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1

A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

2014-07-01

2

The blind brain: How (lack of) vision shapes the morphological and functional architecture of the human brain.  

PubMed

Since the early days, how we represent the world around us has been a matter of philosophical speculation. Over the last few decades, modern neuroscience, and specifically the development of methodologies for the structural and the functional exploration of the brain have made it possible to investigate old questions with an innovative approach. In this brief review, we discuss the main findings from a series of brain anatomical and functional studies conducted in sighted and congenitally blind individuals by our's and others' laboratories. Historically, research on the 'blind brain' has focused mainly on the cross-modal plastic changes that follow sensory deprivation. More recently, a novel line of research has been developed to determine to what extent visual experience is truly required to achieve a representation of the surrounding environment. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that most of the brain fine morphological and functional architecture is programmed to develop and function independently from any visual experience. Distinct cortical areas are able to process information in a supramodal fashion, that is, independently from the sensory modality that carries that information to the brain. These observations strongly support the hypothesis of a modality-independent, i.e. more abstract, cortical organization, and may contribute to explain how congenitally blind individuals may interact efficiently with an external world that they have never seen. PMID:24962172

Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Pietrini, Pietro

2014-11-01

3

Cellular Alterations in Human Traumatic Brain Injury: Changes in Mitochondrial Morphology Reflect Regional Levels of Injury Severity  

PubMed Central

Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction may be central to the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and often can be recognized cytologically by changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure. This study is the first to broadly characterize and quantify mitochondrial morphologic alterations in surgically resected human TBI tissues from three contiguous cortical injury zones. These zones were designated as injury center (Near), periphery (Far), and Penumbra. Tissues from 22 patients with TBI with varying degrees of damage and time intervals from TBI to surgical tissue collection within the first week post-injury were rapidly fixed in the surgical suite and processed for electron microscopy. A large number of mitochondrial structural patterns were identified and divided into four survival categories: normal, normal reactive, reactive degenerating, and end-stage degenerating profiles. A tissue sample acquired at 38 hours post-injury was selected for detailed mitochondrial quantification, because it best exhibited the wide variation in cellular and mitochondrial changes consistently noted in all the other cases. The distribution of mitochondrial morphologic phenotypes varied significantly between the three injury zones and when compared with control cortical tissue obtained from an epilepsy lobectomy. This study is unique in its comparative quantification of the mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations at progressive distances from the center of injury in surviving TBI patients and in relation to control human cortex. These quantitative observations may be useful in guiding the translation of mitochondrial-based neuroprotective interventions to clinical implementation. PMID:23131111

Balan, Irina S.; Saladino, Andrew J.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Castellani, Rudolf J.; Wade, Christine; Stein, Deborah M.; Eisenberg, Howard M.; Chen, Hegang H.

2013-01-01

4

Quantitative morphology of human glioblastoma multiforme microvessels: structural basis of blood-brain barrier defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoplastic invasion of the brain parenchyma results in a disruption of the ultrastructure of the blood vessel walls such that serum proteins extravasate into the surrounding tissue, resulting in cerebral edema. The structural changes involved are not well understood, since the pores through which serum constituents pass (permeability routes) in normal barrier vessels and in tumor vessels where the barrier

B. L. Coomberl; P. A. Stewart; K. Hayakawa; C. L. Farrell; R. E Del Maestro

1987-01-01

5

Morphologic and histoanatomic observations of the brain in untreated human phenylketonuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cerebra of three profoundly retarded adult males with untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) were systematically studied in terms of developmental morphology and histoanatomy against normal agematched material, technically comparable in preparation. These studies were made possible by the availability of two extensive reference collections of normative neuroanatomic material, the Yakovlev and the Conel collections. The developmental parameters of myelination, width of

M. L. Bauman; Th. L. Kemper

1982-01-01

6

Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

Rambaut, Andrew

7

Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review #12;2 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain ImagingThe Wellcome Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales, no's role in supporting human functional brain imaging and have informed `our' speculations for the future

Rambaut, Andrew

8

A Geographic Cline of Skull and Brain Morphology among Individuals of European Ancestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human skull and brain morphology are strongly influenced by genetic factors, and skull size and shape vary worldwide. However, the relationship between specific brain morphology and genetically-determined ancestry is largely unknown. Methods: We used two independent data sets to characterize variation in skull and brain morphology among individuals of European ancestry. The first data set is a historical sample

Trygve E. Bakken; Anders M. Dale; Nicholas J. Schork

2011-01-01

9

Genetic topography of brain morphology  

PubMed Central

Animal data show that cortical development is initially patterned by genetic gradients largely along three orthogonal axes. We previously reported differences in genetic influences on cortical surface area along an anterior-posterior axis using neuroimaging data of adult human twins. Here, we demonstrate differences in genetic influences on cortical thickness along a dorsal-ventral axis in the same cohort. The phenomenon of orthogonal gradations in cortical organization evident in different structural and functional properties may originate from genetic gradients. Another emerging theme of cortical patterning is that patterns of genetic influences recapitulate the spatial topography of the cortex within hemispheres. The genetic patterning of both cortical thickness and surface area corresponds to cortical functional specializations. Intriguingly, in contrast to broad similarities in genetic patterning, two sets of analyses distinguish cortical thickness and surface area genetically. First, genetic contributions to cortical thickness and surface area are largely distinct; there is very little genetic correlation (i.e., shared genetic influences) between them. Second, organizing principles among genetically defined regions differ between thickness and surface area. Examining the structure of the genetic similarity matrix among clusters revealed that, whereas surface area clusters showed great genetic proximity with clusters from the same lobe, thickness clusters appear to have close genetic relatedness with clusters that have similar maturational timing. The discrepancies are in line with evidence that the two traits follow different mechanisms in neurodevelopment. Our findings highlight the complexity of genetic influences on cortical morphology and provide a glimpse into emerging principles of genetic organization of the cortex. PMID:24082094

Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Gutierrez, E. D.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Thompson, Wesley K.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Neale, Michael C.; Franz, Carol E.; Lyons, Michael J.; Fischl, Bruce; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.

2013-01-01

10

Overlapping Trisomies for Human Chromosome 21 Orthologs Produce Similar Effects on Skull and Brain Morphology of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn Mice  

PubMed Central

Trisomy 21 results in gene-dosage imbalance during embryogenesis and throughout life, ultimately causing multiple anomalies that contribute to the clinical manifestations of Down syndrome. Down syndrome is associated with manifestations of variable severity (e.g., heart anomalies, reduced growth, dental anomalies, shortened life-span). Craniofacial dysmorphology and cognitive dysfunction are consistently observed in all people with Down syndrome. Mouse models are useful for studying the effects of gene-dosage imbalance on development. We investigated quantitative changes in the skull and brain of the Dp(16) 1Yey Down syndrome mouse model and compared these mice to Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models. Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography images of Dp(16)1Yey and euploid mouse crania were morphometrically evaluated. Cerebellar cross-sectional area, Purkinje cell linear density, and granule cell density were evaluated relative to euploid littermates. Skulls of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice displayed similar changes in craniofacial morphology relative to their respective euploid littermates. Trisomy-based differences in brain morphology were also similar in Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice. These results validate examination of the genetic basis for craniofacial and brain phenotypes in Dp(16)1Yey mice and suggest that they, like Ts65Dn mice, are valuable tools for modeling the effects of trisomy 21 on development. PMID:24788405

Ratliff, Tabetha S.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2014-01-01

11

Overlapping trisomies for human chromosome 21 orthologs produce similar effects on skull and brain morphology of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice.  

PubMed

Trisomy 21 results in gene-dosage imbalance during embryogenesis and throughout life, ultimately causing multiple anomalies that contribute to the clinical manifestations of Down syndrome. Down syndrome is associated with manifestations of variable severity (e.g., heart anomalies, reduced growth, dental anomalies, shortened life-span). Craniofacial dysmorphology and cognitive dysfunction are consistently observed in all people with Down syndrome. Mouse models are useful for studying the effects of gene-dosage imbalance on development. We investigated quantitative changes in the skull and brain of the Dp(16)1Yey Down syndrome mouse model and compared these mice to Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models. Three-dimensional micro-computed tomography images of Dp(16)1Yey and euploid mouse crania were morphometrically evaluated. Cerebellar cross-sectional area, Purkinje cell linear density, and granule cell density were evaluated relative to euploid littermates. Skulls of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice displayed similar changes in craniofacial morphology relative to their respective euploid littermates. Trisomy-based differences in brain morphology were also similar in Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice. These results validate examination of the genetic basis for craniofacial and brain phenotypes in Dp(16)1Yey mice and suggest that they, like Ts65Dn mice, are valuable tools for modeling the effects of trisomy 21 on development. PMID:24788405

Starbuck, John M; Dutka, Tara; Ratliff, Tabetha S; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2014-08-01

12

International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain  

E-print Network

EA 4272 International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain Gain: A Conceptual Framework, Brain Drain and Brain Gain: A Conceptual Framework by Bernard Franck* and Robert F. Owen** July 2009 for examining the interrelation between brain drain, brain gain and the location of human capital formation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

Brain Morphological Defects in Prolidase Deficient Mice: First Report  

PubMed Central

Prolidase gene (PEPD) encodes prolidase enzyme, which is responsible for hydrolysis of dipeptides containing proline or hydroxypro-line at their C-terminal end. Mutations in PEPD gene cause, in human, prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder. PD patients show reduced or absent prolidase activity and a broad spectrum of phenotypic traits including various degrees of mental retardation. This is the first report correlating PD and brain damages using as a model system prolidase deficient mice, the so called dark-like (dal) mutant mice. We focused our attention on dal postnatal brain development, revealing a panel of different morphological defects in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, such as undulations of the cerebral cortex, cell rarefaction, defects in cerebellar cortex lobulation, and blood vessels overgrowth. These anomalies might be ascribed to altered angiogenic process and loss of pial basement membrane integrity. Further studies will be directed to find a correlation between neuroarchitecture alterations and functional consequences.

Insolia, V.

2014-01-01

14

Genomic mosaicism in the human brain  

E-print Network

Brain and Tissue Bank (National Institute of Child Health and Human Developmentand human. Proliferating cerebellar NPCs harbor mitotic abnormalities during brain development,brain development. The DNA donor of a recently sequenced human

Westra, Jurjen Willem

2008-01-01

15

Genetics of human brain oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last three decades, much emphasis has been placed on neural oscillations in vitro, in vivo, as well as in the human brain. These brain oscillations have been studied extensively in the resting electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as in the underlying evoked oscillations that make up the event-related potentials (ERPs). There are several approaches to elucidate the possible mechanisms

Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz

2006-01-01

16

Irreversible human brain.  

PubMed

The recent developments in thermodynamic analysis of irreversibility for open systems represent an important result useful in the study of brain, both in relation to its neurobiology and to its diseases. In this paper the extrema entropy generation principle is suggested as a new powerful approach to the study of brain. PMID:23186801

Lucia, Umberto

2013-02-01

17

Functional brain development in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a continuing debate in developmental neuroscience about the importance of activity-dependent processes. The relatively delayed rate of development of the human brain, compared with that of other mammals, might make it more susceptible to the influence of postnatal experience. The human infant is well adapted to capitalize on this opportunity through primitive biases to attend to relevant stimuli

Mark H. Johnson

2001-01-01

18

Extrapolating brain development from experimental species to humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the neurotoxic effects of diverse hazards on the developing human nervous system, researchers and clinicians rely on data collected from a number of model species that develop and mature at varying rates. We review the methods commonly used to extrapolate the timing of brain development from experimental mammalian species to humans, including morphological comparisons, rules of thumb

Barbara Clancy; Barbara L. Finlay; Richard B. Darlington; K. J. S. Anand

2007-01-01

19

Elephant brain. Part I: gross morphology, functions, comparative anatomy, and evolution.  

PubMed

We report morphological data on brains of four African, Loxodonta africana, and three Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, and compare findings to literature. Brains exhibit a gyral pattern more complex and with more numerous gyri than in primates, humans included, and in carnivores, but less complex than in cetaceans. Cerebral frontal, parietal, temporal, limbic, and insular lobes are well developed, whereas the occipital lobe is relatively small. The insula is not as opercularized as in man. The temporal lobe is disproportionately large and expands laterally. Humans and elephants have three parallel temporal gyri: superior, middle, and inferior. Hippocampal sizes in elephants and humans are comparable, but proportionally smaller in elephant. A possible carotid rete was observed at the base of the brain. Brain size appears to be related to body size, ecology, sociality, and longevity. Elephant adult brain averages 4783 g, the largest among living and extinct terrestrial mammals; elephant neonate brain averages 50% of its adult brain weight (25% in humans). Cerebellar weight averages 18.6% of brain (1.8 times larger than in humans). During evolution, encephalization quotient has increased by 10-fold (0.2 for extinct Moeritherium, approximately 2.0 for extant elephants). We present 20 figures of the elephant brain, 16 of which contain new material. Similarities between human and elephant brains could be due to convergent evolution; both display mosaic characters and are highly derived mammals. Humans and elephants use and make tools and show a range of complex learning skills and behaviors. In elephants, the large amount of cerebral cortex, especially in the temporal lobe, and the well-developed olfactory system, structures associated with complex learning and behavioral functions in humans, may provide the substrate for such complex skills and behavior. PMID:16782503

Shoshani, Jeheskel; Kupsky, William J; Marchant, Gary H

2006-06-30

20

Epigenetics in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Many cellular constituents in the human brain permanently exit from the cell cycle during pre- or early postnatal development, but little is known about epigenetic regulation of neuronal and glial epigenomes during maturation and aging, including changes in mood and psychosis spectrum disorders and other cognitive or emotional disease. Here, we summarize the current knowledge base as it pertains to genome organization in the human brain, including the regulation of DNA cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation, and a subset of (altogether >100) residue-specific histone modifications associated with gene expression, and silencing and various other functional chromatin states. We propose that high-resolution mapping of epigenetic markings in postmortem brain tissue or neural cultures derived from induced pluripotent cells (iPS), in conjunction with transcriptome profiling and whole-genome sequencing, will increasingly be used to define the molecular pathology of specific cases diagnosed with depression, schizophrenia, autism, or other major psychiatric disease. We predict that these highly integrative explorations of genome organization and function will provide an important alternative to conventional approaches in human brain studies, which mainly are aimed at uncovering group effects by diagnosis but generally face limitations because of cohort size. PMID:22643929

Houston, Isaac; Peter, Cyril J; Mitchell, Amanda; Straubhaar, Juerg; Rogaev, Evgeny; Akbarian, Schahram

2013-01-01

21

Brain anatomical networks in early human brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human brain networks have economic small-world topology and modular organization, enabling efficient information transfer among brain regions. However, it remains largely unknown how the small-world topology and modular organization of human brain networks emerge and develop. Using longitudinal MRI data of 28 healthy pediatric subjects, collected at their ages of 1month, 1year, and 2years,

Yong Fan; Feng Shi; Jeffrey Keith Smith; Weili Lin; John H. Gilmore; Dinggang Shen

2011-01-01

22

A Direct Brain-to-Brain Interface in Humans  

PubMed Central

We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines electroencephalography (EEG) for recording brain signals with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for delivering information to the brain. We illustrate our method using a visuomotor task in which two humans must cooperate through direct brain-to-brain communication to achieve a desired goal in a computer game. The brain-to-brain interface detects motor imagery in EEG signals recorded from one subject (the sender) and transmits this information over the internet to the motor cortex region of a second subject (the receiver). This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS. We quantify the performance of the brain-to-brain interface in terms of the amount of information transmitted as well as the accuracies attained in (1) decoding the senders signals, (2) generating a motor response from the receiver upon stimulation, and (3) achieving the overall goal in the cooperative visuomotor task. Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means. PMID:25372285

Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Stocco, Andrea; Bryan, Matthew; Sarma, Devapratim; Youngquist, Tiffany M.; Wu, Joseph; Prat, Chantel S.

