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1

Human brain potentials indicate morphological decomposition in visual word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem homographs are pairs of words with the same orthographic description of their stem but which are semantically and morphologically unrelated (e.g. in Spanish: rata\\/rato (rat\\/moment)). In priming tasks, stem homographs produce inhibition, unlike morphologically related words (loca\\/loco (madwoman\\/madman)) which produce facilitation. An event-related potentials study was conducted to compare morphological and stem homographic priming effects. The results show a

Horacio Barber; Alberto Dom??nguez; Manuel de Vega

2002-01-01

2

A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

2014-07-01

3

Morphological patterns of the intraparietal sulcus and the anterior intermediate parietal sulcus of Jensen in the human brain.  

PubMed

Distinct parts of the intraparietal sulcal cortex contribute to sensorimotor integration and visual spatial attentional processing. A detailed examination of the morphological relations of the different segments of the complex intraparietal sulcal region in the human brain in standard stereotaxic space, which is a prerequisite for detailed structure-to-function studies, is not available. This study examined the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the related sulcus of Jensen in magnetic resonance imaging brain volumes registered in the Montreal Neurological Institute stereotaxic space. It was demonstrated that the IPS is divided into two branches: the anterior ramus and the posterior ramus of the IPS, often separated by a submerged gyral passage. The sulcus of Jensen emerges between the anterior and posterior rami of the IPS, and its ventral end is positioned between the first and second caudal branches of the superior temporal sulcus. In a small number of brains, the sulcus of Jensen may merge superficially with the first caudal branch of the superior temporal sulcus. The above morphological findings are discussed in relation to previously reported functional neuroimaging findings and provide the basis for future exploration of structure-to-function relations in the posterior parietal region of individual subjects. PMID:25377465

Zlatkina, Veronika; Petrides, Michael

2014-12-22

4

Neural dynamics of inflectional and derivational morphology processing in the human brain.  

PubMed

We investigated neural distinctions between inflectional and derivational morphology and their interaction with lexical frequency using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an established neurophysiological index of experience-dependent linguistic memory traces and automatic syntactic processing. We presented our electroencephalography (EEG) study participants with derived and inflected words of variable lexical frequencies against their monomorphemic base forms in a passive oddball paradigm, along with acoustically matched pseudowords. Sensor space and distributed source modelling results showed that at 100-150 msec after the suffix onset, derived words elicited larger responses than inflected words. Furthermore, real derived words showed advantage over pseudo-derivations and frequent derivations elicited larger activation than less frequent ones. This pattern of results is fully in line with previous research that explained lexical MMN enhancement by an activation of strongly connected word-specific long-term memory circuits, and thus suggests stronger lexicalisation for frequently used complex words. At the same time, a strikingly different pattern was found for inflectional forms: higher response amplitude for pseudo-inflections than for real inflected words, with no clear frequency effects. This is fully in line with previous MMN results on combinatorial processing of (morpho)syntactic stimuli: higher response to ungrammatical morpheme strings than grammatical ones, which does not depend on the string's surface frequency. This pattern suggests that, for inflectional forms, combinatorial processing route dominates over whole-form storage and access. In sum, our results suggest that derivations are more likely to form unitary representations than inflections which are likely to be processed combinatorially, and imply at least partially distinct brain mechanisms for the processing and representation of these two types of morphology. These dynamic mechanisms, underpinned by perisylvian networks, are activated rapidly, at 100-150 msec after the information arrives at the input, and in a largely automatic fashion, possibly providing neural basis for the first-pass morphological processing of spoken words. PMID:24075689

Leminen, Alina; Leminen, Miika; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

2013-01-01

5

Cellular Alterations in Human Traumatic Brain Injury: Changes in Mitochondrial Morphology Reflect Regional Levels of Injury Severity  

PubMed Central

Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction may be central to the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and often can be recognized cytologically by changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure. This study is the first to broadly characterize and quantify mitochondrial morphologic alterations in surgically resected human TBI tissues from three contiguous cortical injury zones. These zones were designated as injury center (Near), periphery (Far), and Penumbra. Tissues from 22 patients with TBI with varying degrees of damage and time intervals from TBI to surgical tissue collection within the first week post-injury were rapidly fixed in the surgical suite and processed for electron microscopy. A large number of mitochondrial structural patterns were identified and divided into four survival categories: normal, normal reactive, reactive degenerating, and end-stage degenerating profiles. A tissue sample acquired at 38 hours post-injury was selected for detailed mitochondrial quantification, because it best exhibited the wide variation in cellular and mitochondrial changes consistently noted in all the other cases. The distribution of mitochondrial morphologic phenotypes varied significantly between the three injury zones and when compared with control cortical tissue obtained from an epilepsy lobectomy. This study is unique in its comparative quantification of the mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations at progressive distances from the center of injury in surviving TBI patients and in relation to control human cortex. These quantitative observations may be useful in guiding the translation of mitochondrial-based neuroprotective interventions to clinical implementation. PMID:23131111

Balan, Irina S.; Saladino, Andrew J.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Castellani, Rudolf J.; Wade, Christine; Stein, Deborah M.; Eisenberg, Howard M.; Chen, Hegang H.

2013-01-01

6

Morphologic and histoanatomic observations of the brain in untreated human phenylketonuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cerebra of three profoundly retarded adult males with untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) were systematically studied in terms of developmental morphology and histoanatomy against normal agematched material, technically comparable in preparation. These studies were made possible by the availability of two extensive reference collections of normative neuroanatomic material, the Yakovlev and the Conel collections. The developmental parameters of myelination, width of

M. L. Bauman; Th. L. Kemper

1982-01-01

7

Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

Rambaut, Andrew

8

Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of healthy and pathological human brain tissue, as well as the brain structural organization of various animal models has been imaged in-vitro using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT). Micrometer-scale OCT resolution (< 2 mum axial resolution) was achieved at different central wavelengths by interfacing three state-of-the-art broad bandwidth light sources (Ti:Al2O3, lambdac = 790 nm, Deltalambda

Kostadinka K. Bizheva; Angelika Unterhuber; Boris Hermann; Boris Povazay; Harald Sattmann; Michael Mei; Ronald Holzwarth; Matthias Preusser; Herbert Reitsamer; Michael Seefeldt; Ralf Menzel; Herbert Budka; Adolf F. Fercher; Wolfgang Drexler

2003-01-01

9

Overlapping trisomies for human chromosome 21 orthologs produce similar effects on skull and brain morphology of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice.  

PubMed

Trisomy 21 results in gene-dosage imbalance during embryogenesis and throughout life, ultimately causing multiple anomalies that contribute to the clinical manifestations of Down syndrome. Down syndrome is associated with manifestations of variable severity (e.g., heart anomalies, reduced growth, dental anomalies, shortened life-span). Craniofacial dysmorphology and cognitive dysfunction are consistently observed in all people with Down syndrome. Mouse models are useful for studying the effects of gene-dosage imbalance on development. We investigated quantitative changes in the skull and brain of the Dp(16)1Yey Down syndrome mouse model and compared these mice to Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models. Three-dimensional micro-computed tomography images of Dp(16)1Yey and euploid mouse crania were morphometrically evaluated. Cerebellar cross-sectional area, Purkinje cell linear density, and granule cell density were evaluated relative to euploid littermates. Skulls of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice displayed similar changes in craniofacial morphology relative to their respective euploid littermates. Trisomy-based differences in brain morphology were also similar in Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice. These results validate examination of the genetic basis for craniofacial and brain phenotypes in Dp(16)1Yey mice and suggest that they, like Ts65Dn mice, are valuable tools for modeling the effects of trisomy 21 on development. PMID:24788405

Starbuck, John M; Dutka, Tara; Ratliff, Tabetha S; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2014-08-01

10

Brain Morphological Defects in Prolidase Deficient Mice: First Report  

PubMed Central

Prolidase gene (PEPD) encodes prolidase enzyme, which is responsible for hydrolysis of dipeptides containing proline or hydroxypro-line at their C-terminal end. Mutations in PEPD gene cause, in human, prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder. PD patients show reduced or absent prolidase activity and a broad spectrum of phenotypic traits including various degrees of mental retardation. This is the first report correlating PD and brain damages using as a model system prolidase deficient mice, the so called dark-like (dal) mutant mice. We focused our attention on dal postnatal brain development, revealing a panel of different morphological defects in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, such as undulations of the cerebral cortex, cell rarefaction, defects in cerebellar cortex lobulation, and blood vessels overgrowth. These anomalies might be ascribed to altered angiogenic process and loss of pial basement membrane integrity. Further studies will be directed to find a correlation between neuroarchitecture alterations and functional consequences. PMID:25308848

Insolia, V.

2014-01-01

11

Brain morphological defects in prolidase deficient mice: first report.  

PubMed

Prolidase gene (PEPD) encodes prolidase enzyme, which is responsible for hydrolysis of dipeptides containing proline or hydroxyproline at their C-terminal end. Mutations in PEPD gene cause, in human, prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder. PD patients show reduced or absent prolidase activity and a broad spectrum of phenotypic traits including various degrees of mental retardation. This is the first report correlating PD and brain damages using as a model system prolidase deficient mice, the so called dark-like (dal) mutant mice. We focused our attention on dal postnatal brain development, revealing a panel of different morphological defects in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, such as undulations of the cerebral cortex, cell rarefaction, defects in cerebellar cortex lobulation, and blood vessels overgrowth. These anomalies might be ascribed to altered angiogenic process and loss of pial basement membrane integrity. Further studies will be directed to find a correlation between neuroarchitecture alterations and functional consequences. PMID:25308848

Insolia, V; Piccolini, V M

2014-01-01

12

International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain  

E-print Network

EA 4272 International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain Gain: A Conceptual Framework DocumentdeTravail WorkingPaper hal-00421166,version1-1Oct2009 #12;1 International Human Capital Formation for examining the interrelation between brain drain, brain gain and the location of human capital formation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

2006-01-01

14

Genetics of human brain oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last three decades, much emphasis has been placed on neural oscillations in vitro, in vivo, as well as in the human brain. These brain oscillations have been studied extensively in the resting electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as in the underlying evoked oscillations that make up the event-related potentials (ERPs). There are several approaches to elucidate the possible mechanisms

Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz

2006-01-01

15

Cellular migration and morphological complexity in the caecilian brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the tectum mesencephali and the medial pallium is studied in species representing the six families of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) in order to determine whether differences in brain morphology are related to function, phylogenetic history, or life history strate- gies. In general, the caecilian tectum is characterized by simplification in having little to no lamination and few migrated

Andrea Schmidt; Marvalee H. Wake

1997-01-01

16

Magnetite biomineralization in the human brain.  

PubMed Central

Although the mineral magnetite (Fe3O4) is precipitated biochemically by bacteria, protists, and a variety of animals, it has not been documented previously in human tissue. Using an ultrasensitive superconducting magnetometer in a clean-lab environment, we have detected the presence of ferromagnetic material in a variety of tissues from the human brain. Magnetic particle extracts from solubilized brain tissues examined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and elemental analyses identify minerals in the magnetite-maghemite family, with many of the crystal morphologies and structures resembling strongly those precipitated by magnetotactic bacteria and fish. These magnetic and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements imply the presence of a minimum of 5 million single-domain crystals per gram for most tissues in the brain and greater than 100 million crystals per gram for pia and dura. Magnetic property data indicate the crystals are in clumps of between 50 and 100 particles. Biogenic magnetite in the human brain may account for high-field saturation effects observed in the T1 and T2 values of magnetic resonance imaging and, perhaps, for a variety of biological effects of low-frequency magnetic fields. Images PMID:1502184

Kirschvink, J L; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, A; Woodford, B J

1992-01-01

17

[Morphological studies of human gallbladder].  

PubMed

I tried to make it clear three dimensional picture of the smooth muscle of the human gallbladder at first, and found a connection between the smooth muscle and the autonomic nerves in the wall. At autopsy the gallbladder without lesion was collected from 15 males and 7 females died of apoplexy, head injury or myocardial infarction. These material was fixed 10% neural formalin, impregnated into Masson Trichrome for smooth muscle, and modified Golgi method for nerve fivers, embeded in celloidin. I laid a picture after another after tracing serial tangential section of 8 micron by using camera lucida, and made three dimensional picture. In autonomic nerve in the wall three dimensional sections of 100-150 micron were made and observed with light microscope. Three dimensional muscle structure showed monounit structure, having meshwork structure from mucosal area to serous one. It was gratified the condition of the gallbladder contraction to illustrate a series of connection from mucosal aspect to serous one. Many fine nerve fivers were found forming plexuses in the subserous layer, muscular layer and mucosa. There was close relationship between smooth muscle and intramural nerve fibers, which especially distributed into meshwork structure of muscle. I could find morphological relation among the layers, such as three main plexuses. It was suggested that subserous plexus had extrinsic nature. PMID:4087619

Sugai, M

1985-04-01

18

Human polyomaviruses and brain tumors.  

PubMed

Polyomaviruses are DNA tumor viruses with small circular genomes. Three polyomaviruses have captured attention with regard to their potential role in the development of human brain tumors: JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV), and simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). JCV is a neurotropic polyomavirus that is the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system occurring mainly in AIDS patients. BKV is the causative agent of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVN) which occurs after renal transplantation when BKV reactivates from a latent state during immunosuppressive therapy to cause allograft failure. SV40, originating in rhesus monkeys, gained notoriety when it entered the human population via contaminated polio vaccines. All three viruses are highly oncogenic when injected into the brain of experimental animals. Reports indicate that these viruses, especially JCV, are associated with brain tumors and other cancers in humans as evidenced from the analysis of clinical samples for the presence of viral DNA sequences and expression of viral proteins. Human polyomaviruses encode three non-capsid regulatory proteins: large T-antigen, small t-antigen, and agnoprotein. These proteins interact with a number of cellular target proteins to exert effects that dysregulate pathways involved in the control of various host cell functions including the cell cycle, DNA repair, and others. In this review, we describe the three polyomaviruses, their abilities to cause brain and other tumors in experimental animals, the evidence for an association with human brain tumors, and the latest findings on the molecular mechanisms of their actions. PMID:15982744

White, Martyn K; Gordon, Jennifer; Reiss, Krzysztof; Del Valle, Luis; Croul, Sidney; Giordano, Antonio; Darbinyan, Armine; Khalili, Kamel

2005-12-01

19

Segmentation of Skull in 3D Human MR Images Using Mathematical Morphology  

E-print Network

Segmentation of Skull in 3D Human MR Images Using Mathematical Morphology B. Dogdasa, D. Shattuckb. Prior to the segmentation of skull, we segment the scalp and the brain from the MR image. The scalp mask in 3D T1-weighted human MR images. Keywords: Skull segmentation, scalp segmentation, morphology, MR

Leahy, Richard M.

20

Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.  

PubMed

The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R?>?L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R?>?L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R?>?L asymmetry of the caudate.These findings extend the brain-behavior links observed in neurodevelopmental disorders to the normal distribution of traits in a healthy sample. PMID:24788335

Evans, David W; Lazar, Steven M; Boomer, K B; Mitchel, Aaron D; Michael, Andrew M; Moore, Gregory J

2014-05-01

21

Social control of brain morphology in a eusocial mammal  

E-print Network

Social control of brain morphology in a eusocial mammal Melissa M. Holmes* , Greta J. Rosen reproductive hierarchy among mammals. Naked mole-rats live in large, subterranean colonies where breeding linked to reproduction and shown to be sexually dimorphic in other mammals. Stereological analyses

Breedlove, Marc

22

A Direct Brain-to-Brain Interface in Humans  

PubMed Central

We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines electroencephalography (EEG) for recording brain signals with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for delivering information to the brain. We illustrate our method using a visuomotor task in which two humans must cooperate through direct brain-to-brain communication to achieve a desired goal in a computer game. The brain-to-brain interface detects motor imagery in EEG signals recorded from one subject (the sender) and transmits this information over the internet to the motor cortex region of a second subject (the receiver). This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS. We quantify the performance of the brain-to-brain interface in terms of the amount of information transmitted as well as the accuracies attained in (1) decoding the senders signals, (2) generating a motor response from the receiver upon stimulation, and (3) achieving the overall goal in the cooperative visuomotor task. Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means. PMID:25372285

Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Stocco, Andrea; Bryan, Matthew; Sarma, Devapratim; Youngquist, Tiffany M.; Wu, Joseph; Prat, Chantel S.

2014-01-01

23

Morphological Characteristics of Brain Tumors Causing Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective To quantify size and localization differences between tumors presenting with seizures vs nonseizure neurological symptoms. Design Retrospective imaging survey. We performed magnetic resonance imagingbased morphometric analysis and nonparametric mapping in patients with brain tumors. Setting University-affiliated teaching hospital. Patients or Other Participants One hundred twenty-four patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glial tumors. Main Outcome Measures Volumetric and mapping methods were used to evaluate differences in size and location of the tumors in patients who presented with seizures as compared with patients who presented with other symptoms. Results In high-grade gliomas, tumors presenting with seizures were smaller than tumors presenting with other neurological symptoms, whereas in low-grade gliomas, tumors presenting with seizures were larger. Tumor location maps revealed that in high-grade gliomas, deep-seated tumors in the pericallosal regions were more likely to present with nonseizure neurological symptoms. In low-grade gliomas, tumors of the temporal lobe as well as the insular region were more likely to present with seizures. Conclusions The influence of size and location of the tumors on their propensity to cause seizures varies with the grade of the tumor. In high-grade gliomas, rapidly growing tumors, particularly those situated in deeper structures, present with nonseizure-related symptoms. In low-grade gliomas, lesions in the temporal lobe or the insula grow large without other symptoms and eventually cause seizures. Quantitative image analysis allows for the mapping of regions in each group that are more or less susceptible to seizures. PMID:20212231

Lee, Jong Woo; Wen, Patrick Y.; Hurwitz, Shelley; Black, Peter; Kesari, Santosh; Drappatz, Jan; Golby, Alexandra J.; Wells, William M.; Warfield, Simon K.; Kikinis, Ron; Bromfield, Edward B.

2010-01-01

24

Gross morphological brain changes with chronic, heavy cannabis use.  

PubMed

We investigated the morphology of multiple brain regions in a rare sample of 15 very heavy cannabis users with minimal psychiatric comorbidity or significant exposure to other substances (compared with 15 age- and IQ-matched non-cannabis-using controls) using manual techniques. Heavy cannabis users demonstrated smaller hippocampus and amygdala volumes, but no alterations of the orbitofrontal and anterior- and paracingulate cortices, or the pituitary gland. These findings indicate that chronic cannabis use has a selective and detrimental impact on the morphology of the mediotemporal lobe. PMID:25431432

Lorenzetti, Valentina; Solowij, Nadia; Whittle, Sarah; Fornito, Alex; Lubman, Dan I; Pantelis, Christos; Ycel, Murat

2015-01-01

25

Comparing the Sheep Brain to the Human Brain - A visual guide to use during sheep brain dissection laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power Point slides that can be used during the sheep brain dissection laboratory to visually compare the sheep brain to the human brain structures with the goal to learn the anatomy of the human brain.

PhD Margarita P Bracamonte (Northland Community & Technical College Biology)

2009-05-21

26

Understanding complexity in the human brain  

E-print Network

Understanding complexity in the human brain Danielle S. Bassett1 and Michael S. Gazzaniga2 1 the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its work- ings of mind­brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neu- roscientific studies are coupled

Gazzaniga, Michael

27

Methods Towards Invasive Human Brain Computer Interfaces  

E-print Network

Methods Towards Invasive Human Brain Computer Interfaces Thomas Navin Lal1 , Thilo Hinterberger2 there has been growing interest in the develop- ment of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The field has. Birbaumer et al. [1, 9] developed a Brain Computer Interface (BCI), called the Thought Translation Device

28

Decoding patterns of human brain activity.  

PubMed

Considerable information about mental states can be decoded from noninvasive measures of human brain activity. Analyses of brain activity patterns can reveal what a person is seeing, perceiving, attending to, or remembering. Moreover, multidimensional models can be used to investigate how the brain encodes complex visual scenes or abstract semantic information. Such feats of "brain reading" or "mind reading," though impressive, raise important conceptual, methodological, and ethical issues. What does successful decoding reveal about the cognitive functions performed by a brain region? How should brain signals be spatially selected and mathematically combined to ensure that decoding reflects inherent computations of the brain rather than those performed by the decoder? We highlight recent advances and describe how multivoxel pattern analysis can provide a window into mind-brain relationships with unprecedented specificity, when carefully applied. However, as brain-reading technology advances, issues of neuroethics and mental privacy will be important to consider. PMID:21943172

Tong, Frank; Pratte, Michael S

2012-01-01

29

Brain Size, Cranial Morphology, Climate, and Time Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

INCREASING CRANIAL CAPACITY has historically been associ- ated with increasing complexity of society. The resultant ten- dency has been to think of humans with larger brains as mentally more capable. Gene-pool (racial affinity) and somatic (body- size) explanations have also been advanced to account for the braincase variation. We offer an alternative hypothesis that suggests that hominid expansion into regions

Kenneth L. Beals; Courtland L. Smith; Stephen M. Dodd

1984-01-01

30

Mapping genetic in uences on human brain Paul Thompson  

E-print Network

Mapping genetic in uences on human brain structure Paul Thompson 1 , Tyrone D Cannon 2 and Arthur W Toga 1 Recent advances in brain imaging and genetics haveRecent advances in brain imaging and genetics and environmental in¯uences on the human brain. These techniques shed lightin¯uences on the human brain

Thompson, Paul

31

Human brain evolution: insights from microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent microarray studies have compared gene-expression patterns n humans, chimpanzees and other non-human primates to identify evolutionary changes that contribute to the distinctive cognitive and behavioural characteristics of humans. These studies support the surprising conclusion that the evolution of the human brain involved an upregulation of gene expression relative to non-human primates, a finding that could be relevant to

Mario Cceres; Michael C. Oldham; Todd M. Preuss; Daniel H. Geschwind

2004-01-01

32

Interoperable atlases of the human brain.  

PubMed

The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of human brain mapping approaches at various spatial and temporal scales. Together, these have provided a large fundus of information on many different aspects of the human brain including micro- and macrostructural segregation, regional specialization of function, connectivity, and temporal dynamics. Atlases are central in order to integrate such diverse information in a topographically meaningful way. It is noteworthy, that the brain mapping field has been developed along several major lines such as structure vs. function, postmortem vs. in vivo, individual features of the brain vs. population-based aspects, or slow vs. fast dynamics. In order to understand human brain organization, however, it seems inevitable that these different lines are integrated and combined into a multimodal human brain model. To this aim, we held a workshop to determine the constraints of a multi-modal human brain model that are needed to enable (i) an integration of different spatial and temporal scales and data modalities into a common reference system, and (ii) efficient data exchange and analysis. As detailed in this report, to arrive at fully interoperable atlases of the human brain will still require much work at the frontiers of data acquisition, analysis, and representation. Among them, the latter may provide the most challenging task, in particular when it comes to representing features of vastly different scales of space, time and abstraction. The potential benefits of such endeavor, however, clearly outweigh the problems, as only such kind of multi-modal human brain atlas may provide a starting point from which the complex relationships between structure, function, and connectivity may be explored. PMID:24936682

Amunts, K; Hawrylycz, M J; Van Essen, D C; Van Horn, J D; Harel, N; Poline, J-B; De Martino, F; Bjaalie, J G; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Dehaene, S; Valdes-Sosa, P; Thirion, B; Zilles, K; Hill, S L; Abrams, M B; Tass, P A; Vanduffel, W; Evans, A C; Eickhoff, S B

2014-10-01

33

MAPPING GENETIC INFLUENCES ON HUMAN BRAIN STRUCTURE  

E-print Network

can be derived from population-based atlases, shedding light on familial risk for human brain. These algorithmic advances motivate studies of disease in which the normative atlas acts as a quantitative reference

Thompson, Paul

34

Computerized Anatomy Atlas Of The Human Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A software for developing, editing and displaying a 3-D computerized anatomic atlas of a human brain is described. The objective of this atlas is to serve as a reference in identifying various structures in CT scans.

Adair, Taylor; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Karp, Peter; Stein, Alan

1981-10-01

35

Organization of the Human Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the work on patients who have undergone partial or complete brain bisection and addresses the concept of modularity from three different perspectives: (1) structure-function correlations; (2) modular components of cognitive processes; and (3) integration of modular processes. Several brain pictures and diagrams are presented.

Gazzaniga, Michael S.

1989-01-01

36

Human-specific transcriptional networks in the brain  

PubMed Central

Summary Understanding human-specific patterns of brain gene expression and regulation can provide key insights into human brain evolution and speciation. Here, we use next generation sequencing, and Illumina and Affymetrix microarray platforms, to compare the transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and macaque telencephalon. Our analysis reveals a predominance of genes differentially expressed within human frontal lobe and a striking increase in transcriptional complexity specific to the human lineage in the frontal lobe. In contrast, caudate nucleus gene expression is highly conserved. We also identify gene co-expression signatures related to either neuronal processes or neuropsychiatric diseases, including a human-specific module with CLOCK as its hub gene and another module enriched for neuronal morphological processes and genes co-expressed with FOXP2, a gene important for language evolution. These data demonstrate that transcriptional networks have undergone evolutionary remodeling even within a given brain region, providing a new window through which to view the foundation of uniquely human cognitive capacities. PMID:22920253

Konopka, Genevieve; Friedrich, Tara; Davis-Turak, Jeremy; Winden, Kellen; Oldham, Michael C.; Gao, Fuying; Chen, Leslie; Wang, Guang-Zhong; Luo, Rui; Preuss, Todd M.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

2013-01-01

37

The human parental brain: In vivo neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Interacting parenting thoughts and behaviors, supported by key brain circuits, critically shape human infants current and future behavior. Indeed, the parentinfant relationship provides infants with their first social environment, forming templates for what they can expect from others, how to interact with them and ultimately how they go on to themselves to be parents. This review concentrates on magnetic resonance imaging experiments of the human parent brain, which link brain physiology with parental thoughts and behaviors. After reviewing brain imaging techniques, certain social cognitive and affective concepts are reviewed, including empathy and trustlikely critical to parenting. Following that is a thorough study-by-study review of the state-of-the-art with respect to human neuroimaging studies of the parental brainfrom parent brain responses to salient infant stimuli, including emotionally charged baby cries and brief visual stimuli to the latest structural brain studies. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamicmidbrainlimbicparalimbiccortical circuits act in concert to support parental brain responses to infants, including circuits for limbic emotion response and regulation. Thus, a model is presented in which infant stimuli activate sensory analysis brain regions, affect corticolimbic limbic circuits that regulate emotional response, motivation and reward related to their infant, ultimately organizing parenting impulses, thoughts and emotions into coordinated behaviors as a map for future studies. Finally, future directions towards integrated understanding of the brain basis of human parenting are outlined with profound implications for understanding and contributing to long term parent and infant mental health. PMID:21036196

Swain, James E.

2015-01-01

38

Inflammation-induced Preterm Birth Alters Neuronal Morphology in the Mouse Fetal Brain  

PubMed Central

Adverse neurological outcome is a major cause of long-term morbidity in ex-preterm children. To investigate the effect of parturition and inflammation on the fetal brain, we utilized two in vivo mouse models of preterm birth. To mimic the most common human scenario of preterm birth, we used a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation by intrauterine infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the effect of parturition on the immature fetal brain, in the absence of inflammation, we used a non-infectious model of preterm birth by administering RU486. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?) in amniotic fluid and inflammatory biomarkers in maternal serum and amniotic fluid were compared between the two models using ELISA. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was evaluated in the whole fetal brains from the two models. Primary neuronal cultures from the fetal cortex were established from the different models and controls in order to compare the neuronal morphology. Only the intrauterine inflammation model resulted in an elevation of inflammatory biomarkers in the maternal serum and amniotic fluid. Exposure to inflammation-induced preterm birth, but not non-infectious preterm birth, also resulted in an increase in cytokine mRNA in whole fetal brain and in disrupted fetal neuronal morphology. In particular, Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) staining was decreased and the number of dendrites was reduced (P < 0.001, ANOVA between groups). These results suggest that inflammation-induced preterm birth and not the process of preterm birth may result in neuroinflammation and alter fetal neuronal morphology. PMID:20155801

Burd, Irina; Bentz, Amy I.; Chai, Jinghua; Gonzalez, Juan; Monnerie, Hubert; Le Roux, Peter D.; Cohen, Akiva S.; Yudkoff, Marc; Elovitz, Michal A.

2010-01-01

39

Significance of Intracranial Pressure Pulse Morphology in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-print Network

Significance of Intracranial Pressure Pulse Morphology in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury M. Aboy1 . Keywords-- Beat morphology analysis, head injury, intracra- nial pressure (ICP), traumatic brain injury (TBI). I. INTRODUCTION TBI is the leading cause of death and disability in children in the United

40

Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells with stem cell properties. Although the existence of CSCs in human leukaemia is established, little evidence exists for CSCs in solid tumours, except for breast cancer. Recently, we prospectively isolated a CD133+ cell subpopulation from human brain tumours that exhibited stem

Sheila K. Singh; Cynthia Hawkins; Ian D. Clarke; Jeremy A. Squire; Jane Bayani; Takuichiro Hide; R. Mark Henkelman; Michael D. Cusimano; Peter B. Dirks

2004-01-01

41

Culture, symbols, and human brain evolution: A synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The brain has always played an important role in human evolution, but if brain size alone is the single neural variable considered, we cannot understand either the richness, complexity, or challenges inherent in a theory of human evolution. The brain is not simply a terminal product in mosaic human evolution.2.Brain size is only one phenotypic window, as it were, which

Ralph L. Holloway

1981-01-01

42

Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

1998-11-01

43

Symmetry and asymmetry in the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural and functional asymmetry in the human brain and nervous system is reviewed in a historical perspective, focusing on the pioneering work of Broca, Wernicke, Sperry, and Geschwind. Structural and functional asymmetry is exemplified from work done in our laboratory on auditory laterality using an empirical procedure called dichotic listening. This also involves different ways of validating the dichotic listening procedure against both invasive and non-invasive techniques, including PET and fMRI blood flow recordings. A major argument is that the human brain shows a substantial interaction between structurally, or "bottom-up" asymmetry and cognitively, or "top-down" modulation, through a focus of attention to the right or left side in auditory space. These results open up a more dynamic and interactive view of functional brain asymmetry than the traditional static view that the brain is lateralized, or asymmetric, only for specific stimuli and stimulus properties.

Hugdahl, Kenneth

2005-10-01

44

Transcriptional Landscape of the Prenatal Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Summary The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is largely determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and postmitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and human-expanded outer subventricular zones. Both germinal and postmitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development. PMID:24695229

Miller, Jeremy A.; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M.; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L.; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James M.; Bennet, Crissa; Bertagnolli, Darren; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cuhaciyan, Christine; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Facer, Benjamin A. C.; Feng, David; Fliss, Tim P.; Gee, Garrett; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Benjamin W.; Gu, Guangyu; Howard, Robert E.; Jochim, Jayson M.; Kuan, Chihchau L.; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Lemon, Tracy A.; Lesnar, Phil; McMurray, Bergen; Mastan, Naveed; Mosqueda, Nerick F.; Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa; Ngo, Nhan-Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D.; Parry, Sheana E.; Player, Allison Stevens; Pletikos, Mihovil; Reding, Melissa; Royall, Joshua J.; Roll, Kate; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapouri, Sheila; Shapovalova, Nadiya V.; Shen, Elaine H.; Sjoquist, Nathan; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R.; Smith, Michael; Sodt, Andy J.; Williams, Derric; Zllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Gerstein, Mark B.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Glass, Ian A.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hevner, Robert F.; Huang, Hao; Jones, Allan R.; Knowles, James A.; Levitt, Pat; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Dang, Chinh; Bernard, Amy; Hohmann, John G.; Lein, Ed S.

2014-01-01

45

The Brain Prize 2014: complex human functions.  

PubMed

Giacomo Rizzolatti, Stanislas Dehaene, and Trevor Robbins were recently awarded the 2014 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize for their 'pioneering research on higher brain mechanisms underpinning such complex human functions as literacy, numeracy, motivated behavior and social cognition, and for their effort to understand cognitive and behavioral disorders'. Why was their work highlighted? Is there anything that links together these seemingly disparate lines of research? PMID:25303794

Grigaityte, Kristina; Iacoboni, Marco

2014-11-01

46

Reirradiation Tolerance of the Human Brain  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To give an overview of current available clinical data on reirradiation of glioma with respect to the tolerance dose of normal brain tissue. Methods and Materials: Clinical brain reirradiation studies from January 1996 to December 2006 were considered on radiation-induced late adverse effects-i.e., brain tissue necrosis. The studies were analyzed by using the linear quadratic model to derive information on the cumulative biologic effective tolerance dose and equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions for the healthy human brain. Results: The cumulative dose in conventional reirradiation series (of 81.6-101.9 Gy) were generally lower than in fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) ( 90-133.9 Gy.) or LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery series (of 111.6-137.2 Gy). No correlation between the time interval between the initial and reirradiation course and the incidence of radionecrosis was noted. The analysis showed the prescribed to increase with decreasing treatment volume, which is allowed by modern conformal radiation techniques. Conclusion: Radiation-induced normal brain tissue necrosis is found to occur at >100 Gy. The applied reirradiation dose and increases with a change in irradiation technique from conventional to radiosurgery re-treatment, without increasing the probability of normal brain necrosis. Taken together, modern conformal treatment options, because of their limited volume of normal brain tissue exposure, allow brain reirradiation for palliative treatment of recurrent high grade glioma with an acceptable probability of radionecrosis.

Mayer, Ramona [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Sminia, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division Radiobiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: p.sminia@vumc.nl

2008-04-01

47

Morphological and behavioral markers of environmentally induced retardation of brain development: an animal model.  

PubMed Central

In most neurotoxicological studies morphological assessment focuses on pathological effects, like degenerative changes in neuronal perikarya, axonopathy, demyelination, and glial and endothelial cell reactions. Similarly, the assessment of physiological and behavioral effects center on evident neurological symptoms, like EEG and EMG abnormalities, resting and intention tremor, abnormal gait, and abnormal reflexes. This paper reviews briefly another central nervous system target of harmful environmental agents, which results in behavioral abnormalities without any qualitatively evident neuropathology. This is called microneuronal hypoplasia, a retardation of brain development characterized by a quantitative reduction in the normal population of late-generated, short-axoned neurons in specific brain regions. Correlated descriptive and experimental neurogenetic studies in the rat have established that all the cerebellar granule cells and a very high proportion of hippocampal granule cells are produced postnatally, and that focal, low-dose X-irradiation either of the cerebellum or of the hippocampus after birth selectively interferes with the acquisition of the full complement of granule cells (microneuronal hypoplasia). Subsequent behavioral investigations showed that cerebellar microneuronal hypoplasia results in profound hyperactivity without motor abnormalities, while hippocampal microneuronal hypoplasia results in hyperactivity, as well as attentional and learning deficits. There is much indirect clinical evidence that various harmful environmental agents affecting the pregnant mother and/or the infant lead to such childhood disorders as hyperactivity and attentional and learning disorders. As the developing human brain is more mature at birth than the rat brain, the risk for microneuronal hypoplasia and consequent behavioral disorders may be highest at late stages of fetal development, in prematurely born and small-for-weight infants, and during the early stages of infant development. Recent technological advances in brain imaging techniques make it possible to test this hypothesis and to assess the possible relationship between the degree of retarded brain development and ensuing behavioral disorders. Images FIGURE 9. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 14. A FIGURE 14. B FIGURE 14. C PMID:3319550

Altman, J

1987-01-01

48

Simple models of human brain functional networks.  

PubMed

Human brain functional networks are embedded in anatomical space and have topological properties--small-worldness, modularity, fat-tailed degree distributions--that are comparable to many other complex networks. Although a sophisticated set of measures is available to describe the topology of brain networks, the selection pressures that drive their formation remain largely unknown. Here we consider generative models for the probability of a functional connection (an edge) between two cortical regions (nodes) separated by some Euclidean distance in anatomical space. In particular, we propose a model in which the embedded topology of brain networks emerges from two competing factors: a distance penalty based on the cost of maintaining long-range connections; and a topological term that favors links between regions sharing similar input. We show that, together, these two biologically plausible factors are sufficient to capture an impressive range of topological properties of functional brain networks. Model parameters estimated in one set of functional MRI (fMRI) data on normal volunteers provided a good fit to networks estimated in a second independent sample of fMRI data. Furthermore, slightly detuned model parameters also generated a reasonable simulation of the abnormal properties of brain functional networks in people with schizophrenia. We therefore anticipate that many aspects of brain network organization, in health and disease, may be parsimoniously explained by an economical clustering rule for the probability of functional connectivity between different brain areas. PMID:22467830

Vrtes, Petra E; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; Bullmore, Edward T

2012-04-10

49

Interleukin-6 gene (IL-6): a possible role in brain morphology in the healthy adult brain  

PubMed Central

Background Cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been implicated in dual functions in neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the genetic predisposition to neurodegenerative and neuroproliferative properties of cytokine genes. In this study the potential dual role of several IL-6 polymorphisms in brain morphology is investigated. Methodology In a large sample of healthy individuals (N?=?303), associations between genetic variants of IL-6 (rs1800795; rs1800796, rs2069833, rs2069840) and brain volume (gray matter volume) were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) followed a tagging SNP approach (e.g., Stampa algorigthm), yielding a capture 97.08% of the variation in the IL-6 gene using four tagging SNPs. Principal findings/results In a whole-brain analysis, the polymorphism rs1800795 (?174?C/G) showed a strong main effect of genotype (43 CC vs. 150 CG vs. 100 GG; x?=?24, y?=??10, z?=??15; F(2,286)?=?8.54, puncorrected?=?0.0002; pAlphaSim-corrected?=?0.002; cluster size k?=?577) within the right hippocampus head. Homozygous carriers of the G-allele had significantly larger hippocampus gray matter volumes compared to heterozygous subjects. None of the other investigated SNPs showed a significant association with grey matter volume in whole-brain analyses. Conclusions/significance These findings suggest a possible neuroprotective role of the G-allele of the SNP rs1800795 on hippocampal volumes. Studies on the role of this SNP in psychiatric populations and especially in those with an affected hippocampus (e.g., by maltreatment, stress) are warranted. PMID:22695063

2012-01-01

50

Decoding visual consciousness from human brain signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many years of research on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs), it is still unclear how the detailed contents of consciousness are represented in the human brain. It is often assumed that specific con- tents of consciousness are encoded in dedicated core NCCs - one for each different aspect of conscious experi- ence. Now, the approach of multivariate decoding

John-Dylan Haynes

2009-01-01

51

CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN AND BRAIN BLOOD FLOW IN HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

It has been shown that with increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and associated decrease in blood oxygen-carrying capacity, a compensatory increase in brain-blood flow (BBF) develops. he BBF response in humans has been shown to be quite variable. wo experiments were conducted in wh...

52

Methods Towards Invasive Human Brain Computer Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years there has been growing interest in the develop- ment of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The eld has mainly been driven by the needs of completely paralyzed patients to communicate. With a few exceptions, most human BCIs are based on extracranial elec- troencephalography (EEG). However, reported bit rates are still low. One reason for this is

Thomas Navin Lal; Thilo Hinterberger; Guido Widman; Michael Schrder; N. Jeremy Hill; Wolfgang Rosenstiel; Christian Erich Elger; Bernhard Schlkopf; Niels Birbaumer

2004-01-01

53

Methods towards invasive human brain computer interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract During the last ten years there has been growing interest in the development of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The eld,has mainly been driven by the needs of completely paralyzed patients to communicate. With a few exceptions, most human BCIs are based on extracranial electroencephalography (EEG). However, reported bit rates are still low. One reason for this is the low

T. N. Lal; T. Hinterberger; G. Widman; N. J. Hill; W. Rosenstiel; C. E. Elger; N. Birbaum

2005-01-01

54

[Infrasound and biorhythms of the human brain].  

PubMed

A relationship is established between the frequency of the human brain alpha-rhythms and the frequency of infrasonic radiation emanating from overturned waves crests on the surface of seas and oceans. On this ground a recommendation is presented for maintaining the state of man's keeping awake. PMID:1520712

Arabadzhi, V I

1992-01-01

55

Human astrocytes develop physiological morphology and remain quiescent in a novel 3D matrix.  

PubMed

Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells in the brain and are responsible for diverse functions, from modulating synapse function to regulating the blood-brain barrier. Invivo, these cells exhibit a star-shaped morphology with multiple radial processes that contact synapses and completely surround brain capillaries. In response to trauma or CNS disease, astrocytes become activated, a state associated with profound changes in gene expression, including upregulation of intermediate filament proteins, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The inability to recapitulate the complex structure of astrocytes and maintain their quiescent state invitro is a major roadblock to further developments in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, we characterize astrocyte morphology and activation in various hydrogels to assess the feasibility of developing a matrix that mimics key aspects of the native microenvironment. We show that astrocytes seeded in optimized matrix composed of collagen, hyaluronic acid, and matrigel exhibit a star-shaped morphology with radial processes and do not upregulate GFAP expression, hallmarks of quiescent astrocytes in the brain. In these optimized gels, collagen I provides structural support, HA mimics the brain extracellular matrix, and matrigel provides endothelial cell compatibility and was found to minimize GFAP upregulation. This defined 3D microenvironment for maintaining human astrocytes invitro provides new opportunities for developing improved models of the blood-brain barrier and studying their response to stress signals. PMID:25542801

Placone, Amanda L; McGuiggan, Patricia M; Bergles, Dwight E; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Quiones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Searson, Peter C

2015-02-01

56

[Evolution of human brain and intelligence].  

PubMed

The biological evolution, including human evolution is mainly driven by environmental changes. Accidental genetic modifications and their innovative results make the successful adaptation possible. As we know the human evolution started 7-8 million years ago in the African savannah, where upright position and bipedalism were significantly advantageous. The main drive of improving manual actions and tool making could be to obtain more food. Our ancestor got more meat due to more successful hunting, resulting in more caloric intake, more protein and essential fatty acid in the meal. The nervous system uses disproportionally high level of energy, so better quality of food was a basic condition for the evolution of huge human brain. The size of human brain was tripled during 3.5 million years, it increased from the average of 450 cm3 of Australopithecinae to the average of 1350 cm3 of Homo sapiens. A genetic change in the system controlling gene expression could happen about 200 000 years ago, which influenced the development of nervous system, the sensorimotor function and learning ability for motor processes. The appearance and stabilisation of FOXP2 gene structure as feature of modern man coincided with the first presence and quick spread of Homo sapiens on the whole Earth. This genetic modification made opportunity for human language, as the basis of abrupt evolution of human intelligence. The brain region being responsible for human language is the left planum temporale, which is much larger in left hemisphere. This shows the most typical human brain asymmetry. In this case the anatomical asymmetry means a clearly defined functional asymmetry as well, where the brain hemispheres act differently. The preference in using hands, the lateralised using of tools resulted in the brain asymmetry, which is the precondition of human language and intelligence. However, it cannot be held anymore, that only humans make tools, because our closest relatives, the chimpanzees are able not only to use, but also to make tools, and they can be taught how to produce quite difficult ones. Some brain characteristics connected to human consciousness and intelligence, like brain asymmetry, the "consciousness" or "theory of mind" based on mirror neurons are surprisingly present in monkeys. Nevertheless, the human intelligence is extremely flexible and different, while the animal intelligence is specialised, producing one thing at high level. Based on recent knowledge the level of intelligence is related anatomically to the number of cortical neurons and physiologically to the speed of conductivity of neural pathways, the latter being dependent on the degree of myelinisation. The improvement of cognitive functions including language is driver by the need of more effective communication requiring less energy, the need of social dominance, the competitive advantages within smaller groups and species or against other species, which improves the opportunity for obtaining food. Better mental skills give also sexual dominance, which is beneficial for stabilising "cleverness" genes. The evolutionary history of human consciousness emphasises its adaptive survival helping nature. The evolution of language was the basic condition of conscious thinking as a qualitative change, which fundamentally differentiate us from all other creatures. PMID:18763477

Lakatos, Lszl; Janka, Zoltn

2008-07-30

57

Extrapolating brain development from experimental species to humans.  

