cross species and multiple neuronal phenotype datasets which allows for comparative examinations. The ABA provides modules that allow students to study the anatomy of the rodent brain, as well as observe the different cellular phenotypes that exist using histochemical labeling. Using these tools in conjunction, advanced students can ask questions about qualitative and quantitative neuronal morphology, then examine the distribution of the same cell types across the entire brain to gain a full appreciation of the magnitude of the brain's complexity. PMID:25838808

  5. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. PMID:24035788

  6. Measures of brain morphology and infarction in the framingham heart study: establishing what is normal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles DeCarli; Joseph Massaro; Danielle Harvey; John Hald; Mats Tullberg; Rhoda Au; Alexa Beiser; Ralph D’Agostino; Philip A. Wolf

    2005-01-01

    Numerous anatomical and brain imaging studies find substantial differences in brain structure between men and women across the span of human aging. The ability to extend the results of many of these studies to the general population is limited, however, due to the generally small sample size and restrictive health criteria of these studies. Moreover, little attention has been paid

  7. The effect of neuroendocrine secretion on brain morphology and EEG sleep in patients with eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Lauer; Wolfgang Schreiber; Mathias Berger; Karl-Martin Pirke; Florian Holsboer; Jiirgen-Christian Krieg

    1989-01-01

    Summary Neuroendocrine disturbances [low plasma levels of triiodothyronine (T3), high plasma concentrations of cortisol], morphological brain alterations [enlarged external cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces, dilatation of the ventricles] and altered sleep patterns [fragmented sleep continuity, a reduction of slow wave sleep (SWS) or REM sleep] have been described in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The present study investigates to

  8. The Distribution and Morphological Characteristics of Serotonergic Cells in the Brain of Monotremes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Manger; Heidi M. Fahringer; John D. Pettigrew; Jerome M. Siegel

    2002-01-01

    The distribution and cellular morphology of serotonergic neurons in the brain of two species of monotremes are described. Three clusters of serotonergic neurons were found: a hypothalamic cluster, a cluster in the rostral brainstem and a cluster in the caudal brainstem. Those in the hypothalamus consisted of two groups, the periventricular hypothalamic organ and the infundibular recess, that were intimately

  9. Left Brain to Right Brain: Notes from the Human Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumli, Francis

    1982-01-01

    Examines the implications of the left brain-right brain theory on communications styles in male-female relationships. The author contends that women tend to use the vagueness of their emotional responses manipulatively. Men need to apply rational approaches to increase clarity in communication. (AM)

  10. Beyond classical inheritance: the influence of maternal genotype upon child's brain morphology and behavior.

    PubMed

    van der Knaap, Noortje J F; El Marroun, Hanan; Klumpers, Floris; Mous, Sabine E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Homberg, Judith R; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-07-16

    Genetic variance has been associated with variations in brain morphology, cognition, behavior, and disease risk. One well studied example of how common genetic variance is associated with brain morphology is the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism within the promoter region (5-HTTLPR). Because serotonin is a key neurotrophic factor during brain development, genetically determined variations in serotonin activity during maturation, in particular during early prenatal development, may underlie the observed association. However, the intrauterine microenvironment is not only determined by the child's, but also the mother's genotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that maternal 5-HTTLPR genotype influences the child's brain development beyond direct inheritance. To test this hypothesis, we investigated 76 children who were all heterozygous for the 5-HTTLPR (sl) and who had mothers who were either homozygous for the long (ll) or the short allele (ss). Using MRI, we assessed brain morphology as a function of maternal genotype. Gray matter density of the somatosensory cortex was found to be greater in children of ss mothers compared with children of ll mothers. Behavioral assessment showed that fine motor task performance was altered in children of ll mothers and the degree of this behavioral effect correlated with somatosensory cortex density across individuals. Our findings provide initial evidence that maternal genotype can affect the child's phenotype beyond effects of classical inheritance. Our observation appears to be explained by intrauterine environmental differences or by differences in maternal behavior. PMID:25031395

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging mapping of brain function. Human visual cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Belliveau; K. K. Kwong; D. N. Kennedy; J. R. Baker; C. E. Stern; R. Benson; D. A. Chesler; R. M. Weisskoff; M. S. Cohen; R. B. Tootell; P. T. Fox; T. J. Brady

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human brain activity are described. Task-induced changes in brain cognitive state were measured using high-speed MRI techniques sensitive to changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood flow (CBF), and blood oxygenation. These techniques were used to generate the first functional MRI maps of human task activation, by using a visual stimulus paradigm. The methodology

  12. The adult human brain in preclinical drug development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Dragunow

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are caused by the death and dysfunction of brain cells, but despite a huge worldwide effort, no neuroprotective treatments that slow cell death currently exist. The failure of translation from animal models to humans in the clinic is due to many factors including species differences, human brain complexity, age, patient variability and disease-specific phenotypes. Additional methods are therefore

  13. Unique human orbital morphology compared with that of apes

    PubMed Central

    Denion, Eric; Hitier, Martin; Guyader, Vincent; Dugué, Audrey-Emmanuelle; Mouriaux, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ and apes’ convergent (front-facing) orbits allow a large overlap of monocular visual fields but are considered to limit the lateral visual field extent. However, humans can greatly expand their lateral visual fields using eye motion. This study aimed to assess whether the human orbital morphology was unique compared with that of apes in avoiding lateral visual field obstruction. The orbits of 100 human skulls and 120 ape skulls (30 gibbons; 30 orangutans; 30 gorillas; 30 chimpanzees and bonobos) were analyzed. The orbital width/height ratio was calculated. Two orbital angles representing orbital convergence and rearward position of the orbital margin respectively were recorded using a protractor and laser levels. Humans have the largest orbital width/height ratio (1.19; p?Humans and gibbons have orbits which are significantly less convergent than those of chimpanzees / bonobos, gorillas and orangutans (p?morphology favoring lateral vision in humans. More specifically, the human orbit has a uniquely rearward temporal orbital margin (107.1°; p?morphology may have evolved mainly as an adaptation to open-country habitat and bipedal locomotion. PMID:26111067

  14. Spread of epileptic activity in human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, John

    1997-03-01

    For many patients with medically refractory epilepsy surgical resection of the site of seizure onset (epileptic focus) offers the best hope for cure. Determination of the nature of seizure propagation should lead to improved methods for locating the epileptic focus (and hence reduce patient morbidity) and possibly to new treatment modalities directed at blocking seizure spread. Theoretical studies of neural networks emphasize the role of traveling waves for the propagation of activity. However, the nature of seizure propagation in human brain remains poorly characterized. The spread of epileptic activity in patients undergoing presurgical evaluation for epilepsy surgery was measured by placing subdural grids of electrodes (interelectrode spacings of 3-10 mm) over the frontal and temporal lobes. The exact location of each electrode relative to the surface of the brain was determined using 3--D MRI imaging techniques. Thus it is possible to monitor the spread of epileptic activity in both space and time. The observations are discussed in light of models for seizure propagation.

  15. Bmcc1s, a Novel Brain-Isoform of Bmcc1, Affects Cell Morphology by Regulating MAP6/STOP Functions

    E-print Network

    predominantly expressed in the mouse brain. In primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons, Bmcc1s localizedBmcc1s, a Novel Brain-Isoform of Bmcc1, Affects Cell Morphology by Regulating MAP6/STOP Functions and Cdc42GAP Homology) domain-containing protein Bmcc1/Prune2 is highly enriched in the brain

  16. Morphology, language and the brain: the decompositional substrate for language comprehension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Marslen-Wilson; Lorraine K. Tyler

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines a neurocognitive approach to human language, focusing on inflectional morphology and grammatical function in English. Taking as a starting point the selective deficits for regular inflectional morphology of a group of non-fluent patients with left hemisphere damage, we argue for a core decompositional network linking left inferior frontal cortex with superior and middle temporal cortex, connected via

  17. Morphology of Corneocytes from Human Nail Plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henriette Germann; Werner Barran; Gerd Plewig

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described which permits the isolation of individual corneocytes from the superficial layers of the human nail plates. Tesa-film D is used to strip off the cells. The tape is mounted on a glass slide, stained with a mixture of methylene blue and rhodamine B. The parameters were size (Surface ?2), shape (regular, irregular), nuclear inclusions and trabeculae.

  18. Intermittent rhythmic delta activity (IRDA) morphology cannot distinguish between focal and diffuse brain disturbances.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, M Y; Chistik, V; Chapman, J; Korczyn, A D

    1999-03-15

    IRDA (intermittent rhythmic delta activity) is an abnormal generalized EEG pattern that is not specific to any single etiology and can occur with diffuse or focal cerebral disturbances. To determine whether different electrographic features of IRDA and associated EEG findings can differentiate underlying focal from diffuse brain disturbances, we performed a blind analysis of 58 consecutive EEGs with an IRDA pattern, recorded from 1993 until 1996, in which we evaluated posterior background activity, focal slowing and IRDA characteristics (frequency, distribution, duration, symmetry and abundance). The clinical diagnosis, state of consciousness and CT brain findings were retrieved from the patients' hospital records. There were 58 patients (33 females; mean age, 58+/-21 years). Twelve (21%) had only focal brain lesions, while 46 (79%) had diffuse brain abnormalities, (15 diffuse structural, 19 metabolic abnormalities, 12 postictal). Normal consciousness and focal EEG slowing were more frequent in patients with focal abnormalities, however, this was not statistically significant. Of the patients with focal abnormality, 11 (92%) had normal posterior background activity either bilaterally (n=4) or contralateral to the focal lesion (n=7). Bilaterally normal posterior background activity was observed in about 30% in both groups. Bilaterally abnormal posterior background activity was apparent in one patient (8%) with focal brain lesion and in 31 patients (67%) with diffuse brain abnormalities (P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in IRDA electrographic features between the focal group and the group with diffuse brain disturbances. We conclude that IRDA morphology cannot distinguish between focal and diffuse brain abnormalities. PMID:10385048

  19. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy at 14 Tesla and Correlative Histopathology of Human Brain Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Segura, Ana; Morales, Jose Manuel; Gonzalez-Darder, Jose Manuel; Cardona-Marsal, Ramon; Lopez-Gines, Concepcion; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel; Monleon, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM) can provide high microstructural detail in excised human lesions. Previous MRM images on some experimental models and a few human samples suggest the large potential of the technique. The aim of this study was the characterization of specific morphological features of human brain tumor samples by MRM and correlative histopathology. We performed MRM imaging and correlative histopathology in 19 meningioma and 11 glioma human brain tumor samples obtained at surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first MRM direct structural characterization of human brain tumor samples. MRM of brain tumor tissue provided images with 35 to 40 µm spatial resolution. The use of MRM to study human brain tumor samples provides new microstructural information on brain tumors for better classification and characterization. The correlation between MRM and histopathology images allowed the determination of image parameters for critical microstructures of the tumor, like collagen patterns, necrotic foci, calcifications and/or psammoma bodies, vascular distribution and hemorrhage among others. Therefore, MRM may help in interpreting the Clinical Magnetic Resonance images in terms of cell biology processes and tissue patterns. Finally, and most importantly for clinical diagnosis purposes, it provides three-dimensional information in intact samples which may help in selecting a preferential orientation for the histopathology slicing which contains most of the informative elements of the biopsy. Overall, the findings reported here provide a new and unique microstructural view of intact human brain tumor tissue. At this point, our approach and results allow the identification of specific tissue types and pathological features in unprocessed tumor samples. PMID:22110653

  20. Progenitor-derived Oligodendrocyte Culture System from Human Fetal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Maria Chiara G.; Maric, Dragan; Bandeian, Alexandra; Leibovitch, Emily; Yang, Wan; Major, Eugene O.

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of human neural progenitors into neuronal and glial cell types offers a model to study and compare molecular regulation of neural cell lineage development. In vitro expansion of neural progenitors from fetal CNS tissue has been well characterized. Despite the identification and isolation of glial progenitors from adult human sub-cortical white matter and development of various culture conditions to direct differentiation of fetal neural progenitors into myelin producing oligodendrocytes, acquiring sufficient human oligodendrocytes for in vitro experimentation remains difficult. Differentiation of galactocerebroside+ (GalC) and O4+ oligodendrocyte precursor or progenitor cells (OPC) from neural precursor cells has been reported using second trimester fetal brain. However, these cells do not proliferate in the absence of support cells including astrocytes and neurons, and are lost quickly over time in culture. The need remains for a culture system to produce cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage suitable for in vitro experimentation. Culture of primary human oligodendrocytes could, for example, be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of neurotropic infectious agents like the human polyomavirus, JCV, that in vivo infects those cells. These cultured cells could also provide models of other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Primary, human fetal brain-derived, multipotential neural progenitor cells proliferate in vitro while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into neurons (progenitor-derived neurons, PDN) and astrocytes (progenitor-derived astrocytes, PDA) This study shows that neural progenitors can be induced to differentiate through many of the stages of oligodendrocytic lineage development (progenitor-derived oligodendrocytes, PDO). We culture neural progenitor cells in DMEM-F12 serum-free media supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-AA), Sonic hedgehog (Shh), neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3), N-2 and triiodothyronine (T3). The cultured cells are passaged at 2.5e6 cells per 75cm flasks approximately every seven days. Using these conditions, the majority of the cells in culture maintain a morphology characterized by few processes and express markers of pre-oligodendrocyte cells, such as A2B5 and O-4. When we remove the four growth factors (GF) (bFGF, PDGF-AA, Shh, NT-3) and add conditioned media from PDN, the cells start to acquire more processes and express markers specific of oligodendrocyte differentiation, such as GalC and myelin basic protein (MBP). We performed phenotypic characterization using multicolor flow cytometry to identify unique markers of oligodendrocyte. PMID:23288248

  1. Aneuploidy and Confined Chromosomal Mosaicism in the Developing Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Liehr, Thomas; Kolotii, Alexei D.; Kutsev, Sergei I.; Pellestor, Franck; Beresheva, Alfia K.; Demidova, Irina A.; Kravets, Viktor S.; Monakhov, Viktor V.; Soloviev, Ilia V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms underlying generation of neuronal variability and complexity remains the central challenge for neuroscience. Structural variation in the neuronal genome is likely to be one important mechanism for neuronal diversity and brain diseases. Large-scale genomic variations due to loss or gain of whole chromosomes (aneuploidy) have been described in cells of the normal and diseased human brain, which are generated from neural stem cells during intrauterine period of life. However, the incidence of aneuploidy in the developing human brain and its impact on the brain development and function are obscure. Methodology/Principal Findings To address genomic variation during development we surveyed aneuploidy/polyploidy in the human fetal tissues by advanced molecular-cytogenetic techniques at the single-cell level. Here we show that the human developing brain has mosaic nature, being composed of euploid and aneuploid neural cells. Studying over 600,000 neural cells, we have determined the average aneuploidy frequency as 1.25–1.45% per chromosome, with the overall percentage of aneuploidy tending to approach 30–35%. Furthermore, we found that mosaic aneuploidy can be exclusively confined to the brain. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicates aneuploidization to be an additional pathological mechanism for neuronal genome diversification. These findings highlight the involvement of aneuploidy in the human brain development and suggest an unexpected link between developmental chromosomal instability, intercellural/intertissular genome diversity and human brain diseases. PMID:17593959

  2. Sunk costs in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Haller, Ariane; Schwabe, Lars

    2014-08-15

    Rational decision-making should not be influenced by irrecoverable past costs. Human beings, however, often violate this basic rule of economics and take 'sunk' costs into account when making decisions about current or future investments, thus exhibiting a so-called 'sunk cost effect'. Although the sunk cost effect may have serious political, financial or personal consequences, its neural basis is largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a novel financial decision-making task, we show here that previous investments reduced the contribution of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to current decision-making and that this reduction in vmPFC activity correlated with the sunk cost effect. Moreover, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) was associated with the norm not to waste resources and negatively correlated with vmPFC activity. The present findings show how past investments may bias decision-making in the human brain, suggesting that the interaction of vmPFC and dlPFC may promote a tendency to throw good money after bad. PMID:24751949

  3. Modeling the variability in brain morphology and lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis by deep learning.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Tom; Yoo, Youngjin; Li, David K B; Traboulsee, Anthony; Tam, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Changes in brain morphology and white matter lesions are two hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology, but their variability beyond volumetrics is poorly characterized. To further our understanding of complex MS pathology, we aim to build a statistical model of brain images that can automatically discover spatial patterns of variability in brain morphology and lesion distribution. We propose building such a model using a deep belief network (DBN), a layered network whose parameters can be learned from training images. In contrast to other manifold learning algorithms, the DBN approach does not require a prebuilt proximity graph, which is particularly advantageous for modeling lesions, because their sparse and random nature makes defining a suitable distance measure between lesion images challenging. Our model consists of a morphology DBN, a lesion DBN, and a joint DBN that models concurring morphological and lesion patterns. Our results show that this model can automatically discover the classic patterns of MS pathology, as well as more subtle ones, and that the parameters computed have strong relationships to MS clinical scores. PMID:25485412

  4. Neurotransmission and the ontogeny of human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Retz; J. Kornhuber; P. Riederer

    1996-01-01

    Summary The early appearance of neurotransmitters in brain tissue refers to their regulative functions on the neuronal circuits. Many neurotransmitters have direct effects on neuronal outgrowth and differentiation during brain development, which precede their role in synaptic information coding. Both the neurotrophic and neurotoxic properties of excitatory amino acids (EAAs) have focused special interest on glutamatergic neurotransmission during brain development.

  5. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:25594822

  6. Genomic connectivity networks based on the BrainSpan atlas of the developing human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, Ahmed; Ziats, Mark N.; Rennert, Owen M.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2014-03-01

    The human brain comprises systems of networks that span the molecular, cellular, anatomic and functional levels. Molecular studies of the developing brain have focused on elucidating networks among gene products that may drive cellular brain development by functioning together in biological pathways. On the other hand, studies of the brain connectome attempt to determine how anatomically distinct brain regions are connected to each other, either anatomically (diffusion tensor imaging) or functionally (functional MRI and EEG), and how they change over development. A global examination of the relationship between gene expression and connectivity in the developing human brain is necessary to understand how the genetic signature of different brain regions instructs connections to other regions. Furthermore, analyzing the development of connectivity networks based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of gene expression provides a new insight into the effect of neurodevelopmental disease genes on brain networks. In this work, we construct connectivity networks between brain regions based on the similarity of their gene expression signature, termed "Genomic Connectivity Networks" (GCNs). Genomic connectivity networks were constructed using data from the BrainSpan Transcriptional Atlas of the Developing Human Brain. Our goal was to understand how the genetic signatures of anatomically distinct brain regions relate to each other across development. We assessed the neurodevelopmental changes in connectivity patterns of brain regions when networks were constructed with genes implicated in the neurodevelopmental disorder autism (autism spectrum disorder; ASD). Using graph theory metrics to characterize the GCNs, we show that ASD-GCNs are relatively less connected later in development with the cerebellum showing a very distinct expression of ASD-associated genes compared to other brain regions.

  7. Demographic, Morphological, and Clinical Characteristics of 1289 Patients With Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hofmeister; C. Stapf; A. Hartmann; R. R. Sciacca; U. Mansmann; K. terBrugge; P. Lasjaunias; J. P. Mohr; H. Mast; J. Meisel

    Background and Purpose—The purpose of this study was to assess demographic, clinical, and morphological characteristics of patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods—Prospectively collected data of 1289 consecutive AVM patients from 3 independent databases (1 multicenter (Berlin\\/Paris\\/Middle and Far East, n5662) and 2 single centers (New York, n5337, and Toronto, n5290)) were analyzed. The variables assessed were age at diagnosis,

  8. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. PMID:24291669

  9. A phase transition in human brain and behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. S. Kelso; S. L. Bressler; S. Buchanan; G. C. Deguzman; M. Ding; A. Fuchs; T. Holroyd

    1992-01-01

    Using a circular 37-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensor array, we observe spontaneous transitions in neuromagnetic field patterns in the human brain which occur at a critical value of a systematically varied behavioral parameter. Coherent states of both brain and behavior are captured by the spatiotemporal pattern of phase relations among participating components. Such observations support the thesis that the

  10. Extracellular N-acetylaspartate in human traumatic brain injury

    E-print Network

    Shannon, Richard J.; van der Heide, Susan; Carter, Eleanor L.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Menon, David K.; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Carpenter, Keri L. H.

    2015-07-10

    For Peer Review Only/Not for Distribution Journal of Neurotrauma: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/neurotrauma Extracellular N-acetylaspartate in human traumatic brain injury Journal: Journal of Neurotrauma Manuscript ID: NEU-2015... , David; University of Cambridge, Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Dept of Clinical Neurosciences; University of Cambridge, Head, Division of Anaesthesia Hutchinson, Peter; University of Cambridge, Clinical Neurosciences; University of Cambridge, Wolfson...

  11. Artificial Brain Based on Credible Neural Circuits in a Human Brain

    E-print Network

    Burger, John Robert

    2010-01-01

    Neurons are individually translated into simple gates to plan a brain with human psychology and intelligence. State machines, assumed previously learned in subconscious associative memory are shown to enable equation solving and rudimentary thinking using nanoprocessing within short term memory.

  12. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Perceptual Criteria in the Human Brain

    E-print Network

    Segraves, Kari A.

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Perceptual Criteria in the Human Brain Corey N. White,1 Jeanette A understanding of the neural correlates of decision flexibility and adjustments of behavioral bias. Introduction- nitive scientists to probe different aspects of cognitive processing, includingperception

  13. Evolutionary biology: Human brain gene wins genome race

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris P. Ponting; Gerton Lunter

    2006-01-01

    The differences in brain size and function that separate humans from other mammals must be reflected in our genomes. It seems that the non-coding 'dark matter' of genomes harbours most of these vital changes.

  14. Brain Prostheses as a Dynamic System (Immortalizing the Human Brain?)

    E-print Network

    Astakhov, Vadim

    2007-01-01

    Interest in development of brain prostheses, which might be proposed to recover mental functions lost due to neuron-degenerative disease or trauma, requires new methods in molecular engineering and nanotechnology to build artificial brain tissues. We develop a Dynamic Core model to analyze complexity of damaged biological neural network as well as transition and recovery of the system functionality due to changes in the system environment. We provide a method to model complexity of physical systems which might be proposed as an artificial tissue or prosthesis. Delocalization of Dynamic Core model is developed to analyze migration of mental functions in dynamic bio-systems which undergo architecture transition induced by trauma. Term Dynamic Core is used to define a set of causally related functions and Delocalization is used to describe the process of migration. Information geometry and topological formalisms are proposed to analyze information processes. A holographic model is proposed to construct dynamic e...

  15. Resonance of human brain under head acceleration.

    PubMed

    Laksari, Kaveh; Wu, Lyndia C; Kurt, Mehmet; Kuo, Calvin; Camarillo, David C

    2015-07-01

    Although safety standards have reduced fatal head trauma due to single severe head impacts, mild trauma from repeated head exposures may carry risks of long-term chronic changes in the brain's function and structure. To study the physical sensitivities of the brain to mild head impacts, we developed the first dynamic model of the skull-brain based on in vivo MRI data. We showed that the motion of the brain can be described by a rigid-body with constrained kinematics. We further demonstrated that skull-brain dynamics can be approximated by an under-damped system with a low-frequency resonance at around 15 Hz. Furthermore, from our previous field measurements, we found that head motions in a variety of activities, including contact sports, show a primary frequency of less than 20 Hz. This implies that typical head exposures may drive the brain dangerously close to its mechanical resonance and lead to amplified brain-skull relative motions. Our results suggest a possible cause for mild brain trauma, which could occur due to repetitive low-acceleration head oscillations in a variety of recreational and occupational activities. PMID:26063824

  16. DUF1220 domains, cognitive disease, and human brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Dumas, L; Sikela, J M

    2009-01-01

    We have established that human genome sequences encoding a novel protein domain, DUF1220, show a dramatically elevated copy number in the human lineage (>200 copies in humans vs. 1 in mouse/rat) and may be important to human evolutionary adaptation. Copy-number variations (CNVs) in the 1q21.1 region, where most DUF1220 sequences map, have now been implicated in numerous diseases associated with cognitive dysfunction, including autism, autism spectrum disorder, mental retardation, schizophrenia, microcephaly, and macrocephaly. We report here that these disease-related 1q21.1 CNVs either encompass or are directly flanked by DUF1220 sequences and exhibit a dosage-related correlation with human brain size. Microcephaly-producing 1q21.1 CNVs are deletions, whereas macrocephaly-producing 1q21.1 CNVs are duplications. Similarly, 1q21.1 deletions and smaller brain size are linked with schizophrenia, whereas 1q21.1 duplications and larger brain size are associated with autism. Interestingly, these two diseases are thought to be phenotypic opposites. These data suggest a model which proposes that (1) DUF1220 domain copy number may be involved in influencing human brain size and (2) the evolutionary advantage of rapidly increasing DUF1220 copy number in the human lineage has resulted in favoring retention of the high genomic instability of the 1q21.1 region, which, in turn, has precipitated a spectrum of recurrent human brain and developmental disorders. PMID:19850849

  17. Morphological and functional characteristics of human gingival junctional epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to observe the morphological characteristics and identify the function characteristics of junctional epithelium (JE) tissues and cultured JE cells. Methods Paraffin sections of human molar or premolar on the gingival buccolingual side were prepared from 6 subjects. HE staining and image analysis were performed to measure and compare the morphological difference among JE, oral gingival epithelium (OGE) and sulcular epithelium (SE). Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression pattern of cytokeratin 5/6, 7, 8/18, 10/13, 16, 17, 19, and 20 in JE, OGE and SE. On the other hand, primary human JE and OGE cells were cultured in vitro. Cell identify was confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry. In a co-culture model, TEM was used to observe the attachment formation between JE cells and tooth surface. Results Human JE was a unique tissue which was different from SE and OGE in morphology. Similarly, morphology of JE cells was also particular compared with OGE cells cultured in vitro. In addition, JE cells had a longer incubation period than OGE cells. Different expression of several CKs illustrated JE was in a characteristic of low differentiation and high regeneration. After being co-cultured for 14 d, multiple cell layers, basement membrane-like and hemidesmosome-like structures were appeared at the junction of JE cell membrane and tooth surface. Conclusions JE is a specially stratified epithelium with low differentiation and high regeneration ability in gingival tissue both in vivo and in vitro. In co-culture model, human JE cells can form basement membrane-like and hemidesmosome-like structures in about 2 weeks. PMID:24708739

  18. Near infrared Raman spectra of human brain lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Christoph; Neudert, Lars; Simat, Thomas; Salzer, Reiner

    2005-05-01

    Human brain tissue, in particular white matter, contains high lipid content. These brain lipids can be divided into three principal classes: neutral lipids including the steroid cholesterol, phospholipids and sphingolipids. Major lipids in normal human brain tissue are phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, sphingomyelin, galactocerebrosides, gangliosides, sulfatides and cholesterol. Minor lipids are cholesterolester and triacylglycerides. During transformation from normal brain tissue to tumors, composition and concentration of lipids change in a specific way. Therefore, analysis of lipids might be used as a diagnostic parameter to distinguish normal tissue from tumors and to determine the tumor type and tumor grade. Raman spectroscopy has been suggested as an analytical tool to detect these changes even under intra-operative conditions. We recorded Raman spectra of the 12 major and minor brain lipids with 785 nm excitation in order to identify their spectral fingerprints for qualitative and quantitative analyses.

  19. Decoding mental states from brain activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Haynes, John-Dylan; Rees, Geraint

    2006-07-01

    Recent advances in human neuroimaging have shown that it is possible to accurately decode a person's conscious experience based only on non-invasive measurements of their brain activity. Such 'brain reading' has mostly been studied in the domain of visual perception, where it helps reveal the way in which individual experiences are encoded in the human brain. The same approach can also be extended to other types of mental state, such as covert attitudes and lie detection. Such applications raise important ethical issues concerning the privacy of personal thought. PMID:16791142

  20. General Anesthesia and Human Brain Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract General anesthesia consists of amnesia, hypnosis, analgesia, and areflexia. Of these, the mechanism of hypnosis, or loss of consciousness, has been the most elusive, yet a fascinating problem. How anesthetic agents suppress human consciousness has been investigated with neuroimaging for two decades. Anesthetics substantially reduce the global cerebral metabolic rate and blood flow with a degree of regional heterogeneity characteristic to the anesthetic agent. The thalamus appears to be a common site of modulation by several anesthetics, but this may be secondary to cortical effects. Stimulus-dependent brain activation is preserved in primary sensory areas, suggesting that unconsciousness cannot be explained by cortical deafferentation or a diminution of cortical sensory reactivity. The effect of general anesthetics in functional and effective connectivity is varied depending on the agent, dose, and network studied. At an anesthetic depth characterized by the subjects' unresponsiveness, a partial, but not complete, reduction in connectivity is generally observed. Functional connectivity of the frontoparietal association cortex is often reduced, but a causal role of this change for the loss of consciousness remains uncertain. Functional connectivity of the nonspecific (intralaminar) thalamic nuclei is preferentially reduced by propofol. Higher-order thalamocortical connectivity is also reduced with certain anesthetics. The changes in functional connectivity during anesthesia induction and emergence do not mirror each other; the recovery from anesthesia may involve increases in functional connectivity above the normal wakeful baseline. Anesthetic loss of consciousness is not a block of corticofugal information transfer, but a disruption of higher-order cortical information integration. The prime candidates for functional networks of the forebrain that play a critical role in maintaining the state of consciousness are those based on the posterior parietal-cingulate-precuneus region and the nonspecific thalamus. PMID:23153273

  1. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    PubMed

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues. PMID:25137064

  2. Conscious Brain-to-Brain Communication in Humans Using Non-Invasive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues. PMID:25137064

  3. Morphological Effects Induced In Vitro by Propranolol on Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Zambrano, Pablo; Villena, Fernando; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela; Gallardo, María José; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz; Edwards, Ana María; Mennickent, Sigrid; Dukes, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Despite the extended use and well-documented information, there are insufficient reports concerning the effects of propranolol on the structure and functions of cell membranes, particularly those of human erythrocytes. Aimed to better understand the molecular mechanisms of its interactions with cell membranes, human erythrocyte and molecular models of the red cell membrane were utilized. The latter consisted of bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. The capacity of propranolol to perturb the multibilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, we took advantage of the capability of differential scanning calorimetry to detect the changes in the thermotropic phase behavior of lipid bilayers resulting from propranolol interaction with DMPC and DMPE multilamellar vesicles. In an attempt to further elucidate their effects on cell membranes, the present work also examined their influence on the morphology of intact human erythrocytes by means of defocusing and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that propranolol induced morphological changes to human erythrocytes and interacted in a concentration-dependent manner with phospholipid bilayer. PMID:25724773

  4. Changes in brain amine levels associated with the morphological and behavioural development of the worker honeybee.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D J; Robinson, G E; Logan, B J; Laverty, R; Mercer, A R

    1992-07-01

    Changes in biogenic amine levels associated with the morphological and behavioural development of the worker honeybee are examined. A significant increase in amine levels in the head of the honeybee is associated with transition from the larval to pupal stage. Adult emergence is also accompanied by a significant increase in 5-HT levels in the brain, but no significant change in brain dopamine (DA) levels. NADA (N-acetyldopamine) levels increase during larval and pupal development, but in contrast to both DA and 5-HT, drop significantly during the transition from pupa to adult. Levels of DA in the brain of nectar and pollen forager bees, presumed to be among the oldest adults sampled, were found to be significantly higher than in nurses, undertakers or food storers. These results suggest that an age-dependent change in amine levels occurs in the brain of the worker bee. In the optic lobes, levels of DA and 5-HT were found to be significantly higher in pollen forager bees than in all other behavioural groups. Significant differences in amine levels in the optic lobes of nectar foragers and pollen foragers indicate that some differences in amine levels occur independent of worker age. The functional significance of differences in brain amine levels and whether or not biogenic amines play a direct role in the control of honeybee behaviour has yet to be established. PMID:1432851

  5. Hemodynamic and morphologic responses in mouse brain during acute head injury imaged by multispectral structured illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Boris; Mathews, Marlon S.; Abookasis, David

    2015-03-01

    Multispectral imaging has received significant attention over the last decade as it integrates spectroscopy, imaging, tomography analysis concurrently to acquire both spatial and spectral information from biological tissue. In the present study, a multispectral setup based on projection of structured illumination at several near-infrared wavelengths and at different spatial frequencies is applied to quantitatively assess brain function before, during, and after the onset of traumatic brain injury in an intact mouse brain (n=5). For the production of head injury, we used the weight drop method where weight of a cylindrical metallic rod falling along a metal tube strikes the mouse's head. Structured light was projected onto the scalp surface and diffuse reflected light was recorded by a CCD camera positioned perpendicular to the mouse head. Following data analysis, we were able to concurrently show a series of hemodynamic and morphologic changes over time including higher deoxyhemoglobin, reduction in oxygen saturation, cell swelling, etc., in comparison with baseline measurements. Overall, results demonstrates the capability of multispectral imaging based structured illumination to detect and map of brain tissue optical and physiological properties following brain injury in a simple noninvasive and noncontact manner.

  6. Possible functional links among brain- and skull-related genes selected in modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Boeckx, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    The sequencing of the genomes from extinct hominins has revealed that changes in some brain-related genes have been selected after the split between anatomically-modern humans and Neanderthals/Denisovans. To date, no coherent view of these changes has been provided. Following a line of research we initiated in Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco (2014a), we hypothesize functional links among most of these genes and their products, based on the existing literature for each of the gene discussed. The genes we focus on are found mutated in different cognitive disorders affecting modern populations and their products are involved in skull and brain morphology, and neural connectivity. If our hypothesis turns out to be on the right track, it means that the changes affecting most of these proteins resulted in a more globular brain and ultimately brought about modern cognition, with its characteristic generativity and capacity to form and exploit cross-modular concepts, properties most clearly manifested in language.

  7. Morphological brain network assessed using graph theory and network filtration in deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyung; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Hyekyoung; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Suh, Myung-Whan; Song, Jae-Jin; Oh, Seung-Ha; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-09-01

    Prolonged deprivation of auditory input can change brain networks in pre- and postlingual deaf adults by brain-wide reorganization. To investigate morphological changes in these brains voxel-based morphometry, voxel-wise correlation with the primary auditory cortex, and whole brain network analyses using morphological covariance were performed in eight prelingual deaf, eleven postlingual deaf, and eleven hearing adults. Network characteristics based on graph theory and network filtration based on persistent homology were examined. Gray matter density in the primary auditor cortex was preserved in prelingual deafness, while it tended to decrease in postlingual deafness. Unlike postlingual, prelingual deafness showed increased bilateral temporal connectivity of the primary auditory cortex compared to the hearing adults. Of the graph theory-based characteristics, clustering coefficient, betweenness centrality, and nodal efficiency all increased in prelingual deafness, while all the parameters of postlingual deafness were similar to the hearing adults. Patterns of connected components changing during network filtration were different between prelingual deafness and hearing adults according to the barcode, dendrogram, and single linkage matrix representations, while these were the same in postlingual deafness. Nodes in fronto-limbic and left temporal components were closely coupled, and nodes in the temporo-parietal component were loosely coupled, in prelingual deafness. Patterns of connected components changing in postlingual deafness were the same as hearing adults. We propose that the preserved density of auditory cortex associated with increased connectivity in prelingual deafness, and closer coupling between certain brain areas, represent distinctive reorganization of auditory and related cortices compared with hearing or postlingual deaf adults. The differential network reorganization in the prelingual deaf adults could be related to the absence of auditory speech experience. PMID:25016143

  8. Brain Morphology and Cerebrovascular Risk in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: SCOBHI-P study

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Lee, Dong Young; Martinez, Oliver; Ding, Ding; Carmichael, Owen; Mortimer, James A.; Zhao, Qianhua; Chu, Shugang; Guo, Qihao; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David; Dai, Qi; Wu, Yougui; Petersen, Ron; Hong, Zhen; Borenstein, Amy R.; DeCarli, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between MRI brain morphology, cerebrovascular risk (VR), clinical diagnosis and cognition among elders living in urban Shanghai. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Memory Disorders Clinic and community normal control (NC) subject recruitment. Participants Ninety-six older subjects, 32 with normal cognition, 30 with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 34 with dementia. Main outcome measures Each subject received medical history, neurological/physical exams, neuropsychological evaluations, brain MRI and apolipoprotein E-?4 (APOE -?4) genotype test. MRI volumes were assessed using a semi-automatic method. Results Brain volume (BV) was significantly smaller in the demented compared with NC (p < 0.001) or aMCI (p = 0.043). Hippocampal volume (HV) was lower, and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMH) was higher, in aMCI (HV: p = 0.028; WMH: p = 0.041) and dementia (HV: p < 0.001; WMH: p = 0.002) compared with NC. APOE -?4 presence was significantly associated with reduced HV (p = 0.02). Systolic blood pressure was positively associated with VR score (p = 0.037); diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.021) and VR score (p = 0.036) were both positively associated with WMH. WMH (p = 0.029) and VR (p = 0.031) were both higher among the demented than NC. Conclusion MRI brain morphology changes were significantly associated clinical diagnosis, in addition, blood pressure was highly associated with VR score and WMH. These results suggest that MRI is a valuable measure of brain injury in a Chinese cohort and can serve to assess the effects of various degenerative and cerebrovascular pathologies. PMID:20937951

  9. Understanding complexity in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its workings relate to the mind, the majority of current efforts are largely focused on small questions using increasingly detailed data. However, it might be possible to successfully address the larger question of mind–brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neuroscientific studies are coupled with complementary approaches from physics and philosophy. The brain, we argue, can be understood as a complex system or network, in which mental states emerge from the interaction between multiple physical and functional levels. Achieving further conceptual progress will crucially depend on broad-scale discussions regarding the properties of cognition and the tools that are currently available or must be developed in order to study mind–brain mechanisms. PMID:21497128

  10. Neurobiology of Aging 26 (2005) 491510 Measures of brain morphology and infarction in the framingham

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    2005-01-01

    differences in brain structure between men and women across the span of human aging. The ability to extend 2200 male and female participants of the Framingham Heart Study who ranged in age from 34 to 97 years generally not significant after correcting for gender related differences in head size. Age explained

  11. Brain Struct Func . Author manuscript Spanning the rich spectrum of the human brain: slow waves to gamma and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Brain Struct Func . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Spanning the rich spectrum of the human brain: slow amount of attention in recent years. We agree that brain dynamics must be examined at all possible scales and across several frequency bands, and that it would be foolish to restrict our understanding of brain

  12. Progress on the paternal brain: theory, animal models, human brain research, and mental health implications.

    PubMed

    Swain, J E; Dayton, C J; Kim, P; Tolman, R M; Volling, B L

    2014-01-01

    With a secure foundation in basic research across mammalian species in which fathers participate in the raising of young, novel brain-imaging approaches are outlining a set of consistent brain circuits that regulate paternal thoughts and behaviors in humans. The newest experimental paradigms include increasingly realistic baby-stimuli to provoke paternal cognitions and behaviors with coordinated hormone measures to outline brain networks that regulate motivation, reflexive caring, emotion regulation, and social brain networks with differences and similarities to those found in mothers. In this article, on the father brain, we review all brain-imaging studies on PubMed to date on the human father brain and introduce the topic with a selection of theoretical models and foundational neurohormonal research on animal models in support of the human work. We discuss potentially translatable models for the identification and treatment of paternal mood and father-child relational problems, which could improve infant mental health and developmental trajectories with potentially broad public health importance. PMID:25798491

  13. Human enteric neurons: morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical identification

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, S E; Jovanovska, V; Nurgali, K; Brookes, S J H

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to tissue, difficulties with dissection, and poor visibility of enteric ganglia have hampered electrophysiological recordings of human enteric neurons. Here, we report a method to combine intracellular recording with simultaneous morphological identification of neurons in the intact myenteric plexus of human colon ex vivo. Methods Specimens of human colon were dissected into flat-sheet preparations with the myenteric plexus exposed. Myenteric neurons were impaled with conventional microelectrodes containing 5% 5,6-carboxyfluorescein in 20 mM Tris buffer and 1 M KC. Key Results Electrophysiological recordings identified myenteric neurons with S and AH type properties (n = 13, N = 7) which were dye filled and classified during the recording as Dogiel type I (n = 10), Dogiel type II (n = 2), or filamentous (n = 1) cells. This classification was confirmed after fixation, in combination with immunohistochemical characterization. Conclusions & Inferences This method allows electrophysiological characterization with simultaneous identification of morphology. It can be used to identify recorded cells immediately after impalement and greatly facilitates recordings of human myenteric neurons in freshly dissected specimens of tissue. It can also be combined with immunohistochemical labeling of recorded cells. PMID:25293378

  14. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-II: heritability and effect on brain morphology in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wassink, T H; Crowe, R R; Andreasen, N C

    2000-11-01

    A growing body of research suggests the involvement of immune system factors in central nervous system development and in pathophysiology related to schizophrenia.(1,2) We therefore investigated the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-II (TNF-RII), a TNFalpha receptor expressed in fetal brain, as a candidate disease gene for schizophrenia. We also investigated the relationship between TNF-RII and adult brain morphology. The study sample consisted of 140 probands diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, 197 parents of the probands (a subset of which formed 62 proband-parent trios), and 46 psychiatrically normal control subjects. A bi-allelic TNF-RII polymorphism was examined for evidence of association, with none being found between this polymorphism and schizophrenia. Subjects with schizophrenia homozygous for allele 1, however, had larger ventricles and smaller frontal lobes than subjects with at least one copy of allele 2. On follow-up testing, they also had an earlier, less variable age of onset for their illness. We found no support, therefore, for TNF-RII as a disease susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. The gene may, however, modify phenotypic aspects of the disease such as brain morphology and age of onset of illness. PMID:11126399

  15. GROWTH PATTERNS IN THE DEVELOPING HUMAN BRAIN DETECTED USING

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    1 GROWTH PATTERNS IN THE DEVELOPING HUMAN BRAIN DETECTED USING CONTINUUM-MECHANICAL TENSOR MAPPING) 206-2101 Fax: (310) 206-5518 E-mail: toga@loni.ucla.edu #12;2 GROWTH PATTERNS IN THE DEVELOPING HUMAN report the first, spatially-complex, 4-dimensional quantitative maps of growth patterns in the developing

  16. Sibling rivalry among paralogs promotes evolution of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali

    2012-05-11

    Geneticists have long sought to identify the genetic changes that made us human, but pinpointing the functionally relevant changes has been challenging. Two papers in this issue suggest that partial duplication of SRGAP2, producing an incomplete protein that antagonizes the original, contributed to human brain evolution. PMID:22579279

  17. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. PMID:24335033

  18. Effects of metallic ion toxicity on human gingival fibroblasts morphology.

    PubMed

    Messer, R L; Bishop, S; Lucas, L C

    1999-09-01

    Alloys used as implant materials release metal ions to surrounding tissues. Cytotoxic substances attack at the molecular level, and these effects are reflected in the structure of the cells and organelles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cellular morphology and ultrastructural changes of cultured human gingival fibroblasts to salt solutions of ions (beryllium (Be+2), chromium (Cr+6 and Cr+3), nickel (Ni+2), molybdenum (Mo+6)) which may be released from nickel-chromium dental alloys. The concentrations chosen were based on previously conducted cell culture studies. Fibroblasts were exposed to the different ion concentrations for 24 or 72 h. Cellular morphology and ultrastructural features were examined using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural alterations observed included irregular shaped nuclei for cells exposed to hexavalent chromium and nickel, pseudopodia for cells exposed to beryllium and molybdenum, and lipid droplet formation in cells exposed to nickel. PMID:10503967

  19. Increasing breadth of the frontal lobe but decreasing height of the human brain between two Chinese samples from a Neolithic site and from living humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Tang, Yuchun; Ge, Haitao; Wang, Fen; Sun, Huafu; Meng, Haiwei; Wang, Shaoyu; Xu, Junhai; Fan, Rong; Fan, Lingzhong; Zhang, Zhonghe; Shan, Tao; Yuan, Hongtu; Zhan, Jinfeng; Yu, Qiaowen; Ge, Xinting; Tang, Haiyan; Leng, Yuan; Ding, Shihai; Liu, Shuwei

    2014-05-01

    Morphological observation and measurements of endocasts have played a vital role in research on the evolution of the human brain. However, endocasts have never been used to investigate how the human brain has evolved since the Neolithic period. We investigated the evolution of the human brain during the Holocene by comparing virtual endocasts from Beiqian site (a Neolithic Chinese site) and a sample of Chinese modern-day humans. Standardized measurements and indices were taken to provide quantification of the overall endocast shape, including the length, breadth, height, frontal breadth, and the ratio of frontal breadth to breadth, as well as the cranial capacity. We found that the height of the endocasts and cranial capacity have decreased between our two samples, whereas the frontal breadth and sexual dimorphism have increased. We argue that these changes can be caused by random genetic mutation and epigenetic change in response to changes in the environment. PMID:24470191

  20. Brain cholinergic, behavioral, and morphological development in rats exposed in utero to methylparathion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Rech, R H; Lovell, K L; Welsch, F; Thornburg, J E

    1985-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of subchronic administration of the organophosphate methylparathion (MPTH) during gestation on behavior and development of brain cholinergic neurons in the offspring. Pregnant rats received daily po doses of MPTH from Day 6 through Day 20 of gestation at doses causing no (1.0 mg/kg) or minimal (1.5 mg/kg) visible signs of maternal toxicity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activities, and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors, were determined in several brain regions at 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days postnatal age and in maternal brain at Day 19 of gestation. Prenatal exposure to 1.5 mg MPTH/kg reduced AChE and increased CAT activity in all brain regions at each developmental period and in maternal brain. Similar exposure to 1.0 mg MPTH/kg caused a significant but smaller and less persistent reduction in AChE activity but no change in brain CAT activity of the offspring. Both doses of MPTH decreased the Bmax of 3H-QNB binding in maternal frontal cortex but did not alter the postnatal pattern of 3H-QNB binding. In parallel studies, prenatal exposure to MPTH did not affect a variety of behaviors. However, cage emergence, accommodated locomotor activity, and operant behavior in a mixed paradigm were impaired in rats exposed to 1.0 but not to 1.5 mg/kg MPTH. No morphological changes were observed in hippocampal or cerebellar tissue. Thus, subchronic prenatal exposure to MPTH altered postnatal development of cholinergic neurons and caused subtle alterations in selected behaviors of the offspring. PMID:3975908

  1. Expectation modulates neural representations of valence throughout the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ramayya, Ashwin G; Pedisich, Isaac; Kahana, Michael J

    2015-07-15

    The brain's sensitivity to unexpected gains or losses plays an important role in our ability to learn new behaviors (Rescorla and Wagner, 1972; Sutton and Barto, 1990). Recent work suggests that gains and losses are ubiquitously encoded throughout the human brain (Vickery et al., 2011), however, the extent to which reward expectation modulates these valence representations is not known. To address this question, we analyzed recordings from 4306 intracranially implanted electrodes in 39 neurosurgical patients as they performed a two-alternative probability learning task. Using high-frequency activity (HFA, 70-200Hz) as an indicator of local firing rates, we found that expectation modulated reward-related neural activity in widespread brain regions, including regions that receive sparse inputs from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The strength of unexpected gain signals predicted subjects' abilities to encode stimulus-reward associations. Thus, neural signals that are functionally related to learning are widely distributed throughout the human brain. PMID:25937489

  2. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  3. Enhanced expression of aquaporin 4 in human brain with infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuko Aoki; Toshiki Uchihara; Kuniaki Tsuchiya; Ayako Nakamura; Kenji Ikeda; Yoshihiro Wakayama

    2003-01-01

    A series of human brains with cerebral infarction obtained at autopsy were investigated to clarify the possible contribution of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) to the development of brain edema. Cellular localization of AQP4 and its relation to ischemic foci were examined with double-labeling immunohistochemistry. AQP4 immunoreactivity (IR) was more intense at the periphery of ischemic foci than at their center. Double-labeling

  4. Prenatal Development of the Human Blood-Brain Barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Cucullo

    \\u000a Mammalian, and more specifically human, brain development is the result of a long and complex evolutionary pathway. As we\\u000a move from the simplest jellyfish nervous system, (which forms an undifferentiated network) to vertebrate animals (such as\\u000a fish, amphibians, and reptiles), we observe the development of more complex and larger brains. The developmental process reaches\\u000a its highest form of evolution and

  5. Can we observe epigenetic effects on human brain function?

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Yuliya S; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-07-01

    Imaging genetics has identified many contributions of DNA sequence variation to individual differences in brain function, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Recent studies have extended this work beyond the genome by mapping epigenetic differences, specifically gene methylation in peripherally assessed DNA, onto variability in behaviorally and clinically relevant brain function. These data have generated understandable enthusiasm for the potential of such research to illuminate biological mechanisms of risk. We use our research on the effects of genetic and epigenetic variation in the human serotonin transporter on brain function to generate a guardedly optimistic opinion that the available data encourage continued research in this direction, and suggest strategies to promote faster progress. PMID:26051383

  6. Neurodegenerative Diseases Target Large-Scale Human Brain Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W. Seeley; Richard K. Crawford; Juan Zhou; Bruce L. Miller; Michael D. Greicius

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY During development, the healthy human brain constructs a host of large-scale, distributed, func- tion-critical neural networks. Neurodegenerative diseases have been thought to target these systems, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested in living humans. We used network-sensitive neuroimaging methods to show that five different neurodegenerative syndromes cause circumscribed atrophy within five distinct, healthy, human intrinsic functional connectivity

  7. Several methods to determine heavy metals in the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrási, Erzsébet; Igaz, Sarolta; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Farkas, Éva; Ajtony, Zsolt

    1999-05-01

    The determination of naturally occurring heavy metals in various parts of the human brain is discussed. The patients had no diseases in their central nervous systems (five individuals, mean age 70 years). Twenty brain parts were selected from both hemispheres. The analysis was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. Accuracy and precision of the applied techniques were tested by using standard reference materials. Two digestion methods were used to dissolve the brain samples for ICP-AES and GF-AAS. One was performed in a Parr-bomb and the second in a microwave oven. The present results show a non-homogeneous distribution of the essential elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in normal human brain. Corresponding regions in both hemispheres showed an almost identical concentration of these elements. In the case of toxic elements (Pb, Cd) an average value in different brain regions can not be established because of the high variability of individual data. This study indicates that beside differences in Pb and Cd intake with foods or cigarette smoke inhalation, the main factors of the high inter-individual variability of these element concentrations in human brain parts may be a marked difference in individual elimination or accumulation capabilities.