2014-01-01

23

Effects of abstinence on brain morphology in alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic alcohol abuse leads to morphological changes of the brain. We investigated if these volumetric changes are reversible\\u000a after a period of abstinence. For this reason 41 male and 15 female alcohol patients underwent MRI-scanning after in-patient\\u000a detoxification (baseline) entering alcoholism treatment programs, and between 6 and 9months later (follow-up), in a phase\\u000a of convalescence. Additionally, 29 male and 16

Thomas Wobrock; Peter Falkai; Thomas Schneider-Axmann; Nicole Frommann; Wolfgang Wlwer; Wolfgang Gaebel

2009-01-01

24

Astroglial growth factors in normal human brain and brain tumors: comparison with embryonic brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of 18-day embryonic chicken brains, 15-day embryonic and adult rat brains and human brain tumors, as well as control histologically-normal adult human brain taken from around brain tumors or around arteriovenous malformations each stimulated the growth of cultured chick astrocytes. Eight mitogenic fractions were separated reproducibly by Bio-Gel P-10 molecular seive chromatography. They had apparent molecular weights (M.W.)

Michel P. Rathbone; Galina K. Szlapetis; Rocco de Villiers; Rolando F. Del Maestro; Joseph Gilbert; John Groves; Kelly Erola; Jae-Kyoung Kim

1992-01-01

25

Brain evolution and human neuropsychology: the inferential brain hypothesis.  

PubMed

Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. (JINS, 2012, 18, 394-401). PMID:22459075

Koscik, Timothy R; Tranel, Daniel

2012-05-01

26

Diffusion Changes in the Aging Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantifying changes in the human brain that occur as part of normal aging may help in the diagnosis of diseases that affect the elderly and that cause structural changes in the brain. We sought to assess diffusion changes that are inherently related to brain structure during aging. METHODS: MR scans were obtained from 11 healthy volunteers and

Terry Chun; Christopher G. Filippi; Robert D. Zimmerman; Aziz M. Ulug

2000-01-01

27

Brain Graphs: Graphical Models of the Human Brain Connectome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain graphs provide a relatively simple and increasingly popular way of modeling the human brain connectome, using graph theory to abstractly define a nervous system as a set of nodes (denoting anatomical regions or recording electrodes) and interconnecting edges (denoting structural or functional connections). Topological and geometrical properties of these graphs can be measured and compared to random graphs and

Edward T. Bullmore; Danielle S. Bassett

28

Brain Graphs: Graphical Models of the Human Brain Connectome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain graphs provide a relatively simple and increasingly popular way of modeling the human brain connectome, using graph theory to abstractly define a nervous system as a set of nodes (denoting anatomical regions or recording electrodes) and interconnecting edges (denoting structural or functional connections). Topological and geometrical properties of these graphs can be measured and compared to random graphs and

Edward T. Bullmore; Danielle S. Bassett

2011-01-01

29

Towards multimodal atlases of the human brain  

PubMed Central

Atlases of the human brain have an important impact on neuroscience. The emergence of ever more sophisticated imaging techniques, brain mapping methods and analytical strategies has the potential to revolutionize the concept of the brain atlas. Atlases can now combine data describing multiple aspects of brain structure or function at different scales from different subjects, yielding a truly integrative and comprehensive description of this organ. These integrative approaches have provided significant impetus for the human brain mapping initiatives, and have important applications in health and disease. PMID:17115077

Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Mori, Susumu; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

2010-01-01

30

Neurobiology of Aging 26 (2005) 491510 Measures of brain morphology and infarction in the framingham  

E-print Network

Neurobiology of Aging 26 (2005) 491­510 Measures of brain morphology and infarction to the possible impact of brain infarction on age-related differences in regional brain volumes. Given the current, particularly with regard to the impact of brain infarctions, we chose to quantify brain MRIs from more than

California at Davis, University of

31

Morphology and digitally aided morphometry of the human paracentral lobule.  

PubMed

The human paracentral lobule, the junction of the precentral and postcentral gyri at the medial hemispheric surface, contains several important functional regions, and its variable morphology requires exact morphological and quantitativedata. In order to obtain precise data we investigated the morphology of the paracentral lobule and quantified its visible (extrasulcal) surface. This surface corresponds to commonly used magnetic resonance imaging scout images. We studied 84 hemispheres of adult persons (42 brains; 26 males and 16 females; 20-65 years) fixed in neutral formalin for at least 4 weeks. The medial hemispheric surface was photographed at standard distance and each digital photo was calibrated. Using the intercommissural line system (commissura anterior-commissura posterior or CA-CP line), we performed standardised measurements of the paracentral lobule. Exact determination of its boundaries and morphological types was followed by digital morphometry of its extrasulcal surface using AutoCAD software. We found two distinct morphological types of the human paracentral lobule: continuous type, which was predominant (95.2%), and rare segmented type (4.8%). In hemispheres with segmented cingulate sulcus we also found the short transitional lobulo-limbic gyrus (13.1%). The mean extrasulcal surface of the left paracentral lobule was significantly larger, both in males (left 6.79 cm2 vs. right 5.76 cm2) and in females (left 6.05 cm2 vs. right 5.16 cm2). However, even larger average surfaces in males were not significantly different than the same in females. Reported morphological and quantitative data will be useful during diagnostics and treatment of pathologies affecting the human paracentral lobule, and in further studies of its cytoarchitectonic and functional parcellations. PMID:23749705

Spasojevi?, Goran; Malobabic, Slobodan; Pilipovi?-Spasojevi?, Olivera; Djuki?-Macut, Nataa; Malikovi?, Aleksandar

2013-02-01

32

Impairments in verb morphology after brain injury: A connectionist model  

PubMed Central

The formation of the past tense of verbs in English has been the focus of the debate concerning connectionist vs. symbolic accounts of language. Brain-injured patients differ with respect to whether they are more impaired in generating irregular past tenses (taketook) or past tenses for nonce verbs (wugwugged). Such dissociations have been taken as evidence for distinct rule and associative memory systems in morphology and against the connectionist approach in which a single system is used for all forms. We describe a simulation model in which these impairments arise from damage to phonological or semantic information, which have different effects on generalization and irregular forms, respectively. The results provide an account of the bases of impairments in verb morphology and show that these impairments can be explained within connectionist models that do not use rules or a separate mechanism for exceptions. PMID:10377460

Joanisse, Marc F.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

1999-01-01

33

Tracking hierarchical processing in morphological decomposition with brain potentials.  

PubMed

One important debate in psycholinguistics concerns the nature of morphological decomposition processes in visual word recognition (e.g., darkness = {dark} + {-ness}). One theory claims that these processes arise during orthographic analysis and prior to accessing meaning (Rastle & Davis, 2008), and another argues that these processes arise through greater temporal overlap between the activation of orthographic and semantic information (Feldman, O'Connor, & Moscoso del Prado Martn, 2009). This issue has been the subject of intense debate in studies using masked priming but has yet to be resolved unequivocally. The present study takes another approach to resolving this controversy by examining brain potentials as participants made lexical decisions to unprimed morphological (darkness), pseudomorphological (corner), and nonmorphological (brothel) stimuli. Results revealed a difference from ?190 ms between the nonmorphological condition and the other 2 conditions (which showed no differentiation), a likely correlate of morphological processing reliant exclusively on orthography. Only 60-70 ms later was there evidence of the activation of semantic information, when the pseudomorphological condition diverged from the other 2 conditions. These results provide unambiguous support for a hierarchical model of morphological processing whereby decomposition is based initially on orthographic analysis and is only later constrained by semantic information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22686695

Lavric, Aureliu; Elchlepp, Heike; Rastle, Kathleen

2012-08-01

34

The Human Connectome: A Structural Description of the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

T he connection matrix of the human brain (the human ''connectome'') represents an indispensable foundation for basic and applied neurobiological research. However, the network of anatomical connections linking the neuronal elements of the human brain is still largely unknown. While some databases or collations of large- scale anatomical connection patterns exist for other mammalian species, there is currently no connection

Olaf Sporns; Giulio Tononi; Rolf Ktter

2005-01-01

35

Quantitative growth and development of human brain  

PubMed Central

One hundred and thirty-nine complete human brains ranging in age from 10 weeks' gestation to 7 postnatal years, together with 9 adult brains, have been analysed in order to describe the human brain growth spurt quantitatively. The three major regions were examined for weight, DNA, cholesterol, and water content. The growth spurt period is much more postnatal than has formerly been supposed. The cerebellum has special growth characteristics; and there is a separate period from 10 to 18 weeks' gestation when adult neuronal cell number may largely be achieved. The implications of these findings for the vulnerability of developing brain are discussed. PMID:4796010

Dobbing, John; Sands, Jean

1973-01-01

36

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy.

Hallett, Mark

2000-07-01

37

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also

Mark Hallett

2000-01-01

38

The Human Brain Evolving: A Personal Retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor controversies notwithstanding, the evolution of the human brain has been an intermingled composite of allometric and nonallometric increases of brain volume and reorganizational events such as the re- duction of primary visual cortex and a relative increase in both pos- terior association and (most probably) prefrontal cortex, as well as increased cerebral asymmetries, including Broca's and Wernicke's re- gions,

Ralph L. Holloway

2008-01-01

39

Electrophysiological Evaluation of Human Brain Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex development of the human brain during infancy can only be understood by convergent structural, functional, and behavioral measurements. The evaluation of event-related potentials (ERPs) is the most effective current way to look at infant brain function. ERP paradigms can be used to examine the simple transmission of sensory information to the cortex and the discrimination of this information

Terence W. Picton; Margot J. Taylor

2007-01-01

40

Human Brain Has Coping Mechanism for Dehydration  

MedlinePLUS

... understand a lot more about how the human brain responds to extreme exercise in extreme conditions," study first author Steven Trangmar, ... became dehydrated, the cyclists developed reduced body mass, brain blood flow and ability to exercise, as well as an increase in their internal ...

41

Implantation of cultured human leptomeningeal cells into rat brain.  

PubMed

Since previous studies have shown that cells cultured from human leptomeninges can express neuronal and glial antigens under appropriate culture conditions [DeGiorgio L. A. et al. (1994) J. Neurol. Sci. 124, 141 148; Bernstein J. J. et al. (1996) Int. J. Derl Neurosci. 14(5), 681 687], we have studied the developmental characteristics of these cells further by grafting them into young adult rat brains. Cells were labeled in culture with Fast Blue and were identified unequivocally by hybridization with nick-translated human DNA. Intensely Fast Blue positive human leptomeningeal cells were concentrated in the implant pocket and adjacent rat leptomeninges al one and two weeks postimplant. Human and rat leptomeningeal cells were similar morphologically and were equally immunopositive for vimentin and fibronectin. Implanted human cells did not express the neuronal and glial proteins they had in vitro. Cells which hybridized with human DNA corresponded to the intensely Fast Blue positive cells. Small groups of human DNA hybridizing cells were also observed in the choroid plexus. Less intensely Fast Blue positive neurons and glia were found in the brain but these hybridized with rat DNA. A minority of human leptomeningeal cells implanted into rat brain are subsequently found in host leptomeninges where they demonstrate properties characteristic of leptomeningeal fibroblasts. Small numbers of implanted cells can survive for two weeks. PMID:9178041

DeGiorgio, L A; Bernstein, J J; Blass, J P

1997-04-01

42

A 3D Human Brain Atlas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a 3D representations of human physiology provide interesting options in the field of education. Understanding the human brain\\u000a seems to be much easier when the anatomical structure is shown in the three-dimensional domain rather than in a 2D or flat\\u000a projection. Seeing how the brain is wired and how the different regions are connected to form circuits and complex networks\\u000a requires

Sebastian Thelen; Joerg Meyer; Achim Ebert; Hans Hagen

2009-01-01

43

Genomic imprinting effects of the X-chromosome on brain morphology  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that genomic imprinting, a process by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner, can influence neurogenetic and psychiatric manifestations. While some data suggest possible imprinting effects of the X-chromosome on physical and cognitive characteristics in human, there is no compelling evidence that X-linked imprinting affects brain morphology. To address this issue, we investigated regional cortical volume, thickness and surface area in 27 healthy controls and 40 prepubescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS), a condition caused by the absence of one X-chromosome. Of the young girls with TS, 23 inherited their X-chromosome from their mother (Xm) and 17 from their father (Xp). Our results confirm the existence of significant differences in brain morphology between girls with TS and controls, and reveal the presence of a putative imprinting effect among the TS groups: girls with Xp demonstrated thicker cortex than those with Xm in the temporal regions bilaterally, while Xm individuals showed bilateral enlargement of gray matter volume in the superior frontal regions in comparison to Xp. These data suggest the existence of imprinting effects of the X-chromosome that influence both cortical thickness and volume during early brain development, and help to explain variability in cognitive and behavioral manifestations of TS with regard to the parental origin of the X-chromosome. PMID:23658194

Lepage, Jean-Francois; Hong, David S.; Mazaika, Paul K.; Raman, Mira; Sheau, Kristen; Marzelli, Matthew J.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Reiss, Allan L.

2013-01-01

44

BrainKnowledge: A Human Brain Function Mapping Knowledge-Base System  

E-print Network

BrainKnowledge: A Human Brain Function Mapping Knowledge-Base System Mei-Yu Hsiao & Chien and interpretation of fMRI data. Here, we present a human brain function mapping knowledge-base system (BrainKnowledge) that associates fMRI data analysis and literature search func- tions. BrainKnowledge not only contains indexed

Chen, Chein Chung

45

Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

1998-11-01

46

Transcriptional landscape of the prenatal human brain.  