PubMed

To better understand the neurotoxic effects of diverse hazards on the developing human nervous system, researchers and clinicians rely on data collected from a number of model species that develop and mature at varying rates. We review the methods commonly used to extrapolate the timing of brain development from experimental mammalian species to humans, including morphological comparisons, "rules of thumb" and "event-based" analyses. Most are unavoidably limited in range or detail, many are necessarily restricted to rat/human comparisons, and few can identify brain regions that develop at different rates. We suggest this issue is best addressed using "neuroinformatics", an analysis that combines neuroscience, evolutionary science, statistical modeling and computer science. A current use of this approach relates numeric values assigned to 10 mammalian species and hundreds of empirically derived developing neural events, including specific evolutionary advances in primates. The result is an accessible, online resource (http://www.translatingtime.net/) that can be used to equate dates in the neurodevelopmental literature across laboratory species to humans, predict neurodevelopmental events for which data are lacking in humans, and help to develop clinically relevant experimental models. PMID:17368774

Clancy, Barbara; Finlay, Barbara L; Darlington, Richard B; Anand, K J S

2007-09-01

58

The Human Brain Project and neuromorphic computing  

PubMed Central

Summary Understanding how the brain manages billions of processing units connected via kilometers of fibers and trillions of synapses, while consuming a few tens of Watts could provide the key to a completely new category of hardware (neuromorphic computing systems). In order to achieve this, a paradigm shift for computing as a whole is needed, which will see it moving away from current bit precise computing models and towards new techniques that exploit the stochastic behavior of simple, reliable, very fast, low-power computing devices embedded in intensely recursive architectures. In this paper we summarize how these objectives will be pursued in the Human Brain Project. PMID:24139655

Calimera, Andrea; Macii, Enrico; Poncino, Massimo

59

Infrasounds and biorhythms of the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and infrasound has begun a new public health hazard. Evaluations of annoyance of (LFN) on human occupational health were based on standards where reactions of human auditory system and vibrations of parts of human body were small. Significant sensitivity has been observed on the central nervous system from infrasonic waves especially below 10 Hz. Observed follow-up effects in the brain gives incentive to study the relationship between parameters of waves and reactions obtained of biorhythms (EEG) and heart action (EKG). New results show the impact of LFN on the electrical potentials of the brain are dependent on the pressure waves on the human body. Electrical activity of circulatory system was also affected. Signals recorded in industrial workplaces were duplicated by loudspeakers and used to record data from a typical LFN spectra with 5 and 7 Hz in a laboratory chamber. External noise, electromagnetic fields, temperature, dust, and other elements were controlled. Results show not only a follow-up effect in the brain but also a result similar to arrhythmia in the heart. Relaxations effects were observed of people impacted by waves generated from natural sources such as streams and waterfalls.

Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary; McGlothlin, James

2002-05-01

60

Morphology of the Brain of Crayfish, Crabs, and Spiny Lobsters: A Common Nomenclature for Homologous Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphologies of the cerebral ganglia (brains) of three infraorders of the decapod crustaceans (Astacura-crayfish; Brachyura-crabs; Palinura-spiny lob- sters) are described. A common nomenclature is proposed for homologous nerve roots, brain regions, tracts, com- missures, neuropils, and cell body clusters.

DAVID SANDEMAN; RENATE SANDEMAN; CHARLES DERBY; MANFRED SCHMIDT

61

Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) mediates the development of sex-specific brain morphology  

E-print Network

Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) mediates the development of sex-specific brain morphology March 1, 2000) Steroid hormone action during brain development exerts profound effects on reproductive physiology and behavior that last into adulthood. A variety of in vitro studies indicate that steroid

62

Human brain disease recreated in mice  

SciTech Connect

In the early 1980s, neurologist Stanley Prusiner suggested that scrapie, an apparently infectious degenerative brain disease of sheep, could be transmitted by prions, infectious particles made just of protein - and containing no nucleic acids. But prion research has come a long way since then. In 1985, the cloning of the gene encoding the prion protein proved that it does in fact exist. And the gene turned out to be widely expressed in the brains of higher organisms, a result suggesting that the prion protein has a normal brain function that can somehow be subverted, leading to brain degeneration. Then studies done during the past 2 years suggested that specific mutations in the prion gene might cause two similar human brain diseases, Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Creutzfelt-Jakob disease. Now, Prusiner's group at the University of California, San Francisco, has used genetic engineering techniques to recreate GSS by transplanting the mutated prion gene into mice. Not only will the animal model help neurobiologists answer the many remaining questions about prions and how they work, but it may also shed some light on other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

Marx, J.

1990-12-14

63

Evolving networks in the human epileptic brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network theory provides novel concepts that promise an improved characterization of interacting dynamical systems. Within this framework, evolving networks can be considered as being composed of nodes, representing systems, and of time-varying edges, representing interactions between these systems. This approach is highly attractive to further our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological dynamics in human brain networks. Indeed, there is growing evidence that the epileptic process can be regarded as a large-scale network phenomenon. We here review methodologies for inferring networks from empirical time series and for a characterization of these evolving networks. We summarize recent findings derived from studies that investigate human epileptic brain networks evolving on timescales ranging from few seconds to weeks. We point to possible pitfalls and open issues, and discuss future perspectives.

Lehnertz, Klaus; Ansmann, Gerrit; Bialonski, Stephan; Dickten, Henning; Geier, Christian; Porz, Stephan

2014-01-01

64

Brain antioxidant systems in human methamphetamine users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal data suggest that the widely abused psychostimulant methamphetamine can damage brain dopamine neurones by causing dopamine-dependent oxidative stress; however, the relevance to human methamphetamine users is unclear. We measured levels of key antioxidant defences (reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, six major GSH system enzymes, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), uric acid) that are often altered after exposure to oxidative

Anna Mirecki; Paul Fitzmaurice; Lee Ang; Kathryn S. Kalasinsky; Frank J. Peretti; Sally S. Aiken; Dennis J. Wickham; Allan Sherwin; Henry J. Forman; Stephen J. Kish

2004-01-01

65

Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain  

SciTech Connect

Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

1999-11-10

66

Neural Plasticity in Human Brain Connectivity: The Effects of Long Term Deep Brain Stimulation of the  

E-print Network

Neural Plasticity in Human Brain Connectivity: The Effects of Long Term Deep Brain Stimulation of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3 Center of Brain and Cognition, Theoretical and Computational are now well established for deep brain stimulation, but little is known about the effects of long

Deco, Gustavo

67

Visualization of monoamine oxidase in human brain  

SciTech Connect

Monoamine oxidase is a flavin enzyme which exists in two subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. In human brain MAO B predominates and is largely compartmentalized in cell bodies of serotonergic neurons and glia. Regional distribution of MAO B was determined by positron computed tomography with volunteers after the administration of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl. The basal ganglia and thalamus exhibited the greatest concentrations of MAO B with intermediate levels in the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus while lowest levels were observed in the parietal and temporal cortices and cerebellum. We observed that brain MAO B increases with are in health normal subjects, however the increases were generally smaller than those revealed with post-mortem studies.

Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Pappas, N.; Shea, C.; MacGregor, R.R.; Logan, J.

1996-12-31

68

Phenotypic integration of brain size and head morphology in Lake Tanganyika Cichlids  

PubMed Central

Background Phenotypic integration among different anatomical parts of the head is a common phenomenon across vertebrates. Interestingly, despite centuries of research into the factors that contribute to the existing variation in brain size among vertebrates, little is known about the role of phenotypic integration in brain size diversification. Here we used geometric morphometrics on the morphologically diverse Tanganyikan cichlids to investigate phenotypic integration across key morphological aspects of the head. Then, while taking the effect of shared ancestry into account, we tested if head shape was associated with brain size while controlling for the potentially confounding effect of feeding strategy. Results The shapes of the anterior and posterior parts of the head were strongly correlated, indicating that the head represents an integrated morphological unit in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. After controlling for phylogenetic non-independence, we also found evolutionary associations between head shape, brain size and feeding ecology. Conclusions Geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative analyses revealed that the anterior and posterior parts of the head are integrated, and that head morphology is associated with brain size and feeding ecology in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes. In light of previous results on mammals, our results suggest that the influence of phenotypic integration on brain diversification is a general process. PMID:24593160

2014-01-01

69

Evolution, development, and plasticity of the human brain: from molecules to bones  

PubMed Central

Neuroanatomical, molecular, and paleontological evidence is examined in light of human brain evolution. The brain of extant humans differs from the brains of other primates in its overall size and organization, and differences in size and organization of specific cortical areas and subcortical structures implicated into complex cognition and social and emotional processing. The human brain is also characterized by functional lateralizations, reflecting specializations of the cerebral hemispheres in humans for different types of processing, facilitating fast and reliable communication between neural cells in an enlarged brain. The features observed in the adult brain reflect human-specific patterns of brain development. Compared to the brains of other primates, the human brain takes longer to mature, promoting an extended period for establishing cortical microcircuitry and its modifications. Together, these features may underlie the prolonged period of learning and acquisition of technical and social skills necessary for survival, creating a unique cognitive and behavioral niche typical of our species. The neuroanatomical findings are in concordance with molecular analyses, which suggest a trend toward heterochrony in the expression of genes implicated in different functions. These include synaptogenesis, neuronal maturation, and plasticity in humans, mutations in genes implicated in neurite outgrowth and plasticity, and an increased role of regulatory mechanisms, potentially promoting fast modification of neuronal morphologies in response to new computational demands. At the same time, endocranial casts of fossil hominins provide an insight into the timing of the emergence of uniquely human features in the course of evolution. We conclude by proposing several ways of combining comparative neuroanatomy, molecular biology and insights gained from fossil endocasts in future research. PMID:24194709

Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Bienvenu, Thibault; Stefanacci, Lisa; Muotri, Alysson R.; Semendeferi, Katerina

2013-01-01

70

Molecular biology of the human brain  

SciTech Connect

This book examines new methods of molecular biology that are providing valuable insights into the human brain, the genes that govern its assembly and function, and the many genetic defects that cause neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, Cri du Chat syndrome, Huntington's disease, and bipolar depression disorder. In addition, the book reviews techniques in molecular neurobiological research, including the use of affinity reagents, chimeric receptors, and site-directed mutagenesis in localizing the ion channel and cholinergic binding site, and the application of somatic cell genetics in isolating specific chromosomes or chromosomal segments.

Jones, E.G.

1988-01-01

71

Growth Simulation of Human Embryo Brain S. Czanner  

E-print Network

Growth Simulation of Human Embryo Brain S. Czanner , R. Durikovic and H. Inoue Software Department of human embryo is chang- ing through a long time in the body of mother. So it is very difficult to observe necessary for their stud- ies. But to create the realistic human embryo brain models and to do

Durikovic, Roman

72

Temperature distributions in the human brain model during ultrasound hyperthermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important applications of ultrasound hyperthermia is temperature elevation at specified locations in the human brain. The ultrasound applicator used is a circular phased array surrounding the human head. The human head model is assumed to be two concentric spheres of skin and bone containing a hemisphere of brain. The single and multiple foci patterns of the ultrasound

N. H. Ismail; A. T. Ibrahim

2002-01-01

73

The shape of the human language-ready brain  

PubMed Central

Our core hypothesis is that the emergence of our species-specific language-ready brain ought to be understood in light of the developmental changes expressed at the levels of brain morphology and neural connectivity that occurred in our species after the split from NeanderthalsDenisovans and that gave us a more globular braincase configuration. In addition to changes at the cortical level, we hypothesize that the anatomical shift that led to globularity also entailed significant changes at the subcortical level. We claim that the functional consequences of such changes must also be taken into account to gain a fuller understanding of our linguistic capacity. Here we focus on the thalamus, which we argue is central to language and human cognition, as it modulates fronto-parietal activity. With this new neurobiological perspective in place, we examine its possible molecular basis. We construct a candidate gene set whose members are involved in the development and connectivity of the thalamus, in the evolution of the human head, and are known to give rise to language-associated cognitive disorders. We submit that the new gene candidate set opens up new windows into our understanding of the genetic basis of our linguistic capacity. Thus, our hypothesis aims at generating new testing grounds concerning core aspects of language ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:24772099

Boeckx, Cedric; Bentez-Burraco, Antonio

2014-01-01

74

The shape of the human language-ready brain.  

PubMed

Our core hypothesis is that the emergence of our species-specific language-ready brain ought to be understood in light of the developmental changes expressed at the levels of brain morphology and neural connectivity that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans and that gave us a more globular braincase configuration. In addition to changes at the cortical level, we hypothesize that the anatomical shift that led to globularity also entailed significant changes at the subcortical level. We claim that the functional consequences of such changes must also be taken into account to gain a fuller understanding of our linguistic capacity. Here we focus on the thalamus, which we argue is central to language and human cognition, as it modulates fronto-parietal activity. With this new neurobiological perspective in place, we examine its possible molecular basis. We construct a candidate gene set whose members are involved in the development and connectivity of the thalamus, in the evolution of the human head, and are known to give rise to language-associated cognitive disorders. We submit that the new gene candidate set opens up new windows into our understanding of the genetic basis of our linguistic capacity. Thus, our hypothesis aims at generating new testing grounds concerning core aspects of language ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:24772099

Boeckx, Cedric; Bentez-Burraco, Antonio

2014-01-01

75

Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.  

PubMed

Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant. Positively, we show that novel machine learning techniques employing high-dimensional inference can nonetheless accurately converge on the true locus. We conclude that current inferences about human brain function and deficits based on lesion mapping must be re-evaluated with methodology that adequately captures the high-dimensional structure of lesion data. PMID:24974384

Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

2014-09-01

76

Brain morphology in Klinefelter syndrome Extra X chromosome and testosterone supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article abstractObjective: This study focuses on variation in brain morphology associated with supernumerary X chromosome and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). Using an unselected birth cohort of KS subjects and high-resolution MRI, the authors investigated the neuroanatomic consequences of the 47,XXY karyotype in the presence and absence of exogenous testosterone supplementation. Methods: Regional brain volumes were measured in 10 subjects with KS

A. J. Patwardhan; S. Eliez; B. Bender; M. G. Linden; A. L. Reiss

77

Tracking Hierarchical Processing in Morphological Decomposition with Brain Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One important debate in psycholinguistics concerns the nature of morphological decomposition processes in visual word recognition (e.g., darkness = {dark} + {-ness}). One theory claims that these processes arise during orthographic analysis and prior to accessing meaning (Rastle & Davis, 2008), and another argues that these processes arise through

Lavric, Aureliu; Elchlepp, Heike; Rastle, Kathleen

2012-01-01

78

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2010) r Topological Correction of Brain Surface Meshes  

E-print Network

Abstract: Surface reconstruction methods allow advanced analysis of structural and functional brain data be corrected to permit subsequent analysis. Here, we propose a novel method to repair topological defects usingr Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2010) r Topological Correction of Brain Surface Meshes Using

Gaser, Christian

79

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000000 (2009) r Brain Structure and Obesity  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000­000 (2009) r Brain Structure and Obesity Cyrus A. Raji,1,2y April J, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania r r Abstract: Obesity is associated with increased risk obesity and Type II diabetes, are associ- ated with specific patterns of brain atrophy. We used tensor

Thompson, Paul

80

COMPARING THE EMOTIONAL BRAINS OF HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS  

E-print Network

25 3 COMPARING THE EMOTIONAL BRAINS OF HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS Kent C. Berridge How is emotion embodied in the brain? That is the ques- tion posed by affective neuroscience (Cacioppo & Gardner, 1999 and emotion at both psychological and neurobiological levels. Evidence regarding the brain substrates

Berridge, Kent

81

Exclusive neuronal expression of SUCLA2 in the human brain.  

PubMed

SUCLA2 encodes the ATP-forming ? subunit (A-SUCL-?) of succinyl-CoA ligase, an enzyme of the citric acid cycle. Mutations in SUCLA2 lead to a mitochondrial disorder manifesting as encephalomyopathy with dystonia, deafness and lesions in the basal ganglia. Despite the distinct brain pathology associated with SUCLA2 mutations, the precise localization of SUCLA2 protein has never been investigated. Here, we show that immunoreactivity of A-SUCL-? in surgical human cortical tissue samples was present exclusively in neurons, identified by their morphology and visualized by double labeling with a fluorescent Nissl dye. A-SUCL-? immunoreactivity co-localized>99% with that of the d subunit of the mitochondrial F0-F1 ATP synthase. Specificity of the anti-A-SUCL-? antiserum was verified by the absence of labeling in fibroblasts from a patient with a complete deletion of SUCLA2. A-SUCL-? immunoreactivity was absent in glial cells, identified by antibodies directed against the glial markers GFAP and S100. Furthermore, in situ hybridization histochemistry demonstrated that SUCLA2 mRNA was present in Nissl-labeled neurons but not glial cells labeled with S100. Immunoreactivity of the GTP-forming ? subunit (G-SUCL-?) encoded by SUCLG2, or in situ hybridization histochemistry for SUCLG2 mRNA could not be demonstrated in either neurons or astrocytes. Western blotting of post mortem brain samples revealed minor G-SUCL-? immunoreactivity that was, however, not upregulated in samples obtained from diabetic versus non-diabetic patients, as has been described for murine brain. Our work establishes that SUCLA2 is expressed exclusively in neurons in the human cerebral cortex. PMID:24085565

Dobolyi, Arpd; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Bag, Attila G; Dczi, Tams; Palkovits, Mikls; Gl, Aniko; Molnr, Mria J; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

2015-01-01

82

Moment-to-moment brain signal variability: A next frontier in human brain mapping?  

PubMed Central

Neuroscientists have long observed that brain activity is naturally variable from moment-to-moment, but neuroimaging research has largely ignored the potential importance of this phenomenon. An emerging research focus on within-person brain signal variability is providing novel insights, and offering highly predictive, complementary, and even orthogonal views of brain function in relation to human life-span development, cognitive performance, and various clinical conditions. As a result, brain signal variability is evolving as a bona fide signal of interest, and should no longer be dismissed as meaningless noise when mapping the human brain. PMID:23458776

Garrett, Douglas D.; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.; Lindenberger, Ulman; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Grady, Cheryl L.

2013-01-01

83

Messing with the mind: evolutionary challenges to human brain augmentation  

PubMed Central

The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce augmented brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties. PMID:25324734

Saniotis, Arthur; Henneberg, Maciej; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Grantham, James P.

2014-01-01

84

"Messing with the mind": evolutionary challenges to human brain augmentation.  

PubMed

The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce "augmented" brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties. PMID:25324734

Saniotis, Arthur; Henneberg, Maciej; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Grantham, James P

2014-01-01

85

Energetic and nutritional constraints on infant brain development: Implications for brain expansion during human evolution.  

PubMed

The human brain confronts two major challenges during its development: (i) meeting a very high energy requirement, and (ii) reliably accessing an adequate dietary source of specific brain selective nutrients needed for its structure and function. Implicitly, these energetic and nutritional constraints to normal brain development today would also have been constraints on human brain evolution. The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel, this fat layer supports the brain's high energy needs well into childhood. This fat layer also contains an important reserve of the brain selective omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not available in other primates. Foremost amongst the brain selective minerals are iodine and iron, with zinc, copper and selenium also being important. A shore-based diet, i.e., fish, molluscs, crustaceans, frogs, bird's eggs and aquatic plants, provides the richest known dietary sources of brain selective nutrients. Regular access to these foods by the early hominin lineage that evolved into humans would therefore have helped free the nutritional constraint on primate brain development and function. Inadequate dietary supply of brain selective nutrients still has a deleterious impact on human brain development on a global scale today, demonstrating the brain's ongoing vulnerability. The core of the shore-based paradigm of human brain evolution proposes that sustained access by certain groups of early Homo to freshwater and marine food resources would have helped surmount both the nutritional as well as the energetic constraints on mammalian brain development. PMID:24928072

Cunnane, Stephen C; Crawford, Michael A

2014-12-01

86

Localization of copper and copper transporters in the human brain.  

PubMed

Disturbances in brain copper result in rare and severe neurological disorders and may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Our current understanding of mammalian brain copper transport is based on model systems outside the central nervous system and no data are available regarding copper transport systems in the human brain. To address this deficit, we quantified regional copper concentrations and examined the distribution and cellular localization of the copper transport proteins Copper transporter 1, Atox1, ATP7A, and ATP7B in multiple regions of the human brain using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. We identified significant relationships between copper transporter levels and brain copper concentrations, supporting a role for these proteins in copper transport in the human brain. Interestingly, the substantia nigra contained twice as much copper than that in other brain regions, suggesting an important role for copper in this brain region. Furthermore, ATP7A levels were significantly greater in the cerebellum, compared with other brain regions, supporting an important role for ATP7A in cerebellar neuronal health. This study provides novel data regarding copper regulation in the human brain, critical to understand the mechanisms by which brain copper levels can be altered, leading to neurological disease. PMID:23076575

Davies, Katherine M; Hare, Dominic J; Cottam, Veronica; Chen, Nicholas; Hilgers, Leon; Halliday, Glenda; Mercer, Julian F B; Double, Kay L

2013-01-01

87

Plasticity of the human brain " We never use the same brain twice" Arno Villringer and Burkhard Pleger  

E-print Network

Plasticity of the human brain " We never use the same brain twice" Arno Villringer and Burkhard Pleger Max Planck Institute for Human Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Leipzig Summary With the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging the human brain has become accessible for invivo

88

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000000 (2011) r Speech Perception in the Child Brain: Cortical  

E-print Network

perception; development; language; magnetoencephalography r r INTRODUCTION The auditory system of the human and form of spo- ken language--phonological awareness--arises [Adams, 1990]. The ability to pay attentionr Human Brain Mapping 000:000­000 (2011) r Speech Perception in the Child Brain: Cortical Timing

Allen, Jont

89

Invasive recordings from the human brain: clinical insights and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although non-invasive methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalograms and magnetoencephalograms provide most of the current data about the human brain, their resolution is insufficient to show physiological processes at the cellular level. Clinical approaches sometimes allow invasive recordings to be taken from the human brain, mainly in patients with epilepsy or with movement disorders, and such recordings can

Christian K. E. Moll; Itzhak Fried; George A. Ojemann; Andreas K. Engel

2005-01-01

90

Drosophila rugose is a functional homolog of mammalian Neurobeachin and affects synaptic architecture, brain morphology, and associative learning.  

PubMed

Neurobeachin (Nbea) is implicated in vesicle trafficking in the regulatory secretory pathway, but details on its molecular function are currently unknown. We have used Drosophila melanogaster mutants for rugose (rg), the Drosophila homolog of Nbea, to further elucidate the function of this multidomain protein. Rg is expressed in a granular pattern reminiscent of the Golgi network in neuronal cell bodies and colocalizes with transgenic Nbea, suggesting a function in secretory regulation. In contrast to Nbea(-/-) mice, rg null mutants are viable and fertile and exhibit aberrant associative odor learning, changes in gross brain morphology, and synaptic architecture as determined at the larval neuromuscular junction. At the same time, basal synaptic transmission is essentially unaffected, suggesting that structural and functional aspects are separable. Rg phenotypes can be rescued by a Drosophila rg+ transgene, whereas a mouse Nbea transgene rescues aversive odor learning and synaptic architecture; it fails to rescue brain morphology and appetitive odor learning. This dissociation between the functional redundancy of either the mouse or the fly transgene suggests that their complex composition of numerous functional and highly conserved domains support independent functions. We propose that the detailed compendium of phenotypes exhibited by the Drosophila rg null mutant provided here will serve as a test bed for dissecting the different functional domains of BEACH (for beige and human Chediak-Higashi syndrome) proteins, such as Rugose, mouse Nbea, or Nbea orthologs in other species, such as human. PMID:23100440

Volders, Karolien; Scholz, Sabrina; Slabbaert, Jan R; Nagel, Anja C; Verstreken, Patrik; Creemers, John W M; Callaerts, Patrick; Schwrzel, Martin

2012-10-24

91

Magnetic Resonance Microscopy at 14 Tesla and Correlative Histopathology of Human Brain Tumor Tissue  

PubMed Central

Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM) can provide high microstructural detail in excised human lesions. Previous MRM images on some experimental models and a few human samples suggest the large potential of the technique. The aim of this study was the characterization of specific morphological features of human brain tumor samples by MRM and correlative histopathology. We performed MRM imaging and correlative histopathology in 19 meningioma and 11 glioma human brain tumor samples obtained at surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first MRM direct structural characterization of human brain tumor samples. MRM of brain tumor tissue provided images with 35 to 40 m spatial resolution. The use of MRM to study human brain tumor samples provides new microstructural information on brain tumors for better classification and characterization. The correlation between MRM and histopathology images allowed the determination of image parameters for critical microstructures of the tumor, like collagen patterns, necrotic foci, calcifications and/or psammoma bodies, vascular distribution and hemorrhage among others. Therefore, MRM may help in interpreting the Clinical Magnetic Resonance images in terms of cell biology processes and tissue patterns. Finally, and most importantly for clinical diagnosis purposes, it provides three-dimensional information in intact samples which may help in selecting a preferential orientation for the histopathology slicing which contains most of the informative elements of the biopsy. Overall, the findings reported here provide a new and unique microstructural view of intact human brain tumor tissue. At this point, our approach and results allow the identification of specific tissue types and pathological features in unprocessed tumor samples. PMID:22110653

Gonzalez-Segura, Ana; Morales, Jose Manuel; Gonzalez-Darder, Jose Manuel; Cardona-Marsal, Ramon; Lopez-Gines, Concepcion; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel; Monleon, Daniel

2011-01-01

92

Progenitor-derived Oligodendrocyte Culture System from Human Fetal Brain  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of human neural progenitors into neuronal and glial cell types offers a model to study and compare molecular regulation of neural cell lineage development. In vitro expansion of neural progenitors from fetal CNS tissue has been well characterized. Despite the identification and isolation of glial progenitors from adult human sub-cortical white matter and development of various culture conditions to direct differentiation of fetal neural progenitors into myelin producing oligodendrocytes, acquiring sufficient human oligodendrocytes for in vitro experimentation remains difficult. Differentiation of galactocerebroside+ (GalC) and O4+ oligodendrocyte precursor or progenitor cells (OPC) from neural precursor cells has been reported using second trimester fetal brain. However, these cells do not proliferate in the absence of support cells including astrocytes and neurons, and are lost quickly over time in culture. The need remains for a culture system to produce cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage suitable for in vitro experimentation. Culture of primary human oligodendrocytes could, for example, be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of neurotropic infectious agents like the human polyomavirus, JCV, that in vivo infects those cells. These cultured cells could also provide models of other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Primary, human fetal brain-derived, multipotential neural progenitor cells proliferate in vitro while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into neurons (progenitor-derived neurons, PDN) and astrocytes (progenitor-derived astrocytes, PDA) This study shows that neural progenitors can be induced to differentiate through many of the stages of oligodendrocytic lineage development (progenitor-derived oligodendrocytes, PDO). We culture neural progenitor cells in DMEM-F12 serum-free media supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-AA), Sonic hedgehog (Shh), neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3), N-2 and triiodothyronine (T3). The cultured cells are passaged at 2.5e6 cells per 75cm flasks approximately every seven days. Using these conditions, the majority of the cells in culture maintain a morphology characterized by few processes and express markers of pre-oligodendrocyte cells, such as A2B5 and O-4. When we remove the four growth factors (GF) (bFGF, PDGF-AA, Shh, NT-3) and add conditioned media from PDN, the cells start to acquire more processes and express markers specific of oligodendrocyte differentiation, such as GalC and myelin basic protein (MBP). We performed phenotypic characterization using multicolor flow cytometry to identify unique markers of oligodendrocyte. PMID:23288248

Monaco, Maria Chiara G.; Maric, Dragan; Bandeian, Alexandra; Leibovitch, Emily; Yang, Wan; Major, Eugene O.

2012-01-01

93

Influence of curvature on the morphology of brain microvascular endothelial cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are hundreds or thousands of endothelial cells around the perimeter of a single artery or vein, and hence an individual cell experiences little curvature. In contrast, a single endothelial cell may wrap around itself to form the lumen of a brain capillary. Curvature plays a key role in many biological, chemical and physical processes, however, its role in dictating the morphology and polarization of brain capillary endothelial cells has not been investigated. We hypothesize that curvature and shear flow play a key role in determining the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have developed the ``rod'' assay to study the influence of curvature on the morphology of confluent monolayers of endothelial cells. In this assay cells are plated onto glass rods pulled down to the desired diameter in the range from 5 -- 500 ?m and coated with collagen. We show that curvature has a significant influence on the morphology of endothelial cells and may have an important role in blood-brain barrier function.

Ye, Mao; Yang, Zhen; Wong, Andrew; Searson, Peter

2013-03-01

94

RECONSTRUCTION OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODELS FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Reconstruction of Human Lung Morphology Models from Magnetic Resonance Images T. B. Martonen (Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) and K. K. Isaacs (School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514) ...

95

Barriers in the brain: resolving dendritic spine morphology and compartmentalization.  

PubMed

Dendritic spines are micron-sized protrusions that harbor the majority of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. The head of the spine is connected to the dendritic shaft by a 50-400 nm thin membrane tube, called the spine neck, which has been hypothesized to confine biochemical and electric signals within the spine compartment. Such compartmentalization could minimize interspinal crosstalk and thereby support spine-specific synapse plasticity. However, to what extent compartmentalization is governed by spine morphology, and in particular the diameter of the spine neck, has remained unresolved. Here, we review recent advances in tool development - both experimental and theoretical - that facilitate studying the role of the spine neck in compartmentalization. Special emphasis is given to recent advances in microscopy methods and quantitative modeling applications as we discuss compartmentalization of biochemical signals, membrane receptors and electrical signals in spines. Multidisciplinary approaches should help to answer how dendritic spine architecture affects the cellular and molecular processes required for synapse maintenance and modulation. PMID:25538570

Adrian, Max; Kusters, Remy; Wierenga, Corette J; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C

2014-01-01

96

Brain Morphology in Children with Epilepsy and ADHD  

PubMed Central

Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbidity of childhood epilepsy, but the neuroanatomical correlates of ADHD in epilepsy have yet to be comprehensively characterized. Methods Children with new and recent-onset epilepsy with (n?=?18) and without (n?=?36) ADHD, and healthy controls (n?=?46) underwent high resolution MRI. Measures of cortical morphology (thickness, area, volume, curvature) and subcortical and cerebellar volumes were compared between the groups using the program FreeSurfer 5.1. Results Compared to the control group, children with epilepsy and ADHD exhibited diffuse bilateral thinning in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, with volume reductions in the brainstem and subcortical structures (bilateral caudate, left thalamus, right hippocampus). There were very few group differences across measures of cortical volume, area or curvature. Conclusions Children with epilepsy and comorbid ADHD exhibited a pattern of bilateral and widespread decreased cortical thickness as well as decreased volume of subcortical structures and brainstem. These anatomic abnormalities were evident early in the course of epilepsy suggesting the presence of antecedent neurodevelopmental changes, the course of which remains to be determined. PMID:24760032

Saute, Ricardo; Dabbs, Kevin; Jones, Jana E.; Jackson, Daren C.; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P.

2014-01-01

97

Barriers in the brain: resolving dendritic spine morphology and compartmentalization  

PubMed Central

Dendritic spines are micron-sized protrusions that harbor the majority of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. The head of the spine is connected to the dendritic shaft by a 50400 nm thin membrane tube, called the spine neck, which has been hypothesized to confine biochemical and electric signals within the spine compartment. Such compartmentalization could minimize interspinal crosstalk and thereby support spine-specific synapse plasticity. However, to what extent compartmentalization is governed by spine morphology, and in particular the diameter of the spine neck, has remained unresolved. Here, we review recent advances in tool development both experimental and theoretical that facilitate studying the role of the spine neck in compartmentalization. Special emphasis is given to recent advances in microscopy methods and quantitative modeling applications as we discuss compartmentalization of biochemical signals, membrane receptors and electrical signals in spines. Multidisciplinary approaches should help to answer how dendritic spine architecture affects the cellular and molecular processes required for synapse maintenance and modulation.

Adrian, Max; Kusters, Remy; Wierenga, Corette J.; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Kapitein, Lukas C.

2014-01-01

98

Modeling the variability in brain morphology and lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis by deep learning.  

PubMed

Changes in brain morphology and white matter lesions are two hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology, but their variability beyond volumetrics is poorly characterized. To further our understanding of complex MS pathology, we aim to build a statistical model of brain images that can automatically discover spatial patterns of variability in brain morphology and lesion distribution. We propose building such a model using a deep belief network (DBN), a layered network whose parameters can be learned from training images. In contrast to other manifold learning algorithms, the DBN approach does not require a prebuilt proximity graph, which is particularly advantageous for modeling lesions, because their sparse and random nature makes defining a suitable distance measure between lesion images challenging. Our model consists of a morphology DBN, a lesion DBN, and a joint DBN that models concurring morphological and lesion patterns. Our results show that this model can automatically discover the classic patterns of MS pathology, as well as more subtle ones, and that the parameters computed have strong relationships to MS clinical scores. PMID:25485412

Brosch, Tom; Yoo, Youngjin; Li, David K B; Traboulsee, Anthony; Tam, Roger

2014-01-01

99

Printable Preview Human Brain Mapping 2009 Print  

E-print Network

in the living brain, providing detailed maps of fiber integrity and connectivity. HARDI (High Angular Resolution of water diffusion in the brain. These images can be used to reconstruct fiber directions and pathways imaging of the brain, a necessary step before mapping cerebral connectivity through fiber tractography

Thompson, Paul

100

Reliability issues in human brain temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The influence of brain temperature on clinical outcome after severe brain trauma is currently poorly understood. When brain temperature is measured directly, different values between the inside and outside of the head can occur. It is not yet clear if these differences are 'real' or due to measurement error. METHODS: The aim of this study was to assess the

Charmaine Childs; Graham Machin

2009-01-01

101

Genomic connectivity networks based on the BrainSpan atlas of the developing human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human brain comprises systems of networks that span the molecular, cellular, anatomic and functional levels. Molecular studies of the developing brain have focused on elucidating networks among gene products that may drive cellular brain development by functioning together in biological pathways. On the other hand, studies of the brain connectome attempt to determine how anatomically distinct brain regions are connected to each other, either anatomically (diffusion tensor imaging) or functionally (functional MRI and EEG), and how they change over development. A global examination of the relationship between gene expression and connectivity in the developing human brain is necessary to understand how the genetic signature of different brain regions instructs connections to other regions. Furthermore, analyzing the development of connectivity networks based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of gene expression provides a new insight into the effect of neurodevelopmental disease genes on brain networks. In this work, we construct connectivity networks between brain regions based on the similarity of their gene expression signature, termed "Genomic Connectivity Networks" (GCNs). Genomic connectivity networks were constructed using data from the BrainSpan Transcriptional Atlas of the Developing Human Brain. Our goal was to understand how the genetic signatures of anatomically distinct brain regions relate to each other across development. We assessed the neurodevelopmental changes in connectivity patterns of brain regions when networks were constructed with genes implicated in the neurodevelopmental disorder autism (autism spectrum disorder; ASD). Using graph theory metrics to characterize the GCNs, we show that ASD-GCNs are relatively less connected later in development with the cerebellum showing a very distinct expression of ASD-associated genes compared to other brain regions.

Mahfouz, Ahmed; Ziats, Mark N.; Rennert, Owen M.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

2014-03-01

102

Brain size at birth throughout human evolution: A new method for estimating neonatal brain size in hominins  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in brain size is a hallmark of human evolution. Questions regarding the evolution of brain development and obstetric constraints in the human lineage can be addressed with accurate estimates of the size of the brain at birth in hominins. Previous estimates of brain size at birth in fossil hominins have been calculated from regressions of neonatal body or

Jeremy M. DeSilva; Julie J. Lesnik

2008-01-01

103

Parental brain and socioeconomic epigenetic effects in human development  

PubMed Central

Critically significant parental effects in behavioral genetics may be partly understood as a consequence of maternal brain structure and function of caregiving systems recently studied in humans as well as rodents. Key parental brain areas regulate emotions, motivation/reward, and decision making, as well as more complex social-cognitive circuits. Additional key environmental factors must include socioeconomic status and paternal brain physiology. These have implications for developmental and evolutionary biology as well as public policy. PMID:23095400

Swain, James E.; Perkins, Suzanne C.; Dayton, Carolyn J.; Finegood, Eric D.; Ho, S. Shaun

2015-01-01

104

Classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain MRI morphology measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reported studies describing normal and abnormal aging based on anatomical MRI analysis do not consider morphological brain changes, but only volumetric measures to distinguish among these processes. This work presents a classification scheme, based both on size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy control (HC) adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pair-wise separation of these three classes, using selected features from a set of 3D discrete compactness measures and normalized volumes of several global and local anatomical structures. Our analysis show classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD; of 85% between HC and MCI and of 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indexes to classify different aging stages.

Perez-Gonzalez, J. L.; Yanez-Suarez, O.; Medina-Bauelos, V.

2014-03-01

105

Imaging genetic influences in human brain function.  

PubMed

The association between genes and brain function using functional brain imaging techniques is an emerging and promising area of research that will help to better characterize the influence of genes on cognition and behavior as well as the link between genetic susceptibility and neuropsychiatric disorders. Neurophysiological imaging provides information regarding the effect of genes on brain function at the level of information processing, and neurochemical imaging provides information on the intrinsic mechanisms on how these genes affect the brain response. In this review, we highlight recent studies that have begun to explore the influence of genetic mutations on brain function with these techniques. The results, even from these few studies, illustrate the potential of these techniques to provide a more sensitive assay than behavioral measures used alone. The results also show that neuroimaging techniques can elucidate the influence of genes on brain function in relatively small sample populations, sometimes even in the absence of significant differences in behavioral measures. PMID:15082331

Mattay, Venkata S; Goldberg, Terry E

2004-04-01

106

Supplementary Information (Where is the Brain in the Human Brain Project? Frgnac and Laurent)  

E-print Network

2020 flagship initiative aimed at securing Europe's global competitiveness." More information at: http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizonSupplementary Information (Where is the Brain in the Human Brain Project? Frégnac and Laurent is encouraged to check (and occasionally decrypt) the suggested official websites. Horizon 2020: EU research

Napp, Nils

107

5 Minute Brain Teaser Old vs. New Thinking Regarding the Human Brain*  

E-print Network

5 Minute Brain Teaser Old vs. New Thinking Regarding the Human Brain* Answer Key Answer Statement 1 discovered that the early years of life are critical. Good prenatal care, warm attachments between young that quality care in the early years is associated with: better social and thinking skills, better language

108

Visualization of the Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging for the Human Brain  

E-print Network

#12;Visualization of the Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging for the Human Brain Sujal Bista, Jiachen Zhuo, Rao P. Gullapalli, and Amitabh Varshney University of Maryland USA #12;Traumatic Brain Injury · Serious injury caused by blow to the head · Leading cause of death and disabilities · 2.5 million hospital

Tanaka, Jiro

109

Human brain-teleoperated robot between remote places  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an EEG-based human brain- actuated robotic system, which allows performing navigation and visual exploration tasks between remote places via internet, using only brain activity. In operation, two teleoperation modes can be combined: robot navigation and camera exploration. In both modes, the user faces a real-time video captured by the robot camera merged with augmented reality items. In

Carlos Escolano; Javier Antelis; Javier Minguez

2009-01-01

110

Three-Dimensional Electrical Impedance Tomography of Human Brain Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume changes that occur during human brain activity will change the local impedance of that cortical area, as blood has a lower impedance than that of brain. Theoretically, such impedance changes could be measured from scalp electrodes and reconstructed into images of the internal impedance of the head. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a

Tom Tidswell; Adam Gibson; Richard H. Bayford; David S. Holder

2001-01-01

111

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain activation during-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 Abstract Rationale Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) polydrug ecstasy use with semantic memory per- formance and brain activation in ecstasy polydrug users. Methods

Park, Sohee

112

A role for human brain pericytes in neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Brain inflammation plays a key role in neurological disease. Although much research has been conducted investigating inflammatory events in animal models, potential differences in human brain versus rodent models makes it imperative that we also study these phenomena in human cells and tissue. Methods Primary human brain cell cultures were generated from biopsy tissue of patients undergoing surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cells were treated with pro-inflammatory compounds IFN?, TNF?, IL-1?, and LPS, and chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1 were measured by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarray analysis was also performed on late passage cultures treated with vehicle or IFN? and IL-1?. Results Early passage human brain cell cultures were a mixture of microglia, astrocytes, fibroblasts and pericytes. Later passage cultures contained proliferating fibroblasts and pericytes only. Under basal culture conditions all cell types showed cytoplasmic NF?B indicating that they were in a non-activated state. Expression of IP-10 and MCP-1 were significantly increased in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. The two chemokines were expressed in mixed cultures as well as cultures of fibroblasts and pericytes only. The expression of IP-10 and MCP-1 were regulated at the mRNA and protein level, and both were secreted into cell culture media. NF?B nuclear translocation was also detected in response to pro-inflammatory cues (except IFN?) in all cell types. Microarray analysis of brain pericytes also revealed widespread changes in gene expression in response to the combination of IFN? and IL-1? treatment including interleukins, chemokines, cellular adhesion molecules and much more. Conclusions Adult human brain cells are sensitive to cytokine challenge. As expected classical brain immune cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, responded to cytokine challenge but of even more interest, brain pericytes also responded to such challenge with a rich repertoire of gene expression. Immune activation of brain pericytes may play an important role in communicating inflammatory signals to and within the brain interior and may also be involved in blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption . Targeting brain pericytes, as well as microglia and astrocytes, may provide novel opportunities for reducing brain inflammation and maintaining BBB function and brain homeostasis in human brain disease. PMID:24920309

2014-01-01

113

The Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 Ser704Cys polymorphism and brain morphology in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) polymorphism is a strong candidate for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene as it is widely expressed in cortical and limbic regions, but the effect of its genotype variation on brain morphology in schizophrenia is not well known. This study examined the association between the DISC1 Ser704Cys polymorphism and volumetric measurements for a broad range of fronto-parietal, temporal, and limbic-paralimbic regions using magnetic resonance imaging in a Japanese sample of 33 schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy comparison subjects. The Cys carriers had significantly larger volumes of the medial superior frontal gyrus and short insular cortex than the Ser homozygotes only for healthy comparison subjects. The Cys carriers tended to have a smaller supramarginal gyrus than the Ser homozygotes in schizophrenia patients, but not in healthy comparison subjects. The right medial superior frontal gyrus volume was significantly correlated with daily dosage of antipsychotic medication in Ser homozygote schizophrenia patients. These different genotype effects of the DISC1 Ser704Cys polymorphism on the brain morphology in schizophrenia patients and healthy comparison subjects suggest that variation in the DISC1 gene might be, at least partly, involved in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Our findings also suggest that the DISC1 genotype variation might have some relevance to the medication effect on brain morphology in schizophrenia. PMID:19304459

Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Michio; Tsunoda, Masahiko; Maeno, Nobuhisa; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Zhou, Shi-Yu; Hagino, Hirofumi; Niu, Lisha; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Soushi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Seto, Hikaru; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Ozaki, Norio

2009-05-15

114

Localization of Cognitive Operations in the Human Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesizes that the human brain localizes mental operations which are integrated in the performance of cognitive tasks such as reading. Provides support of this hypothesis from studies in neural imaging, mental imagery, timing, and memory. (RT)

Posner, Michael I.; And Others

1988-01-01

115

Subliminal Instrumental Conditioning Demonstrated in the Human Brain  

E-print Network

Neuron Report Subliminal Instrumental Conditioning Demonstrated in the Human Brain Mathias. Such asser- tions may rely on subconscious associative learning between subliminal signals present in a given learned associations between treatment outcomes and subliminal signs presented by their patients. Likewise

Daunizeau, Jean

116

The morphological and neurochemical effects of diffuse brain injury on rat central noradrenergic system.  

PubMed

The central noradrenergic system is widely distributed throughout the brain and is closely related to spontaneous motility and level of consciousness. The study presented here evaluated the morphological as well as neurochemical effects of diffuse brain injury on the central noradrenergic system in rat. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to impact-acceleration brain injury produced with a weight-drop device. Morphological changes in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons were examined by using immunohistochemistry for dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, and norepinephrine (NE) turnover in the cerebral cortex was measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The size of LC neurons increased by 11% 24 h after injury but had decreased by 27% seven days after injury. Axons of noradrenergic neurons were swollen 24 h and 48 h after injury but the swelling had dwindled in seven days. NE turnover was significantly reduced seven days after injury and remained at a low level until eight weeks after injury. These results suggest that focal impairment of axonal transport due to diffuse brain injury causes cellular changes in LC and that the neurochemical effect of injury on the central noradrenargic system lasts over an extended period of time. Chronic suppression of NE turnover may explain the sustained behavioral and psychological abnormalities observed in a clinical situation. PMID:12564124

Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Kohmura, Eiji; Yuguchi, Takamichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

2003-01-01

117

DRUG DELIVERY INTO THE HUMAN BRAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large proteins for the treatment of diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and other disorders affecting the central nervous system (CNS) cannot easily penetrate the brain blood barrier (BBB). As an alternative to delivery through the blood stream, drugs may be inserted into the brain tissue directly using invasive release techniques. Direct injection is expected to gain importance in advanced medical

A. A. Linninger; M. B. R Somayaji; M. Xenos; S. Kondapalli

118

New maps of the human brain  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a recent workshop at which advancements in the study of the structure and function of the brain were discussed. Although studies utilizing techniques of MRI, electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have been useful, positron emission tomography is the only technique capable, at present, of giving images of activity across the entire brain.