  8. A navigational guidance system in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2008-01-01

    Finding your way in large-scale space requires knowing where you currently are and how to get to your goal destination. While much is understood about the neural basis of one’s current position during navigation, surprisingly little is known about how the human brain guides navigation to goals. Computational accounts argue that specific brain regions support navigational guidance by coding the proximity and direction to the goal, but empirical evidence for such mechanisms is lacking. Here, we scanned subjects with functional MRI (fMRI) as they navigated to goal destinations in a highly accurate virtual simulation of a real city. Brain activity was then analysed in combination with metric measures of proximity and direction to goal destinations which were derived from each individual subject’s coordinates at every second of navigation. We found that activity in the medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated, and activity in a right subicular/entorhinal region was negatively correlated with goal proximity. By contrast, activity in bilateral posterior parietal cortex was correlated with egocentric direction to goals. Our results provide empirical evidence for a navigational guidance system in the human brain, and define more precisely the contribution of these three brain regions to human navigation. In addition, these findings may also have wider implications for how the brain monitors and integrates different types of information in the service of goal-directed behaviour in general. PMID:17492693

  9. Methylomic trajectories across human fetal brain development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Spiers; Eilis Hannon; Leonard C Schalkwyk; Rebecca Smith; Chloe C Y Wong; Michael C O'Donovan; Nicholas J Bray; Jonathan Mill

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic processes play a key role in orchestrating transcriptional regulation during development. The importance of DNA methylation in fetal brain development is highlighted by the dynamic expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases during the perinatal period and neurodevelopmental deficits associated with mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. However, our knowledge about the temporal changes to the epigenome

  10. Human and rat brain lipofuscin proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of an autofluorescent pigment called lipofuscin in neurons is an invariable hallmark of brain aging. So far, this material has been considered to be waste material without particular relevance for cellular pathology. However, two lines of evidence argue that lipofuscin may have yet ...

  11. The effects of an APOE promoter polymorphism on human cortical morphology during nondemented aging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaojing; Li, Peng; Gu, Bin; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xin; Evans, Alan C; Gong, Gaolang; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2015-01-28

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the best-known susceptibility gene for AD. It has been well demonstrated that the ?4 allele of the APOE gene can affect brain structure/function in nondemented individuals; however, other polymorphisms in the APOE gene have been largely overlooked when assessing the effects of APOE on the neural system. Rs405509 is a newly recognized AD-related polymorphism located in the APOE promoter region that can regulate the transcriptional activity of the APOE gene. To date, it remains unknown whether and how this APOE promoter polymorphism affects the human brain in aging. Here, for the first time, we investigate the effects of the rs405509 genotype (T/T vs G-allele) on human cortical morphology using a large cohort of nondemented elderly subjects (120 subjects in total; aged 52- 81 years). High-resolution structural MRI was performed; cortical thickness and surface area were analyzed separately. Intriguingly, nondemented carriers of the rs405509 T/T genotype showed an accelerated age-related reduction of thickness in the left parahippocampal gyrus compared with the G-allele carriers. Furthermore, the cortical thickness covariance between the left parahippocampal gyrus and left medial cortex, including the left medial superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, and paracentral lobule, was modulated by the interaction of the rs405509 genotype and age. These novel findings suggest an important role for the APOE promoter polymorphism in the human brain and also provide valuable insights into how the rs405509 genotype shapes the neural system to modulate the risk of developing AD. PMID:25632120

  12. Simplified detection system for neuroreceptor studies in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bice, A.N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Frost, J.J.; Natarajan, T.K.; Lee, M.C.; Wong, D.F.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Links, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    A simple, inexpensive dual-detector system has been developed for measurement of positronemitting receptor-binding drugs in the human brain. This high efficiency coincidence counting system requires that only a few hundred microcuries of labeled drug be administered to the subject, thereby allowing for multiple studies without an excessive radiation dose. Measurement of the binding of (11C)carfentanil, a high affinity synthetic opiate, to opiate receptors in the presence and in the absence of a competitive opiate antagonist indicates the potential utility of this system for estimating different degrees of receptor occupation in the human brain.

  13. Mu opioid receptor binding sites in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pilapil, C.; Welner, S.; Magnan, J.; Zamir, N.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Our experiments focused on the examination of the distribution of mu opioid receptor binding sites in normal human brain using the highly selective ligand (/sup 3/H)DAGO, in both membrane binding assay and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Mu opioid binding sites are very discretely distributed in human brain with high densities of sites found in the posterior amygdala, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus and certain cortical areas. Moreover the autoradiographic distribution of (/sup 3/H)DAGO binding sites clearly reveals the discrete lamination (layers I and III-IV) of mu sites in cortical areas.

  14. Thrombin binding to human brain and spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, M.; Snider, R.M.; Richelson, E.

    1983-12-01

    Thrombin, a serine protease that regulates hemostasis, has been shown to stimulate the formation of cGMP in murine neuroblastoma cells. The nervous system in vivo thus may be postulated to respond to this blood-borne factor after it breaches the blood-brain barrier, as in trauma. Human alpha-thrombin was radiolabeled with 125I and shown to bind rapidly, reversibly, and with high affinity to human brain and spinal cord. These findings indicate the presence of specific thrombin-binding sites in nervous tissue and may have important clinical implications.

  15. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed. PMID:23256049

  16. Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size.

    PubMed

    Mennes, Maarten; Jenkinson, Mark; Valabregue, Romain; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian; Smith, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI sequences, non-wasteful FOV settings are important to achieve the best temporal and spatial resolution. In practice, however, imperfect FOV size estimation often results in partial brain coverage for a significant number of participants per study, or, alternatively, an unnecessarily large voxel-size or number of slices to guarantee full brain coverage. To provide normative FOV guidelines we estimated population distributions of brain size in the x-, y-, and z-direction using data from 14,781 individuals. Our results indicated that 11mm in the z-direction differentiate between obtaining full brain coverage for 90% vs. 99.9% of participants. Importantly, we observed that rotating the FOV to optimally cover the brain, and thus minimize the number of slices needed, effectively reduces the required inferior-superior FOV size by ~5%. For a typical adult imaging study, 99.9% of the population can be imaged with full brain coverage when using an inferior-superior FOV of 142mm, assuming optimal slice orientation and minimal within-scan head motion. By providing population distributions for brain size in the x-, y-, and z-direction we improve the potential for obtaining full brain coverage, especially in 2D-EPI sequences used in most functional and diffusion MRI studies. We further enable optimization of related imaging parameters including the number of slices, TR and total acquisition time. PMID:24747737

  17. In vivo correlation between axon diameter and conduction velocity in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Assaf; Barazany, Daniel; Tavor, Ido; Bernstein, Moran; Yovel, Galit; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-05-01

    The understanding of the relationship between structure and function has always characterized biology in general and neurobiology in particular. One such fundamental relationship is that between axon diameter and the axon's conduction velocity (ACV). Measurement of these neuronal properties, however, requires invasive procedures that preclude direct elucidation of this relationship in vivo. Here we demonstrate that diffusion-based MRI is sensitive to the fine microstructural elements of brain wiring and can be used to quantify axon diameter in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate the in vivo correlation between the diameter of an axon and its conduction velocity in the human brain. Using AxCaliber, a novel magnetic resonance imaging technique that enables us to estimate in vivo axon diameter distribution (ADD) and by measuring the interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) by electroencephalography, we found significant linear correlation, across a cohort of subjects, between brain microstructure morphology (ADD) and its physiology (ACV) in the tactile and visual sensory domains. The ability to make a quantitative assessment of a fundamental physiological property in the human brain from in vivo measurements of ADD may shed new light on neurological processes occurring in neuroplasticity as well as in neurological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25139624

  18. The Relationship between Brain Morphology and Polysomnography in Healthy Good Sleepers

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Matthias A.; Regen, Wolfram; Baglioni, Chiara; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Hennig, Jürgen; Riemann, Dieter; Spiegelhalder, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Background Normal sleep continuity and architecture show remarkable inter-individual variability. Previous studies suggest that brain morphology may explain inter-individual differences in sleep variables. Method Thirty-eight healthy subjects spent two consecutive nights at the sleep laboratory with polysomnographic monitoring. Furthermore, high-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were acquired in all participants. EEG sleep recordings were analyzed using standard sleep staging criteria and power spectral analysis. Using the FreeSurfer software for automated segmentation, 174 variables were determined representing the volume and thickness of cortical segments and the volume of subcortical brain areas. Regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship with polysomnographic and spectral EEG power variables. Results The analysis did not provide any support for the a-priori formulated hypotheses of an association between brain morphology and polysomnographic variables. Exploratory analyses revealed that the thickness of the left caudal anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with EEG beta2 power (24–32 Hz) during REM sleep. The volume of the left postcentral gyrus was positively associated with periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS). Conclusions The function of the anterior cingulate cortex as well as EEG beta power during REM sleep have been related to dreaming and sleep-related memory consolidation, which may explain the observed correlation. Increased volumes of the postcentral gyrus may be the result of increased sensory input associated with PLMS. However, due to the exploratory nature of the corresponding analyses, these results have to be replicated before drawing firm conclusions. PMID:25275322

  19. Experience-dependent structural plasticity in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    May, Arne

    2011-10-01

    Contrary to assumptions that changes in brain networks are possible only during crucial periods of development, research in the past decade has supported the idea of a permanently plastic brain. Novel experience, altered afferent input due to environmental changes and learning new skills are now recognized as modulators of brain function and underlying neuroanatomic circuitry. Given findings in experiments with animals and the recent discovery of increases in gray and white matter in the adult human brain as a result of learning, the old concept of cognitive reserve, that is the ability to reinforce brain volume in crucial areas and thus provide a greater threshold for age-dependent deficits, has been reinforced. The challenge we face is to unravel the exact nature of the dynamic structural alterations and, ultimately, to be able to use this knowledge for disease management. Understanding normative changes in brain structure that occur as a result of environmental changes and demands is pivotal to understanding the characteristic ability of the brain to adapt. PMID:21906988

  20. Microtesla MRI of the human brain combined with MEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotev, Vadim S.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Volegov, Petr L.; Savukov, Igor M.; Espy, Michelle A.; Mosher, John C.; Gomez, John J.; Kraus, Robert H.

    2008-09-01

    One of the challenges in functional brain imaging is integration of complementary imaging modalities, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). MEG, which uses highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to directly measure magnetic fields of neuronal currents, cannot be combined with conventional high-field MRI in a single instrument. Indirect matching of MEG and MRI data leads to significant co-registration errors. A recently proposed imaging method—SQUID-based microtesla MRI—can be naturally combined with MEG in the same system to directly provide structural maps for MEG-localized sources. It enables easy and accurate integration of MEG and MRI/fMRI, because microtesla MR images can be precisely matched to structural images provided by high-field MRI and other techniques. Here we report the first images of the human brain by microtesla MRI, together with auditory MEG (functional) data, recorded using the same seven-channel SQUID system during the same imaging session. The images were acquired at 46 ?T measurement field with pre-polarization at 30 mT. We also estimated transverse relaxation times for different tissues at microtesla fields. Our results demonstrate feasibility and potential of human brain imaging by microtesla MRI. They also show that two new types of imaging equipment—low-cost systems for anatomical MRI of the human brain at microtesla fields, and more advanced instruments for combined functional (MEG) and structural (microtesla MRI) brain imaging—are practical.

  1. Microtesla MRI of the human brain combined with MEG.

    PubMed

    Zotev, Vadim S; Matlashov, Andrei N; Volegov, Petr L; Savukov, Igor M; Espy, Michelle A; Mosher, John C; Gomez, John J; Kraus, Robert H

    2008-09-01

    One of the challenges in functional brain imaging is integration of complementary imaging modalities, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). MEG, which uses highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to directly measure magnetic fields of neuronal currents, cannot be combined with conventional high-field MRI in a single instrument. Indirect matching of MEG and MRI data leads to significant co-registration errors. A recently proposed imaging method--SQUID-based microtesla MRI--can be naturally combined with MEG in the same system to directly provide structural maps for MEG-localized sources. It enables easy and accurate integration of MEG and MRI/fMRI, because microtesla MR images can be precisely matched to structural images provided by high-field MRI and other techniques. Here we report the first images of the human brain by microtesla MRI, together with auditory MEG (functional) data, recorded using the same seven-channel SQUID system during the same imaging session. The images were acquired at 46 microT measurement field with pre-polarization at 30 mT. We also estimated transverse relaxation times for different tissues at microtesla fields. Our results demonstrate feasibility and potential of human brain imaging by microtesla MRI. They also show that two new types of imaging equipment--low-cost systems for anatomical MRI of the human brain at microtesla fields, and more advanced instruments for combined functional (MEG) and structural (microtesla MRI) brain imaging--are practical. PMID:18619876

  2. Microtesla MRI of the human brain combined with MEG

    PubMed Central

    Zotev, Vadim S.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Volegov, Petr L.; Savukov, Igor M.; Espy, Michelle A.; Mosher, John C.; Gomez, John J.; Kraus, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges in functional brain imaging is integration of complementary imaging modalities, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). MEG, which uses highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to directly measure magnetic fields of neuronal currents, cannot be combined with conventional high-field MRI in a single instrument. Indirect matching of MEG and MRI data leads to significant co-registration errors. A recently proposed imaging method-SQUID-based microtesla MRI-can be naturally combined with MEG in the same system to directly provide structural maps for MEG-localized sources. It enables easy and accurate integration of MEG and MRI/fMRI, because microtesla MR images can be precisely matched to structural images provided by high-field MRI and other techniques. Here we report the first images of the human brain by microtesla MRI, together with auditory MEG (functional) data, recorded using the same seven-channel SQUID system during the same imaging session. The images were acquired at 46 microtesla measurement field with pre-polarization at 30 mT. We also estimated transverse relaxation times for different tissues at microtesla fields. Our results demonstrate feasibility and potential of human brain imaging by microtesla MRI. They also show that two new types of imaging equipment-low-cost systems for anatomical MRI of the human brain at microtesla fields, and more advanced instruments for combined functional (MEG) and structural (microtesla MRI) brain imaging-are practical. PMID:18619876

  3. Uncovering Intrinsic Modular Organization of Spontaneous Brain Activity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Wang, Jinhui; Wang, Liang; Chen, Zhang J.; Yan, Chaogan; Yang, Hong; Tang, Hehan; Zhu, Chaozhe; Gong, Qiyong; Zang, Yufeng; Evans, Alan C.

    2009-01-01

    The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz), spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the “default” system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions) that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions) critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in the temporal and spatial brain functional networks of the human brain that underlie spontaneous neuronal dynamics, which provides important implications for our understanding of how intrinsically coherent spontaneous brain activity has evolved into an optimal neuronal architecture to support global computation and information integration in the absence of specific stimuli or behaviors. PMID:19381298

  4. Simple instrument for biochemical studies of the living human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bice, A.N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Lee, M.C.; Frost, J.J.

    1986-09-01

    A simple, relatively inexpensive radiation detection system was developed for measurement of positron-emitting receptor-binding drugs in the human brain. This high-efficiency coincidence counting system requires that only a few hundred microcuries of labeled drug be administered to the subject, thereby allowing for multiple studies without an excessive radiation dose. Measurement of the binding of (/sup 11/C)-carfentanil, a high-affinity synthetic opiate, to opiate receptors in the presence and in the absence of a competitive opiate antagonist exemplifies the use of this system for estimating different degrees of receptor binding of drugs in the human brain. The instrument has also been used for measurement of the transport into the brain of other positron-emitting radiotracers, such as large neutral amino acids.

  5. Genetic Control of Human Brain Transcript Expression in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jennifer A.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Clarke, Jennifer; Ray, Monika; Zhang, Weixiong; Holmans, Peter; Rohrer, Kristen; Zhao, Alice; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; McCorquodale, Donald S.; Cuello, Cindy; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Nath, Priti; Zismann, Victoria L.; Joshipura, Keta; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Hu-Lince, Diane; Coon, Keith D.; Craig, David W.; Pearson, John V.; Heward, Christopher B.; Reiman, Eric M.; Stephan, Dietrich; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda J.

    2009-01-01

    We recently surveyed the relationship between the human brain transcriptome and genome in a series of neuropathologically normal postmortem samples. We have now analyzed additional samples with a confirmed pathologic diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD; final n = 188 controls, 176 cases). Nine percent of the cortical transcripts that we analyzed had expression profiles correlated with their genotypes in the combined cohort, and approximately 5% of transcripts had SNP-transcript relationships that could distinguish LOAD samples. Two of these transcripts have been previously implicated in LOAD candidate-gene SNP-expression screens. This study shows how the relationship between common inherited genetic variants and brain transcript expression can be used in the study of human brain disorders. We suggest that studying the transcriptome as a quantitative endo-phenotype has greater power for discovering risk SNPs influencing expression than the use of discrete diagnostic categories such as presence or absence of disease. PMID:19361613

  6. Connectomics and new approaches for analyzing human brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Craddock, R Cameron; Tungaraza, Rosalia L; Milham, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the functional interactions between brain regions and mapping those connections to corresponding inter-individual differences in cognitive, behavioral and psychiatric domains are central pursuits for understanding the human connectome. The number and complexity of functional interactions within the connectome and the large amounts of data required to study them position functional connectivity research as a "big data" problem. Maximizing the degree to which knowledge about human brain function can be extracted from the connectome will require developing a new generation of neuroimaging analysis algorithms and tools. This review describes several outstanding problems in brain functional connectomics with the goal of engaging researchers from a broad spectrum of data sciences to help solve these problems. Additionally it provides information about open science resources consisting of raw and preprocessed data to help interested researchers get started. PMID:25810900

  7. The addicted human brain viewed in the light of imaging studies: brain circuits and treatment strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nora D. Volkow; Joanna S. Fowler; Gene-Jack Wang

    2004-01-01

    Imaging studies have provided evidence of how the human brain changes as an individual becomes addicted. Here, we integrate the findings from imaging studies to propose a model of drug addiction. The process of addiction is initiated in part by the fast and high increases in DA induced by drugs of abuse. We hypothesize that this supraphysiological effect of drugs

  8. Human Functional Neuroimaging of Brain Changes Associated with Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Clare Kelly; Hugh Garavan

    2005-01-01

    The discovery that experience-driven changes in the human brain can occur from a neural to a cortical level throughout the lifespan has stimulated a proliferation of research into how neural function changes in response to experience, enabled by neuroimaging methods such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Studies attempt to characterize these changes by examining how practice

  9. Effects of Electroacupuncture versus Manual Acupuncture on the Human Brain

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    Effects of Electroacupuncture versus Manual Acupuncture on the Human Brain as Measured by f frequencies with traditional Chinese manual acupuncture. Although not as time-tested as manual acupuncture and quantifiably. Manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture at 2 Hz and 100 Hz, and tactile control stimulation were

  10. Human Brain: Left-Right Asymmetries in Temporal Speech Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Geschwind; Walter Levitsky

    1968-01-01

    We have found marked anatomical asymmetries between the upper surfaces of the human right and left temporal lobes. The planum temporale (the area behind Heschl's gyrus) is larger on the left in 65 percent of brains; on the right it is larger in only 11 percent. The left planum is on the average one-third longer than the right planum. This

  11. Noninvasive Functional Imaging of Human Brain Using Light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Benaron; Susan R. Hintz; Arno Villringer; David Boas; Andreas Kleinschmidt; Jens Frahm; Christina Hirth; Hellmuth Obrig; John C. van Houten; Eben L. Kermit; Wai-Fung Cheong; David K. Stevenson

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of photon transit time for low-power light passing into the head, and through both skull and brain, of human subjects allowed for tomographic imaging of cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation based on photon diffusion theory. In healthy adults, imaging of changes in hemoglobin saturation during hand movement revealed focal, contralateral increases in motor cortex oxygenation with spatial agreement to activation maps

  12. Gender development and the human brain.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones. PMID:21438685

  13. Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Syntax

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Roland; Friederici, Angela D.

    2009-01-01

    Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically) structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal. PMID:19478999

  14. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Roland; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-01-01

    Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically) structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal. PMID:19478999

  15. Methamphetamine Causes Microglial Activation in the Brains of Human Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugihara, Genichi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suda, Shiro; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Mori, Norio; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a popular addictive drug whose use is associated with multiple neuropsychiatric adverse events and toxic to the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems of the brain. Methamphetamine-induced neuropathology is associated with increased expression of microglial cells that are thought to participate in either pro-toxic or protective mechanisms in the brain. Although reactive microgliosis has been observed in animal models of methamphetamine neurotoxicity, no study has reported on the status of microglial activation in human methamphetamine abusers. The present study reports on 12 abstinent methamphetamine abusers and 12 age-, gender-, education-matched control subjects who underwent positron emission tomography using a radiotracer for activated microglia, [11C](R)-(1-[2-chlorophenyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) ([11C](R)-PK11195). Compartment analysis was used to estimate quantitative levels of binding potentials of [11C](R)-PK11195 in brain regions with dopaminergic and/or serotonergic innervation. The mean levels of [11C](R)-PK11195 binding were higher in methamphetamine abusers than those in control subjects in all brain regions (> 250% higher, p < 0.01 for all). In addition, the binding levels in the midbrain, striatum, thalamus, and orbitofrontal and insular cortices (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the duration of methamphetamine abstinence. These results suggest that chronic self-administration of methamphetamine can cause reactive microgliosis in the brains of human methamphetamine abusers, a level of activation that appears to subside over longer periods of abstinence. PMID:18509037

  16. Is the social brain theory applicable to human individual differences? Relationship between sociability personality dimension and brain size.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Klára; Martos, János; Mihalik, Béla; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-01-01

    Our study intends to examine whether the social brain theory is applicable to human individual differences. According to the social brain theory primates have larger brains as it could be expected from their body sizes due to the adaptation to a more complex social life. Regarding humans there were few studies about the relationship between theory of mind and frontal and temporal brain lobes. We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives. Our findings support this hypothesis as Sociability correlated positively with the examined brain structures if we control the effects of body size differences and age. These results suggest that the social brain theory can be extended to human interindividual differences and they have some implications to personality psychology too. PMID:22947971

  17. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10?33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  18. Topological Isomorphisms of Human Brain and Financial Market Networks

    PubMed Central

    Vértes, Petra E.; Nicol, Ruth M.; Chapman, Sandra C.; Watkins, Nicholas W.; Robertson, Duncan A.; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2011-01-01

    Although metaphorical and conceptual connections between the human brain and the financial markets have often been drawn, rigorous physical or mathematical underpinnings of this analogy remain largely unexplored. Here, we apply a statistical and graph theoretic approach to the study of two datasets – the time series of 90 stocks from the New York stock exchange over a 3-year period, and the fMRI-derived time series acquired from 90 brain regions over the course of a 10-min-long functional MRI scan of resting brain function in healthy volunteers. Despite the many obvious substantive differences between these two datasets, graphical analysis demonstrated striking commonalities in terms of global network topological properties. Both the human brain and the market networks were non-random, small-world, modular, hierarchical systems with fat-tailed degree distributions indicating the presence of highly connected hubs. These properties could not be trivially explained by the univariate time series statistics of stock price returns. This degree of topological isomorphism suggests that brains and markets can be regarded broadly as members of the same family of networks. The two systems, however, were not topologically identical. The financial market was more efficient and more modular – more highly optimized for information processing – than the brain networks; but also less robust to systemic disintegration as a result of hub deletion. We conclude that the conceptual connections between brains and markets are not merely metaphorical; rather these two information processing systems can be rigorously compared in the same mathematical language and turn out often to share important topological properties in common to some degree. There will be interesting scientific arbitrage opportunities in further work at the graph-theoretically mediated interface between systems neuroscience and the statistical physics of financial markets. PMID:22007161

  19. Abnormal deposits of chromium in the pathological human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, S

    1986-01-01

    Three patients presented with encephalopathies: an undiagnosed degenerative disease of the brain, a degenerative cerebral disease in a patient with a myeloma but without a myelomatous deposit in the CNS and a malignant astrocytoma. Perivascular pallidal deposits (vascular siderosis) containing chromium, phosphorus and calcium plus sometimes traces of other elements were present in the three cases. Such deposits were present in the pallidal parenchyma and around vessels in the cerebellum in one case. Calcium and phosphorus are always present in any CNS calcification but the presence of chromium has not been reported. Chromium and its compounds (ingested, injected or inhaled) are toxic to humans and animals in trace doses. Approximately 900 cases of chromium intoxication have been reported and usually have had dermatological or pulmonary lesions (including cancer) but there is no report of involvement of the CNS. Sublethal doses of chromium nitrate injected intraperitoneally in rats and rabbits results in the presence of chromium in the brain. A thorough investigation was made to find the source of the chromium in these patients. Chromium was found to be present in trace amounts in the radiological contrast agents administered to these patients and in the KCl replacement solution and in mylanta, an antacid, given to one case. The evidence that chromium induced pathological changes in these three brains is circumstantial but shows that chromium can penetrate the human brain. This study indicates that vascular siderosis found in the brains of the majority of middle-aged and elderly humans is not simply an anecdotal pathological curiosity, but that it can serve as a route of entry for toxic products into the brain. Images PMID:3958742

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of human brain function.

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, R G; Blamire, A M; Rothman, D L; McCarthy, G

    1993-01-01

    The techniques of in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy have been established over the past two decades. Recent applications of these methods to study human brain function have become a rapidly growing area of research. The development of methods using standard MR contrast agents within the cerebral vasculature has allowed measurements of regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), which are activity dependent. Subsequent investigations linked the MR relaxation properties of brain tissue to blood oxygenation levels which are also modulated by consumption and blood flow (rCBF). These methods have allowed mapping of brain activity in human visual and motor cortex as well as in areas of the frontal lobe involved in language. The methods have high enough spatial and temporal sensitivity to be used in individual subjects. MR spectroscopy of proton and carbon-13 nuclei has been used to measure rates of glucose transport and metabolism in the human brain. The steady-state measurements of brain glucose concentrations can be used to monitor the glycolytic flux, whereas subsequent glucose metabolism--i.e., the flux into the cerebral glutamate pool--can be used to measure tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. Under visual stimulation the concentration of lactate in the visual cortex has been shown to increase by MR spectroscopy. This increase is compatible with an increase of anaerobic glycolysis under these conditions as earlier proposed from positron emission tomography studies. It is shown how MR spectroscopy can extend this understanding of brain metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8475050

  1. Rock magnetism linked to human brain magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    Magnetite has a long and distinguished career as one of the most important minerals in geophysics, as it is responsible for most of the remanent magnetization in marine sediments and the oceanic crust. It may come as a surprise to discover that it also ranks as the third or fourth most diverse mineral product formed biochemically by living organisms, and forms naturally in a variety of human tissues [Kirschvink et al., 1992].Magnetite was discovered in teeth of the Polyplacophora mollusks over 30 years ago, in magnetotactic bacteria nearly 20 years ago, in honey bees and homing pigeons nearly 15 years ago, but only recently in human tissue.

  2. Injury Response of Resected Human Brain Tissue In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Verwer, Ronald W H; Sluiter, Arja A; Balesar, Rawien A; Baaijen, Johannes C; de Witt Hamer, Philip C; Speijer, Dave; Li, Yichen; Swaab, Dick F

    2015-07-01

    Brain injury affects a significant number of people each year. Organotypic cultures from resected normal neocortical tissue provide unique opportunities to study the cellular and neuropathological consequences of severe injury of adult human brain tissue in vitro. The in vitro injuries caused by resection (interruption of the circulation) and aggravated by the preparation of slices (severed neuronal and glial processes and blood vessels) reflect the reaction of human brain tissue to severe injury. We investigated this process using immunocytochemical markers, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Essential features were rapid shrinkage of neurons, loss of neuronal marker expression and proliferation of reactive cells that expressed Nestin and Vimentin. Also, microglia generally responded strongly, whereas the response of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes appeared to be more variable. Importantly, some reactive cells also expressed both microglia and astrocytic markers, thus confounding their origin. Comparison with post-mortem human brain tissue obtained at rapid autopsies suggested that the reactive process is not a consequence of epilepsy. PMID:25138544

  3. Brain Systems for Baroreflex Suppression During Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Onyewuenyi, Ikechukwu C.; Sheu, Lei K.; Christie, Israel C.; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2014-01-01

    The arterial baroreflex is a key mechanism for the homeostatic control of blood pressure (BP). In animals and humans, psychological stressors suppress the capacity of the arterial baroreflex to control short-term fluctuations in BP, reflected by reduced baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). While animal studies have characterized the brain systems that link stressor processing to BRS suppression, comparable human studies are lacking. Here, we measured beat-to-beat BP and heart rate (HR) in 97 adults who performed a multisource interference task that evoked changes in spontaneous BRS, which were quantified by a validated sequence method. The same 97 participants also performed the task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain activity. Across participants, task performance (i) increased BP and HR and (ii) reduced BRS. Analyses of fMRI data further demonstrated that a greater task-evoked reduction in BRS covaried with greater activity in brain systems important for central autonomic and cardiovascular control, particularly the cingulate cortex, insula, amygdala, and midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Moreover, task performance increased the functional connectivity of a discrete area of the anterior insula with both the cingulate cortex and amygdala. In parallel, this same insula area showed increased task-evoked functional connectivity with midbrain PAG and pons. These novel findings provide human evidence for the brain systems presumptively involved in suppressing baroreflex functionality, with relevance for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of stressor-related cardiovascular reactivity and associated risk for essential hypertension and atherosclerotic heart disease. PMID:21567664

  4. The nicotinic cholinergic system function in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Nees, Frauke

    2015-09-01

    Research on the nicotinic cholinergic system function in the brain was previously mainly derived from animal studies, yet, research in humans is growing. Up to date, findings allow significant advances on the understanding of nicotinic cholinergic effects on human cognition, emotion and behavior using a range of functional brain imaging approaches such as pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Studies provided insights across various mechanistic psychological domains using different tasks as well as at rest in both healthy individuals and patient populations, with so far partly mixed results reporting both enhancements and decrements of neural activity related to the nicotinic cholinergic system. Moreover, studies on the relation between brain structure and the nicotinic cholinergic system add important information in this context. The present review summarizes the current status of human brain imaging studies and presents the findings within a theoretical and clinical perspective as they may be useful not only for an advancement of the understanding of basic nicotinic cholinergic-related mechanisms, but also for the development and integration of psychological and pharmacological treatment approaches. Patterns of functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry across various cognitive and emotional domains may be used as neuropsychological markers of mental disorders such as addiction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease or schizophrenia, where nicotinic cholinergic system changes are characteristic. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25446570

  5. Combining surface and fiber geometry: an integrated approach to brain morphology.

    PubMed

    Savadjiev, Peter; Rathi, Yogesh; Bouix, Sylvain; Smith, Alex R; Schultz, Robert T; Verma, Ragini; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that several theories link cortical development and function to the development of white matter and its geometrical structure, the relationship between gray and white matter morphology has not been widely researched. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for investigating this relationship. Given a set of fiber tracts which connect to a particular cortical region, the key idea is to compute two scalar fields that represent geometrical characteristics of the white matter and of the surface of the cortical region. The distributions of these scalar values are then linked via Mutual Information, which results in a quantitative marker that can be used in the study of normal and pathological brain structure and development. We apply this framework to a population study on autism spectrum disorder in children. PMID:24505648

  6. Evidence for stroke-induced neurogenesis in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kunlin; Wang, Xiaomei; Xie, Lin; Mao, Xiao Ou; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Yin; Shen, Jianfeng; Mao, Ying; Banwait, Surita; Greenberg, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental stroke in rodents stimulates neurogenesis and migration of newborn neurons from their sites of origin into ischemic brain regions. We report that in patients with stroke, cells that express markers associated with newborn neurons are present in the ischemic penumbra surrounding cerebral cortical infarcts, where these cells are preferentially localized in the vicinity of blood vessels. These findings suggest that stroke-induced compensatory neurogenesis may occur in the human brain, where it could contribute to postischemic recovery and represent a target for stroke therapy. PMID:16924107

  7. Evidence for stroke-induced neurogenesis in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kunlin; Wang, Xiaomei; Xie, Lin; Mao, Xiao Ou; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Yin; Shen, Jianfeng; Mao, Ying; Banwait, Surita; Greenberg, David A

    2006-08-29

    Experimental stroke in rodents stimulates neurogenesis and migration of newborn neurons from their sites of origin into ischemic brain regions. We report that in patients with stroke, cells that express markers associated with newborn neurons are present in the ischemic penumbra surrounding cerebral cortical infarcts, where these cells are preferentially localized in the vicinity of blood vessels. These findings suggest that stroke-induced compensatory neurogenesis may occur in the human brain, where it could contribute to postischemic recovery and represent a target for stroke therapy. PMID:16924107

  8. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) Waterhouse, 1840).

    PubMed

    Ibe, Chikera S; Onyeanusi, Barth I; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2014-01-01

    A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840) was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats' brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat. PMID:24832847

  9. Morphological and behavioral markers of environmentally induced retardation of brain development: an animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, J.

    1987-10-01

    In most neurotoxicological studies morphological assessment focuses on pathological effects, like degenerative changes in neuronal perikarya, axonopathy, demyelination, and glial and endothelial cell reactions. Similarly, the assessment of physiological and behavioral effects center on evident neurological symptoms, like EEG and EMG abnormalities, resting and intention tremor, abnormal gait, and abnormal reflexes. This paper reviews briefly another central nervous system target of harmful environmental agents, which results in behavioral abnormalities without any qualitatively evident neuropathology. This is called microneuronal hypoplasia, a retardation of brain development characterized by a quantitative reduction in the normal population of late-generated, short-axoned neurons in specific brain regions. Correlated descriptive and experimental neurogenetic studies in the rat have established that all the cerebellar granule cells and a very high proportion of hippocampal granule cells are produced postnatally, and that focal, low-dose X-irradiation either of the cerebellum or of the hippocampus after birth selectively interferes with the acquisition of the full complement of granule cells (microneuronal hypoplasia). Subsequent behavioral investigations showed that cerebellar microneuronal hypoplasia results in profound hyperactivity without motor abnormalities, while hippocampal microneuronal hypoplasia results in hyperactivity, as well as attentional and learning deficits. There is much indirect clinical evidence that various harmful environmental agents affecting the pregnant mother and/or the infant lead to such childhood disorders as hyperactivity and attentional and learning disorders. 109 references.

  10. Human Induced Rotation and Reorganization of the Brain of Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Taryn; McGreevy, Paul; Valenzuela, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Domestic dogs exhibit an extraordinary degree of morphological diversity. Such breed-to-breed variability applies equally to the canine skull, however little is known about whether this translates to systematic differences in cerebral organization. By looking at the paramedian sagittal magnetic resonance image slice of canine brains across a range of animals with different skull shapes (N?=?13), we found that the relative reduction in skull length compared to width (measured by Cephalic Index) was significantly correlated to a progressive ventral pitching of the primary longitudinal brain axis (r?=?0.83), as well as with a ventral shift in the position of the olfactory lobe (r?=?0.81). Furthermore, these findings were independent of estimated brain size or body weight. Since brachycephaly has arisen from generations of highly selective breeding, this study suggests that the remarkable diversity in domesticated dogs' body shape and size appears to also have led to human-induced adaptations in the organization of the canine brain. PMID:20668685

  11. Morphological and electrophysiological properties of a novel in vitro preparation: the electrosensory lateral line lobe brain slice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William B. Mathieson; Leonard Maler

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro brain slice preparation of the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) of weakly electric fish was developed. The morphology of this slice was studied and revealed that most ELL neurons and synapses retained their normal appearance for at least 10 h in vitro. The electrophysiological characteristics of the main ELL output neurons, the pyramidal cells, were measured. Extracellular

  12. Sigma and opioid receptors in human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.E.; Szuecs, M.; Mamone, J.Y.; Bem, W.T.; Rush, M.D.; Johnson, F.E.; Coscia, C.J. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Human brain tumors and nude mouse-borne human neuroblastomas and gliomas were analyzed for sigma and opioid receptor content. Sigma binding was assessed using ({sup 3}H) 1, 3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG), whereas opioid receptor subtypes were measured with tritiated forms of the following: {mu}, (D-ala{sup 2}, mePhe{sup 4}, gly-ol{sup 5}) enkephalin (DAMGE); {kappa}, ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) or U69,593; {delta}, (D-pen{sup 2}, D-pen{sup 5}) enkephalin (DPDPE) or (D-ala{sup 2}, D-leu{sup 5}) enkephalin (DADLE) with {mu} suppressor present. Binding parameters were estimated by homologous displacement assays followed by analysis using the LIGAND program. Sigma binding was detected in 15 of 16 tumors examined with very high levels found in a brain metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of lung and a human neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC) passaged in nude mice. {kappa} opioid receptor binding was detected in 4 of 4 glioblastoma multiforme specimens and 2 of 2 human astrocytoma cell lines tested but not in the other brain tumors analyzed.

  13. Segmentation of Skull in 3D Human MR Images Using Mathematical Morphology

    E-print Network

    Leahy, Richard M.