PubMed

The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of the mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser-microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and post-mitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and outer subventricular zones even though the outer zone is expanded in humans. Both germinal and post-mitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in the frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human-evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development. PMID:24695229

Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L; Royall, Joshua J; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James M; Bennet, Crissa; Bertagnolli, Darren; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cuhaciyan, Christine; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A; Facer, Benjamin A C; Feng, David; Fliss, Tim P; Gee, Garrett; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Benjamin W; Gu, Guangyu; Howard, Robert E; Jochim, Jayson M; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Lemon, Tracy A; Lesnar, Phil; McMurray, Bergen; Mastan, Naveed; Mosqueda, Nerick; Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa; Ngo, Nhan-Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana E; Stevens, Allison; Pletikos, Mihovil; Reding, Melissa; Roll, Kate; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapouri, Sheila; Shapovalova, Nadiya V; Shen, Elaine H; Sjoquist, Nathan; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Smith, Michael; Sodt, Andy J; Williams, Derric; Zllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Gerstein, Mark B; Geschwind, Daniel H; Glass, Ian A; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Huang, Hao; Jones, Allan R; Knowles, James A; Levitt, Pat; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Dang, Chinh; Bernard, Amy; Hohmann, John G; Lein, Ed S

2014-04-10

47

Transcriptional Landscape of the Prenatal Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Summary The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is largely determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and postmitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and human-expanded outer subventricular zones. Both germinal and postmitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development. PMID:24695229

Miller, Jeremy A.; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M.; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L.; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James M.; Bennet, Crissa; Bertagnolli, Darren; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cuhaciyan, Christine; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Facer, Benjamin A. C.; Feng, David; Fliss, Tim P.; Gee, Garrett; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Benjamin W.; Gu, Guangyu; Howard, Robert E.; Jochim, Jayson M.; Kuan, Chihchau L.; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Lemon, Tracy A.; Lesnar, Phil; McMurray, Bergen; Mastan, Naveed; Mosqueda, Nerick F.; Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa; Ngo, Nhan-Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D.; Parry, Sheana E.; Player, Allison Stevens; Pletikos, Mihovil; Reding, Melissa; Royall, Joshua J.; Roll, Kate; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapouri, Sheila; Shapovalova, Nadiya V.; Shen, Elaine H.; Sjoquist, Nathan; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R.; Smith, Michael; Sodt, Andy J.; Williams, Derric; Zollei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Gerstein, Mark B.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Glass, Ian A.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hevner, Robert F.; Huang, Hao; Jones, Allan R.; Knowles, James A.; Levitt, Pat; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Dang, Chinh; Bernard, Amy; Hohmann, John G.; Lein, Ed S.

2014-01-01

48

Human Misato regulates mitochondrial distribution and morphology  

SciTech Connect

Misato of Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae DML1 are conserved proteins having a homologous region with a part of the GTPase family that includes eukaryotic tubulin and prokaryotic FtsZ. We characterized human Misato sharing homology with Misato of D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae DML1. Tissue distribution of Misato exhibited ubiquitous distribution. Subcellular localization of the protein studied using anti-Misato antibody suggested that it is localized to the mitochondria. Further experiments of fractionating mitochondria revealed that Misato was localized to the outer membrane. The transfection of Misato siRNA led to growth deficiencies compared with control siRNA transfected HeLa cells, and the Misato-depleted HeLa cells showed apoptotic nuclear fragmentation resulting in cell death. After silencing of Misato, the filamentous mitochondrial network disappeared and fragmented mitochondria were observed, indicating human Misato has a role in mitochondrial fusion. To examine the effects of overexpression, COS-7 cells were transfected with cDNA encoding EGFP-Misato. Its overexpression resulted in the formation of perinuclear aggregations of mitochondria in these cells. The Misato-overexpressing cells showed low viability and had no nuclei or a small and structurally unusual ones. These results indicated that human Misato has a role(s) in mitochondrial distribution and morphology and that its unregulated expression leads to cell death.

Kimura, Masashi [Department of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Division of Disease Control, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)]. E-mail: yo@gifu-u.ac.jp; Okano, Yukio [Department of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Division of Disease Control, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

2007-04-15

49

Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Sexual dimorphism of human brain anatomy has not been well-studied between 4 and 18 years of age, a time of emerging sex differences in behavior and the sexually specific hormonal changes of adrenarche (the predominantly androgenic augmentation of adrenal cortex function occurring at approximately age 8) and puberty.2.2. To assess sex differences in brain structures during this developmental period

Jay N. Giedd; F. Xavier Castellanos; Jagath C. Rajapakse; A. Catherine Vaituzis; Judith L. Rapoport

1997-01-01

50

SURFACE-BASED METHOD TO EVALUATE GLOBAL BRAIN SHAPE ASYMMETRIES IN HUMAN AND CHIMPANZEE BRAINS  

E-print Network

, Georgia ABSTRACT In this paper we use humans and chimpanzees brain MRI databases to develop methodsSURFACE-BASED METHOD TO EVALUATE GLOBAL BRAIN SHAPE ASYMMETRIES IN HUMAN AND CHIMPANZEE BRAINS Marc populations. The human brain segmentation pipeline is adapted to chimpanzees in order to obtain results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Morphological and behavioral markers of environmentally induced retardation of brain development: an animal model.  

PubMed Central

In most neurotoxicological studies morphological assessment focuses on pathological effects, like degenerative changes in neuronal perikarya, axonopathy, demyelination, and glial and endothelial cell reactions. Similarly, the assessment of physiological and behavioral effects center on evident neurological symptoms, like EEG and EMG abnormalities, resting and intention tremor, abnormal gait, and abnormal reflexes. This paper reviews briefly another central nervous system target of harmful environmental agents, which results in behavioral abnormalities without any qualitatively evident neuropathology. This is called microneuronal hypoplasia, a retardation of brain development characterized by a quantitative reduction in the normal population of late-generated, short-axoned neurons in specific brain regions. Correlated descriptive and experimental neurogenetic studies in the rat have established that all the cerebellar granule cells and a very high proportion of hippocampal granule cells are produced postnatally, and that focal, low-dose X-irradiation either of the cerebellum or of the hippocampus after birth selectively interferes with the acquisition of the full complement of granule cells (microneuronal hypoplasia). Subsequent behavioral investigations showed that cerebellar microneuronal hypoplasia results in profound hyperactivity without motor abnormalities, while hippocampal microneuronal hypoplasia results in hyperactivity, as well as attentional and learning deficits. There is much indirect clinical evidence that various harmful environmental agents affecting the pregnant mother and/or the infant lead to such childhood disorders as hyperactivity and attentional and learning disorders. As the developing human brain is more mature at birth than the rat brain, the risk for microneuronal hypoplasia and consequent behavioral disorders may be highest at late stages of fetal development, in prematurely born and small-for-weight infants, and during the early stages of infant development. Recent technological advances in brain imaging techniques make it possible to test this hypothesis and to assess the possible relationship between the degree of retarded brain development and ensuing behavioral disorders. Images FIGURE 9. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 14. A FIGURE 14. B FIGURE 14. C PMID:3319550

Altman, J

1987-01-01

52

Postnatal growth and morphological development of the brain: a species comparison.  

PubMed

The objective of this report is to summarize the available literature regarding the postnatal growth and morphological development of the brain and compare the timelines for these events between humans and experimental species. While not the primary focus of this report, in acknowledgement of the evident role of maturation of neurotransmitter systems in development, a brief description of the comparative development of the NMDA receptor is included. To illustrate the challenges faced in estimating developmental toxicity potential in humans, the importance of postnatal experience in CNS development is also briefly reviewed. This review is part of the initial phase of a project undertaken by the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) to bring together information on a selected number of organ systems and compare their postnatal development across several species (Hurtt and Sandler: Birth Defects Res Part B 68:307-308, 2003). PMID:17066419

Watson, Rebecca E; Desesso, John M; Hurtt, Mark E; Cappon, Gregg D

2006-10-01

53

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBABILISTIC MAPS OF THE OCCIPITAL SULCI OF THE HUMAN BRAIN IN STANDARDIZED  

E-print Network

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBABILISTIC MAPS OF THE OCCIPITAL SULCI OF THE HUMAN BRAIN IN STANDARDIZED University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4 Abstract--Developments in functional neuroimaging in nor mag- netic resonance images to investigate the morphological variation of the human occipital sulci

Iaria, Giuseppe

54

Interleukin-6 gene (IL-6): a possible role in brain morphology in the healthy adult brain  

PubMed Central

Background Cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been implicated in dual functions in neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the genetic predisposition to neurodegenerative and neuroproliferative properties of cytokine genes. In this study the potential dual role of several IL-6 polymorphisms in brain morphology is investigated. Methodology In a large sample of healthy individuals (N?=?303), associations between genetic variants of IL-6 (rs1800795; rs1800796, rs2069833, rs2069840) and brain volume (gray matter volume) were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) followed a tagging SNP approach (e.g., Stampa algorigthm), yielding a capture 97.08% of the variation in the IL-6 gene using four tagging SNPs. Principal findings/results In a whole-brain analysis, the polymorphism rs1800795 (?174?C/G) showed a strong main effect of genotype (43 CC vs. 150 CG vs. 100 GG; x?=?24, y?=??10, z?=??15; F(2,286)?=?8.54, puncorrected?=?0.0002; pAlphaSim-corrected?=?0.002; cluster size k?=?577) within the right hippocampus head. Homozygous carriers of the G-allele had significantly larger hippocampus gray matter volumes compared to heterozygous subjects. None of the other investigated SNPs showed a significant association with grey matter volume in whole-brain analyses. Conclusions/significance These findings suggest a possible neuroprotective role of the G-allele of the SNP rs1800795 on hippocampal volumes. Studies on the role of this SNP in psychiatric populations and especially in those with an affected hippocampus (e.g., by maltreatment, stress) are warranted. PMID:22695063

2012-01-01

55

Making Human Connectome Faster: GPU Acceleration of Brain Network Analysis  

E-print Network

1 Making Human Connectome Faster: GPU Acceleration of Brain Network Analysis Di Wu, Tianji Wu, Yi affordable to analyze multiple large-scale Brain Networks. Keywords-GPU; hardware computing; Human Connectome- nectivity of the human brain (i.e., human connectome) have attracted considerable attention[1

Wang, Yu

56

Human intelligence and brain networks  

PubMed Central

Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other. PMID:21319494

Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E.; Haier, Richard J.

2010-01-01

57

Human intelligence and brain networks.  

PubMed

Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other. PMID:21319494

Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E; Haier, Richard J

2010-01-01

58

CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN AND BRAIN BLOOD FLOW IN HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

It has been shown that with increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and associated decrease in blood oxygen-carrying capacity, a compensatory increase in brain-blood flow (BBF) develops. he BBF response in humans has been shown to be quite variable. wo experiments were conducted in wh...

59

Zo Rebecca Hunter Plasticity of the adult human brain  

E-print Network

Zoë Rebecca Hunter Plasticity of the adult human brain and motor recovery after stroke PICS © Institute of Cognitive Science #12;1 Bachelor's Thesis Plasticity of the adult human brain and motor brain and motor recovery after stroke 2 Abstract Stroke may cause a major destruction of brain tissue

Kallenrode, May-Britt

60

Making Human Connectome Faster: GPU Acceleration of Brain Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research on complex Brain Networks plays a vital role in understanding the connectivity patterns of the human brain and disease-related alterations. Recent studies have suggested a noninvasive way to model and analyze human brain networks by using multi-modal imaging and graph theoretical approaches. Both the construction and analysis of the Brain Networks require tremendous computation. As a result, most

Di Wu; Tianji Wu; Yi Shan; Yu Wang; Yong He; Ningyi Xu; Huazhong Yang

2010-01-01

61

[Evolution of human brain and intelligence].  

PubMed

The biological evolution, including human evolution is mainly driven by environmental changes. Accidental genetic modifications and their innovative results make the successful adaptation possible. As we know the human evolution started 7-8 million years ago in the African savannah, where upright position and bipedalism were significantly advantageous. The main drive of improving manual actions and tool making could be to obtain more food. Our ancestor got more meat due to more successful hunting, resulting in more caloric intake, more protein and essential fatty acid in the meal. The nervous system uses disproportionally high level of energy, so better quality of food was a basic condition for the evolution of huge human brain. The size of human brain was tripled during 3.5 million years, it increased from the average of 450 cm3 of Australopithecinae to the average of 1350 cm3 of Homo sapiens. A genetic change in the system controlling gene expression could happen about 200 000 years ago, which influenced the development of nervous system, the sensorimotor function and learning ability for motor processes. The appearance and stabilisation of FOXP2 gene structure as feature of modern man coincided with the first presence and quick spread of Homo sapiens on the whole Earth. This genetic modification made opportunity for human language, as the basis of abrupt evolution of human intelligence. The brain region being responsible for human language is the left planum temporale, which is much larger in left hemisphere. This shows the most typical human brain asymmetry. In this case the anatomical asymmetry means a clearly defined functional asymmetry as well, where the brain hemispheres act differently. The preference in using hands, the lateralised using of tools resulted in the brain asymmetry, which is the precondition of human language and intelligence. However, it cannot be held anymore, that only humans make tools, because our closest relatives, the chimpanzees are able not only to use, but also to make tools, and they can be taught how to produce quite difficult ones. Some brain characteristics connected to human consciousness and intelligence, like brain asymmetry, the "consciousness" or "theory of mind" based on mirror neurons are surprisingly present in monkeys. Nevertheless, the human intelligence is extremely flexible and different, while the animal intelligence is specialised, producing one thing at high level. Based on recent knowledge the level of intelligence is related anatomically to the number of cortical neurons and physiologically to the speed of conductivity of neural pathways, the latter being dependent on the degree of myelinisation. The improvement of cognitive functions including language is driver by the need of more effective communication requiring less energy, the need of social dominance, the competitive advantages within smaller groups and species or against other species, which improves the opportunity for obtaining food. Better mental skills give also sexual dominance, which is beneficial for stabilising "cleverness" genes. The evolutionary history of human consciousness emphasises its adaptive survival helping nature. The evolution of language was the basic condition of conscious thinking as a qualitative change, which fundamentally differentiate us from all other creatures. PMID:18763477

Lakatos, Lszl; Janka, Zoltn

2008-07-30

62

Metabolic changes in schizophrenia and human brain evolution  

E-print Network

in the human brain and compare them to the changes seen in a disorder known to affect human cognitive abilities, schizophrenia. We find that both genes and metabolites relating to energy metabolism and energy-expensive brain functions are altered...

Khaitovich, Philipp; Lockstone, Helen E; Wayland, Matthew T; Tsang, Tsz M; Jayatilaka, Samantha D; Guo, Arfu J; Zhou, Jie; Somel, Mehmet; Harris, Laura W; Holmes, Elaine; Paabo, Svante; Bahn, Sabine

2008-08-05

63

Endocranial morphology of Palaeocene Plesiadapis tricuspidens and evolution of the early primate brain.  

PubMed

Expansion of the brain is a key feature of primate evolution. The fossil record, although incomplete, allows a partial reconstruction of changes in primate brain size and morphology through time. Palaeogene plesiadapoids, closest relatives of Euprimates (or crown-group primates), are crucial for understanding early evolution of the primate brain. However, brain morphology of this group remains poorly documented, and major questions remain regarding the initial phase of euprimate brain evolution. Micro-CT investigation of the endocranial morphology of Plesiadapis tricuspidens from the Late Palaeocene of Europe--the most complete plesiadapoid cranium known--shows that plesiadapoids retained a very small and simple brain. Plesiadapis has midbrain exposure, and minimal encephalization and neocorticalization, making it comparable with that of stem rodents and lagomorphs. However, Plesiadapis shares a domed neocortex and downwardly shifted olfactory-bulb axis with Euprimates. If accepted phylogenetic relationships are correct, then this implies that the euprimate brain underwent drastic reorganization during the Palaeocene, and some changes in brain structure preceded brain size increase and neocortex expansion during evolution of the primate brain. PMID:24573845

Orliac, Maeva J; Ladevze, Sandrine; Gingerich, Philip D; Lebrun, Renaud; Smith, Thierry

2014-04-22

64

Changes in brain morphology in albinism reflect reduced visual acuity.  