Not Available

1990-01-01

119

Statistical parametric mapping of brain morphology: Sensitivity is dramatically increased by using brain-extracted images as inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major attraction of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is that it allows researchers to explore large datasets with minimal human intervention. However, the validity and sensitivity of the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) approach to VBM are the subject of considerable debate. We visually inspected the SPM2 gray matter segmentations for 101 research participants and found a gross inclusion of non-brain tissue

George Fein; Bennett Landman; Hoang Tran; Jerome Barakos; Kirk Moon; Victoria Di Sclafani; Robert Shumway

2006-01-01

120

Estimating Neural Signal Dynamics in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Although brain imaging methods are highly effective for localizing the effects of neural activation throughout the human brain in terms of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response, there is currently no way to estimate the underlying neural signal dynamics in generating the BOLD response in each local activation region (except for processes slower than the BOLD time course). Knowledge of the neural signal is critical if spatial mapping is to progress to the analysis of dynamic information flow through the cortical networks as the brain performs its tasks. We introduce an analytic approach that provides a new level of conceptualization and specificity in the study of brain processing by non-invasive methods. This technique allows us to use brain imaging methods to determine the dynamics of local neural population responses to their native temporal resolution throughout the human brain, with relatively narrow confidence intervals on many response properties. The ability to characterize local neural dynamics in the human brain represents a significant enhancement of brain imaging capabilities, with potential applications ranging from general cognitive studies to assessment of neuropathologies. PMID:21713117

Tyler, Christopher W.; Likova, Lora T.

2011-01-01

121

Anatomical regional differences in selenium levels in the human brain.  

PubMed

The role of selenium in human brain physiology, as well as in aging and neurodegenerative processes, remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish the "normal" (reference) levels for selenium in the human brain, as well as anatomical regional differences and age-related changes. Using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after sample microwave-assisted acid digestion, selenium levels were measured in 14 different areas of the brain of adult individuals (n?=?42; 71??12, range 50-101years old) without a known history of neurodegenerative, neurological, or psychiatric disorders. In the whole data set (n?=?588; 42 individuals??14 brain areas), selenium levels ranged from 552 to 1435ng/g, with a mean??SD content of 959??178ng/g (dry weight basis). Selenium distribution across the different brain areas was heterogeneous, with the highest levels in the putamen, parietal inferior lobule, and occipital cortex and the lowest expression in the medulla and cerebellum. Selenium levels were unchanged with aging. Compared with the age-matched control group, significantly increased levels of selenium were found in the globus pallidus, superior temporal gyrus, and frontal cortex of Parkinson's disease (n?=?1) and Alzheimer's disease (n?=?2) patients. This study provides new data on the anatomical regional differences in selenium levels in the human brain, which will aid future interpretation of studies examining brain tissue affected by neurodegenerative (and other) brain diseases. PMID:25413879

Ramos, Patrcia; Santos, Agostinho; Pinto, Nair Rosas; Mendes, Ricardo; Magalhes, Teresa; Almeida, Agostinho

2015-02-01

122

Morphological and functional characteristics of human gingival junctional epithelium  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to observe the morphological characteristics and identify the function characteristics of junctional epithelium (JE) tissues and cultured JE cells. Methods Paraffin sections of human molar or premolar on the gingival buccolingual side were prepared from 6 subjects. HE staining and image analysis were performed to measure and compare the morphological difference among JE, oral gingival epithelium (OGE) and sulcular epithelium (SE). Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression pattern of cytokeratin 5/6, 7, 8/18, 10/13, 16, 17, 19, and 20 in JE, OGE and SE. On the other hand, primary human JE and OGE cells were cultured in vitro. Cell identify was confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry. In a co-culture model, TEM was used to observe the attachment formation between JE cells and tooth surface. Results Human JE was a unique tissue which was different from SE and OGE in morphology. Similarly, morphology of JE cells was also particular compared with OGE cells cultured in vitro. In addition, JE cells had a longer incubation period than OGE cells. Different expression of several CKs illustrated JE was in a characteristic of low differentiation and high regeneration. After being co-cultured for 14 d, multiple cell layers, basement membrane-like and hemidesmosome-like structures were appeared at the junction of JE cell membrane and tooth surface. Conclusions JE is a specially stratified epithelium with low differentiation and high regeneration ability in gingival tissue both in vivo and in vitro. In co-culture model, human JE cells can form basement membrane-like and hemidesmosome-like structures in about 2weeks. PMID:24708739

2014-01-01

123

Alcohol-Related Brain Damage in Humans  

PubMed Central

Chronic excessive alcohol intoxications evoke cumulative damage to tissues and organs. We examined prefrontal cortex (Brodmanns area (BA) 9) from 20 human alcoholics and 20 age, gender, and postmortem delay matched control subjects. H & E staining and light microscopy of prefrontal cortex tissue revealed a reduction in the levels of cytoskeleton surrounding the nuclei of cortical and subcortical neurons, and a disruption of subcortical neuron patterning in alcoholic subjects. BA 9 tissue homogenisation and one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) proteomics of cytosolic proteins identified dramatic reductions in the protein levels of spectrin ? II, and ?- and ?-tubulins in alcoholics, and these were validated and quantitated by Western blotting. We detected a significant increase in ?-tubulin acetylation in alcoholics, a non-significant increase in isoaspartate protein damage, but a significant increase in protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase protein levels, the enzyme that triggers isoaspartate damage repair in vivo. There was also a significant reduction in proteasome activity in alcoholics. One dimensional PAGE of membrane-enriched fractions detected a reduction in ?-spectrin protein levels, and a significant increase in transmembranous ?3 (catalytic) subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase in alcoholic subjects. However, control subjects retained stable oligomeric forms of ?-subunit that were diminished in alcoholics. In alcoholics, significant loss of cytosolic ?- and ?-tubulins were also seen in caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, but to different levels, indicative of brain regional susceptibility to alcohol-related damage. Collectively, these protein changes provide a molecular basis for some of the neuronal and behavioural abnormalities attributed to alcoholics. PMID:24699688

Erdozain, Amaia M.; Morentin, Benito; Bedford, Lynn; King, Emma; Tooth, David; Brewer, Charlotte; Wayne, Declan; Johnson, Laura; Gerdes, Henry K.; Wigmore, Peter; Callado, Luis F.; Carter, Wayne G.

2014-01-01

124

General Anesthesia and Human Brain Connectivity  

PubMed Central

Abstract General anesthesia consists of amnesia, hypnosis, analgesia, and areflexia. Of these, the mechanism of hypnosis, or loss of consciousness, has been the most elusive, yet a fascinating problem. How anesthetic agents suppress human consciousness has been investigated with neuroimaging for two decades. Anesthetics substantially reduce the global cerebral metabolic rate and blood flow with a degree of regional heterogeneity characteristic to the anesthetic agent. The thalamus appears to be a common site of modulation by several anesthetics, but this may be secondary to cortical effects. Stimulus-dependent brain activation is preserved in primary sensory areas, suggesting that unconsciousness cannot be explained by cortical deafferentation or a diminution of cortical sensory reactivity. The effect of general anesthetics in functional and effective connectivity is varied depending on the agent, dose, and network studied. At an anesthetic depth characterized by the subjects' unresponsiveness, a partial, but not complete, reduction in connectivity is generally observed. Functional connectivity of the frontoparietal association cortex is often reduced, but a causal role of this change for the loss of consciousness remains uncertain. Functional connectivity of the nonspecific (intralaminar) thalamic nuclei is preferentially reduced by propofol. Higher-order thalamocortical connectivity is also reduced with certain anesthetics. The changes in functional connectivity during anesthesia induction and emergence do not mirror each other; the recovery from anesthesia may involve increases in functional connectivity above the normal wakeful baseline. Anesthetic loss of consciousness is not a block of corticofugal information transfer, but a disruption of higher-order cortical information integration. The prime candidates for functional networks of the forebrain that play a critical role in maintaining the state of consciousness are those based on the posterior parietal-cingulate-precuneus region and the nonspecific thalamus. PMID:23153273

2012-01-01

125

Conscious Brain-to-Brain Communication in Humans Using Non-Invasive Technologies  

PubMed Central

Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues. PMID:25137064

Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Juli L.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

2014-01-01

126

In: (B+H)CI: The Human in Brain-Computer Interfaces and the Brain in Human-Computer Interaction. Desney S Tan, Anton Nijholt (eds.)  

E-print Network

In: (B+H)CI: The Human in Brain-Computer Interfaces and the Brain in Human- Computer Interaction the capabilities of the widely used EEGLAB signal processing environment. #12;2 Introduction Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems and algorithms allow the use of brain signals as volitional communication devices

Delorme, Arnaud

127

Brain asymmetry is encoded at the level of axon terminal morphology  

PubMed Central

Background Functional lateralization is a conserved feature of the central nervous system (CNS). However, underlying left-right asymmetries within neural circuitry and the mechanisms by which they develop are poorly described. Results In this study, we use focal electroporation to examine the morphology and connectivity of individual neurons of the lateralized habenular nuclei. Habenular projection neurons on both sides of the brain share a stereotypical unipolar morphology and elaborate remarkable spiraling terminal arbors in their target interpeduncular nucleus, a morphology unlike that of any other class of neuron described to date. There are two quite distinct sub-types of axon arbor that differ both in branching morphology and in their localization within the target nucleus. Critically, both arbor morphologies are elaborated by both left and right-sided neurons, but at greatly differing frequencies. We show that these differences in cell type composition account for the gross connectional asymmetry displayed by the left and right habenulae. Analysis of the morphology and projections of individual post-synaptic neurons suggests that the target nucleus has the capacity to either integrate left and right inputs or to handle them independently, potentially relaying information from the left and right habenulae within distinct downstream pathways, thus preserving left-right coding. Furthermore, we find that signaling from the unilateral, left-sided parapineal nucleus is necessary for both left and right axons to develop arbors with appropriate morphology and targeting. However, following parapineal ablation, left and right habenular neurons continue to elaborate arbors with distinct, lateralized morphologies. Conclusion By taking the analysis of asymmetric neural circuitry to the level of single cells, we have resolved left-right differences in circuit microarchitecture and show that lateralization can be recognized at the level of the morphology and connectivity of single projection neuron axons. Crucially, the same circuitry components are specified on both sides of the brain, but differences in the ratios of different neuronal sub-types results in a lateralized neural architecture and gross connectional asymmetry. Although signaling from the parapineal is essential for the development of normal lateralization, additional factors clearly act during development to confer left-right identity upon neurons in this highly conserved circuit. PMID:18377638

Bianco, Isaac H; Carl, Matthias; Russell, Claire; Clarke, Jonathan DW; Wilson, Stephen W

2008-01-01

128

Evolution of the human brain: when bigger is better  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of the brain in mammals suggest that there are general architectural principles governing its growth and evolutionary development. We are beginning to understand the geometric, biophysical and energy constraints that have governed the evolution and functional organization of the brain and its underlying neuronal network. The object of this review is to present current perspectives on primate brain evolution, especially in humans, and to examine some hypothetical organizing principles that underlie the brain's complex organization. Some of the design principles and operational modes that underlie the information processing capacity of the cerebral cortex in primates will be explored. It is shown that the development of the cortex coordinates folding with connectivity in a way that produces smaller and faster brains, then otherwise would have been possible. In view of the central importance placed on brain evolution in explaining the success of our own species, one may wonder whether there are physical limits that constrain its processing power and evolutionary potential. It will be argued that at a brain size of about 3500 cm3, corresponding to a brain volume two to three times that of modern man, the brain seems to reach its maximum processing capacity. The larger the brain grows beyond this critical size, the less efficient it will become, thus limiting any improvement in cognitive power. PMID:24723857

Hofman, Michel A.

2014-01-01

129

Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

Luo, Qingming

2001-08-01

130

Patterns of brain morphology in mid-European Cyprinidae (Pisces, Teleostei): a quantitative histological study.  

PubMed

The present study considers patterns of brain morphology in 14 common species of mid-European Cyprinidae. Sixteen areas per brain were measured on serial cryostat sections by computer-aided planimetry. The volumes of these areas were expressed as % of the total brain volume. These brain centres (ranked according to falling values of the coefficient of variation VR, of the interspecific mean) are: Lobus facialis, L. vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum. Seven primary sensory areas are leading in VR; highest in interspecific variability were the two special viscerosensory brainstem lobes for external (L. facialis) and internal (L. vagus) taste. Low in interspecific variability were integration centres (see above). By plotting the relative volumina of those brain centres which represent three major sensory modalities: brain stem chemosense, acoustico-lateralis and sense of vision, species are separated into three groups: 1) Most species scatter along an axis from moderately (Aspius aspius, Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus cephalus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Alburnus alburnus, Chondrostoma nasus) to highly developed chemo- and acustico-lateralis centres (Vimba vimba, Abramis brama, Abramis ballerus). Blicca bjoercna is situated in the middle of this axis. Within the latter group the optic centres are evenly well developed. 2) Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio and Tinca tinca are characterized by relatively small acoustico-lateralis and optic areas, but highly developed chemocentres. 3) Pelecus cultratus is monotypic among the species investigated by having large acoustico-lateralis and optic, but modestly developed chemocentres. The brain patterns relative to life style are discussed. PMID:3418119

Kotrschal, K; Junger, H

1988-01-01

131

Molecular evolution of microcephalin, a gene determining human brain size.  

PubMed

Microcephalin gene is one of the major players in regulating human brain development. It was reported that truncated mutations in this gene can cause primary microcephaly in humans with a brain size comparable with that of early hominids. We studied the molecular evolution of microcephalin by sequencing the coding region of microcephalin gene in humans and 12 representative non-human primate species covering great apes, lesser apes, Old World monkeys and New World monkeys. Our results showed that microcephalin is highly polymorphic in human populations. We observed 22 substitutions in the coding region of microcephalin gene in human populations, with 15 of them causing amino acid changes. The neutrality tests and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the rich sequence variations of microcephalin in humans are likely caused by the combination of recent population expansion and Darwinian positive selection. The synonymous/non-synonymous analyses in primates revealed positive selection on microcephalin during the origin of the last common ancestor of humans and great apes, which coincides with the drastic brain enlargement from lesser apes to great apes. The codon-based neutrality test also indicated the signal of positive selection on five individual amino acid sites of microcephalin, which may contribute to brain enlargement during primate evolution and human origin. PMID:15056608

Wang, Yin-Qiu; Su, Bing

2004-06-01

132

Cognitive impact of genetic variation of the serotonin transporter in primates is associated with differences in brain morphology rather than serotonin neurotransmission  

PubMed Central

A powerful convergence of genetics, neuroimaging and epidemiological research has identified biological pathways mediating individual differences in complex behavioral processes and related risk for disease. Orthologous genetic variation in non-human primates represents a unique opportunity to characterize the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms which bias behaviorally- and clinically-relevant brain function. We report that a rhesus macaque orthologue of a common polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (rh5-HTTLPR) has strikingly similar effects on behavior and brain morphology to those in humans. Specifically, the rh5-HTTLPR Short allele broadly impacts cognitive choice behavior and brain morphology without observably affecting 5-HT transporter or 5-HT1A concentrations in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that 5-HTTLPR-associated behavioral effects reflect genotype-dependent biases in cortical development rather than static differences in serotonergic signaling mechanisms. Moreover, these data highlight the vast potential of non-human primate models in advancing our understanding of human genetic variation impacting behavior and neuropsychiatric disease liability. PMID:19721434

Jedema, Hank P.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Greer, Phillip J.; Kerr, Dustin D.; Liu, Shijing; Higley, James D.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Olsen, Adam S.; Porter, Jessica N.; Lopresti, Brian J.; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Bradberry, Charles W.

2009-01-01

133

Human enteric neurons: morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical identification  

PubMed Central

Background Access to tissue, difficulties with dissection, and poor visibility of enteric ganglia have hampered electrophysiological recordings of human enteric neurons. Here, we report a method to combine intracellular recording with simultaneous morphological identification of neurons in the intact myenteric plexus of human colon ex vivo. Methods Specimens of human colon were dissected into flat-sheet preparations with the myenteric plexus exposed. Myenteric neurons were impaled with conventional microelectrodes containing 5% 5,6-carboxyfluorescein in 20mM Tris buffer and 1M KC. Key Results Electrophysiological recordings identified myenteric neurons with S and AH type properties (n=13, N=7) which were dye filled and classified during the recording as Dogiel type I (n=10), Dogiel type II (n=2), or filamentous (n=1) cells. This classification was confirmed after fixation, in combination with immunohistochemical characterization. Conclusions & Inferences This method allows electrophysiological characterization with simultaneous identification of morphology. It can be used to identify recorded cells immediately after impalement and greatly facilitates recordings of human myenteric neurons in freshly dissected specimens of tissue. It can also be combined with immunohistochemical labeling of recorded cells. PMID:25293378

Carbone, S E; Jovanovska, V; Nurgali, K; Brookes, S J H

2014-01-01

134

Adaptive Image Enhancement for Tracing 3D Morphologies of Neurons and Brain Vasculatures.  

PubMed

It is important to digitally reconstruct the 3D morphology of neurons and brain vasculatures. A number of previous methods have been proposed to automate the reconstruction process. However, in many cases, noise and low signal contrast with respect to the image background still hamper our ability to use automation methods directly. Here, we propose an adaptive image enhancement method specifically designed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of several types of individual neurons and brain vasculature images. Our method is based on detecting the salient features of fibrous structures, e.g. the axon and dendrites combined with adaptive estimation of the optimal context windows where such saliency would be detected. We tested this method for a range of brain image datasets and imaging modalities, including bright-field, confocal and multiphoton fluorescent images of neurons, and magnetic resonance angiograms. Applying our adaptive enhancement to these datasets led to improved accuracy and speed in automated tracing of complicated morphology of neurons and vasculatures. PMID:25310965

Zhou, Zhi; Sorensen, Staci; Zeng, Hongkui; Hawrylycz, Michael; Peng, Hanchuan

2014-10-14

135

BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics.  

PubMed

The human brain is a complex system whose topological organization can be represented using connectomics. Recent studies have shown that human connectomes can be constructed using various neuroimaging technologies and further characterized using sophisticated analytic strategies, such as graph theory. These methods reveal the intriguing topological architectures of human brain networks in healthy populations and explore the changes throughout normal development and aging and under various pathological conditions. However, given the huge complexity of this methodology, toolboxes for graph-based network visualization are still lacking. Here, using MATLAB with a graphical user interface (GUI), we developed a graph-theoretical network visualization toolbox, called BrainNet Viewer, to illustrate human connectomes as ball-and-stick models. Within this toolbox, several combinations of defined files with connectome information can be loaded to display different combinations of brain surface, nodes and edges. In addition, display properties, such as the color and size of network elements or the layout of the figure, can be adjusted within a comprehensive but easy-to-use settings panel. Moreover, BrainNet Viewer draws the brain surface, nodes and edges in sequence and displays brain networks in multiple views, as required by the user. The figure can be manipulated with certain interaction functions to display more detailed information. Furthermore, the figures can be exported as commonly used image file formats or demonstration video for further use. BrainNet Viewer helps researchers to visualize brain networks in an easy, flexible and quick manner, and this software is freely available on the NITRC website (www.nitrc.org/projects/bnv/). PMID:23861951

Xia, Mingrui; Wang, Jinhui; He, Yong

2013-01-01

136

BrainNet Viewer: A Network Visualization Tool for Human Brain Connectomics  

PubMed Central

The human brain is a complex system whose topological organization can be represented using connectomics. Recent studies have shown that human connectomes can be constructed using various neuroimaging technologies and further characterized using sophisticated analytic strategies, such as graph theory. These methods reveal the intriguing topological architectures of human brain networks in healthy populations and explore the changes throughout normal development and aging and under various pathological conditions. However, given the huge complexity of this methodology, toolboxes for graph-based network visualization are still lacking. Here, using MATLAB with a graphical user interface (GUI), we developed a graph-theoretical network visualization toolbox, called BrainNet Viewer, to illustrate human connectomes as ball-and-stick models. Within this toolbox, several combinations of defined files with connectome information can be loaded to display different combinations of brain surface, nodes and edges. In addition, display properties, such as the color and size of network elements or the layout of the figure, can be adjusted within a comprehensive but easy-to-use settings panel. Moreover, BrainNet Viewer draws the brain surface, nodes and edges in sequence and displays brain networks in multiple views, as required by the user. The figure can be manipulated with certain interaction functions to display more detailed information. Furthermore, the figures can be exported as commonly used image file formats or demonstration video for further use. BrainNet Viewer helps researchers to visualize brain networks in an easy, flexible and quick manner, and this software is freely available on the NITRC website (www.nitrc.org/projects/bnv/). PMID:23861951

Xia, Mingrui; Wang, Jinhui; He, Yong

2013-01-01

137

Identification of a Cancer Stem Cell in Human Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current research on human brain tumors is focused on the molecular and cellular analysis of the bulk tumor mass. However, there is overwhelming evidence in some malignancies that the tumor clone is heterogeneous with respect to proliferation and differentiation. In human leukemia, the tumor clone is organized as a hierarchy that originates from rare leukemic stem cells that possess

Sheila K. Singh; Ian D. Clarke; Mizuhiko Terasaki; Victoria E. Bonn; Cynthia Hawkins; Jeremy Squire; Peter B. Dirks

2003-01-01

138

The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic

Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

2007-01-01

139

The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

2013-12-01

140

Brain potentials for derivational morphology: an ERP study of deadjectival nominalizations in Spanish.  

PubMed

This study investigates brain potentials to derived word forms in Spanish. Two experiments were performed on derived nominals that differ in terms of their productivity and semantic properties but are otherwise similar, an acceptability judgment task and a reading experiment using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in which correctly and incorrectly formed derived words were presented in sentence contexts. The first experiment indicated productivity differences between the different nominalization processes in Spanish. The second experiment yielded a pattern of ERP responses that differed from both the familiar lexical-semantic and grammatical ERP effects. Violations of derivational morphology elicited an increased N400 component plus a late positivity (P600), unlike gender-agreement violations, which produced the biphasic LAN/P600 ERP pattern known from previous studies of morpho-syntactic violations. We conclude that the recognition of derived word forms engages both word-level (lexical-semantic) and decompositional (morpheme-based) processes. PMID:22169628

Havas, Viktria; Rodrguez-Fornells, Antoni; Clahsen, Harald

2012-03-01

141

Neurocontrol: Recent Advances and Links with the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the aims in the AI research, is to understand the principles and mechanisms of intelligence in the human brain. Definitely\\u000a the brain is a neurocontroller, a collection of neurons which learn to output the right actions or decisions over time. This\\u000a paper describes recent neurocontrol designs which are considered the state-of-the-art for intelligent control and their plausibility\\u000a as

Dimitris C. Dracopoulos

1997-01-01

142

Electrophysiological signatures of resting state networks in the human brain  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have documented a dynamic baseline of intrinsic (not stimulus- or task-evoked) brain activity during resting wakefulness. This baseline is characterized by slow (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations of functional imaging signals that are topographically organized in discrete brain networks, and by much faster (180 Hz) electrical oscillations. To investigate the relationship between hemodynamic and electrical oscillations, we have adopted a completely data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using independent component analysis on the fMRI data, we identified six widely distributed resting state networks. The blood oxygenation level-dependent signal fluctuations associated with each network were correlated with the EEG power variations of delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma rhythms. Each functional network was characterized by a specific electrophysiological signature that involved the combination of different brain rhythms. Moreover, the joint EEG/fMRI analysis afforded a finer physiological fractionation of brain networks in the resting human brain. This result supports for the first time in humans the coalescence of several brain rhythms within large-scale brain networks as suggested by biophysical studies. PMID:17670949

Mantini, D.; Perrucci, M. G.; Del Gratta, C.; Romani, G. L.; Corbetta, M.

2007-01-01

143

TV, Brain Waves and Human Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the procedure to test the hypothesis that subjects' brain waves in response to a television flicker (distraction) would be smaller in amplitude during television programs of high, in contrast to low, interest. Results from 12 viewers support the hypothesis. (CP)

Science News, 1978

1978-01-01

144

Cell lineage analysis in human brain using endogenous retroelements.  

PubMed

Somatic mutations occur during brain development and are increasingly implicated as a cause of neurogenetic disease. However, the patterns in which somatic mutations distribute in the human brain are unknown. We used high-coverage whole-genome sequencing of single neurons from a normal individual to identify spontaneous somatic mutations as clonal marks to track cell lineages in human brain.Somatic mutation analyses in >30 locations throughout the nervous system identified multiple lineages and sublineages of cells marked by different LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition events and subsequent mutation of poly-A microsatellites within L1. One clone contained thousands of cells limited to the left middle frontal gyrus, whereas a second distinct clone contained millions of cells distributed over the entire left hemisphere. These patterns mirror known somatic mutation disorders of brain development and suggest that focally distributed mutations are also prevalent in normal brains. Single-cell analysis of somatic mutation enables tracing of cell lineage clones in human brain. PMID:25569347

Evrony, Gilad D; Lee, Eunjung; Mehta, Bhaven K; Benjamini, Yuval; Johnson, Robert M; Cai, Xuyu; Yang, Lixing; Haseley, Psalm; Lehmann, Hillel S; Park, Peter J; Walsh, Christopher A

2015-01-01

145

Toward discovery science of human brain function.  

PubMed

Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations in the fMRI signal that are temporally correlated across functionally related areas. Referred to as functional connectivity, these correlations yield detailed maps of complex neural systems, collectively constituting an individual's "functional connectome." Reproducibility across datasets and individuals suggests the functional connectome has a common architecture, yet each individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships, will require multicenter collaborative datasets. Here we initiate this endeavor by gathering R-fMRI data from 1,414 volunteers collected independently at 35 international centers. We demonstrate a universal architecture of positive and negative functional connections, as well as consistent loci of inter-individual variability. Age and sex emerged as significant determinants. These results demonstrate that independent R-fMRI datasets can be aggregated and shared. High-throughput R-fMRI can provide quantitative phenotypes for molecular genetic studies and biomarkers of developmental and pathological processes in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/. PMID:20176931

Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Ktter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

2010-03-01

146

Infrasounds and biorhythms of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and infrasound has begun a new public health hazard. Evaluations of annoyance of (LFN) on human occupational health were based on standards where reactions of human auditory system and vibrations of parts of human body were small. Significant sensitivity has been observed on the central nervous system from infrasonic waves especially below 10 Hz. Observed follow-up

Ryszard Panuszka; Zbigniew Damijan; Cezary Kasprzak; James McGlothlin

2002-01-01

147

Individual differences in anthropomorphic attributions and human brain structure.  

PubMed

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics or behaviour to animals, non-living things or natural phenomena. It is pervasive among humans, yet nonetheless exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variability. We hypothesized that brain areas associated with anthropomorphic thinking might be similar to those engaged in the attribution of mental states to other humans, the so-called 'theory of mind' or mentalizing network. To test this hypothesis, we related brain structure measured using magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 83 healthy young adults to a simple, self-report questionnaire that measured the extent to which our participants made anthropomorphic attributions about non-human animals and non-animal stimuli. We found that individual differences in anthropomorphism for non-human animals correlated with the grey matter volume of the left temporoparietal junction, a brain area involved in mentalizing. Our data support previous work indicating a link between areas of the brain involved in attributing mental states to other humans and those involved in anthropomorphism. PMID:23887807

Cullen, Harriet; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

2014-09-01

148

Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain  

PubMed Central

The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patients own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Hvard K.; Nygrd, Stle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

2013-01-01

149

Representation of frequency-modulated sounds in the human brain.  

PubMed

Frequency-modulation is a ubiquitous sound feature present in communicative sounds of various animal species and humans. Functional imaging of the human auditory system has seen remarkable advances in the last two decades and studies pertaining to frequency-modulation have centered around two major questions: a) are there dedicated feature-detectors encoding frequency-modulation in the brain and b) is there concurrent representation with amplitude-modulation, another temporal sound feature? In this review, we first describe how these two questions are motivated by psychophysical studies and neurophysiology in animal models. We then review how human non-invasive neuroimaging studies have furthered our understanding of the representation of frequency-modulated sounds in the brain. Finally, we conclude with some suggestions on how human neuroimaging could be used in future studies to address currently still open questions on this fundamental sound feature. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. PMID:23933098

Altmann, Christian F; Gaese, Bernhard H

2014-01-01

150

Heterogeneity of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in adult human brain  

PubMed Central

Objective Remyelination in multiple sclerosis has been attributed to the presence of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in brain parenchyma. However, the precise identity of these progenitors is poorly defined. Here, we characterized populations of OPCs in the adult human brain and examined their myelination capacity and profile of miRNAs. Comparisons were made with fetal OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes. Methods We isolated human adult and fetal (early-to-mid second trimester) OPCs from surgically resected brain tissues using O4-, A2B5-, and MOG-directed fluorescence activated cell sorting and transplanted them into dysmyelinated shiverer slices to examine their myelination capacity. We used qRT-PCR to analyze expression of selective miRNAs implicated in OPC biology. Results Three subsets of putative OPCs were identified in adult brains: (1) A2B5(+), (2) O4low, and (3) A2B5(+)O4highMOG(+) progenitors. In comparison, fetal brains contained (1) A2B5(+), (2) O4(+), and (3) A2B5(+)O4(+) progenitors, but no MOG(+) cells. We demonstrate that like fetal OPCs, adult OPCs have the capacity to ensheathe cerebellar axons. However, adult OPCs exhibit low to undetectable expression of miRNAs that were highly expressed in O4-expressing fetal OPCs. Adult OPCs also express different miRNAs compared to mature oligodendrocytes. Interpretation We conclude that phenotypically distinct subsets of OPCs are present in adult human brain and these OPCs show differential miRNA expression compared to fetal OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes. These suggest that remyelination in adult brain may involve multiple populations of progenitors within the brain and that OPC differentiation in adulthood may be differentially regulated compared to development.

Leong, Soo Yuen; Rao, Vijayaraghava T S; Bin, Jenea M; Gris, Pavel; Sangaralingam, Mugundhine; Kennedy, Timothy E; Antel, Jack P

2014-01-01

151

Measuring dopamine release in the human brain with PET  

SciTech Connect

The dopamine system is involved in the regulation of brain regions that subserve motor, cognitive and motivational behaviors. Disruptions of dopamine (DA) function have ben implicated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses including substance abuse as well as on some of the deficits associated with aging of the human brain. This has made the DA system an important topic in research in the neurosciences and neuroimaging as well as an important molecular target for drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), was the first technology that enabled direct measurement of components of the DA system in the living human brain. Imaging studies of DA in the living brain have been indirect, relying on the development of radiotracers to label DA receptors, DA transporters, compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade synaptic DA. Additionally, through the use of tracers that provide information on regional brain activity (ie brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow) and of appropriate pharmacological interventions, it has been possible to assess the functional consequences of changes in brain DA activity. DA specific ligands have been useful in the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses as well as to investigate receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs. A limitation of strategies that rely on the use of DA specific ligands is that the measures do not necessarily reflect the functional state of the dopaminergic system and that there use to study the effects of drugs is limited to the investigation of receptor or transporter occupancy. Newer strategies have been developed in an attempt to provide with information on dopamine release and on the functional responsivity of the DA system in the human brain. This in turn allows to investigate the effects of pharmacological agent in an analogous way to what is done with microdialysis techniques.

Volkow, N.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-12-01

152

Edaravone Protects against Methylglyoxal-Induced Barrier Damage in Human Brain Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated level of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal, triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. Our aim was to test whether edaravone can exert a protective effect on the barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) treated with methylglyoxal. Methodology Cell viability was monitored in real-time by impedance-based cell electronic sensing. The barrier function of the monolayer was characterized by measurement of resistance and flux of permeability markers, and visualized by immunohistochemistry for claudin-5 and ?-catenin. Cell morphology was also examined by holographic phase imaging. Principal Findings Methylglyoxal exerted a time- and dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human brain endothelial cells: a concentration of 600 M resulted in about 50% toxicity, significantly reduced the integrity and increased the permeability of the barrier. The cell morphology also changed dramatically: the area of cells decreased, their optical height significantly increased. Edaravone (3 mM) provided a complete protection against the toxic effect of methylglyoxal. Co-administration of edaravone restored cell viability, barrier integrity and functions of brain endothelial cells. Similar protection was obtained by the well-known antiglycating molecule, aminoguanidine, our reference compound. Conclusion These results indicate for the first time that edaravone is protective in carbonyl stress induced barrier damage. Our data may contribute to the development of compounds to treat brain endothelial dysfunction in carbonyl stress related diseases. PMID:25033388

Tth, Andrea E.; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Bocsik, Alexandra; Sntha, Petra; Veszelka, Szilvia; Nagy, Lajos; Pusks, Lszl G.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Takata, Fuyuko; Dohgu, Shinya; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Deli, Mria A.

2014-01-01

153

Spatial-temporal atlas of human fetal brain development during the early second trimester.  

PubMed

During the second trimester, the human fetal brain undergoes numerous changes that lead to substantial variation in the neonatal in terms of its morphology and tissue types. As fetal MRI is more and more widely used for studying the human brain development during this period, a spatiotemporal atlas becomes necessary for characterizing the dynamic structural changes. In this study, 34 postmortem human fetal brains with gestational ages ranging from 15 to 22 weeks were scanned using 7.0 T MR. We used automated morphometrics, tensor-based morphometry and surface modeling techniques to analyze the data. Spatiotemporal atlases of each week and the overall atlas covering the whole period with high resolution and contrast were created. These atlases were used for the analysis of age-specific shape changes during this period, including development of the cerebral wall, lateral ventricles, Sylvian fissure, and growth direction based on local surface measurements. Our findings indicate that growth of the subplate zone is especially striking and is the main cause for the lamination pattern changes. Changes in the cortex around Sylvian fissure demonstrate that cortical growth may be one of the mechanisms for gyration. Surface deformation mapping, revealed by local shape analysis, indicates that there is global anterior-posterior growth pattern, with frontal and temporal lobes developing relatively quickly during this period. Our results are valuable for understanding the normal brain development trajectories and anatomical characteristics. These week-by-week fetal brain atlases can be used as reference in in vivo studies, and may facilitate the quantification of fetal brain development across space and time. PMID:23727529

Zhan, Jinfeng; Dinov, Ivo D; Li, Junning; Zhang, Zhonghe; Hobel, Sam; Shi, Yonggang; Lin, Xiangtao; Zamanyan, Alen; Feng, Lei; Teng, Gaojun; Fang, Fang; Tang, Yuchun; Zang, Fengchao; Toga, Arthur W; Liu, Shuwei

2013-11-15

154

Neurogenesis in the striatum of the adult human brain.  

PubMed

In most mammals, neurons are added throughout life in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. One area where neuroblasts that give rise to adult-born neurons are generated is the lateral ventricle wall of the brain. We show, using histological and carbon-14 dating approaches, that in adult humans new neurons integrate in the striatum, which is adjacent to this neurogenic niche. The neuronal turnover in the striatum appears restricted to interneurons, and postnatally generated striatal neurons are preferentially depleted in patients with Huntington's disease. Our findings demonstrate a unique pattern of neurogenesis in the adult human brain. PMID:24561062

Ernst, Aurlie; Alkass, Kanar; Bernard, Samuel; Salehpour, Mehran; Perl, Shira; Tisdale, John; Possnert, Gran; Druid, Henrik; Frisn, Jonas

2014-02-27

155

Simplified detection system for neuroreceptor studies in the human brain  

SciTech Connect

A simple, inexpensive dual-detector system has been developed for measurement of positronemitting receptor-binding drugs in the human brain. This high efficiency coincidence counting system requires that only a few hundred microcuries of labeled drug be administered to the subject, thereby allowing for multiple studies without an excessive radiation dose. Measurement of the binding of (11C)carfentanil, a high affinity synthetic opiate, to opiate receptors in the presence and in the absence of a competitive opiate antagonist indicates the potential utility of this system for estimating different degrees of receptor occupation in the human brain.

Bice, A.N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Frost, J.J.; Natarajan, T.K.; Lee, M.C.; Wong, D.F.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Links, J.M.

1986-02-01

156

Optical dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of human uterus and brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical 'dose' is one of the fundamental parameters required in the design of an efficacious regimen of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The issues involved in delivering a sufficient optical dose to the human uterus and brain during PDT will be discussed. Specifically, measurements of optical properties and fluence rates in excised human uteri are presented. Measured fluence rates are compared to the predictions of a simple diffusion model and the clinical utility of the treatment is discussed. The delivery of light to brain tissue via a surgically implanted balloon applicator will also be considered. The time required to deliver and adequate dose is calculated based on known optical properties and diffusion theory.

Madsen, Steen J.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Hirschberg, Henry; Tadir, Yona; Tromberg, Bruce J.

1999-06-01

157

Proposed link rates in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing experimental evidence that neuronal synchronization is necessary for the large-scale integration of distributed neuronal activity to realize various time-dependent coherent neuronal assemblies in the brain. Phase synchronization seems a promising candidate to quantify the time-dependent, frequency specific, synchrony between simultaneously recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that may partially reflect this former process. We introduce a link rate (LR)

2003-01-01

158

Mobile phone emissions and human brain excitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To testvia Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)the excitability of each brain hemisphere after 'real' or 'sham' exposure to the electromagnetic field (EMF) generated by a mobile phone operating in the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). Methods: Fifteen male volunteers attended two experimental sessions, one week apart, in a cross-over, double-blind paradigm. In one session the signal was turned ON

Florinda Ferreri; Giuseppe Curcio; Patrizio Pasqualetti; Luigi De Gennaro; Rita Fini; Paolo Maria Rossini

2006-01-01

159

Compact continuum brain model for human electroencephalogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-dimensional, compact brain model has recently been developed based on physiologically based mean-field continuum formulation of electric activity of the brain. The essential feature of the new compact model is a second order time-delayed differential equation that has physiologically plausible terms, such as rapid corticocortical feedback and delayed feedback via extracortical pathways. Due to its compact form, the model facilitates insight into complex brain dynamics via standard linear and nonlinear techniques. The model successfully reproduces many features of previous models and experiments. For example, experimentally observed typical rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are reproduced in a physiologically plausible parameter region. In the nonlinear regime, onsets of seizures, which often develop into limit cycles, are illustrated by modulating model parameters. It is also shown that a hysteresis can occur when the system has multiple attractors. As a further illustration of this approach, power spectra of the model are fitted to those of sleep EEGs of two subjects (one with apnea, the other with narcolepsy). The model parameters obtained from the fittings show good matches with previous literature. Our results suggest that the compact model can provide a theoretical basis for analyzing complex EEG signals.

Kim, J. W.; Shin, H.-B.; Robinson, P. A.

2007-12-01

160

PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it an important topic in research in the neurosciences and an important molecular target in drug development. PET enables the direct measurement of components of the dopamine system in the living human brain. It relies on radiotracers which label dopamine receptors, dopamine transporters, precursors of dopamine or compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade dopamine. Additionally, by using tracers that provide information on regional brain metabolism or blood flow as well as neurochemically specific pharmacological interventions, PET can be used to assess the functional consequences of change in brain dopamine activity. PET dopamine measurements have been used to investigate the normal human brain and its involvement in psychiatric and neurological diseases. It has also been used in psychopharmacological research to investigate dopamine drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease and of schizophrenia as well as to investigate the effects of drugs of abuse on the dopamine system. Since various functional and neurochemical parameters can be studied in the same subject, PET enables investigation of the functional integrity of the dopamine system in the human brain and investigation of the interactions of dopamine with other neurotransmitters. This paper summarizes the different tracers and experimental strategies developed to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and their applications to clinical research. 254 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY-Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-07-01

161

Energetics and the evolution of human brain size.  

PubMed

The human brain stands out among mammals by being unusually large. The expensive-tissue hypothesis explains its evolution by proposing a trade-off between the size of the brain and that of the digestive tract, which is smaller than expected for a primate of our body size. Although this hypothesis is widely accepted, empirical support so far has been equivocal. Here we test it in a sample of 100 mammalian species, including 23 primates, by analysing brain size and organ mass data. We found that, controlling for fat-free body mass, brain size is not negatively correlated with the mass of the digestive tract or any other expensive organ, thus refuting the expensive-tissue hypothesis. Nonetheless, consistent with the existence of energy trade-offs with brain size, we find that the size of brains and adipose depots are negatively correlated in mammals, indicating that encephalization and fat storage are compensatory strategies to buffer against starvation. However, these two strategies can be combined if fat storage does not unduly hamper locomotor efficiency. We propose that human encephalization was made possible by a combination of stabilization of energy inputs and a redirection of energy from locomotion, growth and reproduction. PMID:22080949

Navarrete, Ana; van Schaik, Carel P; Isler, Karin

2011-12-01

162

The Relationship between Brain Morphology and Polysomnography in Healthy Good Sleepers  

PubMed Central

Background Normal sleep continuity and architecture show remarkable inter-individual variability. Previous studies suggest that brain morphology may explain inter-individual differences in sleep variables. Method Thirty-eight healthy subjects spent two consecutive nights at the sleep laboratory with polysomnographic monitoring. Furthermore, high-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were acquired in all participants. EEG sleep recordings were analyzed using standard sleep staging criteria and power spectral analysis. Using the FreeSurfer software for automated segmentation, 174 variables were determined representing the volume and thickness of cortical segments and the volume of subcortical brain areas. Regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship with polysomnographic and spectral EEG power variables. Results The analysis did not provide any support for the a-priori formulated hypotheses of an association between brain morphology and polysomnographic variables. Exploratory analyses revealed that the thickness of the left caudal anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with EEG beta2 power (2432 Hz) during REM sleep. The volume of the left postcentral gyrus was positively associated with periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS). Conclusions The function of the anterior cingulate cortex as well as EEG beta power during REM sleep have been related to dreaming and sleep-related memory consolidation, which may explain the observed correlation. Increased volumes of the postcentral gyrus may be the result of increased sensory input associated with PLMS. However, due to the exploratory nature of the corresponding analyses, these results have to be replicated before drawing firm conclusions. PMID:25275322

Reinhard, Matthias A.; Regen, Wolfram; Baglioni, Chiara; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Hennig, Jrgen; Riemann, Dieter; Spiegelhalder, Kai

2014-01-01

163

Abnormal Brain Iron Homeostasis in Human and Animal Prion Disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxicity in all prion disorders is believed to result from the accumulation of PrP-scrapie (PrPSc), a ?-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell-surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrPC). Limited reports suggest imbalance of brain iron homeostasis as a significant associated cause of neurotoxicity in prion-infected cell and mouse models. However, systematic studies on the generality of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism(s) leading to iron dyshomeostasis in diseased brains are lacking. In this report, we demonstrate that prion diseaseaffected human, hamster, and mouse brains show increased total and redox-active Fe (II) iron, and a paradoxical increase in major iron uptake proteins transferrin (Tf) and transferrin receptor (TfR) at the end stage of disease. Furthermore, examination of scrapie-inoculated hamster brains at different timepoints following infection shows increased levels of Tf with time, suggesting increasing iron deficiency with disease progression. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD)affected human brains show a similar increase in total iron and a direct correlation between PrP and Tf levels, implicating PrPSc as the underlying cause of iron deficiency. Increased binding of Tf to the cerebellar Purkinje cell neurons of sCJD brains further indicates upregulation of TfR and a phenotype of neuronal iron deficiency in diseased brains despite increased iron levels. The likely cause of this phenotype is sequestration of iron in brain ferritin that becomes detergent-insoluble in PrPSc-infected cell lines and sCJD brain homogenates. These results suggest that sequestration of iron in PrPScferritin complexes induces a state of iron bio-insufficiency in prion diseaseaffected brains, resulting in increased uptake and a state of iron dyshomeostasis. An additional unexpected observation is the resistance of Tf to digestion by proteinase-K, providing a reliable marker for iron levels in postmortem human brains. These data implicate redox-iron in prion diseaseassociated neurotoxicity, a novel observation with significant implications for prion disease pathogenesis. PMID:19283067

Mohan, Maradumane L.; Cohen, Mark L.; Chen, Fusong; Kong, Qingzhong; Bartz, Jason; Singh, Neena

2009-01-01

164

A hierarchical model of the evolution of human brain specializations  

PubMed Central

The study of information-processing adaptations in the brain is controversial, in part because of disputes about the form such adaptations might take. Many psychologists assume that adaptations come in two kinds, specialized and general-purpose. Specialized mechanisms are typically thought of as innate, domain-specific, and isolated from other brain systems, whereas generalized mechanisms are developmentally plastic, domain-general, and interactive. However, if brain mechanisms evolve through processes of descent with modification, they are likely to be heterogeneous, rather than coming in just two kinds. They are likely to be hierarchically organized, with some design features widely shared across brain systems and others specific to particular processes. Also, they are likely to be largely developmentally plastic and interactive with other brain systems, rather than canalized and isolated. This article presents a hierarchical model of brain specialization, reviewing evidence for the model from evolutionary developmental biology, genetics, brain mapping, and comparative studies. Implications for the search for uniquely human traits are discussed, along with ways in which conventional views of modularity in psychology may need to be revised. PMID:22723350

Barrett, H. Clark

2012-01-01

165

Microtesla MRI of the human brain combined with MEG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the challenges in functional brain imaging is integration of complementary imaging modalities, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). MEG, which uses highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to directly measure magnetic fields of neuronal currents, cannot be combined with conventional high-field MRI in a single instrument. Indirect matching of MEG and MRI data leads to significant co-registration errors. A recently proposed imaging methodSQUID-based microtesla MRIcan be naturally combined with MEG in the same system to directly provide structural maps for MEG-localized sources. It enables easy and accurate integration of MEG and MRI/fMRI, because microtesla MR images can be precisely matched to structural images provided by high-field MRI and other techniques. Here we report the first images of the human brain by microtesla MRI, together with auditory MEG (functional) data, recorded using the same seven-channel SQUID system during the same imaging session. The images were acquired at 46 ?T measurement field with pre-polarization at 30 mT. We also estimated transverse relaxation times for different tissues at microtesla fields. Our results demonstrate feasibility and potential of human brain imaging by microtesla MRI. They also show that two new types of imaging equipmentlow-cost systems for anatomical MRI of the human brain at microtesla fields, and more advanced instruments for combined functional (MEG) and structural (microtesla MRI) brain imagingare practical.