    Segmentation of Skull in 3D Human MR Images Using Mathematical Morphology B. Dogdasa, D. Shattuckb, CA 90089-2564 ABSTRACT We present a new technique for segmentation of skull in human T1-weighted. Our method performs skull segmentation using a sequence of mathematical morphological operations

  14. Morphological evidence of marine adaptations in human kidneys.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marcel F

    2006-01-01

    Amongst primates, kidneys normally exhibiting lobulated, multipyramidal, medullas is a unique attribute of the human species. Although, kidneys naturally multipyramidal in their medullary morphology are rare in terrestrial mammals, kidneys with lobulated medullas do occur in: elephants, bears, rhinoceroses, bison, cattle, pigs, and the okapi. However, kidneys characterized with multipyramidal medullas are common in aquatic mammals and are nearly universal in marine mammals. To avoid the deleterious effects of saline water dehydration, marine mammals have adaptively thickened the medullas of their kidneys--which enhances their ability to concentrate excretory salts in the urine. However, the lobulation of the kidney's medullary region in marine mammals appears to be an adaptation to expand the surface area between the medulla and the enveloping outer cortex in order to increase the volume of marine dietary induced hypertonic plasma that can be immediately processed for the excretion of excess salts and nitrogenous waste. A phylogenetic review of freshwater aquatic mammals suggest that most, if not all, nonmarine aquatic mammals inherited the medullary pyramids of their kidneys from ancestors who originally inhabited, or frequented, marine environments. So this suggest that most, if not all, aquatic mammals exhibiting kidneys with lobulated medullas are either marine adapted--or are descended from marine antecedents. Additionally, a phylogenetic review of nonhuman terrestrial mammals possessing kidneys with multipyramidal medullas suggest that bears, elephants and possibly rhinoceroses, also, inherited their lobulated medullas from semiaquatic marine ancestors. The fact that several terrestrial mammalian species of semiaquatic marine ancestry exhibit kidneys with multipyramidal medullas, may suggest that humans could have, also, inherited the lobulated medullas of their kidneys from coastal marine ancestors. And a specialized marine diet in ancient human ancestry could, also, explain the reactivation and enumeration of corporeal eccrine sweat glands and the copious secretion of salt tears. The substantial loss of genetic variation in humans relative to other hominoid primates, combined with the apparent isolation of early Pliocene human ancestors from particular retroviruses that infected all other African primate species, may suggest that such a semiaquatic marine phase, during the emergence of Homo, may have occurred on an island off the coast of Africa during the early Pliocene. PMID:16263222

  15. A Neuron Enriched Nuclear Proteome Isolated from Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dammer, Eric B.; Duong, Duc M.; Diner, Ian; Gearing, Marla; Feng, Yue; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.; Seyfried, Nicholas T.

    2013-01-01

    The brain consists of diverse cell types including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. The isolation of nuclei from these distinct cell populations provides an opportunity to identify cell-type specific nuclear proteins, histone modifications and regulation networks that are altered with normal brain aging or neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we used a method by which intact neuronal and non-neuronal nuclei were purified from human post-mortem brain employing a modification of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) we term fluorescence activated nuclei sorting (FANS). An antibody against NeuN, a neuron specific splicing factor, was used to isolate neuronal nuclei. Utilizing mass spectrometry (MS) based label-free quantitative proteomics we identified 1,755 proteins from sorted NeuN positive and negative nuclear extracts. Approximately 20 percent of these proteins were significantly enriched or depleted in neuronal versus non-neuronal populations. Immunoblots of primary cultured rat neuron, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte extracts confirmed that distinct members of the major nucleocytoplasmic structural linkage complex (LINC), nesprin-1 and nesprin-3, were differentially enriched in neurons and astrocytes, respectively. These comparative proteomic data sets also reveal a number of transcription and splicing factors that are selectively enriched in a cell-type specific manner in human brain. PMID:23768213

  16. Human sexual behavior related to pathology and activity of the brain.

    PubMed

    Komisaruk, Barry R; Rodriguez Del Cerro, Maria Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed in this chapter are: (1) correlations among human sexual behavior, brain pathology, and brain activity, including caveats regarding the interpretation of "cause and effect" among these factors, and the degree to which "hypersexuality" and reported changes in sexual orientation correlated with brain pathology are uniquely sexual or are attributable to a generalized disinhibition of brain function; (2) the effects, in some cases inhibitory, in others facilitatory, on sexual behavior and motivation, of stroke, epileptic seizures, traumatic brain injury, and brain surgery; and (3) insights into sexual motivation and behavior recently gained from functional brain imaging research and its interpretive limitations. We conclude from the reviewed research that the neural orchestra underlying the symphony of human sexuality comprises, rather than brain "centers," multiple integrated brain systems, and that there are more questions than answers in our understanding of the control of human sexual behavior by the brain - a level of understanding that is still in embryonic form. PMID:26003240

  17. Culture and regeneration of human neurons after brain surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J Brewer; Jose Espinosa; Michael P McIlhaney; Terrence P Pencek; J. Patrick Kesslak; Carl Cotman; John Viel; Dennis C McManus

    2001-01-01

    Cortical human brain tissue was obtained from 11 craniotomies for intractable epilepsy or tumor resection. Neuregen transport medium preserved viability at 4°C during transfer to the culture laboratory. Cells were isolated and cultured by methods previously developed for adult rat neurons (Brewer GJ. Isolation and culture of adult rat hippocampal neurons. J. Neurosci. Meth. 1997:71:143–55). In about 40% of the

  18. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in chronic tinnitus in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Adjamian, Peyman; Hall, Deborah A.; Palmer, Alan R.; Allan, Thomas W.; Langers, Dave R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review studies that have investigated brain morphology in chronic tinnitus in order to better understand the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. Current consensus is that tinnitus is a disorder involving a distributed network of peripheral and central pathways in the nervous system. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive and it is unclear which structures are involved. Given that brain structure and function are highly related, identification of anatomical differences may shed light upon the mechanism of tinnitus generation and maintenance. We discuss anatomical changes in the auditory cortex, the limbic system, and prefrontal cortex, among others. Specifically, we discuss the gating mechanism of tinnitus and evaluate the evidence in support of the model from studies of brain anatomy. Although individual studies claim significant effects related to tinnitus, outcomes are divergent and even contradictory across studies. Moreover, results are often confounded by the presence of hearing loss. We conclude that, at present, the overall evidence for structural abnormalities specifically related to tinnitus is poor. As this area of research is expanding, we identify some key considerations for research design and propose strategies for future research. PMID:24892904

  19. Rapid Morphological Brain Abnormalities during Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication in the Rat. An Experimental study using Light and Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hari S.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes morphological abnormalities of brain cells during acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication in the rat and demonstrates the role of hyperthermia, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and edema in their development. Rats with chronically implanted brain, muscle and skin temperature probes and an intravenous (iv) catheter were exposed to METH (9 mg/kg) at standard (23°C) and warm (29°C) ambient temperatures, allowing for the observation of hyperthermia ranging from mild to pathological levels (38–42°C). When brain temperature peaked or reached a level suggestive of possible lethality (>41.5°C), rats were injected with Evans blue (EB), rapidly anesthetized, perfused, and their brains were taken for further analyses. Four brain areas (cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus) were analyzed for EB extravasation, water and electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl?) contents, immunostained for albumin and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and examined for neuronal, glial and axonal alterations using standard light and electron microscopy. These examinations revealed profound abnormalities in neuronal, glial, and endothelial cells, which were stronger with METH administered at 29°C than 23°C and tightly correlated with brain and body hyperthermia. These changes had some structural specificity, but in each structure they tightly correlated with increases in EB levels, the numbers of albumin-positive cells, and water and ion contents, suggesting leakage of the BBB, acutely developing brain edema, and serious shifts in brain ion homeostasis as leading factors underlying brain abnormalities. While most of these acute structural and functional abnormalities appear to be reversible, they could trigger subsequent cellular alterations in the brain and accelerate neurodegeneration—the most dangerous complication of chronic amphetamine-like drug abuse. PMID:18773954

  20. Morphology of root canals in lower human premolars

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Kazkaz, Mulham; Sakka, Salah; Tarakji, Bassel

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge of the root canal morphology and the possible anatomical variations of mandibular premolars are important for the successful endodontic treatment of such cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of two or three root canals in extracted first and second mandibular premolars which were collected from health centers in Syria. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten human mandibular premolars (70 first premolars and 40 second premolars) with fully developed roots were investigated. After access the cavity of the teeth, the root canals were explored and radiographs were taken. Results: Premolars with one canal were found in 87% of cases (53% first premolar and 34% second premolar) and premolars with two canals were found in 12% of cases (10% first premolar and 2% second premolar). There was just one case (1%) where a first premolar had three canals. These differences were statistically significant with P<0.05. Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of the anatomical variation in the mandibular premolars and be able to apply this knowledge in radiographical and clinical interpretation. PMID:23661879

  1. Morphology and some biomechanical properties of human liver and spleen.

    PubMed

    Stingl, J; Bá?a, V; Cech, P; Kovanda, J; Kovandová, H; Mandys, V; Rejmontová, J; Sosna, B

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the study was an experimental determination of some morphological and mechanical properties of human liver and spleen (amount of collagen in organ capsules, their critical tension and density), followed by a definition of the threshold of critical acceleration, above which the organs can be injured during a car crash. Experiments were done on 33 fresh cadavers (18 males, 15 females; age 3 months to 88 years), and completed by sled tests on dummies testing the loads of both hypochondrial regions protected by air bags and/or seat belts. Results obtained were the following: (1). liver: capsule collagen 14-35%, critical tension 0.066-0.386 MPa, density 0.92-1.19 g/ml, critical acceleration 48-155 g; (2). spleen: capsule collagen 1.8-24.4%, critical tension 0.022-0.652 MPa, density 0.85-1.25 g/ml, critical acceleration 33-149 g. Loads of both hypochondrial regions measured on dummies during a predefined sled test were 34-67 g. Results obtained were evaluated qualitatively and discussed from the point of view of their possible use in future passive safety engineering and design calculations. PMID:12497218

  2. Functional Representation of Human Embryo Brain Models Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    Functional Representation of Human Embryo Brain Models Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner Hirofumi embryo brain is organic and has many folds that are difficult to model or animate with conventional metamorphosis during the growth of some human embryo organs, partic- ularly brain and stomach. Popular methods

  3. Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind for review February 22, 2010) Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, proponents of specialized organs or modules of the mind and brain--from the phrenologists to Broca to Chomsky

  4. Three-Dimensional Statistical Analysis of Sulcal Variability in the Human Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Thompson; Craig Schwartz; Robert T. Lin; Aelia A. Khan; Arthur W. Toga

    1996-01-01

    Morphometric variance of the human brain is qualitatively ob- servable in surface features of the cortex. Statistical analysis of sulcal geometry will facilitate multisubject atlasing, neurosurgi- cal studies, and multimodality brain mapping applications. This investigation describes the variability in location and geometry of five sulci surveyed in each hemisphere of six postmortem human brains placed within the Talairach stereotaxic grid.

  5. Electrophysiological and morphological characterization of neuronal microcircuits in acute brain slices using paired patch-clamp recordings.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guanxiao; Radnikow, Gabriele; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The combination of patch clamp recordings from two (or more) synaptically coupled neurons (paired recordings) in acute brain slice preparations with simultaneous intracellular biocytin filling allows a correlated analysis of their structural and functional properties. With this method it is possible to identify and characterize both pre- and postsynaptic neurons by their morphology and electrophysiological response pattern. Paired recordings allow studying the connectivity patterns between these neurons as well as the properties of both chemical and electrical synaptic transmission. Here, we give a step-by-step description of the procedures required to obtain reliable paired recordings together with an optimal recovery of the neuron morphology. We will describe how pairs of neurons connected via chemical synapses or gap junctions are identified in brain slice preparations. We will outline how neurons are reconstructed to obtain their 3D morphology of the dendritic and axonal domain and how synaptic contacts are identified and localized. We will also discuss the caveats and limitations of the paired recording technique, in particular those associated with dendritic and axonal truncations during the preparation of brain slices because these strongly affect connectivity estimates. However, because of the versatility of the paired recording approach it will remain a valuable tool in characterizing different aspects of synaptic transmission at identified neuronal microcircuits in the brain. PMID:25650985

  6. Migration pathways of human glioblastoma cells xenografted into the immunosuppressed rat brain.

    PubMed

    Guillamo, J S; Lisovoski, F; Christov, C; Le Guérinel, C; Defer, G L; Peschanski, M; Lefrançois, T

    2001-05-01

    Diffuse invasion of the brain by tumor cells is a hallmark of human glioblastomas and a major cause for the poor prognosis of these tumors. This phenomenon is only partially reproduced by rodent models of gliomas that display a very high rate of proliferation and limited cell migration. We have analyzed the development of human glioblastoma cells (GL15) xenografted into the brain of immunosuppressed rats, in order to define the characteristics of tumor cell invasion. As identified by the specific immunolabeling of the tumor cells for the human HLA-ABC antigen, GL15 tumors reproduced the three types of intraparenchymal invasion observed in patients. First, a majority of multipolar tumor cells intermingled rapidly and profusely with host neural cells in the margin of the injection site. This progressively enlarging area was principally responsible for the tumor growth over time. Second, in the gray matter, columns of thin bipolar tumor cells aligned along capillary walls. Third, in the white matter, elongated bipolar isolated tumor cells were observed scattered between axonal fibers. The maximum migration distances along white matter fibers remained significantly higher than the maximum migration distances along blood vessels, up to two months after injection. Development of the tumor was associated with a significant increase of vascularization in the area of tumor spread. Xenografting of human GL15 glioblastoma cells into the immunosuppressed rat brain allowed to differentiate between the three classical types of invasion identified in the clinic, to quantify precisely the distances of migration, and to evaluate cell morphology for each of these routes. The present results support the existence of host/tumor cells interactions with specific characteristics for each type of invasion. PMID:11519850

  7. AQP4 gene deletion in mice does not alter blood–brain barrier integrity or brain morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Saadoun; M. J. Tait; A. Reza; D. Ceri Davies; B. A. Bell; A. S. Verkman; M. C. Papadopoulos

    2009-01-01

    The glial cell water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays an important role in brain edema, astrocyte migration, and neuronal excitability. Zhou et al. [Zhou J, Kong H, Hua X, Xiao M, Ding J, Hu G (2008) Altered blood–brain barrier integrity in adult aquaporin-4 knockout mice. Neuroreport 19:1–5] recently reported that AQP4 deletion significantly altered blood–brain barrier integrity and glial fibrillary acidic

  8. MRI of the human brain at 130 microtesla

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, Ben; Buckenmaier, Kai; SanGiorgio, Paul; Pedersen, Anders F.; Nichols, Matthew A.; Clarke, John

    2013-01-01

    We present in vivo images of the human brain acquired with an ultralow field MRI (ULFMRI) system operating at a magnetic field B0 ? 130 ?T. The system features prepolarization of the proton spins at Bp ? 80 mT and detection of the NMR signals with a superconducting, second-derivative gradiometer inductively coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We report measurements of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 of brain tissue, blood, and scalp fat at B0 and Bp, and cerebrospinal fluid at B0. We use these T1 values to construct inversion recovery sequences that we combine with Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill echo trains to obtain images in which one species can be nulled and another species emphasized. In particular, we show an image in which only blood is visible. Such techniques greatly enhance the already high intrinsic T1 contrast obtainable at ULF. We further present 2D images of T1 and the transverse relaxation time T2 of the brain and show that, as expected at ULF, they exhibit similar contrast. Applications of brain ULFMRI include integration with systems for magnetoencephalography. More generally, these techniques may be applicable, for example, to the imaging of tumors without the need for a contrast agent and to modalities recently demonstrated with T1? contrast imaging (T1 in the rotating frame) at fields of 1.5 T and above. PMID:24255111

  9. The Developmental Origins of Voice Processing in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Tobias; Oberecker, Regine; Koch, Stefan Paul; Friederici, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In human adults, voices are processed in specialized brain regions in superior temporal cortices. We examined the development of this cortical organization during infancy by using near-infrared spectroscopy. In experiment 1, 7-month-olds but not 4-month-olds showed increased responses in left and right superior temporal cortex to the human voice when compared to nonvocal sounds, suggesting that voice-sensitive brain systems emerge between 4 and 7 months of age. In experiment 2, 7-month-old infants listened to words spoken with neutral, happy, or angry prosody. Hearing emotional prosody resulted in increased responses in a voice-sensitive region in the right hemisphere. Moreover, a region in right inferior frontal cortex taken to serve evaluative functions in the adult brain showed particular sensitivity to happy prosody. The pattern of findings suggests that temporal regions specialize in processing voices very early in development and that, already in infancy, emotions differentially modulate voice processing in the right hemisphere. PMID:20346760

  10. Robotic actions in the human brain Robotic movement preferentially engages the action observation network

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Antonia

    robustly to rigid, robot-like motion than natural human motion. In Experiment 2Robotic actions in the human brain 1 Robotic movement, Waltraud Stadler1 & Wolfgang Prinz1 1Max Planck Institute for Human

  11. Regional distribution of potassium, calcium, and six trace elements in normal human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Duflou, H.; Maenhaut, W.; De Reuck, J. (Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent (Belgium))

    1989-11-01

    Eight elements (i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb) were measured in 50 different regions of 12 normal human brains by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The dry weight concentrations of K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb were consistently higher for gray than for white matter areas. The K, Zn and Se concentrations for the regions of mixed composition and, to some extent, also the Rb concentrations, were intermediate between the gray and white matter values, and they tended to decrease with decreasing neuron density. The mean dry weight concentrations of K, Ca, Zn, Se, and Rb in the various brain regions were highly correlated with the mean wet-to-dry weight ratios of these regions. For Mn, Fe, and Cu, however, such a correlation was not observed, and these elements exhibited elevated levels in several structures of the basal ganglia. For K, Fe, and Se the concentrations seemed to change with age. A hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the structures clustered into two large groups, one comprising gray and mixed matter regions, the other white and mixed matter areas. Brain structures involved in the same physiological function or morphologically similar regions often conglomerated in a single subcluster.

  12. Regional distribution of potassium, calcium, and six trace elements in normal human brain.

    PubMed

    Duflou, H; Maenhaut, W; De Reuck, J

    1989-11-01

    Eight elements (i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb) were measured in 50 different regions of 12 normal human brains by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The dry weight concentrations of K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb were consistently higher for gray than for white matter areas. The K, Zn and Se concentrations for the regions of mixed composition and, to some extent, also the Rb concentrations, were intermediate between the gray and white matter values, and they tended to decrease with decreasing neuron density. The mean dry weight concentrations of K, Ca, Zn, Se, and Rb in the various brain regions were highly correlated with the mean wet-to-dry weight ratios of these regions. For Mn, Fe, and Cu, however, such a correlation was not observed, and these elements exhibited elevated levels in several structures of the basal ganglia. For K, Fe, and Se the concentrations seemed to change with age. A hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the structures clustered into two large groups, one comprising gray and mixed matter regions, the other white and mixed matter areas. Brain structures involved in the same physiological function or morphologically similar regions often conglomerated in a single subcluster. PMID:2594142

  13. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  14. Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury for Human Vergence Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Christopher W.; Likova, Lora T.; Mineff, Kristyo N.; Elsaid, Anas M.; Nicholas, Spero C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Traumatic brain injury involving loss of consciousness has focal effects in the human brainstem, suggesting that it may have particular consequences for eye movement control. This hypothesis was investigated by measurements of vergence eye movement parameters. Methods: Disparity vergence eye movements were measured for a population of 123 normally sighted individuals, 26 of whom had suffered diffuse traumatic brain injury (dTBI) in the past, while the remainder served as controls. Vergence tracking responses were measured to sinusoidal disparity modulation of a random-dot field. Disparity vergence step responses were characterized in terms of their dynamic parameters separately for the convergence and divergence directions. Results: The control group showed notable differences between convergence and divergence dynamics. The dTBI group showed significantly abnormal vergence behavior on many of the dynamic parameters. Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that occult injury to the oculomotor control system is a common residual outcome of dTBI. PMID:25691880

  15. A Map for Social Navigation in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Rita Morais; Mendelsohn, Avi; Grossman, Yael; Williams, Christian Hamilton; Shapiro, Matthew; Trope, Yaacov; Schiller, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering the neural mechanisms of social behavior has propelled the growth of social neuroscience. The exact computations of the social brain, however, remain elusive. Here we investigated how the human brain tracks ongoing changes in social relationships using functional neuroimaging. Participants were lead characters in a role-playing game in which they were to find a new home and a job through interactions with virtual cartoon characters. We found that a two-dimensional geometric model of social relationships, a "social space" framed by power and affiliation, predicted hippocampal activity. Moreover, participants who reported better social skills showed stronger covariance between hippocampal activity and "movement" through "social space." The results suggest that the hippocampus is crucial for social cognition, and imply that beyond framing physical locations, the hippocampus computes a more general, inclusive, abstract, and multidimensional cognitive map consistent with its role in episodic memory. PMID:26139376

  16. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-02-21

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations. PMID:24561513

  17. Reactivity of antiserum to human brain with peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wicher, V; Amesty, C

    1982-01-01

    Antisera to human brain (AHBS) and human thymocytes (AHTS) were produced in rabbits and selectively absorbed to render them specific for T cells. After absorption AHBS, but not AHTS, lost most of its cytotoxic activity against T cells. Absorbed AHBS bound up to 95% of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as detected by indirect immunofluorescence and inhibited up to 46% of the lytic activity of AHTS; however, it was incapable of inhibiting the E-rosette formation of T lymphocytes. All 10 samples of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, pretreated with AHBS, were significantly suppressed in their response to antigens, but fewer samples were affected in their response to mitogens and to allogeneic stimulation, indicating diversity in the nature of the receptors involved in the cellular responses. PMID:6217151

  18. Supramodal representations of perceived emotions in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Atkinson, Anthony P; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2010-07-28

    Basic emotional states (such as anger, fear, and joy) can be similarly conveyed by the face, the body, and the voice. Are there human brain regions that represent these emotional mental states regardless of the sensory cues from which they are perceived? To address this question, in the present study participants evaluated the intensity of emotions perceived from face movements, body movements, or vocal intonations, while their brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we compared the similarity of response patterns across modalities to test for brain regions in which emotion-specific patterns in one modality (e.g., faces) could predict emotion-specific patterns in another modality (e.g., bodies). A whole-brain searchlight analysis revealed modality-independent but emotion category-specific activity patterns in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and left superior temporal sulcus (STS). Multivoxel patterns in these regions contained information about the category of the perceived emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness) across all modality comparisons (face-body, face-voice, body-voice), and independently of the perceived intensity of the emotions. No systematic emotion-related differences were observed in the overall amplitude of activation in MPFC or STS. These results reveal supramodal representations of emotions in high-level brain areas previously implicated in affective processing, mental state attribution, and theory-of-mind. We suggest that MPFC and STS represent perceived emotions at an abstract, modality-independent level, and thus play a key role in the understanding and categorization of others' emotional mental states. PMID:20668196

  19. AQP4 gene deletion in mice does not alter blood-brain barrier integrity or brain morphology.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, S; Tait, M J; Reza, A; Davies, D Ceri; Bell, B A; Verkman, A S; Papadopoulos, M C

    2009-07-01

    The glial cell water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays an important role in brain edema, astrocyte migration, and neuronal excitability. Zhou et al. [Zhou J, Kong H, Hua X, Xiao M, Ding J, Hu G (2008) Altered blood-brain barrier integrity in adult aquaporin-4 knockout mice. Neuroreport 19:1-5] recently reported that AQP4 deletion significantly altered blood-brain barrier integrity and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in their AQP4 null mice. Here we describe a detailed characterization of baseline brain properties in our AQP4 null mice, including gross appearance, neuronal, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte characteristics, and blood-brain barrier integrity. Gross anatomical measurements included estimates of brain and ventricle size. Neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were assessed using the neuronal nuclear marker NeuN, the astrocyte marker GFAP, and the myelin stain Luxol Fast Blue. The blood-brain barrier was studied by electron microscopy and the horseradish peroxidase extravasation technique. There were no differences in brain and ventricle sizes between wild type and AQP4 null mice, nor were there differences in the cerebral cortical density of NeuN positive nuclei, perimicrovessel and glia limitans GFAP immunoreactivity, or the thickness and myelination of the corpus callosum. The ultrastructure of microvessels in the frontal cortex and caudate nucleus of wild type vs. AQP4 null mice was indistinguishable, with features including intact endothelial tight junctions, absence of perimicrovessel astrocyte foot process edema, and absence of horseradish peroxidase extravasation. In contrast to the report by Zhou et al. (2008), our data show that AQP4 deletion in mice does not produce major structural abnormalities in the brain. PMID:19345723

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of peroxisomal enzymes in developing human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadataka Houdou; Sachio Takashima; Yasuyuki Suzuki

    1993-01-01

    The immunohistochemistry of peroxisomes was examined in human brains from fetal to adult ages using antibodies against catalase\\u000a (CAT), acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (PT) on conventional formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections.\\u000a Positive staining neurons first appeared in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum at 27–28 wk of gestation, and in the\\u000a frontal cortex at 35–36 wk of gestation. They increased

  1. The workflow from post-mortem human brain sampling to cell microdissection: a Brain Net Europe study.

    PubMed

    Meyronet, David; Dorey, Aline; Massoma, Patrick; Rey, Catherine; Alix, Eudeline; Silva, Karen; Perrin, Corinne; Quadrio, Isabelle; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Thomasset, Nicole; Honnorat, Jérôme; Arzberger, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2015-07-01

    Brain banks manage and store fully clinically and pathologically characterised brains. The diversity of techniques used in research projects increases. These biological resource centres are made to adapt brain tissue processing. Furthermore, the development of more sensitive techniques to analyse nucleic acids and proteins offers new fields of exploration when combined with laser capture microdissection in order to decipher the physiopathology of diseases at the cell level. In this study, our goal was to evaluate procedures and set a workflow compatible with the constraints of brain banks, from brain sampling to laser capture microdissection and pre-analytical quality assessment. We compared various methods of freezing brain tissue, focused on morphological quality preservation of brain microscopical structures and on the quality of nucleic acid or protein yields. Staining protocols combined with strategies to lower neurones autofluorescence were adapted for the same purpose. Finally, we found that laser capture microdissection is possible in the setting of brain banks. However, the entire process has to be envisioned from the autopsy to the analysis. The impact on protein or nucleic acid quality is a limitation that restricts the amount of samples available for this purpose. PMID:25976431

  2. The human brain—from cells to society

    PubMed Central

    Hoogland, Eva; Patten, Iain; Berghmans, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    In December 2011, the European Science Foundation (ESF) brought together experts from a wide range of disciplines to discuss the issues that will influence the development of a healthier, more brain-aware European society. This perspective summarizes the main outcomes of that discussion and highlights important considerations to support improved mental health in Europe, including: The development of integrated neuropsychotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of psychiatric disorders.The development of more valid disease models for research into psychiatric disorders.An improved understanding of the relationship between biology and environment, particularly in relation to developmental plasticity and emerging pathology.More comparative studies to explore how scientific concepts relating to the human brain are received and understood in different sociocultural contexts.Research into the legal and ethical implications of recent developments in the brain sciences, including behavioral screening and manipulation, and emerging neurotechnologies. The broad geographical spread of the consulted experts across the whole of Europe, along with the wide range of disciplines they represent, gives these conclusions a strong scientific and pan-European endorsement. The next step will be to look closely into these five selected topics, in terms of research strategy, science policy, societal implications, and legal and ethical frameworks. PMID:23966920

  3. Immunostaining of oxidized DJ-1 in human and mouse brains.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiro; Miyasaka, Tomohiro; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Hayashi, Kojiro; Mita, Yuichiro; Kusano-Arai, Osamu; Iwanari, Hiroko; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Hamakubo, Takao; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Niki, Etsuo; Murayama, Shigeo; Ihara, Yasuo; Noguchi, Noriko

    2014-07-01

    DJ-1, the product of a causative gene of a familial form of Parkinson disease, undergoes preferential oxidation of Cys106 (cysteine residue at position 106) under oxidative stress. Using specific monoclonal antibodies against Cys106 oxidized DJ-1 (oxDJ-1), we examined oxDJ-1 immunoreactivity in brain sections from DJ-1 knockout and wild-type mice and in human brain sections from cases classified into different Lewy body stages of Parkinson disease and Parkinson disease with dementia. Oxidized DJ-1 immunoreactivity was prominently observed in neuromelanin-containing neurons and neuron processes of the substantia nigra; Lewy bodies also showed oxDJ-1 immunoreactivity. Oxidized DJ-1 was also detected in astrocytes in the striatum, in neurons and glia in the red nucleus, and in the inferior olivary nucleus, all of which are related to regulation of movement. These observations suggest the relevance of DJ-1 oxidation to homeostasis in multiple brain regions, including neuromelanin-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, and raise the possibility that oxDJ-1 levels might change during the progression of Lewy body-associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24918637

  4. Heritability of human brain functioning as assessed by electroencephalography

    SciTech Connect

    Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. van; Geus, E.J.C. de; Boomsma, D.I. [and others

    1996-03-01

    To study the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in CNS functioning, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured in 213 twin pairs age 16 years. EEG was measured in 91 MZ and 122 DZ twins. To quantify sex differences in the genetic architecture, EEG was measured in female and male same-sex twins and in opposite-sex twins. EEG was recorded on 14 scalp positions during quiet resting with eyes closed. Spectral powers were calculated for four frequency bands: delta, theta, alpha, and beta. Twin correlations pointed toward high genetic influences for all these powers and scalp locations. Model fitting confirmed these findings; the largest part of the variance of the EEG is explained by additive genetic factors. The averaged heritabilities for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies was 76%, 89%, 89%, and 86%, respectively. Multivariate analyses suggested that the same genes for EEG alpha rhythm were expressed in different brain areas in the left and right hemisphere. This study shows that brain functioning, as indexed by rhythmic brain-electrical activity, is one of the most heritable characteristics in humans. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Development of Open Brain Simulator for Human Biomechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Mihoko; Takagi, Toshihisa; Asama, Hajime

    Modeling and simulation based on mechanisms is important in order to design and control mechatronic systems. In particular, in-depth understanding and realistic modeling of biological systems is indispensable for biomechatronics. This paper presents open brain simulator, which estimates the neural state of human through external measurement for the purpose of improving motor and social skills. Macroscopic anatomical nervous systems model was built which can be connected to the musculoskeletal model. Microscopic anatomical and physiological neural models were interfaced to the macroscopic model. Neural activities of somatosensory area and Purkinje cell were calculated from motion capture data. The simulator provides technical infrastructure for human biomechatronics, which is promising for the novel diagnosis of neurological disorders and their treatments through medication and movement therapy, and for motor learning support system supporting acquisition of motor skill considering neural mechanism.

  6. Dentate gyrus abnormalities in sudden unexplained death in infants: morphological marker of underlying brain vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Hannah C; Cryan, Jane B; Haynes, Robin L; Paterson, David S; Haas, Elisabeth A; Mena, Othon J; Minter, Megan; Journey, Kelley W; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Goldstein, Richard D; Armstrong, Dawna D

    2015-01-01

    Sudden unexplained death in infants, including the sudden infant death syndrome, is likely due to heterogeneous causes that involve different intrinsic vulnerabilities and/or environmental factors. Neuropathologic research focuses upon the role of brain regions, particularly the brainstem, that regulate or modulate autonomic and respiratory control during sleep or transitions to waking. The hippocampus is a key component of the forebrain-limbic network that modulates autonomic/respiratory control via brainstem connections, but its role in sudden infant death has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that a well-established marker of hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy-focal granule cell bilamination in the dentate, a variant of granule cell dispersion-is associated with sudden unexplained death in infants. In a blinded study of hippocampal morphology in 153 infants with sudden and unexpected death autopsied in the San Diego County medical examiner's office, deaths were classified as unexplained or explained based upon autopsy and scene investigation. Focal granule cell bilamination was present in 41.2% (47/114) of the unexplained group compared to 7.7% (3/39) of the explained (control) group (p < 0.001). It was associated with a cluster of other dentate developmental abnormalities that reflect defective neuronal proliferation, migration, and/or survival. Dentate lesions in a large subset of infants with sudden unexplained death may represent a developmental vulnerability that leads to autonomic/respiratory instability or autonomic seizures, and sleep-related death when the infants are challenged with homeostatic stressors. Importantly, these lesions can be recognized in microscopic sections prepared in current forensic practice. Future research is needed to determine the relationship between hippocampal and previously reported brainstem pathology in sudden infant death. PMID:25421424

  7. Impact of Chemotherapy for Childhood Leukemia on Brain Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Krone, Franziska; Hoffmann, Andre; Holfeld, Elisabeth; Vorwerk, Peter; Kramm, Christof; Gruhn, Bernd; Koustenis, Elisabeth; Hernaiz-Driever, Pablo; Mandal, Rakesh; Suttorp, Meinolf; Hummel, Thomas; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Smolka, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using multidisciplinary treatment modalities the majority of children with cancer can be cured but we are increasingly faced with therapy-related toxicities. We studied brain morphology and neurocognitive functions in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood acute, low and standard risk lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which was successfully treated with chemotherapy. We expected that intravenous and intrathecal chemotherapy administered in childhood will affect grey matter structures, including hippocampus and olfactory bulbs, areas where postnatal neurogenesis is ongoing. Methods We examined 27 ALL-survivors and 27 age-matched healthy controls, ages 15–22 years. ALL-survivors developed disease prior to their 11th birthday without central nervous system involvement, were treated with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy and received no radiation. Volumes of grey, white matter and olfactory bulbs were measured on T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images manually, using FIRST (FMRIB’s integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Memory, executive functions, attention, intelligence and olfaction were assessed. Results Mean volumes of left hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and nucleus accumbens were smaller in the ALL group. VBM analysis revealed significantly smaller volumes of the left calcarine gyrus, both lingual gyri and the left precuneus. DTI data analysis provided no evidence for white matter pathology. Lower scores in hippocampus-dependent memory were measured in ALL-subjects, while lower figural memory correlated with smaller hippocampal volumes. Interpretation Findings demonstrate that childhood ALL, treated with chemotherapy, is associated with smaller grey matter volumes of neocortical and subcortical grey matter and lower hippocampal memory performance in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:24265700

  8. Mass spectrometry quantification of clusterin in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The multifunctional glycoprotein clusterin has been associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Further investigation to define the role of clusterin in AD phenotypes would be aided by the development of techniques to quantify level, potential post-translational modifications, and isoforms of clusterin. We have developed a quantitative technique based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry to measure clusterin in human postmortem brain tissues. Results A stable isotope-labeled concatenated peptide (QconCAT) bearing selected peptides from clusterin was expressed with an in vitro translation system and purified. This clusterin QconCAT was validated for use as an internal standard for clusterin quantification using MRM mass spectrometry. Measurements were performed on the human postmortem frontal and temporal cortex from control and severe AD cases. During brain tissues processing, 1% SDS was used in the homogenization buffer to preserve potential post-translational modifications of clusterin. However, MRM quantifications in the brain did not suggest phosphorylation of Thr393, Ser394, and Ser396 residues reported for clusterin in serum. MRM quantifications in the frontal cortex demonstrated significantly higher (P?

  9. Knowledge-based localization of hippocampus in human brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Siadat, Mohammad-Reza

    1999-05-01

    Hippocampus is an important structure of the human brain limbic system. The variations in the volume and architecture of this structure have been related to certain neurological diseases such as schizophrenia and epilepsy. This paper presents a two-stage method for localizing hippocampus in human brain MRI automatically. The first stage utilizes image processing techniques such as nonlinear filtering and histogram analysis to extract information from MRI. This stage generates binary images, locates lateral and third ventricles, and the inferior limit of Sylvian Fissure. The second stage uses a shell of expert system named VP-EXPERT to analyze the information extracted in the first stage. This stage utilizes absolute and relative spatial rules and spatial symmetry rules to locate the hippocampus. The system has been tested using MRI studies of six epilepsy patients. MRI data consisted of a total of 128 images. The system correctly identified all of the slices without hippocampus, and correctly localized hippocampus is about n 78% of the slices with hippocampus.

  10. Hypnosis and imaging of the living human brain.

    PubMed

    Landry, Mathieu; Raz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Over more than two decades, studies using imaging techniques of the living human brain have begun to explore the neural correlates of hypnosis. The collective findings provide a gripping, albeit preliminary, account of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved in hypnotic phenomena. While substantial advances lend support to different hypotheses pertaining to hypnotic modulation of attention, control, and monitoring processes, the complex interactions among the many mediating variables largely hinder our ability to isolate robust commonalities across studies. The present account presents a critical integrative synthesis of neuroimaging studies targeting hypnosis as a function of suggestion. Specifically, hypnotic induction without task-specific suggestion is examined, as well as suggestions concerning sensation and perception, memory, and ideomotor response. The importance of carefully designed experiments is highlighted to better tease apart the neural correlates that subserve hypnotic phenomena. Moreover, converging findings intimate that hypnotic suggestions seem to induce specific neural patterns. These observations propose that suggestions may have the ability to target focal brain networks. Drawing on evidence spanning several technological modalities, neuroimaging studies of hypnosis pave the road to a more scientific understanding of a dramatic, yet largely evasive, domain of human behavior. PMID:25928680

  11. Protein Phosphatase 1? Interacting Proteins in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sara L.C.; Domingues, Sara C.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A.B.; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a major serine/threonine-phosphatase whose activity is dependent on its binding to regulatory subunits known as PP1 interacting proteins (PIPs), responsible for targeting PP1 to a specific cellular location, specifying its substrate or regulating its action. Today, more than 200 PIPs have been described involving PP1 in panoply of cellular mechanisms. Moreover, several PIPs have been identified that are tissue and event specific. In addition, the diversity of PP1/PIP complexes can further be achieved by the existence of several PP1 isoforms that can bind preferentially to a certain PIP. Thus, PP1/PIP complexes are highly specific for a particular function in the cell, and as such, they are excellent pharmacological targets. Hence, an in-depth survey was taken to identify specific PP1? PIPs in human brain by a high-throughput Yeast Two-Hybrid approach. Sixty-six proteins were recognized to bind PP1?, 39 being novel PIPs. A large protein interaction databases search was also performed to integrate with the results of the PP1? Human Brain Yeast Two-Hybrid and a total of 246 interactions were retrieved. PMID:22321011

  12. What makes man human: thirty-ninth James Arthur lecture on the evolution of the human brain, 1970

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl H Pribram

    2006-01-01

    What makes man human is his brain. This brain is obviously different from those of nonhuman primates. It is larger, shows hemispheric dominance and specialization, and is cytoarchitecturally somewhat more generalized. But are these the essential characteristics that determine the humanness of man? This paper cannot give an answer to this question for the answer is not known. But the

  13. Bmi1 marks intermediate precursors during differentiation of human brain tumor initiating cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitra Venugopal; Na Li; Xin Wang; Branavan Manoranjan; Cynthia Hawkins; Thorsteinn Gunnarsson; Robert Hollenberg; Paula Klurfan; Naresh Murty; Jacek Kwiecien; Forough Farrokhyar; John P. Provias; Christopher Wynder; Sheila K. Singh

    The master regulatory gene Bmi1 modulates key stem cell properties in neural precursor cells (NPCs), and has been implicated in brain tumorigenesis. We previously identified a population of CD133+ brain tumor cells possessing stem cell properties, known as brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). Here, we characterize the expression and role of Bmi1 in primary minimally cultured human glioblastoma (GBM) patient

  14. Brain pathology induced by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Budka; G. Costanzi; S. Cristina; A. Lechi; C. Parravicini; R. Trabattoni; L. Vago

    1987-01-01

    Neuropathological examination of brain tissue of 100 patients with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including 98 with clinically manifest acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), revealed distinct multifocal-disseminated and diffuse brain tissue lesions, which can be regarded as HIV-induced brain lessions: multifocal giant cell encephalitis (MGCE; 4) and progressive diffuse leukoencephalopathy (PDL; 25). These lesions were found in 38

  15. Neurobiology of Disease Structural Abnormalities in the Brains of Human Subjects

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Neurobiology of Disease Structural Abnormalities in the Brains of Human Subjects Who Use of Neuroimaging, Brain Mapping Division, Department of Neurology, Departments of 2Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and 3Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, and 4Brain Research Institute, University of California

  16. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    brain region previously implicated in language (e.g., Broca's area), without a direct demonstrationFunctional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain Evelina Fedorenkoa,1 , Michael K. Behra , and Nancy Kanwishera,b,1 a Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department and b Mc

  17. Recent news reports that an electrical brain-stimulation technique improved human memory

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    Recent news reports that an electrical brain- stimulation technique improved human memory draws brain systems support different kinds of memory. The main distinction is between our capacity weakened by aging and disease and is the kind of memory that was improved by brain stimulation. We also

  18. Assessing human sperm morphology: top models, underdogs or biometrics?

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of the percentage of spermatozoa having an 'ideal' morphology using so-called strict method is the method recommended in the latest edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory manual for semen analysis. This recommendation is a result of the statistical association between 'ideal' sperm morphology and fertility, and of the current general belief that sperm morphology assessment should be used primarily as a fertility tool. The notion of an 'ideal' sperm morphology has persisted despite the very low percentage of such spermatozoa in the semen of fertile men, a subject of intense controversy. The detailed categorization of each abnormal spermatozoon has thus, for a long time, been considered optional and partially redundant, an idea which is reflected in the earlier editions of the WHO manual. However, several recent studies have shown the importance of carefully assessing abnormal sperm morphology for use in the diagnosis of infertility, to determine fertility prognosis, and for basic or public health studies. One approach, which combines videomicroscopy and computer vision, and is the only approach able to assess the continuum of sperm biometrics, has been used successfully in several recent clinical, basic and toxicology studies. In summary, the visual assessment of detailed sperm morphology—including the categorization of anomalies allowing arithmetically derived indices of teratozoospermia—and the more modern computer-based approaches, although often considered to be redundant, are in fact complementary. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on the field of investigation (clinical, research, toxicology) and the problem being addressed. Each approach has advantages as well as certain limitations, which will be discussed briefly herein. PMID:20111080

  19. Evolution of human brain functions: the functional structure of human consciousness.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C Robert

    2009-11-01

    The functional structure of self-aware consciousness in human beings is described based on the evolution of human brain functions. Prior work on heritable temperament and character traits is extended to account for the quantum-like and holographic properties (i.e. parts elicit wholes) of self-aware consciousness. Cladistic analysis is used to identify the succession of ancestors leading to human beings. The functional capacities that emerge along this lineage of ancestors are described. The ecological context in which each cladogenesis occurred is described to illustrate the shifting balance of evolution as a complex adaptive system. Comparative neuroanatomy is reviewed to identify the brain structures and networks that emerged coincident with the emergent brain functions. Individual differences in human temperament traits were well developed in the common ancestor shared by reptiles and humans. Neocortical development in mammals proceeded in five major transitions: from early reptiles to early mammals, early primates, simians, early Homo, and modern Homo sapiens. These transitions provide the foundation for human self-awareness related to sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality, respectively. The functional structure of human self-aware consciousness is concerned with the regulation of five planes of being: sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality. Each plane elaborates neocortical functions organized around one of the five special senses. The interactions among these five planes gives rise to a 5 x 5 matrix of subplanes, which are functions that coarsely describe the focus of neocortical regulation. Each of these 25 neocortical functions regulates each of five basic motives or drives that can be measured as temperaments or basic emotions related to fear, anger, disgust, surprise, and happiness/sadness. The resulting 5 x 5 x 5 matrix of human characteristics provides a general and testable model of the functional structure of human consciousness that includes personality, physicality, emotionality, cognition, and spirituality in a unified developmental framework. PMID:20001395

  20. Role of laminin and basement membrane in the morphological differentiation of human endothelial cells into capillary-like structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Kubota; Hynda K. Kleinman; George R. Martin; Thomas J. Lawley

    1988-01-01

    We have defined a signal responsible for the morphological differentiation of human umbilical vein and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. We find that human umbilical vein endothelial cells deprived of growth factors undergo morphologi- cal differentiation with tube formation after 6-12 wk, and that human dermal microvascular endothelial cells differentiate after 1 wk of growth factor deprivation. Here,

  1. Morphology of a human-derived YAC in yeast meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Loidl; Harry Scherthan; Johan T. Den Dunnen; Franz Klein

    1995-01-01

    In meiosis of human males DNA is packaged along pachytene chromosomes about 20 time more compactly than in meiosis of yeast. Nevertheless, a human-derived yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) shows the same degree of compaction of DNA as endogenous chromosomes in meiotic prophase nuclei of yeast. This suggests that in yeast meiosis, human and yeast DNA adopt a similar organization of

  2. Morphology of a human-derived YAC in yeast meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Loidl; Harry Scherthan; Johan T. Den Dunnen; Franz Klein

    1995-01-01

    In meiosis of human males DNA is packaged along pachytene chromosomes about 20 times more compactly than in meiosis of yeast. Nevertheless, a human-derived yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) shows the same degree of compaction of DNA as endogenous chromosomes in meiotic prophase nuclei of yeast. This suggests that in yeast meiosis, human and yeast DNA adopt a similar organization of

  3. Variation in human brains may facilitate evolutionary change toward a limited range of phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Christine J.; Darlington, Richard B.; Finlay, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Individual variation is the foundation for evolutionary change, but little is known about the nature of normal variation between brains. Phylogenetic variation across mammalian brains is characterized by high inter-correlations in brain region volumes, distinct allometric scaling for each brain region and the relative independence in olfactory and limbic structures volumes from the rest of the brain. Previous work examining brain variation in individuals of some domesticated species showed that these three features of phylogenetic variation were mirrored in individual variation. We extend this analysis to the human brain and 10 of its subdivisions (e.g., isocortex, hippocampus) by using magnetic resonance imaging scans of 90 human brains ranging between 16 to 25 years of age. Human brain variation resembles both the individual variation seen in other species, and variation observed across mammalian species. That is, the relative differences in the slopes of each brain region compared to medulla size within humans and between mammals are concordant, and limbic structures scale with relative independence from other brain regions. This non-random pattern of variation suggests that developmental programs channel the variation available for selection. PMID:23363667

  4. The p53 gene and protein in human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, D.N. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Because p53 gene alterations are commonplace in human tumors and because p53 protein is involved in a number of important cellular pathways, p53 has become a topic of intensive investigation, both by basic scientists and clinicians. p53 was initially identified by two independent laboratories in 1979 as a 53 kilodalton (kD) protein that complexes with the large T antigen of SV40 virus. Shortly thereafter, it was shown that the E1B oncoprotein of adenovirus also binds p53. The binding of two different oncogenic viral tumor proteins to the same cellular protein suggested that p53 might be integral to tumorigenesis. The human p53 cDNA and gene were subsequently cloned in the mid-1980s, and analysis of p53 gene alterations in human tumors followed a few year later. During these 10 years, researchers grappling with the vagaries of p53 first characterized the gene as an oncogene, then as a tumor suppressor gene, and most recently as both a tumor suppressor gene and a so-called [open quotes]dominant negative[close quotes] oncogene. The last few years have seen an explosion in work on this single gene and its protein product. A review of a computerized medical database revealed approximately 650 articles on p53 in 1992 alone. p53 has assumed importance in neuro-oncology because p53 mutations and protein alterations are frequent in the common diffuse, fibrillary astrocytic tumors of adults. p53 mutations in astrocytomas were first described in 1989 and were followed by more extensive analyses of gene mutations and protein alterations in adult astrocytomas. The gene has also been studied in less common brain tumors. Elucidating the role of p53 in brain tumorigenesis will not only enhance understanding of brain tumor biology but may also contribute to improved diagnosis and therapy. This discussion reviews key aspects of the p53 gene and protein, and describe their emerging roles in central nervous system neoplasia. 102 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. [The beginnings of physiology of the human brain, from antiquity to the Renaissance].