PubMed

Albinism, in humans and many animal species, has a major impact on the visual system, leading to reduced acuity, lack of binocular function and nystagmus. In addition to the lack of a foveal pit, there is a disruption to the routing of the nerve fibers crossing at the optic chiasm, resulting in excessive crossing of fibers to the contralateral hemisphere. However, very little is known about the effect of this misrouting on the structure of the post-chiasmatic visual pathway, and the occipital lobes in particular. Whole-brain analyses of cortical thickness in a large cohort of subjects with albinism showed an increase in cortical thickness, relative to control subjects, particularly in posterior V1, corresponding to the foveal representation. Furthermore, mean cortical thickness across entire V1 was significantly greater in these subjects compared to controls and negatively correlated with visual acuity in albinism. Additionally, the group with albinism showed decreased gyrification in the left ventral occipital lobe. While the increase in cortical thickness in V1, also found in congenitally blind subjects, has been interpreted to reflect a lack of pruning, the decreased gyrification in the ventral extrastriate cortex may reflect the reduced input to the foveal regions of the ventral visual stream. PMID:23039995

Bridge, Holly; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Davies, George; Chambers, Claire; Gouws, Andre; Hoffmann, Michael; Morland, Antony B

2014-07-01

65

Variation in brain morphology associated with ecological adaptation in Sciurinae  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Plate IV, Figure 4 Cerebellum of Citellus mexicanus, sagittal section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Plate V, Figure 5 Cerebellum of Tamias striatus, sagittal section. Plate VI, Figu=e 6 Brain of Sciurus carolinensis, lateral view. 78... Plate VII, Figure 7 Brain of Sciurus ~ni er, lateral view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Pl t Pff, P Bure 8 B aiu f C'tell e ~a'e t e, lateral view. 80 Plate VIII, Figure 9 Brain of' Citellus mexicanus, lateral view...

Gillean, Robert William

2012-06-07

66

Computed tomography in migratory disorders of human brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computed tomographic findings in developmental brain anomalies are more easily classified when the system used is based on embryogenesis related to morphology. Analysis of computed tomographic findings in a series of 154 patients with brain anomalies (Chiari malformation not included) revealed that specific examples of abnormalities occurring in major stages of brain development may be recognized by computed tomography. This

R. A. Zimmerman; Larissa T. Bilaniuk; R. I. Grossman

1983-01-01

67

Functional organization of the transcriptome in human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enormous complexity of the human brain ultimately derives from a finite set of molecular instructions encoded in the human genome. These instructions can be directly studied by exploring the organization of the brain's transcriptome through systematic analysis of gene coexpression relationships. We analyzed gene coexpression relationships in microarray data generated from specific human brain regions and identified modules of

Genevieve Konopka; Kazuya Iwamoto; Peter Langfelder; Tadafumi Kato; Steve Horvath; Michael C Oldham; Daniel H Geschwind

2008-01-01

68

Morphology of the Brain of Crayfish, Crabs, and Spiny Lobsters: A Common Nomenclature for Homologous Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphologies of the cerebral ganglia (brains) of three infraorders of the decapod crustaceans (Astacura-crayfish; Brachyura-crabs; Palinura-spiny lob- sters) are described. A common nomenclature is proposed for homologous nerve roots, brain regions, tracts, com- missures, neuropils, and cell body clusters.

DAVID SANDEMAN; RENATE SANDEMAN; CHARLES DERBY; MANFRED SCHMIDT

69

Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) mediates the development of sex-specific brain morphology  

E-print Network

Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) mediates the development of sex-specific brain morphology March 1, 2000) Steroid hormone action during brain development exerts profound effects on reproductive physiology and behavior that last into adulthood. A variety of in vitro studies indicate that steroid

70

Water diffusion reveals networks that modulate multiregional morphological plasticity after repetitive brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

Repetitive brain stimulation protocols induce plasticity in the stimulated site in brain slice models. Recent evidence from network models has indicated that additional plasticity-related changes occur in nonstimulated remote regions. Despite increasing use of brain stimulation protocols in experimental and clinical settings, the neural substrates underlying the additional effects in remote regions are unknown. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) probes water diffusion and can be used to estimate morphological changes in cortical tissue that occur with the induction of plasticity. Using DWI techniques, we estimated morphological changes induced by application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left primary motor cortex (M1). We found that rTMS altered water diffusion in multiple regions including the left M1. Notably, the change in water diffusion was retained longest in the left M1 and remote regions that had a correlation of baseline fluctuations in water diffusion before rTMS. We conclude that synchronization of water diffusion at rest between stimulated and remote regions ensures retention of rTMS-induced changes in water diffusion in remote regions. Synchronized fluctuations in the morphology of cortical microstructures between stimulated and remote regions might identify networks that allow retention of plasticity-related morphological changes in multiple regions after brain stimulation protocols. These results increase our understanding of the effects of brain stimulation-induced plasticity on multiregional brain networks. DWI techniques could provide a tool to evaluate treatment effects of brain stimulation protocols in patients with brain disorders. PMID:24619090

Abe, Mitsunari; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

71

Human brain disease recreated in mice  

SciTech Connect

In the early 1980s, neurologist Stanley Prusiner suggested that scrapie, an apparently infectious degenerative brain disease of sheep, could be transmitted by prions, infectious particles made just of protein - and containing no nucleic acids. But prion research has come a long way since then. In 1985, the cloning of the gene encoding the prion protein proved that it does in fact exist. And the gene turned out to be widely expressed in the brains of higher organisms, a result suggesting that the prion protein has a normal brain function that can somehow be subverted, leading to brain degeneration. Then studies done during the past 2 years suggested that specific mutations in the prion gene might cause two similar human brain diseases, Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Creutzfelt-Jakob disease. Now, Prusiner's group at the University of California, San Francisco, has used genetic engineering techniques to recreate GSS by transplanting the mutated prion gene into mice. Not only will the animal model help neurobiologists answer the many remaining questions about prions and how they work, but it may also shed some light on other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

Marx, J.

1990-12-14

72

Accelerated Recruitment of New Brain Development Genes into the Human Genome  

PubMed Central

How the human brain evolved has attracted tremendous interests for decades. Motivated by case studies of primate-specific genes implicated in brain function, we examined whether or not the young genes, those emerging genome-wide in the lineages specific to the primates or rodents, showed distinct spatial and temporal patterns of transcription compared to old genes, which had existed before primate and rodent split. We found consistent patterns across different sources of expression data: there is a significantly larger proportion of young genes expressed in the fetal or infant brain of humans than in mouse, and more young genes in humans have expression biased toward early developing brains than old genes. Most of these young genes are expressed in the evolutionarily newest part of human brain, the neocortex. Remarkably, we also identified a number of human-specific genes which are expressed in the prefrontal cortex, which is implicated in complex cognitive behaviors. The young genes upregulated in the early developing human brain play diverse functional roles, with a significant enrichment of transcription factors. Genes originating from different mechanisms show a similar expression bias in the developing brain. Moreover, we found that the young genes upregulated in early brain development showed rapid protein evolution compared to old genes also expressed in the fetal brain. Strikingly, genes expressed in the neocortex arose soon after its morphological origin. These four lines of evidence suggest that positive selection for brain function may have contributed to the origination of young genes expressed in the developing brain. These data demonstrate a striking recruitment of new genes into the early development of the human brain. PMID:22028629

Zhang, Yong E.; Landback, Patrick; Vibranovski, Maria D.; Long, Manyuan

2011-01-01

73

Evolving networks in the human epileptic brain  

E-print Network

Network theory provides novel concepts that promise an improved characterization of interacting dynamical systems. Within this framework, evolving networks can be considered as being composed of nodes, representing systems, and of time-varying edges, representing interactions between these systems. This approach is highly attractive to further our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological dynamics in human brain networks. Indeed, there is growing evidence that the epileptic process can be regarded as a large-scale network phenomenon. We here review methodologies for inferring networks from empirical time series and for a characterization of these evolving networks. We summarize recent findings derived from studies that investigate human epileptic brain networks evolving on timescales ranging from few seconds to weeks. We point to possible pitfalls and open issues, and discuss future perspectives.

Lehnertz, Klaus; Bialonski, Stephan; Dickten, Henning; Geier, Christian; Porz, Stephan

2013-01-01

74

Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain Imaging | 1110 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990 20001993 20031996 20061991 20011994 20041997 20071992 20021995 20051998 20081999 2009 2010  

E-print Network

Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain Imaging | 1110 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain SINAPSE initiative launched 2010 NIH Human Connectome Project launched 2003 Dynamic causal modelling of human brain/Living Art Enterprises, Science Photo Libra

Rambaut, Andrew

75

Subliminal Motivation of the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Can our behavior be motivated by environmental signals that we are not aware of? In this chapter I cast light on this question\\u000a with a series of experiments investigating whether the human brain can deal with the reward-predicting properties of visual\\u000a stimuli that subjects cannot consciously perceive. The experimental paradigms designed for this purpose bring together procedures\\u000a that have been

Mathias Pessiglione

76

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000000 (2011) r Speech Perception in the Child Brain: Cortical  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000�000 (2011) r Speech Perception in the Child Brain: Cortical Timing brain is modified early in child development to optimally process incoming speech sounds of native Pekka Niemi,3,4 and Riitta Salmelin1 1 Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University

Allen, Jont

77

r Human Brain Mapping 000:0000 (2012) r Brain Correlates of Phasic Autonomic Response to  

E-print Network

of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 5 Department of Brain activity within distinct subregions of the more general brain circuitry responding to acupuncture stimuli. r Human Brain Mapping 000:00­00 (2012) r Brain Correlates of Phasic Autonomic Response

Napadow, Vitaly

78

Modeling the Impact of Lesions in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesions of anatomical brain networks result in functional disturbances of brain systems and behavior which depend sensitively, often unpredictably, on the lesion site. The availability of whole-brain maps of structural connections within the human cerebrum and our increased understanding of the physiology and large-scale dynamics of cortical networks allow us to investigate the functional consequences of focal brain lesions in

Jeffrey Alstott; Michael Breakspear; Patric Hagmann; Leila Cammoun; Olaf Sporns

2009-01-01

79

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Spatiotemporal dynamics in the human brain  

E-print Network

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Spatiotemporal dynamics in the human brain during rest: a virtual brain study Andreas Spiegler* , Enrique Hansen, Viktor K Jirsa From Twenty Second Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS*2013 Paris, France. 13-18 July 2013 Over the past years the ongoing human brain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy Yan Zhou Cheng-Hui Liu Yi Sun Yang Pu://biomedicaloptics.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 11/16/2012 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman, and 13,700 deaths from brain and other nervous system cancers were reported in the United States

Sun, Yi

81

Dynamic reconfiguration of human brain networks during learning  

E-print Network

Dynamic reconfiguration of human brain networks during learning Danielle S. Bassetta,1 , Nicholas F) Human learning is a complex phenomenon requiring flexibility to adapt existing brain function-dependent network fMRI motor learning community structure The brain is a complex system, composed of many

Menczer, Filippo

82

Perfusion harmonic imaging of the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast visualisation of cerebral microcirculation supports diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular diseases. However, the commonly used CT/MRI-based methods are time consuming and, moreover, costly. Therefore we propose an alternative approach to brain perfusion imaging by means of ultrasonography. In spite of the low signal/noise-ratio of transcranial ultrasound and the high impedance of the skull, flow images of cerebral blood flow can be derived by capturing the kinetics of appropriate contrast agents by harmonic ultrasound image sequences. In this paper we propose three different methods for human brain perfusion imaging, each of which yielding flow images indicating the status of the patient's cerebral microcirculation by visualising local flow parameters. Bolus harmonic imaging (BHI) displays the flow kinetics of bolus injections, while replenishment (RHI) and diminution harmonic imaging (DHI) compute flow characteristics from contrast agent continuous infusions. RHI measures the contrast agents kinetics in the influx phase and DHI displays the diminution kinetics of the contrast agent acquired from the decay phase. In clinical studies, BHI- and RHI-parameter images were found to represent comprehensive and reproducible distributions of physiological cerebral blood flow. For DHI it is shown, that bubble destruction and hence perfusion phenomena principally can be displayed. Generally, perfusion harmonic imaging enables reliable and fast bedside imaging of human brain perfusion. Due to its cost efficiency it complements cerebrovascular diagnostics by established CT/MRI-based methods.

Metzler, Volker H.; Seidel, Guenter; Wiesmann, Martin; Meyer, Karsten; Aach, Til

2003-05-01

83

Endocasts: possibilities and limitations for the interpretation of human brain evolution.  

PubMed

Brains are not preserved in the fossil record but endocranial casts are. These are casts of the internal bony braincase, revealing approximate brain size and shape, and they are also informative about brain surface morphology. Endocasts are the only direct evidence of human brain evolution, but they provide only limited data ('paleoneurology'). This review discusses some new fossil endocasts and recent methodological advances that have allowed novel analyses of old endocasts, leading to intriguing findings and hypotheses. The interpretation of paleoneurological data always relies on comparative information from living species whose brains and behavior can be directly investigated. It is therefore important that future studies attempt to better integrate different approaches. Only then will we be able to gain a better understanding about hominin brain evolution. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25247826

Neubauer, Simon

2014-01-01

84

Visualization of monoamine oxidase in human brain  

SciTech Connect

Monoamine oxidase is a flavin enzyme which exists in two subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. In human brain MAO B predominates and is largely compartmentalized in cell bodies of serotonergic neurons and glia. Regional distribution of MAO B was determined by positron computed tomography with volunteers after the administration of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl. The basal ganglia and thalamus exhibited the greatest concentrations of MAO B with intermediate levels in the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus while lowest levels were observed in the parietal and temporal cortices and cerebellum. We observed that brain MAO B increases with are in health normal subjects, however the increases were generally smaller than those revealed with post-mortem studies.

Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Pappas, N.; Shea, C.; MacGregor, R.R.; Logan, J.

1996-12-31

85

Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.  