Zotev, Vadim S.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Volegov, Petr L.; Savukov, Igor M.; Espy, Michelle A.; Mosher, John C.; Gomez, John J.; Kraus, Robert H.

2008-09-01

166

Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain  

PubMed Central

The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW) model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2, and V3. However, BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain. PMID:25642183

Ramakrishnan, Kandan; Scholte, H. Steven; Groen, Iris I. A.; Smeulders, Arnold W. M.; Ghebreab, Sennay

2015-01-01

167

The Plasticity of Human Maternal Brain: Longitudinal Changes in Brain Anatomy During the Early Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Animal studies suggest that structural changes occur in the maternal brain during the early postpartum period in regions such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, parietal lobe, and prefrontal cortex and such changes are related to the expression of maternal behaviors. In an attempt to explore this in humans, we conducted a prospective longitudinal study to examine gray matter changes using voxel-based morphometry on high resolution magnetic resonance images of mothers brains at two time points: 24 weeks postpartum and 34 months postpartum. Comparing gray matter volumes across these two time points, we found increases in gray matter volume of the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobes, and midbrain areas. Increased gray matter volume in the midbrain including the hypothalamus, substantia nigra, and amygdala was associated with maternal positive perception of her baby. These results suggest that the first months of motherhood in humans are accompanied by structural changes in brain regions implicated in maternal motivation and behaviors. PMID:20939669

Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Feldman, Ruth; Wang, Xin; Swain, James E.

2015-01-01

168

Simple instrument for biochemical studies of the living human brain  

SciTech Connect

A simple, relatively inexpensive radiation detection system was developed for measurement of positron-emitting receptor-binding drugs in the human brain. This high-efficiency coincidence counting system requires that only a few hundred microcuries of labeled drug be administered to the subject, thereby allowing for multiple studies without an excessive radiation dose. Measurement of the binding of (/sup 11/C)-carfentanil, a high-affinity synthetic opiate, to opiate receptors in the presence and in the absence of a competitive opiate antagonist exemplifies the use of this system for estimating different degrees of receptor binding of drugs in the human brain. The instrument has also been used for measurement of the transport into the brain of other positron-emitting radiotracers, such as large neutral amino acids.

Bice, A.N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Lee, M.C.; Frost, J.J.

1986-09-01

169

Monoclonal antibodies to human brain acetylcholinesterase: properties and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was purified 20,000-fold in a 43% yield from 90 g of human cerebellum by combined immunoaffinity and ligand affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme migrated as a 68,000-dalton band during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing and reducing conditions.2.Balb\\/c mice were immunized with multiple 10-g injections of this material in order to raise monoclonal antibodies to human brain AChE. Three

Zoltan Rakonczay; Stephen Brimijoin

1988-01-01

170

The addicted human brain viewed in the light of imaging studies: brain circuits and treatment strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging studies have provided evidence of how the human brain changes as an individual becomes addicted. Here, we integrate the findings from imaging studies to propose a model of drug addiction. The process of addiction is initiated in part by the fast and high increases in DA induced by drugs of abuse. We hypothesize that this supraphysiological effect of drugs

Nora D. Volkow; Joanna S. Fowler; Gene-Jack Wang

2004-01-01

171

Accelerated Evolution of the ASPM Gene Controlling Brain Size Begins Prior to Human Brain Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of

Natalay Kouprina; Adam Pavlicek; Ganeshwaran H. Mochida; Gregory Solomon; William Gersch; Young-Ho Yoon; Randall Collura; Maryellen Ruvolo; J. Carl Barrett; C. Geoffrey Woods; Christopher A. Walsh; Jerzy Jurka; Vladimir Larionov

2004-01-01

172

Noninvasive Functional Imaging of Human Brain Using Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of photon transit time for low-power light passing into the head, and through both skull and brain, of human subjects allowed for tomographic imaging of cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation based on photon diffusion theory. In healthy adults, imaging of changes in hemoglobin saturation during hand movement revealed focal, contralateral increases in motor cortex oxygenation with spatial agreement to activation maps

David A. Benaron; Susan R. Hintz; Arno Villringer; David Boas; Andreas Kleinschmidt; Jens Frahm; Christina Hirth; Hellmuth Obrig; John C. van Houten; Eben L. Kermit; Wai-Fung Cheong; David K. Stevenson

2000-01-01

173

Aerobic Fitness Reduces Brain Tissue Loss in Aging Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The human brain gradually loses tissue from the third decade of life onward, with concomitant declines in cognitive performance. Given the projected rapid growth in aged populations, and the staggering costs associated with geriatric care, identifying mechanisms that may reduce or reverse cerebral deterioration is rapidly emerging as an important public health goal. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic

Kirk I. Erickson; Naftali Raz; Andrew G. Webb; Neal J. Cohen; Edward McAuley; Arthur F. Kramer

2003-01-01

174

Human Brain: Left-Right Asymmetries in Temporal Speech Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found marked anatomical asymmetries between the upper surfaces of the human right and left temporal lobes. The planum temporale (the area behind Heschl's gyrus) is larger on the left in 65 percent of brains; on the right it is larger in only 11 percent. The left planum is on the average one-third longer than the right planum. This

Norman Geschwind; Walter Levitsky

1968-01-01

175

Effects of Electroacupuncture versus Manual Acupuncture on the Human Brain  

E-print Network

Effects of Electroacupuncture versus Manual Acupuncture on the Human Brain as Measured by f frequencies with traditional Chinese manual acupuncture. Although not as time-tested as manual acupuncture and quantifiably. Manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture at 2 Hz and 100 Hz, and tactile control stimulation were

Napadow, Vitaly

176

Face Encoding and Recognition in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dissociation between human neural systems that participate in the encoding and later recognition of new memories for faces was demonstrated by measuring memory task-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography. There was almost no overlap between the brain structures associated with these memory functions. A region in the right hippocampus and adjacent cortex was activated

James V. Haxby; Leslie G. Ungerleider; Barry Horwitz; Jose Ma. Maisog; Stanley I. Rapoport; Cheryl L. Grady

1996-01-01

177

Widespread splicing changes in human brain development and aging  

PubMed Central

While splicing differences between tissues, sexes and species are well documented, little is known about the extent and the nature of splicing changes that take place during human or mammalian development and aging. Here, using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we have characterized splicing changes that take place during whole human lifespan in two brain regions: prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. Identified changes were confirmed using independent human and rhesus macaque RNA-seq data sets, exon arrays and PCR, and were detected at the protein level using mass spectrometry. Splicing changes across lifespan were abundant in both of the brain regions studied, affecting more than a third of the genes expressed in the human brain. Approximately 15% of these changes differed between the two brain regions. Across lifespan, splicing changes followed discrete patterns that could be linked to neural functions, and associated with the expression profiles of the corresponding splicing factors. More than 60% of all splicing changes represented a single splicing pattern reflecting preferential inclusion of gene segments potentially targeting transcripts for nonsense-mediated decay in infants and elderly. PMID:23340839

Mazin, Pavel; Xiong, Jieyi; Liu, Xiling; Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Mingshuang; He, Liu; Somel, Mehmet; Yuan, Yuan; Phoebe Chen, Yi-Ping; Li, Na; Hu, Yuhui; Fu, Ning; Ning, Zhibin; Zeng, Rong; Yang, Hongyi; Chen, Wei; Gelfand, Mikhail; Khaitovich, Philipp

2013-01-01

178

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) can provide detailed images of human brain that reflect localized changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation induced by sensory, motor, or cognitive tasks. This review presents methods for gradient-recalled echo-planar functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Also included is a discussion of the hypothesized basis of FMRI, imaging hardware, a unique visual stimulation apparatus, image

Edgar A. DeYoe; Peter Bandettini; Jay Neitz; David Miller; Paula Winans

1994-01-01

179

A Neural Representation of Categorization Uncertainty in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ability to classify visual objects into discrete cate- gories (''friend'' versus ''foe''; ''edible'' versus ''poi- sonous'') is essential for survival and is a fundamental cognitive function. The cortical substrates that medi- ate this function, however, have not been identified in humans. To identify brain regions involved in stimulus categorization, we developed a task in which subjects classified stimuli

Jack Grinband; Joy Hirsch; Vincent P. Ferrera

2006-01-01

180

Voice processing in monkey and human brains.  

PubMed

Studies in humans have indicated that the anterior superior temporal sulcus has an important role in the processing of information about human voices, especially the identification of talkers from their voice. A new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with macaques provides strong evidence that anterior auditory fields, part of the auditory 'what' pathway, preferentially respond to changes in the identity of conspecifics, rather than specific vocalizations from the same individual. PMID:18684663

Scott, Sophie K

2008-09-01

181

Morphological and molecular characterization of healthy human ascending aorta.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the characteristics of the normal human aorta has been constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy individuals. In this study, the gene expression and morphological characteristics of the thoracic ascending aorta (AA) of healthy organ donors have been evaluated, with the aim of providing reference data for the analysis of pathological AAs. We analysed by RT-PCR the differential expression of mRNAs coding for myocardin, smoothelin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and the ED-A isoform of fibronectin (ED-A FN) in AA specimens from donors, integrating the results with immunohistochemical analysis of the same targets. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of the AAs were also evaluated. In order to account for possible regional variations in wall structure, the convexity of the aortic profile was compared to the concavity. No differences in gene expression occurred for any of the target genes between the concavity and the convexity of AAs. Immunohistochemistry revealed a different distribution of total FN and of its ED-A isoform in the media and in the intima. Smoothelin is expressed by the majority of cells in the media, with some positive cells also in the intima. Alpha-SMA is expressed in all the tunicae. Immunohistochemistry also revealed in the convexity of 50% of AAs the presence of discrete areas in the subadventital media with altered structure and cell morphology and with altered gene expression, resulting positive for ED-A FN and alpha-SMA, but not for smoothelin, indicating the occurrence of early lesions also in macroscopically healthy AAs. PMID:22127602

Forte, A; Della Corte, A; Grossi, M; Finicelli, M; Bancone, C; Provenzano, R; Pepino, P; Nappi, G A; De Feo, M; Galderisi, U; Cotrufo, M; Cipollaro, M

2012-01-01

182

Anatomical variations of the circulus arteriosus in cadaveric human brains.  

PubMed

Objective. Circulus arteriosus/circle of Willis (CW) is a polygonal anastomotic channel at the base of the brain which unites the internal carotid and vertebrobasilar system. It maintains the steady and constant supply to the brain. The variations of CW are seen often. The Aim of the present work is to find out the percentage of normal pattern of CW, and the frequency of variations of the CW and to study the morphological and morphometric aspects of all components of CW. Methods. Circulus arteriosus of 150 formalin preserved brains were dissected. Dimensions of all the components forming circles were measured. Variations of all the segments were noted and well photographed. The variations such as aplasia, hypoplasia, duplication, fenestrations, and difference in dimensions with opposite segments were noted. The data collected in the study was analyzed. Results. Twenty-one different types of CW were found in the present study. Normal and complete CW was found in 60%. CW with gross morphological variations was seen in 40%. Maximum variations were seen in the PCoA followed by the ACoA in 50% and 40%, respectively. Conclusion. As it confirms high percentage of variations, all surgical interventions should be preceded by angiography. Awareness of these anatomical variations is important in neurovascular procedures. PMID:24891951

Gunnal, S A; Farooqui, M S; Wabale, R N

2014-01-01

183

Anatomical Variations of the Circulus Arteriosus in Cadaveric Human Brains  

PubMed Central

Objective. Circulus arteriosus/circle of Willis (CW) is a polygonal anastomotic channel at the base of the brain which unites the internal carotid and vertebrobasilar system. It maintains the steady and constant supply to the brain. The variations of CW are seen often. The Aim of the present work is to find out the percentage of normal pattern of CW, and the frequency of variations of the CW and to study the morphological and morphometric aspects of all components of CW. Methods. Circulus arteriosus of 150 formalin preserved brains were dissected. Dimensions of all the components forming circles were measured. Variations of all the segments were noted and well photographed. The variations such as aplasia, hypoplasia, duplication, fenestrations, and difference in dimensions with opposite segments were noted. The data collected in the study was analyzed. Results. Twenty-one different types of CW were found in the present study. Normal and complete CW was found in 60%. CW with gross morphological variations was seen in 40%. Maximum variations were seen in the PCoA followed by the ACoA in 50% and 40%, respectively. Conclusion. As it confirms high percentage of variations, all surgical interventions should be preceded by angiography. Awareness of these anatomical variations is important in neurovascular procedures. PMID:24891951

Gunnal, S. A.; Farooqui, M. S.; Wabale, R. N.

2014-01-01

184

Can Resonant Oscillations of the Earth Ionosphere Influence the Human Brain Biorhythm?  

E-print Network

Within the frames of Alfv\\'en sweep maser theory the description of morphological features of geomagnetic pulsations in the ionosphere with frequencies (0.1-10 Hz) in the vicinity of Schumann resonance (7.83 Hz) is obtained. It is shown that the related regular spectral shapes of geomagnetic pulsations in the ionosphere determined by "viscosity" and "elasticity" of magneto-plasma medium that control the nonlinear relaxation of energy and deviation of Alfv\\'en wave energy around its equilibrium value. Due to the fact that the frequency bands of Alfv\\'{e}n maser resonant structures practically coincide with the frequency band delta- and partially theta-rhythms of human brain, the problem of degree of possible impact of electromagnetic "pearl" type resonant structures (0.1-5 Hz) onto the brain bio-rhythms stability is discussed.

V. D. Rusov; K. A. Lukin; T. N. Zelentsova; E. P. Linnik; M. E. Beglaryan; V. P. Smolyar; M. Filippov; B. Vachev

2012-08-23

185

Addiction Circuitry in the Human Brain*  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a persons risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders. PMID:21961707

Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S.; Tomasi, Dardo

2012-01-01

186

Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).  

SciTech Connect

A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

2011-09-27

187

Association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and brain morphology in a Japanese sample of schizophrenia and healthy comparisons.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the relation between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and volumetric measurements for the medial temporal lobe structures (amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus) and prefrontal sub-regions (the superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and straight gyrus) in a Japanese sample of 33 schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy subjects. For the controls, the Met carriers had significantly smaller parahippocampal and left superior frontal gyri than the Val homozygotes. The schizophrenia patients carrying the Met allele had a significantly smaller right parahippocampal gyrus than those with the Val/Val genotype, but the genotype did not affect the prefrontal regions in schizophrenia patients. These findings might reflect different genotypic effects of BDNF on brain morphology in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, implicating the possible role of the brain morphology as an endophenotype for future genetic studies in schizophrenia. PMID:18325670

Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Michio; Tsunoda, Masahiko; Kawamura, Yukiko; Takahashi, Nagahide; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Zhou, Shi-Yu; Kobayashi, Soushi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Seto, Hikaru; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Ozaki, Norio

2008-04-11

188

From monkeys to humans: what do we now know about brain homologies?  

E-print Network

From monkeys to humans: what do we now know about brain homologies? Martin I Sereno and Roger BH within the brains of the surviving branches (e.g. humans, macaque monkeys, owl monkeys) is difficult The detailed homology of brain regions among monkeys, apes and humans is intrinsically interesting to evolution

Sereno, Martin

189

Cross-hemispheric functional connectivity in the human fetal brain  

PubMed Central

Compelling evidence indicates that psychiatric and developmental disorders are generally caused by disruptions in the functional connectivity (FC) of brain networks. Events occurring during development, and in particular during fetal life, have been implicated in the genesis of such disorders. However, the developmental timetable for the emergence of neural FC during human fetal life is unknown. We present the results of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging performed in 25 healthy human fetuses in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (24 to 38 weeks of gestation). We report the presence of bilateral fetal brain FC and regional and age-related variation in FC. Significant bilateral connectivity was evident in half of the 42 areas tested, and the strength of FC between homologous cortical brain regions increased with advancing gestational age. We also observed medial to lateral gradients in fetal functional brain connectivity. These findings improve understanding of human fetal central nervous system development and provide a basis for examining the role of insults during fetal life in the subsequent development of disorders in neural FC. PMID:23427244

Thomason, ME; Dassanayake, MT; Shen, S; Katkuri, Y; Alexis, M; Anderson, AL; Yeo, L; Mody, S; Hernandez-Andrade, E; Hassan, SS; Studholme, C; Jeong, JW; Romero, R

2013-01-01

190

The tendency to trust is reflected in human brain structure.  

PubMed

Trust is an important component of human social life. Within the brain, the function within a neural network implicated in interpersonal and social-cognitive processing is associated with the way trust-based decisions are made. However, it is currently unknown how localized structure within the healthy human brain is associated with the tendency to trust other people. This study was designed to test the prediction that individual differences in the tendency to trust are associated with regional gray matter volume within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), amygdala and anterior insula. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected from a sample of 82 healthy participants. Individual differences in the tendency to trust were measured in two ways (self-report and behaviorally: trustworthiness evaluation of faces task). Voxel based morphometry analyses of high-resolution structural images (VBM8-DARTEL) were conducted to test for the association between the tendency to trust and regional gray matter volume. The results provide converging evidence that individuals characterized as trusting others more exhibit increased gray matter volume within the bilateral vmPFC and bilateral anterior insula. Greater right amygdala volume is associated with the tendency to rate faces as more trustworthy and distrustworthy (U-shaped function). A whole brain analysis also shows that the tendency to trust is reflected in the structure of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These findings advance neural models that associate the structure and function of the human brain with social decision-making and the tendency trust other people. PMID:25485710

Haas, Brian W; Ishak, Alexandra; Anderson, Ian W; Filkowski, Megan M

2015-02-15

191

Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images  

PubMed Central

Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images. Behavioral and coordinate data were taken from the BrainMap database (http://www.brainmap.org/), which documents over 20 years of published functional brain imaging studies. A brain region of interest (ROI) for behavioral analysis can be defined in functional images, anatomical images or brain atlases, if images are spatially normalized to MNI or Talairach standards. Results of behavioral analysis are presented for each of BrainMap's 51 behavioral sub-domains spanning five behavioral domains (Action, Cognition, Emotion, Interoception, and Perception). For each behavioral sub-domain the fraction of coordinates falling within the ROI was computed and compared with the fraction expected if coordinates for the behavior were not clustered, i.e., uniformly distributed. When the difference between these fractions is large behavioral association is indicated. A z-score ? 3.0 was used to designate statistically significant behavioral association. The left-right symmetry of ~100K activation foci was evaluated by hemisphere, lobe, and by behavioral sub-domain. Results highlighted the classic left-side dominance for language while asymmetry for most sub-domains (~75%) was not statistically significant. Use scenarios were presented for anatomical ROIs from the Harvard-Oxford cortical (HOC) brain atlas, functional ROIs from statistical parametric maps in a TMS-PET study, a task-based fMRI study, and ROIs from the ten major representative functional networks in a previously published resting state fMRI study. Statistically significant behavioral findings for these use scenarios were consistent with published behaviors for associated anatomical and functional regions. PMID:22973224

Lancaster, Jack L.; Laird, Angela R.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Martinez, Michael J.; Fox, P. Mickle; Fox, Peter T.

2012-01-01

192

Morphological Texture Manipulation for The Evaluation of Human Visual Sensibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the surface texture of materials often affects human visual impressions as much as or more than the design, shape, or color properties, texture characteristics have been studied as features of object identification. We have been investigating the effect of texture on visual impression and objective identification using black fabrics that do not exhibit any effects of color. Our studies showed that visual impressions of texture correspond to complex micro-components and global structures of image features of those textures. Our results also showed that some important elements influence human visual impressions and identification of textures. Because of a variety of fibrous structures, it is not easy to provide a systematic analysis of clothing materials. Nevertheless, developing the method and collecting data on these elements and their effects using these image features will be important. To make this research applicable for wider use, we have been studying precisely what it is about an arbitrary texture that influences human visual impressions and sensibility. As a new step, in this paper, a texture is altered and transformed using the parameter estimation method of texture based on mathematical morphology, which is often used for extracting image components that are useful for representation and description. A texture is decomposed into a primitive and grain arrangement which correspond to local and global characteristics, respectively. Different textures are created by modifying the primitive and the arrangement to investigate the effects of modifications of local and global features. The relationship between the parameters and visual impressions of the modified textures were evaluated. This study shows that influence of both local and global structures of the texture along with their combinations and mutual interactions are important for identification of human visual impression.

Asano, Chie Muraki; Asano, Akira; Li, Liang; Fujimoto, Takako

193

Development of Neural Stem\\/Progenitor Cells from Human Brain by Transplantation into the Brains of Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to study human neural stem\\/progenitor cells (SPC) cultured in vitro and their potential to survive, migrate, and differentiate after transplantation into adult rat brain. SPC were extracted from the brains of nine-week human embryos and were cultured in selective medium for three weeks. Transplantation was with suspensions of cells or whole neurospheres; these

M. A. Aleksandrova; R. A. Poltavtseva; A. V. Revishchin; L. I. Korochkin; G. T. Sukhikh

2004-01-01

194

Human brain temperature during anesthesia for intracranial operations.  

PubMed

The intraventricular and rectal temperatures were registered in nine patients subjected to major surgery of the brain. Copper-constantan thermocouples were introduced into the lumen of an intraventricular catheter also used for perioperative monitoring of intracranial pressure. During anesthesia, the intraventricular temperature was higher than rectal temperature, the mean difference being 0.30 +/- 0.24 degrees C. No significant changes in intraventricular temperature were seen during different stages of the operations. It is concluded that during routine anesthesia rectal temperature can be relied on for a reasonable estimation of human brain temperature. It should be observed, however, that in the postoperative period, both rectal and intraventricular temperature rose considerably. In three patients, the intraventricular temperature rose as much as 2.5-4 degrees C, thus increasing the temperature gradient between rectum and brain. The relevance of these findings are discussed. PMID:15815447

Mellergrd, P; Nordstrm, C H; Messeter, K

1992-04-01

195

The adult human brain harbors multipotent perivascular mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Blood vessels and adjacent cells form perivascular stem cell niches in adult tissues. In this perivascular niche, a stem cell with mesenchymal characteristics was recently identified in some adult somatic tissues. These cells are pericytes that line the microvasculature, express mesenchymal markers and differentiate into mesodermal lineages but might even have the capacity to generate tissue-specific cell types. Here, we isolated, purified and characterized a previously unrecognized progenitor population from two different regions in the adult human brain, the ventricular wall and the neocortex. We show that these cells co-express markers for mesenchymal stem cells and pericytes in vivo and in vitro, but do not express glial, neuronal progenitor, hematopoietic, endothelial or microglial markers in their native state. Furthermore, we demonstrate at a clonal level that these progenitors have true multilineage potential towards both, the mesodermal and neuroectodermal phenotype. They can be epigenetically induced in vitro into adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts but also into glial cells and immature neurons. This progenitor population exhibits long-term proliferation, karyotype stability and retention of phenotype and multipotency following extensive propagation. Thus, we provide evidence that the vascular niche in the adult human brain harbors a novel progenitor with multilineage capacity that appears to represent mesenchymal stem cells and is different from any previously described human neural stem cell. Future studies will elucidate whether these cells may play a role for disease or may represent a reservoir that can be exploited in efforts to repair the diseased human brain. PMID:22523602

Paul, Gesine; zen, Ilknur; Christophersen, Nicolaj S; Reinbothe, Thomas; Bengzon, Johan; Visse, Edward; Jansson, Katarina; Dannaeus, Karin; Henriques-Oliveira, Catarina; Roybon, Laurent; Anisimov, Sergey V; Renstrm, Erik; Svensson, Mikael; Haegerstrand, Anders; Brundin, Patrik

2012-01-01

196

Physiology of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human brain.  

PubMed

During the last two decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has rapidly become a valuable method to investigate noninvasively the human brain. In addition, repetitive TMS (rTMS) is able to induce changes in brain activity that last after stimulation. Therefore, rTMS has therapeutic potential in patients with neurologic and psychiatric disorders. It is, however, unclear by which mechanism rTMS induces these lasting effects on the brain. The effects of rTMS are often described as LTD- or LTP-like, because the duration of these alterations seems to implicate changes in synaptic plasticity. In this review we therefore discuss, based on rTMS experiments and knowledge about synaptic plasticity, whether the physiologic basis of rTMS-effects relates to changes in synaptic plasticity. We present seven lines of evidence that strongly suggest a link between the aftereffects induced by rTMS and the induction of synaptic plasticity. It is, nevertheless, important to realize that at present it is impossible to demonstrate a direct link between rTMS on the one hand and synaptic plasticity on the other. Therefore, we provide suggestions for future, innovating research, aiming to investigate both the local effects of rTMS on the synapse and the effects of rTMS on other, more global levels of brain organization. Only in that way can the aftereffects of rTMS on the brain be completely understood. PMID:20633438

Hoogendam, Janna Marie; Ramakers, Geert M J; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

2010-04-01

197

Functional connectivity and alterations in baseline brain state in humans  

PubMed Central

This work examines the influence of changes in baseline activity on the intrinsic functional connectivity fMRI (fc-fMRI) in humans. Baseline brain activity was altered by inducing anesthesia (sevoflurane end-tidal concentration 1%) in human volunteers and fc-fMRI maps between the pre-anesthetized and anesthetized conditions were compared across different brain networks. We particularly focused on low-level sensory areas (primary somatosensory, visual, auditory cortices), the thalamus, and pain (insula), memory (hippocampus) circuits, and the default mode network (DMN), the latter three to examine higher order brain regions. The results indicate that, while fc-fMRI patterns did not significantly differ (p<0.005; 20-voxel cluster threshold) in sensory cortex and in the DMN between the pre- and anesthetized conditions, fc-fMRI in high-order cognitive regions (i.e. memory and pain circuits) was significantly altered by anesthesia. These findings provide further evidence that fc-fMRI reflects intrinsic brain properties, while also demonstrating that 0.5 MAC sevoflurane anesthesia preferentially modulates higher-order connections. PMID:19631277

Martuzzi, Roberto; Ramani, Ramachandran; Qiu, Maolin; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Constable, R. Todd

2009-01-01

198

Socially tuned: brain responses differentiating human and animal motion.  

PubMed

Typical adult observers demonstrate enhanced behavioral sensitivity to human movement compared to animal movement. Yet, the neural underpinnings of this effect are unknown. We examined the tuning of brain mechanisms for the perception of biological motion to the social relevance of this category of motion by comparing neural response to human and non-human biological motion. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that the response of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) varies according to the social relevance of the motion, responding most strongly to those biological motions with the greatest social relevance (human > dog). During a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session, typical adults viewed veridical point-light displays of human, dog, and tractor motions created from motion capture data. A conjunction analysis identified regions of significant activation during biological motion perception relative to object motion. Within each of these regions, only one brain area, the right pSTS, revealed an enhanced response to human motion relative to dog motion. This finding demonstrates that the pSTS response is sensitive to the social relevance of a biological motion stimulus. PMID:21943047

Kaiser, Martha D; Shiffrar, Maggie; Pelphrey, Kevin A

2012-01-01

199

The Evolution of Brains from Early Mammals to Humans  

PubMed Central

The large size and complex organization of the human brain makes it unique among primate brains. In particular, the neocortex constitutes about 80% of the brain, and this cortex is subdivided into a large number of functionally specialized regions, the cortical areas. Such a brain mediates accomplishments and abilities unmatched by any other species. How did such a brain evolve? Answers come from comparative studies of the brains of present-day mammals and other vertebrates in conjunction with information about brain sizes and shapes from the fossil record, studies of brain development, and principles derived from studies of scaling and optimal design. Early mammals were small, with small brains, an emphasis on olfaction, and little neocortex. Neocortex was transformed from the single layer of output pyramidal neurons of the dorsal cortex of earlier ancestors to the six layers of all present-day mammals. This small cap of neocortex was divided into 2025 cortical areas, including primary and some of the secondary sensory areas that characterize neocortex in nearly all mammals today. Early placental mammals had a corpus callosum connecting the neocortex of the two hemispheres, a primary motor area, M1, and perhaps one or more premotor areas. One line of evolution, Euarchontoglires, led to present-day primates, tree shrews, flying lemurs, rodents and rabbits. Early primates evolved from small-brained, nocturnal, insect-eating mammals with an expanded region of temporal visual cortex. These early nocturnal primates were adapted to the fine branch niche of the tropical rainforest by having an even more expanded visual system that mediated visually guided reaching and grasping of insects, small vertebrates, and fruits. Neocortex was greatly expanded, and included an array of cortical areas that characterize neocortex of all living primates. Specializations of the visual system included new visual areas that contributed to a dorsal stream of visuomotor processing in a greatly enlarged region of posterior parietal cortex and an expanded motor system and the addition of a ventral premotor area. Higher visual areas in a large temporal lobe facilitated object recognition, and frontal cortex, included granular prefrontal cortex. Auditory cortex included the primary and secondary auditory areas that characterize prosimian and anthropoid primates today. As anthropoids emerged as diurnal primates, the visual system specialized for detailed foveal vision. Other adaptations included an expansion of prefrontal cortex and insular cortex. The human and chimpanzee-bonobo lineages diverged some 68 million years ago with brains that were about one-third the size of modern humans. Over the last two million years, the brains of our more recent ancestors increased greatly in size, especially in the prefrontal, posterior parietal, lateral temporal, and insular regions. Specialization of the two cerebral hemispheres for related, but different functions became pronounced, and language and other impressive cognitive abilities emerged. PMID:23529256

Kaas, Jon H.

2012-01-01

200

Beyond genotype: serotonin transporter epigenetic modification predicts human brain function.  

PubMed

We examined epigenetic regulation in regards to behaviorally and clinically relevant human brain function. Specifically, we found that increased promoter methylation of the serotonin transporter gene predicted increased threat-related amygdala reactivity and decreased mRNA expression in postmortem amygdala tissue. These patterns were independent of functional genetic variation in the same region. Furthermore, the association with amygdala reactivity was replicated in a second cohort and was robust to both sampling methods and age. PMID:25086606

Nikolova, Yuliya S; Koenen, Karestan C; Galea, Sandro; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Seney, Marianne L; Sibille, Etienne; Williamson, Douglas E; Hariri, Ahmad R

2014-09-01

201

Human Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Produce Brain Natriuretic Peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumoral production of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was studied using 9 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines which were established from patients with small cell lung cancer. BNP cDNA fragment was generated from 20 g total RNA which was prepared from the human right cardiac atrium by reverse transcription-based polymerase chain reaction. Expression of BNP mRNA was detected

Yoshinobu Ohsaki; Andrew J. Gross; Phuong Tram Le; Herbert Oie; Bruce E. Johnson

1999-01-01

202

Serotonin transport kinetics correlated between human platelets and brain synaptosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Blood platelets have been used ex- tensively as a model system for investigating the role of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in various psychiatric dis- orders, especially depression. However, to date, it is not knownwhetherplateletserotonin(5-HT)transportwouldbe related to that in brain. Objectives: We examined 5-HT transport kinetics simultaneously in human blood platelets andhumancorticalbrainsynaptosomestodeterminewhether they were correlated. Methods: Blood platelets and synap-

Jeffrey L. Rausch; Maria E. Johnson; Junqing Li; Julian Hutcheson; Benjamin M. Carr; Katina M. Corley; Amanda B. Gowans; Joseph Smith

2005-01-01

203

Magnetic pesonance imaging of electrical conductivity in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, conductivity distribution of the human brain were obtained using 1.5 magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system. MR images were obtained with motion-probing gradients (MPGs) applied in three orthogonal directions at 25 equally spaced b factors from 200 to 5000 s\\/mm2. The b factor was defined as b = gamma2G 2delta2(Delta - delta\\/3), where gamma is the gyromagnetic ratio

M. Sekino; Y. Inoue; S. Ueno

2005-01-01

204

Shape Analysis of Human Brain Interhemispheric Fissure Bending in MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel approach to analyze Yakovlevian torque by quantifying the bending of human brain interhemispheric\\u000a fissure in three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. It extracts the longitudinal medial surface between the cerebral\\u000a hemispheres, which are segmented with an accurate and completely automatic technique, as the shape representation of the interhemispheric\\u000a fissure. The extracted medial surface is modeled with a

Lu Zhao; Jarmo Hietala; Jussi Tohka

2009-01-01

205

Negative Association of Neuroticism with Brain Volume Ratio in Healthy Humans  

E-print Network

Negative Association of Neuroticism with Brain Volume Ratio in Healthy Humans Brian Knutson, Reza Momenan, Robert R. Rawlings, Grace W. Fong, and Daniel Hommer Background: Brain volume decreases reactivity (i.e., neuroti- cism) would also predict reductions in brain volume. Methods: Brain volume ratios

Knutson, Brian

206

Medical Imaging and the Human Brain: Being Warped is Not Always a Bad Thing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to look inside the living human brain and image its function has been present since the early 1980s. There are some clinicians who use functional brain imaging for diagnostic or prognostic purposes, but much of the work done still relates to research evaluation of brain function. There is a striking dichotomy in the use of functional brain imaging

James C. II Patterson

2005-01-01

207

Effects of consciousness on human brain waves following binocular rivalry.  

PubMed

When the two eyes of an observer are exposed to conflicting stimuli, they enter into binocular rivalry and the two possible percepts will alternate in dominance. We investigated neural activity and its time course following binocular rivalry by measuring human event-related brain potentials to transitions from rivalrous to non-rivalrous stimulation. When these changes did not entail a change in conscious perception they elicited a markedly attenuated N1 component and a delayed and attenuated P3 peak as compared to percept-incompatible changes and non-rivalrous control conditions. These results suggest that in humans binocular rivalry is resolved at latest in extrastriate visual areas. PMID:10208536

Kaernbach, C; Schrger, E; Jacobsen, T; Roeber, U

1999-03-17

208

Functional Interactions as Big Data in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive studies of human brain function hold great potential to unlock mysteries of the human mind. The complexity of data generated by such studies, however, has prompted various simplifying assumptions during analysis. Although this has enabled considerable progress, our current understanding is partly contingent upon these assumptions. An emerging approach embraces the complexity, accounting for the fact that neural representations are widely distributed, neural processes involve interactions between regions, interactions vary by cognitive state, and the space of interactions is massive. Because what you see depends on how you look, such unbiased approaches provide the greatest flexibility for discovery. PMID:24179218

Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

2014-01-01

209

VEGF expression in human brain tissue after acute ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Ischemic stroke is the third most common cause of death in humans, requiring further studies to elucidate its pathophysiological background. One potential mechanism to increase oxygen delivery to the affected tissue is induction of angiogenesis. The most potent proangiogenic factor is VEGF. For this reason, our study investigated immunohistochemically VEGF reactivity in different cellular brain compartments from 15 ischemic stroke patients, as well as from 2 age control cases. By enzymatic immunohistochemistry, we investigate VEGF expression in different brain cell compartments and then we quantified its signal intensity by assessing integrated optical densities (IOD). To establish the exact cellular brain topography of VEGF immunoreactivity we performed double fluorescent immunohistochemistry series (VEGFNeuN, GFAP, CD68, CD105). In control samples, VEGF reactivity was observed especially in neurons from the Brodmann cortical layers IV to VI and in protoplasmic astrocytes from the deeper layers of gray matter and in endothelial cells from normal blood vessels because of systemic hypoxia generated after death. In acute ischemic stroke samples, this reactivity was noticed in all brain cellular compartments but with different intensities. The most reactive compartment was the neurons, the intensity of VEGF reaction decreasing with the lesional age from the core infarct toward intact adjacent brain cortex. With a lower intensity, VEGF reaction was noticed in astrocytes compartments, especially in gemistocytic astrocytes adjacent to the liquefaction zone. We also noticed a weak reaction in activated non-phagocytic microglia from the periphery of liquefaction zones, and high VEGF-CD105 colocalization values at the level of microvessels that surround the infarcted brain area. In conclusion, this reactivity could suggest that VEGF might exhibit neuronal and glial protective effects and also a neoangiogenic property in acute ischemic stroke, facts that may have significant therapeutically impact on these patients. PMID:22203935

M?rg?ritescu, Otilia; Pirici, D; M?rg?ritescu, Cl

2011-01-01

210

The neuroinflammatory response in humans after traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Aims Traumatic brain injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An epidemiological association between head injury and long-term cognitive decline has been described for many years and recent clinical studies have highlighted functional impairment within 12 months of a mild head injury. In addition chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a recently described condition in cases of repetitive head injury. There are shared mechanisms between traumatic brain injury and Alzheimers disease, and it has been hypothesised that neuroinflammation, in the form of microglial activation, may be a mechanism underlying chronic neurodegenerative processes after traumatic brain injury. Methods This study assessed the microglial reaction after head injury in a range of ages and survival periods, from <24 hours survival through to 47 years survival. Immunohistochemistry for reactive microglia (CD68 and CR3/43) was performed on human autopsy brain tissue and assessed blind by quantitative image analysis. Head injury cases were compared to age matched controls, and within the traumatic brain injury group cases with diffuse traumatic axonal injury were compared to cases without diffuse traumatic axonal injury. Results A major finding was a neuroinflammatory response which develops within the first week and persists for several months after TBI, but has returned to control levels after several years. In cases with diffuse traumatic axonal injury the microglial reaction is particularly pronounced in the white matter. Conclusions These results demonstrate that prolonged microglial activation is a feature of traumatic brain injury, but that the neuroinflammatory response returns to control levels after several years. PMID:23231074

Smith, Colin; Gentleman, Stephen M; Leclercq, Pascale D; Murray, Lilian S; Griffin, W Sue T; Graham, David I; Nicoll, James A R

2013-01-01

211

Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind  

E-print Network

Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind for review February 22, 2010) Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, proponents of specialized organs or modules of the mind and brain--from the phrenologists to Broca to Chomsky

Kanwisher, Nancy

212

Functional Representation of Human Embryo Brain Models Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner  

E-print Network

Functional Representation of Human Embryo Brain Models Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner Hirofumi embryo brain is organic and has many folds that are difficult to model or animate with conventional metamorphosis during the growth of some human embryo organs, partic- ularly brain and stomach. Popular methods

Durikovic, Roman

213

Corpora and Cognition: The Semantic Composition of Adjectives and Nouns in the Human Brain  

E-print Network

Corpora and Cognition: The Semantic Composition of Adjectives and Nouns in the Human Brain Abstract semantic composition in the human brain are not well understood. In this thesis,we explore semantics (word text corpus,and brain recordings of people reading adjective noun phrases. We show that these two very

214

An overview of research on "passive" brain-computer interfaces for implicit human-computer interaction  

E-print Network

An overview of research on "passive" brain-computer interfaces for implicit human-computer.lecuyer@inria.fr Abstract-- This paper surveys existing and past research on brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for implicit and past research on brain-computer interfaces for implicit human-computer interaction. It seems indeed

Boyer, Edmond

215

A framework on surface-based connectivity quantification for the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying the connectivity between arbitrary surface patches in the human brain cortex can be used in studies on brain function and to characterize clinical diseases involving abnormal connectivity. Cortical regions of human brain in their natural forms can be represented in surface formats. In this paper, we present a framework to quantify connectivity using cortical surface segmentation and labeling from

Hao Huang; Jerry L. Prince; Virendra Mishra; Aaron Carass; Bennett Landman; Denise C. Park; Carol Tamminga; Richard King; Michael I. Miller; Peter C. M. van Zijl; Susumu Mori

2011-01-01

216

Three-Dimensional Statistical Analysis of Sulcal Variability in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric variance of the human brain is qualitatively ob- servable in surface features of the cortex. Statistical analysis of sulcal geometry will facilitate multisubject atlasing, neurosurgi- cal studies, and multimodality brain mapping applications. This investigation describes the variability in location and geometry of five sulci surveyed in each hemisphere of six postmortem human brains placed within the Talairach stereotaxic grid.

Paul M. Thompson; Craig Schwartz; Robert T. Lin; Aelia A. Khan; Arthur W. Toga

1996-01-01

217

MRI of the human brain at 130 microtesla  

PubMed Central

We present in vivo images of the human brain acquired with an ultralow field MRI (ULFMRI) system operating at a magnetic field B0 ? 130 ?T. The system features prepolarization of the proton spins at Bp ? 80 mT and detection of the NMR signals with a superconducting, second-derivative gradiometer inductively coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We report measurements of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 of brain tissue, blood, and scalp fat at B0 and Bp, and cerebrospinal fluid at B0. We use these T1 values to construct inversion recovery sequences that we combine with CarrPurcellMeiboomGill echo trains to obtain images in which one species can be nulled and another species emphasized. In particular, we show an image in which only blood is visible. Such techniques greatly enhance the already high intrinsic T1 contrast obtainable at ULF. We further present 2D images of T1 and the transverse relaxation time T2 of the brain and show that, as expected at ULF, they exhibit similar contrast. Applications of brain ULFMRI include integration with systems for magnetoencephalography. More generally, these techniques may be applicable, for example, to the imaging of tumors without the need for a contrast agent and to modalities recently demonstrated with T1? contrast imaging (T1 in the rotating frame) at fields of 1.5 T and above. PMID:24255111

Inglis, Ben; Buckenmaier, Kai; SanGiorgio, Paul; Pedersen, Anders F.; Nichols, Matthew A.; Clarke, John

2013-01-01

218

The Developmental Origins of Voice Processing in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Summary In human adults, voices are processed in specialized brain regions in superior temporal cortices. We examined the development of this cortical organization during infancy by using near-infrared spectroscopy. In experiment 1, 7-month-olds but not 4-month-olds showed increased responses in left and right superior temporal cortex to the human voice when compared to nonvocal sounds, suggesting that voice-sensitive brain systems emerge between 4 and 7 months of age. In experiment 2, 7-month-old infants listened to words spoken with neutral, happy, or angry prosody. Hearing emotional prosody resulted in increased responses in a voice-sensitive region in the right hemisphere. Moreover, a region in right inferior frontal cortex taken to serve evaluative functions in the adult brain showed particular sensitivity to happy prosody. The pattern of findings suggests that temporal regions specialize in processing voices very early in development and that, already in infancy, emotions differentially modulate voice processing in the right hemisphere. PMID:20346760

Grossmann, Tobias; Oberecker, Regine; Koch, Stefan Paul; Friederici, Angela D.

2010-01-01

219

Animal models are reliably mimicking human diseases? A morphological study that compares animal with human NAFLD.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical-pathological syndrome that includes a wide spectrum of morphological alterations. In research, animal models are crucial in evaluating not only the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression, but also the therapeutic effects of various agents. Investigations on the ultrastructural features of NAFLD in humans are not copious, due to the difficulty to obtain human samples and to the long time of NAFLD to evolve. Translational comparative studies on the reliability of animal models in representing the histopathologic picture as seen in humans are missing. To overcome this lack of investigations, we compared the ultrastructural NAFLD features of an animal model versus human. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 1-4 weeks, while control rats were fed with a standard diet. Human specimens were collected from patients with diagnosed fatty liver disease, undergoing liver biopsies or surgery. Rat and human samples were examined by light microscopy and by transmission and high resolution scanning electron microscopy. The present work demonstrated that NAFLD in animal model and in human, share overlapping ultrastructural features. In conclusion, animal HFD represent an appropriate tool in studying the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25044260

Solinas, Paola; Isola, Michela; Lilliu, Maria Alberta; Conti, Gabriele; Civolani, Alberto; Demelia, Luigi; Loy, Francesco; Isola, Raffaella

2014-10-01

220

Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors  

E-print Network

Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic ...