    PubMed

    Saban, R

    1999-06-01

    For more than 3,000 years in Western civilizations, the knowledge of the human body gained very little ground at first, due to taboos. The body was regarded as sacred and Medicine only resorted to plants in order to heal. Hippocrates was not familiar with anatomy as the human body could not be dissected. He developed a theory of humors connected with the primary elements and opposing the dry and the moist. Even though he did not know the nervous system, he nonetheless pointed out that emotions stemmed from the brain and were caused ty particles (pneuma) emitted by the objects around us. Galien was one of the first to mention physiology but could only dissect animals to understand Man. He took up the theory of humors but did not reach any concrete results as he considered the brain as made up of faeces. Only in 1000 AD did Avicenne try to shape the cell theory with its three cells (the ventricles in today's parlance) in direct relation to the nerves, which he described but did not represent. Representation of the nerves was only be given in the mid-13th century by Khalifah in his ophtalmology treaty. Finally, during the Renaissance, when books started conveying both text and pictures, brain physiology emerged; Albert le Grand was its first expounder and his work was then taken up in a 1475 inculabulum in which 5 cells instead of 3 are described and represented. Leonardo da Vinci was the second one; at the end of the 15th century he dissected may corpses to understand human morphology. Unfortunately his work, which was conducted very rigorously from an anatomical point of view only surfaced at the end of the 19th century. He was the first to conduct the anatomical cross-dissection of the brain. Last came Magnus Hundt and Georg Reisch; in the early 16th century they still represented the three cells of Avicenne even though Reisch described more sophisticated connections between the organs of the senses. PMID:11623835

  6. Enhanced expression of aquaporin 4 in human brain with inflammatory diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuko Aoki-Yoshino; Toshiki Uchihara; Charles Duyckaerts; Ayako Nakamura; Jean-Jacques Hauw; Yoshihiro Wakayama

    2005-01-01

    Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), one of the water channel proteins on the plasma membrane of astrocytes, is up-regulated in various conditions with brain edema. Possible participation of AQP4 in various inflammatory lesions, more or less associated with edema, was examined in human autopsied brains. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate AQP4 expression in autopsied brains with multiple sclerosis (MS), human immunodeficiency virus

  7. An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Raúl

    2014-10-28

    Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans. PMID:25267617

  8. Human activity recognition based on morphological dilation followed by watershed transformation method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Siddiqi; Muhammad Fahim; Sungyoung Lee; Young-Koo Lee

    2010-01-01

    Efficiency and accuracy are the most important terms for human activity recognition. Most of the existing works have the problem of speed. This paper proposed an efficient algorithm to recognize the activities of the human. There are three stages of this paper, segmentation, feature extraction and recognition. In this paper our contribution is in segmentation stage (based on morphological dilation)

  9. Effect of Matrigel on Function and Morphology of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cell in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marefat Ghaffari Novin; Mohammad Nouri

    Introduction: The importance of extra cellular matrix (ECM) in development and function of different cells has been reported but little is known about its role in human endometrial epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of artificial ECM (Matrigel) and progesterone on the function and morphology of human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. Methods: Endometrial

  10. Morphologic, Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Endothelial Cells Derived from Human Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-jian Zhang; Li-ya Ye; Lian-qiu Wu; Yu-ling Xin; Feng Gu; Ji-xiao Niu; Zhi-hua Yang; Guang-jin Zhu; Georges E. Grau; Jin-ning Lou

    2006-01-01

    Backgrounds\\/Aims: The pathogenesis of cavernous hemangiomas is largely unknown, and it is speculated that abnormal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis may be involved. In this study, the characteristics of cavernous hemangioma endothelial cells (CHECs) derived from the human liver were analyzed in terms of morphology, phenotype and function and compared with human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). Methods and Results: By transmission

  11. Selectivity to translational egomotion in human brain motion areas.

    PubMed

    Pitzalis, Sabrina; Sdoia, Stefano; Bultrini, Alessandro; Committeri, Giorgia; Di Russo, Francesco; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio; Galati, Gaspare

    2013-01-01

    The optic flow generated when a person moves through the environment can be locally decomposed into several basic components, including radial, circular, translational and spiral motion. Since their analysis plays an important part in the visual perception and control of locomotion and posture it is likely that some brain regions in the primate dorsal visual pathway are specialized to distinguish among them. The aim of this study is to explore the sensitivity to different types of egomotion-compatible visual stimulations in the human motion-sensitive regions of the brain. Event-related fMRI experiments, 3D motion and wide-field stimulation, functional localizers and brain mapping methods were used to study the sensitivity of six distinct motion areas (V6, MT, MST+, V3A, CSv and an Intra-Parietal Sulcus motion [IPSmot] region) to different types of optic flow stimuli. Results show that only areas V6, MST+ and IPSmot are specialized in distinguishing among the various types of flow patterns, with a high response for the translational flow which was maximum in V6 and IPSmot and less marked in MST+. Given that during egomotion the translational optic flow conveys differential information about the near and far external objects, areas V6 and IPSmot likely process visual egomotion signals to extract information about the relative distance of objects with respect to the observer. Since area V6 is also involved in distinguishing object-motion from self-motion, it could provide information about location in space of moving and static objects during self-motion, particularly in a dynamically unstable environment. PMID:23577096

  12. Video Article Monitoring Acupuncture Effects on Human Brain by fMRI

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    Video Article Monitoring Acupuncture Effects on Human Brain by fMRI Kathleen K. S. Hui1, Vitaly). Monitoring Acupuncture Effects on Human Brain by fMRI. JoVE. 38. http://www.jove.com/index/Details.stp?ID=1190, doi: 10.3791/1190 Abstract Functional MRI is used to study the effects of acupuncture on the BOLD

  13. Protease Activated Receptor Signaling Is Required for African Trypanosome Traversal of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis J. Grab; Jose C. Garcia-Garcia; Olga V. Nikolskaia; Yuri V. Kim; Amanda Brown; Carlos A. Pardo; Yongqing Zhang; Kevin G. Becker; Brenda A. Wilson; Julio Scharfstein; J. Stephen Dumler

    2009-01-01

    Background: Using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) as an in vitro model for how African trypanosomes cross the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) we recently reported that the parasites cross the BBB by generating calcium activation signals in HBMECs through the activity of parasite cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L (brucipain). In the current study, we examined the possible role of

  14. Protease Activated Receptor Signaling Is Required for African Trypanosome Traversal of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis J. Grab; Jose C. Garcia-Garcia; Olga V. Nikolskaia; Yuri V. Kim; Amanda Brown; Carlos A. Pardo; Yongqing Zhang; Kevin G. Becker; Brenda A. Wilson; Julio Scharfstein; J. Stephen Dumler

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundUsing human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) as an in vitro model for how African trypanosomes cross the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) we recently reported that the parasites cross the BBB by generating calcium activation signals in HBMECs through the activity of parasite cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L (brucipain). In the current study, we examined the possible role of a

  15. Influence of adhesion molecule expression by human brain microvessel endothelium on cancer cell adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Brayton; Zhu Qing; Michael N Hart; John C VanGilder; Zsuzsa Fabry

    1998-01-01

    Cultures of endothelial (En) cells derived from human brain microvessels were established in order to characterize adhesion molecule expression and to assay the adhesion properties of neoplastic cell lines to monolayers of En cells. Low constitutive expression of ?1 integrin (CD29), and ICAM-2 (CD102) was detected on human brain microvessel En cells. The ?1 chain of the VLA integrin family,

  16. Later Passages of Neural Progenitor Cells from Neonatal Brain Are More Permissive for Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xing; Li, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Xi-Juan; Yuan, Hui; Li, Jia-Fu; Duan, Ying-Liang; Ye, Han-Qing; Fu, Ya-Ru; Qiao, Guan-Hua; Wu, Cong-Cong; Yang, Bo; Tian, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Kang-Hong; Miao, Ling-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Jun; Rayner, Simon; Schwartz, Philip H.; Britt, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the most frequent infectious cause of birth defects, primarily neurological disorders. Neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs) are the major cell type in the subventricular zone and are susceptible to HCMV infection. In culture, the differentiation status of NPCs may change with passage, which in turn may alter susceptibility to virus infection. Previously, only early-passage (i.e., prior to passage 9) NPCs were studied and shown to be permissive to HCMV infection. In this study, NPC cultures derived at different gestational ages were evaluated after short (passages 3 to 6) and extended (passages 11 to 20) in vitro passages for biological and virological parameters (i.e., cell morphology, expression of NPC markers and HCMV receptors, viral entry efficiency, viral gene expression, virus-induced cytopathic effect, and release of infectious progeny). These parameters were not significantly influenced by the gestational age of the source tissues. However, extended-passage cultures showed evidence of initiation of differentiation, increased viral entry, and more efficient production of infectious progeny. These results confirm that NPCs are fully permissive for HCMV infection and that extended-passage NPCs initiate differentiation and are more permissive for HCMV infection. Later-passage NPCs being differentiated and more permissive for HCMV infection suggest that HCMV infection in fetal brain may cause more neural cell loss and give rise to severe neurological disabilities with advancing brain development. PMID:23903847

  17. Interactive visualization of morphological and kinematic data of human movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranov, Vladislav Y.; Sholukha, Victor A.; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2005-04-01

    The article is devoted to description of a developed tool for interactive registration, validation and almost real-time visualization of large amount of high resolution morphological and kinematic data. Medical professionals usually work with custom made and non-interactive programs which greatly slow down their efficiency. The approach described has been implemented in a universal software product to pursue different goals simultaneously and to use the same software for research, educational and clinical applications.

  18. Phenylethylamine N-methylation by human brain preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Mosnaim, A.D.; Callaghan, O.H.; Wolf, M.E.

    1986-03-05

    Alterations in the brain metabolism of biogenic amines has been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders. There is some evidence suggesting schizogenic properties for some abnormal neuroamine methylated derivatives. The authors now report that postmortem human brain preparations, obtained from the putamen and thalamus, convert phenylethylamine (PEA) to its behaviorally active derivative N-methyl PEA, a reaction which is carried out by the 100,000 xg supernatant (in presence of 1 x 10 /sup -5/M pargyline) and enhanced by the addition of NADPH. PEA N-methylation occurred in schizophrenics as well as in sex and age matched controls. The formation of increased amounts of (/sup 3/H-) or (/sup 14/C-) N-methyl PEA when incubating either cold amine and /sup 3/H-SAM or 1-/sup 14/C PEA and cold SAM, respectively, indicates that SAM is a methyl group donor in this reaction. They will discuss the physiological and pharmacological implications of these results.

  19. Human brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming; Chance, Britton

    1999-09-01

    Human brain activity was studied with a real time functional Near-InfraRed Imager (fNIRI). The imager has 16 measurement channels and covers 4 cm by 9 cm detection area. Brain activities in occipital, motor and prefrontal area were studied with the fNIRI. In prefrontal stimulation, language cognition, analogies, forming memory for new associations, emotional thinking, and mental arithmetic were carried out. Experimental results measured with fNIRI are demonstrated in this paper. It was shown that fNIRI technique is able to reveal the occipital activity during visual stimulation, and co-register well with results of fMRI in the motor cortex activity during finger tapping. In the studies of the effects of left prefrontal lobe on forming memory for new associations, it is shown that left prefrontal lobe activated more under deep conditions than that under shallow encoding, especially the dorsal part. In the studies of emotional thinking, it was shown that the responses were different between positive- negative emotional thinking and negative-positive emotional thinking. In mental arithmetic studies, higher activation was found in the first task than in the second, regardless of the difficulty, and higher activation was measured in subtraction of 17 than in subtraction of 3.

  20. Fractional Diffusion Based Modelling and Prediction of Human Brain Response to External Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kulish, Vladimir V.

    2015-01-01

    Human brain response is the result of the overall ability of the brain in analyzing different internal and external stimuli and thus making the proper decisions. During the last decades scientists have discovered more about this phenomenon and proposed some models based on computational, biological, or neuropsychological methods. Despite some advances in studies related to this area of the brain research, there were fewer efforts which have been done on the mathematical modeling of the human brain response to external stimuli. This research is devoted to the modeling and prediction of the human EEG signal, as an alert state of overall human brain activity monitoring, upon receiving external stimuli, based on fractional diffusion equations. The results of this modeling show very good agreement with the real human EEG signal and thus this model can be used for many types of applications such as prediction of seizure onset in patient with epilepsy. PMID:26089955

  1. Neural Dynamics Underlying Target Detection in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Arjun K.; Madhavan, Radhika; Agam, Yigal; Golby, Alexandra; Madsen, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory signals must be interpreted in the context of goals and tasks. To detect a target in an image, the brain compares input signals and goals to elicit the correct behavior. We examined how target detection modulates visual recognition signals by recording intracranial field potential responses from 776 electrodes in 10 epileptic human subjects. We observed reliable differences in the physiological responses to stimuli when a cued target was present versus absent. Goal-related modulation was particularly strong in the inferior temporal and fusiform gyri, two areas important for object recognition. Target modulation started after 250 ms post stimulus, considerably after the onset of visual recognition signals. While broadband signals exhibited increased or decreased power, gamma frequency power showed predominantly increases during target presence. These observations support models where task goals interact with sensory inputs via top-down signals that influence the highest echelons of visual processing after the onset of selective responses. PMID:24553944

  2. Face Encoding and Recognition in the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxby, James V.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.; Horwitz, Barry; Maisog, Jose Ma.; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Grady, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    A dissociation between human neural systems that participate in the encoding and later recognition of new memories for faces was demonstrated by measuring memory task-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography. There was almost no overlap between the brain structures associated with these memory functions. A region in the right hippocampus and adjacent cortex was activated during memory encoding but not during recognition. The most striking finding in neocortex was the lateralization of prefrontal participation. Encoding activated left prefrontal cortex, whereas recognition activated right prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that the hippocampus and adjacent cortex participate in memory function primarily at the time of new memory encoding. Moreover, face recognition is not mediated simply by recapitulation of operations performed at the time of encoding but, rather, involves anatomically dissociable operations.

  3. A mechanistic account of value computation in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Philiastides, Marios G.; Biele, Guido; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2010-01-01

    To make decisions based on the value of different options, we often have to combine different sources of probabilistic evidence. For example, when shopping for strawberries on a fruit stand, one uses their color and size to infer—with some uncertainty—which strawberries taste best. Despite much progress in understanding the neural underpinnings of value-based decision making in humans, it remains unclear how the brain represents different sources of probabilistic evidence and how they are used to compute value signals needed to drive the decision. Here, we use a visual probabilistic categorization task to show that regions in ventral temporal cortex encode probabilistic evidence for different decision alternatives, while ventromedial prefrontal cortex integrates information from these regions into a value signal using a difference-based comparator operation. PMID:20439711

  4. A Collaborative Brain-Computer Interface for Improving Human Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have been studied since the 1970s. Currently, the main focus of BCI research lies on the clinical use, which aims to provide a new communication channel to patients with motor disabilities to improve their quality of life. However, the BCI technology can also be used to improve human performance for normal healthy users. Although this application has been proposed for a long time, little progress has been made in real-world practices due to technical limits of EEG. To overcome the bottleneck of low single-user BCI performance, this study proposes a collaborative paradigm to improve overall BCI performance by integrating information from multiple users. To test the feasibility of a collaborative BCI, this study quantitatively compares the classification accuracies of collaborative and single-user BCI applied to the EEG data collected from 20 subjects in a movement-planning experiment. This study also explores three different methods for fusing and analyzing EEG data from multiple subjects: (1) Event-related potentials (ERP) averaging, (2) Feature concatenating, and (3) Voting. In a demonstration system using the Voting method, the classification accuracy of predicting movement directions (reaching left vs. reaching right) was enhanced substantially from 66% to 80%, 88%, 93%, and 95% as the numbers of subjects increased from 1 to 5, 10, 15, and 20, respectively. Furthermore, the decision of reaching direction could be made around 100–250 ms earlier than the subject's actual motor response by decoding the ERP activities arising mainly from the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), which are related to the processing of visuomotor transmission. Taken together, these results suggest that a collaborative BCI can effectively fuse brain activities of a group of people to improve the overall performance of natural human behavior. PMID:21655253

  5. Morphological approach of stereo camera based human motion capture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sewoong Jun; Changwoo Park; Il-Kyun Jung; Yong-Ouk Kim; Bongseok Kim

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new real-time system to acquire motion information of human articulated objects such as arm and head. The system does not need any marker or device to wear on human body and adopted stereo camera to obtain robust system against for illumination and complex background without position initialization of articulated objects. We present a solution to estimate

  6. Brain Potentials for Derivational Morphology: An ERP Study of Deadjectival Nominalizations in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, Viktoria; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates brain potentials to derived word forms in Spanish. Two experiments were performed on derived nominals that differ in terms of their productivity and semantic properties but are otherwise similar, an acceptability judgment task and a reading experiment using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in which correctly and…

  7. Optimization of electron microscopy for human brains with long-term fixation and fixed-frozen sections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal connectivity across brain regions underlies many neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and autism, possibly due to atypical axonal organization within white matter. Attempts at investigating axonal organization on post-mortem human brains have been hindered by the availability of high-quality, morphologically preserved tissue, particularly for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Brains are generally stored in a fixative for long periods of time (often greater than 10 years) and in many cases, already frozen and sectioned on a microtome for histology and immunohistochemistry. Here we present a method to assess the quality and quantity of axons from long-term fixed and frozen-sectioned human brain samples to demonstrate their use for electron microscopy (EM) measures of axonal ultrastructure. Results Six samples were collected from white matter below the superior temporal cortex of three typically developing human brains and prepared for EM analyses. Five samples were stored in fixative for over 10 years, two of which were also flash frozen and sectioned on a freezing microtome, and one additional case was fixed for 3 years and sectioned on a freezing microtome. In all six samples, ultrastructural qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrate that myelinated axons can be identified and counted on the EM images. Although axon density differed between brains, axonal ultrastructure and density was well preserved and did not differ within cases for fixed and frozen tissue. There was no significant difference between cases in axon myelin sheath thickness (g-ratio) or axon diameter; approximately 70% of axons were in the small (0.25 ?m) to medium (0.75 ?m) range. Axon diameter and g-ratio were positively correlated, indicating that larger axons may have thinner myelin sheaths. Conclusion The current study demonstrates that long term formalin fixed and frozen-sectioned human brain tissue can be used for ultrastructural analyses. Axon integrity is well preserved and can be quantified using the methods presented here. The ability to carry out EM on frozen sections allows for investigation of axonal organization in conjunction with other cellular and histological methods, such as immunohistochemistry and stereology, within the same brain and even within the same frozen cut section. PMID:24721148

  8. [Brain organization of Amia, Lepisosteus and Polypterus: comparative morphology and quantitative analysys].

    PubMed

    Platel, R; Ridet, J M; Bauchot, R; Diagne, M

    1977-01-01

    The quantitative study of the brain of Amia, Lepisosteus and Polypterus leads to results which are compared to those previously got on the Sturgeon and three species of Tleosts (the Rainbow Trout, the Carp and the Ballan wrasse). The volumetric analysis has been applied at first to the whole brain (encephalization indices) and later to the main subdivision of the brain: telencephalon, diencepahlon... (relation indices and relative volumes). Some result are discussed in regard to the various opinions expressed about the phylogenetic affinities of the studied species. According to the brain organisation, the Bichir (Polyterus) seems to be at a relatively high level of evolution, and no relationship can be expected with the Chondrosteans. Amia and Lepisosteus show a common general brain pattern, but some peculiarities allow to consider Amia as more primitive than Lepisosteus--although the osteological characteristics and the scale structure lead to put together the first one and the Teleosts. PMID:894016

  9. Aerobic glycolysis in the human brain is associated with development and neotenous gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Manu S.; Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Aerobic glycolysis (AG), i.e., non-oxidative metabolism of glucose despite the presence of abundant oxygen, accounts for 10–12% of glucose used by the adult human brain. AG varies regionally in the resting state. Brain AG may support synaptic growth and remodeling; however, data supporting this hypothesis are sparse. Here, we report on investigations on the role of AG in the human brain. Meta-analysis of prior brain glucose and oxygen metabolism studies demonstrates that AG increases during childhood, precisely when synaptic growth rates are highest. In resting adult humans, AG correlates with persistence of gene expression typical of infancy (transcriptional neoteny). In brain regions with the highest AG, we find increased gene expression related to synapse formation and growth. In contrast, regions high in oxidative glucose metabolism express genes related to mitochondria and synaptic transmission. Our results suggest that brain AG supports developmental processes, particularly those required for synapse formation and growth. PMID:24411938

  10. Changes induced by prenatal stress in behavior and brain morphology: can they be prevented or reversed?

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents a critical analysis of the behavioral alterations reported in the offspring of women exposed to stress and/or depression during pregnancy and the neurochemical and structural changes underlying them. Among the alterations attributed to prenatal stress in humans and experimental rats of both sexes is impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, anxiety and exaggerated fear of novelty, and decreased social interaction. Learning and attention deficits are more prevalent in boys and male rats. Fear of novelty and anxiety are associated with enlargement of the amygdala and its corticotropin-releasing factor content, and decreased socialization, with lower oxytocin activity in the amygdala. Learning deficits are associated with a decrease in neurogenesis, dendritic complexity, and spine number in the dorsal hippocampus. Fostering prenatally stressed (PS) pups onto control mothers prevents the dysregulation of the HPA axis and heightened anxiety, indicating a role for postnatal factors in their etiology. By contrast, learning impairment and decreased socialization are not affected by this fostering procedure and are therefore prenatally mediated.In spite of their widespread use in depressed pregnant women, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants do not normalize the behavior of their children. When administered during gestation to stressed rats, SSRIs do not reduce anxiety or learning deficits in their offspring. Moreover, when given to unstressed mothers, SSRIs induce anxiety in the offspring. The detrimental effect of SSRIs may result from inhibition of the serotonin transporter exposing the brain to excess amounts of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) at a critical time during fetal development. PMID:25287533

  11. Picroside II Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Improves the Morphology and Structure of Brain Tissue following Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Li; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Meizeng; Pei, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore the protective effects of picroside II against the neuronal apoptosis and changes in morphology and structure that follow cerebral ischemic injury in rats. A focal cerebral ischemic model was established by inserting a monofilament thread to achieve middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in 60 Wistar rats, and intraperitoneal injections of picroside II (20 mg/kg) were administered. The neurobehavioral functions were evaluated with the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) test. The cerebral infarct volumes were measured with tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The morphology and ultrastructure of the cortical brain tissues were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The apoptotic cells were counted with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling and flow cytometry, and pERK1/2 expression was determined by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. The results indicated that neurological behavioral malfunctions and cerebral infarcts were present in the MCAO rats. In the model group, the damage to the structures of the neurons and the blood brain barrier (BBB) in the cortex was more severe, and the numbers of apoptotic cells, the early apoptotic ratio (EAR) and pERK1/2 expression were significantly increased in this group compared to the control group (P<0.05). In the treatment group, the neurological behavioral function and the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB were improved including the number of Mi increased and relative area of condensed chromosome and basement (BM) thickness descreased, and the cerebral infarct volume, the number of apoptotic cells, the EAR and pERK1/2 expression were significantly decreased compared to the model group (P<0.05). These results suggest that picroside II reduced apoptosis and improved the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB and that these effects resulted in the recovery of the neurobehavioral function of rats with cerebral ischemia. PMID:25927985

  12. COMPUTER MODEL OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY TO COMPLEMENT SPECT ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerosol therapy protocols could be improved if inhaled pharmacologic drugs were selectively deposited within the human lung. he targeted delivery to specific sites, such as receptors and sensitive airway cells, would enhance the efficacies of airborne pharmaceuticals. he high res...

  13. Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng; Liu, Xiling; Xiong, Jieyi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tomita, Masaru; Pääbo, Svante; Pieszek, Raik; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Ely, John J; Steinhauser, Dirk; Willmitzer, Lothar; Bangsbo, Jens; Hansson, Ola; Call, Josep; Giavalisco, Patrick; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2014-05-01

    Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized by superior cognition, their muscular performance might be markedly inferior to that of chimpanzees and macaque monkeys. PMID:24866127

  14. Exceptional Evolutionary Divergence of Human Muscle and Brain Metabolomes Parallels Human Cognitive and Physical Uniqueness

    PubMed Central

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng; Liu, Xiling; Xiong, Jieyi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tomita, Masaru; Pääbo, Svante; Pieszek, Raik; Sherwood, Chet C.; Hof, Patrick R.; Ely, John J.; Steinhauser, Dirk; Willmitzer, Lothar; Bangsbo, Jens; Hansson, Ola; Call, Josep; Giavalisco, Patrick; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized by superior cognition, their muscular performance might be markedly inferior to that of chimpanzees and macaque monkeys. PMID:24866127

  15. Contour-based brain segmentation method for magnetic resonance imaging human head scans.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, K; Kalavathi, P

    2013-01-01

    The high-resolution magnetic resonance brain images often contain some nonbrain tissues (ie, skin, fat, muscle, neck, eye balls, etc) compared with the functional images such as positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which usually contain few nonbrain tissues. Automatic segmentation of brain tissues from MRI scans remains a challenging task due to the variation in shape and size, use of different pulse sequences, overlapping signal intensities and imaging artifacts. This article presents a contour-based automatic brain segmentation method to segment the brain regions from T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted MRI of human head scans. The proposed method consists of 2 stages. In stage 1, the brain regions in the middle slice is extracted. Many of the existing methods failed to extract brain regions in the lower and upper slices of the brain volume, where the brain appears in more than 1 connected region. To overcome this problem, in the proposed method, a landmark circle is drawn at the center of the extracted brain region of a middle slice and is likely to pass through all the brain regions in the remaining lower and upper slices irrespective of whether the brain is composed of 1 or more connected components. In stage 2, the brain regions in the remaining slices are extracted with reference to the landmark circle obtained in stage 1. The proposed method is robust to the variability of brain anatomy, image orientation, and image type, and it extracts the brain regions accurately in T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted normal and abnormal brain images. Experimental results by applying the proposed method on 100 volumes of brain images show that the proposed method exhibits best and consistent performance than by the popular existing methods brain extraction tool, brain surface extraction, watershed algorithm, hybrid watershed algorithm, and skull stripping using graph cuts. PMID:23674005

  16. Persistent poliovirus infection of human fetal brain cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pavio, N; Buc-Caron, M H; Colbère-Garapin, F

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that poliovirus (PV), the causative agent of poliomyelitis, could persist in surviving patients. We have previously shown that PV can persistently infect some human cell lines in vitro, particularly neuroblastoma cell lines. We report here an ex vivo model in which PV can persistently infect primary cultures of human fetal brain cells. Two mutations involving capsid residues 142 of VP2 and 95 of VP1 were repeatedly selected during the persistent infections. These residues are located in capsid regions known to be involved in interactions between PV and its receptor. During the first week after infection, viral antigens were found in cells of both the neuronal and glial lineages. In contrast, 2 weeks after infection, viral antigens were detected almost exclusively in cells of the neuronal lineage. They were detected predominantly in cells expressing a marker of early commitment to the neuronal lineage, MAP-5, particularly in neuroblasts. Viral antigens were also found in immature progenitors expressing a neuroepithelium marker, nestin, and in cells expressing a marker of postmitotic neurons, MAP-2. The presence of viral antigens in postmitotic neurons suggests that PV can persist in neurons of patients who have survived poliomyelitis. PMID:8709269

  17. Predictors of Brain Morphology for the Men of the NHLBI Twin Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. DeCarli; B. L. Miller; G. E. Swan; T. Reed; P. A. Wolf; J. Garner; L. Jack; D. Carmelli

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Cross-sectional studies show that cerebrovascular risk factors are associated with increased brain atrophy, accumulation of abnormal cerebral white matter signals, and clinically silent stroke. We extend these findings by examining the relationship between midlife cerebrovascular risk factors and later-life differences in brain atrophy, amount of abnormal white matter, and stroke on MRI. Methods—Subjects were the 414 surviving members

  18. A Morphological Study of the Developmentally Regulated Transport of Iron into the Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torben Moos; Evan H. Morgan

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of transferrin, transferrin receptor, ferritin and ferric iron was studied in the developing rat brain. Transferrin immunoreactivity (IR) was observed diffusely in the brain from E16 until P10 from where it gradually decreased. The subcellular distribution of transferrin-IR in neurons was compatible with receptor-mediated uptake from P21 and onwards. Transferrin receptor-IR was observed prenatally on cells of neuroectodermal

  19. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the human zona pellucida: influence of maturity and fertilization on morphology and sperm binding pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Magerkurth; E. Topfer-Petersen; P. Schwartz; H. W. Michelmann

    1999-01-01

    Human oocytes from the same as well as from different patients have an extremely heterogeneous morphology of the zona pellucida surface as shown by scanning electron microscopy. For years it has been believed that this hetero- geneous morphology plays an important part in the sperm- oocyte interaction. It was the aim of this investigation to analyse the morphology and the

  20. Differential expression of dystrophin isoforms and utrophin during dibutyryl-cAMP-induced morphological differentiation of rat brain astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Michihiro; Ozawa, Eijiro

    1998-01-01

    We have identified isoforms of dystrophin and utrophin, a dystrophin homologue, expressed in astrocytes and examined their expression patterns during dibutyryl-cAMP (dBcAMP)-induced morphological differentiation of astrocytes. Immunoblot and immunocytochemical analyses showed that full-length-type dystrophin (427 kDa), utrophin (395 kDa), and Dp71 (75 kDa), a small-type dystrophin isoform, were coexpressed in cultured nondifferentiated rat brain astrocytes and were found to be located in the cell membrane. During morphological differentiation of the astrocytes induced by 1 mM dBcAMP, the amount of Dp71 markedly increased, whereas that of dystrophin and utrophin decreased. Northern blot analyses revealed that dBcAMP regulates the mRNA levels of Dp71 and dystrophin but not that of utrophin. dBcAMP slightly increased the amount of the ?-dystroglycan responsible for anchoring dystrophin isoforms and utrophin to the cell membrane. Immunocytochemical analyses showed that most utrophin was observed in the cytoplasmic area during astrocyte differentiation, whereas Dp71 was found along the cell membrane of the differentiated astrocytes. These findings suggest that most of the dystrophin/utrophin-dystroglycan complex on cell membrane in cultured astrocytes was replaced by the Dp71-dystroglycan complex during morphological differentiation. The cell biological roles of Dp71 are discussed. PMID:9600931

  1. Serum matrix metalloproteinase levels correlate with brain injury in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Ragin, Ann B; Wu, Ying; Ochs, Renee; Scheidegger, Rachel; Cohen, Bruce A; McArthur, Justin C; Epstein, Leon G; Conant, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; 1 and 7) were evaluated as correlates of brain injury in eight individuals in advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Neurological status was quantified in vivo with automated segmentation algorithms and with diffusion tensor imaging. Both metalloproteinases correlated with microstructural brain alterations and the degree of atrophy. MMPs may influence neurological outcome through involvement in neuroimmune response, blood-brain barrier permeability, leukocyte migration, and MMP-mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:19444696

  2. Serum matrix metalloproteinase levels correlate with brain injury in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ragin, Ann B; Wu, Ying; Ochs, Renee; Scheidegger, Rachel; Cohen, Bruce A; McArthur, Justin C; Epstein, Leon G; Conant, Katherine

    2009-05-01

    Circulating levels of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; 1 and 7) were evaluated as correlates of brain injury in eight individuals in advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Neurological status was quantified in vivo with automated segmentation algorithms and with diffusion tensor imaging. Both metalloproteinases correlated with microstructural brain alterations and the degree of atrophy. MMPs may influence neurological outcome through involvement in neuroimmune response, blood-brain barrier permeability, leukocyte migration, and MMP-mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:19444696

  3. Brain morphological abnormalities in 49,XXXXY syndrome: A pediatric magnetic resonance imaging study???

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Baker, Eva H.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wade, Benjamin; Clasen, Liv S.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2013-01-01

    As a group, people with the sex chromosome aneuploidy 49,XXXXY have characteristic physical and cognitive/behavioral tendencies, although there is high individual variation. In this study we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain morphometry in 14 youth with 49,XXXXY compared to 42 age-matched healthy controls. Total brain size was significantly smaller (t = 9.0, p < .001), and rates of brain abnormalities such as colpocephaly, plagiocephaly, periventricular cysts, and minor craniofacial abnormalities were significantly increased. White matter lesions were identified in 50% of subjects, supporting the inclusion of 49,XXXXY in the differential diagnosis of small multifocal white matter lesions. Further evidence of abnormal development of white matter was provided by the smaller cross sectional area of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that increased dosage of genes on the X chromosome has adverse effects on white matter development. PMID:23667827

  4. The morphology and biomechanical characteristics of subcutaneously implanted tissue-engineered human septal cartilage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Haisch; Georg N. Duda; Daniel Schroeder; Andreas Gröger; Christopher Gebert; Korinna Leder; Michael Sittinger

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the morphology and biomechanical characteristics of in vivo cultured tissue-engineered human septal cartilage as a prospective autogenous transplant material for subcutaneous implantation in reconstructive procedures. Chondrocytes were enzymatically isolated from human septal cartilage biopsies. The cell number was expanded in monolayer culture. Chondrocytes were then fixed on a non-woven poly-lactide-poly-glycolide (PGLA) polymer

  5. Pharmacological dissociation of novelty responses in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Bunzeck, Nico; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J; Duzel, Emrah

    2014-05-01

    Repeated processing of the same information is associated with decreased neuronal responses, termed repetition suppression (RS). Although RS effects (i.e., the difference in activity between novel and repeated stimuli) have been demonstrated within several brain regions, such as the medial temporal lobe, their precise neural mechanisms still remain unclear. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging together with psychopharmacology in 48 healthy human subjects, demonstrating that RS effects within the mesolimbic system are differentially modulated by cholinergic and dopaminergic stimulation. The dopamine precursor levodopa (100 mg) attenuated RS within the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, and the degree of this reduction correlated with recognition memory performance 24 h later. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (8 mg), in contrast, reversed RS into repetition enhancement, showing no relationship to subsequent recognition memory. This suggests that novelty sensitive neural populations of the mesolimbic system can dynamically shift their responses depending on the balance of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, and these shifts can influence memory retention. PMID:23307638

  6. Transcriptional regulation of the ?-synuclein gene in human brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Steffen; Wersinger, Christophe; Gasser, Thomas

    2015-07-10

    The transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding ?-synuclein (SNCA) is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), as common genetic variability in this gene is associated with an elevated risk of developing PD. However, the relevant mechanisms are still poorly understood. So far, only few proteins have been identified as transcription factors (TFs) of SNCA in cellular models. Here we show that two of these TFs bind to the DNA in human brain tissue: the zinc finger protein ZSCAN21 occupies a region within SNCA intron 1, as described before, while GATA2 occupies a specific region within intron 2, where we have identified a new binding site within the complex structure of the 5'-promoter region of SNCA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed these binding sites. Genetic investigations revealed no polymorphisms or mutations within these sites. A better understanding of TF-DNA interactions within SNCA may allow to develop novel therapies designed to reduce ?-synuclein levels. PMID:26002080

  7. Brain computer interface to enhance episodic memory in human participants.

    PubMed

    Burke, John F; Merkow, Maxwell B; Jacobs, Joshua; Kahana, Michael J; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that neural oscillations in the theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (9-14 Hz) bands are predictive of future success in memory encoding. Because these signals occur before the presentation of an upcoming stimulus, they are considered stimulus-independent in that they correlate with enhanced memory encoding independent of the item being encoded. Thus, such stimulus-independent activity has important implications for the neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory as well as the development of cognitive neural prosthetics. Here, we developed a brain computer interface (BCI) to test the ability of such pre-stimulus activity to modulate subsequent memory encoding. We recorded intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) in neurosurgical patients as they performed a free recall memory task, and detected iEEG theta and alpha oscillations that correlated with optimal memory encoding. We then used these detected oscillatory changes to trigger the presentation of items in the free recall task. We found that item presentation contingent upon the presence of pre-stimulus theta and alpha oscillations modulated memory performance in more sessions than expected by chance. Our results suggest that an electrophysiological signal may be causally linked to a specific behavioral condition, and contingent stimulus presentation has the potential to modulate human memory encoding. PMID:25653605

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, W J; Berger, J R; Kaderman, R; Tornatore, C S; Major, E O

    1993-01-01

    Direct infection of the central nervous system by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, was not appreciated in the early years of the AIDS epidemic. Neurological complications associated with AIDS were largely attributed to opportunistic infections that arose as a result of the immunocompromised state of the patient and to depression. In 1985, several groups succeeded in isolating HIV-1 directly from brain tissue. Also that year, the viral genome was completely sequenced, and HIV-1 was found to belong to a neurotropic subfamily of retrovirus known as the Lentivirinae. These findings clearly indicated that direct HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system played a role in the development of AIDS-related neurological disease. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and the related neuropathology, the tropism of HIV-1 for specific cell types both within and outside of the nervous system, the possible mechanisms by which HIV-1 damages the nervous system, and the current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. Images PMID:8269391

  9. Local Model of Arteriovenous Malformation of the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadezhda Telegina, Ms; Aleksandr Chupakhin, Mr; Aleksandr Cherevko, Mr

    2013-02-01

    Vascular diseases of the human brain are one of the reasons of deaths and people's incapacitation not only in Russia, but also in the world. The danger of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is in premature rupture of pathological vessels of an AVM which may cause haemorrhage. Long-term prognosis without surgical treatment is unfavorable. The reduced impact method of AVM treatment is embolization of a malformation which often results in complete obliteration of an AVM. Pre-surgical mathematical modeling of an arteriovenous malformation can help surgeons with an optimal sequence of the operation. During investigations, the simple mathematical model of arteriovenous malformation is developed and calculated, and stationary and non-stationary processes of its embolization are considered. Various sequences of embolization of a malformation are also considered. Calculations were done with approximate steady flow on the basis of balanced equations derived from conservation laws. Depending on pressure difference, a fistula-type AVM should be embolized at first, and then small racemose AVMs are embolized. Obtained results are in good correspondence with neurosurgical AVM practice.