PubMed

As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge. PMID:23301101

Friedrich, Roland M; Friederici, Angela D

2013-01-01

86

Tracking Hierarchical Processing in Morphological Decomposition with Brain Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One important debate in psycholinguistics concerns the nature of morphological decomposition processes in visual word recognition (e.g., darkness = {dark} + {-ness}). One theory claims that these processes arise during orthographic analysis and prior to accessing meaning (Rastle & Davis, 2008), and another argues that these processes arise through

Lavric, Aureliu; Elchlepp, Heike; Rastle, Kathleen

2012-01-01

87

Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. PMID:24615961

Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

2014-09-01

88

Evolution, development, and plasticity of the human brain: from molecules to bones  

PubMed Central

Neuroanatomical, molecular, and paleontological evidence is examined in light of human brain evolution. The brain of extant humans differs from the brains of other primates in its overall size and organization, and differences in size and organization of specific cortical areas and subcortical structures implicated into complex cognition and social and emotional processing. The human brain is also characterized by functional lateralizations, reflecting specializations of the cerebral hemispheres in humans for different types of processing, facilitating fast and reliable communication between neural cells in an enlarged brain. The features observed in the adult brain reflect human-specific patterns of brain development. Compared to the brains of other primates, the human brain takes longer to mature, promoting an extended period for establishing cortical microcircuitry and its modifications. Together, these features may underlie the prolonged period of learning and acquisition of technical and social skills necessary for survival, creating a unique cognitive and behavioral niche typical of our species. The neuroanatomical findings are in concordance with molecular analyses, which suggest a trend toward heterochrony in the expression of genes implicated in different functions. These include synaptogenesis, neuronal maturation, and plasticity in humans, mutations in genes implicated in neurite outgrowth and plasticity, and an increased role of regulatory mechanisms, potentially promoting fast modification of neuronal morphologies in response to new computational demands. At the same time, endocranial casts of fossil hominins provide an insight into the timing of the emergence of uniquely human features in the course of evolution. We conclude by proposing several ways of combining comparative neuroanatomy, molecular biology and insights gained from fossil endocasts in future research. PMID:24194709

Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Bienvenu, Thibault; Stefanacci, Lisa; Muotri, Alysson R.; Semendeferi, Katerina

2013-01-01

89

Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injurythe commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studieswhere the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant. Positively, we show that novel machine learning techniques employing high-dimensional inference can nonetheless accurately converge on the true locus. We conclude that current inferences about human brain function and deficits based on lesion mapping must be re-evaluated with methodology that adequately captures the high-dimensional structure of lesion data. PMID:24974384

Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint

2014-01-01

90

EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN: CHANGING BRAIN SIZE AND THE FOSSIL RECORD  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH THE STUDY of the human brain is a rapidly developing and expanding science, we must take pause to examine the historical and evolutionary events that helped shape the brain of Homo sapiens. From an examination of the human lineage to a discussion of evolutionary principles, we describe the basic principles and theo- ries behind the evolution of the human

Min S. Park; Andrew D. Nguyen; Henry E. Aryan; Hoi Sang U; Michael L. Levy; Katerina Semendeferi

2007-01-01

91

Chimeric brains generated by intraventricular transplantation of fetal human brain cells into embryonic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited experimental access to the central nervous system (CNS) is a key problem in the study of human neural development, disease, and regeneration. We have addressed this problem by generating neural chimeras composed of human and rodent cells. Fetal human brain cells implanted into the cerebral ventricles of embryonic rats incorporate individually into all major compartments of the brain, generating

Khalid Choudhary; Khalad Karram; Anita Httner; Kerren Murray; Monique Dubois-Dalcq; Ronald D. G. McKay; Oliver Brstle

1998-01-01

92

Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain  

E-print Network

Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain Madhura Ingalhalikara,1 , Alex differences in human brains but do not explain this complementarity. In this work, we modeled the structural) Sex differences in human behavior show adaptive complementar- ity: Males have better motor and spatial

Dever, Jennifer A.

93

Age-related reorganizational changes in modularity and functional connectivity of human brain networks.  

PubMed

Abstract The human brain undergoes both morphological and functional modifications across the human lifespan. It is important to understand the aspects of brain reorganization that are critical in normal aging. To address this question, one approach is to investigate age-related topological changes of the brain. In this study, we developed a brain network model using graph theory methods applied to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from two groups of normal healthy adults classified by age. We found that brain functional networks demonstrated modular organization in both groups with modularity decreased with aging, suggesting less distinct functional divisions across whole brain networks. Local efficiency was also decreased with aging but not with global efficiency. Besides these brain-wide observations, we also observed consistent alterations of network properties at the regional level in the elderly, particularly in two major functional networks-the default mode network (DMN) and the sensorimotor network. Specifically, we found that measures of regional strength, local and global efficiency of functional connectivity were increased in the sensorimotor network while decreased in the DMN with aging. These results indicate that global reorganization of brain functional networks may reflect overall topological changes with aging and that aging likely alters individual brain networks differently depending on the functional properties. Moreover, these findings highly correspond to the observation of decline in cognitive functions but maintenance of primary information processing in normal healthy aging, implying an underlying compensation mechanism evolving with aging to support higher-level cognitive functioning. PMID:25183440

Song, Jie; Birn, Rasmus M; Boly, Mlanie; Meier, Timothy B; Nair, Veena A; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

2014-11-01

94

Morphologic Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on the Blood-Brain Barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) opens the blood-brain barrier of mice to the enzymatic tracer horseradish peroxidase. A single injection of horseradish peroxidase in 10 to 15 percent DMSO into the tail vein along with 10 to 15 percent DMSO delivered intraperitoneally allowed horseradish peroxidase to fill the extracellular clefts throughout the brain within 2 hours. In the absence of DMSO, peroxidase failed to enter brain parenchyma except through the circumventricular organs. Opening of the blood-brain barrier by DMSO is reversible. Dimethyl sulfoxide stimulated the pinocytosis of horseradish peroxidase by the cerebral endothelium; the peroxidase was then directed to lysosomal dense bodies for degradation. Vesicular transport of horseradish peroxidase from the luminal to the abluminal wall of the endothelial cell was not observed. Dimethyl sulfoxide did not alter the morphology of endothelial cells or brain parenchyma.

Broadwell, Richard D.; Salcman, Michael; Kaplan, Richard S.

1982-07-01

95

Evaluating the microstructure of human brain tissues using synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimally invasive deep brain neurosurgical interventions require a profound knowledge of the morphology of the human brain. Generic brain atlases are based on histology including multiple preparation steps during the sectioning and staining. In order to correct the distortions induced in the anisotropic, inhomogeneous soft matter and therefore improve the accuracy of brain atlases, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique with the required spatial and density resolution is of great significance. Micro computed tomography provides true micrometer resolution. The application to post mortem human brain, however, is questionable because the differences of the components concerning X-ray absorption are weak. Therefore, magnetic resonance tomography has become the method of choice for three-dimensional imaging of human brain. Because the spatial resolution of this method is limited, an alternative has to be found for the three-dimensional imaging of cellular microstructures within the brain. Therefore, the present study relies on the synchrotron radiationbased micro computed tomography in the recently developed grating-based phase contrast mode. Using data acquired at the beamline ID 19 (ESRF, Grenoble, France) we demonstrate that grating-based tomography yields premium images of human thalamus, which can be used for the correction of histological distortions by 3D non-rigid registration.

Schulz, Georg; Morel, Anne; Imholz, Martha S.; Deyhle, Hans; Weitkamp, Timm; Zanette, Irene; Pfeiffer, Franz; David, Christian; Mller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Mller, Bert

2010-09-01

96

Herpes Simplex Type 1 DNA in Human Brain Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is known to reside latently in the trigeminal ganglia of man. Reactivation of this virus causes skin lesions and may occasionally infect other tissues, including the brain. To determine whether the brain tissue of humans free of clinical signs of HSV-1 infection contains any trace of HSV-1, we examined the DNA from brain tissue

Nigel W. Fraser; William C. Lawrence; Zofia Wroblewska; Donald H. Gilden; Hilary Koprowski

1981-01-01

97

Changes in glycoprotein carbohydrate content in the aging human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no significant change in the concentration, per gram of fresh tissue, of the total carbohydrate associated with brain glycoproteins as the human brain ages from 25 to 85 years. Nevertheless, notable shifts in the concentration of varied types of oligosaccharides do occur. The concentration and percentage of total glycopeptide-carbohydrate recovered from the whole brain represented by the N-glycosidically

Eric G. Brunngraber; Joseph C. Webster

1986-01-01

98

COMPARING THE EMOTIONAL BRAINS OF HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS  

E-print Network

25 3 COMPARING THE EMOTIONAL BRAINS OF HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS Kent C. Berridge How is emotion embodied in the brain? That is the ques- tion posed by affective neuroscience (Cacioppo & Gardner, 1999 and emotion at both psychological and neurobiological levels. Evidence regarding the brain substrates

Berridge, Kent

99

Deformation of the Human Brain Induced by Mild Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid deformation of brain matter caused by skull acceleration is most likely the cause of concus- sion, as well as more severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The inability to measure deformation di- rectly has led to disagreement and confusion about the biomechanics of concussion and TBI. In the present study, brain deformation in human volunteers was measured directly during mild,

P. V. Bayly; T. S. Cohen; E. P. Leister; D. Ajo; E. C. Leuthardt; G. M. Genin

2005-01-01

100

The Human Brain Project: social and ethical challenges.  

PubMed

Focusing on the Human Brain Project, I discuss some social and ethical challenges raised by such programs of research: the possibility of a unified knowledge of "the brain," balancing privacy and the public good, dilemmas of "dual use," brain-computer interfaces, and "responsible research and innovation" in governance of emerging technologies. PMID:24945767

Rose, Nikolas

2014-06-18

101

Spatio-temporal transcriptome of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain development and function depend on the precise regulation of gene expression. However, our understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the transcriptome of the human brain is incomplete. Here we report the generation and analysis of exon-level transcriptome and associated genotyping data, representing males and females of different ethnicities, from multiple brain regions and neocortical areas of developing and

Hyo Jung Kang; Yuka Imamura Kawasawa; Feng Cheng; Ying Zhu; Xuming Xu; Mingfeng Li; Andr M. M. Sousa; Mihovil Pletikos; Kyle A. Meyer; Goran Sedmak; Tobias Guennel; Yurae Shin; Matthew B. Johnson; Zeljka Krsnik; Simone Mayer; Sofia Fertuzinhos; Sheila Umlauf; Steven N. Lisgo; Alexander Vortmeyer; Daniel R. Weinberger; Shrikant Mane; Thomas M. Hyde; Anita Huttner; Mark Reimers; Joel E. Kleinman; Nenad Sestan

2011-01-01

102

Isolation of Borna Disease Virus from Human Brain Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serological and molecular epidemiological studies indicate that Borna disease virus (BDV) can infect humans and is possibly associated with certain neuropsychiatric disorders. We examined brain tissue collected at autopsy from four schizophrenic patients and two healthy controls for the presence of BDV markers in 12 different brain regions. BDV RNA and antigen was detected in four brain regions of a

YURIE NAKAMURA; HIROKAZU TAKAHASHI; YUKO SHOYA; TAKAAKI NAKAYA; MAKIKO WATANABE; KEIZO TOMONAGA; KAZUHIKO IWAHASHI; KIYOSHI AMENO; NORIKO MOMIYAMA; HIROYUKA TANIYAMA; TETSUTARO SATA; TAKESHI KURATA; JUAN CARLOS DE LA TORRE; KAZUYOSHI IKUTA

2000-01-01

103

Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography of human brain pathways  

E-print Network

Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography of human brain pathways Brian Wandell Anthony these structures in healthy and diseased brains. These Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) methods measure water diffusion throughout the brain. These measurements provide an aggregate measure of the microscopic structure

Wandell, Brian A.

104

What happens in the leucotomised brain? A postmortem morphological study of brains from schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume measurements were carried out on 19 brains from leucotomised schizophrenic patients and 20 age- and sex-matched controls using a stereological method. The volume of the total fixed brain, hemispheres, cortex, white matter, and central grey matter were all significantly reduced compared with controls. White matter and central grey structures were significantly reduced compared with a group of non-leucotomised schizophrenic

B Pakkenberg

1989-01-01

105

Beyond classical inheritance: the influence of maternal genotype upon child's brain morphology and behavior.  

PubMed

Genetic variance has been associated with variations in brain morphology, cognition, behavior, and disease risk. One well studied example of how common genetic variance is associated with brain morphology is the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism within the promoter region (5-HTTLPR). Because serotonin is a key neurotrophic factor during brain development, genetically determined variations in serotonin activity during maturation, in particular during early prenatal development, may underlie the observed association. However, the intrauterine microenvironment is not only determined by the child's, but also the mother's genotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that maternal 5-HTTLPR genotype influences the child's brain development beyond direct inheritance. To test this hypothesis, we investigated 76 children who were all heterozygous for the 5-HTTLPR (sl) and who had mothers who were either homozygous for the long (ll) or the short allele (ss). Using MRI, we assessed brain morphology as a function of maternal genotype. Gray matter density of the somatosensory cortex was found to be greater in children of ss mothers compared with children of ll mothers. Behavioral assessment showed that fine motor task performance was altered in children of ll mothers and the degree of this behavioral effect correlated with somatosensory cortex density across individuals. Our findings provide initial evidence that maternal genotype can affect the child's phenotype beyond effects of classical inheritance. Our observation appears to be explained by intrauterine environmental differences or by differences in maternal behavior. PMID:25031395

van der Knaap, Noortje J F; El Marroun, Hanan; Klumpers, Floris; Mous, Sabine E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Homberg, Judith R; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Fernndez, Guilln

2014-07-16

106

"Messing with the mind": evolutionary challenges to human brain augmentation  

PubMed Central

The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce augmented brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties.

Saniotis, Arthur; Henneberg, Maciej; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Grantham, James P.

2014-01-01

107

Gene regulation and DNA damage in the ageing human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ageing of the human brain is a cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The time in life when brain ageing begins is undefined. Here we show that transcriptional profiling of the human frontal cortex from individuals ranging from 26 to 106 years of age defines a set of genes with

Tao Lu; Ying Pan; Shyan-Yuan Kao; Cheng Li; Isaac Kohane; Jennifer Chan; Bruce A. Yankner

2004-01-01

108

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings  

E-print Network

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns Tom M. Mitchell,1 * Svetlana associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation Just3 The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many

109

The adult human brain in preclinical drug development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurodegenerative disorders are caused by the death and dysfunction of brain cells, but despite a huge worldwide effort, no neuroprotective treatments that slow cell death currently exist. The failure of translation from animal models to humans in the clinic is due to many factors including species differences, human brain complexity, age, patient variability and disease-specific phenotypes. Additional methods are therefore

Mike Dragunow

2008-01-01

110

Plasticity of the human brain " We never use the same brain twice" Arno Villringer and Burkhard Pleger  

E-print Network

Plasticity of the human brain " We never use the same brain twice" Arno Villringer and Burkhard Pleger Max Planck Institute for Human Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Leipzig Summary With the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging the human brain has become accessible for invivo

111

Metabolic costs and evolutionary implications of human brain development  

PubMed Central

The high energetic costs of human brain development have been hypothesized to explain distinctive human traits, including exceptionally slow and protracted preadult growth. Although widely assumed to constrain life-history evolution, the metabolic requirements of the growing human brain are unknown. We combined previously collected PET and MRI data to calculate the human brains glucose use from birth to adulthood, which we compare with body growth rate. We evaluate the strength of brainbody metabolic trade-offs using the ratios of brain glucose uptake to the bodys resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy requirements (DER) expressed in glucose-gram equivalents (glucosermr% and glucoseder%). We find that glucosermr% and glucoseder% do not peak at birth (52.5% and 59.8% of RMR, or 35.4% and 38.7% of DER, for males and females, respectively), when relative brain size is largest, but rather in childhood (66.3% and 65.0% of RMR and 43.3% and 43.8% of DER). Body-weight growth (dw/dt) and both glucosermr% and glucoseder% are strongly, inversely related: soon after birth, increases in brain glucose demand are accompanied by proportionate decreases in dw/dt. Ages of peak brain glucose demand and lowest dw/dt co-occur and subsequent developmental declines in brain metabolism are matched by proportionate increases in dw/dt until puberty. The finding that human brain glucose demands peak during childhood, and evidence that brain metabolism and body growth rate covary inversely across development, support the hypothesis that the high costs of human brain development require compensatory slowing of body growth rate. PMID:25157149

Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Chugani, Harry T.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Lipovich, Leonard; Muzik, Otto; Hof, Patrick R.; Wildman, Derek E.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Leonard, William R.; Lange, Nicholas

2014-01-01

112

Decoding human gene expression signatures in the brain  

PubMed Central

The evolution of higher cognitive functions in humans is thought to be due, at least in part, to the molecular evolution of gene expression patterns specific to the human brain. In this article, we explore recent and past findings using comparative genomics in human and non-human primate brain to identify these novel human patterns. We suggest additional directions and lines of experimentation that should be taken to improve our understanding of these changes on the human lineage. Finally, we attempt to put into context these genomic changes with biological phenotypes and diseases in humans. PMID:23665540

Wang, Guang-Zhong; Konopka, Genevieve

2013-01-01

113

Neurochemical and morphological changes associated with human epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date a multitude of studies into the morphology and neurochemistry of human epilepsy have been undertaken with variable, and often inconsistent, results. This review summarises these studies on a range of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neuropeptides and their receptors. In addition to this, novel changes in cell viability and sprouting have been identified and are discussed. Whether the alterations observed are

Michelle Glass; Michael Dragunow

1995-01-01

114

Morphological analysis of in vitro human hair growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological and ultrastructural aspect of normal human hair follicles maintained ex vivo for 12 days was evaluated. Anagen hair follicles, dissected free of contaminating connective tissue, were maintained for up to 12 days in a serum-free medium. Macroscopic observations revealed continued viability for 12 days, at which time some follicles involuted in a manner morphologically similar to catagen. Increased

D. J. Tobin; N. Mandir; R. Dover

1993-01-01

115

Metabolic costs and evolutionary implications of human brain development.  