Liua, Hesheng

221

Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain  

E-print Network

A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between ...

Thomason, Moriah E.

222

The Connectome Visualization Utility: Software for Visualization of Human Brain Networks  

E-print Network

In analysis of the human connectome, the connectivity of the human brain is collected from multiple imaging modalities and analyzed using graph theoretical techniques. The dimensionality of human connectivity data is high, ...

LaPlante, Roan A.

223

The early development and evolution of the human brain.  

PubMed

THE CHEMISTRY OF THE BRAIN: The brain and nervous system is characterised by a heavy investment in lipid chemistry which accounts for up to 60% of its structural material. In the different mammalian species so far studied, only the 20 and 22 carbon chain length polyenoic fatty acids were present and the balance of the n-3 to n-6 fatty acids was consistently 1:1. The difference observed between species, was not in the chemistry but in the extent to which the brain is developed. This paper discusses the possibility that essential fatty acids may have played a part in it evolution. THE ORIGIN OF AIR BREATHING ANIMALS: The first phase of the planet's existence indulged in high temperature reactions in which oxygen combined with everything feasible: from silicon to make rocks to hydrogen to make water. Once the planet's temperature dropped to a point at which water could condense on the surface allowing chemical reactions to take place in it. The atmosphere was at that time devoid of oxygen so life evolved in a reducing atmosphere. Oxygen was liberated by photolysis of water and as a by-product of the blue-green algae through photosynthesis. When the point was reached at which oxidative metabolism became thermodynamically possible, animal life evolved with all the principle phyla establishing themselves within a relatively short space of geological time. (Bernal 1973). DHA and nerve cell membranes DHA AND NERVE CELL MEMBRANES: From the chemistry of contemporary algae it is likely that animal life evolved in an n-3 rich environment although not exclusively so as smaller amounts of n-6 fatty acids would have been present. A key feature of the first animals was the evolution of the photoreceptor: in examples of marine, amphibian and modern mammalian species, it has been found to use docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as the principle membrane fatty acid in the phosphoglycerides. It is likely that the first animals did so as well. Coincidentally, the synaptic membranes involved in signal transduction also use high proportions of n-3 fatty acids. However, the n-6 fatty acids also find a place, in the inositol phosphoglyceride (IPG) which appears to be involved with calcium ion transport and hence signal activation and reception. Even in the photoreceptor, the IPG is an arachidonic acid rich phosphoglyceride. THE EVOLUTION OF MAMMALS AND THE LARGE BRAIN: The dominance of n-3 fatty acids in the food chain, persisted until the end of the Cretaceous period when the flowering plants followed on the disappearance of the giant cycads and ferns. A new set of species, the mammals, then evolved with a requirement for n-6 fatty acids for reproduction. This dependance was coincident with the flowering plants which for the first time produced protected seeds: these introduced a rich source of n-6 fatty acids. The brain size of the mammals tended to be relatively larger (that is in relation to body size) by comparison with the previous reptilian or egg laying systems. This process led to the large human brain. A crucial difference between man and other animals, is undoubtedly the extent to which the brain and its peripheral attributes have been developed. This paper will address the possibility that the potential for the evolution of the large human brain may have been released by the evolving human primate occupying an ecological niche which offered a rich source of those nutrients specifically required for the brain. That niche is at the land/water interface. PMID:2077700

Crawford, M A

1990-01-01

224

Evolutionarily novel functional networks in the human brain?  

PubMed

Primate evolution has been accompanied by complex reorganizations in brain anatomy and function. Little is known, however, about the relationship between anatomical and functional changes induced through primate evolution. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed spatial and temporal correspondences of cortical networks in humans and monkeys. We provided evidence for topologically and functionally correspondent networks in sensory-motor and attention regions. More specifically, we revealed a possible monkey equivalent of the human ventral attention network. For other human networks, such as the language and the default-mode networks, we detected topological correspondent networks in the monkey, but with different functional signatures. Furthermore, we observed two lateralized human frontoparietal networks in the cortical regions displaying the greatest evolutionary expansion, having neither topological nor functional monkey correspondents. This finding may indicate that these two human networks are evolutionarily novel. Thus, our findings confirm the existence of networks where evolution has conserved both topology and function but also suggest that functions of structurally preserved networks can diverge over time and that novel, hence human-specific networks, have emerged during human evolution. PMID:23426655

Mantini, Dante; Corbetta, Maurizio; Romani, Gian Luca; Orban, Guy A; Vanduffel, Wim

2013-02-20

225

Accuracy Test of Microsoft Kinect for Human Morphologic Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Microsoft Kinect sensor, a popular gaming console, is widely used in a large number of applications, including close-range 3D measurements. This low-end device is rather inexpensive compared to similar active imaging systems. The Kinect sensors include an RGB camera, an IR projector, an IR camera and an audio unit. The human morphologic measurements require high accuracy with fast data acquisition rate. To achieve the highest accuracy, the depth sensor and the RGB camera should be calibrated and co-registered to achieve high-quality 3D point cloud as well as optical imagery. Since this is a low-end sensor, developed for different purpose, the accuracy could be critical for 3D measurement-based applications. Therefore, two types of accuracy test are performed: (1) for describing the absolute accuracy, the ranging accuracy of the device in the range of 0.4 to 15 m should be estimated, and (2) the relative accuracy of points depending on the range should be characterized. For the accuracy investigation, a test field was created with two spheres, while the relative accuracy is described by sphere fitting performance and the distance estimation between the sphere center points. Some other factors can be also considered, such as the angle of incidence or the material used in these tests. The non-ambiguity range of the sensor is from 0.3 to 4 m, but, based on our experiences, it can be extended up to 20 m. Obviously, this methodology raises some accuracy issues which make accuracy testing really important.

Molnr, B.; Toth, C. K.; Detrek?i, A.

2012-08-01

226

Traumatic brain injury induces elevation of Co in the human brain.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of death and disability in young adults, yet the molecular mechanisms that follow TBI are poorly understood. We previously reported a perturbation in iron (Fe) levels following TBI. Here we report that the distribution of cobalt (Co) is modulated in post-mortem human brain following injury. We also investigated how the distribution of other biologically relevant elements changes in TBI. Cobalt is increased due to TBI while copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) remain unchanged. The elevated Co has important implications for positron emission tomography neuroimaging. This is the first demonstration of the accumulation of Co in injured tissue explaining the previous utility of (55)Co-PET imaging in TBI. PMID:25424382

Roberts, Blaine R; Hare, Dominic J; McLean, Catriona A; Conquest, Alison; Lind, Monica; Li, Qiao-Xin; Bush, Ashley I; Masters, Colin L; Morganti-Kossmann, Maria-Christina; Frugier, Tony

2015-01-24

227

The Functional Connectivity Landscape of the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Functional brain networks emerge and dissipate over a primarily static anatomical foundation. The dynamic basis of these networks is inter-regional communication involving local and distal regions. It is assumed that inter-regional distances play a pivotal role in modulating network dynamics. Using three different neuroimaging modalities, 6 datasets were evaluated to determine whether experimental manipulations asymmetrically affect functional relationships based on the distance between brain regions in human participants. Contrary to previous assumptions, here we show that short- and long-range connections are equally likely to strengthen or weaken in response to task demands. Additionally, connections between homotopic areas are the most stable and less likely to change compared to any other type of connection. Our results point to a functional connectivity landscape characterized by fluid transitions between local specialization and global integration. This ability to mediate functional properties irrespective of spatial distance may engender a diverse repertoire of cognitive processes when faced with a dynamic environment. PMID:25350370

Fatima, Zainab; Jonides, John; McIntosh, Anthony R.

2014-01-01

228

Memory-related brain lateralisation in birds and humans.  

PubMed

Visual imprinting in chicks and song learning in songbirds are prominent model systems for the study of the neural mechanisms of memory. In both systems, neural lateralisation has been found to be involved in memory formation. Although many processes in the human brain are lateralised - spatial memory and musical processing involves mostly right hemisphere dominance, whilst language is mostly left hemisphere dominant - it is unclear what the function of lateralisation is. It might enhance brain capacity, make processing more efficient, or prevent occurrence of conflicting signals. In both avian paradigms we find memory-related lateralisation. We will discuss avian lateralisation findings and propose that birds provide a strong model for studying neural mechanisms of memory-related lateralisation. PMID:25036892

Moorman, Sanne; Nicol, Alister U

2014-07-15

229

Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury for Human Vergence Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Traumatic brain injury involving loss of consciousness has focal effects in the human brainstem, suggesting that it may have particular consequences for eye movement control. This hypothesis was investigated by measurements of vergence eye movement parameters. Methods: Disparity vergence eye movements were measured for a population of 123 normally sighted individuals, 26 of whom had suffered diffuse traumatic brain injury (dTBI) in the past, while the remainder served as controls. Vergence tracking responses were measured to sinusoidal disparity modulation of a random-dot field. Disparity vergence step responses were characterized in terms of their dynamic parameters separately for the convergence and divergence directions. Results: The control group showed notable differences between convergence and divergence dynamics. The dTBI group showed significantly abnormal vergence behavior on many of the dynamic parameters. Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that occult injury to the oculomotor control system is a common residual outcome of dTBI. PMID:25691880

Tyler, Christopher W.; Likova, Lora T.; Mineff, Kristyo N.; Elsaid, Anas M.; Nicholas, Spero C.

2015-01-01

230

Dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the human brain.  

PubMed

The myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes has been suggested to be modulated by experience, which could mediate neural plasticity by optimizing the performance of the circuitry. We have assessed the dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the human brain. The number of oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum is established in childhood and remains stable after that. Analysis of the integration of nuclear bomb test-derived (14)C revealed that myelin is exchanged at a high rate, whereas the oligodendrocyte population in white matter is remarkably stable in humans, with an annual exchange of 1/300 oligodendrocytes. We conclude that oligodendrocyte turnover contributes minimally to myelin modulation in human white matter and that this instead may be carried out by mature oligodendrocytes, which may facilitate rapid neural plasticity. PMID:25417154

Yeung, Maggie S Y; Zdunek, Sofia; Bergmann, Olaf; Bernard, Samuel; Salehpour, Mehran; Alkass, Kanar; Perl, Shira; Tisdale, John; Possnert, Gran; Brundin, Lou; Druid, Henrik; Frisn, Jonas

2014-11-01

231

Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging of human brain at 7 T?  

PubMed Central

Quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging yields indices describing the interactions between free water protons and immobile macromolecular protons. These indices include the macromolecular to free pool size ratio (PSR), which has been shown to be correlated with myelin content in white matter. Because of the long scan times required for whole-brain imaging (?2030 min), qMT studies of the human brain have not found widespread application. Herein, we investigated whether the increased signal-to-noise ratio available at 7.0 T could be used to reduce qMT scan times. More specifically, we developed a selective inversion recovery (SIR) qMT imaging protocol with a i) novel transmit radiofrequency (B1+) and static field (B0) insensitive inversion pulse, ii) turbo field-echo readout, and iii) reduced TR. In vivo qMT data were obtained in the brains of healthy volunteers at 7.0 T using the resulting protocol (scan time?40 s/slice, resolution=223 mm3). Reliability was also assessed in repeated acquisitions. The results of this study demonstrate that SIR qMT imaging can be reliably performed within the radiofrequency power restrictions present at 7.0 T, even in the presence of large B1+ and B0 inhomogeneities. Consistent with qMT studies at lower field strengths, the observed PSR values were higher in white matter (meanSD=17.61.3%) relative to gray matter (10.31.6%) at 7.0 T. In addition, regional variations in PSR were observed in white matter. Together, these results suggest that qMT measurements are feasible at 7.0 T and may eventually allow for the high-resolution assessment of changes in composition throughout the normal and diseased human brain in vivo. PMID:22940589

Dortch, Richard D.; Moore, Jay; Li, Ke; Jankiewicz, Marcin; Gochberg, Daniel F.; Hirtle, Jane A.; Gore, John C.; Smith, Seth A.

2013-01-01

232

Detection of human herpesvirus-6 in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgical brain resections  

PubMed Central

Background Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), a ubiquitous ?-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of roseola infantum and has been associated with a number of neurologic disorders including seizures, encephalitis/meningitis, and multiple sclerosis. Although the role of HHV-6 in human CNS disease remains to be fully defined, a number of studies have suggested that the CNS can be a site for persistent HHV-6 infection. Objective To characterize the extent and distribution of HHV-6 in human glial cells from surgical brain resections of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method Brain samples from eight patients with MTLE and seven patients with neocortical epilepsy (NE) undergoing surgical resection were quantitatively analyzed for the presence of HHV-6 DNA using a virus-specific real-time PCR assay. HHV-6 expression was also characterized by western blot analysis and in situ immunohistochemistry (IHC). In addition, HHV-6-reactive cells were analyzed for expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) by double immunofluorescence. Results DNA obtained from four of eight patients with MTLE had significantly elevated levels of HHV-6 as quantified by real-time PCR. HHV-6 was not amplified in any of the seven patients with NE undergoing surgery. The highest levels of HHV-6 were demonstrated in hippocampal sections (up to 23,079 copies/106 cells) and subtyped as HHV-6B. Expression of HHV-6 was confirmed by western blot analysis and IHC. HHV-6 was co-localized to GFAP-positive cells that morphologically appeared to be astrocytes. Conclusions HHV-6B is present in brain specimens from a subset of patients with MTLE and localized to astrocytes in the absence of inflammation. The amplification of HHV-6 from hippocampal and temporal lobe astrocytes of MTLE warrants further investigation into the possible role of HHV-6 in the development of MTLE. PMID:14638964

Donati, D.; Akhyani, N.; FogdellHahn, A.; Cermelli, C.; Cassiani-Ingoni, R.; Vortmeyer, A.; Heiss, J. D.; Cogen, P.; Gaillard, W. D.; Sato, S.; Theodore, W. H.; Jacobson, S.

2014-01-01

233

Complex regulation of acetylcholinesterase gene expression in human brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene expression in human brain tumors, 3? splice variants of AChE mRNA and potentially relevant transcription factor mRNAs were labeled in primary astrocytomas and melanomas. AChE-S and AChE-R mRNA, as well as Runx1\\/AML1 mRNA accumulated in astrocytomas in correlation with tumor aggressiveness, but neither HNF3? nor c-fos mRNA was observed in melanoma and

Chava Perry; Ella H Sklan; Klara Birikh; Michael Shapira; Leonor Trejo; Amiram Eldor; Hermona Soreq

2002-01-01

234

Neuronal populations in the human brain extracting invariant relationships from acoustic variance  

E-print Network

Neuronal populations in the human brain extracting invariant relationships from acoustic variance- physiological evidence for the existence of neuronal popu- lations in the human brain which are able to extract perception of complex auditory information such as speech and music. Human subjects were presented with tone

Allen, Jont

235

[A morphological study of human hair tips by scanning electronic microscope (SEM)].  

PubMed

Morphological characteristics of human hair tip was studied by SEM. It was concluded that human hair tips could be classified into eight types. The tip formation, distribution and changes after being trimmed were explored. This study can be used in the mechanism research of human hair growth and the forensic hair examination. PMID:11938877

Ding, M

1998-01-01

236

Human Leg Model Predicts Ankle Muscle-Tendon Morphology, State, Roles and Energetics in Walking  

E-print Network

Human Leg Model Predicts Ankle Muscle-Tendon Morphology, State, Roles and Energetics in Walking to be established. Here we develop a computational framework to address how the ankle joint actuation problem-tendon morphology and neural activations enable a metabolically optimal realization of biological ankle mechanics

Herr, Hugh

237

Constructing Human Brain-Function Association Models from fMRI Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toward the goal of understanding the human brain function, we have developed a web-based human brain functional mapping knowledge base (HBFMKB) system to mining human brain-function association model from vast Medline abstracts. Since nomenclature and relationships among cognitive functions have no consensus yet, we use rule-based natural language processing methods to extract behavioral task and cognitive function and do n-gram

Mei-Yu Hsiao; Der-Yow Chen; Jyh-Horng Chen

2007-01-01

238

Immunostaining of Oxidized DJ-1 in Human and Mouse Brains  

PubMed Central

Abstract DJ-1, the product of a causative gene of a familial form of Parkinson disease, undergoes preferential oxidation of Cys106 (cysteine residue at position 106) under oxidative stress. Using specific monoclonal antibodies against Cys106 oxidized DJ-1 (oxDJ-1), we examined oxDJ-1 immunoreactivity in brain sections from DJ-1 knockout and wild-type mice and in human brain sections from cases classified into different Lewy body stages of Parkinson disease and Parkinson disease with dementia. Oxidized DJ-1 immunoreactivity was prominently observed in neuromelanin-containing neurons and neuron processes of the substantia nigra; Lewy bodies also showed oxDJ-1 immunoreactivity. Oxidized DJ-1 was also detected in astrocytes in the striatum, in neurons and glia in the red nucleus, and in the inferior olivary nucleus, all of which are related to regulation of movement. These observations suggest the relevance of DJ-1 oxidation to homeostasis in multiple brain regions, including neuromelanin-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, and raise the possibility that oxDJ-1 levels might change during the progression of Lewy bodyassociated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24918637

Saito, Yoshiro; Miyasaka, Tomohiro; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Hayashi, Kojiro; Mita, Yuichiro; Kusano-Arai, Osamu; Iwanari, Hiroko; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Hamakubo, Takao; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Niki, Etsuo; Murayama, Shigeo; Ihara, Yasuo; Noguchi, Noriko

2014-01-01

239

Heritability of human brain functioning as assessed by electroencephalography  

SciTech Connect

To study the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in CNS functioning, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured in 213 twin pairs age 16 years. EEG was measured in 91 MZ and 122 DZ twins. To quantify sex differences in the genetic architecture, EEG was measured in female and male same-sex twins and in opposite-sex twins. EEG was recorded on 14 scalp positions during quiet resting with eyes closed. Spectral powers were calculated for four frequency bands: delta, theta, alpha, and beta. Twin correlations pointed toward high genetic influences for all these powers and scalp locations. Model fitting confirmed these findings; the largest part of the variance of the EEG is explained by additive genetic factors. The averaged heritabilities for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies was 76%, 89%, 89%, and 86%, respectively. Multivariate analyses suggested that the same genes for EEG alpha rhythm were expressed in different brain areas in the left and right hemisphere. This study shows that brain functioning, as indexed by rhythmic brain-electrical activity, is one of the most heritable characteristics in humans. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. van; Geus, E.J.C. de; Boomsma, D.I. [and others

1996-03-01

240

The structure of creative cognition in the human brain.  

PubMed

Creativity is a vast construct, seemingly intractable to scientific inquiry-perhaps due to the vague concepts applied to the field of research. One attempt to limit the purview of creative cognition formulates the construct in terms of evolutionary constraints, namely that of blind variation and selective retention (BVSR). Behaviorally, one can limit the "blind variation" component to idea generation tests as manifested by measures of divergent thinking. The "selective retention" component can be represented by measures of convergent thinking, as represented by measures of remote associates. We summarize results from measures of creative cognition, correlated with structural neuroimaging measures including structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We also review lesion studies, considered to be the "gold standard" of brain-behavioral studies. What emerges is a picture consistent with theories of disinhibitory brain features subserving creative cognition, as described previously (Martindale, 1981). We provide a perspective, involving aspects of the default mode network (DMN), which might provide a "first approximation" regarding how creative cognition might map on to the human brain. PMID:23847503

Jung, Rex E; Mead, Brittany S; Carrasco, Jessica; Flores, Ranee A

2013-01-01

241

Heritability of human brain functioning as assessed by electroencephalography.  

PubMed Central

To study the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in CNS functioning, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured in 213 twin pairs age 16 years. EEG was measured in 91 MZ and 122 DZ twins. To quantify sex differences in the genetic architecture, EEG was measured in female and male same-sex twins and in opposite-sex twins. EEG was recorded on 14 scalp positions during quiet resting with eyes closed. Spectral powers were calculated for four frequency bands: delta, theta, alpha, and beta. Twin correlations pointed toward high genetic influences for all these powers and scalp locations. Model fitting confirmed these findings; the largest part of the variance of the EEG is explained by additive genetic factors. The averaged heritabilites for the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies was 76%, 89%, 89%, and 86%, respectively. Multivariate analyses suggested that the same genes for EEG alpha rhythm were expressed in different brain areas in the left and right hemisphere. This study shows that brain functioning, as indexed by rhythmic brain-electrical activity, is one of the most heritable characteristics in humans. PMID:8644716

van Beijsterveldt, C. E.; Molenaar, P. C.; de Geus, E. J.; Boomsma, D. I.

1996-01-01

242

The runner's high: opioidergic mechanisms in the human brain.  

PubMed

The runner's high describes a euphoric state resulting from long-distance running. The cerebral neurochemical correlates of exercise-induced mood changes have been barely investigated so far. We aimed to unravel the opioidergic mechanisms of the runner's high in the human brain and to identify the relationship to perceived euphoria. We performed a positron emission tomography "ligand activation" study with the nonselective opioidergic ligand 6-O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-6-O-desmethyldiprenorphine ([(18)F]FDPN). Ten athletes were scanned at 2 separate occasions in random order, at rest and after 2 h of endurance running (21.5 +/- 4.7 km). Binding kinetics of [(18)F]FDPN were quantified by basis pursuit denoising (DEPICT software). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was used for voxelwise analyses to determine relative changes in ligand binding after running and correlations of opioid binding with euphoria ratings. Reductions in opioid receptor availability were identified preferentially in prefrontal and limbic/paralimbic brain structures. The level of euphoria was significantly increased after running and was inversely correlated with opioid binding in prefrontal/orbitofrontal cortices, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, parainsular cortex, and temporoparietal regions. These findings support the "opioid theory" of the runner's high and suggest region-specific effects in frontolimbic brain areas that are involved in the processing of affective states and mood. PMID:18296435

Boecker, Henning; Sprenger, Till; Spilker, Mary E; Henriksen, Gjermund; Koppenhoefer, Marcus; Wagner, Klaus J; Valet, Michael; Berthele, Achim; Tolle, Thomas R

2008-11-01

243

Receptors for advanced glycosylation endproducts in human brain: role in brain homeostasis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the reactive derivatives of nonenzymatic glucose-macromolecule condensation products. Aging human tissues accumulate AGEs in an age-dependent manner and contribute to age-related functional changes in vital organs. We have shown previously that AGE scavenger receptors are present on monocyte/macrophages, lymphocytes, and other cells. However, it remains unclear whether the human brain can efficiently eliminate AGE-modified proteins and whether excessive AGEs can contribute to inflammatory changes leading to brain injury in aging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore the expression and characteristics of AGE-binding proteins on CNS glia components and their putative function, such as degradation of AGE-modified proteins, primary human astrocytes and human monocytes (as a microglial cell surrogate) and murine microglia (N9) cells and cell membrane extracts were used. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the distribution of AGE-binding proteins in the human hippocampus; RT-PCR techniques were used to examine the biologic effects of AGEs and a model AGE compound, FFI, on AGE-binding protein modulation and cytokine responses of human astrocytes and monocytes. RESULTS: Our results showed that AGE-binding proteins AGE-R1, -R2, and -R3 are present in glial cells. Western blot analyses and radiolabeled ligand binding studies show that AGE-R1 and -R3 from human astrocytes bind AGE-modified proteins; binding could be blocked by anti-AGE-R1 and anti-AGE-R3 antibodies, respectively. Immunohistochemistry showed that AGE-R1 and -R2 are expressed mainly in neurons; only some glial cells express these AGE-binding proteins. In contrast, AGE-R3 was found only on those astrocytes whose positively stained foot processes extend and surround the sheath of microcapillaries. RT-PCR results showed that mRNAs of the three AGE-binding proteins are expressed constitutively in human astrocytes and monocytes, and receptor transcripts are not regulated by exogenous AGEs, the model AGE compound FFI, or phorbol ester. At the concentrations used, GM-CSF appears to be the only cytokine whose transcript and protein levels are regulated in human astrocytes by exogenous AGEs. CONCLUSIONS: The selective presence of AGE-binding proteins in pyramidal neurons and glial cells and their roles in degrading AGE-modified protein in glial cells suggest that the human brain has a mechanism(s) to clear AGE-modified proteins. Without this capacity, accumulation of AGEs extracellularly could stimulate glial cells to produce the major inflammatory cytokine GM-CSF, which has been shown to be capable of up-regulating AGE-R3. It remains to be determined whether AGE-binding proteins could be aberrant or down-regulated under certain pathological conditions, resulting in an insidious inflammatory state of the CNS in some aging humans. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:9513189

Li, J. J.; Dickson, D.; Hof, P. R.; Vlassara, H.

1998-01-01

244

Dentate gyrus abnormalities in sudden unexplained death in infants: morphological marker of underlying brain vulnerability.  

PubMed

Sudden unexplained death in infants, including the sudden infant death syndrome, is likely due to heterogeneous causes that involve different intrinsic vulnerabilities and/or environmental factors. Neuropathologic research focuses upon the role of brain regions, particularly the brainstem, that regulate or modulate autonomic and respiratory control during sleep or transitions to waking. The hippocampus is a key component of the forebrain-limbic network that modulates autonomic/respiratory control via brainstem connections, but its role in sudden infant death has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that a well-established marker of hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy-focal granule cell bilamination in the dentate, a variant of granule cell dispersion-is associated with sudden unexplained death in infants. In a blinded study of hippocampal morphology in 153 infants with sudden and unexpected death autopsied in the San Diego County medical examiner's office, deaths were classified as unexplained or explained based upon autopsy and scene investigation. Focal granule cell bilamination was present in 41.2% (47/114) of the unexplained group compared to 7.7% (3/39) of the explained (control) group (p<0.001). It was associated with a cluster of other dentate developmental abnormalities that reflect defective neuronal proliferation, migration, and/or survival. Dentate lesions in a large subset of infants with sudden unexplained death may represent a developmental vulnerability that leads to autonomic/respiratory instability or autonomic seizures, and sleep-related death when the infants are challenged with homeostatic stressors. Importantly, these lesions can be recognized in microscopic sections prepared in current forensic practice. Future research is needed to determine the relationship between hippocampal and previously reported brainstem pathology in sudden infant death. PMID:25421424

Kinney, Hannah C; Cryan, Jane B; Haynes, Robin L; Paterson, David S; Haas, Elisabeth A; Mena, Othon J; Minter, Megan; Journey, Kelley W; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Goldstein, Richard D; Armstrong, Dawna D

2015-01-01

245

Development of Open Brain Simulator for Human Biomechatronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling and simulation based on mechanisms is important in order to design and control mechatronic systems. In particular, in-depth understanding and realistic modeling of biological systems is indispensable for biomechatronics. This paper presents open brain simulator, which estimates the neural state of human through external measurement for the purpose of improving motor and social skills. Macroscopic anatomical nervous systems model was built which can be connected to the musculoskeletal model. Microscopic anatomical and physiological neural models were interfaced to the macroscopic model. Neural activities of somatosensory area and Purkinje cell were calculated from motion capture data. The simulator provides technical infrastructure for human biomechatronics, which is promising for the novel diagnosis of neurological disorders and their treatments through medication and movement therapy, and for motor learning support system supporting acquisition of motor skill considering neural mechanism.

Otake, Mihoko; Takagi, Toshihisa; Asama, Hajime

246

Neuronal avalanches in the resting MEG of the human brain.  

PubMed

What constitutes normal cortical dynamics in healthy human subjects is a major question in systems neuroscience. Numerous in vitro and in vivo animal studies have shown that ongoing or resting cortical dynamics are characterized by cascades of activity across many spatial scales, termed neuronal avalanches. In experiment and theory, avalanche dynamics are identified by two measures: (1) a power law in the size distribution of activity cascades with an exponent of -3/2 and (2) a branching parameter of the critical value of 1, reflecting balanced propagation of activity at the border of premature termination and potential blowup. Here we analyzed resting-state brain activity recorded using noninvasive magnetoencephalography (MEG) from 124 healthy human subjects and two different MEG facilities using different sensor technologies. We identified large deflections at single MEG sensors and combined them into spatiotemporal cascades on the sensor array using multiple timescales. Cascade size distributions obeyed power laws. For the timescale at which the branching parameter was close to 1, the power law exponent was -3/2. This relationship was robust to scaling and coarse graining of the sensor array. It was absent in phase-shuffled controls with the same power spectrum or empty scanner data. Our results demonstrate that normal cortical activity in healthy human subjects at rest organizes as neuronal avalanches and is well described by a critical branching process. Theory and experiment have shown that such critical, scale-free dynamics optimize information processing. Therefore, our findings imply that the human brain attains an optimal dynamical regime for information processing. PMID:23595765

Shriki, Oren; Alstott, Jeff; Carver, Frederick; Holroyd, Tom; Henson, Richard N A; Smith, Marie L; Coppola, Richard; Bullmore, Edward; Plenz, Dietmar

2013-04-17

247

Implicit false-belief processing in the human brain.  

PubMed

Eye-movement patterns in 'Sally-Anne' tasks reflect humans' ability to implicitly process the mental states of others, particularly false-beliefs - a key theory of mind (ToM) operation. It has recently been proposed that an efficient ToM system, which operates in the absence of awareness (implicit ToM, iToM), subserves the analysis of belief-like states. This contrasts to consciously available belief processing, performed by the explicit ToM system (eToM). The frontal, temporal and parietal cortices are engaged when humans explicitly 'mentalize' about others' beliefs. However, the neural underpinnings of implicit false-belief processing and the extent to which they draw on networks involved in explicit general-belief processing are unknown. Here, participants watched 'Sally-Anne' movies while fMRI and eye-tracking measures were acquired simultaneously. Participants displayed eye-movements consistent with implicit false-belief processing. After independently localizing the brain areas involved in explicit general-belief processing, only the left anterior superior temporal sulcus and precuneus revealed greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity for false- relative to true-belief trials in our iToM paradigm. No such difference was found for the right temporal-parietal junction despite significant activity in this area. These findings fractionate brain regions that are associated with explicit general ToM reasoning and false-belief processing in the absence of awareness. PMID:25042446

Schneider, Dana; Slaughter, Virginia P; Becker, Stefanie I; Dux, Paul E

2014-11-01

248

Dynamic reconfiguration of human brain networks during learning  

PubMed Central

Human learning is a complex phenomenon requiring flexibility to adapt existing brain function and precision in selecting new neurophysiological activities to drive desired behavior. These two attributesflexibility and selectionmust operate over multiple temporal scales as performance of a skill changes from being slow and challenging to being fast and automatic. Such selective adaptability is naturally provided by modular structure, which plays a critical role in evolution, development, and optimal network function. Using functional connectivity measurements of brain activity acquired from initial training through mastery of a simple motor skill, we investigate the role of modularity in human learning by identifying dynamic changes of modular organization spanning multiple temporal scales. Our results indicate that flexibility, which we measure by the allegiance of nodes to modules, in one experimental session predicts the relative amount of learning in a future session. We also develop a general statistical framework for the identification of modular architectures in evolving systems, which is broadly applicable to disciplines where network adaptability is crucial to the understanding of system performance. PMID:21502525

Bassett, Danielle S.; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Carlson, Jean M.; Grafton, Scott T.

2011-01-01

249

Knowledge-based localization of hippocampus in human brain MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hippocampus is an important structure of the human brain limbic system. The variations in the volume and architecture of this structure have been related to certain neurological diseases such as schizophrenia and epilepsy. This paper presents a two-stage method for localizing hippocampus in human brain MRI automatically. The first stage utilizes image processing techniques such as nonlinear filtering and histogram analysis to extract information from MRI. This stage generates binary images, locates lateral and third ventricles, and the inferior limit of Sylvian Fissure. The second stage uses a shell of expert system named VP-EXPERT to analyze the information extracted in the first stage. This stage utilizes absolute and relative spatial rules and spatial symmetry rules to locate the hippocampus. The system has been tested using MRI studies of six epilepsy patients. MRI data consisted of a total of 128 images. The system correctly identified all of the slices without hippocampus, and correctly localized hippocampus is about n 78% of the slices with hippocampus.

Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Siadat, Mohammad-Reza

1999-05-01

250

Protein Phosphatase 1? Interacting Proteins in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Abstract Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a major serine/threonine-phosphatase whose activity is dependent on its binding to regulatory subunits known as PP1 interacting proteins (PIPs), responsible for targeting PP1 to a specific cellular location, specifying its substrate or regulating its action. Today, more than 200 PIPs have been described involving PP1 in panoply of cellular mechanisms. Moreover, several PIPs have been identified that are tissue and event specific. In addition, the diversity of PP1/PIP complexes can further be achieved by the existence of several PP1 isoforms that can bind preferentially to a certain PIP. Thus, PP1/PIP complexes are highly specific for a particular function in the cell, and as such, they are excellent pharmacological targets. Hence, an in-depth survey was taken to identify specific PP1? PIPs in human brain by a high-throughput Yeast Two-Hybrid approach. Sixty-six proteins were recognized to bind PP1?, 39 being novel PIPs. A large protein interaction databases search was also performed to integrate with the results of the PP1? Human Brain Yeast Two-Hybrid and a total of 246 interactions were retrieved. PMID:22321011

Esteves, Sara L.C.; Domingues, Sara C.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A.B.; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

2012-01-01

251

The Partition of Trace Amounts of Xenon Between Human Blood and Brain Tissues at 37C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative solubilities of trace amounts of 133Xe at 37 C in human plasma, red blood cells, grey and white matter of the brain, and in homogenized whole brain have been determined. From these data the tissue\\/blood partition coefficients for cortex, white matter and whole brain have been calculated as a function of haematocrit. On the basis of the measured

N. Veall; B. L. Mallett

1965-01-01

252

A Twin MRI Study of Size Variations in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is well known that there is considerable variation among individuals in the size of the human brain, the etiology of less extreme individual differences in brain size is largely unknown. We present here data from the first large twin sample (N=132 individuals) in which the size of brain structures has been measured. As part of an ongoing project

Bruce F. Pennington; Pauline A. Filipek; Dianne Lefly; Nomita Chhabildas; David N. Kennedy; Jack H. Simon; Christopher M. Filley; Albert Galaburda; John C. DeFries

2000-01-01

253

A Celebration of Neurons: An Educator's Guide to the Human Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides an introduction to the current scientific understanding of the human brain and its processes. Chapter 1, "At the Edge of a Major Transformation," is an introduction to the field. Chapter 2, "How Our Brain Organizes Itself on the Cellular and Systems Levels," covers what body/brain cellular systems do, how cells process units of

Sylwester, Robert

254

The Organization of Local and Distant Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information processing in the human brain arises from both interactions between adjacent areas and from distant projections that form distributed brain systems. Here we map interactions across different spatial scales by estimating the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity for the local (?14 mm) neighborhood directly surrounding brain regions as contrasted with distant (>14 mm) interactions. The balance between local and

Jorge Sepulcre; Hesheng Liu; Tanveer Talukdar; Iigo Martincorena; B. T. Thomas Yeo; Randy L. Buckner

2010-01-01

255

From human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the brain to dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can cause both primary and secondary brain diseases. Numerous neuropathological studies have shown that up to 90% of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have lesions in the nervous system. In this review, we discuss the entry of HIV into the brain, the general features of HIV associated neuropathology, the role of different brain cells

G Trillo-Pazos; I P Everall

1997-01-01

256

Positron emission tomography and computed tomography assessments of the aging human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between alterations in brain structure and brain function was studied in vivo in both young and elderly human subjects. Computed tomography revealed significant age-related ventricular and cortical sulcal dilatation. The cortical changes were most closely related to age. Positron emission tomography failed to show regional changes in brain glucose metabolic rate. The results suggest that the normal aging

Mony J. de Leon; Ajax E. George; Steven H. Ferris; David R. Christman; Joanna S. Fowler; Cynthia I. Gentes; Jonathan Brodie; Barry Reisberg; Alfred P. Wolf

1984-01-01

257

The remarkable, yet not extraordinary, human brain as a scaled-up primate brain and its associated cost.  

PubMed

Neuroscientists have become used to a number of "facts" about the human brain: It has 100 billion neurons and 10- to 50-fold more glial cells; it is the largest-than-expected for its body among primates and mammals in general, and therefore the most cognitively able; it consumes an outstanding 20% of the total body energy budget despite representing only 2% of body mass because of an increased metabolic need of its neurons; and it is endowed with an overdeveloped cerebral cortex, the largest compared with brain size. These facts led to the widespread notion that the human brain is literally extraordinary: an outlier among mammalian brains, defying evolutionary rules that apply to other species, with a uniqueness seemingly necessary to justify the superior cognitive abilities of humans over mammals with even larger brains. These facts, with deep implications for neurophysiology and evolutionary biology, are not grounded on solid evidence or sound assumptions, however. Our recent development of a method that allows rapid and reliable quantification of the numbers of cells that compose the whole brain has provided a means to verify these facts. Here, I review this recent evidence and argue that, with 86 billion neurons and just as many nonneuronal cells, the human brain is a scaled-up primate brain in its cellular composition and metabolic cost, with a relatively enlarged cerebral cortex that does not have a relatively larger number of brain neurons yet is remarkable in its cognitive abilities and metabolism simply because of its extremely large number of neurons. PMID:22723358

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

2012-06-26

258

Human brain arteriovenous malformations express lymphatic-associated genes  

PubMed Central

Objective Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular lesions characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining vein(s) and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise AVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. Given the role of the transcription factor COUP-TFII in vascular development, EC specification, and pathological angiogenesis, we examined human AVM tissue to determine if COUP-FTII may have a role in AVM disease biology. Methods We examined 40 human brain AVMs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and qRT-PCR for the expression of COUP-TFII as well as other genes involved in venous and lymphatic development, maintenance, and signaling. We also examined proliferation and EC tube formation with human umbilical ECs (HUVEC) following COUP-TFII overexpression. Results We report that AVMs expressed COUP-TFII, SOX18, PROX1, NFATC1, FOXC2, TBX1, LYVE1, Podoplanin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, contained Ki67-positive cells and heterogeneously expressed genes involved in Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, and VEGF signaling pathways. Overexpression of COUP-TFII alone in vitro resulted in increased EC proliferation and dilated tubes in an EC tube formation assay in HUVEC. Interpretation This suggests AVM ECs are further losing their arterial/venous specificity and acquiring a partial lymphatic molecular phenotype. There was significant correlation of gene expression with presence of clinical edema and acute hemorrhage. While the precise role of these genes in the formation, stabilization, growth and risk of hemorrhage of AVMs remains unclear, these findings have potentially important implications for patient management and treatment choice, and opens new avenues for future work on AVM disease mechanisms.

Shoemaker, Lorelei D; Fuentes, Laurel F; Santiago, Shauna M; Allen, Breanna M; Cook, Douglas J; Steinberg, Gary K; Chang, Steven D

2014-01-01

259

The envirome and the connectome: exploring the structural noise in the human brain associated with socioeconomic deprivation  

PubMed Central

Complex cognitive functions are widely recognized to be the result of a number of brain regions working together as large-scale networks. Recently, complex network analysis has been used to characterize various structural properties of the large-scale network organization of the brain. For example, the human brain has been found to have a modular architecture i.e., regions within the network form communities (modules) with more connections between regions within the community compared to regions outside it. The aim of this study was to examine the modular and overlapping modular architecture of the brain networks using complex network analysis. We also examined the association between neighborhood level deprivation and brain network structuremodularity and gray nodes. We compared network structure derived from anatomical MRI scans of 42 middle-aged neurologically healthy men from the least (LD) and the most deprived (MD) neighborhoods of Glasgow with their corresponding random networks. Cortical morphological covariance networks were constructed from the cortical thickness derived from the MRI scans of the brain. For a given modularity threshold, networks derived from the MD group showed similar number of modules compared to their corresponding random networks, while networks derived from the LD group had more modules compared to their corresponding random networks. The MD group also had fewer gray nodesa measure of overlapping modular structure. These results suggest that apparent structural difference in brain networks may be driven by differences in cortical thicknesses between groups. This demonstrates a structural organization that is consistent with a system that is less robust and less efficient in information processing. These findings provide some evidence of the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and brain network topology. PMID:24273501

Krishnadas, Rajeev; Kim, Jongrae; McLean, John; Batty, G. David; McLean, Jennifer S.; Millar, Keith; Packard, Chris J.; Cavanagh, Jonathan

2013-01-01

260

How do we make friends and why: An investigation into the human social brain  

E-print Network

The Social Brain Hypothesis regards large social groups of primates and particularly in humans as the result of the development of cognitive skills necessary for social interactions. However, it has not yet been discovered how humans can maintain...

Brockerhoff, Maja Andrea

2008-06-27

261

Variation in human brains may facilitate evolutionary change toward a limited range of phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Individual variation is the foundation for evolutionary change, but little is known about the nature of normal variation between brains. Phylogenetic variation across mammalian brains is characterized by high inter-correlations in brain region volumes, distinct allometric scaling for each brain region and the relative independence in olfactory and limbic structures volumes from the rest of the brain. Previous work examining brain variation in individuals of some domesticated species showed that these three features of phylogenetic variation were mirrored in individual variation. We extend this analysis to the human brain and 10 of its subdivisions (e.g., isocortex, hippocampus) by using magnetic resonance imaging scans of 90 human brains ranging between 16 to 25 years of age. Human brain variation resembles both the individual variation seen in other species, and variation observed across mammalian species. That is, the relative differences in the slopes of each brain region compared to medulla size within humans and between mammals are concordant, and limbic structures scale with relative independence from other brain regions. This non-random pattern of variation suggests that developmental programs channel the variation available for selection. PMID:23363667

Charvet, Christine J.; Darlington, Richard B.; Finlay, Barbara L.

2013-01-01

262

An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.  

PubMed

Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans. PMID:25267617

Jean, Aurlie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Ral

2014-10-28

263

An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans. PMID:25267617

Jean, Aurlie; Nyein, Michelle K.; Zheng, James Q.; Moore, David F.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Radovitzky, Ral

2014-01-01

264

Color of Scents: Chromatic Stimuli Modulate Odor Responses in the Human Brain  

E-print Network

strong influence on odor perception is color. The color of a fruit, for example, provides an importantColor of Scents: Chromatic Stimuli Modulate Odor Responses in the Human Brain Robert A. O, and Gemma A. Calvert. Color of scents: chromatic stimuli modulate odor responses in the human brain. J

Hansen, Peter

265

Videomicroscopy, Image Processing, and Analysis of Whole Histologic Sections of the Human Brain  

E-print Network

Videomicroscopy, Image Processing, and Analysis of Whole Histologic Sections of the Human Brain registration ABSTRACT Serial histologic sections of a whole human brain may have extensions of up to 130 ? 130 be applied to a systematic analysis of a larger sequence of serial histologic sections. The objective

Modersitzki, Jan

266

Video Article Monitoring Acupuncture Effects on Human Brain by fMRI  

E-print Network

Video Article Monitoring Acupuncture Effects on Human Brain by fMRI Kathleen K. S. Hui1, Vitaly). Monitoring Acupuncture Effects on Human Brain by fMRI. JoVE. 38. http://www.jove.com/index/Details.stp?ID=1190, doi: 10.3791/1190 Abstract Functional MRI is used to study the effects of acupuncture on the BOLD

Napadow, Vitaly

267

Noninvasive quantification of human brain antioxidant concentrations after an intravenous bolus of vitamin C  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Until now, antioxidant based initiatives for preventing dementia have lacked a means to detect deficiency or measure pharmacologic effect in the human brain in situ. Objective: Our objective was to apply a novel method to measure key human brain antioxidant concentrations throughout the ...

268

Geometric control of human stem cell morphology and differentiationw Leo Q. Wan,a  

E-print Network

During tissue morphogenesis, stem cells and progenitor cells migrate, proliferate, and differentiateGeometric control of human stem cell morphology and differentiationw Leo Q. Wan,a Sylvia M. Kang. In this study, we controlled the organization of human adipose derived stem cells using micro

Linhardt, Robert J.

269

Human brain regions involved in recognizing environmental sounds.  