  10. Clinical Significance of HumanIntestinal Spirochetosis—A Morphologic Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Körner; J.-O. Gebbers

    2003-01-01

    Intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is a condition defined morphologically by the presence of spirochetal microorganisms attached to the apical cell membrane of the colonic and rectal epithelium. Intestinal spirochetes comprise a heterogeneous group of bacteria. In humans Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli predominate. Prevalence rates of IS are low where living standards are high, in contrast to poorly developed areas where

  11. Morphological and sedimentological responses of streams to human impact in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie Price; David S. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    Morphological and sedimentological responses of streams to basin-scale impact have been well documented for intensively agricultural or urban areas. Sensitivity thresholds of streams to modest levels of disturbance, however, are not well understood. This study addresses the influence of forest conversion on streams of the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, a region that has received little attention with respect to human

  12. Human Brain Mapping 2009 Print Abstract Number: 993 Submitted By: Xue Hua

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    : In a longitudinal MRI study, we applied tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to generate 3D maps tracking brainHuman Brain Mapping 2009 Print Abstract Number: 993 Submitted By: Xue Hua Last Modified: January 9 data. Page 1 of 2Printable Preview 1/9/2009http://www.meetingassistant3.com/OHBM2009/core_routines/print

  13. r Human Brain Mapping 30:18661876 (2009) r MINI-REVIEW

    E-print Network

    Moran, Rosalyn

    2009-01-01

    a useful way to test hypotheses about distributed processing in the brain, using electromagnetic data. Humr Human Brain Mapping 30:1866­1876 (2009) r MINI-REVIEW Dynamic Causal Modeling for EEG and MEG/EEG and local field potentials. These studies illustrate how DCM can be used to analyze evoked responses

  14. r Human Brain Mapping 33:26942713 (2012) r Increasing the Accuracy of Electromagnetic

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    r Human Brain Mapping 33:2694­2713 (2012) r Increasing the Accuracy of Electromagnetic Inverses: electromagnetic brain imaging; EEG; vision; retinotopy; fMRI r r INTRODUCTION The reconstruction of cortical of the visual field or by functional localizers obtained independently by fMRI. These areas are computed once

  15. Human Brain Imaging and Radiation Dosimetry of 11C-N-Desmethyl-Loperamide,

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Human Brain Imaging and Radiation Dosimetry of 11C-N-Desmethyl-Loperamide, a PET Radiotracer to several organs of the body. At the blood­brain barrier, P-gp blocks the entry of both loperamide and its metabolite, N-desmethyl-loperamide (N-dLop), and thereby prevents central opiate effects. Animal studies have

  16. r Human Brain Mapping 31:678693 (2010) r Enhanced Effectiveness in Visuo-Haptic

    E-print Network

    James, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    r Human Brain Mapping 31:678­693 (2010) r Enhanced Effectiveness in Visuo-Haptic Object and haptic object processing. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the underlying neural mecha- nisms for bimodal integration of vision and haptics in these visuo-haptic object-selective brain

  17. r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2012) r Key Functional Circuitry Altered in Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Feng, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    r Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2012) r Key Functional Circuitry Altered in Schizophrenia functional and structural changes in the brain in schizophrenia are of most importance, although the main schizophrenia patients, and func- tional connectivity changes were analyzed using resting-state fMRI data from

  18. Notch-1 Signalling Is Activated in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZhuGe, Qichuan; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, WeiMing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Mao, XiaoOu; Xie, Lin; Chen, Gourong; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

    2009-01-01

    A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that,…

  19. Imaging of central itch modulation in the human brain using positron emission tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Mochizuki; Manabu Tashiro; Michiko Kano; Yumiko Sakurada; Masatoshi Itoh; Kazuhiko Yanai

    2003-01-01

    The unpleasantness of itching is reduced by cooling. Although previous research suggests the presence of a central itch modulation system, there is little documentation about the modulation system in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the modulating system of the itching sensation in human brains using positron emission tomography and H215O. The significant increases of regional cerebral blood

  20. Image-Derived Input Function for Human Brain Using High Resolution PET Imaging with [11

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Image-Derived Input Function for Human Brain Using High Resolution PET Imaging with [11 C was to test seven previously published image-input methods in state-of-the-art high resolution PET brain images. Images were obtained with a High Resolution Research Tomograph plus a resolution

  1. Widespread age-related differences in the human brain microstructure revealed by quantitative magnetic resonance

    E-print Network

    Smittenaar, Peter

    Widespread age-related differences in the human brain microstructure revealed by quantitative Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland c Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology neuroimaging biomarkers for myelination and iron levels, parameters sensitive to aging, were acquired from 138

  2. r Human Brain Mapping 000:000000 (2013) r Structural Abnormalities in the Thalamus

    E-print Network

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2013-01-01

    r Human Brain Mapping 000:000­000 (2013) r Structural Abnormalities in the Thalamus of Migraineurs-channel coil. We acquired whole-brain T1 relaxation maps and computed magnetization transfer ratio (MTR and to assess iron deposition. We also correlated the obtained parametric values with the average monthly

  3. Asymmetries of the human social brain in the visual, auditory and chemical modalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Brancucci; Giuliana Lucci; Andrea Mazzatenta; Luca Tommasi

    Structural and functional asymmetries are present in many regions of the human brain responsible for motor control, sensory and cognitive functions and communication. Here, we focus on hemispheric asymmetries underlying the domain of social perception, broadly conceived as the analysis of information about other individuals based on acoustic, visual and chemical signals. By means of these cues the brain establishes

  4. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…

  5. r Human Brain Mapping 33:19291940 (2012) r Evolution of Crossmodal Reorganization of the

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    of the visuo-audio-motor speech processing loop, including Broca's area. Hum Brain Mapp 33:1929­1940, 2012. VC speechreading activates Broca's area in normally hearing subjects (NHS), the activity level elicitedr Human Brain Mapping 33:1929­1940 (2012) r Evolution of Crossmodal Reorganization of the Voice

  6. Glutamate concentrations in human brain using single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Schubert; Jürgen Gallinat; Frank Seifert; Herbert Rinneberg

    2004-01-01

    A method for quantitative determination of the glutamate (Glu) concentration in human brain using PRESS-based single voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 T has been developed and validated by repeatedly analyzing voxels comprising the anterior cingulate cortex (acc) and the left hippocampus (hc) in 40 healthy volunteer brains. At an optimum echo time of 80 ms, the C4 resonance of

  7. Evidence for hubs in human functional brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Power, Jonathan D; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Petersen, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hubs integrate and distribute information in powerful ways due to the number and positioning of their contacts in a network. Several resting state functional connectivity MRI reports have implicated regions of the default mode system as brain hubs; we demonstrate that previous degree-based approaches to hub identification may have identified portions of large brain systems rather than critical nodes of brain networks. We utilize two methods to identify hub-like brain regions: 1) finding network nodes that participate in multiple sub-networks of the brain, and 2) finding spatial locations where several systems are represented within a small volume. These methods converge on a distributed set of regions that differ from previous reports on hubs. This work identifies regions that support multiple systems, leading to spatially constrained predictions about brain function that may be tested in terms of lesions, evoked responses, and dynamic patterns of activity. PMID:23972601

  8. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com The functional brain architecture of human morality

    E-print Network

    Gazzaniga, Michael

    Available online at www.sciencedirect.com The functional brain architecture of human morality Chadd M Funk and Michael S Gazzaniga Human morality provides the foundation for many of the pillars progress in the effort to understand the neural basis of human morality. The emerging insights from

  9. Editorial: The Evolution of Interdisciplinary Research on Human Behavior, Brain, and Body

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    EDITORIAL Editorial: The Evolution of Interdisciplinary Research on Human Behavior, Brain, and Body Dario Maestripieri # Springer International Publishing 2014 The scientific study of human behavior has bridge connecting the study of human behavior in psychology and biology, although this bridge had two

  10. Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture Derived from Graph Theoretical Analysis in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Brown, Jesse A.; Dassanayake, Maya T.; Shastri, Rupal; Marusak, Hilary A.; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Berman, Susan; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The human brain undergoes dramatic maturational changes during late stages of fetal and early postnatal life. The importance of this period to the establishment of healthy neural connectivity is apparent in the high incidence of neural injury in preterm infants, in whom untimely exposure to ex-uterine factors interrupts neural connectivity. Though the relevance of this period to human neuroscience is apparent, little is known about functional neural networks in human fetal life. Here, we apply graph theoretical analysis to examine human fetal brain connectivity. Utilizing resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 33 healthy human fetuses, 19 to 39 weeks gestational age (GA), our analyses reveal that the human fetal brain has modular organization and modules overlap functional systems observed postnatally. Age-related differences between younger (GA <31 weeks) and older (GA?31 weeks) fetuses demonstrate that brain modularity decreases, and connectivity of the posterior cingulate to other brain networks becomes more negative, with advancing GA. By mimicking functional principles observed postnatally, these results support early emerging capacity for information processing in the human fetal brain. Current technical limitations, as well as the potential for fetal fMRI to one day produce major discoveries about fetal origins or antecedents of neural injury or disease are discussed. PMID:24788455

  11. Clock Drawing Performance and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomann, Philipp A.; Toro, Pablo; Santos, Vasco Dos; Essig, Marco; Schroder, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive…

  12. Morphological and pharmacological evidence for the existence of brain regulatory circuits in the immune response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Masek; P. Petrovicky

    1997-01-01

    Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) has a variety of biological effects including the effect on CNS, such a promotion of sleep, fever, analgesic effect or some behavioural changes and of course a very potent effect on immune system. The latter effect is at least partly mediated through the structure in CNS. With the small electrolytic lesions which were placed in brain from

  13. Development of Cortical Morphology Evaluated with Longitudinal MR Brain Images of Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Moeskops, Pim; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Kersbergen, Karina J.; Groenendaal, Floris; de Vries, Linda S.; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The cerebral cortex develops rapidly in the last trimester of pregnancy. In preterm infants, brain development is very vulnerable because of their often complicated extra-uterine conditions. The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe cortical development in a cohort of 85 preterm infants with and without brain injury imaged at 30 and 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Methods In the acquired T2-weighted MR images, unmyelinated white matter (UWM), cortical grey matter (CoGM), and cerebrospinal fluid in the extracerebral space (CSF) were automatically segmented. Based on these segmentations, cortical descriptors evaluating volume, surface area, thickness, gyrification index, and global mean curvature were computed at both time points, for the whole brain, as well as for the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes separately. Additionally, visual scoring of brain abnormality was performed using a conventional scoring system at 40 weeks PMA. Results The evaluated descriptors showed larger change in the occipital lobes than in the other lobes. Moreover, the cortical descriptors showed an association with the abnormality scores: gyrification index and global mean curvature decreased, whereas, interestingly, median cortical thickness increased with increasing abnormality score. This was more pronounced at 40 weeks PMA than at 30 weeks PMA, suggesting that the period between 30 and 40 weeks PMA might provide a window of opportunity for intervention to prevent delay in cortical development. PMID:26161536

  14. Antipsychotic Drug Effects on Brain Morphology in First-Episode Psychosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Lieberman; Gary D. Tollefson; Cecil Charles; Robert Zipursky; Tonmoy Sharma; Rene S. Kahn; Richard S. E. Keefe; Alan I. Green; Raquel E. Gur; Joseph McEvoy; Diana Perkins; Robert M. Hamer; Hongbin Gu; Mauricio Tohen

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pathomorphologic brain changes occur- ring as early as first-episode schizophrenia have been ex- tensively described. Longitudinal studies have demon- strated that these changes may be progressive and associated with clinical outcome. This raises the possi- bility that antipsychotics might alter such pathomorpho- logic progression in early-stage schizophrenia. Objective: To test a priori hypotheses that olanzapine- treated patients have less

  15. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Fibre Tract Mapping of the Human Brain – Registration of Polarised Light Images and Reorientation of Fibre Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Christoph; Axer, Markus; Gräßel, David; Dammers, Jürgen; Lindemeyer, Johannes; Zilles, Karl; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Amunts, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Polarised light imaging (PLI) utilises the birefringence of the myelin sheaths in order to visualise the orientation of nerve fibres in microtome sections of adult human post-mortem brains at ultra-high spatial resolution. The preparation of post-mortem brains for PLI involves fixation, freezing and cutting into 100-?m-thick sections. Hence, geometrical distortions of histological sections are inevitable and have to be removed for 3D reconstruction and subsequent fibre tracking. We here present a processing pipeline for 3D reconstruction of these sections using PLI derived multimodal images of post-mortem brains. Blockface images of the brains were obtained during cutting; they serve as reference data for alignment and elimination of distortion artefacts. In addition to the spatial image transformation, fibre orientation vectors were reoriented using the transformation fields, which consider both affine and subsequent non-linear registration. The application of this registration and reorientation approach results in a smooth fibre vector field, which reflects brain morphology. PLI combined with 3D reconstruction and fibre tracking is a powerful tool for human brain mapping. It can also serve as an independent method for evaluating in vivo fibre tractography. PMID:20461231

  16. Three-dimensional computational prediction of cerebrospinal fluid flow in the human brain

    E-print Network

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    dynamics Cerebrospinal fluid Computational fluid dynamics Three-dimensional modeling FluidThree-dimensional computational prediction of cerebrospinal fluid flow in the human brain Brian n f o Article history: Received 19 April 2010 Accepted 12 December 2010 Keywords: Intracranial

  17. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions. PMID:25848050

  18. Convergent transcriptional specializations in the brains of humans and song-learning birds

    PubMed Central

    Pfenning, Andreas R.; Hara, Erina; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Wang, Rui; Roulhac, Petra L.; Howard, Jason T.; Wirthlin, Morgan; Lovell, Peter V.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Mouncastle, Jacquelyn; Moseley, M. Arthur; Thompson, J. Will; Soderblom, Erik J.; Iriki, Atsushi; Kato, Masaki; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhang, Guojie; Bakken, Trygve; Bongaarts, Angie; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed; Mello, Claudio V.; Hartemink, Alexander J.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Song-learning birds and humans share independently evolved similarities in brain pathways for vocal learning that are essential for song and speech and are not found in most other species. Comparisons of brain transcriptomes of song-learning birds and humans relative to vocal nonlearners identified convergent gene expression specializations in specific song and speech brain regions of avian vocal learners and humans. The strongest shared profiles relate bird motor and striatal song-learning nuclei, respectively, with human laryngeal motor cortex and parts of the striatum that control speech production and learning. Most of the associated genes function in motor control and brain connectivity. Thus, convergent behavior and neural connectivity for a complex trait are associated with convergent specialized expression of multiple genes. PMID:25504733

  19. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging response to glucose and fructose infusions in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: In animals, intracerebroventricular glucose and fructose have opposing effects on appetite and weight regulation. In humans, functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during carbohydrate ingestion suggest that glucose may regulate HT signaling but are potentially confoun...

  20. Human trabecular meshwork organ culture: morphology and glycosaminoglycan synthesis.

    PubMed

    Acott, T S; Kingsley, P D; Samples, J R; Van Buskirk, E M

    1988-01-01

    Human corneoscleral explants were maintained for several weeks in defined, serum-free media. Trabecular cell vitality, as judged by vital stain exclusion, is high for at least one month. Trabecular ultrastructure, as compared to that of fresh eyes, first shows minor cellular and extracellular matrix degradation after 3 weeks in culture. The biosynthetic profiles of trabecular glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) change significantly by 3 weeks in culture. Eyes that are stored at 5 degrees C for up to 48 hr postmortem exhibit changes in trabecular ultrastructure and in GAG profiles; both characteristics return to normal by 7 days in culture. The incorporation pattern of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine into the GAGs of the trabecular meshwork (TM) is distinct from corneal or scleral incorporation. The relative incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into trabecular GAGs, as determined by sequential enzymatic degradation, is: 22.3% hyaluronic acid (HA), 27.9% chondroitin sulfate (CS), 21.3% dermatan sulfate (DS), 5.9% keratan sulfate (KS), 17.7% heparan sulfate (HS) and 4.9% unidentified material. The relative incorporation of 35S-sulfate into trabecular GAGs is: 0% HA, 32.9% CS, 34.8% DS, 7.7% KS, 13.8% HS and 11.1% into unidentified material. This profile is in good agreement with the profile that was previously obtained for human and nonhuman primate meshworks prior to culture. We conclude that corneoscleral explant organ culture is a useful tool for extracellular matrix studies within a time window from 7 to at least 14 days in culture. PMID:3335436

  1. Investigation of Brain Trauma Biomechanics in Vehicle Traffic Accidents Using Human Body Computational Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jikuang Yang

    \\u000a This chapter aimed to study the biomechanical response and injury mechanisms of brain in passenger car-to-pedestrian collision\\u000a event. The kinematics of head impact to a passenger car was reconstructed using multibody dynamics (MBD) models. The brain\\u000a injury biomechanics was investigated by using an FE model of human body head (HBM-head). The HBM-head model was developed\\u000a in accordance with human head

  2. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Brain Endothelial Cells Reveals Key Properties Crucial for Predictive In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Models

    PubMed Central

    Urich, Eduard; Lazic, Stanley E.; Molnos, Juliette; Wells, Isabelle; Freskgård, Per-Ola

    2012-01-01

    Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BEC) constitute the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which forms a dynamic interface between the blood and the central nervous system (CNS). This highly specialized interface restricts paracellular diffusion of fluids and solutes including chemicals, toxins and drugs from entering the brain. In this study we compared the transcriptome profiles of the human immortalized brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 and human primary BEC. We identified transcriptional differences in immune response genes which are directly related to the immortalization procedure of the hCMEC/D3 cells. Interestingly, astrocytic co-culturing reduced cell adhesion and migration molecules in both BECs, which possibly could be related to regulation of immune surveillance of the CNS controlled by astrocytic cells within the neurovascular unit. By matching the transcriptome data from these two cell lines with published transcriptional data from freshly isolated mouse BECs, we discovered striking differences that could explain some of the limitations of using cultured BECs to study BBB properties. Key protein classes such as tight junction proteins, transporters and cell surface receptors show differing expression profiles. For example, the claudin-5, occludin and JAM2 expression is dramatically reduced in the two human BEC lines, which likely explains their low transcellular electric resistance and paracellular leakiness. In addition, the human BEC lines express low levels of unique brain endothelial transporters such as Glut1 and Pgp. Cell surface receptors such as LRP1, RAGE and the insulin receptor that are involved in receptor-mediated transport are also expressed at very low levels. Taken together, these data illustrate that BECs lose their unique protein expression pattern outside of their native environment and display a more generic endothelial cell phenotype. A collection of key genes that seems to be highly regulated by the local surroundings of BEC within the neurovascular unit are presented and discussed. PMID:22675443

  3. Transcriptional profiling of human brain endothelial cells reveals key properties crucial for predictive in vitro blood-brain barrier models.

    PubMed

    Urich, Eduard; Lazic, Stanley E; Molnos, Juliette; Wells, Isabelle; Freskgård, Per-Ola

    2012-01-01

    Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BEC) constitute the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which forms a dynamic interface between the blood and the central nervous system (CNS). This highly specialized interface restricts paracellular diffusion of fluids and solutes including chemicals, toxins and drugs from entering the brain. In this study we compared the transcriptome profiles of the human immortalized brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 and human primary BEC. We identified transcriptional differences in immune response genes which are directly related to the immortalization procedure of the hCMEC/D3 cells. Interestingly, astrocytic co-culturing reduced cell adhesion and migration molecules in both BECs, which possibly could be related to regulation of immune surveillance of the CNS controlled by astrocytic cells within the neurovascular unit. By matching the transcriptome data from these two cell lines with published transcriptional data from freshly isolated mouse BECs, we discovered striking differences that could explain some of the limitations of using cultured BECs to study BBB properties. Key protein classes such as tight junction proteins, transporters and cell surface receptors show differing expression profiles. For example, the claudin-5, occludin and JAM2 expression is dramatically reduced in the two human BEC lines, which likely explains their low transcellular electric resistance and paracellular leakiness. In addition, the human BEC lines express low levels of unique brain endothelial transporters such as Glut1 and Pgp. Cell surface receptors such as LRP1, RAGE and the insulin receptor that are involved in receptor-mediated transport are also expressed at very low levels. Taken together, these data illustrate that BECs lose their unique protein expression pattern outside of their native environment and display a more generic endothelial cell phenotype. A collection of key genes that seems to be highly regulated by the local surroundings of BEC within the neurovascular unit are presented and discussed. PMID:22675443

  4. Neuroanatomy: The Human Brain (NSC 274, formerly Psy 274)

    E-print Network

    Roe, Anna Wang

    seen from different orientations. Instructive brain models will be available. Bring brain atlas on lab) mistakes in the old version. Main text & atlas: Haines. Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical yourself. Course requirements and grading: Grades will be based on labs & homeworks (10%), quizzes (50

  5. Blood-brain barrier transport of morphine in patients with severe brain trauma: Morphine pharmacokinetics in human brain tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Ederoth; Karin Tunblad; René Bouw; C. Johan F. Lundberg; Urban Ungerstedt; Carl-Henrik Nordström; Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes

    2004-01-01

    Results The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of unbound morphine in brain tissue to plasma was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.40, 0.87) in 'better' brain tissue ( P < 0.05 vs. the subcutaneous fat\\/plasma ratio), 0.78 (0.49, 1.07) in 'worse' brain tissue and 1.00 (0.86, 1.13) in subcutaneous fat. The terminal half-life and T max were longer in

  6. Functional Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Measuring Task-Related Fractional Anisotropy Changes in the Human Brain along White Matter Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Mandl, René C. W.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Kahn, René S.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Functional neural networks in the human brain can be studied from correlations between activated gray matter regions measured with fMRI. However, while providing important information on gray matter activation, no information is gathered on the co-activity along white matter tracts in neural networks. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on a functional diffusion tensor imaging (fDTI) method that measures task-related changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) along white matter tracts. We hypothesize that these fractional anisotropy changes relate to morphological changes of glial cells induced by axonal activity although the exact physiological underpinnings of the measured FA changes remain to be elucidated. As expected, these changes are very small as compared to the physiological noise and a reliable detection of the signal change would require a large number of measurements. However, a substantial increase in signal-to-noise ratio was achieved by pooling the signal over the complete fiber tract. Adopting such a tract-based statistics enabled us to measure the signal within a practically feasible time period. Activation in the sensory thalamocortical tract and optic radiation in eight healthy human subjects was found during tactile and visual stimulation, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The results of our experiments indicate that these FA changes may serve as a functional contrast mechanism for white matter. This noninvasive fDTI method may provide a new approach to study functional neural networks in the human brain. PMID:18982065

  7. Dual channel confocal laser scanning microscopy of lucifer yellow-microinjected human brain cells combined with Texas red immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Belichenko, P V; Dahlström, A

    1994-06-01

    A method for visualization of individual human brain cells and their dendritic extensions in combination with immunofluorescence is described. Microinjection of Lucifer Yellow was used to reveal the dendritic morphology of cortical brain cells. Indirect immunofluorescence with Texas Red as label was used to investigate the distribution of 3 different groups of immunogens: enzymes (monoamine oxidase A and B), receptors (beta-adrenoceptor protein), and synaptic vesicle proteins (synapsin I and synaptophysin) in each cortical slice. A dual-channel confocal laser scanning microscope with an argon/krypton laser was used for imaging these double-stained fluorescent specimens. Lucifer Yellow and Texas Red were recorded simultaneously or separately, taking advantage of the different activating lines (488 lambda and 568 lambda) of the laser and using the two filter blocks (K1 and K2) supplied with the instrument (BioRad MRC-600) for recording the emission of either fluorophore. Using this technique we have demonstrated the localization of immunoreactive material in relation to the dendritic morphology of cortical cells. PMID:7967715

  8. Predictive value of oocyte morphology in human IVF: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rienzi, Laura; Vajta, Gábor; Ubaldi, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Non-invasive selection of developmentally competent human oocytes may increase the overall efficiency of human assisted reproduction and is regarded as crucial in countries where legal, social or religious factors restrict the production of supernumerary embryos. The purpose of this study was to summarize the predictive value for IVF success of morphological features of the oocyte that can be obtained by light or polarized microscopic investigations. METHODS Studies about oocyte morphology and IVF/ICSI outcomes were identified by using a systematic literature search. RESULTS Fifty relevant articles were identified: 33 analysed a single feature, 9 observed multiple features and investigated the effect of these features individually, 8 summarized the effect of individual features. Investigated structures were the following: meiotic spindle (15 papers), zona pellucida (15 papers), vacuoles or refractile bodies (14 papers), polar body shape (12 papers), oocyte shape (10 papers), dark cytoplasm or diffuse granulation (12 papers), perivitelline space (11 papers), central cytoplasmic granulation (8 papers), cumulus–oocyte complex (6 papers) and cytoplasm viscosity and membrane resistance characteristics (2 papers). None of these features were unanimously evaluated to have prognostic value for further developmental competence of oocytes. CONCLUSIONS No clear tendency in recent publications to a general increase in predictive value of morphological features was found. These contradicting data underline the importance of more intensive and coordinated research to reach a consensus and fully exploit the predictive potential of morphological examination of human oocytes. PMID:20639518

  9. Systems biology of human epilepsy applied to patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sandeep; Shah, Aashit K; Barkmeier, Daniel T; Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of recurrent seizures that can be associated with a wide variety of acquired and developmental brain lesions. Current medications for patients with epilepsy can suppress seizures; they do not cure or modify the underlying disease process. On the other hand, surgical removal of focal brain regions that produce seizures can be curative. This surgical procedure can be more precise with the placement of intracranial recording electrodes to identify brain regions that generate seizure activity as well as those that are critical for normal brain function. The detail that goes into these surgeries includes extensive neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and clinical data. Combined with precisely localized tissues removed, these data provide an unparalleled opportunity to learn about the interrelationships of many "systems" in the human brain not possible in just about any other human brain disorder. Herein, we describe a systems biology approach developed to study patients who undergo brain surgery for epilepsy and how we have begun to apply these methods to patients whose seizures are associated with brain tumors. A central goal of this clinical and translational research program is to improve our understanding of epilepsy and brain tumors and to improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes of both. PMID:24328870

  10. Morphological findings in the brain after experimental gunshots using radiology, pathology and histology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Karger; Z. Puskas; B. Ruwald; K. Teige; G. Schuirer

    1998-01-01

    The tissue disruption inside the brain after experimental gunshots to the head was investigated with special reference to\\u000a secondary bone missiles and intracranial pressure effects such as cortical contusion and deep intracerebral haemorrhages.\\u000a The evidential value of various examination methods is compared. 9 mm Parabellum ammunition was fired to the temporal region\\u000a of calves (n = 10) from a distance

  11. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Oguro; K. Okada; S. Yamaguchi; S. Kobayashi

    1998-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies\\u000a of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures\\u000a in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated

  12. Maturation of Brain Stem Neurons Involved in Respiratory Rhythmogenesis: Biochemical, Bioelectrical and Morphological Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Denavit-Saubié; M. Kalia; O. Pierrefiche; P. Schweitzer; A. S. Foutz; J. Champagnat

    1994-01-01

    Neonatal and adult respiratory-related functions of brain stem were compared using in vivo or in vitro approaches. The control of inspiratory off-switch by glutamate-like neurotransmitters was found active at birth. However, neurons from the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) are immature at birth because they present growth cones and the transient potassium current appears progressively during the first week of life

  13. Apolipoproteins E and C1 and brain morphology in memory impaired elders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Serra-Grabulosa; P. Salgado-Pineda; C. Junqué; C. Solé-Padullés; P. Moral; A. López-Alomar; T. López; A. López-Guillén; N. Bargalló; J. M. Mercader; I. C. Clemente; D. Bartrés-Faz

    2003-01-01

      \\u000a Previous research has shown that polymorphisms of the apolipoproteins E (APOE) and APOC1 represent genetic risk factors for dementia and for cognitive impairment in the elderly. The brain mechanisms by which these\\u000a genetic variations affect behavior or clinical severity are poorly understood. We studied the effect of APOE and APOC1 genes on magnetic resonance imaging measures in a sample

  14. The Evolution of the Brain, the Human Nature of Cortical Circuits, and Intellectual Creativity

    PubMed Central

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The tremendous expansion and the differentiation of the neocortex constitute two major events in the evolution of the mammalian brain. The increase in size and complexity of our brains opened the way to a spectacular development of cognitive and mental skills. This expansion during evolution facilitated the addition of microcircuits with a similar basic structure, which increased the complexity of the human brain and contributed to its uniqueness. However, fundamental differences even exist between distinct mammalian species. Here, we shall discuss the issue of our humanity from a neurobiological and historical perspective. PMID:21647212

  15. Multivariate morphological brain signatures predict patients with chronic abdominal pain from healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Labus, Jennifer S; Van Horn, John D; Gupta, Arpana; Alaverdyan, Mher; Torgerson, Carinna; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Irimia, Andrei; Hong, Jui-Yang; Naliboff, Bruce; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2015-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic visceral pain disorder. The pathophysiology of IBS is incompletely understood; however, evidence strongly suggests dysregulation of the brain-gut axis. The aim of this study was to apply multivariate pattern analysis to identify an IBS-related morphometric brain signature that could serve as a central biological marker and provide new mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of IBS. Parcellation of 165 cortical and subcortical regions was performed using FreeSurfer and the Destrieux and Harvard-Oxford atlases. Volume, mean curvature, surface area, and cortical thickness were calculated for each region. Sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis was applied to develop a diagnostic model using a training set of 160 females (80 healthy controls and 80 patients with IBS). Predictive accuracy was assessed in an age-matched holdout test set of 52 females (26 healthy controls and 26 patients with IBS). A 2-component classification algorithm comprising the morphometry of (1) primary somatosensory and motor regions and (2) multimodal network regions explained 36% of the variance. Overall predictive accuracy of the classification algorithm was 70%. Small effect size associations were observed between the somatosensory and motor signature and nongastrointestinal somatic symptoms. The findings demonstrate that the predictive accuracy of a classification algorithm based solely on regional brain morphometry is not sufficient, but they do provide support for the utility of multivariate pattern analysis for identifying meaningful neurobiological markers in IBS. PMID:25906347

  16. Concentration of rare earth elements, As, and Th in human brain and brain tumors, determined by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, G; Zhou, Y; Lu, H; Lu, W; Zhou, M; Wang, Y; Tan, M

    1996-01-01

    Toxic elements As and Th, six rare-earth elemental profiles of brain tumor tissues from 16 patients of astrocytomas (grade I-III), and normal human brain tissues of 18 male, age-matched autopsies serving as controls have been studied by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. P-204 [di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate] extraction chromatography column was used for group separation of rare-earth element (REE) by one step. Compared with the normal brain tissues, the analytical results showed that the concentrations of Th, La, Ce, Gd, and Lu were significantly higher in tumor tissues (P < 0.01 or 0.001). The possible effects of REE on tumor cell were discussed. PMID:8862736

  17. Microstructural Correlations of White Matter Tracts in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Michael; Li, Yi-Ou; Ng, Joshua; LaHue, Sara C.; Cooper, Shelly R.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Mukherjee, Pratik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether specific patterns of correlation exist in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters across white matter tracts in the normal human brain, and whether the relative strengths of these putative microstructural correlations might reflect phylogenetic and functional similarities between tracts. We performed quantitative DTI fiber tracking on 44 healthy adult volunteers to obtain tract-based measures of mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) from four homologous pairs of neocortical association pathways (arcuate fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, inferior longitudinal fasciculi, and uncinate fasciculi bilaterally), a homologous pair of limbic association pathways (left and right dorsal cingulum bundles), and a homologous pair of cortical-subcortical projection pathways (left and right corticospinal tracts). From the resulting inter-tract correlation matrices, we show that there are statistically significant correlations of DTI parameters between tracts, and that there are statistically significant variations among these inter-tract correlations. Furthermore, we observe that many, but by no means all, of the strongest correlations were between homologous tracts in the left and right hemispheres. Even among homologous pairs of tracts, there were wide variations in the degree of coupling. Finally, we generate a data-driven hierarchical clustering of the fiber pathways based on pairwise FA correlations to demonstrate that the neocortical association pathways tended to group separately from the limbic pathways at trend-level statistical significance, and that the projection pathways of the left and right corticospinal tracts comprise the most distant outgroup with high confidence (p<0.01). Hence, specific patterns of microstructural correlation exist between tracts and may reflect phylogenetic and functional similarities between tracts. The study of these microstructural relationships between white matter pathways might aid research on the genetic basis and on the behavioral effects of axonal connectivity, as well as provide a revealing new perspective with which to investigate neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:20206699

  18. Direction-adaptive grey-level morphology. application to 3D vascular brain imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olena Tankyevych; Hugues Talbot; Petr Dokládal; Nicolas Passat

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation and analysis of blood vessels is an important issue in medical imaging. In 3D cerebral angiographic data, the vascular signal is however hard to accurately detect and can, in particular, be disconnected. In this article, we present a procedure utilising both linear, Hessian-based and morphological methods for blood vessel edge enhancement and reconnection. More specifically, multi-scale second-order derivative analysis

  19. Discovering transnosological molecular basis of human brain diseases using biclustering analysis of integrated gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been reported that several brain diseases can be treated as transnosological manner implicating possible common molecular basis under those diseases. However, molecular level commonality among those brain diseases has been largely unexplored. Gene expression analyses of human brain have been used to find genes associated with brain diseases but most of those studies were restricted either to an individual disease or to a couple of diseases. In addition, identifying significant genes in such brain diseases mostly failed when it used typical methods depending on differentially expressed genes. Results In this study, we used a correlation-based biclustering approach to find coexpressed gene sets in five neurodegenerative diseases and three psychiatric disorders. By using biclustering analysis, we could efficiently and fairly identified various gene sets expressed specifically in both single and multiple brain diseases. We could find 4,307 gene sets correlatively expressed in multiple brain diseases and 3,409 gene sets exclusively specified in individual brain diseases. The function enrichment analysis of those gene sets showed many new possible functional bases as well as neurological processes that are common or specific for those eight diseases. Conclusions This study introduces possible common molecular bases for several brain diseases, which open the opportunity to clarify the transnosological perspective assumed in brain diseases. It also showed the advantages of correlation-based biclustering analysis and accompanying function enrichment analysis for gene expression data in this type of investigation. PMID:26043779

  20. Bmcc1s, a Novel Brain-Isoform of Bmcc1, Affects Cell Morphology by Regulating MAP6/STOP Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bosc, Christophe; Delphin, Christian; Loew, Damarys; Rostaing, Philippe; Amigou, Edwige; Ezan, Pascal; Wingertsmann, Laure; Guillaud, Laurent; Andrieux, Annie; Giaume, Christian; Cohen-Salmon, Martine

    2012-01-01

    The BCH (BNIP2 and Cdc42GAP Homology) domain-containing protein Bmcc1/Prune2 is highly enriched in the brain and is involved in the regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics and cell survival. However, the molecular mechanisms accounting for these functions are poorly defined. Here, we have identified Bmcc1s, a novel isoform of Bmcc1 predominantly expressed in the mouse brain. In primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons, Bmcc1s localized on intermediate filaments and microtubules and interacted directly with MAP6/STOP, a microtubule-binding protein responsible for microtubule cold stability. Bmcc1s overexpression inhibited MAP6-induced microtubule cold stability by displacing MAP6 away from microtubules. It also resulted in the formation of membrane protrusions for which MAP6 was a necessary cofactor of Bmcc1s. This study identifies Bmcc1s as a new MAP6 interacting protein able to modulate MAP6-induced microtubule cold stability. Moreover, it illustrates a novel mechanism by which Bmcc1 regulates cell morphology. PMID:22523599

  1. Unexpected role of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in brain: regulation of glial cell migration and morphology.

    PubMed

    Suk, Kyoungho

    2012-01-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is one of the most abundant proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid. Nevertheless, its role in the central nervous system is far from clear. Here, we present evidence that L-PGDS induces glial cell migration and morphological changes in vitro and in vivo. We also identified myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), heat shock proteins and actin as L-PGDS-binding proteins, demonstrating that MARCKS/Akt/Rho/Jnk pathways are involved in the L-PGDS actions in glia. We further show that the cell migration-promoting activity of L-PGDS is independent of PGD 2 production. The results suggest a novel non-enzymatic function of L-PGDS protein in brain inflammation, and may have an impact on glial cell biology and brain pathology related with reactive gliosis. L-PGDS is a potential drug target that can be exploited for therapeutic intervention of glia-driven neuroinflammation and related diseases. PMID:22568990

  2. Anatomical study of the human omohyoid muscle: regarding intermediate morphologies between normal and anomalous morphologies of the superior belly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiki Sukekawa; Ichizoh Itoh

    2006-01-01

    Intermediate morphologies between normal and anomalous morphologies of the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle (Om) were\\u000a macroscopically and stereomicroscopically observed in 34 cadavers (24 males and 10 females aged between 51 and 97 years; average\\u000a age 71.0 years) for anatomical practice, which had been preserved in the Department of Morphological Biology, Ohu University\\u000a School of Dentistry. The intermediate morphologies

  3. Neuronal DNA content variation (DCV) with regional and individual differences in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Westra, Jurjen W.; Rivera, Richard R.; Bushman, Diane M.; Yung, Yun C.; Peterson, Suzanne E.; Barral, Serena; Chun, Jerold

    2010-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the human brain contains genetically identical cells through which post-genomic mechanisms contribute to its enormous diversity and complexity. The relatively recent identification of neural cells throughout the neuraxis showing somatically generated mosaic aneuploidy indicates that the vertebrate brain can be genomically heterogeneous (Rehen et al., 2001; Rehen et al., 2005; Westra et al., 2008; Yurov et al., 2007). The extent of human neural aneuploidy is currently unknown because of technically limited sample sizes, but is reported to be small (Iourov et al., 2006). During efforts to interrogate larger cell populations using DNA content analyses, a surprising result was obtained: human frontal cortex brain cells were found to display “DNA content variation (DCV)” characterized by an increased range of DNA content both in cell populations and within single cells. On average, DNA content increased by ~250 megabases often representing a substantial fraction of cells within a given sample. DCV within individual human brains showed regional variation, with increased prevalence in the frontal cortex and less variation in the cerebellum. Further, DCV varied between individual brains. These results identify DCV as a new feature of the human brain, encompassing and further extending genomic alterations produced by aneuploidy, which may contribute to neural diversity in normal and pathophysiological states, altered functions of normal and disease-linked genes, and differences amongst individuals. PMID:20737596

  4. Auditory brain stem responses evoked by lateralized clicks: is lateralization extracted in the human brain stem?

    E-print Network

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky, Universität

    auditory a¡erent ¢bers ¢rst intersect in the superior olive (SO) in the brain stem (Nieuwenhuys et al, excitatory^excitatory; IC, inferior colliculus; IE, inhibitory^ excitatory; ILD, interaural level di; SO, superior olive; SPL, sound

  5. Structure-function relationships in human brain development

    E-print Network

    Saygin, Zeynep Mevhibe

    2012-01-01

    The integration of anatomical, functional, and developmental approaches in cognitive neuroscience is essential for generating mechanistic explanations of brain function. In this thesis, I first establish a proof-of-principle ...

  6. Blood-brain barrier imaging in human neuropathologies.

    PubMed

    Veksler, Ronel; Shelef, Ilan; Friedman, Alon

    2014-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential for normal function of the brain, and its role in many brain pathologies has been the focus of numerous studies during the last decades. Dysfunction of the BBB is not only being shown in numerous brain diseases, but animal studies have indicated that it plays a direct key role in the genesis of neurovascular dysfunction and associated neurodegeneration. As such evidence accumulates, the need for robust and clinically applicable methods for minimally invasive assessment of BBB integrity is becoming urgent. This review provides an introduction to BBB imaging methods in the clinical scenario. First, imaging modalities are reviewed, with a focus on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We then proceed to review image analysis methods, including quantitative and semi-quantitative methods. The advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed, and future directions and questions are highlighted. PMID:25453223

  7. Adaptive shape coding for perceptual decisions in the human brain

    E-print Network

    Kourtzi, Zoe; Welchman, Andrew E.

    2015-05-20

    . Combining behavioral and brain imaging measurements, we demonstrate that learning optimizes feature binding for object recognition in cluttered scenes, and tunes the neural representations of informative image parts to support efficient categorical...

  8. Automatic processing of political preferences in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Tusche, Anita; Kahnt, Thorsten; Wisniewski, David; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2013-05-15

    Individual political preferences as expressed, for instance, in votes or donations are fundamental to democratic societies. However, the relevance of deliberative processing for political preferences has been highly debated, putting automatic processes in the focus of attention. Based on this notion, the present study tested whether brain responses reflect participants' preferences for politicians and their associated political parties in the absence of explicit deliberation and attention. Participants were instructed to perform a demanding visual fixation task while their brain responses were measured using fMRI. Occasionally, task-irrelevant images of German politicians from two major competing parties were presented in the background while the distraction task was continued. Subsequent to scanning, participants' political preferences for these politicians and their affiliated parties were obtained. Brain responses in distinct brain areas predicted automatic political preferences at the different levels of abstraction: activation in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with preference ranks for unattended politicians, whereas participants' preferences for the affiliated political parties were reflected in activity in the insula and the cingulate cortex. Using an additional donation task, we showed that the automatic preference-related processing in the brain extended to real-world behavior that involved actual financial loss to participants. Together, these findings indicate that brain responses triggered by unattended and task-irrelevant political images reflect individual political preferences at different levels of abstraction. PMID:23353599

  9. Characterization and use of human brain microvascular endothelial cells to examine ?-amyloid exchange in the blood-brain barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corbin Bachmeier; Michael Mullan; Daniel Paris

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by excessive cerebrovascular deposition of the ?-amyloid peptide (A?). The investigation\\u000a of A? transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been hindered by inherent limitations in the cellular systems currently\\u000a used to model the BBB, such as insufficient barrier properties and poor reproducibility. In addition, many of the existing\\u000a models are not of human or

  10. Detecting Genetic Association of Common Human Facial Morphological Variation Using High Density 3D Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sile; Zhou, Hang; Guo, Jing; Jin, Li; Tang, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can result in decreased statistical power and unclear inference of shape changes. In this study, we applied a new image registration approach that automatically identified the salient landmarks and aligned the sample faces using high density pixel points. Based on this high density registration, three different phenotype data schemes were used to test the association between the common facial morphological variation and 10 candidate SNPs, and their performances were compared. The first scheme used traditional landmark-distances; the second relied on the geometric analysis of 15 landmarks and the third used geometric analysis of a dense registration of ?30,000 3D points. We found that the two geometric approaches were highly consistent in their detection of morphological changes. The geometric method using dense registration further demonstrated superiority in the fine inference of shape changes and 3D face modeling. Several candidate SNPs showed potential associations with different facial features. In particular, one SNP, a known risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lips/palates, rs642961 in the IRF6 gene, was validated to strongly predict normal lip shape variation in female Han Chinese. This study further demonstrated that dense face registration may substantially improve the detection and characterization of genetic association in common facial variation. PMID:24339768

  11. Inter-individual variability contrasts with regional homogeneity in the human brain DNA methylome.

    PubMed

    Illingworth, Robert S; Gruenewald-Schneider, Ulrike; De Sousa, Dina; Webb, Shaun; Merusi, Cara; Kerr, Alastair R W; James, Keith D; Smith, Colin; Walker, Robert; Andrews, Robert; Bird, Adrian P

    2015-01-01

    The possibility that alterations in DNA methylation are mechanistic drivers of development, aging and susceptibility to disease is widely acknowledged, but evidence remains patchy or inconclusive. Of particular interest in this regard is the brain, where it has been reported that DNA methylation impacts on neuronal activity, learning and memory, drug addiction and neurodegeneration. Until recently, however, little was known about the 'landscape' of the human brain methylome. Here we assay 1.9 million CpGs in each of 43 brain samples representing different individuals and brain regions. The cerebellum was a consistent outlier compared to all other regions, and showed over 16 000 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Unexpectedly, the sequence characteristics of hypo- and hypermethylated domains in cerebellum were distinct. In contrast, very few DMRs distinguished regions of the cortex, limbic system and brain stem. Inter-individual DMRs were readily detectable in these regions. These results lead to the surprising conclusion that, with the exception of cerebellum, DNA methylation patterns are more homogeneous between different brain regions from the same individual, than they are for a single brain region between different individuals. This finding suggests that DNA sequence composition, not developmental status, is the principal determinant of the human brain DNA methylome. PMID:25572316

  12. Glucose-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Transfer across Human Brain Endothelium and Enter Astrocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gromnicova, Radka; Davies, Heather A.; Sreekanthreddy, Peddagangannagari; Romero, Ignacio A.; Lund, Torben; Roitt, Ivan M.; Phillips, James B.; Male, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 µm/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:24339894

  13. Astrocyte cultures derived from human brain tissue express angiotensinogen mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Milsted, A.; Barna, B.P.; Ransohoff, R.M.; Brosnihan, K.B.; Ferrario, C.M. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The authors have identified human cultured cell lines that are useful for studying angiotensinogen gene expression and its regulation in the central nervous system. A model cell system of human central nervous system origin expressing angiotensinogen has not previously been available. Expression of angiotensinogen mRNA appears to be a basal property of noninduced human astrocytes, since astrocytic cell lines derived from human glioblastomas or nonneoplastic human brain tissue invariably produced angiotensinogen mRNA. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that angiotensinogen mRNA production was not limited to a subpopulation of astrocytes because >99% of cells in these cultures contained angiotensinogen mRNA. These cell lines will be useful in studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling angiotensin synthesis and the role of biologically active angiotensin in the human brain by allowing the authors to examine regulation of expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human astrocyte cultures.

  14. Human brain evolution: harnessing the genomics (r)evolution to link genes, cognition, and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Genevieve; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the human brain has resulted in numerous specialized features including higher cognitive processes, such as language. The combination of our newfound communication expertise together with the process of transgenerational evolution at the epigenetic level has led to an exponential increase in human knowledge and abilities. In balance with these beneficent attainments though, the human brain has also acquired vulnerabilities to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, which reflect genetic and environmental factors. To understand the mechanisms of this disease susceptibility, a deeper appreciation of the developmental processes and their relationship to underlying features of brain evolution will be necessary. Knowledge of whole genome sequence and structural variation via high throughput sequencing technology provides an unprecedented opportunity to view human evolution at high resolution. However, phenotype discovery is a critical component of these endeavors and the use of non-traditional model organisms will also be critical for piecing together a complete picture. Ultimately, the union of developmental studies of the brain with studies of unique phenotypes in a myriad of species will result in a more thorough model of the groundwork the human brain built upon. Furthermore, these integrative approaches should provide important insights into human diseases. PMID:20955931

  15. Systematic network lesioning reveals the core white matter scaffold of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Brain connectivity loss due to traumatic brain injury, stroke or multiple sclerosis can have serious consequences on life quality and a measurable impact upon neural and cognitive function. Though brain network properties are known to be affected disproportionately by injuries to certain gray matter regions, the manner in which white matter (WM) insults affect such properties remains poorly understood. Here, network-theoretic analysis allows us to identify the existence of a macroscopic neural connectivity core in the adult human brain which is particularly sensitive to network lesioning. The systematic lesion analysis of brain connectivity matrices from diffusion neuroimaging over a large sample (N = 110) reveals that the global vulnerability of brain networks can be predicated upon the extent to which injuries disrupt this connectivity core, which is found to be quite distinct from the set of connections between rich club nodes in the brain. Thus, in addition to connectivity within the rich club, the brain as a network also contains a distinct core scaffold of network edges consisting of WM connections whose damage dramatically lowers the integrative properties of brain networks. This pattern of core WM fasciculi whose injury results in major alterations to overall network integrity presents new avenues for clinical outcome prediction following brain injury by relating lesion locations to connectivity core disruption and implications for recovery. The findings of this study contribute substantially to current understanding of the human WM connectome, its sensitivity to injury, and clarify a long-standing debate regarding the relative prominence of gray vs. WM regions in the context of brain structure and connectomic architecture. PMID:24574993

  16. r Human Brain Mapping 0000:0000 (2010) r Eye Muscle Proprioception Is Represented

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    2010-01-01

    r Human Brain Mapping 0000:00­00 (2010) r Eye Muscle Proprioception Is Represented Bilaterally of the extraocular muscles (EOM) of an eye were recently found within the con- tralateral central sulcus. In humans: The cortical representation of eye position is still uncertain. In the monkey a propriocep- tive representation

  17. Predicting Human Strategic Decisions Using Facial Expressions Gonda Brain Research Center

    E-print Network

    Kraus, Sarit

    designed a new ver- sion of the centipede game that intorduces an incen- tive for the human participantPredicting Human Strategic Decisions Using Facial Expressions Noam Peled Gonda Brain Research centipede version, and concurrently logged their decisions throughout the games. The video snippet

  18. Ontogenetic development of cannabinoid receptor expression and signal transduction functionality in the human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Mato; Elena Del Olmo; Angel Pazos

    2003-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system emerges relatively early during brain development in the rat. However, the pre- and postnatal pattern of appearance of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in humans has not been analysed in detail. Furthermore, there is a complete lack of information about the functional ability of these proteins to activate signal transduction mechanisms during human development.