PubMed

The high energetic costs of human brain development have been hypothesized to explain distinctive human traits, including exceptionally slow and protracted preadult growth. Although widely assumed to constrain life-history evolution, the metabolic requirements of the growing human brain are unknown. We combined previously collected PET and MRI data to calculate the human brain's glucose use from birth to adulthood, which we compare with body growth rate. We evaluate the strength of brain-body metabolic trade-offs using the ratios of brain glucose uptake to the body's resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy requirements (DER) expressed in glucose-gram equivalents (glucosermr% and glucoseder%). We find that glucosermr% and glucoseder% do not peak at birth (52.5% and 59.8% of RMR, or 35.4% and 38.7% of DER, for males and females, respectively), when relative brain size is largest, but rather in childhood (66.3% and 65.0% of RMR and 43.3% and 43.8% of DER). Body-weight growth (dw/dt) and both glucosermr% and glucoseder% are strongly, inversely related: soon after birth, increases in brain glucose demand are accompanied by proportionate decreases in dw/dt. Ages of peak brain glucose demand and lowest dw/dt co-occur and subsequent developmental declines in brain metabolism are matched by proportionate increases in dw/dt until puberty. The finding that human brain glucose demands peak during childhood, and evidence that brain metabolism and body growth rate covary inversely across development, support the hypothesis that the high costs of human brain development require compensatory slowing of body growth rate. PMID:25157149

Kuzawa, Christopher W; Chugani, Harry T; Grossman, Lawrence I; Lipovich, Leonard; Muzik, Otto; Hof, Patrick R; Wildman, Derek E; Sherwood, Chet C; Leonard, William R; Lange, Nicholas

2014-09-01

116

Mapping Human Whole-Brain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI  

PubMed Central

Understanding the large-scale structural network formed by neurons is a major challenge in system neuroscience. A detailed connectivity map covering the entire brain would therefore be of great value. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose an efficient methodology to generate large, comprehensive and individual white matter connectional datasets of the living or dead, human or animal brain. This non-invasive tool enables us to study the basic and potentially complex network properties of the entire brain. For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world. PMID:17611629

Hagmann, Patric; Kurant, Maciej; Gigandet, Xavier; Thiran, Patrick; Wedeen, Van J.

2007-01-01

117

Genomic connectivity networks based on the BrainSpan atlas of the developing human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human brain comprises systems of networks that span the molecular, cellular, anatomic and functional levels. Molecular studies of the developing brain have focused on elucidating networks among gene products that may drive cellular brain development by functioning together in biological pathways. On the other hand, studies of the brain connectome attempt to determine how anatomically distinct brain regions are connected to each other, either anatomically (diffusion tensor imaging) or functionally (functional MRI and EEG), and how they change over development. A global examination of the relationship between gene expression and connectivity in the developing human brain is necessary to understand how the genetic signature of different brain regions instructs connections to other regions. Furthermore, analyzing the development of connectivity networks based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of gene expression provides a new insight into the effect of neurodevelopmental disease genes on brain networks. In this work, we construct connectivity networks between brain regions based on the similarity of their gene expression signature, termed "Genomic Connectivity Networks" (GCNs). Genomic connectivity networks were constructed using data from the BrainSpan Transcriptional Atlas of the Developing Human Brain. Our goal was to understand how the genetic signatures of anatomically distinct brain regions relate to each other across development. We assessed the neurodevelopmental changes in connectivity patterns of brain regions when networks were constructed with genes implicated in the neurodevelopmental disorder autism (autism spectrum disorder; ASD). Using graph theory metrics to characterize the GCNs, we show that ASD-GCNs are relatively less connected later in development with the cerebellum showing a very distinct expression of ASD-associated genes compared to other brain regions.

Mahfouz, Ahmed; Ziats, Mark N.; Rennert, Owen M.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

2014-03-01

118

Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly  

PubMed Central

The complexity of the human brain has made it difficult to study many brain disorders in model organisms, and highlights the need for an in vitro model of human brain development. We have developed a human pluripotent stem cell-derived 3D organoid culture system, termed cerebral organoid, which develops various discrete though interdependent brain regions. These include cerebral cortex containing progenitor populations that organize and produce mature cortical neuron subtypes. Furthermore, cerebral organoids recapitulate features of human cortical development, namely characteristic progenitor zone organization with abundant outer radial glial stem cells. Finally, we use RNAi and patient-specific iPS cells to model microcephaly, a disorder that has been difficult to recapitulate in mice. We demonstrate premature neuronal differentiation in patient organoids, a defect that could explain the disease phenotype. Our data demonstrate that 3D organoids can recapitulate development and disease of even this most complex human tissue. PMID:23995685

Lancaster, Madeline A.; Renner, Magdalena; Martin, Carol-Anne; Wenzel, Daniel; Bicknell, Louise S.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Homfray, Tessa; Penninger, Josef M.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Knoblich, Juergen A.

2013-01-01

119

Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.  

PubMed

Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. PMID:24291669

Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

2014-02-14

120

Effects of brain and facial size on basicranial form in human and primate evolution.  

PubMed

Understanding variation in the basicranium is of central importance to paleoanthropology because of its fundamental structural role in skull development and evolution. Among primates, encephalisation is well known to be associated with flexion between midline basicranial elements, although it has been proposed that the size or shape of the face influences basicranial flexion. In particular, brain size and facial size are hypothesized to act as antagonists on basicranial flexion. One important and unresolved problem in hominin skull evolution is that large-brained Neanderthals and some Mid-Pleistocene humans have slightly less flexed basicrania than equally large-brained modern humans. To determine whether or not this is a consequence of differences in facial size, geometric morphometric methods were applied to a large comparative data set of non-human primates, hominin fossils, and humans (N=142; 29 species). Multiple multivariate regression and thin plate spline analyses suggest that basicranial evolution is highly significantly influenced by both brain size and facial size. Increasing facial size rotates the basicranium away from the face and slightly increases the basicranial angle, whereas increasing brain size reduces the angles between the spheno-occipital clivus and the presphenoid plane, as well as between the latter and the cribriform plate. These interactions can explain why Neanderthals and some Mid-Pleistocene humans have less flexed cranial bases than modern humans, despite their relatively similar brain sizes. We highlight that, in addition to brain size (the prime factor implicated in basicranial evolution in Homo), facial size is an important influence on basicranial morphology and orientation. To better address the multifactorial nature of basicranial flexion, future studies should focus on the underlying factors influencing facial size evolution in hominins. PMID:20378153

Bastir, Markus; Rosas, Antonio; Stringer, Chris; Cutara, J Manuel; Kruszynski, Robert; Weber, Gerhard W; Ross, Callum F; Ravosa, Matthew J

2010-05-01

121

Altered brain sodium channel transcript levels in human epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal, and perhaps pathological, characteristics of neuronal excitability are related to the distribution and density of voltage-gated ion channels such as the sodium channel. We studied normal and epileptic human brain using the ligase detection reaction to measure the relative quantities of mRNAs encoding sodium channel subtypes 1 and 2. Normal brains exhibited characteristic 1:2 ratios which varied by brain

Anthony J. Lombardo; Ruben Kuzniecky; Richard E. Powers; George B. Brown

1996-01-01

122

Brain Prostheses as a Dynamic System (Immortalizing the Human Brain?)  

E-print Network

Interest in development of brain prostheses, which might be proposed to recover mental functions lost due to neuron-degenerative disease or trauma, requires new methods in molecular engineering and nanotechnology to build artificial brain tissues. We develop a Dynamic Core model to analyze complexity of damaged biological neural network as well as transition and recovery of the system functionality due to changes in the system environment. We provide a method to model complexity of physical systems which might be proposed as an artificial tissue or prosthesis. Delocalization of Dynamic Core model is developed to analyze migration of mental functions in dynamic bio-systems which undergo architecture transition induced by trauma. Term Dynamic Core is used to define a set of causally related functions and Delocalization is used to describe the process of migration. Information geometry and topological formalisms are proposed to analyze information processes. A holographic model is proposed to construct dynamic environment with self-poetic Dynamic Core which preserve functional properties under transition from one host to another. We found statistical constraints for complex systems which conserve a Dynamic Core under environment transition. Also we suggest those constraints might provide recommendations for nanotechnologies and tissue engineering used in development of an artificial brain tissue.

Vadim Astakhov; Tamara Astakhova

2007-05-17

123

5 Minute Brain Teaser Old vs. New Thinking Regarding the Human Brain*  

E-print Network

5 Minute Brain Teaser Old vs. New Thinking Regarding the Human Brain* Answer Key Answer Statement 1 discovered that the early years of life are critical. Good prenatal care, warm attachments between young that quality care in the early years is associated with: better social and thinking skills, better language

124

Tactile form and location processing in the human brain  

E-print Network

Tactile form and location processing in the human brain Robert W. Van Boven, John E. Ingeholm, Michael S. Beauchamp, Philip C. Bikle, and Leslie G. Ungerleider Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, Bethesda, MD 20892 Contributed by Leslie G. Ungerleider, July 13, 2005 To elucidate the neural basis

Baker, Chris I.

125

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Tom M. Mitchell; Svetlana V. Shinkareva; Andrew Carlson; Kai-Min Chang; Vicente L. Malave; Robert A. Mason; Marcel Adam Just

2008-01-01

126

Possible Sex Differences in the Developing Human Fetal Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left-right regional volumetric asymmetries in five telencephalic regions were studied in the developing human fetal brain. Complete series of coronal sections of 21 fetal brains were digitized and regional volumes were integrated. Five regional indices of asymmetry and two overall indices of asymmetry were calculated and compared across the fetal sample. The two most asymmetrical regions in the developing fetal

M. C. De Lacoste; D. S. Horvath; D. J. Woodward

1991-01-01

127

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain activation during-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 Abstract Rationale Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) polydrug ecstasy use with semantic memory per- formance and brain activation in ecstasy polydrug users. Methods

Park, Sohee

128

Morphological and functional characteristics of human gingival junctional epithelium  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to observe the morphological characteristics and identify the function characteristics of junctional epithelium (JE) tissues and cultured JE cells. Methods Paraffin sections of human molar or premolar on the gingival buccolingual side were prepared from 6 subjects. HE staining and image analysis were performed to measure and compare the morphological difference among JE, oral gingival epithelium (OGE) and sulcular epithelium (SE). Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression pattern of cytokeratin 5/6, 7, 8/18, 10/13, 16, 17, 19, and 20 in JE, OGE and SE. On the other hand, primary human JE and OGE cells were cultured in vitro. Cell identify was confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry. In a co-culture model, TEM was used to observe the attachment formation between JE cells and tooth surface. Results Human JE was a unique tissue which was different from SE and OGE in morphology. Similarly, morphology of JE cells was also particular compared with OGE cells cultured in vitro. In addition, JE cells had a longer incubation period than OGE cells. Different expression of several CKs illustrated JE was in a characteristic of low differentiation and high regeneration. After being co-cultured for 14 d, multiple cell layers, basement membrane-like and hemidesmosome-like structures were appeared at the junction of JE cell membrane and tooth surface. Conclusions JE is a specially stratified epithelium with low differentiation and high regeneration ability in gingival tissue both in vivo and in vitro. In co-culture model, human JE cells can form basement membrane-like and hemidesmosome-like structures in about 2weeks. PMID:24708739

2014-01-01

129

Human-induced morphological shifts in an island lizard  

PubMed Central

Understanding the evolutionary consequences of anthropogenic change is an emerging topic in evolutionary biology. While highly sensitive species may go extinct in response to anthropogenic habitat alteration, those with broader environmental tolerances may persist and adapt to the changes. Here, we use morphological data from the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), a lizard species that lives in both natural and human-disturbed habitats, to examine the impact of anthropogenic habitat alteration. We find populations inhabiting disturbed habitats were significantly larger in snout-vent length, hindspan, and mass and provide evidence that the observed divergence in hindspan is driven by human-induced changes in habitat structure. Populations were found to be genetically distinct among islands but are not genetically differentiated between habitat types on islands. Thus, the observed pattern of intra-island morphological differences cannot be explained by separate founding populations. Rather, our results are consistent with morphological differences between habitats having arisen in situ on each island. Results underscore the significant impact anthropogenic change may have on evolutionary trajectories of populations that persist in human-altered habitats.

Marnocha, Erin; Pollinger, John; Smith, Thomas B

2011-01-01

130

Functional connectivity hubs in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain networks appear to have few and well localized regions with high functional connectivity density (hubs) for fast integration of neural processing, and their dysfunction could contribute to neuropsychiatric diseases. However the variability in the distribution of these brain hubs is unknown due in part to the overwhelming computational demands associated to their localization. Recently we developed a fast algorithm

Dardo Tomasi; Nora D. Volkow

2011-01-01

131

Brain and sensory organ morphology in Antarctic eelpouts (Perciformes: Zoarcidae: Lycodinae).  