PubMed

To identify the brain regions preferentially involved in environmental sound recognition (comprising portions of a putative auditory 'what' pathway), we collected functional imaging data while listeners attended to a wide range of sounds, including those produced by tools, animals, liquids and dropped objects. These recognizable sounds, in contrast to unrecognizable, temporally reversed control sounds, evoked activity in a distributed network of brain regions previously associated with semantic processing, located predominantly in the left hemisphere, but also included strong bilateral activity in posterior portions of the middle temporal gyri (pMTG). Comparisons with earlier studies suggest that these bilateral pMTG foci partially overlap cortex implicated in high-level visual processing of complex biological motion and recognition of tools and other artifacts. We propose that the pMTG foci process multimodal (or supramodal) information about objects and object-associated motion, and that this may represent 'action' knowledge that can be recruited for purposes of recognition of familiar environmental sound-sources. These data also provide a functional and anatomical explanation for the symptoms of pure auditory agnosia for environmental sounds reported in human lesion studies. PMID:15166097

Lewis, James W; Wightman, Frederic L; Brefczynski, Julie A; Phinney, Raymond E; Binder, Jeffrey R; DeYoe, Edgar A

2004-09-01

270

Human brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human brain activity was studied with a real time functional Near-InfraRed Imager (fNIRI). The imager has 16 measurement channels and covers 4 cm by 9 cm detection area. Brain activities in occipital, motor and prefrontal area were studied with the fNIRI. In prefrontal stimulation, language cognition, analogies, forming memory for new associations, emotional thinking, and mental arithmetic were carried out. Experimental results measured with fNIRI are demonstrated in this paper. It was shown that fNIRI technique is able to reveal the occipital activity during visual stimulation, and co-register well with results of fMRI in the motor cortex activity during finger tapping. In the studies of the effects of left prefrontal lobe on forming memory for new associations, it is shown that left prefrontal lobe activated more under deep conditions than that under shallow encoding, especially the dorsal part. In the studies of emotional thinking, it was shown that the responses were different between positive- negative emotional thinking and negative-positive emotional thinking. In mental arithmetic studies, higher activation was found in the first task than in the second, regardless of the difficulty, and higher activation was measured in subtraction of 17 than in subtraction of 3.

Luo, Qingming; Chance, Britton

1999-09-01

271

Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.  

PubMed

Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834. PMID:15595271

Parent, Andr

2004-11-01

272

Later Passages of Neural Progenitor Cells from Neonatal Brain Are More Permissive for Human Cytomegalovirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the most frequent infectious cause of birth defects, primarily neurological disorders. Neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs) are the major cell type in the subventricular zone and are susceptible to HCMV infection. In culture, the differentiation status of NPCs may change with passage, which in turn may alter susceptibility to virus infection. Previously, only early-passage (i.e., prior to passage 9) NPCs were studied and shown to be permissive to HCMV infection. In this study, NPC cultures derived at different gestational ages were evaluated after short (passages 3 to 6) and extended (passages 11 to 20) in vitro passages for biological and virological parameters (i.e., cell morphology, expression of NPC markers and HCMV receptors, viral entry efficiency, viral gene expression, virus-induced cytopathic effect, and release of infectious progeny). These parameters were not significantly influenced by the gestational age of the source tissues. However, extended-passage cultures showed evidence of initiation of differentiation, increased viral entry, and more efficient production of infectious progeny. These results confirm that NPCs are fully permissive for HCMV infection and that extended-passage NPCs initiate differentiation and are more permissive for HCMV infection. Later-passage NPCs being differentiated and more permissive for HCMV infection suggest that HCMV infection in fetal brain may cause more neural cell loss and give rise to severe neurological disabilities with advancing brain development. PMID:23903847

Pan, Xing; Li, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Xi-Juan; Yuan, Hui; Li, Jia-Fu; Duan, Ying-Liang; Ye, Han-Qing; Fu, Ya-Ru; Qiao, Guan-Hua; Wu, Cong-Cong; Yang, Bo; Tian, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Kang-Hong; Miao, Ling-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Jun; Rayner, Simon; Schwartz, Philip H.; Britt, William J.

2013-01-01

273

Reprogramming the fate of human glioma cells to impede brain tumor development.  

PubMed

Malignant gliomas, the most common solid tumors in the central nervous system, are essentially incurable due to their rapid growth and very invasive nature. One potential approach to eradicating glioma cells is to force these cells to undergo terminal differentiation and, in the process, to irreversible postmitotic arrest. Here, we show that neurogenin 2 (NGN2, also known as NEUROG2) synergizes with sex-determining region Y-box 11 (SOX11) to very efficiently convert human glioma cells to terminally differentiated neuron-like cells in both cell culture and adult mouse brains. These cells exhibit neuronal morphology, marker expression, and electrophysiological properties. The conversion process is accompanied by cell cycle exit, which dramatically inhibits glioma cell proliferation and tumor development after orthotopic transplantation. Most importantly, intracranial injection of NGN2- and SOX11-expressing virus into the tumor mass also curtails glioma growth and significantly improves survival of tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, this study shows a simple and highly efficient strategy for reprogramming malignant glioma cells into postmitotic cells, which might be a promising therapeutic approach for brain tumors. PMID:25321470

Su, Z; Zang, T; Liu, M-L; Wang, L-L; Niu, W; Zhang, C-L

2014-01-01

274

Maintaining the Brain: Insight into Human Neurodegeneration From Drosophila Mutants  

PubMed Central

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has brought significant advances to research in neurodegenerative disease, notably in the identification of genes that are required to maintain the structural integrity of the brain, defined by recessive mutations that cause adult-onset neurodegeneration. Here, we survey these genes in the fly and classify them according to five key cell biological processes. Over half of these genes have counterparts in mouse or human that are also associated with neurodegeneration. Fly genetics continues to be instrumental in the analysis of degenerative disease, with notable recent advances in our understanding of several inherited disorders, as well as Parkinsons Disease and the central role of mitochondria in neuronal maintenance. PMID:19434080

Lessing, Derek; Bonini, Nancy M.

2009-01-01

275

Neural Dynamics Underlying Target Detection in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Sensory signals must be interpreted in the context of goals and tasks. To detect a target in an image, the brain compares input signals and goals to elicit the correct behavior. We examined how target detection modulates visual recognition signals by recording intracranial field potential responses from 776 electrodes in 10 epileptic human subjects. We observed reliable differences in the physiological responses to stimuli when a cued target was present versus absent. Goal-related modulation was particularly strong in the inferior temporal and fusiform gyri, two areas important for object recognition. Target modulation started after 250 ms post stimulus, considerably after the onset of visual recognition signals. While broadband signals exhibited increased or decreased power, gamma frequency power showed predominantly increases during target presence. These observations support models where task goals interact with sensory inputs via top-down signals that influence the highest echelons of visual processing after the onset of selective responses. PMID:24553944

Bansal, Arjun K.; Madhavan, Radhika; Agam, Yigal; Golby, Alexandra; Madsen, Joseph R.

2014-01-01

276

Functional, Morphological, and Metabolic Abnormalities of the Cerebral Microcirculation after Concussive Brain Injury in Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We induced experimental concussive brain injury by a fluid percussion device in anes- thetized cats equipped with a cranial window for the observation of the pial microcirculation of the parietal cortex. Brain injury resulted in transient but pronounced increases in arterial blood pressure and in sustained arteriolar vasodilation associated with reduced or absent responsiveness to the vasoconstrictor effect of

ENOCH P. WEI; W. DALTON DIETRICH; JOHN T. POVLISHOCK; RUDOLPH M. NAVARI; HERMES A. KONTOS

277

Brain Potentials for Derivational Morphology: An ERP Study of Deadjectival Nominalizations in Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates brain potentials to derived word forms in Spanish. Two experiments were performed on derived nominals that differ in terms of their productivity and semantic properties but are otherwise similar, an acceptability judgment task and a reading experiment using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in which correctly and

Havas, Viktoria; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Clahsen, Harald

2012-01-01

278

Real-time classification of activated brain areas for fMRI-based human-brain-interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional MR imaging (fMRI) enables to detect different activated brain areas according to the performed tasks. However, data are usually evaluated after the experiment, which prohibits intra-experiment optimization or more sophisticated applications such as biofeedback experiments. Using a human-brain-interface (HBI), subjects are able to communicate with external programs, e.g. to navigate through virtual scenes, or to experience and modify their

Tobias Moench; Maurice Hollmann; Ramona Grzeschik; Charles Mueller; Ralf Luetzkendorf; Sebastian Baecke; Michael Luchtmann; Daniela Wagegg; Johannes Bernarding

2008-01-01

279

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers prevent pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and morphological changes in rat brain neurons.  

PubMed

Alterations in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission play a central role in the etiology of epilepsy, with overstimulation of glutamate receptors influencing epileptic activity and corresponding neuronal damage. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which belong to a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors, play a primary role in this process. This study compared the anticonvulsant properties of two NMDA receptor channel blockers, memantine and 1-phenylcyclohexylamine (IEM-1921), in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model of seizures in rats and investigated their potencies in preventing PTZ-induced morphological changes in the brain. The anticonvulsant properties of IEM-1921 (5 mg/kg) were more pronounced than those of memantine at the same dose. IEM-1921 and memantine decreased the duration of convulsions by 82% and 37%, respectively. Both compounds were relatively effective at preventing the tonic component of seizures but not myoclonic seizures. Memantine significantly reduced the lethality caused by PTZ-induced seizures from 42% to 11%, and all animals pretreated with IEM-1921 survived. Morphological examination of the rat brain 24 hr after administration of PTZ revealed alterations in the morphology of 20-25% of neurons in the neocortex and the hippocampus, potentially induced by excessive glutamate. The expression of the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 protein was increased in the hippocampus of the PTZ-treated rats. However, dark neurons did not express caspase-3 and were immunopositive for the neuronal nuclear antigen protein, indicating that these neurons were alive. Both NMDA antagonists prevented neuronal abnormalities in the brain. These results suggest that NMDA receptor channel blockers might be considered possible neuroprotective agents for prolonged seizures or status epilepticus leading to neuronal damage. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25359451

Zaitsev, Aleksey V; Kim, Kira Kh; Vasilev, Dmitry S; Lukomskaya, Nera Ya; Lavrentyeva, Valeria V; Tumanova, Natalia L; Zhuravin, Igor A; Magazanik, Lev G

2015-03-01

280

Changes induced by prenatal stress in behavior and brain morphology: can they be prevented or reversed?  

PubMed

This chapter presents a critical analysis of the behavioral alterations reported in the offspring of women exposed to stress and/or depression during pregnancy and the neurochemical and structural changes underlying them. Among the alterations attributed to prenatal stress in humans and experimental rats of both sexes is impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, anxiety and exaggerated fear of novelty, and decreased social interaction. Learning and attention deficits are more prevalent in boys and male rats. Fear of novelty and anxiety are associated with enlargement of the amygdala and its corticotropin-releasing factor content, and decreased socialization, with lower oxytocin activity in the amygdala. Learning deficits are associated with a decrease in neurogenesis, dendritic complexity, and spine number in the dorsal hippocampus. Fostering prenatally stressed (PS) pups onto control mothers prevents the dysregulation of the HPA axis and heightened anxiety, indicating a role for postnatal factors in their etiology. By contrast, learning impairment and decreased socialization are not affected by this fostering procedure and are therefore prenatally mediated.In spite of their widespread use in depressed pregnant women, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants do not normalize the behavior of their children. When administered during gestation to stressed rats, SSRIs do not reduce anxiety or learning deficits in their offspring. Moreover, when given to unstressed mothers, SSRIs induce anxiety in the offspring. The detrimental effect of SSRIs may result from inhibition of the serotonin transporter exposing the brain to excess amounts of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) at a critical time during fetal development. PMID:25287533

Weinstock, Marta

2015-01-01

281

Optimization of electron microscopy for human brains with long-term fixation and fixed-frozen sections  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal connectivity across brain regions underlies many neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and autism, possibly due to atypical axonal organization within white matter. Attempts at investigating axonal organization on post-mortem human brains have been hindered by the availability of high-quality, morphologically preserved tissue, particularly for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Brains are generally stored in a fixative for long periods of time (often greater than 10 years) and in many cases, already frozen and sectioned on a microtome for histology and immunohistochemistry. Here we present a method to assess the quality and quantity of axons from long-term fixed and frozen-sectioned human brain samples to demonstrate their use for electron microscopy (EM) measures of axonal ultrastructure. Results Six samples were collected from white matter below the superior temporal cortex of three typically developing human brains and prepared for EM analyses. Five samples were stored in fixative for over 10 years, two of which were also flash frozen and sectioned on a freezing microtome, and one additional case was fixed for 3 years and sectioned on a freezing microtome. In all six samples, ultrastructural qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrate that myelinated axons can be identified and counted on the EM images. Although axon density differed between brains, axonal ultrastructure and density was well preserved and did not differ within cases for fixed and frozen tissue. There was no significant difference between cases in axon myelin sheath thickness (g-ratio) or axon diameter; approximately 70% of axons were in the small (0.25 ?m) to medium (0.75 ?m) range. Axon diameter and g-ratio were positively correlated, indicating that larger axons may have thinner myelin sheaths. Conclusion The current study demonstrates that long term formalin fixed and frozen-sectioned human brain tissue can be used for ultrastructural analyses. Axon integrity is well preserved and can be quantified using the methods presented here. The ability to carry out EM on frozen sections allows for investigation of axonal organization in conjunction with other cellular and histological methods, such as immunohistochemistry and stereology, within the same brain and even within the same frozen cut section. PMID:24721148

2014-01-01

282

Brain development in rodents and humans: Identifying benchmarks of maturation and vulnerability to injury across species  

PubMed Central

Hypoxic-ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are leading causes of long-term mortality and disability in infants and children. Although several preclinical models using rodents of different ages have been developed, species differences in the timing of key brain maturation events can render comparisons of vulnerability and regenerative capacities difficult to interpret. Traditional models of developmental brain injury have utilized rodents at postnatal day 710 as being roughly equivalent to a term human infant, based historically on the measurement of post-mortem brain weights during the 1970s. Here we will examine fundamental brain development processes that occur in both rodents and humans, to delineate a comparable time course of postnatal brain development across species. We consider the timing of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrocyte maturation and age-dependent behaviors that coincide with developmentally regulated molecular and biochemical changes. In general, while the time scale is considerably different, the sequence of key events in brain maturation is largely consistent between humans and rodents. Further, there are distinct parallels in regional vulnerability as well as functional consequences in response to brain injuries. With a focus on developmental hypoxicischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury, this review offers guidelines for researchers when considering the most appropriate rodent age for the developmental stage or process of interest to approximate human brain development. PMID:23583307

Semple, Bridgette D.; Blomgren, Klas; Gimlin, Kayleen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

2013-01-01

283

Neanderthal brain size at birth provides insights into the evolution of human life history  

PubMed Central

From birth to adulthood, the human brain expands by a factor of 3.3, compared with 2.5 in chimpanzees [DeSilva J and Lesnik J (2006) Chimpanzee neonatal brain size: Implications for brain growth in Homo erectus. J Hum Evol 51: 207212]. How the required extra amount of human brain growth is achieved and what its implications are for human life history and cognitive development are still a matter of debate. Likewise, because comparative fossil evidence is scarce, when and how the modern human pattern of brain growth arose during evolution is largely unknown. Virtual reconstructions of a Neanderthal neonate from Mezmaiskaya Cave (Russia) and of two Neanderthal infant skeletons from Dederiyeh Cave (Syria) now provide new comparative insights: Neanderthal brain size at birth was similar to that in recent Homo sapiens and most likely subject to similar obstetric constraints. Neanderthal brain growth rates during early infancy were higher, however. This pattern of growth resulted in larger adult brain sizes but not in earlier completion of brain growth. Because large brains growing at high rates require large, late-maturing, mothers [Leigh SR and Blomquist GE (2007) in Campbell CJ et al. Primates in perspective; pp 396407], it is likely that Neanderthal life history was similarly slow, or even slower-paced, than in recent H. sapiens. PMID:18779579

Ponce de Len, Marcia S.; Golovanova, Lubov; Doronichev, Vladimir; Romanova, Galina; Akazawa, Takeru; Kondo, Osamu; Ishida, Hajime; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.

2008-01-01

284

Development of a high angular resolution diffusion imaging human brain template.  

PubMed

Brain diffusion templates contain rich information about the microstructure of the brain, and are used as references in spatial normalization or in the development of brain atlases. The accuracy of diffusion templates constructed based on the diffusion tensor (DT) model is limited in regions with complex neuronal micro-architecture. High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) overcomes limitations of the DT model and is capable of resolving intravoxel heterogeneity. However, when HARDI is combined with multiple-shot sequences to minimize image artifacts, the scan time becomes inappropriate for human brain imaging. In this work, an artifact-free HARDI template of the human brain was developed from low angular resolution multiple-shot diffusion data. The resulting HARDI template was produced in ICBM-152 space based on Turboprop diffusion data, was shown to resolve complex neuronal micro-architecture in regions with intravoxel heterogeneity, and contained fiber orientation information consistent with known human brain anatomy. PMID:24440528

Varentsova, Anna; Zhang, Shengwei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

2014-05-01

285

Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks  

PubMed Central

The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous structure, ranging from a strongly hierarchical organization in sensorimotor areas to widely distributed networks in areas such as the parieto-frontal cortex. Our study relied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 32 fetuses with no detectable morphological abnormalities. After adapting functional magnetic resonance acquisition, motion correction, and nuisance signal reduction procedures of resting-state functional data analysis to fetuses, we extracted neural activity information for major cortical and subcortical structures. Resting fMRI networks were observed for increasing regional functional connectivity from 21st to 38th gestational weeks (GWs) with a network-based statistical inference approach. The overall connectivity network, short range, and interhemispheric connections showed sigmoid expansion curve peaking at the 2629 GW. In contrast, long-range connections exhibited linear increase with no periods of peaking development. Region-specific increase of functional signal synchrony followed a sequence of occipital (peak: 24.8 GW), temporal (peak: 26 GW), frontal (peak: 26.4 GW), and parietal expansion (peak: 27.5 GW). We successfully adapted functional neuroimaging and image post-processing approaches to correlate macroscopical scale activations in the fetal brain with gestational age. This in vivo study reflects the fact that the mid-fetal period hosts events that cause the architecture of the brain circuitry to mature, which presumably manifests in increasing strength of intra- and interhemispheric functional macro connectivity. PMID:25374531

Jakab, Andrs; Schwartz, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Gruber, Gerlinde M.; Prayer, Daniela; Schpf, Veronika; Langs, Georg

2014-01-01

286

Grammar as an Emergent Property of the Human Brain Lee McCauley  

E-print Network

in the ancestors of modern humans. (Calvin 1998) One explanation for the incredible fact of our existence may1 Grammar as an Emergent Property of the Human Brain Lee McCauley The University of Memphis t-mccauley@memphis.edu Introduction Language is one of the most studied and debated issues in human cognition. It is also the human

McCauley, Thomas

287

Transcriptome organization for chronic alcohol abuse in human brain.  

PubMed

Alcohol dependence is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder characterized by high genetic heritability and neuroadaptations occurring from repeated drug exposure. Through an integrated systems approach we observed consistent differences in transcriptome organization within postmortem human brain tissue associated with the lifetime consumption of alcohol. Molecular networks, determined using high-throughput RNA sequencing, for drinking behavior were dominated by neurophysiological targets and signaling mechanisms of alcohol. The systematic structure of gene sets demonstrates a novel alliance of multiple ion channels, and related processes, underlying lifetime alcohol consumption. Coordinate expression of these transcripts was enriched for genome-wide association signals in alcohol dependence and a meta-analysis of alcohol self-administration in mice. Further dissection of genes within alcohol consumption networks revealed the potential interaction of alternatively spliced transcripts. For example, expression of a human-specific isoform of the voltage-gated sodium channel subunit SCN4B was significantly correlated to lifetime alcohol consumption. Overall, our work demonstrates novel convergent evidence for biological networks related to excessive alcohol consumption, which may prove fundamentally important in the development of pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 2 December 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.159. PMID:25450227

Farris, S P; Arasappan, D; Hunicke-Smith, S; Harris, R A; Mayfield, R D

2014-12-01

288

Contour-based brain segmentation method for magnetic resonance imaging human head scans.  

PubMed

The high-resolution magnetic resonance brain images often contain some nonbrain tissues (ie, skin, fat, muscle, neck, eye balls, etc) compared with the functional images such as positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which usually contain few nonbrain tissues. Automatic segmentation of brain tissues from MRI scans remains a challenging task due to the variation in shape and size, use of different pulse sequences, overlapping signal intensities and imaging artifacts. This article presents a contour-based automatic brain segmentation method to segment the brain regions from T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted MRI of human head scans. The proposed method consists of 2 stages. In stage 1, the brain regions in the middle slice is extracted. Many of the existing methods failed to extract brain regions in the lower and upper slices of the brain volume, where the brain appears in more than 1 connected region. To overcome this problem, in the proposed method, a landmark circle is drawn at the center of the extracted brain region of a middle slice and is likely to pass through all the brain regions in the remaining lower and upper slices irrespective of whether the brain is composed of 1 or more connected components. In stage 2, the brain regions in the remaining slices are extracted with reference to the landmark circle obtained in stage 1. The proposed method is robust to the variability of brain anatomy, image orientation, and image type, and it extracts the brain regions accurately in T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted normal and abnormal brain images. Experimental results by applying the proposed method on 100 volumes of brain images show that the proposed method exhibits best and consistent performance than by the popular existing methods brain extraction tool, brain surface extraction, watershed algorithm, hybrid watershed algorithm, and skull stripping using graph cuts. PMID:23674005

Somasundaram, K; Kalavathi, P

2013-01-01

289

Characterization of human brain nicotinamide 5'-mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-2 and expression in human pancreas.  

PubMed Central

NMNAT (nicotinamide 5'-mononucleotide adenylyltransferase; EC 2.7.7.1) catalyses the transfer of the adenylyl group from ATP to NMN to form NAD. We have cloned a novel human NMNAT cDNA, designated hNMNAT-2, from human brain. The cDNA contains a 924 bp open reading frame that encodes a 307 amino acid peptide that was expressed as a histidine-patch-containing thioredoxin fusion protein. Expressed hNMNAT-2 shared only 35% amino acid sequence homology with the human NMNAT enzyme (hNMNAT-1), but possessed enzymic activity comparable with hNMNAT-1. Using human genomic databases, hNMNAT-2 was localized to chromosome 1q25 within a 171 kb gene, whereas hNMNAT-1 is on chromosome 1p32-35. Northern blot analysis revealed highly restricted expression of hNMNAT-2 to brain, heart and muscle tissues, which contrasts with the wide tissue expression of hNMNAT-1; different regions of the brain exhibited differential expression of hNMNAT-2. Substitution mutations of either of two invariant residues, His-24 or Trp-92, abolished enzyme activity. Anti-peptide antibody to a unique epitope within hNMNAT-2 was produced, and immunohistochemical analysis of sections of normal adult human pancreas revealed that hNMNAT-2 protein was markedly expressed in the islets of Langerhans. However, the pancreatic exocrine cells exhibited weak expression of hNMNAT-2 protein. Sections of pancreas from insulinoma patients showed strong expression of hNMNAT-2 protein in the insulin-producing tumour cells, whereas acinar cells exhibited relatively low expression of hNMNAT-2 protein. These data suggest that the unique tissue-expression patterns of hNMNAT-2 reflect distinct functions for the isoforms in the regulation of NAD metabolism. PMID:14516279

Yalowitz, Joel A; Xiao, Suhong; Biju, Mangatt P; Antony, A?ok C; Cummings, Oscar W; Deeg, Mark A; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N

2004-01-01

290

Morphological Integration of the Modern Human Mandible during Ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Craniofacial integration is prevalent in anatomical modernity research. Little investigation has been done on mandibular integration. Integration patterns were quantified in a longitudinal modern human sample of mandibles. This integration pattern is one of modularization between the alveolar and muscle attachment regions, but with age-specific differences. The ascending ramus and nonalveolar portions of the corpus remain integrated throughout ontogeny. The alveolar region is dynamic, becoming modularized according to the needs of the mandible at a particular developmental stage. Early in ontogeny, this modularity reflects the need for space for the developing dentition; later, modularity is more reflective of mastication. The overall pattern of modern human mandibular integration follows the integration pattern seen in other mammals, including chimpanzees. Given the differences in craniofacial integration patterns between humans and chimpanzees, but the similarities in mandibular integration, it is likely that the mandible has played the more passive role in hominin skull evolution. PMID:21716741

Polanski, Joshua M.

2011-01-01

291

Morphological variation in dentate and edentulous human mandibles  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of the study was to examine the different morphometric variations of the human mandibles, comparing between males\\u000a and females in dentate and edentulous mandibles.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsEighty adult human dry mandibles were studied. Thirty-two variations were evaluated according to the presence and absence\\u000a of teeth. KolmogorovSmirnov test was performed to evaluate the normal distribution of the morphometric variables. Levene\\u000a test

Bruno Ramos Chrcanovic; Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimares Abreu; Antnio Lus Neto Custdio

2011-01-01

292

Functional interface between brain and central pattern generator for application in human-machine system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a functional interface between brain and central pattern generator (CPG) is designed in an engineering perspective, which may serve in a human-machine system. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) is used to recognize five types of intention related to human walking. After feature extraction, classification and command translation on electroencephalography (EEG) signals, the human

Dingguo Zhang; Lin Yao; Ying Wang; Xiangyang Zhu

2011-01-01

293

Morphological Analysis of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells During Induced Differentiation and Reverse Programming  

PubMed Central

Abstract The fine analysis of cell components during the generation of pluripotent cells and their comparison to bone fide human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are valuable tools to understand their biological behavior. In this report, human mesenchymal cells (hMSCs) generated from the human ES cell line H9, were reprogrammed back to induced pluripotent state using Oct-4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28 transgenes. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) were analyzed using electron microscopy and compared with regard to the original hESCs and the hMSCs from which they were derived. This analysis shows that hIPSCs and the original hESCs are morphologically undistinguishable but differ from the hMSCs with respect to the presence of several morphological features of undifferentiated cells at both the cytoplasmic (ribosomes, lipid droplets, glycogen, scarce reticulum) and nuclear levels (features of nuclear plasticity, presence of euchromatin, reticulated nucleoli). We show that hIPSC colonies generated this way presented epithelial aspects with specialized junctions highlighting morphological criteria of the mesenchymalepithelial transition in cells engaged in a successful reprogramming process. Electron microscopic analysis revealed also specific morphological aspects of partially reprogrammed cells. These results highlight the valuable use of electron microscopy for a better knowledge of the morphological aspects of IPSC and cellular reprogramming. PMID:25371857

Magniez, Aurlie; Oudrhiri, Noufissa; Fraud, Olivier; Bacci, Josette; Gobbo, Emilie; Proust, Stphanie; Turhan, Ali G.

2014-01-01

294

Decade of the Brain 1990-2000: Maximizing Human Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The brain is the seat of intelligence, the interpreter of senses, and the controller of movement. Research efforts on the brain have increased dramatically in the past 10 years; some of the more promising areas of brain and behavioral sciences research are reported here. The research was performed by 22 separate Federal member organizations and

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, Washington, DC.

295

Automated morphological analysis of magnetic resonance brain imaging using spectral analysis.  

PubMed

Analysis of structural neuroimaging studies often relies on volume or shape comparisons of labeled neuroanatomical structures in two or more clinical groups. Such studies have common elements involving segmentation, morphological feature extraction for comparison, and subject and group discrimination. We combine two state-of-the-art analysis approaches, namely automated segmentation using label fusion and classification via spectral analysis to explore the relationship between the morphology of neuroanatomical structures and clinical diagnosis in dementia. We apply this framework to a cohort of normal controls and patients with mild dementia where accurate diagnosis is notoriously difficult. We compare and contrast our ability to discriminate normal and abnormal groups on the basis of structural morphology with (supervised) and without (unsupervised) knowledge of each individual's diagnosis. We test the hypothesis that morphological features resulting from Alzheimer disease processes are the strongest discriminator between groups. PMID:18761093

Aljabar, P; Rueckert, D; Crum, W R

2008-11-01

296

Real-time classification of activated brain areas for fMRI-based human-brain-interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional MR imaging (fMRI) enables to detect different activated brain areas according to the performed tasks. However, data are usually evaluated after the experiment, which prohibits intra-experiment optimization or more sophisticated applications such as biofeedback experiments. Using a human-brain-interface (HBI), subjects are able to communicate with external programs, e.g. to navigate through virtual scenes, or to experience and modify their own brain activation. These applications require the real-time analysis and classification of activated brain areas. Our paper presents first results of different strategies for real-time pattern analysis and classification realized within a flexible experiment control system that enables the volunteers to move through a 3D virtual scene in real-time using finger tapping tasks, and alternatively only thought-based tasks.

Moench, Tobias; Hollmann, Maurice; Grzeschik, Ramona; Mueller, Charles; Luetzkendorf, Ralf; Baecke, Sebastian; Luchtmann, Michael; Wagegg, Daniela; Bernarding, Johannes

2008-03-01

297

Influence of Basement Membrane Proteins and Endothelial Cell-Derived Factors on the Morphology of Human Fetal-Derived Astrocytes in 2D  

PubMed Central

Astrocytes are the most prevalent type of glial cell in the brain, participating in a variety of diverse functions from regulating cerebral blood flow to controlling synapse formation. Astrocytes and astrocyte-conditioned media are widely used in models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), however, very little is known about astrocyte culture in 2D. To test the hypothesis that surface coating and soluble factors influence astrocyte morphology in 2D, we quantitatively analyzed the morphology of human fetal derived astrocytes on glass, matrigel, fibronectin, collagen IV, and collagen I, and after the addition soluble factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), laminin, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Matrigel surface coatings, as well as addition of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to the media, were found to have the strongest effects on 2D astrocyte morphology, and may be important in improving existing BBB models. In addition, the novel set of quantitative parameters proposed in this paper provide a test for determining the influence of compounds on astrocyte morphology, both to screen for new endothelial cell-secreted factors that influence astrocytes, and to determine in a high-throughput way which factors are important for translation to more complex, 3D BBB models. PMID:24647106

Levy, Amanda F.; Zayats, Maya; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Quiones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Searson, Peter C.

2014-01-01

298

Coronal in vivo forward-imaging of rat brain morphology with an ultra-small optical coherence tomography fiber probe.  

PubMed

A well-established navigation method is one of the key conditions for successful brain surgery: it should be accurate, safe and online operable. Recent research shows that optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potential solution for this application by providing a high resolution and small probe dimension. In this study a fiber-based spectral-domain OCT system utilizing a super-luminescent-diode with the center wavelength of 840nm providing 14.5 ?m axial resolution was used. A composite 125?m diameter detecting probe with a gradient index (GRIN) fiber fused to a single mode fiber was employed. Signals were reconstructed into grayscale images by horizontally aligning A-scans from the same trajectory with different depths. The reconstructed images can display brain morphology along the entire trajectory. For scans of typical white matter, the signals showed a higher reflection of light intensity with lower penetration depth as well as a steeper attenuation rate compared to the scans typical for gray matter. Micro-structures such as axon bundles (70 ?m) in the caudate nucleus are visible in the reconstructed images. This study explores the potential of OCT to be a navigation modality in brain surgery. PMID:23318277

Xie, Yijing; Bonin, Tim; Lffler, Susanne; Httmann, Gereon; Tronnier, Volker; Hofmann, Ulrich G

2013-02-01

299

Brain morphological abnormalities in 49,XXXXY syndrome: A pediatric magnetic resonance imaging study???  

PubMed Central

As a group, people with the sex chromosome aneuploidy 49,XXXXY have characteristic physical and cognitive/behavioral tendencies, although there is high individual variation. In this study we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain morphometry in 14 youth with 49,XXXXY compared to 42 age-matched healthy controls. Total brain size was significantly smaller (t=9.0, p<.001), and rates of brain abnormalities such as colpocephaly, plagiocephaly, periventricular cysts, and minor craniofacial abnormalities were significantly increased. White matter lesions were identified in 50% of subjects, supporting the inclusion of 49,XXXXY in the differential diagnosis of small multifocal white matter lesions. Further evidence of abnormal development of white matter was provided by the smaller cross sectional area of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that increased dosage of genes on the X chromosome has adverse effects on white matter development. PMID:23667827

Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Baker, Eva H.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wade, Benjamin; Clasen, Liv S.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

2013-01-01

300

Influence of nanoparticles of platinum on chicken embryo development and brain morphology  

PubMed Central

Platinum nanoparticles (NP-Pt) are noble metal nanoparticles with unique physiochemical properties that have recently elicited much interest in medical research. However, we still know little about their toxicity and influence on general health. We investigated effects of NP-Pt on the growth and development of the chicken embryo model with emphasis on brain tissue micro- and ultrastructure. The embryos were administered solutions of NP-Pt injected in ovo at concentrations from 1 to 20 ?g/ml. The results demonstrate that NP-Pt did not affect the growth and development of the embryos; however, they induced apoptosis and decreased the number of proliferating cells in the brain tissue. These preliminary results indicate that properties of NP-Pt might be utilized in brain cancer therapy, but potential toxic side effects must be elucidated in extensive follow-up research. PMID:23705751

2013-01-01

301

Development of immortalized human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cell line as an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to gen- eratean inunortal cell line representative of special- ized human brain microvascular endothelia forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. Human cap- illary and microvascular endothelial cells (HCEC) were transfected with the plasmid pSVS-neo coding for the SV4O largeT antigenand the neomycin gene. The neomycin-resistant transfectedcellsovercame proliferative senescence, and after a 6-8 wk

ARUMUGAM MURUGANANDAM; LEONIE MOORHOUSE HERX; ROBERT MONETFE; JON P. DURKIN; DANICA B. STANIMIROVIC

302

Cannabinoid receptors in the human brain: a detailed anatomical and quantitative autoradiographic study in the fetal, neonatal and adult human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical distribution and density of cannabinoid receptors in the human brain was studied in one fetal (33weeks gestation), two neonatal (aged three to six months) and eight adult (aged 2181years) human cases using quantitative receptor autoradiography following in vitro labelling of sections with the synthetic cannabinoid agonist [3H]CP55,940.Cannabinoid receptors were distributed in a heterogeneous fashion throughout the adult human

M Glass; R. L. M Faull; M Dragunow

1997-01-01

303

Noise-Induced Entrainment and Stochastic Resonance in Human Brain Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first observation of stochastic resonance (SR) in the human brain's visual processing area. The novel experimental protocol is to stimulate the right eye with a subthreshold periodic optical signal and the left eye with a noisy one. The stimuli bypass sensory organs and are mixed in the visual cortex. With many noise sources present in the brain, higher brain functions, e.g., perception and cognition, may exploit SR.

Mori, Toshio; Kai, Shoichi

2002-05-01

304

Noise-induced entrainment and stochastic resonance in human brain waves.  

PubMed

We present the first observation of stochastic resonance (SR) in the human brain's visual processing area. The novel experimental protocol is to stimulate the right eye with a subthreshold periodic optical signal and the left eye with a noisy one. The stimuli bypass sensory organs and are mixed in the visual cortex. With many noise sources present in the brain, higher brain functions, e.g., perception and cognition, may exploit SR. PMID:12059504

Mori, Toshio; Kai, Shoichi

2002-05-27

305

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain.  

PubMed Central

Direct infection of the central nervous system by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, was not appreciated in the early years of the AIDS epidemic. Neurological complications associated with AIDS were largely attributed to opportunistic infections that arose as a result of the immunocompromised state of the patient and to depression. In 1985, several groups succeeded in isolating HIV-1 directly from brain tissue. Also that year, the viral genome was completely sequenced, and HIV-1 was found to belong to a neurotropic subfamily of retrovirus known as the Lentivirinae. These findings clearly indicated that direct HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system played a role in the development of AIDS-related neurological disease. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and the related neuropathology, the tropism of HIV-1 for specific cell types both within and outside of the nervous system, the possible mechanisms by which HIV-1 damages the nervous system, and the current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. Images PMID:8269391

Atwood, W J; Berger, J R; Kaderman, R; Tornatore, C S; Major, E O

1993-01-01

306

Local Model of Arteriovenous Malformation of the Human Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular diseases of the human brain are one of the reasons of deaths and people's incapacitation not only in Russia, but also in the world. The danger of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is in premature rupture of pathological vessels of an AVM which may cause haemorrhage. Long-term prognosis without surgical treatment is unfavorable. The reduced impact method of AVM treatment is embolization of a malformation which often results in complete obliteration of an AVM. Pre-surgical mathematical modeling of an arteriovenous malformation can help surgeons with an optimal sequence of the operation. During investigations, the simple mathematical model of arteriovenous malformation is developed and calculated, and stationary and non-stationary processes of its embolization are considered. Various sequences of embolization of a malformation are also considered. Calculations were done with approximate steady flow on the basis of balanced equations derived from conservation laws. Depending on pressure difference, a fistula-type AVM should be embolized at first, and then small racemose AVMs are embolized. Obtained results are in good correspondence with neurosurgical AVM practice.

Nadezhda Telegina, Ms; Aleksandr Chupakhin, Mr; Aleksandr Cherevko, Mr

2013-02-01

307

The Human Brain Encodes Event Frequencies While Forming Subjective Beliefs  

PubMed Central

To make adaptive choices, humans need to estimate the probability of future events. Based on a Bayesian approach, it is assumed that probabilities are inferred by combining a priori, potentially subjective, knowledge with factual observations, but the precise neurobiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we study whether neural encoding centers on subjective posterior probabilities, and data merely lead to updates of posteriors, or whether objective data are encoded separately alongside subjective knowledge. During fMRI, young adults acquired prior knowledge regarding uncertain events, repeatedly observed evidence in the form of stimuli, and estimated event probabilities. Participants combined prior knowledge with factual evidence using Bayesian principles. Expected reward inferred from prior knowledge was encoded in striatum. BOLD response in specific nodes of the default mode network (angular gyri, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex) encoded the actual frequency of stimuli, unaffected by prior knowledge. In this network, activity increased with frequencies and thus reflected the accumulation of evidence. In contrast, Bayesian posterior probabilities, computed from prior knowledge and stimulus frequencies, were encoded in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Here activity increased for improbable events and thus signaled the violation of Bayesian predictions. Thus, subjective beliefs and stimulus frequencies were encoded in separate cortical regions. The advantage of such a separation is that objective evidence can be recombined with newly acquired knowledge when a reinterpretation of the evidence is called for. Overall this study reveals the coexistence in the brain of an experience-based system of inference and a knowledge-based system of inference. PMID:23804108

dAcremont, Mathieu; Schultz, Wolfram; Bossaerts, Peter

2015-01-01

308

Brain computer interface to enhance episodic memory in human participants  

PubMed Central

Recent research has revealed that neural oscillations in the theta (48 Hz) and alpha (914 Hz) bands are predictive of future success in memory encoding. Because these signals occur before the presentation of an upcoming stimulus, they are considered stimulus-independent in that they correlate with enhanced memory encoding independent of the item being encoded. Thus, such stimulus-independent activity has important implications for the neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory as well as the development of cognitive neural prosthetics. Here, we developed a brain computer interface (BCI) to test the ability of such pre-stimulus activity to modulate subsequent memory encoding. We recorded intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) in neurosurgical patients as they performed a free recall memory task, and detected iEEG theta and alpha oscillations that correlated with optimal memory encoding. We then used these detected oscillatory changes to trigger the presentation of items in the free recall task. We found that item presentation contingent upon the presence of pre-stimulus theta and alpha oscillations modulated memory performance in more sessions than expected by chance. Our results suggest that an electrophysiological signal may be causally linked to a specific behavioral condition, and contingent stimulus presentation has the potential to modulate human memory encoding. PMID:25653605

Burke, John F.; Merkow, Maxwell B.; Jacobs, Joshua; Kahana, Michael J.

2015-01-01

309

Human brain imaging during controlled and natural viewing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assorted technologies such as; EEG, MEG, fMRI, BEM, MRI, TMS and BCI are being integrated to understand how human visual cortical areas interact during controlled laboratory and natural viewing conditions. Our focus is on the problem of separating signals from the spatially close early visual areas. The solution involves taking advantage of known functional anatomy to guide stimulus selection and employing principles of spatial and temporal response properties that simplify analysis. The method also unifies MEG and EEG recordings and provides a means for improving existing boundary element head models. In going beyond carefully controlled stimuli, in natural viewing with scanning eye movements, assessing brain states with BCI is a most challenging task. Frequent eye movements contribute artifacts to the recordings. A linear regression method is introduced that is shown to effectively characterize these frequent artifacts and could be used to remove them. In free viewing, saccadic landings initiate visual processing epochs and could be used to trigger strictly time based analysis methods. However, temporal instabilities indicate frequency based analysis would be an important adjunct. The class of Cauchy filter functions is introduced that have narrow time and frequency properties well matched to the EEG/MEG spectrum for avoiding channel leakage.

Klein, Stanley A.; Carney, Thom; Kim, David; Dandekar, Sangita; Privitera, Claudio

2010-02-01

310

New approaches to the study of human brain networks underlying spatial attention and related processes  

PubMed Central

Cognitive processes, such as spatial attention, are thought to rely on extended networks in the human brain. Both clinical data from lesioned patients and fMRI data acquired when healthy subjects perform particular cognitive tasks typically implicate a wide expanse of potentially contributing areas, rather than just a single brain area. Conversely, evidence from more targeted interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or invasive microstimulation of the brain, or selective study of patients with highly focal brain damage, can sometimes indicate that a single brain area may make a key contribution to a particular cognitive process. But this in turn raises questions about how such a brain area may interface with other interconnected areas within a more extended network to support cognitive processes. Here, we provide a brief overview of new approaches that seek to characterise the causal role of particular brain areas within networks of several interacting areas, by measuring the effects of manipulations for a targeted area on function in remote interconnected areas. In human participants, these approaches include concurrent TMS-fMRI and TMS-EEG, as well as combination of the focal lesion method in selected patients with fMRI and/or EEG measures of the functional impact from the lesion on interconnected intact brain areas. Such approaches shed new light on how frontal cortex and parietal cortex modulate sensory areas in the service of attention and cognition, for the normal and damaged human brain. PMID:20354681

Driver, Jon; Blankenburg, Felix; Bestmann, Sven

2010-01-01

311

Antipsychotic Drug Effects on Brain Morphology in First-Episode Psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pathomorphologic brain changes occur- ring as early as first-episode schizophrenia have been ex- tensively described. Longitudinal studies have demon- strated that these changes may be progressive and associated with clinical outcome. This raises the possi- bility that antipsychotics might alter such pathomorpho- logic progression in early-stage schizophrenia. Objective: To test a priori hypotheses that olanzapine- treated patients have less

Jeffrey A. Lieberman; Gary D. Tollefson; Cecil Charles; Robert Zipursky; Tonmoy Sharma; Rene S. Kahn; Richard S. E. Keefe; Alan I. Green; Raquel E. Gur; Joseph McEvoy; Diana Perkins; Robert M. Hamer; Hongbin Gu; Mauricio Tohen

2005-01-01

312

Clock Drawing Performance and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive

Thomann, Philipp A.; Toro, Pablo; Santos, Vasco Dos; Essig, Marco; Schroder, Johannes

2008-01-01

313

Dickkopf-3 alters the morphological response to retinoic acid during neuronal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Dickkopf-3 (Dkk-3) and Dkkl-1 (Soggy) are secreted proteins of poorly understood function that are highly expressed in subsets of neurons in the brain. To explore their potential roles during neuronal development, we examined their expression in Ntera-2 (NT2) human embryonal carcinoma cells, which differentiate into neurons upon treatment with retinoic acid (RA). RA treatment increased the mRNA and protein levels of Dkk-3 but not of Dkkl-1. Ectopic expression of both Dkk-3 and Dkkl-1 induced apoptosis in NT2 cells. Gene silencing of Dkk-3 did not affect NT2 cell growth or differentiation but altered their response to RA in suspension cultures. RA treatment of NT2 cells cultured in suspension resulted in morphological changes that led to cell attachment and flattening out of cell aggregates. Although there were no significant differences in the expression levels of cell adhesion molecules in control and Dkk-3-silenced cells, this morphological response was not observed in Dkk-3-silenced cells. These findings suggest that Dkk-3 plays a role in the regulation of cell interactions during RA-induced neuronal differentiation. PMID:24909558

Alfonso, Roco Jimnez; Gorroo-Etxebarria, Irantzu; Rabano, Miriam; Vivanco, Maria dM; Kypta, Robert

2014-12-01

314

SQUID-Based Microtesla MRI for In Vivo Relaxometry of the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

SQUID-based MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) at microtesla fields has developed significantly over the past few years. Here we describe application of this method for magnetic relaxation measurements in the living human brain. We report values of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 for brain tissues, measured in vivo for the first time at microtesla fields. The experiments were performed at 46

Vadim S. Zotev; Andrei N. Matlashov; Igor M. Savukov; Tuba Owens; Petr L. Volegov; John J. Gomez; Michelle A. Espy

2009-01-01

315

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Visual object categorization in the brain: what can we really  

E-print Network

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Visual object categorization in the brain: what can we really learn from ERP brain measure- ments. When dealing with complex visual stimuli,categorical designs make it difficult membersshareadensecorrelativestructure of low-level visual properties (e.g., lumi- nance energy, main directions of orienta- tion

Caldara, Roberto

316

Use of Neuroimaging to Clarify How Human Brains Perform Mental Calculations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze participants' levels of hemoglobin as they performed arithmetic mental calculations using Optical Topography (OT, helmet type brain-scanning system, also known as Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy or fNIRS). A central issue in cognitive neuroscience involves the study of how the human brain encodes and

Ortiz, Enrique

2010-01-01

317

Stereotactic neurosurgical planning, recording, and visualization for deep brain stimulation in non-human primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methodologies for stereotactic neurosurgery and neurophysiological microelectrode recordings (MER) in non-human primate research typically rely on brain atlases that are not customized to the individual animal, and require paper records of MER data. To address these limitations, we developed a software tool (Cicerone) that enables simultaneous interactive 3D visualization of the neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neurostimulation data pertinent to deep brain

Svjetlana Miocinovic; Jianyu Zhang; Weidong Xu; Gary S. Russo; Jerrold L. Vitek; Cameron C. McIntyre

2007-01-01

318

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2012) r Key Functional Circuitry Altered in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2012) r Key Functional Circuitry Altered in Schizophrenia functional and structural changes in the brain in schizophrenia are of most importance, although the main schizophrenia patients, and func- tional connectivity changes were analyzed using resting-state fMRI data from

Feng, Jianfeng

319

Sensitive and simple determination of mannitol in human brain tissues by gas chromatographymass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, reliable and sensitive gas chromatographicmass spectrometric method was devised to determine the level of mannitol in various human brain tissues obtained at autopsy. Mannitol was extracted with 10% trichloroacetic acid solution which effectively precipitated brain tissues. The supernatant was washed with tert.-butyl methyl ether to remove other organic compounds and to neutralize the aqueous solution. Mannitol was then

Akiko Kiyoshima; Keiko Kudo; Yukiko Hino; Noriaki Ikeda

2001-01-01

320

Neuromagnetic localization of rhythmic activity in the human brain: a comparison of three methods  

E-print Network

Neuromagnetic localization of rhythmic activity in the human brain: a comparison of three methods M. Liljestrfm,* J. Kujala, O. Jensen,1 and R. Salmelin Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki appropriate subsets of sensors have been selected. MCEFD provides simultaneous localization of sources

Jensen, Ole

321

A Structurally-Detailed Finite Element Human Head Model for Brain-Electromagnetic Field Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early studies on the modeling of electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human head have shown that induced current densities in the brain depend on both tissue geometry and its conductive properties. However, no head model of sufficient complexity for studying the physics of induced brain activation has been developed which provides well-defined smooth boundaries between tissues of different conductivities

Ming Chen; David J. Mogul

2007-01-01

322

Editorial: The Evolution of Interdisciplinary Research on Human Behavior, Brain, and Body  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL Editorial: The Evolution of Interdisciplinary Research on Human Behavior, Brain, and Body. It is undeniable that a primary force in the evolution of interdisciplinary studies of human behavior has been Dario Maestripieri # Springer International Publishing 2014 The scientific study of human behavior has

Maestripieri, Dario

323

Longitudinal imaging studies in schizophrenia: the relationship between brain morphology and outcome measures.  