  19. Tonin and Kallikrein in the Brain of Transgenic Rat Line Expressing Human Tissue Kallikrein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliane S. L. Lomez; Ronaldo C. Araujo; Michael Bader; Joao B. Pesquero; Jorge L. Pesquero

    2010-01-01

    A transgenic rat line harboring the human tissue kallikrein gene was investigated for expression and activity of tonin and kallikrein in different regions of the brain. The introduction of the transgene into the rat genome produced a significant augmentation of the expression levels and activity of rat tissue kallikrein. The possibility that human kallikrein does not hydrolyze the rat substrate

  20. Socioeconomic status and the brain: mechanistic insights from human and animal research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Hackman; Martha J. Farah; Michael J. Meaney

    2010-01-01

    Human brain development occurs within a socioeconomic context and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) influences neural development — particularly of the systems that subserve language and executive function. Research in humans and in animal models has implicated prenatal factors, parent–child interactions and cognitive stimulation in the home environment in the effects of SES on neural development. These findings provide a unique

  1. 9.28 Human brain showing the progression of myelination over the cortical surface during adolescence

    E-print Network

    9.28 Human brain showing the progression of myelination over the cortical surface during (Part 2) #12;9.37 Layers of the human epidermis #12;Figure 9.39 #12;9.38 Early development of the hair follicle and hair shaft (Part 1) #12;9.38 Early development of the hair follicle and hair shaft (Part 2

  2. Novel triplet repeat containing genes in human brain: Cloning, expression, and length polymorphisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi Hua Li; R. L. Margolis; C. A. Ross; M. G. McInnis; S. E. Antonarakis

    1993-01-01

    Human genes containing triplet repeats may markedly expand in length and cause neuropsychiatric disease, explaining the phenomenon of anticipation (increasing severity or earlier age of onset in successive generations in a pedigree). To identify novel genes with triplet repeats, the authors screened a human brain cDNA library with oligonucleotide probes containing CTG or CCG triplet repeats. Fourteen of 40 clones

  3. Acute Effects of Cocaine in Lower Human Brain: An FMRI Study P. R. Kufahl1

    E-print Network

    Rowe, Daniel B.

    Acute Effects of Cocaine in Lower Human Brain: An FMRI Study P. R. Kufahl1 , Z. Li1 , R. Risinger1: This FMRI study used controlled doses of cocaine to induce BOLD signal changes in the human orbitofrontal cocaine-induced activation patterns across nine different subjects imaged at 1.5 Tesla. INTRODUCTION

  4. The effects of plasma-processing conditions on the morphology of adherent human blood platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Murugesan, R.; Hanley, E.; Lauer, J. L.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Albrecht, R. M.; Heintz, J. A. [Department of Animal Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Oliver, J. A. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53206 (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Hematocompatibility and nonfouling properties of materials are crucial for the development of small-scale biomedical devices. This study examines the adhesion and morphology of purified human platelets on plasma-polymerized tetraglyme-coated glass substrates. The effect of varying the plasma-processing parameters on platelet responses was determined using scanning electron microscopy. Images of platelets on the coated surfaces show that a significant reduction in platelet adhesion and spreading can be achieved as the processing parameters are varied.

  5. Effects of Silica and Titanium Oxide Particles on a Human Neural Stem Cell Line: Morphology, Mitochondrial Activity, and Gene Expression of Differentiation Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Hanada, Sanshiro; Inoue, Yuriko; Sato, Keisuke; Hirakuri, Kenji; Shiraishi, Kouichi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Ikeda, Keiichi; Usui, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kim, Seung U.; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Several in vivo studies suggest that nanoparticles (smaller than 100 nm) have the ability to reach the brain tissue. Moreover, some nanoparticles can penetrate into the brains of murine fetuses through the placenta by intravenous administration to pregnant mice. However, it is not clear whether the penetrated nanoparticles affect neurogenesis or brain function. To evaluate its effects on neural stem cells, we assayed a human neural stem cell (hNSCs) line exposed in vitro to three types of silica particles (30 nm, 70 nm, and <44 ?m) and two types of titanium oxide particles (80 nm and < 44 ?m). Our results show that hNSCs aggregated and exhibited abnormal morphology when exposed to the particles at concentrations ? 0.1 mg/mL for 7 days. Moreover, all the particles affected the gene expression of Nestin (stem cell marker) and neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NF-H, neuron marker) at 0.1 mg/mL. In contrast, only 30-nm silica particles at 1.0 mg/mL significantly reduced mitochondrial activity. Notably, 30-nm silica particles exhibited acute membrane permeability at concentrations ?62.5 ?g/mL in 24 h. Although these concentrations are higher than the expected concentrations of nanoparticles in the brain from in vivo experiments in a short period, these thresholds may indicate the potential toxicity of accumulated particles for long-term usage or continuous exposure. PMID:24992594

  6. Human Infections with Spirometra decipiens Plerocercoids Identified by Morphologic and Genetic Analyses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Park, Hansol; Lee, Dongmin; Choe, Seongjun; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Huh, Sun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2015-01-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Spirometra are pseudophyllidean cestodes endemic in Korea. At present, it is unclear which Spirometra species are responsible for causing human infections, and little information is available on the epidemiological profiles of Spirometra species infecting humans in Korea. Between 1979 and 2009, a total of 50 spargana from human patients and 2 adult specimens obtained from experimentally infected carnivorous animals were analyzed according to genetic and taxonomic criteria and classified as Spirometra erinaceieuropaei or Spirometra decipiens depending on the morphology. Morphologically, S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens are different in that the spirally coiled uterus in S. erinaceieuropaei has 5-7 complete coils, while in S. decipiens it has only 4.5 coils. In addition, there is a 9.3% (146/1,566) sequence different between S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens in the cox1 gene. Partial cox1 sequences (390 bp) from 35 Korean isolates showed 99.4% (388/390) similarity with the reference sequence of S. erinaceieuropaei from Korea (G1724; GenBank KJ599680) and an additional 15 Korean isolates revealed 99.2% (387/390) similarity with the reference sequences of S. decipiens from Korea (G1657; GenBank KJ599679). Based on morphologic and molecular databases, the estimated population ratio of S. erinaceieuropaei to S. decipiens was 35: 15. Our results indicate that both S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens found in Korea infect humans, with S. erinaceieuropaei being 2 times more prevalent than S. decipiens. This study is the first to report human sparganosis caused by S. decipiens in humans in Korea. PMID:26174823

  7. Human influenza viral infection in utero alters glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity in the developing brains of neonatal mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S H Fatemi; E S Emamian; R W Sidwell; D A Kist; J M Stary; J A Earle; P Thuras

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological reports describe a strong association between prenatal human influenza viral infection and later development of schizophrenia. Postmodern human brain studies, however, indicate a lack of gliosis in schizophrenic brains presumably secondary to absence of glial cells during the second trimester viral infection in utero. We hypothesized that human influenza infection in day 9 pregnant mice would alter the expression

  8. Intravenous RNA Interference Gene Therapy Targeting the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Prolongs Survival in Intracranial Brain Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Zhang; Yu-feng Zhang; Joshua Bryant; Andrew Charles; Ruben J. Boado; William M. Pardridge

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an oncogenic role in solid cancer, including brain cancer. The present study was designed to prolong survival in mice with intracranial human brain cancer with the weekly i.v. injection of nonviral gene therapy causing RNA interference (RNAi) of EGFR gene expression. Experimental Design: Human U87 gliomas were im- planted in the

  9. Morphological studies of human sperm using the Aarhus X-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham-Peskir, Joanna V.; Chantler, Eric; Guttmann, Peter; Hjort, Tage; Medenwaldt, Robin; McCann, Christine; Uggerhøj, Erik; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2000-05-01

    Using the Aarhus transmission X-ray microscope we have shown that the mitochondria of human spermatozoa can exist in two morphologically distinct states. We have also discovered new structures on the human spermatozoon surface. These structures manifest as clear vesicular bodies associated with specific membrane domains. They can occur around the acrosomal segment, the mid-piece region or at the basal region. Prior to our findings they were not described in the literature, even though they were clearly visible by light microscopy and ubiquitous among populations of sperm from fertile donors. We report on our findings and subsequent endeavours to elucidate the function of these fascinating structures.

  10. Cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 on human brain microvascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Humaira; Hamid, Saeed S; Ali, Syed Shayan; Anwar, Javeria; Siddiqui, Anwar Ali; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. Although AFB1 is implicated as a carcinogen in hepatocellular carcinoma, brain autopsies in affected areas have revealed its presence in 81% of cases. Given its haematogenous spread, here we determined the cytotoxic effects of AFB1 on primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the blood-brain barrier, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as well as immortalized epithelial cells of human hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh7). The cell types were exposed to AFB1 (3-32 nM) for 24 h and release of lactate dehydrogenase was measured as cell cytotoxicity marker. Furthermore, DNA was collected from both cell types and DNA adduct formation was determined by immunoblot using anti-AFB1-DNA adduct antibody. At 32 nM, AFB1 killed >85% HBMEC, while controls showed minimal effects (P < .05). Similar concentrations of AFB1 showed 22% cell death of HUVEC, while the same concentration did not kill Huh7. At low concentrations, in other words, 3.2 nM, AFB1 produced DNA adduct formation in HBMEC, while high concentration (32 nM) did not form DNA adducts. For HUVEC, 16 nM and 32 nM exhibited DNA adduct formation. For Huh7, 3.2 nM did not form DNA adducts, while 32 nM exhibited DNA adduct formation. For the first time, we report that AFB1 affected the viability of primary endothelial cells but not immortalized Huh7 cells. Cytotoxicity of brain endothelial cells suggests extra-hepatic complications post-AFB1 exposure. PMID:25851265

  11. Amyloid-? Dynamics Correlate with Neurological Status in the Injured Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Brody, David L.; Magnoni, Sandra; Schwetye, Kate E.; Spinner, Michael L.; Esparza, Thomas J.; Stocchetti, Nino; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Holtzman, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The amyloid-? peptide (A?) plays a central pathophysiological role in Alzheimer’s disease, but little is known about the concentration and dynamics of this secreted peptide in the extracellular space of the human brain. We used intracerebral microdialysis to obtain serial brain interstitial fluid (ISF) samples in 18 patients who were undergoing invasive intracranial monitoring after acute brain injury. We found a strong positive correlation between changes in brain ISF A? concentrations and neurological status, with A? concentrations increasing as neurological status improved and falling when neurological status declined. Brain ISF A? concentrations were also lower when other cerebral physiological and metabolic abnormalities reflected depressed neuronal function. Such dynamics fit well with the hypothesis that neuronal activity regulates extracellular A? concentration. PMID:18755980

  12. Visual image reconstruction from human brain activity: A modular decoding approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Yoichi; Uchida, Hajime; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-aki; Morito, Yusuke; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Sadato, Norihiro; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2009-12-01

    Brain activity represents our perceptual experience. But the potential for reading out perceptual contents from human brain activity has not been fully explored. In this study, we demonstrate constraint-free reconstruction of visual images perceived by a subject, from the brain activity pattern. We reconstructed visual images by combining local image bases with multiple scales, whose contrasts were independently decoded from fMRI activity by automatically selecting relevant voxels and exploiting their correlated patterns. Binary-contrast, 10 x 10-patch images (2100 possible states), were accurately reconstructed without any image prior by measuring brain activity only for several hundred random images. The results suggest that our approach provides an effective means to read out complex perceptual states from brain activity while discovering information representation in multi-voxel patterns.

  13. Selective gray matter staining of human brain slices: optimized use of cadaver materials.

    PubMed

    Loftspring, M C; Smanik, J; Gardner, C; Pixley, S K

    2008-06-01

    We report a novel staining technique for human brain slices that distinguishes clearly gray from white matter. Previously described techniques using either Prussian blue (Berlin blue) or phthalocyanine dyes usually have included a hot phenol pretreatment to prevent white matter staining. The technique we describe here does not require hot phenol pretreatment and allows the use of brains stored for postmortem periods of one to two years prior to staining. Our technique involves staining with copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt 1% in water for 2 h followed by acetic acid treatment; this produces excellent blue staining of gray matter with little white matter staining. The stained brain slices are excellent for teaching human brain anatomy and/or pathology, or for research purposes. PMID:18946763

  14. Impact of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism on Cortical Thickness and Voxel-Based Morphometry in Healthy Chinese Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuejuan Yang; Peng Liu; Jinbo Sun; Guihong Wang; Fang Zeng; Kai Yuan; Jixin Liu; Minghao Dong; Karen M. von Deneen; Wei Qin; Jie Tian

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundFollowing voxel-based morphometry (VBM), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been shown to affect human brain morphology in Caucasians. However, little is known about the specific role of the Met\\/Met genotype on brain structure. Moreover, the relationship between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and Chinese brain morphology has not been studied.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe present study investigated brain structural differences among three

  15. [Human Brain Representations of Haptic and Visual Textures].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2015-06-01

    We present a literature review of functional brain imaging studies of haptic and visual texture perception, and highlight our ongoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment of the crossmodal links between vision and touch. In the fMRI experiment, the subjects viewed or touched a piece of wool or denim cloth. A multivoxel pattern analysis of whole-brain fMRI activity revealed the crossmodal nature of natural texture perception. Visual texture representations were found in the somatosensory and association cortices as well as the visual cortex, while haptic texture representations were found in the visual cortex and association cortices as well as the somatosensory cortex. Furthermore, shared visuo-haptic representations were found in the parietal association, somatosensory, and visual cortices. These results that suggested the crossmodal transfer of texture information across functionally segregated sensory and associative brain regions are discussed in relation to previous findings on texture perception and aesthetic texture or shitsukan. PMID:26062584

  16. Oligodendrocyte development and the onset of myelination in the human fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Jakovcevski, Igor; Filipovic, Radmila; Mo, Zhicheng; Rakic, Sonja; Zecevic, Nada

    2009-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are cells that myelinate axons, providing saltatory conduction of action potentials and proper function of the central nervous system. Myelination begins prenatally in the human, and the sequence of oligodendrocyte development and the onset of myelination are not thoroughly investigated. This knowledge is important to better understand human diseases, such as periventricular leukomalacia, one of the leading causes of motor deficit in premature babies, and demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this review we discuss the spatial and temporal progression of oligodendrocyte lineage characterized by the expression of specific markers and transcription factors in the human fetal brain from the early embryonic period (5 gestational weeks, gw) until midgestation (24 gw). Our in vitro evidence indicated that a subpopulation of human oligodendrocytes may have dorsal origin, from cortical radial glia cells, in addition to their ventral telencephalic origin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the regulation of myelination in the human fetal brain includes positive and negative regulators. Chemokines, such as CXCL1, abundant in proliferative zones during brain development and in regions of remyelination in adult, are discussed in the view of their potential roles in stimulating oligodendrocyte development. Other signals are inhibitory and may include, but are not limited to, polysialic acid modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule on axons. Overall, important differences in temporal and spatial distribution and regulatory signals for oligodendrocyte differentiation exist between human and rodent brains. Those differences may underlie the unique susceptibility of humans to demyelinating diseases, such as MS. PMID:19521542

  17. Detection of human brain cancer infiltration ex vivo and in vivo using quantitative optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Kut, Carmen; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Xi, Jiefeng; Raza, Shaan M; Ye, Xiaobu; McVeigh, Elliot R; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Li, Xingde

    2015-06-17

    More complete brain cancer resection can prolong survival and delay recurrence. However, it is challenging to distinguish cancer from noncancer tissues intraoperatively, especially at the transitional, infiltrative zones. This is especially critical in eloquent regions (for example, speech and motor areas). This study tested the feasibility of label-free, quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) for differentiating cancer from noncancer in human brain tissues. Fresh ex vivo human brain tissues were obtained from 32 patients with grade II to IV brain cancer and 5 patients with noncancer brain pathologies. On the basis of volumetric OCT imaging data, pathologically confirmed brain cancer tissues (both high- and low-grade) had significantly lower optical attenuation values at both cancer core and infiltrated zones when compared with noncancer white matter, and OCT achieved high sensitivity and specificity at an attenuation threshold of 5.5 mm(-1) for brain cancer patients. We also used this attenuation threshold to confirm the intraoperative feasibility of performing in vivo OCT-guided surgery using a murine model harboring human brain cancer. Our OCT system was capable of processing and displaying a color-coded optical property map in real time at a rate of 110 to 215 frames per second, or 1.2 to 2.4 s for an 8- to 16-mm(3) tissue volume, thus providing direct visual cues for cancer versus noncancer areas. Our study demonstrates the translational and practical potential of OCT in differentiating cancer from noncancer tissue. Its intraoperative use may facilitate safe and extensive resection of infiltrative brain cancers and consequently lead to improved outcomes when compared with current clinical standards. PMID:26084803

  18. GSK-3? Gene Expression in Human Postmortem Brain: Regional Distribution, Effects of Age and Suicide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghanshyam N. Pandey; Yogesh Dwivedi; Hooriyah S. Rizavi; Tara Teppen; Gabor L. Gaszner; Rosalinda C. Roberts; Robert R. Conley

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3?) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and schizophrenia. To examine\\u000a its role in suicide, we determined GSK-3? messenger RNA (mRNA) in human postmortem brain from suicide and normal control subjects\\u000a using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. We found that GSK-3? mRNA was highly\\u000a abundant in almost all of the 12 brain

  19. Human Neural Stem Cells Can Target and Deliver Therapeutic Genes to Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyeung Min Joo; Ji Y Shin; Juyoun Jin; Bong Gu Kang; Mi Hyun Kim; Se Jeong Lee; Mi-young Jo; Seung U Kim; Do-Hyun Nam

    2009-01-01

    The tumor-tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) led to the development of a novel strategy for delivering therapeutic genes to tumors in the brain. To apply this strategy to the treatment of brain metastases, we made a human NSC line expressing cytosine deaminase (F3.CD), which converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into 5-fluorouracil, an anticancer agent. In vitro, the F3.CD cells significantly

  20. A theoretical model of selective cooling using intracarotid cold saline infusion in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Konstas, Angelos-Aristeidis; Neimark, Matthew A; Laine, Andrew F; Pile-Spellman, John

    2007-04-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model was developed to examine the transient and steady-state temperature distribution in the human brain during selective brain cooling (SBC) by unilateral intracarotid freezing-cold saline infusion. To determine the combined effect of hemodilution and hypothermia from the cold saline infusion, data from studies investigating the effect of these two parameters on cerebral blood flow (CBF) were pooled, and an analytic expression describing the combined effect of the two factors was derived. The Pennes bioheat equation used the thermal properties of the different cranial layers and the effect of cold saline infusion on CBF to propagate the evolution of brain temperature. A healthy brain and a brain with stroke (ischemic core and penumbra) were modeled. CBF and metabolic rate data were reduced to simulate the core and penumbra. Simulations using different saline flow rates were performed. The results suggested that a flow rate of 30 ml/min is sufficient to induce moderate hypothermia within 10 min in the ipsilateral hemisphere. The brain with stroke cooled to lower temperatures than the healthy brain, mainly because the stroke limited the total intracarotid blood flow. Gray matter cooled twice as fast as white matter. The continuously falling hematocrit was the main time-limiting factor, restricting the SBC to a maximum of 3 h. The study demonstrated that SBC by intracarotid saline infusion is feasible in humans and may be the fastest method of hypothermia induction. PMID:17170208

  1. Visualizing white matter pathways in the living human brain: diffusion tensor imaging and beyond.

    PubMed

    Hess, Christopher P; Mukherjee, Pratik

    2007-11-01

    Biologic connectionism holds as its central tenet that the cognitive, behavioral, and motor functions of the brain are derived from the complex interconnections of simple neural processing units. Much can be learned about the human mind through the study of the brain's connections in normal and diseased states. This article summarizes the essential features of the tensor model of diffusion, outlines newer approaches to overcoming the limitations of the tensor, and provides normal and clinical examples of white matter anatomy derived using diffusion tensor imaging and more sophisticated high angular resolution diffusion imaging methods. Diffusion MR imaging is a powerful adjunct to techniques for studying brain function. PMID:17983960

  2. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    SciTech Connect

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Dillon, K.A.; Fieldust, S.J.; Biegon, A. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

    1990-11-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography.

  3. Organization and evolution of brain lipidome revealed by large-scale analysis of human, chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng; Liu, Xiling; Xiong, Jieyi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tomita, Masaru; Pääbo, Svante; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Ely, John J; Li, Yan; Steinhauser, Dirk; Willmitzer, Lothar; Giavalisco, Patrick; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2015-02-18

    Lipids are prominent components of the nervous system. Here we performed a large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis of the lipid composition of three brain regions as well as kidney and skeletal muscle of humans, chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, and mice. The human brain shows the most distinct lipid composition: 76% of 5,713 lipid compounds examined in our study are either enriched or depleted in the human brain. Concentration levels of lipids enriched in the brain evolve approximately four times faster among primates compared with lipids characteristic of non-neural tissues and show further acceleration of change in human neocortical regions but not in the cerebellum. Human-specific concentration changes are supported by human-specific expression changes for corresponding enzymes. These results provide the first insights into the role of lipids in human brain evolution. PMID:25661180

  4. Micropatterned, clickable culture substrates enable in situ spatiotemporal control of human PSC-derived neural tissue morphology

    PubMed Central

    Knight, G. T.; Sha, J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a modular culture platform that enables spatiotemporal control of the morphology of 2D neural tissues derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) by simply adding clickable peptides to the media. It should be widely applicable for elucidating how spatiotemporal changes in morphology and substrate biochemistry regulate tissue morphogenesis. PMID:25688384

  5. The evolution of the complex sensory and motor systems of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Kaas, Jon H.

    2008-01-01

    Inferences about how the complex sensory and motor systems of the human brain evolved are based on the results of comparative studies of brain organization across a range of mammalian species, and evidence from the endocasts of fossil skulls of key extinct species. The endocasts of the skulls of early mammals indicate that they had small brains with little neocortex. Evidence from comparative studies of cortical organization from small-brained mammals of the six major branches of mammalian evolution supports the conclusion that the small neocortex of early mammals was divided into roughly 20–25 cortical areas, including primary and secondary sensory fields. In early primates, vision was the dominant sense, and cortical areas associated with vision in temporal and occipital cortex underwent a significant expansion. Comparative studies indicate that early primates had 10 or more visual areas, and somatosensory areas with expanded representations of the forepaw. Posterior parietal cortex was also expanded, with a caudal half dominated by visual inputs, and a rostral half dominated by somatosensory inputs with outputs to an array of seven or more motor and visuomotor areas of the frontal lobe. Somatosensory areas and posterior parietal cortex became further differentiated in early anthropoid primates. As larger brains evolved in early apes and in our hominin ancestors, the number of cortical areas increased to reach an estimated 200 or so in present day humans, and hemispheric specializations emerged. The large human brain grew primarily by increasing neuron number rather than increasing average neuron size. PMID:18331903

  6. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in deep human brain structures at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elywa, M.; Mulla-Osman, S.; Godenschweger, F.; Speck, O.

    2012-03-01

    The increased magnetization and frequency separation at high magnetic field strength, such as 7 T, can provide spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution. However, most human brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies at 7 T have employed surface coils and thus limited to superficial brain structures. In this study, volume coil excitation together with volume array reception has been utilized to access deeper brain areas. RF power limitations have been addressed by the use of VERSE-modified pulses, and spectra in parietal and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) have been acquired in eight subjects using STEAM with a short echo time of 20 ms. Spectra were analyzed using LC-model. Therefore, an experimental basis set of in vitro spectra was established from 20 human brain metabolite solutions. An exemplary comparison with an optimized PRESS-based single voxel MRS method at 3 T has been performed. Despite the intrinsically lower signal in STEAM, the 7 T spectra show 1.87 times higher signal-to-noise ratio than at 3 T (using PRESS) and more metabolites could be quantified reliably. The results show that the proposed method can be employed at 7 T in deep brain structures and allows the absolute and relative concentrations of human brain metabolites to be determined with low error levels.

  7. Biomechanical analysis of blast induced traumatic brain injury---A finite element modeling and validation study of blast effects on human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumit Sharma

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 19.5% of all U.S. troops deployed to Iraq\\/Afghanistan have symptoms related to blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI). Up to now causal mechanisms of bTBI are unknown. Previously an anatomically detailed human head finite element model (WSUHIM) was successfully utilized to predict brain injuries from blunt impact. The measurements of wave propagation patterns within an in vivo brain continue

  8. Biomechanical analysis of blast induced traumatic brain injury- a finite element modeling and validation study of blast effects on human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumit Sharma

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 19.5% of all U.S. troops deployed to Iraq\\/Afghanistan have symptoms related to blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI). Up to now causal mechanisms of bTBI are unknown. Previously an anatomically detailed human head finite element model (WSUHIM) was successfully utilized to predict brain injuries from blunt impact. The measurements of wave propagation patterns within an in vivo brain continue

  9. Multi-chemical networking profile of the living human brain: potential relevance to molecular studies of cognition and behavior in normal and diseased brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Grachev; A. V. Apkarian

    2002-01-01

    Summary.   Anatomical, electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies show that the human brain is a complex network, where\\u000a cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connections are organized in a specific pattern giving rise to brain function. In our\\u000a recent studies we found that chemical connectivity between brain regions might be changed in different conditions (e.g. aging,\\u000a chronic pain, cognitive interference). The elucidation of properties

  10. [Morphology of the rat's brain in and after a space flight: ultrastructure of the "blue spot"].

    PubMed

    Krasnov, I B; D'iachkova, L N

    2003-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to explore ultrastructure of the livor extracted from the brain of rats on day-13 aboard U.S. space shuttle Columbia (STS-58), and in 5-6 hrs. after landing following the 14-d mission. As compared with the ground controls, the rats flown in microgravity reduced the total number of axodendrite synapses (ADS) by 21% and functional ADS--by 39.7%. After touchdown the total ADS number remained lowered by 16.5%; however, the percentage of highly active ADS exceeded this parameter in the ground controls. Results of the analysis of the ADS number in conjunction with the ultrastructural changes in axonal terminals and dendrites suggest a sharp decrease of the afferent influx towards the livor neurons during microgravity, whereas modifications of the livor neuron ultrastructure point to a decline in their functional activity. These data serve as an experimental proof of the hypothesized development of the hyponoradrenergic syndrome by mammals in microgravity. PMID:12696497

  11. r Human Brain Mapping 000:0000 (2012) r Brain Correlates of Phasic Autonomic Response to

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    to Acupuncture Stimulation: An Event-Related fMRI Study Vitaly Napadow,1,2 * Jeungchan Lee,1,3 Jieun Kim,1 to acupuncture has been investigated by multi- ple studies; however, the brain circuitry underlying this response, HR; skin conductance response, SCR). Brief manual acupuncture stimuli were delivered at acupoints ST

  12. Fast transient networks in spontaneous human brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Adam P; Brookes, Matthew J; Rezek, Iead A; Smith, Stephen M; Behrens, Timothy; Probert Smith, Penny J; Woolrich, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To provide an effective substrate for cognitive processes, functional brain networks should be able to reorganize and coordinate on a sub-second temporal scale. We used magnetoencephalography recordings of spontaneous activity to characterize whole-brain functional connectivity dynamics at high temporal resolution. Using a novel approach that identifies the points in time at which unique patterns of activity recur, we reveal transient (100–200 ms) brain states with spatial topographies similar to those of well-known resting state networks. By assessing temporal changes in the occurrence of these states, we demonstrate that within-network functional connectivity is underpinned by coordinated neuronal dynamics that fluctuate much more rapidly than has previously been shown. We further evaluate cross-network interactions, and show that anticorrelation between the default mode network and parietal regions of the dorsal attention network is consistent with an inability of the system to transition directly between two transient brain states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01867.001 PMID:24668169

  13. Two Dream Machines: Television and the Human Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Caren J.

    Research into brain physiology and dream psychology have helped to illuminate the biological purposes and processes of dreaming. Physical and functional characteristics shared by dreaming and television include the perception of visual and auditory images, operation in a binary mode, and the encoding of visual information. Research is needed in…

  14. A PET study on brain control of micturition in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertil F. M. Blok; Antoon T. M. Willemsen; Gert Holstege

    1997-01-01

    Summary Although the brain plays a crucial role in the control of grey, the hypothalamus and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased blood flow was found in the right anterior cingulate micturition, little is known about the structures involved. gyrus when urine was withheld. The other seven volunteers Identification of these areas is important, because their were not able to

  15. PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. D. Volkow; J. S. Fowler; S. Gatley

    1996-01-01

    Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it

  16. Visualization of Chemokine Binding Sites on Human Brain Microvessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anuska V. Andjelkovic; Dennis D. Spencer; Joel S. Pachter

    2010-01-01

    The chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory pro- tein-1 a (MIP-1 a ) aid in directing leukocytes to specific locales within the brain and spinal cord during central nervous system inflammation. However, it remains un- clear how these chemokines exert their actions across a vascular barrier, raising speculation that interaction with endothelial cells might be required. Therefore, ex-

  17. [Event-related potentials of human brain in spatial hearing].

    PubMed

    Al'tman, Ia A; Va?tulevich, S F; Shestopalova, L B; Petropavlovskaia, E A; Nikitin, N I

    2012-01-01

    The review presents the data concerning auditory event-related potentials and their "mismatch negativity" component under conditions of stationary and moving sound source localization. Both free-field and dichotic experimental conditions are considered. The interhemispheric asymmetry of the brain responses elicited by the sound sources of various spatial properties is also discussed. PMID:22690588

  18. Differential Developmental Trajectories of Magnetic Susceptibility in Human Brain Gray and White Matter Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Batrachenko, Anastasia; Bancroft-Wu, Vivian; Morey, Rajendra A.; Shashi, Vandana; Langkammer, Christian; De Bellis, Michael D.; Ropele, Stefan; Song, Allen W.; Liu, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    As indicated by several recent studies, magnetic susceptibility of the brain is influenced mainly by myelin in the white matter and by iron deposits in the deep nuclei. Myelination and iron deposition in the brain evolve both spatially and temporally. This evolution reflects an important characteristic of normal brain development and ageing. In this study, we assessed the changes of regional susceptibility in the human brain in vivo by examining the developmental and ageing process from 1 to 83 years of age. The evolution of magnetic susceptibility over this lifespan was found to display differential trajectories between the gray and the white matter. In both cortical and subcortical white matter, an initial decrease followed by a subsequent increase in magnetic susceptibility was observed, which could be fitted by a Poisson curve. In the gray matter, including the cortical gray matter and the iron-rich deep nuclei, magnetic susceptibility displayed a monotonic increase that can be described by an exponential growth. The rate of change varied according to functional and anatomical regions of the brain. For the brain nuclei, the age-related changes of susceptibility were in good agreement with the findings from R2* measurement. Our results suggest that magnetic susceptibility may provide valuable information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns of brain myelination and iron deposition during brain maturation and ageing. PMID:24038837

  19. Expression of Tubulin Beta II in Neural Stem\\/Progenitor Cells and Radial Fibers During Human Fetal Brain Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Nakamura; Munehiko Yamamoto; Eriko Oda; Atsuyo Yamamoto; Yonehiro Kanemura; Masayuki Hara; Akira Suzuki; Mami Yamasaki; Hideyuki Okano

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that the “radial glia” in fetal rodent brains are dividing neuronal precursor cells. However, in fetal primate brains, this issue remains unclear, with previous reports indicating that radial glia are a specialized form of astroglia. To investigate the relationship between radial fibers (RFs) and neural stem\\/progenitor cells in the fetal human brain, we generated polyclonal antibodies to

  20. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n?=?77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  1. Brain dynamics of meal size selection in humans.

    PubMed

    Toepel, Ulrike; Bielser, Marie-Laure; Forde, Ciaran; Martin, Nathalie; Voirin, Alexandre; le Coutre, Johannes; Murray, Micah M; Hudry, Julie

    2015-06-01

    Although neuroimaging research has evidenced specific responses to visual food stimuli based on their nutritional quality (e.g., energy density, fat content), brain processes underlying portion size selection remain largely unexplored. We identified spatio-temporal brain dynamics in response to meal images varying in portion size during a task of ideal portion selection for prospective lunch intake and expected satiety. Brain responses to meal portions judged by the participants as 'too small', 'ideal' and 'too big' were measured by means of electro-encephalographic (EEG) recordings in 21 normal-weight women. During an early stage of meal viewing (105-145ms), data showed an incremental increase of the head-surface global electric field strength (quantified via global field power; GFP) as portion judgments ranged from 'too small' to 'too big'. Estimations of neural source activity revealed that brain regions underlying this effect were located in the insula, middle frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, and are similar to those reported in previous studies investigating responses to changes in food nutritional content. In contrast, during a later stage (230-270ms), GFP was maximal for the 'ideal' relative to the 'non-ideal' portion sizes. Greater neural source activity to 'ideal' vs. 'non-ideal' portion sizes was observed in the inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus and mid-posterior cingulate gyrus. Collectively, our results provide evidence that several brain regions involved in attention and adaptive behavior track 'ideal' meal portion sizes as early as 230ms during visual encounter. That is, responses do not show an increase paralleling the amount of food viewed (and, in extension, the amount of reward), but are shaped by regulatory mechanisms. PMID:25812716

  2. What makes man human: thirty-ninth James Arthur lecture on the evolution of the human brain, 1970

    PubMed Central

    Pribram, Karl H

    2006-01-01

    What makes man human is his brain. This brain is obviously different from those of nonhuman primates. It is larger, shows hemispheric dominance and specialization, and is cytoarchitecturally somewhat more generalized. But are these the essential characteristics that determine the humanness of man? This paper cannot give an answer to this question for the answer is not known. But the problem can be stated more specifically, alternatives spelled out on the basis of available research results, and directions given for further inquiry. My theme will be that the human brain is so constructed that man, and only man, feels the thrust to make meaningful all his experiences and encounters. Development of this theme demands an analysis of the brain mechanisms that make meaning–and an attempt to define biologically the process of meaning. In this pursuit of meaning a fascinating variety of topics comes into focus: the coding and recoding operations of the brain; how it engenders and processes information and redundancy; and, how it makes possible signs and symbols and prepositional utterances. Of these, current research results indicate that only in the making of propositions is man unique–so here perhaps are to be found the keynotes that compose the theme. PMID:17132178

  3. [Geomagnetic storm decreases coherence of electric oscillations of human brain while working at the computer].

    PubMed

    Novik, O B; Smirnov, F A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of geomagnetic storms at the latitude of Moscow on the electric oscillations of the human brain cerebral cortex was studied. In course of electroencephalogram measurements it was shown that when the voluntary persons at the age of 18-23 years old were performing tasks using a computer during moderate magnetic storm or no later than 24 hrs after it, the value of the coherence function of electric oscillations of the human brain in the frontal and occipital areas in a range of 4.0-7.9 Hz (so-called the theta rhythm oscillations of the human brain) decreased by a factor of two or more, sometimes reaching zero, although arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate and the electrocardiogram registered during electroencephalogram measurements remained within the standard values. PMID:24159827

  4. Divergence of human and mouse brain transcriptome highlights Alzheimer disease pathways

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jeremy A.; Horvath, Steve; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Because mouse models play a crucial role in biomedical research related to the human nervous system, understanding the similarities and differences between mouse and human brain is of fundamental importance. Studies comparing transcription in human and mouse have come to varied conclusions, in part because of their relatively small sample sizes or underpowered methodologies. To better characterize gene expression differences between mouse and human, we took a systems-biology approach by using weighted gene coexpression network analysis on more than 1,000 microarrays from brain. We find that global network properties of the brain transcriptome are highly preserved between species. Furthermore, all modules of highly coexpressed genes identified in mouse were identified in human, with those related to conserved cellular functions showing the strongest between-species preservation. Modules corresponding to glial and neuronal cells were sufficiently preserved between mouse and human to permit identification of cross species cell-class marker genes. We also identify several robust human-specific modules, including one strongly correlated with measures of Alzheimer disease progression across multiple data sets, whose hubs are poorly-characterized genes likely involved in Alzheimer disease. We present multiple lines of evidence suggesting links between neurodegenerative disease and glial cell types in human, including human-specific correlation of presenilin-1 with oligodendrocyte markers, and significant enrichment for known neurodegenerative disease genes in microglial modules. Together, this work identifies convergent and divergent pathways in mouse and human, and provides a systematic framework that will be useful for understanding the applicability of mouse models for human brain disorders. PMID:20616000

  5. Characterization of traumatic brain injury in human brains reveals distinct cellular and molecular changes in contusion and pericontusion.

    PubMed

    Harish, Gangadharappa; Mahadevan, Anita; Pruthi, Nupur; Sreenivasamurthy, Sreelakshmi K; Puttamallesh, Vinuth N; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Shankar, Susarla Krishna; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to fatalities and neurological disabilities worldwide. While primary injury causes immediate damage, secondary events contribute to long-term neurological defects. Contusions (Ct) are primary injuries correlated with poor clinical prognosis, and can expand leading to delayed neurological deterioration. Pericontusion (PC) (penumbra), the region surrounding Ct, can also expand with edema, increased intracranial pressure, ischemia, and poor clinical outcome. Analysis of Ct and PC can therefore assist in understanding the pathobiology of TBI and its management. This study on human TBI brains noted extensive neuronal, astroglial and inflammatory changes, alterations in mitochondrial, synaptic and oxidative markers, and associated proteomic profile, with distinct differences in Ct and PC. While Ct displayed petechial hemorrhages, thrombosis, inflammation, neuronal pyknosis, and astrogliosis, PC revealed edema, vacuolation of neuropil, axonal loss, and dystrophic changes. Proteomic analysis demonstrated altered immune response, synaptic, and mitochondrial dysfunction, among others, in Ct, while PC displayed altered regulation of neurogenesis and cytoskeletal architecture, among others. TBI brains displayed oxidative damage, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and loss of synaptic proteins, with these changes being more profound in Ct. We suggest that analysis of markers specific to Ct and PC may be valuable in the evaluation of TBI pathobiology and therapeutics. We have characterized the primary injury in human traumatic brain injury (TBI). Contusions (Ct) - the injury core displayed hemorrhages, inflammation, and astrogliosis, while the surrounding pericontusion (PC) revealed edema, vacuolation, microglial activation, axonal loss, and dystrophy. Proteomic analysis demonstrated altered immune response, synaptic and mitochondrial dysfunction in Ct, and altered regulation of neurogenesis and cytoskeletal architecture in PC. Ct displayed more oxidative damage, mitochondrial, and synaptic dysfunction compared to PC. PMID:25712633

  6. A survey of human brain transcriptome diversity at the single cell level

    PubMed Central

    Darmanis, Spyros; Sloan, Steven A.; Zhang, Ye; Enge, Martin; Caneda, Christine; Shuer, Lawrence M.; Hayden Gephart, Melanie G.; Barres, Ben A.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The human brain is a tissue of vast complexity in terms of the cell types it comprises. Conventional approaches to classifying cell types in the human brain at single cell resolution have been limited to exploring relatively few markers and therefore have provided a limited molecular characterization of any given cell type. We used single cell RNA sequencing on 466 cells to capture the cellular complexity of the adult and fetal human brain at a whole transcriptome level. Healthy adult temporal lobe tissue was obtained during surgical procedures where otherwise normal tissue was removed to gain access to deeper hippocampal pathology in patients with medical refractory seizures. We were able to classify individual cells into all of the major neuronal, glial, and vascular cell types in the brain. We were able to divide neurons into individual communities and show that these communities preserve the categorization of interneuron subtypes that is typically observed with the use of classic interneuron markers. We then used single cell RNA sequencing on fetal human cortical neurons to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fetal and adult neurons and those genes that display an expression gradient that reflects the transition between replicating and quiescent fetal neuronal populations. Finally, we observed the expression of major histocompatibility complex type I genes in a subset of adult neurons, but not fetal neurons. The work presented here demonstrates the applicability of single cell RNA sequencing on the study of the adult human brain and constitutes a first step toward a comprehensive cellular atlas of the human brain. PMID:26060301

  7. Noninvasive quantification of human brain antioxidant concentrations after an intravenous bolus of vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Terpstra, Melissa; Torkelson, Carolyn; Emir, Uzay; Hodges, James S.; Raatz, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Until now, the lack of a means to detect a deficiency or to measure the pharmacologic effect in the human brain in situ has been a hindrance to the development of antioxidant-based prevention and treatment of dementia. In this study, a recently developed 1H MRS approach was applied to quantify key human brain antioxidant concentrations throughout the course of an aggressive antioxidant-based intervention. The concentrations of the two most abundant central nervous system chemical antioxidants, vitamin C and glutathione, were quantified noninvasively in the human occipital cortex prior to and throughout 24 h after bolus intravenous delivery of 3 g of vitamin C. Although the kinetics of the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter and physiologic blood vitamin C concentrations predict theoretically that brain vitamin C concentration will not increase above its homeostatically maintained level, this theory has never been tested experimentally in the living human brain. Therefore, human brain vitamin C and glutathione concentrations were quantified noninvasively using MEGA-PRESS double-edited 1H MRS and LCModel. Healthy subjects (age, 19–63 years) with typical dietary consumption, who did not take vitamin supplements, fasted overnight and then reported for the measurement of baseline antioxidant concentrations. They then began controlled feeding which they adhered to until after vitamin C and glutathione concentrations had been measured at 2, 6, 10 and 24 h after receiving intravenous vitamin C. Two of the twelve studies were sham controls in which no vitamin C was administered. The main finding was that human brain vitamin C and glutathione concentrations remained constant throughout the protocol, even though blood serum vitamin C concentrations spanned from the low end of the normal range to very high. PMID:21674654

  8. A survey of human brain transcriptome diversity at the single cell level.

    PubMed

    Darmanis, Spyros; Sloan, Steven A; Zhang, Ye; Enge, Martin; Caneda, Christine; Shuer, Lawrence M; Hayden Gephart, Melanie G; Barres, Ben A; Quake, Stephen R

    2015-06-01

    The human brain is a tissue of vast complexity in terms of the cell types it comprises. Conventional approaches to classifying cell types in the human brain at single cell resolution have been limited to exploring relatively few markers and therefore have provided a limited molecular characterization of any given cell type. We used single cell RNA sequencing on 466 cells to capture the cellular complexity of the adult and fetal human brain at a whole transcriptome level. Healthy adult temporal lobe tissue was obtained during surgical procedures where otherwise normal tissue was removed to gain access to deeper hippocampal pathology in patients with medical refractory seizures. We were able to classify individual cells into all of the major neuronal, glial, and vascular cell types in the brain. We were able to divide neurons into individual communities and show that these communities preserve the categorization of interneuron subtypes that is typically observed with the use of classic interneuron markers. We then used single cell RNA sequencing on fetal human cortical neurons to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fetal and adult neurons and those genes that display an expression gradient that reflects the transition between replicating and quiescent fetal neuronal populations. Finally, we observed the expression of major histocompatibility complex type I genes in a subset of adult neurons, but not fetal neurons. The work presented here demonstrates the applicability of single cell RNA sequencing on the study of the adult human brain and constitutes a first step toward a comprehensive cellular atlas of the human brain. PMID:26060301

  9. The structural-functional connectome and the default mode network of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andreas; Ostwald, Dirk; Reisert, Marco; Blankenburg, Felix

    2014-11-15

    An emerging field of human brain imaging deals with the characterization of the connectome, a comprehensive global description of structural and functional connectivity within the human brain. However, the question of how functional and structural connectivity are related has not been fully answered yet. Here, we used different methods to estimate the connectivity between each voxel of the cerebral cortex based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in order to obtain observer-independent functional-structural connectomes of the human brain. Probabilistic fiber-tracking and a novel global fiber-tracking technique were used to measure structural connectivity whereas for functional connectivity, full and partial correlations between each voxel pair's fMRI-timecourses were calculated. For every voxel, two vectors consisting of functional and structural connectivity estimates to all other voxels in the cortex were correlated with each other. In this way, voxels structurally and functionally connected to similar regions within the rest of the brain could be identified. Areas forming parts of the 'default mode network' (DMN) showed the highest agreement of structure-function connectivity. Bilateral precuneal and inferior parietal regions were found using all applied techniques, whereas the global tracking algorithm additionally revealed bilateral medial prefrontal cortices and early visual areas. There were no significant differences between the results obtained from full and partial correlations. Our data suggests that the DMN is the functional brain network, which uses the most direct structural connections. Thus, the anatomical profile of the brain seems to shape its functional repertoire and the computation of the whole-brain functional-structural connectome appears to be a valuable method to characterize global brain connectivity within and between populations. PMID:24099851

  10. Illicit stimulant use is associated with abnormal substantia nigra morphology in humans.

    PubMed

    Todd, Gabrielle; Noyes, Carolyn; Flavel, Stanley C; Della Vedova, Chris B; Spyropoulos, Peter; Chatterton, Barry; Berg, Daniela; White, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed 'hyperechogenicity') when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n?=?36; 31±9 yrs) and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n?=?29; 24±5 yrs) and cannabis users (n?=?12; 25±7 yrs). Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm(2)) than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm(2); P<0.001) and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm(2); P<0.007) groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90(th) percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system. PMID:23418568

  11. Tympanic temperature is not suited to indicate selective brain cooling in humans: a re-evaluation of the thermophysiological basics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckhart Simon

    2007-01-01

    Selective brain cooling in humans, with venous blood returning from the head surface as the relevant heat sink, was proposed\\u000a more than two decades ago as a mechanism protecting the brain against damage in hyperthermic conditions. Brain cooling was\\u000a inferred from decreases of tympanic temperature under the premise that it reflected brain temperature closely, even in conditions\\u000a of external head

  12. Human Brain–Immune Relationships: A PET Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustav Wik; Mats Lekander; Mats Fredrikson

    1998-01-01

    To study brain–immune relations, we correlated positron emission tomographic (PET) measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with immune measures in 10 female volunteers. The natural killer (NK) activity correlated negatively with activity bilaterally in the secondary sensory cortex, whereas the Concanavalin A (Con A) response correlated positively with rCBF bilaterally in secondary visual, motor, and sensory cortices, the thalamus,

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and brain atrophy: a computer-based human brain model study

    PubMed Central

    Eden, Uri; Fregni, Felipe; Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Pronio-Stelluto, Valerie; Grodzinsky, Alan; Zahn, Markus; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at exploring the effect of cortical brain atrophy on the currents induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We compared the currents induced by various TMS conditions on several different MRI derived finite element head models of brain atrophy, incorporating both decreasing cortical volume and widened sulci. The current densities induced in the cortex were dependent upon the degree and type of cortical atrophy and were altered in magnitude, location, and orientation when compared to healthy head models. Predictive models of the degree of current density attenuation as a function of the scalp-to-cortex distance were analyzed, concluding that those which ignore the electromagnetic field–tissue interactions lead to inaccurate conclusions. Ultimately, the precise site and population of neural elements stimulated by TMS in an atrophic brain cannot be predicted based on healthy head models which ignore the effects of the altered cortex on the stimulating currents. Clinical applications of TMS should be carefully considered in light of these findings. PMID:18193208

  14. Genotype and Ancestry Modulate Brain's DAT Availability in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shumay, Elena; Chen, John; Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a principal regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission and its gene (the SLC6A3) is a strong biological candidate gene for various behavioral- and neurological disorders. Intense investigation of the link between the SLC6A3 polymorphisms and behavioral phenotypes yielded inconsistent and even contradictory results. Reliance on objective brain phenotype measures, for example, those afforded by brain imaging, might critically improve detection of DAT genotype-phenotype association. Here, we tested the relationship between the DAT brain availability and the SLC6A3 genotypes using an aggregate sample of 95 healthy participants of several imaging studies. These studies employed positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]cocaine wherein the DAT availability was estimated as Bmax/Kd; while the genotype values were obtained on two repeat polymorphisms - 3-UTR- and intron 8- VNTRs. The main findings are the following: 1) both polymorphisms analyzed as single genetic markers and in combination (haplotype) modulate DAT density in midbrain; 2) ethnic background and age influence the strength of these associations; and 3) age-related changes in DAT availability differ in the 3-UTR and intron8 – genotype groups. PMID:21826203

  15. Brain morphology in autism and fragile X syndrome correlates with social IQ: first report from the Canadian-Swiss-Egyptian Neurodevelopmental Study.