PubMed

Eelpouts of the family Zoarcidae comprise a monophyletic group of marine fishes with a worldwide distribution. Centers of high zoarcid diversity occur in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with important radiations into the Arctic, along southern South America, and into the Southern Ocean around Antarctica. Along with snailfishes (Liparidae), zoarcids form an important component of the non-notothenioid fauna in the subzero shelf waters of Antarctica. We document the anatomy and histology of the brains, cranial nerves, olfactory apparatus, cephalic lateral lines, taste buds, and retinas of three Antarctic zoarcid species, living at depths of 310-939 m, representing three of the nine genera from this region. The primary emphasis is on Ophthalmolycus amberensis, and we provide a detailed drawing of the brain and cranial nerves of this species. Although this brain reflects general perciform neural morphology, it exhibits a reduction of the (optic) tecta and the eminentia granulares and crista cerebellares of the lateral line system. Interspecific differences among the three species are slight. The olfactory rosette consists of three to four lamellae and the nasal sac, contrary to the claim of Fanta et al. ([2001] Antarct Rec, Natl Inst Polar Res, Tokyo 45:27-42), is not in communication with the cephalic lateral line system. Primary olfactory neurons are abundant and converge on branches of the olfactory nerve. Numerous taste buds are located in the lips. All three species lack an ocular choroid rete and have relatively thin retinas with a low cell density and a single bank of rods as the only type of photoreceptor. Neural diversification among Antarctic zoarcids has not involved the evolution of sensory specialists; brain and sensory organ morphologies do not approach the condition seen in primary deep-sea fishes, or even that of some sympatric non-perciform secondary deep-sea fishes, including liparids and muraenolepidids (eel cods). There may be phylogenetic constraints on brain morphology in perciforms such that we do not see extreme specialization in sensory and neural systems for deep habitats. We suggest that the brains and sensory organs of Antarctic zoarcids reflect habitation of 500-2,000-m depths and likely reflect morphologies seen in zoarcids living on continental slopes elsewhere in the world. This balance among the sensory modalities makes zoarcids relatively generalized among secondary deep-sea fishes and may be one of the reasons this opportunistic and adaptable group has been successful in colonizing a variety of emergent and ephemeral habitats. PMID:16270315

Lannoo, Michael J; Eastman, Joseph T

2006-01-01

132

Artificial Brain Based on Credible Neural Circuits in a Human Brain  

E-print Network

Neurons are individually translated into simple gates to plan a brain with human psychology and intelligence. State machines, assumed previously learned in subconscious associative memory are shown to enable equation solving and rudimentary thinking using nanoprocessing within short term memory.

Burger, John Robert

2010-01-01

133

Isolation of Borna Disease Virus from Human Brain Tissue  

PubMed Central

Serological and molecular epidemiological studies indicate that Borna disease virus (BDV) can infect humans and is possibly associated with certain neuropsychiatric disorders. We examined brain tissue collected at autopsy from four schizophrenic patients and two healthy controls for the presence of BDV markers in 12 different brain regions. BDV RNA and antigen was detected in four brain regions of a BDV-seropositive schizophrenic patient (P2) with a very recent (2 years) onset of disease. BDV markers exhibited a regionally localized distribution. BDV RNA was found in newborn Mongolian gerbils intracranially inoculated with homogenates from BDV-positive brain regions of P2. Human oligodendroglia (OL) cells inoculated with brain homogenates from BDV-positive gerbils allowed propagation and isolation of BDVHuP2br, a human brain-derived BDV. Virus isolation was also possible by transfection of Vero cells with ribonucleoprotein complexes prepared from BDV-positive human and gerbil brain tissues. BDVHuP2br was genetically closely related to but distinct from previously reported human- and animal-derived BDV sequences. PMID:10775596

Nakamura, Yurie; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Shoya, Yuko; Nakaya, Takaaki; Watanabe, Makiko; Tomonaga, Keizo; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Momiyama, Noriko; Taniyama, Hiroyuka; Sata, Tetsutaro; Kurata, Takeshi; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

2000-01-01

134

Can the common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, influence human culture?  

E-print Network

Can the common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, influence human culture? Kevin D. Lafferty* Western Ecological Research Centre, United States Geological Survey, Marine Science Institute, University and culture that influence T. gondii transmission could also drive thesepatterns. A linkbetweencultureand T

Boudouresque, Charles F.

135

MRI of the human brain at 130 microtesla  

E-print Network

We present in vivo images of the human brain acquired with an ultralow field MRI (ULFMRI) system operating at a magnetic field B[subscript 0] ? 130 ?T. The system features prepolarization of the proton spins at B[subscript ...

Inglis, Ben

136

Axisymmetric vibration of human skull-brain system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrations of the human head modelled as a prolate spheroidal shell are considered. The shell is assumed to be made of a linear viscoelastic solid containing a viscoelastic fluid representing the brain. Steady-state response of human-sized skull-brain system due to an axisymmetric load is analysed. The effect of the eccentricity of the shell on its stiffness is found to be

J. C. Misra

1978-01-01

137

Magnetic resonance and the human brain: anatomy, function and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

.The introduction and development, over the last three decades, of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy technology\\u000a for in vivo studies of the human brain represents a truly remarkable achievement, with enormous scientific and clinical ramifications.\\u000a These effectively non-invasive techniques allow for studies of the anatomy, the function and the metabolism of the living\\u000a human brain. They have allowed

I.-F. Talos; A. Z. Mian; K. H. Zou; L. Hsu; D. Goldberg-Zimring; S. Haker; J. G. Bhagwat; R. V. Mulkern

2006-01-01

138

Sequence identification of 2,375 human brain genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE recently described a new approach for the rapid characterization of expressed genes by partial DNA sequencing to generate 'expressed sequence tags'1. From a set of 600 human brain complementary DNA clones, 348 were informative nuclear-encoded messenger RNAs. We have now partially sequenced 2,672 new, independent cDNA clones isolated from four human brain cDNA libraries to generate 2,375 expressed sequence

Mark D. Adams; Mark Dubnick; Anthony R. Kerlavage; Ruben Moreno; Jenny M. Kelley; Teresa R. Utterback; James W. Nagle; Chris Fields; J. Craig Venter

1992-01-01

139

Alcohol-Related Brain Damage in Humans  

PubMed Central

Chronic excessive alcohol intoxications evoke cumulative damage to tissues and organs. We examined prefrontal cortex (Brodmanns area (BA) 9) from 20 human alcoholics and 20 age, gender, and postmortem delay matched control subjects. H & E staining and light microscopy of prefrontal cortex tissue revealed a reduction in the levels of cytoskeleton surrounding the nuclei of cortical and subcortical neurons, and a disruption of subcortical neuron patterning in alcoholic subjects. BA 9 tissue homogenisation and one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) proteomics of cytosolic proteins identified dramatic reductions in the protein levels of spectrin ? II, and ?- and ?-tubulins in alcoholics, and these were validated and quantitated by Western blotting. We detected a significant increase in ?-tubulin acetylation in alcoholics, a non-significant increase in isoaspartate protein damage, but a significant increase in protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase protein levels, the enzyme that triggers isoaspartate damage repair in vivo. There was also a significant reduction in proteasome activity in alcoholics. One dimensional PAGE of membrane-enriched fractions detected a reduction in ?-spectrin protein levels, and a significant increase in transmembranous ?3 (catalytic) subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase in alcoholic subjects. However, control subjects retained stable oligomeric forms of ?-subunit that were diminished in alcoholics. In alcoholics, significant loss of cytosolic ?- and ?-tubulins were also seen in caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, but to different levels, indicative of brain regional susceptibility to alcohol-related damage. Collectively, these protein changes provide a molecular basis for some of the neuronal and behavioural abnormalities attributed to alcoholics. PMID:24699688

Erdozain, Amaia M.; Morentin, Benito; Bedford, Lynn; King, Emma; Tooth, David; Brewer, Charlotte; Wayne, Declan; Johnson, Laura; Gerdes, Henry K.; Wigmore, Peter; Callado, Luis F.; Carter, Wayne G.

2014-01-01

140

Brain Morphology and Cerebrovascular Risk in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: SCOBHI-P study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate associations between MRI brain morphology, cerebrovascular risk (VR), clinical diagnosis and cognition among elders living in urban Shanghai. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Memory Disorders Clinic and community normal control (NC) subject recruitment. Participants Ninety-six older subjects, 32 with normal cognition, 30 with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 34 with dementia. Main outcome measures Each subject received medical history, neurological/physical exams, neuropsychological evaluations, brain MRI and apolipoprotein E-?4 (APOE -?4) genotype test. MRI volumes were assessed using a semi-automatic method. Results Brain volume (BV) was significantly smaller in the demented compared with NC (p < 0.001) or aMCI (p = 0.043). Hippocampal volume (HV) was lower, and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMH) was higher, in aMCI (HV: p = 0.028; WMH: p = 0.041) and dementia (HV: p < 0.001; WMH: p = 0.002) compared with NC. APOE -?4 presence was significantly associated with reduced HV (p = 0.02). Systolic blood pressure was positively associated with VR score (p = 0.037); diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.021) and VR score (p = 0.036) were both positively associated with WMH. WMH (p = 0.029) and VR (p = 0.031) were both higher among the demented than NC. Conclusion MRI brain morphology changes were significantly associated clinical diagnosis, in addition, blood pressure was highly associated with VR score and WMH. These results suggest that MRI is a valuable measure of brain injury in a Chinese cohort and can serve to assess the effects of various degenerative and cerebrovascular pathologies. PMID:20937951

He, Jing; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Lee, Dong Young; Martinez, Oliver; Ding, Ding; Carmichael, Owen; Mortimer, James A.; Zhao, Qianhua; Chu, Shugang; Guo, Qihao; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David; Dai, Qi; Wu, Yougui; Petersen, Ron; Hong, Zhen; Borenstein, Amy R.; DeCarli, Charles

2010-01-01

141

The Relationship between Social Defiance, Vindictiveness, Anger, and Brain Morphology in Eight-Year-Old Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study is twofold: (1) to assess brain anatomical differences between children meeting diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and healthy controls, and (2) to investigate whether morphological brain characteristics associated with ODD differ in boys and girls. Eight-year-old participants (N = 38) were scanned

Fahim, Cherine; Fiori, Marina; Evans, Alan C.; Perusse, Daniel

2012-01-01

142

Evolution of the human brain: when bigger is better.  

PubMed

Comparative studies of the brain in mammals suggest that there are general architectural principles governing its growth and evolutionary development. We are beginning to understand the geometric, biophysical and energy constraints that have governed the evolution and functional organization of the brain and its underlying neuronal network. The object of this review is to present current perspectives on primate brain evolution, especially in humans, and to examine some hypothetical organizing principles that underlie the brain's complex organization. Some of the design principles and operational modes that underlie the information processing capacity of the cerebral cortex in primates will be explored. It is shown that the development of the cortex coordinates folding with connectivity in a way that produces smaller and faster brains, then otherwise would have been possible. In view of the central importance placed on brain evolution in explaining the success of our own species, one may wonder whether there are physical limits that constrain its processing power and evolutionary potential. It will be argued that at a brain size of about 3500 cm(3), corresponding to a brain volume two to three times that of modern man, the brain seems to reach its maximum processing capacity. The larger the brain grows beyond this critical size, the less efficient it will become, thus limiting any improvement in cognitive power. PMID:24723857

Hofman, Michel A

2014-01-01

143

Evolution of the human brain: when bigger is better  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of the brain in mammals suggest that there are general architectural principles governing its growth and evolutionary development. We are beginning to understand the geometric, biophysical and energy constraints that have governed the evolution and functional organization of the brain and its underlying neuronal network. The object of this review is to present current perspectives on primate brain evolution, especially in humans, and to examine some hypothetical organizing principles that underlie the brain's complex organization. Some of the design principles and operational modes that underlie the information processing capacity of the cerebral cortex in primates will be explored. It is shown that the development of the cortex coordinates folding with connectivity in a way that produces smaller and faster brains, then otherwise would have been possible. In view of the central importance placed on brain evolution in explaining the success of our own species, one may wonder whether there are physical limits that constrain its processing power and evolutionary potential. It will be argued that at a brain size of about 3500 cm3, corresponding to a brain volume two to three times that of modern man, the brain seems to reach its maximum processing capacity. The larger the brain grows beyond this critical size, the less efficient it will become, thus limiting any improvement in cognitive power. PMID:24723857

Hofman, Michel A.

2014-01-01

144

Toward discovery science of human brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain

B. B. Biswal; M. Mennes; X.-N. Zuo; S. Gohel; C. Kelly; S. M. Smith; C. F. Beckmann; J. S. Adelstein; R. L. Buckner; S. Colcombe; A.-M. Dogonowski; M. Ernst; D. Fair; M. Hampson; M. J. Hoptman; J. S. Hyde; V. J. Kiviniemi; R. Kotter; S.-J. Li; C.-P. Lin; M. J. Lowe; C. Mackay; D. J. Madden; K. H. Madsen; D. S. Margulies; H. S. Mayberg; K. McMahon; C. S. Monk; S. H. Mostofsky; B. J. Nagel; J. J. Pekar; S. J. Peltier; S. E. Petersen; V. Riedl; S. A. R. B. Rombouts; B. Rypma; B. L. Schlaggar; S. Schmidt; R. D. Seidler; G. J. Siegle; C. Sorg; G.-J. Teng; J. Veijola; A. Villringer; M. Walter; L. Wang; X.-C. Weng; S. Whitfield-Gabrieli; P. Williamson; C. Windischberger; Y.-F. Zang; H.-Y. Zhang; F. X. Castellanos; M. P. Milham

2010-01-01

145

Anatomical Characterization of Human Fetal Brain Development with Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

The human brain is extraordinarily complex, and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Characterizing its anatomy at different stages of human fetal brain development not only aids in understanding this highly ordered process but also provides clues to detecting abnormalities caused by genetic or environmental factors. During the second trimester of human fetal development, neural structures in the brain undergo significant morphological changes. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a novel method of magnetic resonance imaging, is capable of delineating anatomical components with high contrast and revealing structures at the microscopic level. In this study, high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise-ratio DTI data of fixed tissues of second-trimester human fetal brains were acquired and analyzed. DTI color maps and tractography revealed that important white matter tracts, such as the corpus callosum and uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, become apparent during this period. Three-dimensional reconstruction shows that major brain fissures appear while most of the cerebral surface remains smooth until the end of the second trimester. A dominant radial organization was identified at 15 gestational weeks, followed by both laminar and radial architectures in the cerebral wall throughout the remainder of the second trimester. Volumetric measurements of different structures indicate that the volumes of basal ganglia and ganglionic eminence increase along with that of the whole brain, while the ventricle size decreases in the later second trimester. The developing fetal brain DTI database presented can be used for education, as an anatomical research reference, and for data registration. PMID:19339620

Huang, Hao; Xue, Rong; Zhang, Jiangyang; Ren, Tianbo; Richards, Linda J.; Yarowsky, Paul; Miller, Michael I.; Mori, Susumu

2009-01-01

146

Imaging structural co-variance between human brain regions.  

PubMed

Brain structure varies between people in a markedly organized fashion. Communities of brain regions co-vary in their morphological properties. For example, cortical thickness in one region influences the thickness of structurally and functionally connected regions. Such networks of structural co-variance partially recapitulate the functional networks of healthy individuals and the foci of grey matter loss in neurodegenerative disease. This architecture is genetically heritable, is associated with behavioural and cognitive abilities and is changed systematically across the lifespan. The biological meaning of this structural co-variance remains controversial, but it appears to reflect developmental coordination or synchronized maturation between areas of the brain. This Review discusses the state of current research into brain structural co-variance, its underlying mechanisms and its potential value in the understanding of various neurological and psychiatric conditions. PMID:23531697

Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Giedd, Jay N; Bullmore, Ed

2013-05-01

147

Why Our Kids Can Write; or, Running Slo's through the Right Brain Equals the Morphology of Diddley Doos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that offering students activities that exercise right-brain functions (nonverbal, nonrational, spatial, and intuitive) helps students become more fully developed human beings and better writers. (RL)

Palmer, Thelma

1980-01-01

148

The pterygopalatine ganglion in humans: a morphological study.  