PubMed

Imaging studies have tried to identify morphological outcome measures of schizophrenia in the last two decades. In particular, longitudinal studies have reported a correlation between larger ventricles, decreased prefrontal volumes and worse outcome. This would potentially allow to isolate subtypes of schizophrenia patients with a worse prognosis and more evident biological impairments, ultimately helping in designing specific rehabilitation interventions. PMID:21261215

Bellani, Marcella; Dusi, Nicola; Brambilla, Paolo

2010-01-01

324

Free D-aspartate regulates neuronal dendritic morphology, synaptic plasticity, gray matter volume and brain activity in mammals  

PubMed Central

D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an atypical amino acid, which is especially abundant in the developing mammalian brain, and can bind to and activate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In line with its pharmacological features, we find that mice chronically treated with D-Asp show enhanced NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and basal cerebral blood volume in fronto-hippocampal areas. In addition, we show that both chronic administration of D-Asp and deletion of the gene coding for the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) trigger plastic modifications of neuronal cytoarchitecture in the prefrontal cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and promote a cytochalasin D-sensitive form of synaptic plasticity in adult mouse brains. To translate these findings in humans and consistent with the experiments using Ddo gene targeting in animals, we performed a hierarchical stepwise translational genetic approach. Specifically, we investigated the association of variation in the gene coding for DDO with complex human prefrontal phenotypes. We demonstrate that genetic variation predicting reduced expression of DDO in postmortem human prefrontal cortex is mapped on greater prefrontal gray matter and activity during working memory as measured with MRI. In conclusion our results identify novel NMDAR-dependent effects of D-Asp on plasticity and physiology in rodents, which also map to prefrontal phenotypes in humans. PMID:25072322

Errico, F; Nistic, R; Di Giorgio, A; Squillace, M; Vitucci, D; Galbusera, A; Piccinin, S; Mango, D; Fazio, L; Middei, S; Trizio, S; Mercuri, N B; Teule, M A; Centonze, D; Gozzi, A; Blasi, G; Bertolino, A; Usiello, A

2014-01-01

325

Free D-aspartate regulates neuronal dendritic morphology, synaptic plasticity, gray matter volume and brain activity in mammals.  

PubMed

D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an atypical amino acid, which is especially abundant in the developing mammalian brain, and can bind to and activate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In line with its pharmacological features, we find that mice chronically treated with D-Asp show enhanced NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and basal cerebral blood volume in fronto-hippocampal areas. In addition, we show that both chronic administration of D-Asp and deletion of the gene coding for the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) trigger plastic modifications of neuronal cytoarchitecture in the prefrontal cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and promote a cytochalasin D-sensitive form of synaptic plasticity in adult mouse brains. To translate these findings in humans and consistent with the experiments using Ddo gene targeting in animals, we performed a hierarchical stepwise translational genetic approach. Specifically, we investigated the association of variation in the gene coding for DDO with complex human prefrontal phenotypes. We demonstrate that genetic variation predicting reduced expression of DDO in postmortem human prefrontal cortex is mapped on greater prefrontal gray matter and activity during working memory as measured with MRI. In conclusion our results identify novel NMDAR-dependent effects of D-Asp on plasticity and physiology in rodents, which also map to prefrontal phenotypes in humans. PMID:25072322

Errico, F; Nistic, R; Di Giorgio, A; Squillace, M; Vitucci, D; Galbusera, A; Piccinin, S; Mango, D; Fazio, L; Middei, S; Trizio, S; Mercuri, N B; Teule, M A; Centonze, D; Gozzi, A; Blasi, G; Bertolino, A; Usiello, A

2014-01-01

326

Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks  

E-print Network

The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous ...

Schwartz, Ernst

327

Convergent transcriptional specializations in the brains of humans and song-learning birds.  

PubMed

Song-learning birds and humans share independently evolved similarities in brain pathways for vocal learning that are essential for song and speech and are not found in most other species. Comparisons of brain transcriptomes of song-learning birds and humans relative to vocal nonlearners identified convergent gene expression specializations in specific song and speech brain regions of avian vocal learners and humans. The strongest shared profiles relate bird motor and striatal song-learning nuclei, respectively, with human laryngeal motor cortex and parts of the striatum that control speech production and learning. Most of the associated genes function in motor control and brain connectivity. Thus, convergent behavior and neural connectivity for a complex trait are associated with convergent specialized expression of multiple genes. PMID:25504733

Pfenning, Andreas R; Hara, Erina; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V; Wang, Rui; Roulhac, Petra L; Howard, Jason T; Wirthlin, Morgan; Lovell, Peter V; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Mouncastle, Jacquelyn; Moseley, M Arthur; Thompson, J Will; Soderblom, Erik J; Iriki, Atsushi; Kato, Masaki; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Bakken, Trygve; Bongaarts, Angie; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed; Mello, Claudio V; Hartemink, Alexander J; Jarvis, Erich D

2014-12-12

328

Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging response to glucose and fructose infusions in humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: In animals, intracerebroventricular glucose and fructose have opposing effects on appetite and weight regulation. In humans, functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during carbohydrate ingestion suggest that glucose may regulate HT signaling but are potentially confoun...

329

Direct visualization of the perforant pathway in the human brain with ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging  

E-print Network

Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging yields high resolution images that reveal detailed cerebral anatomy and explicit cytoarchitecture in the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, and white matter in the human brain. Our ...

Augustinack, Jean C.

330

Human speech- and reading-related genes display partially overlapping expression patterns in the marmoset brain.  

PubMed

Language is a characteristic feature of human communication. Several familial language impairments have been identified, and candidate genes for language impairments already isolated. Studies comparing expression patterns of these genes in human brain are necessary to further understanding of these genes. However, it is difficult to examine gene expression in human brain. In this study, we used a non-human primate (common marmoset; Callithrix jacchus) as a biological model of the human brain to investigate expression patterns of human speech- and reading-related genes. Expression patterns of speech disorder- (FoxP2, FoxP1, CNTNAP2, and CMIP) and dyslexia- (ROBO1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319) related genes were analyzed. We found the genes displayed overlapping expression patterns in the ocular, auditory, and motor systems. Our results enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying language impairments. PMID:24769279

Kato, Masaki; Okanoya, Kazuo; Koike, Taku; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Shigeru; Iriki, Atsushi

2014-06-01

331

Short communication Flavin-containing monooxygenase mediated metabolism of psychoactive drugs by human brain microsomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) catalyze the oxidation of certain xenobiotics and drugs which contain a nucle- ophilic heteroatom. Here we report the first assessment of human brain flavin-containing monooxygenase from tissues obtained at autopsy from seven traffic accident victims. Human brain microsomes catalyzed the S-oxidation or N-oxidation of model substrates methimazole and N,N-dimethylaniline, respectively. The psychoactive drugs chlorpromazine, imipramine and fluoxe-

Shubhada Bhamre; Shripad V. Bhagwat; Susarla K. Shankar; Michael R. Boyd; Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath

332

Flavin-containing monooxygenase mediated metabolism of psychoactive drugs by human brain microsomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) catalyze the oxidation of certain xenobiotics and drugs which contain a nucleophilic heteroatom. Here we report the first assessment of human brain flavin-containing monooxygenase from tissues obtained at autopsy from seven traffic accident victims. Human brain microsomes catalyzed the S-oxidation or N-oxidation of model substrates methimazole and N,N-dimethylaniline, respectively. The psychoactive drugs chlorpromazine, imipramine and fluoxetine, were

Shubhada Bhamre; Shripad V. Bhagwat; Susarla K. Shankar; Michael R. Boyd; Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath

1995-01-01

333

Functional Assessment of Human Brain with Non-Invasive Electrophysiological Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related brain measurements (ERPs) provide unique non-invasive approaches\\u000a to study in-vivo human cerebral functions with a temporal resolution of milliseconds. These techniques have proved to be helpful to assess\\u000a cognitive abilities, differentiate between brain states, and support the diagnosis in neurological and psychiatric diseases.\\u000a Human neurophysiological correlates of learning have also been revealed by task-dependent increases

J. L. Cantero; M. Atienza

334

Genetic Granular Cognitive Fuzzy Neural Networks and Human Brains for Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever-improving information technologies and high performance computational power, recent techniques in granular computing,\\u000a soft computing and cognitive science have allowed an increasing understanding of normal and abnormal brain functions, especially\\u000a in the research of humans pattern recognition by means of computational intelligence. It is well understood that normal brains\\u000a have high intelligence to recognize different geometrical patterns, but a

Cui Lin; Jun Li; Natasha Barrett; Yan-qing Zhang; David A. Washburn

2006-01-01

335

Two sources of human irrationality: Cognitive dissonance and brain dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Akerof and Dickens explored the relevance of cognitive dissonance theory for economics, and the theory is shown here to predict occasional irrational thinking. Secondly, it is proposed that the focus of neuroeconomics on brain dysfunction and the role of neurotranmitters on cognition suggests two ways in which the functioning of the brain can impair rational decision-making.

David Lester; Bijou Yang

2009-01-01

336

Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters

Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

2010-01-01

337

A New Microcontroller-Based Human Brain Hypothermia System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies show that artificial hypothermia of brain in conditions of anesthesia with the rectal temperature lowered down to 33?C produces pronounced prophylactic effect protecting the brain from anoxia. Out of the methods employed now in clinical practice for reducing the oxygen consumption by the cerebral tissue, the most efficacious is craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH). It is finding even more extensive

Metin Kap?dere; Ra?it Ah?ska; ?nan Gler

2005-01-01

338

Neuropsychology and brain morphology in Klinefelter syndrome - the impact of genetics.  

PubMed

Klinefelter syndrome (KS, 47,XXY) is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity and cognitive disabilities, although the neuropsychological phenotype shows great variability. Androgen receptor polymorphism (CAG repeat length), skewed X-chromosome inactivation and parent-of-origin of the extra X-chromosome have been suggested to influence cognitive function and psychological traits. These issues have not been clarified for KS patients. We studied X-chromosome inactivation pattern, CAG repeat length and parent-of-origin in relation to educational and cohabitation status, personality and autism traits, psychological distress, cognitive function and brain volumes in 73 KS patients and 73 controls. Grey matter (GM) volume of left insula was significantly decreased in KS patients with skewed X-inactivation (z = 5.78) and we observed a borderline significant difference in global brain matter volume where KS patients with skewed X-chromosome inactivation tended to have smaller brains. Skewed X-inactivation, CAG repeat length and parent-of-origin were not correlated with educational and marital status, personality traits, autism traits, and psychological distress, prevalence of depression and anxiety or cognitive function. Interestingly our results regarding brain volumes indicate that X-inactivation has an influence on GM volume in left insula and might also be related to global GM volume, indicating a possible effect of X-linked genes on the development of GM volume in KS patient. Skewed X-inactivation, CAG repeat length and parent-of-origin have no impact on the neuropsychological phenotype in KS (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (Clinical trial NCT00999310)). PMID:24865607

Skakkebaek, A; Bojesen, A; Kristensen, M K; Cohen, A; Hougaard, D M; Hertz, J M; Fedder, J; Laurberg, P; Wallentin, M; stergaard, J R; Pedersen, A D; Gravholt, C H

2014-07-01

339

New deformable human brain atlas for computer-aided diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern software-based image analysis techniques enable accurate detection of the size and shape of various brain lesions. In order to estimate the real load caused by the lesions also their neuro-anatomical location should be taken into account. Therefore deformable brain atlases appear to be essential tools when new image diagnostics methods are developed and tested. We have developed deformable brain atlas software for research and diagnosis. The atlas is used to compare patient brain images with a segmented reference brain image so that it is possible to identify the patient neuroanatomical structures. The atlas software comes with image processing tools for transforming CT or MR image sets into atlas- compatible volume image format. The reference image is deformed to match the patient image, and the segmented neuroanatomical regions of the atlas image can then be blended with the patient image.

Lahtinen, Antti J.; Frey, Harry; Eskola, Hannu

2002-05-01

340

Brain morphology in children with 47, XYY syndrome: a voxel- and surface-based morphometric study.  

PubMed

The neurocognitive and behavioral profile of individuals with 47,XYY is increasingly documented; however, very little is known about the effect of a supernumerary Y-chromosome on brain development. Establishing the neural phenotype associated with 47,XYY may prove valuable in clarifying the role of Y-chromosome gene dosage effects, a potential factor in several neuropsychiatric disorders that show a prevalence bias toward males, including autism spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated brain structure in 10 young boys with 47,XYY and 10 age-matched healthy controls by combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM). The VBM results show the existence of altered gray matter volume (GMV) in the insular and parietal regions of 47,XYY relative to controls, changes that were paralleled by extensive modifications in white matter (WM) bilaterally in the frontal and superior parietal lobes. The SBM analyses corroborated these findings and revealed the presence of abnormal surface area and cortical thinning in regions with abnormal GMV and WMV. Overall, these preliminary results demonstrate a significant impact of a supernumerary Y-chromosome on brain development, provide a neural basis for the motor, speech and behavior regulation difficulties associated with 47,XYY and may relate to sexual dimorphism in these areas. PMID:24308542

Lepage, J-F; Hong, D S; Raman, M; Marzelli, M; Roeltgen, D P; Lai, S; Ross, J; Reiss, A L

2014-02-01

341

Morphological brain plasticity induced by musical expertise is accompanied by modulation of functional connectivity at rest.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore whether musical practice-related gray matter increases in brain regions are accompanied by modifications in their resting-state functional connectivity. 16 young musically experienced adults and 17 matched nonmusicians underwent an anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI). A whole-brain two-sample t test run on the T1-weighted structural images revealed four clusters exhibiting significant increases in gray matter (GM) volume in the musician group, located within the right posterior and middle cingulate gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus and right inferior orbitofrontal gyrus. Each cluster was used as a seed region to generate and compare whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity maps. The two clusters within the cingulate gyrus exhibited greater connectivity for musicians with the right prefrontal cortex and left temporal pole, which play a role in autobiographical and semantic memory, respectively. The cluster in the left superior temporal gyrus displayed enhanced connectivity with several language-related areas (e.g., left premotor cortex, bilateral supramarginal gyri). Finally, the cluster in the right inferior frontal gyrus displayed more synchronous activity at rest with claustrum, areas thought to play a role in binding sensory and motor information. We interpreted these findings as the consequence of repeated collaborative use in general networks supporting some of the memory, perceptual-motor and emotional features of musical practice. PMID:24418502

Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Chtelat, Gal; Fouquet, Marine; Landeau, Brigitte; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Batrice; Platel, Herv

2014-04-15

342

Morphological and immunocytochemical analysis of human retinal glia subtypes in vitro  

PubMed Central

AIM To examine the morphological characteristics and antigen expression patterns of cultured human retinal glia to define novel subtypes. METHODS Morphologic characteristics and marker expression were examined during cultivation using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. RESULTS A subtype of human retinal glia distinct from radial glia (Mller cells) was successfully isolated by digesting the retina first in diastase vera (pancreatin) and then in clostridiopeptidase, followed by culture on fibronectin substrate in human endothelial cell medium (supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, growth factors, and heparin sodium). Adherence was detected at 72h and cell-cell coupling at 9-10d after seeding. These cells were extensively and strongly immunopositive for GFAP and vimentin, consistent with glial expression patterns in the human retina, but were morphologically and immunohistochemically distinct from previously reported cultured retinal glia, including GFAP-positive and glutamine synthetase (GS)-positive Mller cells. CONCLUSION A unique human retinal glial cell type can be isolated using diastase vera and clostridiopeptidase and then maintained in vitro. Further studies are required to characterize the physiological and pathological functions of these cells. PMID:24195025

Lin, Shao-Fen; Mao, Yu-Xiang; Li, Bin; Sun, Wei; Tang, Shi-Bo

2013-01-01

343

Multifractal parameters as an indication of different physiological and pathological states of the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study on multifractal parameters of EEG patterns on the human brain. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was applied to human EEG for normal and epileptic patients in different states. The results show that the degree of multifractality of EEG for patients in an epileptic seizure are much higher compared to normal healthy people. The degree of multifractality for normal humans with eyes open and closed was also significantly different. Thus the multifractal parameters can be used to distinguish between different physiological and pathological states of the human brain. The results are discussed in detail.

Dutta, Srimonti; Ghosh, Dipak; Samanta, Shukla; Dey, Santanu

2014-02-01

344

Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resonance Raman (RR) spectra of six types of human brain tissues are examined using a confocal micro-Raman system with 532-nm excitation in vitro. Forty-three RR spectra from seven subjects are investigated. The spectral peaks from malignant meningioma, stage III (cancer), benign meningioma (benign), normal meningeal tissues (normal), glioblastoma multiforme grade IV (cancer), acoustic neuroma (benign), and pituitary adenoma (benign) are analyzed. Using a 532-nm excitation, the resonance-enhanced peak at 1548 cm-1 (amide II) is observed in all of the tissue specimens, but is not observed in the spectra collected using the nonresonance Raman system. An increase in the intensity ratio of 1587 to 1605 cm-1 is observed in the RR spectra collected from meningeal cancer tissue as compared with the spectra collected from the benign and normal meningeal tissue. The peak around 1732 cm-1 attributed to fatty acids (lipids) are diminished in the spectra collected from the meningeal cancer tumors as compared with the spectra from normal and benign tissues. The characteristic band of spectral peaks observed between 2800 and 3100 cm-1 are attributed to the vibrations of methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) groups. The ratio of the intensities of the spectral peaks of 2935 to 2880 cm-1 from the meningeal cancer tissues is found to be lower in comparison with that of the spectral peaks from normal, and benign tissues, which may be used as a distinct marker for distinguishing cancerous tissues from normal meningeal tissues. The statistical methods of principal component analysis and the support vector machine are used to analyze the RR spectral data collected from meningeal tissues, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 100% when two principal components are used.

Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Sun, Yi; Pu, Yang; Boydston-White, Susie; Liu, Yulong; Alfano, Robert R.

2012-11-01

345

Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis for the Effect of a Pressure Wave in the Human Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain injuries in people of all ages is a serious, world-wide health problem, with consequences as varied as attention or memory deficits, difficulties in problem-solving, aggressive social behavior, and neuro degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Brain injuries can be the result of a direct impact, but also pressure waves and direct impulses. The aim of this work is to develop a predictive method to calculate the stress generated in the human brain by pressure waves such as high power sounds. The finite element method is used, combined with elastic wave theory. The predictions of the generated stress levels are compared with the resistance of the arterioles that pervade the brain. The problem was focused to the Chilean mining where there are some accidents happen by detonations and high sound level. There are not formal medical investigation, however these pressure waves could produce human brain damage.

Ponce L., Ernesto; Ponce S., Daniel

2008-11-01

346

The Evolution of the Brain, the Human Nature of Cortical Circuits, and Intellectual Creativity  

PubMed Central

The tremendous expansion and the differentiation of the neocortex constitute two major events in the evolution of the mammalian brain. The increase in size and complexity of our brains opened the way to a spectacular development of cognitive and mental skills. This expansion during evolution facilitated the addition of microcircuits with a similar basic structure, which increased the complexity of the human brain and contributed to its uniqueness. However, fundamental differences even exist between distinct mammalian species. Here, we shall discuss the issue of our humanity from a neurobiological and historical perspective. PMID:21647212

DeFelipe, Javier

2011-01-01

347

Brain bioavailability of human intravenous immunoglobulin and its transport through the murine bloodbrain barrier  

PubMed Central

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is currently evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of various disorders of the central nervous system. To assess its capacity to reach central therapeutic targets, the brain bioavailability of IVIg must be determined. We thus quantified the passage of IVIg through the bloodbrain barrier (BBB) of C57Bl/6 mice using complementary quantitative and qualitative methodologies. As determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a small proportion of systemically injected IVIg was detected in the brain of mice (0.0090.001% of injected dose in the cortex) whereas immunostaining revealed localization mainly within microvessels and less frequently in neurons. Pharmacokinetic analyses evidenced a low elimination rate constant (0.0053? per hour) in the cortex, consistent with accumulation within cerebral tissue. In situ cerebral perfusion experiments revealed that a fraction of IVIg crossed the BBB without causing leakage. A dose-dependent decrease of brain uptake was consistent with a saturable blood-to-brain transport mechanism. Finally, brain uptake of IVIg after a subchronic treatment was similar in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer disease compared with nontransgenic controls. In summary, our results provide evidence of BBB passage and bioavailability of IVIg into the brain in the absence of BBB leakage and in sufficient concentration to interact with the therapeutic targets. PMID:24045402

St-Amour, Isabelle; Par, Isabelle; Alata, Wael; Coulombe, Katherine; Ringuette-Goulet, Cassandra; Drouin-Ouellet, Janelle; Vandal, Milne; Soulet, Denis; Bazin, Rene; Calon, Frdric

2013-01-01

348

Responses to Vocalizations and Auditory Controls in the Human Newborn Brain  

PubMed Central

In the adult brain, speech can recruit a brain network that is overlapping with, but not identical to, that involved in perceiving non-linguistic vocalizations. Using the same stimuli that had been presented to human 4-month-olds and adults, as well as adult macaques, we sought to shed light on the cortical networks engaged when human newborns process diverse vocalization types. Near infrared spectroscopy was used to register the response of 40 newborns' perisylvian regions when stimulated with speech, human and macaque emotional vocalizations, as well as auditory controls where the formant structure was destroyed but the long-term spectrum was retained. Left fronto-temporal and parietal regions were significantly activated in the comparison of stimulation versus rest, with unclear selectivity in cortical activation. These results for the newborn brain are qualitatively and quantitatively compared with previous work on newborns, older human infants, adult humans, and adult macaques reported in previous work. PMID:25517997

Cristia, Alejandrina; Minagawa, Yasuyo; Dupoux, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

349

Anatomical study of the human omohyoid muscle: regarding intermediate morphologies between normal and anomalous morphologies of the superior belly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermediate morphologies between normal and anomalous morphologies of the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle (Om) were\\u000a macroscopically and stereomicroscopically observed in 34 cadavers (24 males and 10 females aged between 51 and 97 years; average\\u000a age 71.0 years) for anatomical practice, which had been preserved in the Department of Morphological Biology, Ohu University\\u000a School of Dentistry. The intermediate morphologies

Reiki Sukekawa; Ichizoh Itoh

2006-01-01

350

Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort-rationale and design of 1000BRAINS.  

PubMed

The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS) is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45-75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions and language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood and daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla) of the brain. The latter includes (i) 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii) three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fiber tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii) resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i) comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii) identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates. PMID:25071558

Caspers, Svenja; Moebus, Susanne; Lux, Silke; Pundt, Noreen; Schtz, Holger; Mhleisen, Thomas W; Gras, Vincent; Eickhoff, Simon B; Romanzetti, Sandro; Stcker, Tony; Stirnberg, Rdiger; Kirlangic, Mehmet E; Minnerop, Martina; Pieperhoff, Peter; Mdder, Ulrich; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C; Jckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Cichon, Sven; Nthen, Markus M; Sturma, Dieter; Bauer, Andreas; Jon Shah, N; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

2014-01-01

351

Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohortrationale and design of 1000BRAINS  

PubMed Central

The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS) is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 4575 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions and language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood and daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla) of the brain. The latter includes (i) 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii) three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fiber tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii) resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i) comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii) identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates. PMID:25071558

Caspers, Svenja; Moebus, Susanne; Lux, Silke; Pundt, Noreen; Schtz, Holger; Mhleisen, Thomas W.; Gras, Vincent; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Romanzetti, Sandro; Stcker, Tony; Stirnberg, Rdiger; Kirlangic, Mehmet E.; Minnerop, Martina; Pieperhoff, Peter; Mdder, Ulrich; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C.; Jckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Cichon, Sven; Nthen, Markus M.; Sturma, Dieter; Bauer, Andreas; Jon Shah, N.; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

2014-01-01

352

5-HT radioligands for human brain imaging with PET and SPECT.  

PubMed

The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists for the 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(4) receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main caveats. The success of a PET or SPECT radioligand can ultimately be assessed by its frequency of use, its utility in humans, and the number of research sites using it relative to its invention date, and so these aspects are also covered. In conclusion, the development of PET and SPECT radioligands to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging. PMID:21674551

Paterson, Louise M; Kornum, Birgitte R; Nutt, David J; Pike, Victor W; Knudsen, Gitte M

2013-01-01

353

Neuronal DNA content variation (DCV) with regional and individual differences in the human brain  

PubMed Central

It is widely assumed that the human brain contains genetically identical cells through which post-genomic mechanisms contribute to its enormous diversity and complexity. The relatively recent identification of neural cells throughout the neuraxis showing somatically generated mosaic aneuploidy indicates that the vertebrate brain can be genomically heterogeneous (Rehen et al., 2001; Rehen et al., 2005; Westra et al., 2008; Yurov et al., 2007). The extent of human neural aneuploidy is currently unknown because of technically limited sample sizes, but is reported to be small (Iourov et al., 2006). During efforts to interrogate larger cell populations using DNA content analyses, a surprising result was obtained: human frontal cortex brain cells were found to display DNA content variation (DCV) characterized by an increased range of DNA content both in cell populations and within single cells. On average, DNA content increased by ~250 megabases often representing a substantial fraction of cells within a given sample. DCV within individual human brains showed regional variation, with increased prevalence in the frontal cortex and less variation in the cerebellum. Further, DCV varied between individual brains. These results identify DCV as a new feature of the human brain, encompassing and further extending genomic alterations produced by aneuploidy, which may contribute to neural diversity in normal and pathophysiological states, altered functions of normal and disease-linked genes, and differences amongst individuals. PMID:20737596

Westra, Jurjen W.; Rivera, Richard R.; Bushman, Diane M.; Yung, Yun C.; Peterson, Suzanne E.; Barral, Serena; Chun, Jerold

2010-01-01

354

BRAIN MORPHOLOGY IN TWINS DISCORDANT FOR BIPOLAR DISORDER Van Erp, T.G.M., Thompson, P.M., Kiesepp, T., Tran, H.L., Correll, C.M.,  

E-print Network

BRAIN MORPHOLOGY IN TWINS DISCORDANT FOR BIPOLAR DISORDER Van Erp, T.G.M., Thompson, P.M., Kieseppä disorder, but their etiology remains unresolved. Bipolar disorder is influenced by both genetic) based study, examining 24 twins with bipolar disorder, 15 of their healthy co-twins, and 27 control

Thompson, Paul

355

Working Memory Performance Is Correlated with Local Brain Morphology in the Medial Frontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Fibromyalgia Patients: Structural Correlates of Pain-Cognition Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder of unknown aetiology, characterized by chronic widespread pain, stiffness and sleep disturbances. In addition, patients frequently complain of memory and attention deficits. Accumulating evidence suggests that FM is associated with CNS dysfunction and with an altered brain morphology. However, few studies have

Luerding, R.; Weigand, T.; Bogdahn, U.; Schmidt-Wilcke, T.

2008-01-01

356

The neurophysiology of language: Insights from non-invasive brain stimulation in the healthy human brain.  

PubMed

With the advent of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), a new decade in the study of language has started. NIBS allows for testing the functional relevance of language-related brain activation and enables the researcher to investigate how neural activation changes in response to focal perturbations. This review focuses on the application of NIBS in the healthy brain. First, some basic mechanisms will be introduced and the prerequisites for carrying out NIBS studies of language are addressed. The next section outlines how NIBS can be used to characterize the contribution of the stimulated area to a task. In this context, novel approaches such as multifocal transcranial magnetic stimulation and the condition-and-perturb approach are discussed. The third part addresses the combination of NIBS and neuroimaging in the study of plasticity. These approaches are particularly suited to investigate short-term reorganization in the healthy brain and may inform models of language recovery in post-stroke aphasia. PMID:25468733

Hartwigsen, Gesa

2014-11-15

357

Structure-function relationships in human brain development  

E-print Network

The integration of anatomical, functional, and developmental approaches in cognitive neuroscience is essential for generating mechanistic explanations of brain function. In this thesis, I first establish a proof-of-principle ...

Saygin, Zeynep Mevhibe

2012-01-01

358

Lactotransferrin immunocytochemistry in Alzheimer and normal human brain.  

PubMed Central

Lactotransferrin (LF) expression was investigated immunocytochemically in postmortem brain tissues of normal controls and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The antibody to LF stained some neurons weakly in young adult brains, but it stained many neurons as well as the glia of all types in elderly brains. LF expression was greatly up-regulated in both neurons and glia in affected AD tissue. It was very strongly associated with such extracellular pathological entities as diffuse and consolidated amyloid deposits and extracellular neurofibrillary tangles. In addition, it was identified in a minority of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, and degenerative neurites. LF is an iron scavenger and a complement inhibitor. Up-regulation may be a defense mechanism in AD-affected brain tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8494052

Kawamata, T.; Tooyama, I.; Yamada, T.; Walker, D. G.; McGeer, P. L.

1993-01-01

359

A Mind of Three Minds: Evolution of the Human Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines the evolutionary and neural roots of a triune intelligence comprised of a primal mind, an emotional mind, and a rational mind. A simple brain model and some definitions of unfamiliar behavioral terms are included. (Author/MA)

MacLean, Paul D.

1978-01-01

360

Computational modeling of primary blast effects on the human brain  

E-print Network

Since the beginning of the military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, there have been over 250,000 diagnoses of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the U.S. military, with the majority of incidents caused by improvised explosive ...

Nyein, Michelle K. (Michelle Kyaw)

2013-01-01

361

Comparative expression analysis of the phosphocreatine circuit in extant primates: implications for human brain evolution  

PubMed Central

While the hominid fossil record clearly shows that brain size has rapidly expanded over the last ~2.5 M.yr., the forces driving this change remain unclear. One popular hypothesis proposes that metabolic adaptations in response to dietary shifts supported greater encephalization in humans. An increase in meat consumption distinguishes the human diet from that of other great apes. Creatine, an essential metabolite for energy homeostasis in muscle and brain tissue, is abundant in meat and was likely ingested in higher quantities during human origins. Five phosphocreatine circuit proteins help regulate creatine utilization within energy demanding cells. We compared the expression of all five phosphocreatine circuit genes in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and skeletal muscle tissue for humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques. Strikingly, SLC6A8 and CKB transcript levels are higher in the human brain, which should increase energy availability and turnover compared to non-human primates. Combined with other well-documented differences between humans and non-human primates, this allocation of energy to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum may be important in supporting the increased metabolic demands of the human brain. PMID:21190724

Wang, Catrina W.; Nielsen, William J.; Babbitt, Courtney C.; Fedrigo, Olivier; Wray, Gregory A.

2014-01-01

362

Acute Effects of Cocaine on Human Brain Activity and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated brain circuitry mediating cocaine- induced euphoria and craving using functional MRI (fMRI). During double-blind cocaine (0.6 mg\\/kg) and saline infusions in cocaine-dependent subjects, the entire brain was imaged for 5 min before and 13 min after infusion while subjects rated scales for rush, high, low, and craving. Cocaine induced focal signal increases in nucleus accumbens\\/subcallosal cortex (NAc\\/SCC), caudate,

Hans C Breiter; Randy L Gollub; Robert M Weisskoff; David N Kennedy; Nikos Makris; Joshua D Berke; Julie M Goodman; Howard L Kantor; David R Gastfriend; Jonn P Riorden; R. Thomas Mathew; Bruce R Rosen; Steven E Hyman

1997-01-01

363

Beta-secretase-cleaved amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer brain: a morphologic study.  

PubMed

beta-amyloid (Abeta) is the main constituent of senile plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease. Abeta is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via proteolytic cleavage by proteases beta- and gamma-secretase. In this study, we examined content and localization of beta-secretase-cleaved APP (beta-sAPP) in brain tissue sections from the frontal, temporal and occipital lobe. Strong granular beta-sAPP staining was found throughout the gray matter of all three areas, while white matter staining was considerably weaker. beta-sAPP was found to be localized in astrocytes and in axons. We found the beta-sAPP immunostaining to be stronger and more extensive in gray matter in Alzheimer disease (AD) cases than controls. The axonal beta-sAPP staining was patchy and unevenly distributed for the AD cases, indicating impaired axonal transport. beta-sAPP was also found surrounding senile plaques and cerebral blood vessels. The results presented here show altered beta-sAPP staining in the AD brain, suggestive of abnormal processing and transport of APP. PMID:15090268

Sennvik, Kristina; Bogdanovic, N; Volkmann, Inga; Fastbom, J; Benedikz, E

2004-01-01

364

Architectural and morphological assessment of rat abdominal wall muscles: comparison for use as a human model.  

PubMed

The abdominal wall is a composite of muscles that are important for the mechanical stability of the spine and pelvis. Tremendous clinical attention is given to these muscles, yet little is known about how they function in isolation or how they interact with one another. Given the morphological, vascular, and innervation complexities associated with these muscles and their proximity to the internal organs, an appropriate animal model is important for understanding their physiological and mechanical significance during function. To determine the extent to which the rat abdominal wall resembles that of human, 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and formalin-fixed for architectural and morphological analyses of the four abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis). Physiological cross-sectional areas and optimal fascicle lengths demonstrated a pattern that was similar to human abdominal wall muscles. In addition, sarcomere lengths measured in the neutral spine posture were similar to human in their relation to optimal sarcomere length. These data indicate that the force-generating and length change capabilities of these muscles, relative to one another, are similar in rat and human. Finally, the fiber lines of action of each abdominal muscle were similar to human over most of the abdominal wall. The main exception was in the lower abdominal region (inferior to the pelvic crest), where the external oblique becomes aponeurotic in human but continues as muscle fibers into its pelvic insertion in the rat. We conclude that, based on the morphology and architecture of the abdominal wall muscles, the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat is a good candidate for a model representation of human, particularly in the middle and upper abdominal wall regions. PMID:20646108

Brown, Stephen H M; Banuelos, Karina; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

2010-09-01

365

Architectural and morphological assessment of rat abdominal wall muscles: comparison for use as a human model  

PubMed Central

The abdominal wall is a composite of muscles that are important for the mechanical stability of the spine and pelvis. Tremendous clinical attention is given to these muscles, yet little is known about how they function in isolation or how they interact with one another. Given the morphological, vascular, and innervation complexities associated with these muscles and their proximity to the internal organs, an appropriate animal model is important for understanding their physiological and mechanical significance during function. To determine the extent to which the rat abdominal wall resembles that of human, 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and formalin-fixed for architectural and morphological analyses of the four abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis). Physiological cross-sectional areas and optimal fascicle lengths demonstrated a pattern that was similar to human abdominal wall muscles. In addition, sarcomere lengths measured in the neutral spine posture were similar to human in their relation to optimal sarcomere length. These data indicate that the force-generating and length change capabilities of these muscles, relative to one another, are similar in rat and human. Finally, the fiber lines of action of each abdominal muscle were similar to human over most of the abdominal wall. The main exception was in the lower abdominal region (inferior to the pelvic crest), where the external oblique becomes aponeurotic in human but continues as muscle fibers into its pelvic insertion in the rat. We conclude that, based on the morphology and architecture of the abdominal wall muscles, the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat is a good candidate for a model representation of human, particularly in the middle and upper abdominal wall regions. PMID:20646108

Brown, Stephen H M; Banuelos, Karina; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

2010-01-01

366

Automatic processing of political preferences in the human brain.  

PubMed

Individual political preferences as expressed, for instance, in votes or donations are fundamental to democratic societies. However, the relevance of deliberative processing for political preferences has been highly debated, putting automatic processes in the focus of attention. Based on this notion, the present study tested whether brain responses reflect participants' preferences for politicians and their associated political parties in the absence of explicit deliberation and attention. Participants were instructed to perform a demanding visual fixation task while their brain responses were measured using fMRI. Occasionally, task-irrelevant images of German politicians from two major competing parties were presented in the background while the distraction task was continued. Subsequent to scanning, participants' political preferences for these politicians and their affiliated parties were obtained. Brain responses in distinct brain areas predicted automatic political preferences at the different levels of abstraction: activation in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with preference ranks for unattended politicians, whereas participants' preferences for the affiliated political parties were reflected in activity in the insula and the cingulate cortex. Using an additional donation task, we showed that the automatic preference-related processing in the brain extended to real-world behavior that involved actual financial loss to participants. Together, these findings indicate that brain responses triggered by unattended and task-irrelevant political images reflect individual political preferences at different levels of abstraction. PMID:23353599

Tusche, Anita; Kahnt, Thorsten; Wisniewski, David; Haynes, John-Dylan

2013-05-15

367

Watching brain TV and playing brain ball exploring novel BCI strategies using real-time analysis of human intracranial data.  

PubMed

A large body of evidence from animal studies indicates that motor intention can be decoded via multiple single-unit recordings or from local field potentials (LFPs) recorded not only in primary motor cortex, but also in premotor or parietal areas. In humans, reports of invasive data acquisition for the purpose of BCI developments are less numerous and signal selection for optimal control still remains poorly investigated. Here we report on our recent implementation of a real-time analysis platform for the investigation of ongoing oscillations in human intracerebral recordings and review various results illustrating its utility for the development of novel brain-computer and brain-robot interfaces. Our findings show that the insight gained both from off-line experiments and from online functional exploration can be used to guide future selection of the sites and frequency bands to be used in a translation algorithm such as the one needed for a BCI-driven cursor control. Overall, the findings reported with our online spectral analysis platforms (Brain TV and Brain Ball) indicate the feasibility of online functional exploration via intracranial recordings in humans and outline the direct benefits of this approach for the improvement of invasive BCI strategies in humans. In particular, our findings suggest that current BCI performance may be improved by using signals recorded from various systems previously unexplored in the context of BCI research such as the oscillatory activity recorded in the oculomotor networks as well as higher cognitive processes including working memory, attention, and mental calculation networks. Finally, we discuss current limitations of the methodology and outline future paths for innovative BCI research. PMID:19607998

Jerbi, Karim; Freyermuth, Samson; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Berthoz, Alain; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

2009-01-01

368

Inter-individual variability contrasts with regional homogeneity in the human brain DNA methylome.  

PubMed

The possibility that alterations in DNA methylation are mechanistic drivers of development, aging and susceptibility to disease is widely acknowledged, but evidence remains patchy or inconclusive. Of particular interest in this regard is the brain, where it has been reported that DNA methylation impacts on neuronal activity, learning and memory, drug addiction and neurodegeneration. Until recently, however, little was known about the 'landscape' of the human brain methylome. Here we assay 1.9 million CpGs in each of 43 brain samples representing different individuals and brain regions. The cerebellum was a consistent outlier compared to all other regions, and showed over 16 000 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Unexpectedly, the sequence characteristics of hypo- and hypermethylated domains in cerebellum were distinct. In contrast, very few DMRs distinguished regions of the cortex, limbic system and brain stem. Inter-individual DMRs were readily detectable in these regions. These results lead to the surprising conclusion that, with the exception of cerebellum, DNA methylation patterns are more homogeneous between different brain regions from the same individual, than they are for a single brain region between different individuals. This finding suggests that DNA sequence composition, not developmental status, is the principal determinant of the human brain DNA methylome. PMID:25572316

Illingworth, Robert S; Gruenewald-Schneider, Ulrike; De Sousa, Dina; Webb, Shaun; Merusi, Cara; Kerr, Alastair R W; James, Keith D; Smith, Colin; Walker, Robert; Andrews, Robert; Bird, Adrian P

2015-01-30

369

Metabolic constraint imposes tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons in human evolution  

PubMed Central

Despite a general trend for larger mammals to have larger brains, humans are the primates with the largest brain and number of neurons, but not the largest body mass. Why are great apes, the largest primates, not also those endowed with the largest brains? Recently, we showed that the energetic cost of the brain is a linear function of its numbers of neurons. Here we show that metabolic limitations that result from the number of hours available for feeding and the low caloric yield of raw foods impose a tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons, which explains the small brain size of great apes compared with their large body size. This limitation was probably overcome in Homo erectus with the shift to a cooked diet. Absent the requirement to spend most available hours of the day feeding, the combination of newly freed time and a large number of brain neurons affordable on a cooked diet may thus have been a major positive driving force to the rapid increased in brain size in human evolution. PMID:23090991

Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

2012-01-01

370

Glucose-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Transfer across Human Brain Endothelium and Enter Astrocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 m/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:24339894

Gromnicova, Radka; Davies, Heather A.; Sreekanthreddy, Peddagangannagari; Romero, Ignacio A.; Lund, Torben; Roitt, Ivan M.; Phillips, James B.; Male, David K.