    PubMed

    Meguid, Nagwa; Fahim, Cherine; Yoon, Uicheul; Nashaat, Neveen H; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Mancini-Marie, Adham; Brandner, Catherine; Evans, Alan C

    2010-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome shares most of the behavioral phenotypic similarities with autism. How are these similarities reflected in brain morphology? A total of 10 children with autism and 7 with fragile X underwent morphological (T1) 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The authors found no significant difference in total brain volumes, regional volumes, gyrification index, sulcul depth, and cerebral cortical thickness. However, children with autism showed significant decrease in the medial prefrontal bilaterally and the left anterior cingulate cortices. Regression analysis revealed positive correlation between the medial prefrontal cortical thickness and the social IQ. The authors suggest that the difference between the 2 groups in the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices thickness may entail an altered social cognitive style. Functional MRI studies directly differentiating between social indifference (autism) and social avoidance (fragile X) are needed to further characterize the spectrum of social abnormalities between these 2 groups. PMID:20110214

  16. Unraveling the multiscale structural organization and connectivity of the human brain: the role of diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroeck, Alard

    2015-01-01

    The structural architecture and the anatomical connectivity of the human brain show different organizational principles at distinct spatial scales. Histological staining and light microscopy techniques have been widely used in classical neuroanatomical studies to unravel brain organization. Using such techniques is a laborious task performed on 2-dimensional histological sections by skilled anatomists possibly aided by semi-automated algorithms. With the recent advent of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast mechanisms, cortical layers and columns can now be reliably identified and their structural properties quantified post-mortem. These developments are allowing the investigation of neuroanatomical features of the brain at a spatial resolution that could be interfaced with that of histology. Diffusion MRI and tractography techniques, in particular, have been used to probe the architecture of both white and gray matter in three dimensions. Combined with mathematical network analysis, these techniques are increasingly influential in the investigation of the macro-, meso-, and microscopic organization of brain connectivity and anatomy, both in vivo and ex vivo. Diffusion MRI-based techniques in combination with histology approaches can therefore support the endeavor of creating multimodal atlases that take into account the different spatial scales or levels on which the brain is organized. The aim of this review is to illustrate and discuss the structural architecture and the anatomical connectivity of the human brain at different spatial scales and how recently developed diffusion MRI techniques can help investigate these.

  17. Diffusion imaging of whole, post-mortem human brains on a clinical MRI scanner

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Karla L.; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Jbabdi, Saad; Smith, Stephen M.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.; Jenkinson, Mark; Chance, Steven A.; Esiri, Margaret M.; Voets, Natalie L.; Jenkinson, Ned; Aziz, Tipu Z.; Turner, Martin R.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; McNab, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion imaging of post mortem brains has great potential both as a reference for brain specimens that undergo sectioning, and as a link between in vivo diffusion studies and “gold standard” histology/dissection. While there is a relatively mature literature on post mortem diffusion imaging of animals, human brains have proven more challenging due to their incompatibility with high-performance scanners. This study presents a method for post mortem diffusion imaging of whole, human brains using a clinical 3-Tesla scanner with a 3D segmented EPI spin-echo sequence. Results in eleven brains at 0.94 × 0.94 × 0.94 mm resolution are presented, and in a single brain at 0.73 × 0.73 × 0.73 mm resolution. Region-of-interest analysis of diffusion tensor parameters indicate that these properties are altered compared to in vivo (reduced diffusivity and anisotropy), with significant dependence on post mortem interval (time from death to fixation). Despite these alterations, diffusion tractography of several major tracts is successfully demonstrated at both resolutions. We also report novel findings of cortical anisotropy and partial volume effects. PMID:21473920

  18. Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy of Human Brain in vivo and its Molecular Underpinnings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Avram, Alexandru V.; Liu, Chunlei

    2011-01-01

    Frequency shift of gradient-echo MRI provides valuable information for assessing brain tissues. Recent studies suggest that the frequency and susceptibility contrast depend on white matter fiber orientation. However, the molecular underpinning of the orientation dependence is unclear. In this study, we investigated the orientation dependence of susceptibility of human brain in vivo and mouse brains ex vivo. The source of susceptibility anisotropy in white matter is likely to be myelin as evidenced by the loss of anisotropy in the dysmyelinating shiverer mouse brain. A biophysical model is developed to investigate the effect of the molecular susceptibility anisotropy of myelin components, especially myelin lipids, on the bulk anisotropy observed by MRI. This model provides a consistent interpretation of the orientation dependence of macroscopic magnetic susceptibility in normal mouse brain ex vivo and human brain in vivo and the microscopic origin of anisotropic susceptibility. It is predicted by the theoretical model and illustrated by the experimental data that the magnetic susceptibility of the white matter is least diamagnetic along the fiber direction. This relationship allows an efficient extraction of fiber orientation using susceptibility tensor imaging. These results suggest that anisotropy on the molecular level can be observed on the macroscopic level when the molecules are aligned in a highly ordered manner. Similar to the utilization of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in elucidating molecular structures, imaging magnetic susceptibility anisotropy may also provide a useful tool for elucidating the microstructure of ordered biological tissues. PMID:22036681

  19. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Fuse, Takayuki; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Mihara, Ban; Takao, Masaki; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50) is reached approximately 1010/g brain (values varies 108.79–10.63/g). A genetic case (GSS-P102L) yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6–5.4 ?g/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06–0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission. PMID:26070208

  20. Systemic investigation of a brain-centered model of the human energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Britta; Langemann, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    The regulation of the human energy metabolism is crucial to ensure the functionality of the entire organism. Deregulations may lead to severe pathologies such as diabetes mellitus and obesity. The decisive role of the brain as active controller and heavy consumer in the complex whole-body energy metabolism is the object of recent research. Latest studies suggest the priority of the brain energy supply in the competition between brain and body periphery for the available energy resources. In this paper, a systemic investigation of the human energy metabolism is presented which consists of a compartment model including periphery, blood, and brain as well as signaling paths via insulin, appetite, and ingestion. The presented dynamical system particularly contains the competition for energy between brain and body periphery. Characteristically, the hormone insulin is regarded as central feedback signal of the brain. The model realistically reproduces the qualitative behavior of the energy metabolism. Short-time observations demonstrate the physiological periodic food intake generating the typical oscillating blood glucose variations. Integration over the daily cycle yields a long-term model which shows a stable behavior in accordance with the homeostatic regulation of the energy metabolism on a long-time scale. Two types of abstract constitutive equations describing the interaction between compartments and signals are taken into consideration. These are nonlinear and linear representatives from the class of feasible relations. The robustness of the model against the choice of the representative relation is linked to evolutionary stability of existing organisms. PMID:20734159

  1. Morphological Features of the Porcine Lacrimal Gland and Its Compatibility for Human Lacrimal Gland Xenografting

    PubMed Central

    Gaffling, Simone; Asano, Nagayoshi; Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian; Hornegger, Joachim; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations. PMID:24069265

  2. Morphological Study of Dendritic Cells in Human Cervix by Zinc Iodide Osmium Method

    PubMed Central

    Lionel, J; Indrasingh, Inbam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population of antigen presenting cells that have been identified in several tissues including the female reproductive organs. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the morphological differences of dendritic cells in normal human exocervix using the Zinc Iodide Osmium (ZIO) procedure. Materials and Methods: Normal cervical tissues obtained from nine patients who underwent abdominal hysterectomies for various ailments were processed for histochemical study. Six microns thick serial sections were taken and viewed under a light microscope. The diameters of the cells were measured under a magnification of 40x using the Cellsens image analysing software and analysed using SPSS version 16. Results and Conclusion: In the normal human exocervix, a greater density of ZIO-positive DCs was noted in the epithelium and subepithelium and their distribution was not uniform. In some areas of epithelium, the ZIO-positive cells in the basal layer showed a typical dendritic morphology, while the cells in the intermediate and superficial layers were nondendritic polygonal cells. Intraepithelial capillaries were noted, which were surrounded by ZIO-positive nondendritic polygonal cells. There was significant difference in the mean diameters of typical DCs (8.61±1.86 ?m) and nondendritic polygonal cells (10.97±1.93 ?m). In the subepithelium the DCs had typical morphology and their distribution varied. ZIO positive DCs were noted in the epithelium and cervical glands of endocervix also. In conclusion, the human cervix has different subsets of ZIO positive DCs with varied distribution. Their functional role has yet to be defined. PMID:25120961

  3. Quantitation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in healthy human brain using positron emission tomography and an inverse agonist radioligand

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Quantitation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in healthy human brain using positron emission tomography, CB1 receptor-selective, inverse agonist that has been studied in rodents and monkeys. We examined the ability of [11 C]MePPEP to quantify CB1 receptors in human brain as distribution volume calculated

  4. Quantitation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in healthy human brain using positron emission tomography and an inverse agonist radioligand

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Quantitation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in healthy human brain using positron emission tomography affinity, CB1 receptor-selective, inverse agonist that has been studied in rodents and monkeys. We examined the ability of [11 C]MePPEP to quantify CB1 receptors in human brain as distribution volume calculated

  5. ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN A thesis (or dissertation) submitted to the faculty of

    E-print Network

    Mahmoodi, Hamid

    i ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN USING FPGA A thesis (or dissertation Francisco, California December 2010 #12;ii CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL I certify that I have read Electronic Realization of Human Brain's Neo-Cortex Column Using FPGA by Padmavalli Vadali, and that in my opinion

  6. Usage of change-related non-invasive imaging paradigms to investigate the representation of sound in the human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian F. Altmann

    2009-01-01

    To efficiently recognize and localize sounds is of paramount importance for our everyday life. However, the computational processes that underlie these capabilities in the human brain are still not fully understood. A powerful tool to study the representation and transformation of sensory information in the human brain are change-related paradigms. This text reviews three recent examples from our lab that

  7. ¹H MRS characterization of neurochemical profiles in orthotopic mouse models of human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hulsey, Keith M; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Banerjee, Abhishek; Soesbe, Todd C; Spence, Jeffrey S; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Maher, Elizabeth A; Bachoo, Robert M; Choi, Changho

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor, is resistant to currently available treatments. The development of mouse models of human GBM has provided a tool for studying mechanisms involved in tumor initiation and growth as well as a platform for preclinical investigation of new drugs. In this study we used (1) H MR spectroscopy to study the neurochemical profile of a human orthotopic tumor (HOT) mouse model of human GBM. The goal of this study was to evaluate differences in metabolite concentrations in the GBM HOT mice when compared with normal mouse brain in order to determine if MRS could reliably differentiate tumor from normal brain. A TE =19?ms PRESS sequence at 9.4?T was used for measuring metabolite levels in 12 GBM mice and 8 healthy mice. Levels for 12 metabolites and for lipids/macromolecules at 0.9?ppm and at 1.3?ppm were reliably detected in all mouse spectra. The tumors had significantly lower concentrations of total creatine, GABA, glutamate, total N-acetylaspartate, aspartate, lipids/macromolecules at 0.9?ppm, and lipids/macromolecules at 1.3?ppm than did the brains of normal mice. The concentrations of glycine and lactate, however, were significantly higher in tumors than in normal brain. PMID:25394324

  8. On the Photonic Cellular Interaction and the Electric Activity of Neurons in the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, V.; Tuszynski, J.; Bokkon, I.; Rahnama, M.; Cifra, M.

    2011-12-01

    The subject of Ultraweak Photon Emission (UPE) by biological systems is very fascinating, and both evidence of its effects and applications are growing rapidly due to improvements in experimental techniques. Since the relevant equipment should be ultrasensitive with high quantum efficiencies and very low noise levels, the subject of UPE is still hotly debated and some of the interpretations need stronger empirical evidence to be accepted at face value. In this paper we first review different types of interactions between light and living systems based on recent publications. We then discuss the feasibility of UPE production in the human brain. The subject of UPE in the brain is still in early stages of development and needs more accurate experimental methods for proper analysis. In this work we also discuss a possible role of mitochondria in the production of UPE in the neurons of the brain and the plausibility of their effects on microtubules (MTs). MTs have been implicated as playing an important role in the signal and information processing taking place in the mammalian (especially human) brain. Finally, we provide a short discussion about the feasible effects of MTs on electric neural activity in the human brain.

  9. Contrast-enhanced diffuse optical tomography of brain perfusion in humans using ICG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph; Steinbrink, Jens

    2012-02-01

    Regular monitoring of brain perfusion at the bedside in neurointensive care is desirable. Currently used imaging modalities are not suited for constant monitoring and often require a transport of the patient. Noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with an injection of a safe dye (indocyanine green, ICG) could serve as a quasi-continuous brain perfusion monitor. In this work, we evaluate prerequisites for the development of a brain perfusion monitor using continuous wave (cw) NIRS technique. We present results from a high-resolution diffuse optical tomography (HR-DOT) experiment in humans demonstrating the separation of signals from skin from the brain. This technique can help to monitor neurointensive care patients on a regular basis, detecting changes in cortical perfusion in time.

  10. Towards passive brain-computer interfaces: applying brain-computer interface technology to human-machine systems in general

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Thorsten O.; Kothe, Christian

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive monitoring is an approach utilizing realtime brain signal decoding (RBSD) for gaining information on the ongoing cognitive user state. In recent decades this approach has brought valuable insight into the cognition of an interacting human. Automated RBSD can be used to set up a brain-computer interface (BCI) providing a novel input modality for technical systems solely based on brain activity. In BCIs the user usually sends voluntary and directed commands to control the connected computer system or to communicate through it. In this paper we propose an extension of this approach by fusing BCI technology with cognitive monitoring, providing valuable information about the users' intentions, situational interpretations and emotional states to the technical system. We call this approach passive BCI. In the following we give an overview of studies which utilize passive BCI, as well as other novel types of applications resulting from BCI technology. We especially focus on applications for healthy users, and the specific requirements and demands of this user group. Since the presented approach of combining cognitive monitoring with BCI technology is very similar to the concept of BCIs itself we propose a unifying categorization of BCI-based applications, including the novel approach of passive BCI.

  11. Return Migration, Human Capital Accumulation and the Brain Drain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Dustmann; Itzhak Fadlon; Yoram Weiss

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a model that explains migrations as decisions that respond to where human capital can be acquired more efficiently, and where the return to human capital is highest. The basic framework is a dynamic Roy model in which a worker possesses two distinct skills that can be augmented by learning by doing. There are different implicit

  12. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in vCJD-infected human and macaque blood.

  13. Neural Plasticity in Human Brain Connectivity: The Effects of Long Term Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Hartevelt, Tim J.; Cabral, Joana; Deco, Gustavo; Møller, Arne; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu Z.; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positive clinical outcomes are now well established for deep brain stimulation, but little is known about the effects of long-term deep brain stimulation on brain structural and functional connectivity. Here, we used the rare opportunity to acquire pre- and postoperative diffusion tensor imaging in a patient undergoing deep brain stimulation in bilateral subthalamic nuclei for Parkinson’s Disease. This allowed us to analyse the differences in structural connectivity before and after deep brain stimulation. Further, a computational model of spontaneous brain activity was used to estimate the changes in functional connectivity arising from the specific changes in structural connectivity. Results We found significant localised structural changes as a result of long-term deep brain stimulation. These changes were found in sensory-motor, prefrontal/limbic, and olfactory brain regions which are known to be affected in Parkinson’s Disease. The nature of these changes was an increase of nodal efficiency in most areas and a decrease of nodal efficiency in the precentral sensory-motor area. Importantly, the computational model clearly shows the impact of deep brain stimulation-induced structural alterations on functional brain changes, which is to shift the neural dynamics back towards a healthy regime. The results demonstrate that deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease leads to a topological reorganisation towards healthy bifurcation of the functional networks measured in controls, which suggests a potential neural mechanism for the alleviation of symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest that long-term deep brain stimulation has not only restorative effects on the structural connectivity, but also affects the functional connectivity at a global level. Overall, our results support causal changes in human neural plasticity after long-term deep brain stimulation and may help to identify the underlying mechanisms of deep brain stimulation. PMID:24466120

  14. Tool Compounds Robustly Increase Turnover of an Artificial Substrate by Glucocerebrosidase in Human Brain Lysates

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Zdenek; Perkins, Sarah; Ambroise, Claude; Oborski, Christine; Calabrese, Matthew; Noell, Stephen; Riddell, David; Hirst, Warren D.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) cause Gaucher disease and also represent a common risk factor for Parkinson’s disease and Dementia with Lewy bodies. Recently, new tool molecules were described which can increase turnover of an artificial substrate 4MUG when incubated with mutant N370S GBA1 from human spleen. Here we show that these compounds exert a similar effect on the wild-type enzyme in a cell-free system. In addition, these tool compounds robustly increase turnover of 4MUG by GBA1 derived from human cortex, despite substantially lower glycosylation of GBA1 in human brain, suggesting that the degree of glycosylation is not important for compound binding. Surprisingly, these tool compounds failed to robustly alter GBA1 turnover of 4MUG in the mouse brain homogenate. Our data raise the possibility that in vivo models with humanized glucocerebrosidase may be needed for efficacy assessments of such small molecules. PMID:25763858

  15. Lactate: brain fuel in human traumatic brain injury: a comparison with normal healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Thomas C; Martin, Neil A; Horning, Michael A; McArthur, David L; Hovda, David A; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that lactate shuttling helps support the nutritive needs of injured brains. To that end, we utilized dual isotope tracer [6,6-(2)H2]glucose, that is, D2-glucose, and [3-(13)C]lactate techniques involving arm vein tracer infusion along with simultaneous cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with nonpenetrating brain injuries (n=12) were entered into the study following consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from control volunteers (n=6). Patients were studied 5.7±2.2 (mean±SD) days post-injury; during periods when arterial glucose concentration tended to be higher in TBI patients. As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgluc, i.e., net glucose uptake) was significantly suppressed following TBI (p<0.001). However, lactate fractional extraction, an index of cerebral lactate uptake related to systemic lactate supply, approximated 11% in both healthy control subjects and TBI patients. Further, neither the CMR for lactate (CMRlac, i.e., net lactate release), nor the tracer-measured cerebral lactate uptake differed between healthy controls and TBI patients. The percentages of lactate tracer taken up and released as (13)CO2 into the JB accounted for 92% and 91% for control and TBI conditions, respectively, suggesting that most cerebral lactate uptake was oxidized following TBI. Comparisons of isotopic enrichments of lactate oxidation from infused [3-(13)C]lactate tracer and (13)C-glucose produced during hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis (GNG) showed that 75-80% of (13)CO2 released into the JB was from lactate and that the remainder was from the oxidation of glucose secondarily labeled from lactate. Hence, either directly as lactate uptake, or indirectly via GNG, peripheral lactate production accounted for ?70% of carbohydrate (direct lactate uptake+uptake of glucose from lactate) consumed by the injured brain. Undiminished cerebral lactate fractional extraction and uptake suggest that arterial lactate supplementation may be used to compensate for decreased CMRgluc following TBI. PMID:25594628

  16. Methodological Dimensions of Transcranial Brain Stimulation with the Electrical Current in Human

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Maryam; Golesorkhi, Mehrshad; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial current stimulation (TCS) is a neuromodulation method in which the patient is exposed to a mild electric current (direct or alternating) at 1-2 mA, resulting in an increase or a decrease in the brain excitability. This modification in neural activities can be used as a method for functional human brain mapping with causal inferences. This method might also facilitate the treatments of many neuropsychiatric disorders based on its inexpensive, simple, safe, noninvasive, painless, semi-focal excitatory and inhibitory effects. Given this, a comparison amongst different brain stimulation modalities has been made to determine the potential advantages of the TCS method. In addition, considerable methodological details on using TCS in basic and clinical neuroscience studies in human subjects have been introduced. Technical characteristics of TCS devices and their related accessories with regard to safety concerns have also been well articulated. Finally, some TCS application opportunities have been emphasized, including its potential use in the near future. PMID:25337348

  17. The influence of allogeneic platelet gel on the morphology of human long bones.

    PubMed

    Gubina, Borut; Rožman, Primož; Bišcevi?, Mirza; Domanovi?, Dragoslav; Smrke, Dragica

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the morphologic and functional change of human bone defect after its grafting with mixture of platelet gel and autologous cancellous bone. For one year, we have prospectively studied nine consecutive pa- tients, aged 25-73 y, with pseudoarthrosis of long bones, after unsuccessful initial surgeries. We have harvested can- cellous bone from patients' iliac crests and mixed with the ABO compatible allogeneic platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel. That mixture has been inserted in the bone defect, and surgically fixated. Radiologically, the defects achieved the bone morphology (the appearance of hazy callus) between 6th and 24th week. The time of functional recovery was varied, be- tween 12 and 40 weeks for partial weight bearing, and between 16 and 48 weeks for free limb mobility and full function of the limb. The overall healing of bone defect was 16 to 36 weeks. Two patients had complications of poor graft ingrowth and one with a reversible postsurgical nerve paresis. On the X-ray scans, solid and fast restoration of bone structure was notable, with excellent bone ingrowth, suitable for full weight bearing. The allogeneic platelet gel had no adverse effects. This method can be used for treating of long bone defects, because of its strong influence on restoration of normal bone morphology. Further investigation is required to establish efficiency relative to other methods. PMID:25420367

  18. The influence of allogeneic platelet gel on the morphology of human long bones.

    PubMed

    Gubina, Borut; Rožman, Primož; Bišcevi?, Mirza; Domanovi?, Dragoslav; Smrke, Dragica

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the morphologic and functional change of human bone defect after its grafting with mixture of platelet gel and autologous cancellous bone. For one year, we have prospectively studied nine consecutive pa- tients, aged 25-73 y, with pseudoarthrosis of long bones, after unsuccessful initial surgeries. We have harvested can- cellous bone from patients' iliac crests and mixed with the ABO compatible allogeneic platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel. That mixture has been inserted in the bone defect, and surgically fixated. Radiologically, the defects achieved the bone morphology (the appearance of hazy callus) between 6th and 24th week. The time of functional recovery was varied, be- tween 12 and 40 weeks for partial weight bearing, and between 16 and 48 weeks for free limb mobility and full function of the limb. The overall healing of bone defect was 16 to 36 weeks. Two patients had complications of poor graft ingrowth and one with a reversible postsurgical nerve paresis. On the X-ray scans, solid and fast restoration of bone structure was notable, with excellent bone ingrowth, suitable for full weight bearing. The allogeneic platelet gel had no adverse effects. This method can be used for treating of long bone defects, because of its strong influence on restoration of normal bone morphology. Further investigation is required to establish efficiency relative to other methods. PMID:25507351

  19. Mandibular morphology in two archaeological human skeletal samples from northwest Europe with different masticatory regimes.

    PubMed

    Mays, S

    2015-06-01

    Mandibular morphology, assessed osteometrically, is studied in two historic human skeletal series (N=64 individuals) from northwest Europe, one from Zwolle, the Netherlands (19th century CE), the other from Wharram Percy, England (10th-19th century). Both groups show greater dental wear than modern Western populations, but the rate of wear is greater at Wharram Percy than at Zwolle, suggesting a more vigorous masticatory regime. The aim is to evaluate any differences in mandibular morphology between the two groups that might relate to the inferred difference in biomechanical loading upon the chewing apparatus consequent upon the different physical properties of the diets consumed. Results indicate that the mandibles from Zwolle are generally smaller than those from Wharram Percy, especially in the gonial and ramus region and in the height of the post-canine corpus. These differences are consistent with those predicted on biomechanical grounds. That clear differences were observed in two samples whose masticatory regimes were distinct but not very different is an indication of the sensitivity of mandibular morphology to biomechanical input, and supports its value for investigating differences in physical properties of diets in palaeopopulations. PMID:25724125

  20. Increased amyloidogenic processing of transgenic human APP in X11-like deficient mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background X11-family proteins, including X11, X11-like (X11L) and X11-like 2 (X11L2), bind to the cytoplasmic domain of amyloid ?-protein precursor (APP) and regulate APP metabolism. Both X11 and X11L are expressed specifically in brain, while X11L2 is expressed ubiquitously. X11L is predominantly expressed in excitatory neurons, in contrast to X11, which is strongly expressed in inhibitory neurons. In vivo gene-knockout studies targeting X11, X11L, or both, and studies of X11 or X11L transgenic mice have reported that X11-family proteins suppress the amyloidogenic processing of endogenous mouse APP and ectopic human APP with one exception: knockout of X11, X11L or X11L2 has been found to suppress amyloidogenic metabolism in transgenic mice overexpressing the human Swedish mutant APP (APPswe) and the mutant human PS1, which lacks exon 9 (PS1dE9). Therefore, the data on X11-family protein function in transgenic human APP metabolism in vivo are inconsistent. Results To confirm the interaction of X11L with human APP ectopically expressed in mouse brain, we examined the amyloidogenic metabolism of human APP in two lines of human APP transgenic mice generated to also lack X11L. In agreement with previous reports from our lab and others, we found that the amyloidogenic metabolism of human APP increased in the absence of X11L. Conclusion X11L appears to aid in the suppression of amyloidogenic processing of human APP in brain in vivo, as has been demonstrated by previous studies using several human APP transgenic lines with various genetic backgrounds. X11L appears to regulate human APP in a manner similar to that seen in endogenous mouse APP metabolism. PMID:20843325

  1. EFFECTS OF HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON HUMAN EEG: A BRAIN MAPPING STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEXANDER V. KRAMARENKO; UNER TAN

    2003-01-01

    Cell phones emitting pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) may affect the human brain, but there are inconsistent results concern- ing their effects on electroencephalogram (EEG). We used a 16-channel telemetric electroencephalograph (ExpertTM®), to record EEG changes during exposure of human skull to EME emitted by a mobile phone. Spatial distribution of EME was especially concentrated around the ipsilateral eye adjacent

  2. Early Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of modern human-like hand morphology.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol V; Tocheri, Matthew W; Plavcan, J Michael; Brown, Francis H; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2014-01-01

    Despite discoveries of relatively complete hands from two early hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba) and partial hands from another (Australopithecus afarensis), fundamental questions remain about the evolution of human-like hand anatomy and function. These questions are driven by the paucity of hand fossils in the hominin fossil record between 800,000 and 1.8 My old, a time interval well documented for the emergence and subsequent proliferation of Acheulian technology (shaped bifacial stone tools). Modern and Middle to Late Pleistocene humans share a suite of derived features in the thumb, wrist, and radial carpometacarpal joints that is noticeably absent in early hominins. Here we show that one of the most distinctive features of this suite in the Middle Pleistocene to recent human hand, the third metacarpal styloid process, was present ?1.42 Mya in an East African hominin from Kaitio, West Turkana, Kenya. This fossil thus provides the earliest unambiguous evidence for the evolution of a key shared derived characteristic of modern human and Neandertal hand morphology and suggests that the distinctive complex of radial carpometacarpal joint features in the human hand arose early in the evolution of the genus Homo and probably in Homo erectus sensu lato. PMID:24344276

  3. AFRICAN TRYPANOSOME INTERACTIONS WITH AN IN VITRO MODEL OF THE HUMAN BLOOD–BRAIN BARRIER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis J. Grab; Olga Nikolskaia; Yuri V. Kim; John D. Lonsdale-Eccles; Susumu Ito; Tatsuru Hara; Toshihide Fukuma; Elvis Nyarko; Kee Jun Kim; Monique F. Stins; Michael J. Delannoy; Jean Rodgers; Kwang Sik Kim

    2004-01-01

    The neurological manifestations of sleeping sickness in man are attributed to the penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invasion of the central nervous system by Trypanosoma brucei gambienseand Trypanosoma brucei rhode- siense. However, how African trypanosomes cross the BBB remains an unresolved issue. We have examined the traversal of African trypanosomes across the human BBB using an in vitro

  4. An AdaBoost-Based Weighting Method for Localizing Human Brain Magnetic Activity

    E-print Network

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    . Takashima, Y. Ariki, T. Imada, J.-F. L. Lin, P. K. Kuhl, M. Kawakatsu, and M. Kotani Kobe University, JapanAn AdaBoost-Based Weighting Method for Localizing Human Brain Magnetic Activity T. Takiguchi, R E-mail: takigu@kobe-u.ac.jp, takashima@me.cs.scitec.kobe-u.ac.jp, ariki@kobe-u.ac.jp Institute

  5. The expression of late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2) gene product in human brains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Oka; Yukiko Kurachi; Masashi Mizuguchi; Masaharu Hayashi; Sachio Takashima

    1998-01-01

    We raised polyclonal antibodies against a gene product responsible for late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2). By Western blotting, all three antisera recognized the CLN2 protein at approximately 49 kDa in human brain homogenates. Immunohistochemistry using the antisera demonstrated the granular labelling in the cytoplasm of cerebral neurons and glial cells. The immunoreactivity on Western blots was absent from the

  6. Human Brain Mapping 2009 Print Abstract Number: 870 Submitted By: Ming-Chang Chiang

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    (the symmetrized Kullback-Leibler divergence). We then computed 3D maps of WM integrity basedHuman Brain Mapping 2009 Print Abstract Number: 870 Submitted By: Ming-Chang Chiang Last ModifiedPrintable Preview 1/9/2009https://www.meetingassistant2.com/OHBM2009/core_routines/print

  7. High-Resolution Genome-Wide Mapping of Genetic Alterations in Human Glial Brain Tumors

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    High-Resolution Genome-Wide Mapping of Genetic Alterations in Human Glial Brain Tumors Markus and showed that gliomas can be clustered into distinct genetic subgroups. A subset of detected alterations are key genetic events in gliomagenesis. Recurrent genomic regions of alteration in copy number, including

  8. Learning Shapes the Representation of Behavioral Choice in the Human Brain

    E-print Network

    Kourtzi, Zoe

    largely unknown. Comparing behav- ioral choices of human observers with those of a pattern classifier work suggests ways that the primate brain meets this challenge by taking into account knowledge from circuits involved in decision making remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate how category learning

  9. Statistical properties of BOLD magnetic resonance activity in the human brain

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chein Chung

    Statistical properties of BOLD magnetic resonance activity in the human brain Chien-Chung Chen-Gaussian properties is highly correlated with the magnitude of head movement of the observers. In all observers. spiral) and magnetic field strength (1.5 vs. 3 T). In most cases, the non-Gaussian tails of the spatial

  10. r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2011) r Atypical Developmental Trajectory of Functionally

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Danh

    2011-01-01

    r Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2011) r Atypical Developmental Trajectory of Functionally focuses on the cortical gyrification changes that are asso- ciated with the genetic disorder in 6­15-year in a mouse model was recently experimentally demonstrated [Mee- chan et al., 2009], suggesting alterations

  11. Dog Experts' Brains Distinguish Socially Relevant Body Postures Similarly in Dogs and Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miiamaaria V. Kujala; Jan Kujala; Synnöve Carlson; Riitta Hari

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a

  12. r Human Brain Mapping 30:34453460 (2009) r Time-Varied Characteristics of Acupuncture

    E-print Network

    Tian, Jie

    2009-01-01

    r Human Brain Mapping 30:3445­3460 (2009) r Time-Varied Characteristics of Acupuncture Effects in f, Gainesville, Florida r r Abstract: When studying the neural responses to acupuncture with a block associ- ating its psychophysiological response, numerous clinical reports suggest that acupuncture can

  13. Acupuncture Modulates the Limbic System and Subcortical Gray Structures of the Human Brain

    E-print Network

    Moore, Christopher

    Acupuncture Modulates the Limbic System and Subcortical Gray Structures of the Human Brain School, Boston, Massachusetts Abstract: Acupuncture, an ancient therapeutic technique, is emerging as an important modality of complemen- tary medicine in the United States. The use and efficacy of acupuncture

  14. p53 gene mutations in human astrocytic brain tumors including pilocytic astrocytomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Patt; H Gries; M Giraldo; J Cervos-Navarro; H Martin; W Jänisch; J Brockmoller

    1996-01-01

    Recent molecular biological studies have shown evidence for a distinct pathogenesis of pilocytic astrocytomas based on alterations other than mutations of the tumor suppressor gene p53. To prove these data, the authors screened a series of 42 astrocytic human brain tumors with a relatively high proportion (16.6%) of the pilocytic variant for the presence of p53 mutations, using the polymerase

  15. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth K. Kwong; J. W. Belliveau; D. A. Chesler; I. E. Goldberg; R. M. Weisskoff; B. P. Poncelet; D. N. Kennedy; B. E. Hoppel; M. S. Cohen; Robert Turner

    1992-01-01

    Neuronal activity causes local changes in cerebral blood flow, blood volume, and blood oxygenation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques sensitive to changes in cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation were developed by high-speed echo planar imaging. These techniques were used to obtain completely noninvasive tomographic maps of human brain activity, by using visual and motor stimulus paradigms. Changes in blood

  16. NG2Positive Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells in Adult Human Brain and Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ansi Chang; Akiko Nishiyama; John Peterson; John Prineas; Bruce D. Trapp

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by multifocal loss of myelin, oligodendrocytes, and axons. Potential MS therapies include enhancement of remyelination by transplantation or ma- nipulation of endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Characteristics of endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitors in normal human brain and in MS lesions have not been studied extensively. This report describes the distribution of cells in sections from normal adult

  17. Gene × Smoking Interactions on Human Brain Gene Expression: Finding Common Mechanisms in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolock, Samuel L.; Yates, Andrew; Petrill, Stephen A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Blair, Clancy; Li, Ning; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have examined gene × environment interactions (G × E) in cognitive and behavioral domains. However, these studies have been limited in that they have not been able to directly assess differential patterns of gene expression in the human brain. Here, we assessed G × E interactions using two publically available datasets…

  18. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting

    E-print Network

    Badre, David

    . Keywords: proactive interference, memory retrieval, fMRI, multi-voxel pattern analysis,VLPFC Edited by by multi-voxel pattern classification analysis (MVPA). Following a similar logic, we sought to elicitHUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting Ilke Öztekin1

  19. Revealing Modular Architecture of Human Brain Structural Networks by Using Cortical Thickness from MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang J. Chen; Yong He; Pedro Rosa-Neto; Jurgen Germann; Alan C. Evans

    2008-01-01

    Modularity, presumably shaped by evolutionary constraints, under- lies the functionality of most complex networks ranged from social to biological networks. However, it remains largely unknown in human cortical networks. In a previous study, we demonstrated a network of correlations of cortical thickness among specific cortical areas and speculated that these correlations reflected an underlying structural connectivity among those brain regions.

  20. Functional specializations for music processing in the human newborn brain.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Saccuman, Maria Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Spada, Danilo; Andreolli, Guido; Rovelli, Rosanna; Baldoli, Cristina; Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    In adults, specific neural systems with right-hemispheric weighting are necessary to process pitch, melody, and harmony as well as structure and meaning emerging from musical sequences. It is not known to what extent the specialization of these systems results from long-term exposure to music or from neurobiological constraints. One way to address this question is to examine how these systems function at birth, when auditory experience is minimal. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 1- to 3-day-old newborns while they heard excerpts of Western tonal music and altered versions of the same excerpts. Altered versions either included changes of the tonal key or were permanently dissonant. Music evoked predominantly right-hemispheric activations in primary and higher order auditory cortex. During presentation of the altered excerpts, hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the right auditory cortex, and activations emerged in the left inferior frontal cortex and limbic structures. These results demonstrate that the infant brain shows a hemispheric specialization in processing music as early as the first postnatal hours. Results also indicate that the neural architecture underlying music processing in newborns is sensitive to changes in tonal key as well as to differences in consonance and dissonance. PMID:20176953

  1. How Does Reward Expectation Influence Cognition in the Human Brain?

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, James B.; Eckstein, Doris; Braver, Todd; Owen, Adrienne M.