2013-01-01

371

Detecting Genetic Association of Common Human Facial Morphological Variation Using High Density 3D Image Registration  

PubMed Central

Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can result in decreased statistical power and unclear inference of shape changes. In this study, we applied a new image registration approach that automatically identified the salient landmarks and aligned the sample faces using high density pixel points. Based on this high density registration, three different phenotype data schemes were used to test the association between the common facial morphological variation and 10 candidate SNPs, and their performances were compared. The first scheme used traditional landmark-distances; the second relied on the geometric analysis of 15 landmarks and the third used geometric analysis of a dense registration of ?30,000 3D points. We found that the two geometric approaches were highly consistent in their detection of morphological changes. The geometric method using dense registration further demonstrated superiority in the fine inference of shape changes and 3D face modeling. Several candidate SNPs showed potential associations with different facial features. In particular, one SNP, a known risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lips/palates, rs642961 in the IRF6 gene, was validated to strongly predict normal lip shape variation in female Han Chinese. This study further demonstrated that dense face registration may substantially improve the detection and characterization of genetic association in common facial variation. PMID:24339768

Hu, Sile; Zhou, Hang; Guo, Jing; Jin, Li; Tang, Kun

2013-01-01

372

Morphological restriction of human coronary artery endothelial cells substantially impacts global gene expression patterns  

PubMed Central

Alterations in cell shape have been shown to modulate chromatin condensation and cell lineage specification; however, the mechanisms controlling these processes are largely unknown. Because endothelial cells experience cyclic mechanical changes from blood flow during normal physiological processes and disrupted mechanical changes as a result of abnormal blood flow, cell shape deformation and loss of polarization during coronary artery disease, we aimed to determine how morphological restriction affects global gene expression patterns. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were cultured on spatially defined adhesive micropatterns, forcing them to conform to unique cellular morphologies differing in cellular polarization and angularity. We utilized pattern recognition algorithms and statistical analysis to validate the cytoskeletal pattern reproducibility and uniqueness of each micropattern, and performed microarray analysis on normal-shaped and micropatterned HCAECs to determine how constrained cellular morphology affects gene expression patterns. Analysis of the data revealed that forcing HCAECs to conform to geometrically-defined shapes significantly affects their global transcription patterns compared to nonrestricted shapes. Interestingly, gene expression patterns were altered in response to morphological restriction in general, although they were consistent regardless of the particular shape the cells conformed to. These data suggest that the ability of HCAECs to spread, although not necessarily their particular morphology, dictates their genomics patterns. PMID:23802622

Stiles, Jessica M; Pham, Robert; Rowntree, Rebecca K; Amaya, Clarissa; Battiste, James; Boucheron, Laura E; Mitchell, Dianne C; Bryan, Brad A

2013-01-01

373

Shock wave induced cytoskeletal and morphological deformations in a human renal carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

Effects of shock waves on the morphology and cytoskeleton of a human renal carcinoma cell line (ACHN) were investigated in vitro. ACHN monolayer cultured on a cover slide glass was treated with 10 shots of focused underwater shock waves, with 16 MPa peak pressure at the focal area of a piezoceramic shock wave generator. After exposure to the shock wave, based on the severity of morphological deformations of the treated cells, the monolayer was divided into three morphological areas; focal, marginal and intact. Morphological deformations were found to be associated with disorganization of the intracellular cytoskeletal filaments. Deformation of the cytoskeletal proteins in the treated cells were separately studied with respect to the location of the cells within the three morphological areas. Among three major cytoskeletal proteins, actin and tubulin, but not vimentin, were affected by the shock waves. The deformed cells reorganized their cytoskeletal network within 3 h with a pattern similar to the control, indicating the transient characteristic of the shock wave induced cytoskeletal damage in the surviving cells. The remaining cell fragments on the slide glass, which contained short actin filaments, indicated the important role of shear stress in damaging the cytoskeletal fibers by shock waves. PMID:16630122

Moosavi-Nejad, S Fatemeh; Hosseini, S Hamid R; Satoh, Makoto; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

2006-04-01

374

Amplification of DNA remnants in mummified human brains from medieval Joseon tombs of Korea.  

PubMed

Recently, a number of mummified brains obtained from the remains of medieval Joseon Koreans have been subjected to biological investigations. Although the morphology of the organs had been perfectly maintained on gross examination, we still do not know how well biomolecules such as DNA were preserved. In the present study, the preservation status of remnant DNA in mummified brain tissue was determined by means of comparisons with corresponding DNA taken from the femurs of the same subjects. Quantifiler analysis revealed that DNA from the mummified brain was less fragmented than that contained in the femurs. The better preservation status of the brain DNA was shown also in MiniFiler assays: the number of short tandem repeat (STR) locus profiles for the mummified brain was far higher than in the case of the femur bones. In the case of the mtDNA analysis, longer DNA fragments (821 bp) could be successfully amplified with brain samples, whereas only shorter PCR amplicons (221-263 bp) were seen with the femur samples. Indeed mummified brain tissue, if discovered in amounts suitable for ancient DNA analysis, promises to be the preferred source for genetic analysis of individuals from pre-modern Korean tombs. PMID:23590113

Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Soong Deok; Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lim, Do-Seon; Shin, Dong Hoon

2013-01-01

375

Systematic network lesioning reveals the core white matter scaffold of the human brain  

PubMed Central

Brain connectivity loss due to traumatic brain injury, stroke or multiple sclerosis can have serious consequences on life quality and a measurable impact upon neural and cognitive function. Though brain network properties are known to be affected disproportionately by injuries to certain gray matter regions, the manner in which white matter (WM) insults affect such properties remains poorly understood. Here, network-theoretic analysis allows us to identify the existence of a macroscopic neural connectivity core in the adult human brain which is particularly sensitive to network lesioning. The systematic lesion analysis of brain connectivity matrices from diffusion neuroimaging over a large sample (N = 110) reveals that the global vulnerability of brain networks can be predicated upon the extent to which injuries disrupt this connectivity core, which is found to be quite distinct from the set of connections between rich club nodes in the brain. Thus, in addition to connectivity within the rich club, the brain as a network also contains a distinct core scaffold of network edges consisting of WM connections whose damage dramatically lowers the integrative properties of brain networks. This pattern of core WM fasciculi whose injury results in major alterations to overall network integrity presents new avenues for clinical outcome prediction following brain injury by relating lesion locations to connectivity core disruption and implications for recovery. The findings of this study contribute substantially to current understanding of the human WM connectome, its sensitivity to injury, and clarify a long-standing debate regarding the relative prominence of gray vs. WM regions in the context of brain structure and connectomic architecture. PMID:24574993

Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John D.

2013-01-01

376

Morphology of human embryonic kidney cells in culture after space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of human embyronic kidney cells to differentiate into small epithelioid, large epithelioid, domed, and fenestrated morphological cell types following space flight is examined. Kidney cells exposed to 1 day at 1 g, then 1 day in orbit, and a 12 minute passage through the electrophoretic separator are compared with control cultures. The data reveal that 70 percent of small epithelioid, 16 percent of large epithelioid, 9 percent of dome-forming, and 5 percent of fenestrated cells formed in the space exposed cells; the distributions correlate well with control data. The formation of domed cells from cells cultured from low electrophoretic mobility fractions and small epithelioid cells from high mobility fractions is unaffected by space flight conditions. It is concluded that storage under microgravity conditions does not influence the morphological differentiation of human embryonic kidney cells in low-passage culture.

Todd, P.; Kunze, M. E.; Williams, K.; Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.; Barlow, G. H.

1985-01-01

377

Cholinergic modulation of learning and memory in the human brain as detected with functional neuroimaging  

E-print Network

of psychopharmacological approaches in conjunction with neuroimaging. The paper will introduce the combination of neuroi- maging and psychopharmacology as a tool to study neurochemical modulation of human brain function: Acetylcholine; Neuroimaging; Learning; Memory; Review; Drug; Psychopharmacology; fMRI; PET; Human 1

378

The Scientific Mind, the Brain, and Human Culture: Story Telling and Story Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exist significant architectural similarities between scientific method, understood as a general form of inquiry, and the human brain. These in turn suggest ways to conceive of cultures that would encourage distinctive individual evolution in their members and so continual evolution of the cultures themselves. The hall marks of such cultures would be their respect for and commitment to human

Paul Grobstein

379

Low-field MRI for studies of human pulmonary physiology and traumatic brain injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe recent progress on the development of an open-access low-magnetic-field MRI system for studies of human pulmonary physiology and traumatic brain injury. Low-field MRI benefits from reduced magnetic susceptibility effects and can provide high-resolution images of the human body when used with hyperpolarized media such as 3He and 129Xe.

Wilson, Alyssa; Devience, Stephen; Rosen, Matthew; Walsworth, Ronald

2011-06-01

380

The architecture of the colour centre in the human visual brain: new results and a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a variety of colour paradigms to activate the human brain regions selective for colour. We show here that the region defined previously (Lueck et al., 1989; Zeki et al., 1991; McKeefry and Zeki, 1997) as the human colour centre consists of two subdivisions, a posterior one, which we

Andreas Bartels; Semir Zeki

2000-01-01

381

Acute Effects of Cocaine in Lower Human Brain: An FMRI Study P. R. Kufahl1  

E-print Network

Acute Effects of Cocaine in Lower Human Brain: An FMRI Study P. R. Kufahl1 , Z. Li1 , R. Risinger1: This FMRI study used controlled doses of cocaine to induce BOLD signal changes in the human orbitofrontal cocaine-induced activation patterns across nine different subjects imaged at 1.5 Tesla. INTRODUCTION

Rowe, Daniel B.

382

Ontogenetic development of cannabinoid receptor expression and signal transduction functionality in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system emerges relatively early during brain development in the rat. However, the pre- and postnatal pattern of appearance of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in humans has not been analysed in detail. Furthermore, there is a complete lack of information about the functional ability of these proteins to activate signal transduction mechanisms during human development.

Susana Mato; Elena Del Olmo; Angel Pazos

2003-01-01

383

Lineage-reprogramming of pericyte-derived cells of the adult human brain into induced neurons.  

PubMed

Direct lineage-reprogramming of non-neuronal cells into induced neurons (iNs) may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying neurogenesis and enable new strategies for in vitro modeling or repairing the diseased brain. Identifying brain-resident non-neuronal cell types amenable to direct conversion into iNs might allow for launching such an approach in situ, i.e. within the damaged brain tissue. Here we describe a protocol developed in the attempt of identifying cells derived from the adult human brain that fulfill this premise. This protocol involves: (1) the culturing of human cells from the cerebral cortex obtained from adult human brain biopsies; (2) the in vitro expansion (approximately requiring 2-4 weeks) and characterization of the culture by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry; (3) the enrichment by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using anti-PDGF receptor-? and anti-CD146 antibodies; (4) the retrovirus-mediated transduction with the neurogenic transcription factors sox2 and ascl1; (5) and finally the characterization of the resultant pericyte-derived induced neurons (PdiNs) by immunocytochemistry (14 days to 8 weeks following retroviral transduction). At this stage, iNs can be probed for their electrical properties by patch-clamp recording. This protocol provides a highly reproducible procedure for the in vitro lineage conversion of brain-resident pericytes into functional human iNs. PMID:24893711

Karow, Marisa; Schichor, Christian; Beckervordersandforth, Ruth; Berninger, Benedikt

2014-01-01

384

Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-06-01

385

Frequency-specific network topologies in the resting human brain  

PubMed Central

A community is a set of nodes with dense inter-connections, while there are sparse connections between different communities. A hub is a highly connected node with high centrality. It has been shown that both communities and hubs exist simultaneously in the brain's functional connectivity network (FCN), as estimated by correlations among low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal changes (0.010.10 Hz). This indicates that the brain has a spatial organization that promotes both segregation and integration of information. Here, we demonstrate that frequency-specific network topologies that characterize segregation and integration also exist within this frequency range. In investigating the coherence spectrum among 87 brain regions, we found that two frequency bands, 0.010.03 Hz (very low frequency [VLF] band) and 0.070.09 Hz (low frequency [LF] band), mainly contributed to functional connectivity. Comparing graph theoretical indices for the VLF and LF bands revealed that the network in the former had a higher capacity for information segregation between identified communities than the latter. Hubs in the VLF band were mainly located within the anterior cingulate cortices, whereas those in the LF band were located in the posterior cingulate cortices and thalamus. Thus, depending on the timescale of brain activity, at least two distinct network topologies contributed to information segregation and integration. This suggests that the brain intrinsically has timescale-dependent functional organizations. PMID:25566037

Sasai, Shuntaro; Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Sadato, Norihiro; Taga, Gentaro

2014-01-01

386

Morphological studies of human sperm using the Aarhus X-ray microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Aarhus transmission X-ray microscope we have shown that the mitochondria of human spermatozoa can exist in two morphologically distinct states. We have also discovered new structures on the human spermatozoon surface. These structures manifest as clear vesicular bodies associated with specific membrane domains. They can occur around the acrosomal segment, the mid-piece region or at the basal region. Prior to our findings they were not described in the literature, even though they were clearly visible by light microscopy and ubiquitous among populations of sperm from fertile donors. We report on our findings and subsequent endeavours to elucidate the function of these fascinating structures.

Abraham-Peskir, Joanna V.; Chantler, Eric; Guttmann, Peter; Hjort, Tage; Medenwaldt, Robin; McCann, Christine; Uggerhj, Erik; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

2000-05-01

387

Effects of Silica and Titanium Oxide Particles on a Human Neural Stem Cell Line: Morphology, Mitochondrial Activity, and Gene Expression of Differentiation Markers  

PubMed Central

Several in vivo studies suggest that nanoparticles (smaller than 100 nm) have the ability to reach the brain tissue. Moreover, some nanoparticles can penetrate into the brains of murine fetuses through the placenta by intravenous administration to pregnant mice. However, it is not clear whether the penetrated nanoparticles affect neurogenesis or brain function. To evaluate its effects on neural stem cells, we assayed a human neural stem cell (hNSCs) line exposed in vitro to three types of silica particles (30 nm, 70 nm, and <44 ?m) and two types of titanium oxide particles (80 nm and < 44 ?m). Our results show that hNSCs aggregated and exhibited abnormal morphology when exposed to the particles at concentrations ? 0.1 mg/mL for 7 days. Moreover, all the particles affected the gene expression of Nestin (stem cell marker) and neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NF-H, neuron marker) at 0.1 mg/mL. In contrast, only 30-nm silica particles at 1.0 mg/mL significantly reduced mitochondrial activity. Notably, 30-nm silica particles exhibited acute membrane permeability at concentrations ?62.5 ?g/mL in 24 h. Although these concentrations are higher than the expected concentrations of nanoparticles in the brain from in vivo experiments in a short period, these thresholds may indicate the potential toxicity of accumulated particles for long-term usage or continuous exposure. PMID:24992594

Fujioka, Kouki; Hanada, Sanshiro; Inoue, Yuriko; Sato, Keisuke; Hirakuri, Kenji; Shiraishi, Kouichi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Ikeda, Keiichi; Usui, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kim, Seung U.; Manome, Yoshinobu

2014-01-01

388

Effects of silica and titanium oxide particles on a human neural stem cell line: morphology, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression of differentiation markers.  

PubMed

Several in vivo studies suggest that nanoparticles (smaller than 100 nm) have the ability to reach the brain tissue. Moreover, some nanoparticles can penetrate into the brains of murine fetuses through the placenta by intravenous administration to pregnant mice. However, it is not clear whether the penetrated nanoparticles affect neurogenesis or brain function. To evaluate its effects on neural stem cells, we assayed a human neural stem cell (hNSCs) line exposed in vitro to three types of silica particles (30 nm, 70 nm, and <44 m) and two types of titanium oxide particles (80 nm and < 44 m). Our results show that hNSCs aggregated and exhibited abnormal morphology when exposed to the particles at concentrations = 0.1 mg/mL for 7 days. Moreover, all the particles affected the gene expression of Nestin (stem cell marker) and neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NF-H, neuron marker) at 0.1 mg/mL. In contrast, only 30-nm silica particles at 1.0 mg/mL significantly reduced mitochondrial activity. Notably, 30-nm silica particles exhibited acute membrane permeability at concentrations =62.5 g/mL in 24 h. Although these concentrations are higher than the expected concentrations of nanoparticles in the brain from in vivo experiments in a short period, these thresholds may indicate the potential toxicity of accumulated particles for long-term usage or continuous exposure. PMID:24992594

Fujioka, Kouki; Hanada, Sanshiro; Inoue, Yuriko; Sato, Keisuke; Hirakuri, Kenji; Shiraishi, Kouichi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Ikeda, Keiichi; Usui, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kim, Seung U; Manome, Yoshinobu

2014-01-01

389

QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY OF THE HUMAN THYMUS CORRELATE WITH INFANT CAUSE OF DEATH  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the morphological and molecular changes in the thymus for common causes of human infant death. Thymic architecture and molecular changes apparent in human infant head trauma victims were assessed by microscopy and quantified by image analysis of digital whole slide images. Thymuses from victims of SIDS and suffocated infants displaying normal thymus architecture were used for comparison. Molecular expression of proliferation and serotonin receptor and transporter protein markers was evaluated. Duplicate morphological and molecular studies of rodent thymuses were completed with both mouse and rat models. Quantification of novel parameters of digital images of thymuses from human infants suffering mortal head trauma revealed a disruption of the corticomedullary organization of the thymus, particularly involving dissolution of the corticomedullary border. A similar result was obtained for related mouse and rat models. The human thymuses from head trauma cases also displayed a higher percentage of Ki-67-positive thymocytes. Finally, we determined that thymus expression of the human serotonin receptor, and the serotonin transporter, occur almost exclusively in the thymic medulla. Head trauma leads to a disruption of the thymic, corticomedullary border, and molecular expression patterns in a robust and quantifiable manner. PMID:25309682

Lloyd, Mark C.; Burke, Nancy; Kalantarpour, Fatemeh; Niesen, Melissa I.; Hall, Aaron; Pennypacker, Keith; Citron, Bruce; Pick, Chaim G.; Adams, Vernard; Das, Mahasweta; Mohapatra, Shyam; Cualing, Hernani; Blanck, George

2014-01-01

390

QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY OF THE HUMAN THYMUS CORRELATE WITH INFANT CAUSE OF DEATH.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the morphological and molecular changes in the thymus for common causes of human infant death. Thymic architecture and molecular changes apparent in human infant head trauma victims were assessed by microscopy and quantified by image analysis of digital whole slide images. Thymuses from victims of SIDS and suffocated infants displaying normal thymus architecture were used for comparison. Molecular expression of proliferation and serotonin receptor and transporter protein markers was evaluated. Duplicate morphological and molecular studies of rodent thymuses were completed with both mouse and rat models. Quantification of novel parameters of digital images of thymuses from human infants suffering mortal head trauma revealed a disruption of the corticomedullary organization of the thymus, particularly involving dissolution of the corticomedullary border. A similar result was obtained for related mouse and rat models. The human thymuses from head trauma cases also displayed a higher percentage of Ki-67-positive thymocytes. Finally, we determined that thymus expression of the human serotonin receptor, and the serotonin transporter, occur almost exclusively in the thymic medulla. Head trauma leads to a disruption of the thymic, corticomedullary border, and molecular expression patterns in a robust and quantifiable manner. PMID:25309682

Lloyd, Mark C; Burke, Nancy; Kalantarpour, Fatemeh; Niesen, Melissa I; Hall, Aaron; Pennypacker, Keith; Citron, Bruce; Pick, Chaim G; Adams, Vernard; Das, Mahasweta; Mohapatra, Shyam; Cualing, Hernani; Blanck, George

2014-01-01

391

Brain tocopherols related to Alzheimer's disease neuropathology in humans.  

PubMed

Randomized trials of ?-tocopherol supplements on cognitive decline are negative, whereas studies of dietary tocopherols have shown benefit. We investigated these inconsistencies by analyzing the relations of ?- and ?-tocopherol brain concentrations to Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology among 115 deceased participants of the prospective Rush Memory and Aging Project. Associations of amyloid load and neurofibrillary tangle severity with brain tocopherol concentrations were examined in separate adjusted linear regression models. ?-Tocopherol concentrations were associated with lower amyloid load (?=?2.10, P=.002) and lower neurofibrillary tangle severity (?=?1.16, P=.02). Concentrations of ?-tocopherol were not associated with AD neuropathology, except as modified by ?-tocopherol: high ?-tocopherol was associated with higher amyloid load when ?-tocopherol levels were low and with lower amyloid levels when ?-tocopherol levels were high (P for interaction=0.03). Brain concentrations of ?- and ?-tocopherols may be associated with AD neuropathology in interrelated, complex ways. Randomized trials should consider the contribution of ?-tocopherol. PMID:24589434

Morris, Martha Clare; Schneider, Julie A; Li, Hong; Tangney, Christy C; Nag, Sukriti; Bennett, David A; Honer, William G; Barnes, Lisa L

2015-01-01

392

Structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with long-term changes in neurobiology. Brain areas involved in the stress response include the medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. Neurohormonal systems that act on the brain areas to modulate PTSD symptoms and memory include glucocorticoids and norepinephrine. Dysfunction of these brain areas is responsible for the symptoms of PTSD. Brain imaging studies show that PTSD patients have increased amygdala reactivity during fear acquisition. Other studies show smaller hippocampal volume. A failure of medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate activation with re-experiencing of the trauma is hypothesized to represent a neural correlate of the failure of extinction seen in PTSD. The brain has the capacity for plasticity in the aftermath of traumatic stress. Antidepressant treatments and changes in environment can reverse the effects of stress on hippocampal neurogenesis, and humans with PTSD showed increased hippocampal volume with both paroxetine and phenytoin. PMID:18037014

Bremner, J. Douglas; Elzinga, Bernet; Schmahl, Christian; Vermetten, Eric

2011-01-01

393

Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

1974-01-01

394

The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same structures, where some elements of these decrements normalize with extended sobriety. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication. We then briefly address how chronic alcohol intoxication (as inferred from cross-sectional differences between various drinking populations and controls) may yield individual brain differences between drinking subjects that may confound interpretation of acute alcohol administration effects. PMID:23978384

Bjork, James M.; Gilman, Jodi M.

2014-01-01

395

Ultrafast method for mapping local functional connectivity hubs in the human brain.  

PubMed

Brain networks with energy-efficient hubs might support the high cognitive performance of humans and a better understanding of their organization is of relevance not only for studying normal brain development and plasticity but also neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we propose an ultra-fast method to map the distribution of the functional connectivity density (FCD) in the human brain. The method was tested in 972 subjects from a large repository of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) time series collected in resting conditions. Consistently across research sites, a region located in the ventral precuneus was the area with the highest FCD, which suggest that this is a prominent functional hub in the brain. In addition regions located in the paracentral lobule, cuneus, inferior parietal, and posterior cingulate cortices had localized high FCD, suggesting that these regions also include prominent functional connectivity hubs. PMID:21095749

Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

2010-01-01

396

Decoding Lifespan Changes of the Human Brain Using Resting-State Functional Connectivity MRI  

PubMed Central

The development of large-scale functional brain networks is a complex, lifelong process that can be investigated using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI). In this study, we aimed to decode the developmental dynamics of the whole-brain functional network in seven decades (879 years) of the human lifespan. We first used parametric curve fitting to examine linear and nonlinear age effect on the resting human brain, and then combined manifold learning and support vector machine methods to predict individuals' brain ages from rs-fcMRI data. We found that age-related changes in interregional functional connectivity exhibited spatially and temporally specific patterns. During brain development from childhood to senescence, functional connections tended to linearly increase in the emotion system and decrease in the sensorimotor system; while quadratic trajectories were observed in functional connections related to higher-order cognitive functions. The complex patterns of age effect on the whole-brain functional network could be effectively represented by a low-dimensional, nonlinear manifold embedded in the functional connectivity space, which uncovered the inherent structure of brain maturation and aging. Regression of manifold coordinates with age further showed that the manifold representation extracted sufficient information from rs-fcMRI data to make prediction about individual brains' functional development levels. Our study not only gives insights into the neural substrates that underlie behavioral and cognitive changes over age, but also provides a possible way to quantitatively describe the typical and atypical developmental progression of human brain function using rs-fcMRI. PMID:22952990

Wang, Lubin; Su, Longfei; Shen, Hui; Hu, Dewen

2012-01-01

397

Morphological characterization of the nasopalatine region in human fetuses and its association to pathologies  

PubMed Central

The nasopalatine region is composed of structures such as the vomeronasal organ and nasopalatine duct. The nasopalatine duct may provide the communication of the mouth to the nasal cavity in human fetuses and can be obliterated in an adult human. Knowledge on the development of the nasopalatine region and nasopalatine duct in humans is necessary for understanding the morphology and etiopathogenesis of lesions that occur in this region. Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe the morphological aspects of the nasopalatine region in human fetuses and correlate these aspects with the development of pathologies in this region. Material and Methods: Five human fetuses with no facial or palatine abnormalities were used for the acquisition of specimens from the nasopalatine region. After demineralization, the specimens were histologically processed. Histological cuts were stained with methylene blue to orient the cutting plane and hematoxylin-eosin for the descriptive histological analysis. Results: The age of the fetuses was 8.00, 8.25, 9.00 and 9.25 weeks, and it was not possible to determine the age in the last one. The incisive canal was observed in all specimens as an opening delimited laterally by the periosteum and connecting oral and nasal cavity. The nasopalatine duct is an epithelial structure with the greatest morphological variation, with either unilateral or bilateral occurrence and total patent, partial patent and islet forms. The vomeronasal organ is a bilateral epithelized structure located alongside the nasal septum above the incisive canal in all the fetuses. Conclusions: The incisive canal, nasopalatine duct and vomeronasal organ are distinct anatomic structures. The development of nasopalatine duct cysts may occur in all forms of the nasopalatine duct. PMID:23857659

FALCI, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; VERLI, Flaviana Dornela; CONSOLARO, Alberto; dos SANTOS, Cssio Roberto Rocha

2013-01-01

398

Gaze influences finger movement-related and visual-related activation across the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain uses gaze orientation to organize myriad spatial tasks including hand movements. However, the neural correlates\\u000a of gaze signals and their interaction with brain systems for arm movement control remain unresolved. Many studies have shown\\u000a that gaze orientation modifies neuronal spike discharge in monkeys and activation in humans related to reaching and finger\\u000a movements in parietal and frontal areas.

Patrick Bdard; Arul Thangavel; Jerome N. Sanes

2008-01-01

399

Emotion, motivation, and the brain: Reflex foundations in animal and human research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will focus on a motivational circuit in the brain, centered on the amygdala, that underlies human emotion. This neural circuitry of appetitive\\/approach and defensive\\/avoidance was laid down early in our evolutionary history in primitive cortex, sub-cortex, and mid-brain, to mediate behaviors basic to the survival of individuals and the propagation of genes to coming generations. Thus, events associated

Peter J. Lang; Michael Davis

2006-01-01

400

Traversal of human and animal trypanosomes across the blood-brain barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurological complications of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in man caused by the unicellular protozoan parasites\\u000a Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are a consequence of the penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by trypanosomes that enter the central nervous system\\u000a (CNS). Yet the mechanisms by which African trypanosomes cross the true BBB comprised of brain microvascular endothelial cells

Dennis J. Grab; Peter G. E. Kennedy

2008-01-01

401

A Virtual Patient Simulator Based on Human Connectome and 7 T MRI for Deep Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a virtual model of patients with Deep Brain Stimulation implants. The model is based on Human Connectome and 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. We envision that the proposed virtual patient simulator will enable radio frequency power dosimetry on patients with deep brain stimulation implants undergoing MRI. Results from the proposed virtual patient study may facilitate the use of clinical MRI instead of computed tomography scans. The virtual patient will be flexible and morphable to relate to patient-specific neurological and psychiatric conditions such as Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, which benefit from deep brain stimulation.

Bonmassar, Giorgio; Angelone, Leonardo M.; Makris, Nikos

2015-01-01

402

Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide  

SciTech Connect

In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography.

Gross-Isseroff, R.; Dillon, K.A.; Fieldust, S.J.; Biegon, A. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

1990-11-01

403

Natural and artificial intelligence. Processor systems compared to the human brain  

SciTech Connect

This comparison of artificial intelligence systems to the human brain has implications for a variety of disciplines. Original views are specified and compared with traditional models. Main Features: 1. Integration of logic programming in the brain functions. 2. New computer parallel architecture (for hardware engineers). 3. Main principles of symbolic manipulation by logic programming (for software engineers in Al, expert systems and logic programming). 4. Logical models of brain connections and functions (for neuroscientists). 5. Definition of memory types and functions (for psychologists). 6. Parallel between Al applied to robots and theory of knowledge (for philosophers).

de Callatay, A.M.

1986-01-01

404

Functional associations among G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors in the human brain  

PubMed Central

Background The activity of neurons is controlled by groups of neurotransmitter receptors rather than by individual receptors. Experimental studies have investigated some receptor interactions, but currently little information is available about transcriptional associations among receptors at the whole-brain level. Results A total of 4950 correlations between 100G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors were examined across 169 brain regions in the human brain using expression data published in the Allen Human Brain Atlas. A large number of highly significant correlations were found, many of which have not been investigated in hypothesis-driven studies. The highest positive and negative correlations of each receptor are reported, which can facilitate the construction of receptor sets likely to be affected by altered transcription of one receptor (such sets always exist, but their members are difficult to predict). A graph analysis isolated two large receptor communities, within each of which receptor mRNA levels were strongly cross-correlated. Conclusions The presented systematic analysis shows that the mRNA levels of many G protein-coupled receptors are interdependent. This finding is not unexpected, since the brain is a highly integrated complex system. However, the analysis also revealed two novel properties of global brain structure. First, receptor correlations are described by a simple statistical distribution, which suggests that receptor interactions may be guided by qualitatively similar processes. Second, receptors appear to form two large functional communities, which might be differentially affected in brain disorders. PMID:24438157

2014-01-01

405

Two Dream Machines: Television and the Human Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into brain physiology and dream psychology have helped to illuminate the biological purposes and processes of dreaming. Physical and functional characteristics shared by dreaming and television include the perception of visual and auditory images, operation in a binary mode, and the encoding of visual information. Research is needed in

Deming, Caren J.

406

Visualization of Chemokine Binding Sites on Human Brain Microvessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory pro- tein-1 a (MIP-1 a ) aid in directing leukocytes to specific locales within the brain and spinal cord during central nervous system inflammation. However, it remains un- clear how these chemokines exert their actions across a vascular barrier, raising speculation that interaction with endothelial cells might be required. Therefore, ex-

Anuska V. Andjelkovic; Dennis D. Spencer; Joel S. Pachter

2010-01-01

407

Human Brain Language Areas Identified by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) was used to identify candidate language processing areas in the intact hu- man brain. Language was defined broadly to include both phonological and lexical-semantic functions and to exclude sensory, motor, and general executive functions. The language activation task required phonetic and semantic analysis of aurally presented words and was compared with a control task involving

Jeffrey R. Binder; Julie A. Frost; Thomas A. Hammeke; Robert W. Cox; Stephen M. Rao; Thomas Prieto

1997-01-01

408

Fast transient networks in spontaneous human brain activity.  

PubMed

To provide an effective substrate for cognitive processes, functional brain networks should be able to reorganize and coordinate on a sub-second temporal scale. We used magnetoencephalography recordings of spontaneous activity to characterize whole-brain functional connectivity dynamics at high temporal resolution. Using a novel approach that identifies the points in time at which unique patterns of activity recur, we reveal transient (100-200 ms) brain states with spatial topographies similar to those of well-known resting state networks. By assessing temporal changes in the occurrence of these states, we demonstrate that within-network functional connectivity is underpinned by coordinated neuronal dynamics that fluctuate much more rapidly than has previously been shown. We further evaluate cross-network interactions, and show that anticorrelation between the default mode network and parietal regions of the dorsal attention network is consistent with an inability of the system to transition directly between two transient brain states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01867.001. PMID:24668169

Baker, Adam P; Brookes, Matthew J; Rezek, Iead A; Smith, Stephen M; Behrens, Timothy; Probert Smith, Penny J; Woolrich, Mark

2014-01-01

409

Extending lifetime of plastic changes in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the brain to adjust to changing environments and to recover from damage rests on its remarkable capacity to adapt through plastic changes of underlying neural networks. We show here with an eye movement paradigm that a lifetime of plastic changes can be extended to several hours by repeated applications of theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation to the

Thomas Nyffeler; Pascal Wurtz; Hans-Rudolf Lscher; Christian W. Hess; Walter Senn; Tobias Pflugshaupt; Roman von Wartburg; Mathias Lthi; Ren M. Mri

2006-01-01

410

PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it

N. D. Volkow; J. S. Fowler; S. Gatley

1996-01-01

411

Human brain distinctiveness based on EEG spectral coherence connectivity.  

PubMed

The use of EEG biometrics, for the purpose of automatic people recognition, has received increasing attention in the recent years. Most of the current analyses rely on the extraction of features characterizing the activity of single brain regions, like power spectrum estimation, thus neglecting possible temporal dependencies between the generated EEG signals. However, important physiological information can be extracted from the way different brain regions are functionally coupled. In this study, we propose a novel approach that fuses spectral coherence-based connectivity between different brain regions as a possibly viable biometric feature. The proposed approach is tested on a large dataset of subjects (N = 108) during eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) resting state conditions. The obtained recognition performance shows that using brain connectivity leads to higher distinctiveness with respect to power-spectrum measurements, in both the experimental conditions. Notably, a 100% recognition accuracy is obtained in EC and EO when integrating functional connectivity between regions in the frontal lobe, while a lower 97.5% is obtained in EC (96.26% in EO) when fusing power spectrum information from parieto-occipital (centro-parietal in EO) regions. Taken together, these results suggest that the functional connectivity patterns represent effective features for improving EEG-based biometric systems. PMID:24759981

La Rocca, D; Campisi, P; Vegso, B; Cserti, P; Kozmann, G; Babiloni, F; De Vico Fallani, F

2014-09-01

412

Methylomic profiling of human brain tissue supports a neurodevelopmental origin for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

BackgroundSchizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that is hypothesized to result from disturbances in early brain development. There is mounting evidence to support a role for developmentally-regulated epigenetic variation in the molecular etiology of the disorder. Here, we describe a systematic study of schizophrenia-associated methylomic variation in the adult brain and its relationship to changes in DNA methylation across human fetal brain development.ResultsWe profile methylomic variation in matched prefrontal cortex and cerebellum brain tissue from schizophrenia patients and controls, identifying disease-associated differential DNA methylation at multiple loci, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, and confirming these differences in an independent set of adult brain samples. Our data reveal discrete modules of co-methylated loci associated with schizophrenia that are enriched for genes involved in neurodevelopmental processes and include loci implicated by genetic studies of the disorder. Methylomic data from human fetal cortex samples, spanning 23 to 184 days post-conception, indicates that schizophrenia-associated differentially methylated positions are significantly enriched for loci at which DNA methylation is dynamically altered during human fetal brain development.ConclusionsOur data support the hypothesis that schizophrenia has an important early neurodevelopmental component, and suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may mediate these effects. PMID:25347937

Pidsley, Ruth; Viana, Joana; Hannon, Eilis; Spiers, Helen H; Troakes, Claire; Al-Saraj, Safa; Mechawar, Naguib; Turecki, Gustavo; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Bray, Nicholas J; Mill, Jonathan

2014-10-28

413

Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth  

PubMed Central

Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n?=?77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

2013-01-01

414

Variation at genes influencing facial morphology are not associated with developmental imprecision in human faces.  

PubMed

Facial asymmetries are commonly used as a proxy for human developmental imprecision resulting from inbreeding, and thus reduced genetic heterozygosity. Several environmental factors influence human facial asymmetry (e.g., health care, parasites), but the generalizability of findings on genetic stressors has been limited in humans by sample characteristics (island populations, endogamy) and indirect genetic assessment (inference from pedigrees). In a sample of 3215 adult humans from the Rotterdam Study, we therefore studied the relationship of facial asymmetry, estimated from nine mid-facial landmarks, with genetic variation at 102 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci recently associated with facial shape variation. We further tested whether the degree of individual heterozygosity is negatively correlated with facial asymmetry. An ANOVA tree regression did not identify any SNP relating to either fluctuating asymmetry or total asymmetry. In a general linear model, only age and sex--but neither heterozygosity nor any SNP previously reported to covary with facial shape--was significantly related to total or fluctuating asymmetry of the midface. Our study does not corroborate the common assumption in evolutionary and behavioral biology that morphological asymmetries reflect heterozygosity. Our results, however, may be affected by a relatively small degree of inbreeding, a relatively stable environment, and an advanced age in the Rotterdam sample. Further large-scale genetic studies, including gene expression studies, are necessary to validate the genetic and developmental origin of morphological asymmetries. PMID:24914781

Windhager, Sonja; Schaschl, Helmut; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Huber, Susanne; Wallner, Bernard; Fieder, Martin

2014-01-01

415

Multiscale Morphology of Organic Semiconductor Thin Films Controls the Adhesion and Viability of Human Neural Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract We investigate how multiscale morphology of functional thin films affects the invitro behavior of human neural astrocytoma 1321N1 cells. Pentacene thin film morphology is precisely controlled by means of the film thickness, ? (here expressed in monolayers (ML)). Fluorescence and atomic force microscopy allow us to correlate the shape, adhesion, and proliferation of cells to the morphological properties of pentacene films controlled by saturated roughness, ?, correlation length, ?, and fractal dimension, df. At early incubation times, cell adhesion exhibits a transition from higher to lower values at ? ? 10 ML. This is explained using a model of conformal adhesion of the cell membrane onto the growing pentacene islands. From the model fitting of the data, we show that the cell explores the surface with a deformation of the membrane whose minimum curvature radius is 90 ( 45) nm. The transition in the adhesion at ?10 ML arises from the saturation of ? accompanied by the monotonic increase of ?, which leads to a progressive decrease of the pentacene local radius of curvature and hence to the surface area accessible to the cell. Cell proliferation is also enhanced for ? < 10 ML, and the optimum morphology parameter ranges for cell deployment and growth are ? ? 6 nm, ? > 500 nm, and df > 2.45. The characteristic time of cell proliferation is ? ? 10 2 h. PMID:20550892

Tonazzini, I.; Bystrenova, E.; Chelli, B.; Greco, P.; Stoliar, P.; Cal, A.; Lazar, A.; Borgatti, F.; D'Angelo, P.; Martini, C.; Biscarini, F.

2010-01-01

416

Optimising vitrification of human oocytes using multiple cryoprotectants and morphological and functional assessment.  

PubMed

Oocyte vitrification is a clinical practice that allows preservation of fertility potential in women. Vitrification involves quick cooling using high concentrations of cryoprotectants to minimise freezing injuries. However, high concentrations of cryoprotectants have detrimental effects on oocyte quality and eventually the offspring. In addition, current assessment of oocyte quality after vitrification is commonly based only on the morphological appearance of the oocyte, raising concerns regarding its efficiency. Using both morphological and functional assessments, the present study investigated whether combinations of cryoprotectants at lower individual concentrations result in better cryosurvival rates than single cryoprotectants at higher concentrations. Surplus oocytes from IVF patients were vitrified within 24h after retrieval using the Cryotop method with several cryoprotectants, either individually or in combination. The morphological and functional quality of the vitrified oocytes was investigated using light microscopy and computer-based quantification of mitochondrial integrity, respectively. Oocyte quality was significantly higher using a combination of cryoprotectants than vitrification with individual cryoprotectants. In addition, the quality of vitrified oocyte varied depending on the cryoprotectants and type of combination used. The results of the present study indicate that observations based purely on the morphological appearance of the oocyte to assess the cryosurvival rate are insufficient and sometimes misleading. The outcome will have a significant implication in the area of human oocyte cryopreservation as an important approach for fertility preservation. PMID:22967503

Seet, V Y K; Al-Samerria, S; Wong, J; Stanger, J; Yovich, J L; Almahbobi, G

2013-01-01

417

What makes man human: thirty-ninth James Arthur lecture on the evolution of the human brain, 1970  

PubMed Central

What makes man human is his brain. This brain is obviously different from those of nonhuman primates. It is larger, shows hemispheric dominance and specialization, and is cytoarchitecturally somewhat more generalized. But are these the essential characteristics that determine the humanness of man? This paper cannot give an answer to this question for the answer is not known. But the problem can be stated more specifically, alternatives spelled out on the basis of available research results, and directions given for further inquiry. My theme will be that the human brain is so constructed that man, and only man, feels the thrust to make meaningful all his experiences and encounters. Development of this theme demands an analysis of the brain mechanisms that make meaningand an attempt to define biologically the process of meaning. In this pursuit of meaning a fascinating variety of topics comes into focus: the coding and recoding operations of the brain; how it engenders and processes information and redundancy; and, how it makes possible signs and symbols and prepositional utterances. Of these, current research results indicate that only in the making of propositions is man uniqueso here perhaps are to be found the keynotes that compose the theme. PMID:17132178

Pribram, Karl H

2006-01-01

418

[Geomagnetic storm decreases coherence of electric oscillations of human brain while working at the computer].  

PubMed

The effect of geomagnetic storms at the latitude of Moscow on the electric oscillations of the human brain cerebral cortex was studied. In course of electroencephalogram measurements it was shown that when the voluntary persons at the age of 18-23 years old were performing tasks using a computer during moderate magnetic storm or no later than 24 hrs after it, the value of the coherence function of electric oscillations of the human brain in the frontal and occipital areas in a range of 4.0-7.9 Hz (so-called the theta rhythm oscillations of the human brain) decreased by a factor of two or more, sometimes reaching zero, although arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate and the electrocardiogram registered during electroencephalogram measurements remained within the standard values. PMID:24159827

Novik, O B; Smirnov, F A

2013-01-01

419

Structural foundations of resting-state and task-based functional connectivity in the human brain  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging enables the noninvasive mapping of both anatomical white matter connectivity and dynamic patterns of neural activity in the human brain. We examine the relationship between the structural properties of white matter streamlines (structural connectivity) and the functional properties of correlations in neural activity (functional connectivity) within 84 healthy human subjects both at rest and during the performance of attention- and memory-demanding tasks. We show that structural properties, including the length, number, and spatial location of white matter streamlines, are indicative of and can be inferred from the strength of resting-state and task-based functional correlations between brain regions. These results, which are both representative of the entire set of subjects and consistently observed within individual subjects, uncover robust links between structural and functional connectivity in the human brain. PMID:23530246

Hermundstad, Ann M.; Bassett, Danielle S.; Brown, Kevin S.; Aminoff, Elissa M.; Clewett, David; Freeman, Scott; Frithsen, Amy; Johnson, Arianne; Tipper, Christine M.; Miller, Michael B.; Grafton, Scott T.; Carlson, Jean M.

2013-01-01

420

Neuron,Vol. 14, 217-228, February,1995,Copyright 1995by Cell Press Principles of Human Brain  

E-print Network

the time of Sperry's death in the spring of 1994. Patients who undergo so-called split-brain surgery allNeuron,Vol. 14, 217-228, February,1995,Copyright© 1995by Cell Press Principles of Human Brain Organization Derived from Split-Brain Studies Review Michael S. Gazzaniga Center for Neuroscience University

Gazzaniga, Michael

421

Fast method for longitudinal relaxation time and water content mapping of the human brain on a clinical MR scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Background. Longitudinal relaxation time (T 1) map generation from human brain slices renders possible the in vivo follow-up of the changes in T 1 values during the course of several pathologies such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury etc. T 1 values can be converted to water contents, thus brain oedema reducing therapy can be non-invasively evaluated. The

F. Kvr; A. Schwarcz; J. Pl; P. Bogner; T. Vajna; G. Vadon; T. Dczi

2004-01-01

422

Quality of Early Care and Buffering of Neuroendocrine Stress Reactions: Potential Effects on the Developing Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain development is affected by stress early in development. Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis plays a role in mediating the effects of adversity on the developing brain. The impact of glucocorticoids on brain development has been studied in animal models. The literature linking activity of the HPA axis to memory, attention, and emotion in human children is briefly reviewed.

Megan R. Gunnar

1998-01-01

423

Early rehabilitation of higher cortical brain functioning in neurosurgery, humanizing the restoration of human skills after acute brain lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a ObjectiveIncreasingly more patients after brain damage survive, however, suffering from severe impairments of higher cerebral functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsPatients after acute brain damage, mainly secondary to TBI, are referred for early neurosurgical rehabilitation. Our concept\\u000a follows the German Guidelines. It is based on a multidisciplinary team approach. Next-of kin are included in the treatment\\u000a and caring.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ResultsThe essential aspect of early neurosurgical

K. R. H. von Wild

424

Describing the Neuron Axons Network of the Human Brain by Continuous Flow Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multifractal spectrum Dq (Rnyi dimensions) is used for the analysis and comparison between the Neuron Axons Network (NAN) of healthy and pathological human brains because it conveys information about the statistics in many scales, from the very rare to the most frequent network configurations. Comparison of the Fractional Anisotropy Magnetic Resonance Images between healthy and pathological brains is performed with and without noise reduction. Modelling the complex structure of the NAN in the human brain is undertaken using the dynamics of the Lorenz model in the chaotic regime. The Lorenz multifractal spectra capture well the human brain characteristics in the large negative q's which represent the rare network configurations. In order to achieve a closer approximation in the positive part of the spectrum (q > 0) two independent modifications are considered: a) redistribution of the dense parts of the Lorenz model's phase space into their neighbouring areas and b) inclusion of additive uniform noise in the Lorenz model. Both modifications, independently, drive the Lorenz spectrum closer to the human NAN one in the positive q region without destroying the already good correspondence of the negative spectra. The modelling process shows that the unmodified Lorenz model in its full chaotic regime has a phase space distribution with high fluctuations in its dense parts, while the fluctuations in the human brain NAN are smoother. The induced modifications (phase space redistribution or additive noise)