    2013-01-01

    The prospect of reward changes how we think and behave. We investigated how this occurs in the brain using a novel continuous performance task in which fluctuating reward expectations biased cognitive processes between competing spatial and verbal tasks. Critically, effects of reward expectancy could be distinguished from induced changes in task-related networks. Behavioral data confirm specific bias toward a reward-relevant modality. Increased reward expectation improves reaction time and accuracy in the relevant dimension while reducing sensitivity to modulations of stimuli characteristics in the irrelevant dimension. Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data shows that the proximity to reward over successive trials is associated with increased activity of the medial frontal cortex regardless of the modality. However, there are modality-specific changes in brain activity in the lateral frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex. Analysis of effective connectivity suggests that reward expectancy enhances coupling in both early visual pathways and within the prefrontal cortex. These distributed changes in task-related cortical networks arise from subjects’ representations of future events and likelihood of reward. PMID:18416677

  2. Transcriptional Profiling of Adult Neural Stem-Like Cells from the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O.; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33–60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n?=?6), foetal human neural stem cells (n?=?1) and human brain tissues (n?=?12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate. PMID:25514637

  3. Local morphology predicts functional organization of experienced value signals in the human orbitofrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Amiez, Céline; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-28

    Experienced value representations within the human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are thought to be organized through an antero-posterior gradient corresponding to secondary versus primary rewards. Whether this gradient depends upon specific morphological features within this region, which displays considerable intersubject variability, remains unknown. To test the existence of such relationships, we performed a subject-by-subject analysis of fMRI data taking into account the local morphology of each individual. We tested 38 subjects engaged in a simple incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards, focusing on reward outcome (experienced value signal). The results showed reliable and dissociable primary (erotic) and secondary (monetary) experienced value signals at specific OFC sulci locations. More specifically, experienced value signal induced by monetary reward outcome was systematically located in the rostral portion of the medial orbital sulcus. Experienced value signal related to erotic reward outcome was located more posteriorly, that is, at the intersection between the caudal portion of the medial orbital sulcus and transverse orbital sulcus. Thus, the localizations of distinct experienced value signals can be predicted from the organization of the human orbitofrontal sulci. This study provides insights into the anatomo-functional parcellation of the anteroposterior OFC gradient observed for secondary versus primary rewards because there is a direct relationship between value signals at the time of reward outcome and unique OFC sulci locations. PMID:25632140

  4. Confluent Monolayers of Cultured Human Fetal Retinal Pigment Epithelium Exhibit Morphology and Physiology of Native Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Maminishkis, Arvydas; Chen, Shan; Jalickee, Stephen; Banzon, Tina; Shi, Guangpu; Wang, Fei E.; Ehalt, Todd; Hammer, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Sheldon S.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Provide a reproducible method for culturing confluent monolayers of hfRPE cells that exhibit morphology, physiology, polarity, and protein expression patterns similar to native tissue. METHODS Human fetal eyes were dissected on arrival, and RPE cell sheets were mechanically separated from the choroid and cultured in a specifically designed medium comprised entirely of commercially available components. Physiology experiments were performed with previously described techniques. Standard techniques were used for immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and cytokine measurement by ELISA. RESULTS Confluent monolayers of RPE cell cultures exhibited epithelial morphology and heavy pigmentation, and electron microscopy showed extensive apical membrane microvilli. The junctional complexes were identified with immunofluorescence labeling of various tight junction proteins. The mean transepithelial potential (TEP) was 2.6 ± 0.8 mV, apical positive, and the mean transepithelial resistance (RT) was 501 ± 138 ?· cm2 (mean ± SD; n = 35). Addition of 100 ?M adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the apical bath increased net fluid absorption from 13.6 ± 2.6 to 18.8 ± 4.6 ?L · cm?2 per hour (mean ± SD; n = 4). In other experiments, VEGF was mainly secreted into the basal bath (n = 10), whereas PEDF was mainly secreted into the apical bath (n = 10). CONCLUSIONS A new cell culture procedure has been developed that produces confluent primary hfRPE cultures with morphological and physiological characteristics of the native tissue. Epithelial polarity and function of these easily reproducible primary cultures closely resemble previously studied native human fetal and bovine RPE–choroid explants. PMID:16877436

  5. Representation of perceived sound valence in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Viinikainen, Mikko; Kätsyri, Jari; Sams, Mikko

    2012-10-01

    Perceived emotional valence of sensory stimuli influences their processing in various cortical and subcortical structures. Recent evidence suggests that negative and positive valences are processed separately, not along a single linear continuum. Here, we examined how brain is activated when subjects are listening to auditory stimuli varying parametrically in perceived valence (very unpleasant-neutral-very pleasant). Seventeen healthy volunteers were scanned in 3 Tesla while listening to International Affective Digital Sounds (IADS-2) in a block design paradigm. We found a strong quadratic U-shaped relationship between valence and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal strength in the medial prefrontal cortex, auditory cortex, and amygdala. Signals were the weakest for neutral stimuli and increased progressively for more unpleasant or pleasant stimuli. The results strengthen the view that valence is a crucial factor in neural processing of emotions. An alternative explanation is salience, which increases with both negative and positive valences. PMID:21826759

  6. Adaptive shape coding for perceptual decisions in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Kourtzi, Zoe; Welchman, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    In its search for neural codes, the field of visual neuroscience has uncovered neural representations that reflect the structure of stimuli of variable complexity from simple features to object categories. However, accumulating evidence suggests an adaptive neural code that is dynamically shaped by experience to support flexible and efficient perceptual decisions. Here, we review work showing that experience plays a critical role in molding midlevel visual representations for perceptual decisions. Combining behavioral and brain imaging measurements, we demonstrate that learning optimizes feature binding for object recognition in cluttered scenes, and tunes the neural representations of informative image parts to support efficient categorical judgements. Our findings indicate that similar learning mechanisms may mediate long-term optimization through development, tune the visual system to fundamental principles of feature binding, and optimize feature templates for perceptual decisions. PMID:26024511

  7. An anti-inflammatory role for C/EBP? in human brain pericytes

    PubMed Central

    Rustenhoven, Justin; Scotter, Emma L.; Jansson, Deidre; Kho, Dan T.; Oldfield, Robyn L.; Bergin, Peter S.; Mee, Edward W.; Faull, Richard L. M.; Curtis, Maurice A.; Graham, Scott E.; Park, Thomas I-H.; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders and pericytes are implicated in brain inflammatory processes. Cellular inflammatory responses are orchestrated by transcription factors but information on transcriptional control in pericytes is lacking. Because the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBP?) is induced in a number of inflammatory brain disorders, we sought to investigate its role in regulating pericyte immune responses. Our results reveal that C/EBP? is induced in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion in human brain pericytes by interleukin-1? (IL-1?). To investigate the function of the induced C/EBP? in pericytes we used siRNA to knockdown IL-1?-induced C/EBP? expression. C/EBP? knockdown enhanced IL-1?-induced production of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-1?, whilst attenuating cyclooxygenase-2 and superoxide dismutase-2 gene expression. Altered ICAM-1 and MCP-1 protein expression were confirmed by cytometric bead array and immunocytochemistry. Our results show that knock-down of C/EBP? expression in pericytes following immune stimulation increased chemokine and adhesion molecule expression, thus modifying the human brain pericyte inflammatory response. The induction of C/EBP? following immune stimulation may act to limit infiltration of peripheral immune cells, thereby preventing further inflammatory responses in the brain. PMID:26166618

  8. Differential regional and cellular distribution of TFF3 peptide in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Trübner, Kurt; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Werner

    2015-05-01

    TFF3 is a member of the trefoil factor family (TFF) predominantly secreted by mucous epithelia. Minute amounts are also expressed in the immune system and the brain. In the latter, particularly the hypothalamo-pituitary axis has been investigated in detail in the past. Functionally, cerebral TFF3 has been reported to be involved in several processes such as fear, depression, learning and object recognition, and opiate addiction. Furthermore, TFF3 has been linked with neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and alcoholism). Here, using immunohistochemistry, a systematic survey of the TFF3 localization in the adult human brain is presented focusing on extrahypothalamic brain areas. In addition, the distribution of TFF3 in the developing human brain is described. Taken together, neurons were identified as the predominant cell type to express TFF3, but to different extent; TFF3 was particularly enriched in various midbrain and brain stem nuclei. Besides, TFF3 immunostaining staining was observed in oligodendroglia and the choroid plexus epithelium. The wide cerebral distribution should help to explain its multiple effects in the CNS. PMID:25691144

  9. Are human dental papilla-derived stem cell and human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantations suitable for treatment of Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung Ho; Min, Joongkee; Shin, Nari; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Mo; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Hwang, Onyou; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2013-05-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells has been reported as a possible approach for replacing impaired dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we tested the efficacy of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells and human brain-derived neural stem cells in rat models of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease. Rats received a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into right medial forebrain bundle, followed 3 weeks later by injections of PBS, early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells, or human brain-derived neural stem cells into the ipsilateral striatum. All of the rats in the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group died from tumor formation at around 2 weeks following cell transplantation. Postmortem examinations revealed homogeneous malignant tumors in the striatum of the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group. Stepping tests revealed that human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation did not improve motor dysfunction. In apomorphine-induced rotation tests, neither the human brain-derived neural stem cell group nor the control groups (PBS injection) demonstrated significant changes. Glucose metabolism in the lesioned side of striatum was reduced by human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation. [(18)F]-FP-CIT PET scans in the striatum did not demonstrate a significant increase in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. Tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic neuronal marker) staining and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (A9 dopaminergic neuronal marker) were positive in the lesioned side of striatum in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. The use of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells confirmed its tendency to form tumors. Human brain-derived neural stem cells could be partially differentiated into dopaminergic neurons, but they did not secrete dopamine. PMID:25206413

  10. A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure?

    PubMed Central

    Ruigrok, Amber N.V.; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Tait, Roger J.; Suckling, John

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, and symptomatology of many neuropsychiatric conditions differ between males and females. To understand the causes and consequences of sex differences it is important to establish where they occur in the human brain. We report the first meta-analysis of typical sex differences on global brain volume, a descriptive account of the breakdown of studies of each compartmental volume by six age categories, and whole-brain voxel-wise meta-analyses on brain volume and density. Gaussian-process regression coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to examine sex differences in voxel-based regional volume and density. On average, males have larger total brain volumes than females. Examination of the breakdown of studies providing total volumes by age categories indicated a bias towards the 18–59 year-old category. Regional sex differences in volume and tissue density include the amygdala, hippocampus and insula, areas known to be implicated in sex-biased neuropsychiatric conditions. Together, these results suggest candidate regions for investigating the asymmetric effect that sex has on the developing brain, and for understanding sex-biased neurological and psychiatric conditions. PMID:24374381

  11. Uptake and Transport of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles through Human Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) constitutes a firm physical, chemical, and immunological barrier, making the brain accessible to only a few percent of potential drugs intended for treatment inside the central nervous system. With the purpose of overcoming the restraints of the BBB by allowing the transport of drugs, siRNA, or DNA into the brain, a novel approach is to use superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as drug carriers. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of fluorescent SPIONs to pass through human brain microvascular endothelial cells facilitated by an external magnet. The ability of SPIONs to penetrate the barrier was shown to be significantly stronger in the presence of an external magnetic force in an in vitro BBB model. Hence, particles added to the luminal side of the in vitro BBB model were found in astrocytes cocultured at a remote distance on the abluminal side, indicating that particles were transported through the barrier and taken up by astrocytes. Addition of the SPIONs to the culture medium did not negatively affect the viability of the endothelial cells. The magnetic force-mediated dragging of SPIONs through BCECs may denote a novel mechanism for the delivery of drugs to the brain. PMID:23919894

  12. Brain Expression Genome-Wide Association Study (eGWAS) Identifies Human Disease-Associated Variants

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Julia; Pankratz, V. Shane; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Rowley, Christopher N.; Nair, Asha A.; Middha, Sumit; Maharjan, Sooraj; Nguyen, Thuy; Ma, Li; Malphrus, Kimberly G.; Palusak, Ryan; Lincoln, Sarah; Bisceglio, Gina; Georgescu, Constantin; Kouri, Naomi; Kolbert, Christopher P.; Jen, Jin; Haines, Jonathan L.; Mayeux, Richard; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Younkin, Steven G.; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variants that modify brain gene expression may also influence risk for human diseases. We measured expression levels of 24,526 transcripts in brain samples from the cerebellum and temporal cortex of autopsied subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD, cerebellar n?=?197, temporal cortex n?=?202) and with other brain pathologies (non–AD, cerebellar n?=?177, temporal cortex n?=?197). We conducted an expression genome-wide association study (eGWAS) using 213,528 cisSNPs within ±100 kb of the tested transcripts. We identified 2,980 cerebellar cisSNP/transcript level associations (2,596 unique cisSNPs) significant in both ADs and non–ADs (q<0.05, p?=?7.70×10?5–1.67×10?82). Of these, 2,089 were also significant in the temporal cortex (p?=?1.85×10?5–1.70×10?141). The top cerebellar cisSNPs had 2.4-fold enrichment for human disease-associated variants (p<10?6). We identified novel cisSNP/transcript associations for human disease-associated variants, including progressive supranuclear palsy SLCO1A2/rs11568563, Parkinson's disease (PD) MMRN1/rs6532197, Paget's disease OPTN/rs1561570; and we confirmed others, including PD MAPT/rs242557, systemic lupus erythematosus and ulcerative colitis IRF5/rs4728142, and type 1 diabetes mellitus RPS26/rs1701704. In our eGWAS, there was 2.9–3.3 fold enrichment (p<10?6) of significant cisSNPs with suggestive AD–risk association (p<10?3) in the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium GWAS. These results demonstrate the significant contributions of genetic factors to human brain gene expression, which are reliably detected across different brain regions and pathologies. The significant enrichment of brain cisSNPs among disease-associated variants advocates gene expression changes as a mechanism for many central nervous system (CNS) and non–CNS diseases. Combined assessment of expression and disease GWAS may provide complementary information in discovery of human disease variants with functional implications. Our findings have implications for the design and interpretation of eGWAS in general and the use of brain expression quantitative trait loci in the study of human disease genetics. PMID:22685416

  13. Brain expression genome-wide association study (eGWAS) identifies human disease-associated variants.

    PubMed

    Zou, Fanggeng; Chai, High Seng; Younkin, Curtis S; Allen, Mariet; Crook, Julia; Pankratz, V Shane; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Rowley, Christopher N; Nair, Asha A; Middha, Sumit; Maharjan, Sooraj; Nguyen, Thuy; Ma, Li; Malphrus, Kimberly G; Palusak, Ryan; Lincoln, Sarah; Bisceglio, Gina; Georgescu, Constantin; Kouri, Naomi; Kolbert, Christopher P; Jen, Jin; Haines, Jonathan L; Mayeux, Richard; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Farrer, Lindsay A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Dickson, Dennis W; Younkin, Steven G; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variants that modify brain gene expression may also influence risk for human diseases. We measured expression levels of 24,526 transcripts in brain samples from the cerebellum and temporal cortex of autopsied subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD, cerebellar n=197, temporal cortex n=202) and with other brain pathologies (non-AD, cerebellar n=177, temporal cortex n=197). We conducted an expression genome-wide association study (eGWAS) using 213,528 cisSNPs within ± 100 kb of the tested transcripts. We identified 2,980 cerebellar cisSNP/transcript level associations (2,596 unique cisSNPs) significant in both ADs and non-ADs (q<0.05, p=7.70 × 10(-5)-1.67 × 10(-82)). Of these, 2,089 were also significant in the temporal cortex (p=1.85 × 10(-5)-1.70 × 10(-141)). The top cerebellar cisSNPs had 2.4-fold enrichment for human disease-associated variants (p<10(-6)). We identified novel cisSNP/transcript associations for human disease-associated variants, including progressive supranuclear palsy SLCO1A2/rs11568563, Parkinson's disease (PD) MMRN1/rs6532197, Paget's disease OPTN/rs1561570; and we confirmed others, including PD MAPT/rs242557, systemic lupus erythematosus and ulcerative colitis IRF5/rs4728142, and type 1 diabetes mellitus RPS26/rs1701704. In our eGWAS, there was 2.9-3.3 fold enrichment (p<10(-6)) of significant cisSNPs with suggestive AD-risk association (p<10(-3)) in the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium GWAS. These results demonstrate the significant contributions of genetic factors to human brain gene expression, which are reliably detected across different brain regions and pathologies. The significant enrichment of brain cisSNPs among disease-associated variants advocates gene expression changes as a mechanism for many central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS diseases. Combined assessment of expression and disease GWAS may provide complementary information in discovery of human disease variants with functional implications. Our findings have implications for the design and interpretation of eGWAS in general and the use of brain expression quantitative trait loci in the study of human disease genetics. PMID:22685416

  14. Anatomical location of LPA1 activation and LPA phospholipid precursors in rodent and human brain.

    PubMed

    González de San Román, Estibaliz; Manuel, Iván; Giralt, María Teresa; Chun, Jerold; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis Javier; Ferrer, Isidro; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signaling molecule that binds to six known G protein-coupled receptors: LPA1 -LPA6 . LPA evokes several responses in the CNS, including cortical development and folding, growth of the axonal cone and its retraction process. Those cell processes involve survival, migration, adhesion proliferation, differentiation, and myelination. The anatomical localization of LPA1 is incompletely understood, particularly with regard to LPA binding. Therefore, we have used functional [(35) S]GTP?S autoradiography to verify the anatomical distribution of LPA1 binding sites in adult rodent and human brain. The greatest activity was observed in myelinated areas of the white matter such as corpus callosum, internal capsule and cerebellum. MaLPA1 -null mice (a variant of LPA1 -null) lack [(35) S]GTP?S basal binding in white matter areas, where the LPA1 receptor is expressed at high levels, suggesting a relevant role of the activity of this receptor in the most myelinated brain areas. In addition, phospholipid precursors of LPA were localized by MALDI-IMS in both rodent and human brain slices identifying numerous species of phosphatides and phosphatidylcholines. Both phosphatides and phosphatidylcholines species represent potential LPA precursors. The anatomical distribution of these precursors in rodent and human brain may indicate a metabolic relationship between LPA and LPA1 receptors. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signaling molecule that binds to six known G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), LPA1 to LPA6 . LPA evokes several responses in the central nervous system (CNS), including cortical development and folding, growth of the axonal cone and its retraction process. We used functional [(35) S]GTP?S autoradiography to verify the anatomical distribution of LPA1 -binding sites in adult rodent and human brain. The distribution of LPA1 receptors in rat, mouse and human brains show the highest activity in white matter myelinated areas. The basal and LPA-evoked activities are abolished in MaLPA1 -null mice. The phospholipid precursors of LPA are localized by MALDI-IMS. The anatomical distribution of LPA precursors in rodent and human brain suggests a relationship with functional LPA1 receptors. PMID:25857358

  15. Dendritic Morphology of Pyramidal Neurons in the Chimpanzee Neocortex: Regional Specializations and Comparison to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Serena; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Bauernfeind, Amy L.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Baze, Wallace B.; McArthur, Mark J.; Bronson, Ellen; Hopkins, William D.; Semendeferi, Katerina; Jacobs, Bob; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2013-01-01

    The primate cerebral cortex is characterized by regional variation in the structure of pyramidal neurons, with more complex dendritic arbors and greater spine density observed in prefrontal compared with sensory and motor cortices. Although there are several investigations in humans and other primates, virtually nothing is known about regional variation in the morphology of pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex of great apes, humans' closest living relatives. The current study uses the rapid Golgi stain to quantify the dendritic structure of layer III pyramidal neurons in 4 areas of the chimpanzee cerebral cortex: Primary somatosensory (area 3b), primary motor (area 4), prestriate visual (area 18), and prefrontal (area 10) cortex. Consistent with previous studies in humans and macaque monkeys, pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex of chimpanzees exhibit greater dendritic complexity than those in other cortical regions, suggesting that prefrontal cortical evolution in primates is characterized by increased potential for integrative connectivity. Compared with chimpanzees, the pyramidal neurons of humans had significantly longer and more branched dendritic arbors in all cortical regions. PMID:22875862

  16. A comparison of resting-state brain activity in humans and chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Rilling, James K.; Barks, Sarah K.; Parr, Lisa A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Faber, Tracy L.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Bremner, J. Douglas; Votaw, John R.

    2007-01-01

    In humans, the wakeful resting condition is characterized by a default mode of brain function involving high levels of activity within a functionally connected network of brain regions. This network has recently been implicated in mental self-projection into the past, the future, or another individual's perspective. Here we use [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging to assess resting-state brain activity in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, as a potential window onto their mental world and compare these results with those of a human sample. We find that, like humans, chimpanzees show high levels of activity within default mode areas, including medial prefrontal and medial parietal cortex. Chimpanzees differ from our human sample in showing higher levels of activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and lower levels of activity in left-sided cortical areas involved in language and conceptual processing in humans. Our results raise the possibility that the resting state of chimpanzees involves emotionally laden episodic memory retrieval and some level of mental self-projection, albeit in the absence of language and conceptual processing. PMID:17940032

  17. Epilepsy research: a window onto function and dysfunction of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Heinz; Elger, Christian E.

    2008-01-01

    As one of the most common neurological disorders, epilepsy has devastating behavioral, social, and occupational consequences and is associated with accumulating brain damage and neurological deficits. Epilepsy comprises a large number of syndromes, which vary greatly respect to their etiology and clinical features, but share the characteristic clinical hallmark of epilepsy recurrent spontaneous seizures. Research aimed at understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of epilepsy has to integrate various research approaches and techniques ranging from clinical expertise, functional analyses of the system and cellular levels, both in human subjects and rodent models of epilepsy, to human and mouse genetics. This knowledge may then be developed into novel treatment options with better control of seizures andlor fewer side effects. In addition, the study of epilepsy has frequently shed light on basic mechanisms underlying the function and dysfunction of the human brain. PMID:18472480

  18. Widespread sex differences in gene expression and splicing in the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Trabzuni, Daniah; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Imran, Sabaena; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Weale, Michael E.; Hardy, John; Ryten, Mina

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence to show that men and women differ in terms of neurodevelopment, neurochemistry and susceptibility to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease. The molecular basis of these differences remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the lack of genome-wide information on sex differences in gene expression and in particular splicing in the human brain. Here we address this issue by using post-mortem adult human brain and spinal cord samples originating from 137 neuropathologically confirmed control individuals to study whole-genome gene expression and splicing in 12 CNS regions. We show that sex differences in gene expression and splicing are widespread in adult human brain, being detectable in all major brain regions and involving 2.5% of all expressed genes. We give examples of genes where sex-biased expression is both disease-relevant and likely to have functional consequences, and provide evidence suggesting that sex biases in expression may reflect sex-biased gene regulatory structures. PMID:24264146

  19. Sodium imaging of human brain at 7 T with 15-channel array coil.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yongxian; Zhao, Tiejun; Wiggins, Graham C; Wald, Lawrence L; Zheng, Hai; Weimer, Jonathan; Boada, Fernando E

    2012-12-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a major challenge to sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Phased array coils have been shown significantly improving SNR in proton imaging over volume coils. This study investigates SNR advantage of a 15-channel array head coil (birdcage volume coil for transmit/receive and 15-channel array insert for receive-only) in sodium imaging at 7 T. Phantoms and healthy human brains were scanned on a whole-body 7 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner using a customer-developed pulse sequence with the twisted projection imaging trajectory. Noise-only images were acquired with blanked radiofrequency excitations for noise measurement on a pixel basis. SNR was calculated on the root of sum-of-squares images. When compared with the volume coil, the 15-channel array produced SNR more than doubled at the periphery and slightly increased at the center of the phantoms and human brains. Decorrelation of noise across channels of the array coil extended the SNR-doubled region into deep area of the brain. The spatial modulation of element sensitivities on the sum-of-squares combined image was removed by performing self-calibrated sensitivity encoding parallel image reconstruction and uniform image intensity across entire field of view was attained. The 15-channel array coil is an efficient tool to substantially improve SNR in sodium imaging on human brain. PMID:22377960

  20. Physical Activity Protects the Human Brain against Metabolic Stress Induced by a Postprandial and Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pruimboom, Leo; Raison, Charles L.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that chronic systemic low-grade inflammation is at the root of many, if not all, typically Western diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome. While much focus has been given to sedentary lifestyle as a cause of chronic inflammation, it is less often appreciated that chronic inflammation may also promote a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn causes chronic inflammation. Given that even minor increases in chronic inflammation reduce brain volume in otherwise healthy individuals, the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and sedentary behaviour may explain why humans have lost brain volume in the last 30,000 years and also intelligence in the last 30 years. We review evidence that lack of physical activity induces chronic low-grade inflammation and, consequently, an energy conflict between the selfish immune system and the selfish brain. Although the notion that increased physical activity would improve health in the modern world is widespread, here we provide a novel perspective on this truism by providing evidence that recovery of normal human behaviour, such as spontaneous physical activity, would calm proinflammatory activity, thereby allocating more energy to the brain and other organs, and by doing so would improve human health.

  1. Systematic analysis of gene expression in human brains before and after death

    E-print Network

    Franz, Henriette; Ullmann, Claudia; Becker, Albert; Ryan, Margaret; Bahn, Sabine; Arendt, Thomas; Simon, Matthias; Paabo, Svante; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2005-12-30

    the same way as for the functional analysis. Acknowledgements We thank Stanley Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, for providing the well-matched brain collection courtesy of MB Knable, EF Torrey, MJ Web- ster, S Weis and RH Yolken; U Gärtner of the Paul... , Steigele S, Do HH, Weiss G, Enard W, et al.: Regional patterns of gene expression in human and chimpanzee brains. Genome Res 2004, 14:1462-1473. 19. Raghavan A, Ogilvie RL, Reilly C, Abelson ML, Raghavan S, Vasdewani J, Krathwohl M, Bohjanen PR: Genome...

  2. Beyond the Visible—Imaging the Human Brain With Light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hellmuth Obrig; Arno Villringer

    2003-01-01

    Optical approaches to investigate cerebral function and metabolism have long been applied in invasive studies. From the neuron cultured in vitro to the exposed cortex in the human during neurosurgical procedures, high spatial resolution can be reached and several processes such as membrane potential, cell swelling, metabolism of mitochondrial chromophores, and vascular response can be monitored, depending on the respective

  3. Enhancing Brain by Transforming Human to Transhuman : Vision & Possibilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jivika Govil; Jivesh Govil

    2008-01-01

    Man is always for hungry for innovation. Over the last decade there has been spark to significantly increase the human mental and physical power for extended life spans. This innovation is taking shape day by day by the efforts of some leading computer scientists, neuroscientists, nanotechnologists and researchers, who are at the forefront of technological development. They are thinking and

  4. Brain Mechanisms Mediating Auditory Attentional Capture in Humans

    E-print Network

    Lavie, Nilli

    is known as ``attentional capture.'' Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans singleton captures attention. Keywords: attention, auditory, fMRI Introduction In everyday life, people at hand. This can be achieved by using knowledge and expectations to focus attention on task relevant

  5. Effect of morphological variability on particle deposition in idealized human airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Eleanor; Bernate, Jorge A.; Parada San Martin, Daniel A.; Makitani, Yuzo; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-11-01

    This study is focused on the effects of variability in airway morphology on particle deposition in the lungs, which in turn impacts disease inception and drug delivery. We generated a parameterized geometry of the human airway derived from Lola: a realistic geometry obtained from CT scans (Zhang et al. J AEROSOL SCI 46, 34 (2012)). The upper airway geometry is parameterized using an elliptic model from Xi and Longest (ANN BIOMED ENG 35, 560 (2007)), with the glottis modified to a realistic triangular shape, based on measurements taken from Lola. The trachea and bronchi are generated using rules adapted from Kitaoka et al. (J Appl Physiol 87, 2207-2217 (1999)), with the first 3 generations closely matching those of Lola. We perform simulations corresponding to a full breathing cycle and illustrate the preferential deposition in each generation. In addition, we compared the deposition features in the idealized geometry to those from simulations in the original scanned airways. Perturbations are then applied to the parameterized geometry to study the effects of morphological variability on deposition patterns. This study is focused on the effects of variability in airway morphology on particle deposition in the lungs, which in turn impacts disease inception and drug delivery. We generated a parameterized geometry of the human airway derived from Lola: a realistic geometry obtained from CT scans (Zhang et al. J AEROSOL SCI 46, 34 (2012)). The upper airway geometry is parameterized using an elliptic model from Xi and Longest (ANN BIOMED ENG 35, 560 (2007)), with the glottis modified to a realistic triangular shape, based on measurements taken from Lola. The trachea and bronchi are generated using rules adapted from Kitaoka et al. (J Appl Physiol 87, 2207-2217 (1999)), with the first 3 generations closely matching those of Lola. We perform simulations corresponding to a full breathing cycle and illustrate the preferential deposition in each generation. In addition, we compared the deposition features in the idealized geometry to those from simulations in the original scanned airways. Perturbations are then applied to the parameterized geometry to study the effects of morphological variability on deposition patterns. This work is funded by the Army AHPCRC at Stanford.

  6. Human leg model predicts ankle muscle-tendon morphology, state, roles and energetics in walking.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Brown, Emery N; Herr, Hugh M

    2011-03-01

    A common feature in biological neuromuscular systems is the redundancy in joint actuation. Understanding how these redundancies are resolved in typical joint movements has been a long-standing problem in biomechanics, neuroscience and prosthetics. Many empirical studies have uncovered neural, mechanical and energetic aspects of how humans resolve these degrees of freedom to actuate leg joints for common tasks like walking. However, a unifying theoretical framework that explains the many independent empirical observations and predicts individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation is yet to be established. Here we develop a computational framework to address how the ankle joint actuation problem is resolved by the neuromuscular system in walking. Our framework is founded upon the proposal that a consideration of both neural control and leg muscle-tendon morphology is critical to obtain predictive, mechanistic insight into individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation. We examine kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic data from healthy walking subjects to find that human leg muscle-tendon morphology and neural activations enable a metabolically optimal realization of biological ankle mechanics in walking. This optimal realization (a) corresponds to independent empirical observations of operation and performance of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, (b) gives rise to an efficient load-sharing amongst ankle muscle-tendon units and (c) causes soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers to take on distinct mechanical roles of force generation and power production at the end of stance phase in walking. The framework outlined here suggests that the dynamical interplay between leg structure and neural control may be key to the high walking economy of humans, and has implications as a means to obtain insight into empirically inaccessible features of individual muscle and tendons in biomechanical tasks. PMID:21445231

  7. Human Leg Model Predicts Ankle Muscle-Tendon Morphology, State, Roles and Energetics in Walking

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Brown, Emery N.; Herr, Hugh M.

    2011-01-01

    A common feature in biological neuromuscular systems is the redundancy in joint actuation. Understanding how these redundancies are resolved in typical joint movements has been a long-standing problem in biomechanics, neuroscience and prosthetics. Many empirical studies have uncovered neural, mechanical and energetic aspects of how humans resolve these degrees of freedom to actuate leg joints for common tasks like walking. However, a unifying theoretical framework that explains the many independent empirical observations and predicts individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation is yet to be established. Here we develop a computational framework to address how the ankle joint actuation problem is resolved by the neuromuscular system in walking. Our framework is founded upon the proposal that a consideration of both neural control and leg muscle-tendon morphology is critical to obtain predictive, mechanistic insight into individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation. We examine kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic data from healthy walking subjects to find that human leg muscle-tendon morphology and neural activations enable a metabolically optimal realization of biological ankle mechanics in walking. This optimal realization (a) corresponds to independent empirical observations of operation and performance of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, (b) gives rise to an efficient load-sharing amongst ankle muscle-tendon units and (c) causes soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers to take on distinct mechanical roles of force generation and power production at the end of stance phase in walking. The framework outlined here suggests that the dynamical interplay between leg structure and neural control may be key to the high walking economy of humans, and has implications as a means to obtain insight into empirically inaccessible features of individual muscle and tendons in biomechanical tasks. PMID:21445231

  8. Synaptogenesis and development of pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology in the chimpanzee neocortex resembles humans

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Serena; Duka, Tetyana; Larsen, Michael D.; Janssen, William G. M.; Collins, Zachary; Bauernfeind, Amy L.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Baze, Wallace B.; McArthur, Mark J.; Hopkins, William D.; Wildman, Derek E.; Lipovich, Leonard; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Jacobs, Bob; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2013-01-01

    Neocortical development in humans is characterized by an extended period of synaptic proliferation that peaks in mid-childhood, with subsequent pruning through early adulthood, as well as relatively delayed maturation of neuronal arborization in the prefrontal cortex compared with sensorimotor areas. In macaque monkeys, cortical synaptogenesis peaks during early infancy and developmental changes in synapse density and dendritic spines occur synchronously across cortical regions. Thus, relatively prolonged synapse and neuronal maturation in humans might contribute to enhancement of social learning during development and transmission of cultural practices, including language. However, because macaques, which share a last common ancestor with humans ?25 million years ago, have served as the predominant comparative primate model in neurodevelopmental research, the paucity of data from more closely related great apes leaves unresolved when these evolutionary changes in the timing of cortical development became established in the human lineage. To address this question, we used immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and Golgi staining to characterize synaptic density and dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons in primary somatosensory (area 3b), primary motor (area 4), prestriate visual (area 18), and prefrontal (area 10) cortices of developing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that synaptogenesis occurs synchronously across cortical areas, with a peak of synapse density during the juvenile period (3–5 y). Moreover, similar to findings in humans, dendrites of prefrontal pyramidal neurons developed later than sensorimotor areas. These results suggest that evolutionary changes to neocortical development promoting greater neuronal plasticity early in postnatal life preceded the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages. PMID:23754422

  9. Postnatal disruption of the disintegrin/metalloproteinase ADAM10 in brain causes epileptic seizures, learning deficits, altered spine morphology, and defective synaptic functions.

    PubMed

    Prox, Johannes; Bernreuther, Christian; Altmeppen, Hermann; Grendel, Jasper; Glatzel, Markus; D'Hooge, Rudi; Stroobants, Stijn; Ahmed, Tariq; Balschun, Detlef; Willem, Michael; Lammich, Sven; Isbrandt, Dirk; Schweizer, Michaela; Horré, Katrien; De Strooper, Bart; Saftig, Paul

    2013-08-01

    The metalloproteinase ADAM10 is of importance for Notch-dependent cortical brain development. The protease is tightly linked with ?-secretase activity toward the amyloid precursor protein (APP) substrate. Increasing ADAM10 activity is suggested as a therapy to prevent the production of the neurotoxic amyloid ? (A?) peptide in Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the function of ADAM10 in postnatal brain, we generated Adam10 conditional knock-out (A10cKO) mice using a CaMKII?-Cre deleter strain. The lack of ADAM10 protein expression was evident in the brain cortex leading to a reduced generation of sAPP? and increased levels of sAPP? and endogenous A? peptides. The A10cKO mice are characterized by weight loss and increased mortality after weaning associated with seizures. Behavioral comparison of adult mice revealed that the loss of ADAM10 in the A10cKO mice resulted in decreased neuromotor abilities and reduced learning performance, which were associated with altered in vivo network activities in the hippocampal CA1 region and impaired synaptic function. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of ADAM10-depleted brain revealed astrogliosis, microglia activation, and impaired number and altered morphology of postsynaptic spine structures. A defect in spine morphology was further supported by a reduction of the expression of NMDA receptors subunit 2A and 2B. The reduced shedding of essential postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins such as N-Cadherin, Nectin-1, and APP may explain the postsynaptic defects and the impaired learning, altered network activity, and synaptic plasticity of the A10cKO mice. Our study reveals that ADAM10 is instrumental for synaptic and neuronal network function in the adult murine brain. PMID:23926248

  10. Anesthetic effects of propofol in the healthy human brain: functional imaging evidence.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-xing; Yu, Bu-wei

    2015-04-01

    Functional imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have become important tools for studying how anesthetic drugs act in the human brain to induce the state of general anesthesia. Recent imaging studies using fMRI and PET techniques have demonstrated the regional effects of propofol on the brain. However, the pharmacological mechanism of the action of propofol in the intact human central nervous system is unclear. To explore the possible action targets of propofol in the human brain, a systematic review of the literature was performed. The literature search was performed with limiting factors of "propofol," "functional imaging," "positron emission tomography", and "functional magnetic resonance imaging" from 1966 to July 2013 (using Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and hand searches of references). Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed and critiqued for the purpose of this literature research. Eighteen researches meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed in terms of the appropriateness of valuation technique. In the unconscious state, propofol sharply reduces the regional glucose metabolism rate (rGMR) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in all brain regions, particularly in the thalamus. However, GMR, such as in the occipital, temporal, and frontal lobes, was obviously decreased at a sedative dosage of propofol, whereas, changes in the thalamus were not obvious. Using fMRI, several studies observed a decrease of connectivity of the thalamus versus an increase of connectivity within the pons of the brainstem during propofol-induced mild sedation. During deep sedation, propofol preserves cortical sensory reactivity, the specific thalamocortical network is moderately affected, whereas the nonspecific thalamocortical network is severely suppressed. In contrast, several recent fMRI studies are consistent on the systemic decreased effects of propofol in the frontoparietal network. Accumulating evidence suggest that propofol-induced unconsciousness is associated with a global metabolic and vascular depression in the human brain and especially with a significant reduction in the thalamocortical network and the frontoparietal network. PMID:25056258

  11. Shared Human-Chimpanzee Pattern of Perinatal Femoral Shaft Morphology and Its Implications for the Evolution of Hominin Locomotor Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Naoki; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acquisition of bipedality is a hallmark of human evolution. How bipedality evolved from great ape-like locomotor behaviors, however, is still highly debated. This is mainly because it is difficult to infer locomotor function, and even more so locomotor kinematics, from fossil hominin long bones. Structure-function relationships are complex, as long bone morphology reflects phyletic history, developmental programs, and loading history during an individual’s lifetime. Here we discriminate between these factors by investigating the morphology of long bones in fetal and neonate great apes and humans, before the onset of locomotion. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative morphometric analysis of the femoral diaphysis indicates that its morphology reflects phyletic relationships between hominoid taxa to a greater extent than taxon-specific locomotor adaptations. Diaphyseal morphology in humans and chimpanzees exhibits several shared-derived features, despite substantial differences in locomotor adaptations. Orangutan and gorilla morphologies are largely similar, and likely represent the primitive hominoid state. Conclusions/Significance These findings are compatible with two possible evolutionary scenarios. Diaphyseal morphology may reflect retained adaptive traits of ancestral taxa, hence human-chimpanzee shared-derived features may be indicative of the locomotor behavior of our last common ancestor. Alternatively, diaphyseal morphology might reflect evolution by genetic drift (neutral evolution) rather than selection, and might thus be more informative about phyletic relationships between taxa than about locomotor adaptations. Both scenarios are consistent with the hypothesis that knuckle-walking in chimpanzees and gorillas resulted from convergent evolution, and that the evolution of human bipedality is unrelated to extant great ape locomotor specializations. PMID:22848680

  12. Brain systems mediating voice identity processing in blind humans.

    PubMed

    Hölig, Cordula; Föcker, Julia; Best, Anna; Röder, Brigitte; Büchel, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Blind people rely more on vocal cues when they recognize a person's identity than sighted people. Indeed, a number of studies have reported better voice recognition skills in blind than in sighted adults. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated changes in the functional organization of neural systems involved in voice identity processing following congenital blindness. A group of congenitally blind individuals and matched sighted control participants were tested in a priming paradigm, in which two voice stimuli (S1, S2) were subsequently presented. The prime (S1) and the target (S2) were either from the same speaker (person-congruent voices) or from two different speakers (person-incongruent voices). Participants had to classify the S2 as either a old or a young person. Person-incongruent voices (S2) compared with person-congruent voices elicited an increased activation in the right anterior fusiform gyrus in congenitally blind individuals but not in matched sighted control participants. In contrast, only matched sighted controls showed a higher activation in response to person-incongruent compared with person-congruent voices (S2) in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. These results provide evidence for crossmodal plastic changes of the person identification system in the brain after visual deprivation. PMID:24639401

  13. Experimental human endotoxemia enhances brain activity during social cognition.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Jennifer S; Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Wolf, Oliver T; Engler, Harald; Oberbeck, Reiner; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Forsting, Michael; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke R

    2014-06-01

    Acute peripheral inflammation with corresponding increases in peripheral cytokines affects neuropsychological functions and induces depression-like symptoms. However, possible effects of increased immune responses on social cognition remain unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of experimentally induced acute inflammation on performance and neural responses during a social cognition task assessing Theory of Mind (ToM) ability. In this double-blind randomized crossover functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 healthy right-handed male volunteers received an injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.4 ng/kg) or saline, respectively. Plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as mood ratings were analyzed together with brain activation during a validated ToM task (i.e. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test). LPS administration induced pronounced transient increases in pro- (IL-6, TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-1ra) cytokines as well as decreases in mood. Social cognition performance was not affected by acute inflammation. However, altered neural activity was observed during the ToM task after LPS administration, reflected by increased responses in the fusiform gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus and precuneus. The increased task-related neural responses in the LPS condition may reflect a compensatory strategy or a greater social cognitive processing as a function of sickness. PMID:23547245

  14. Experimental human endotoxemia enhances brain activity during social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Kullmann, Jennifer S.; Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Wolf, Oliver T.; Engler, Harald; Oberbeck, Reiner; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R.

    2014-01-01

    Acute peripheral inflammation with corresponding increases in peripheral cytokines affects neuropsychological functions and induces depression-like symptoms. However, possible effects of increased immune responses on social cognition remain unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of experimentally induced acute inflammation on performance and neural responses during a social cognition task assessing Theory of Mind (ToM) ability. In this double-blind randomized crossover functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 healthy right-handed male volunteers received an injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.4 ng/kg) or saline, respectively. Plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as mood ratings were analyzed together with brain activation during a validated ToM task (i.e. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test). LPS administration induced pronounced transient increases in pro- (IL-6, TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-1ra) cytokines as well as decreases in mood. Social cognition performance was not affected by acute inflammation. However, altered neural activity was observed during the ToM task after LPS administration, reflected by increased responses in the fusiform gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus and precuneus. The increased task-related neural responses in the LPS condition may reflect a compensatory strategy or a greater social cognitive processing as a function of sickness. PMID:23547245

  15. Differential expression of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase transcripts in human brain tumors: evidence for the expression of a multitranscript family.

    PubMed Central

    Boado, R J; Pardridge, W M; Vinters, H V; Black, K L

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the important role of leukotrienes as mediators in allergy and inflammation, these compounds are also linked to pathophysiological events in the brain including cerebral ischemia, brain edema, and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier in brain tumors. Although brain tumors have been shown to secrete leukotrienes, no studies to date have provided evidence for the tumor expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in leukotriene production. Therefore, the present study determined the abundance of the mRNA for arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO; arachidonate:oxygen 5-oxidoreductase, EC 1.13.11.34), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in leukotriene synthesis, in a series of human brain tumors. Macrophage/monocyte infiltration of the tumor was estimated by measuring the abundance of the transcript for the 91-kDa glycoprotein phagocyte-specific oxidase (gp91-phox), which is the phagocyte-specific cytochrome b heavy chain. The present study shows that (i) the 5-LO transcript is expressed in normal bovine brain and in human brain tumors; (ii) the 5-LO gene in human brain tumors and in the dimethyl sulfoxide-induced promyelocytic human leukemic HL-60 cells is expressed as a multitranscript family (2.7, 3.1, 4.8, 6.4, 8.6 kilobases); and (iii) the abundance of 5-LO transcripts, the expression of the larger transcripts, and the 5-LO/gp91-phox ratio correlate with the tumor malignancy. Overall, the present study supports the hypothesis that the 5-LO gene product may play a role in human tumor-induced brain edemas and provides evidence for tumor-associated expression of high molecular weight 5-LO transcripts in human brain tumors. Images PMID:1357659

  16. Imaging brain function in humans at 7 Tesla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Essa Yacoub; Amir Shmuel; Josef Pfeuffer; Pierre-Francois Van De Moortele; Gregor Adriany; Peter Andersen; J. Thomas Vaughan; Hellmut Merkle; Kamil Ugurbil; Xiaoping Hu

    2001-01-01

    This article describes experimental studies performed to dem- onstrate the feasibility of BOLD fMRI using echo-planar imaging (EPI) at 7 T and to characterize the BOLD response in humans at this ultrahigh magnetic field. Visual stimulation studies were performed in normal subjects using high-resolution multishot EPI sequences. Changes in R* 2 arising from visual stimulation were experimentally determined using fMRI

  17. Functional Specialization in the Human Brain Estimated By Intrinsic Hemispheric Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.

    2014-01-01

    The human brain demonstrates functional specialization, including strong hemispheric asymmetries. Here specialization was explored using fMRI by examining the degree to which brain networks preferentially interact with ipsilateral as opposed to contralateral networks. Preferential within-hemisphere interaction was prominent in the heteromodal association cortices and minimal in the sensorimotor cortices. The frontoparietal control network exhibited strong within-hemisphere interactions but with distinct patterns in each hemisphere. The frontoparietal control network preferentially coupled to the default network and language-related regions in the left hemisphere but to attention networks in the right hemisphere. This arrangement may facilitate control of processing functions that are lateralized. Moreover, the regions most linked to asymmetric specialization also display the highest degree of evolutionary cortical expansion. Functional specialization that emphasizes processing within a hemisphere may allow the expanded hominin brain to minimize between-hemisphere connectivity and distribute domain-specific processing functions. PMID:25209275

  18. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Stephanie M.; Goldstein, Andrea N.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports a link between sleep loss and obesity. However, the detrimental impact of sleep deprivation on central brain mechanisms governing appetitive food desire remains unknown. Here we report that sleep deprivation significantly decreases activity in appetitive evaluation regions within the human frontal cortex and insula cortex during food desirability choices, combined with a converse amplification of activity within the amygdala. Moreover, this bi-directional change in the profile of brain activity is further associated with a significant increase in the desire for weight-gain promoting high-calorie foods following sleep deprivation, the extent of which is predicted by the subjective severity of sleep loss across participants. These findings provide an explanatory brain mechanism by which insufficient sleep may lead to the development/maintenance of obesity through diminished activity in higher-order cortical evaluation regions, combined with excess subcortical responsivity in the amygdala, resulting in selection of foods most capable of triggering weight-gain. PMID:23922121

  19. LIS1 and DCX: Implications for Brain Development and Human Disease in Relation to Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proper lamination of the cerebral cortex requires the orchestrated motility of neurons from their place of birth to their final destination. Improper neuronal migration may result in a wide range of diseases, including brain malformations, such as lissencephaly, mental retardation, schizophrenia, and autism. Ours and other studies have implicated that microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play an important role in the regulation of neuronal polarization and neuronal migration. Here, we will review normal processes of brain development and neuronal migration, describe neuronal migration diseases, and will focus on the microtubule-associated functions of LIS1 and DCX, which participate in the regulation of neuronal migration and are involved in the human developmental brain disease, lissencephaly. PMID:24278775

  20. Expression of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1) and Glucuronidation Activity toward Endogenous Substances in Humanized UGT1 Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Kutsuno, Yuki; Hirashima, Rika; Sakamoto, Masaya; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Michimae, Hirofumi; Itoh, Tomoo; Tukey, Robert H; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2015-07-01

    Although UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, they are also involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Certain substrates of UGTs, such as serotonin and estradiol, play important roles in the brain. However, the expression of UGTs in the human brain has not been fully clarified. Recently, humanized UGT1 mice (hUGT1 mice) in which the original Ugt1 locus was disrupted and replaced with the human UGT1 locus have been developed. In the present study, the expression pattern of UGT1As in brains from humans and hUGT1 mice was examined. We found that UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A6, and 1A10 were expressed in human brains. The expression pattern of UGT1As in hUGT1 mouse brains was similar to that in human brains. In addition, we examined the expression of UGT1A1 and 1A6 in the cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex of hUGT1 mice. UGT1A1 in all brain regions and UGT1A6 in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of 6-month-old hUGT1 mice were expressed at a significantly higher rate than those of 2-week-old hUGT1 mice. A difference in expression levels between brain regions was also observed. Brain microsomes exhibited glucuronidation activities toward estradiol and serotonin, with mean values of 0.13 and 5.17 pmol/min/mg, respectively. In conclusion, UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 might play an important role in function regulation of endogenous compounds in a region- and age-dependent manner. Humanized UGT1 mice might be useful to study the importance of brain UGTs in vivo. PMID:25953521