PubMed

As a rule the pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG) is considered to be a single structure of the parasympathetic nervous system, associated with the maxillary nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF). A few structural studies in humans are available in the indexed references. We designed the present study of the PPG in order to provide evidence of possible variations in morphological patterns of the PPG. We performed dissections of the PPF on 20 human adult heads, using different approaches. The dissected specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and silver (Bielschowsky) or prepared for immunohistochemistry for synaptophisin and neurofilament. Four morphological types of the PPG were defined macroscopically: A (10%): partitioned PPG, the upper partition receiving the vidian nerve; B (55%): single, the upper part (base) receiving the vidian nerve; C (15%): single, but the vidian nerve reaches the lower part (tip) of the ganglion; D (20%): partitioned, the lower partition receiving the vidian nerve. We propose that it may be inappropriate to invariably regard the PPG as a single morphological structure. From individual to individual the PPG may present either as a single ganglion or as a partitioned one, with distinct superior and inferior components. Nevertheless, the presence of the dispersed pterygopalatine microganglia (DPPG) evidenced by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry serves to complete an individually variable morphological pattern of a structure usually described as single. The individual variation may be the reason for failures in ablation procedures of the PPG; partitions of the PPG and/or the DPPG may functionally correlate with specific territories and targets and further tracing studies may be helpful in validating or invalidating this theory. PMID:19124232

Rusu, M C; Pop, F; Curc?, G C; Podoleanu, L; Voinea, L M

2009-04-01

149

Cannabis abuse and brain morphology in schizophrenia: a review of the available evidence.  

PubMed

Substance abuse is the most prevalent comorbid psychiatric condition associated with schizophrenia, and cannabis is the illicit drug most often abused. Apart from worsening the course of schizophrenia, frequent cannabis use especially at an early age seems to be an important risk factor for developing schizophrenia. Although a large body of neuroimaging studies gives evidence for structural alterations in many different brain regions in schizophrenia patients, there is still limited knowledge of the impact of cannabis abuse on brain structure in schizophrenia. We performed a systematic review including structural magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing high-risk and schizophrenia patients with and without cannabis abuse and found inconclusive results. While there is some evidence that chronic cannabis abuse could alter brain morphology in schizophrenia in patients continuing their cannabis consumption, there is no convincing evidence that this alteration takes place before the onset of schizophrenia when looking at first-episode patients. There is some weak evidence that cannabis abuse could affect brain structures in high-risk subjects, but replication of these studies is needed. PMID:22907121

Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

2013-02-01

150

Identification of a Cancer Stem Cell in Human Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current research on human brain tumors is focused on the molecular and cellular analysis of the bulk tumor mass. However, there is overwhelming evidence in some malignancies that the tumor clone is heterogeneous with respect to proliferation and differentiation. In human leukemia, the tumor clone is organized as a hierarchy that originates from rare leukemic stem cells that possess

Sheila K. Singh; Ian D. Clarke; Mizuhiko Terasaki; Victoria E. Bonn; Cynthia Hawkins; Jeremy Squire; Peter B. Dirks

2003-01-01

151

Sibling rivalry among paralogs promotes evolution of the human brain.  

PubMed

Geneticists have long sought to identify the genetic changes that made us human, but pinpointing the functionally relevant changes has been challenging. Two papers in this issue suggest that partial duplication of SRGAP2, producing an incomplete protein that antagonizes the original, contributed to human brain evolution. PMID:22579279

Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali

2012-05-11

152

Smell images and the flavour system in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavour perception is one of the most complex of human behaviours. It involves almost all of the senses, particularly the sense of smell, which is involved through odour images generated in the olfactory pathway. In the human brain, the perceptual systems are closely linked to systems for learning, memory, emotion and language, so distributed neural mechanisms contribute to food preference

Gordon M. Shepherd

2006-01-01

153

The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic

Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

2007-01-01

154

TV, Brain Waves and Human Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the procedure to test the hypothesis that subjects' brain waves in response to a television flicker (distraction) would be smaller in amplitude during television programs of high, in contrast to low, interest. Results from 12 viewers support the hypothesis. (CP)

Science News, 1978

1978-01-01

155

Functional streams and cortical integration in the human brain.  

PubMed

The processing of brain information relies on the organization of neuronal networks and circuits that in the end must provide the substrate for human cognition. However, the presence of highly complex and multirelay neuronal interactions has limited our ability to disentangle the assemblies of brain systems. The present review article focuses on the latest developments to understand the architecture of functional streams of the human brain at the large-scale level. Particularly, this article presents a comprehensive framework and recent findings about how the highly modular sensory cortex, such as the visual, somatosensory, auditory, as well as motor cortex areas, connects to more parallel-organized cortical hubs in the brain's functional connectome. PMID:24737695

Sepulcre, Jorge

2014-10-01

156

Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential  

SciTech Connect

The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

Not Available

1991-04-01

157

Human aging brain disorders: Role of antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the role of two free radical detoxificant enzymes in patients with aging brain disorders, superoxide\\u000a dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities have been measured in blood from male and female human patients of different\\u000a ages with several types of aging brain disorders. When compared with activities in the normal population, we have detected:\\u000a 1) SOD and

Ma Rosario de la Torre; Angela Casado; Ma Encarnacin Lpez-Fernndez; Diana Carrascosa; Ma Concepcin Casado; Domenico Venarucci; Vincenzo Venarucci

1996-01-01

158

Haploinsufficiency of interferon regulatory factor 6 alters brain morphology in the mouse.  

PubMed

Orofacial clefts are among the commonest birth defects. Among many genetic contributors to orofacial clefting, Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) is unique since mutations in this gene cause Van der Woude (VWS), the most common clefting syndrome. Furthermore, variants in IRF6 contribute to increased risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). Our previous work shows that individuals with either VWS or NSCL/P may have cerebral anomalies (larger anterior, smaller posterior regions), and a smaller cerebellum. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that disrupting Irf6 in the mouse will result in quantitative brain changes similar to those reported for humans with VWS and NSCL/P. Male mice heterozygous for Irf6 (Irf6(gt1/+); n = 9) and wild-type (Irf6(+/+) ; n = 6) mice at comparable age underwent a 4.7-T MRI scan to obtain quantitative measures of cortical and subcortical brain structures. There was no difference in total brain volume between groups. However, the frontal cortex was enlarged in the Irf6(gt1/+) mice compared to that of wild types (P = 0.028) while the posterior cortex did not differ. In addition, the volume of the cerebellum of Irf6(gt1/+) mice was decreased (P = 0.004). Mice that were heterozygous for Irf6 showed a similar pattern of brain anomalies previously reported in humans with VWS and NSCL/P. These structural differences were present in the absence of overt oral clefts. These results support a role for IRF6 in brain morphometry and provide evidence for a potential genetic link to abnormal brain development in orofacial clefting. PMID:24357509

Aerts, Andrea; DeVolder, Ian; Weinberg, Seth M; Thedens, Dan; Dunnwald, Martine; Schutte, Brian C; Nopoulos, Peg

2014-03-01

159

Dialectical Relationships Among Human Autonomy, the Brain, and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter the author examines relationships among human psychological autonomy, the brain, and culture. Human autonomy\\u000a is an evolved capacity of Homo sapiens that has dialectical relations with peoples socio-cultural environments and is a universal and necessary condition for people\\u000a optimal functioning. Human autonomy is neither a social construction nor an illusion. It is a real psychological power behind

Valery I. Chirkov

160

Several methods to determine heavy metals in the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of naturally occurring heavy metals in various parts of the human brain is discussed. The patients had no diseases in their central nervous systems (five individuals, mean age 70 years). Twenty brain parts were selected from both hemispheres. The analysis was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. Accuracy and precision of the applied techniques were tested by using standard reference materials. Two digestion methods were used to dissolve the brain samples for ICP-AES and GF-AAS. One was performed in a Parr-bomb and the second in a microwave oven. The present results show a non-homogeneous distribution of the essential elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in normal human brain. Corresponding regions in both hemispheres showed an almost identical concentration of these elements. In the case of toxic elements (Pb, Cd) an average value in different brain regions can not be established because of the high variability of individual data. This study indicates that beside differences in Pb and Cd intake with foods or cigarette smoke inhalation, the main factors of the high inter-individual variability of these element concentrations in human brain parts may be a marked difference in individual elimination or accumulation capabilities.

Andrsi, Erzsbet; Igaz, Sarolta; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Farkas, va; Ajtony, Zsolt

1999-05-01

161

Fibrinolytic Activity of Human Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Fibrinolytic activity (FA) of brain tissue, meninges and choroid plexus from 41 human cadavers without intracranial disorders was studied by Astrup's biochemical method and Todd's histochemical method. FA of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) before and after pneumoencephalography (PEG) was also studied by Astrup's method. FA of human brain was higher in the adults than in the newborn and infants, and increased with ageing in infants. No significant difference was found among age groups in the adults. There was no detectable difference of FA in various regions of the brain. Higher FA was recognized in meninges and choroid plexus. Liquefaction of the extravasated blood in the subarachnoid space was considered to be produced by the high fibrinolytic activity of the meninges. The lysed zones on fibrin plate by Todd's method were found at the vessels of the brain tissue and meninges, especially at small blood vessels. FA was found to be localized at the vascular endothelial cells. The lytic areas in the adult brain were relatively larger than those in the newborn brain at the same incubation time. CSF produced small lysed zones on human fibrin plate. CSF and plasma after PEG showed larger lysed zones than those before PEG, and plasminogen activator and/or proactivator in CSF and plasma seemed to be increased after PEG. Plasmin activity was not found in CSF before and after PEG. ImagesFigs. 2-5 PMID:4243674

Takashima, S.; Koga, M.; Tanaka, K.

1969-01-01

162

Individual differences in anthropomorphic attributions and human brain structure.  

PubMed

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics or behaviour to animals, non-living things or natural phenomena. It is pervasive among humans, yet nonetheless exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variability. We hypothesized that brain areas associated with anthropomorphic thinking might be similar to those engaged in the attribution of mental states to other humans, the so-called 'theory of mind' or mentalizing network. To test this hypothesis, we related brain structure measured using magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 83 healthy young adults to a simple, self-report questionnaire that measured the extent to which our participants made anthropomorphic attributions about non-human animals and non-animal stimuli. We found that individual differences in anthropomorphism for non-human animals correlated with the grey matter volume of the left temporoparietal junction, a brain area involved in mentalizing. Our data support previous work indicating a link between areas of the brain involved in attributing mental states to other humans and those involved in anthropomorphism. PMID:23887807

Cullen, Harriet; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

2014-09-01

163

Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain  

PubMed Central

The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patients own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Havard K.; Nygard, Stale; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

2013-01-01

164

The Relationship between Brain Morphology and Polysomnography in Healthy Good Sleepers  

PubMed Central

Background Normal sleep continuity and architecture show remarkable inter-individual variability. Previous studies suggest that brain morphology may explain inter-individual differences in sleep variables. Method Thirty-eight healthy subjects spent two consecutive nights at the sleep laboratory with polysomnographic monitoring. Furthermore, high-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were acquired in all participants. EEG sleep recordings were analyzed using standard sleep staging criteria and power spectral analysis. Using the FreeSurfer software for automated segmentation, 174 variables were determined representing the volume and thickness of cortical segments and the volume of subcortical brain areas. Regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship with polysomnographic and spectral EEG power variables. Results The analysis did not provide any support for the a-priori formulated hypotheses of an association between brain morphology and polysomnographic variables. Exploratory analyses revealed that the thickness of the left caudal anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with EEG beta2 power (2432 Hz) during REM sleep. The volume of the left postcentral gyrus was positively associated with periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS). Conclusions The function of the anterior cingulate cortex as well as EEG beta power during REM sleep have been related to dreaming and sleep-related memory consolidation, which may explain the observed correlation. Increased volumes of the postcentral gyrus may be the result of increased sensory input associated with PLMS. However, due to the exploratory nature of the corresponding analyses, these results have to be replicated before drawing firm conclusions. PMID:25275322

Reinhard, Matthias A.; Regen, Wolfram; Baglioni, Chiara; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Hennig, Jurgen; Riemann, Dieter; Spiegelhalder, Kai

2014-01-01

165

Measuring dopamine release in the human brain with PET  

SciTech Connect

The dopamine system is involved in the regulation of brain regions that subserve motor, cognitive and motivational behaviors. Disruptions of dopamine (DA) function have ben implicated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses including substance abuse as well as on some of the deficits associated with aging of the human brain. This has made the DA system an important topic in research in the neurosciences and neuroimaging as well as an important molecular target for drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), was the first technology that enabled direct measurement of components of the DA system in the living human brain. Imaging studies of DA in the living brain have been indirect, relying on the development of radiotracers to label DA receptors, DA transporters, compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade synaptic DA. Additionally, through the use of tracers that provide information on regional brain activity (ie brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow) and of appropriate pharmacological interventions, it has been possible to assess the functional consequences of changes in brain DA activity. DA specific ligands have been useful in the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses as well as to investigate receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs. A limitation of strategies that rely on the use of DA specific ligands is that the measures do not necessarily reflect the functional state of the dopaminergic system and that there use to study the effects of drugs is limited to the investigation of receptor or transporter occupancy. Newer strategies have been developed in an attempt to provide with information on dopamine release and on the functional responsivity of the DA system in the human brain. This in turn allows to investigate the effects of pharmacological agent in an analogous way to what is done with microdialysis techniques.

Volkow, N.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-12-01

166

Morphological variation in great ape and modern human mandibles  

PubMed Central

Adult mandibles of 317 modern humans and 91 great apes were selected that showed no pathology. Adult mandibles of Pan troglodytes troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and Gorilla gorilla gorilla and from 2 modern human populations (Zulu and Europeans from Spitalfields) were reliably sexed. Thirteen measurements were defined and included mandibular height, length and breadth in representative positions. Univariate statistical techniques and multivariate (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis) statistical techniques were used to investigate interspecific variability and sexual dimorphism in human and great ape mandibles, and intraspecific variability among the modern human mandibles. Analysis of interspecific differences revealed some pairs of variables with a tight linear relationship and others where Homo and the great apes pulled apart from one another due to shape differences. Homo and Pan are least sexually dimorphic in the mandible, Pan less so than Homo sapiens, but both the magnitude of sexual dimorphism and the distribution of sexually dimorphic measurements varied both among and between modern humans and great apes. Intraspecific variation among the 10 populations of modern humans was less than that generally reported in studies of crania (74.3% of mandibles were correctly classified into 1 of 10 populations using discriminant functions based on 13 variables as compared with 93% of crania from 17 populations based on 70 variables in one extensive study of crania). A subrecent European population (Poundbury) emerged as more different from a recent European population (Spitalfields) than other more diverse modern populations were from each other, suggesting considerable morphological plasticity in the mandible through time. This study forms a sound basis on which to explore mandibular variation in Neanderthals, early Homo sapiens and other more ancient fossil hominids. PMID:10634689

HUMPHREY, L. T.; DEAN, M. C.; STRINGER, C. B.

1999-01-01

167

Thrombin binding to human brain and spinal cord  

SciTech Connect

Thrombin, a serine protease that regulates hemostasis, has been shown to stimulate the formation of cGMP in murine neuroblastoma cells. The nervous system in vivo thus may be postulated to respond to this blood-borne factor after it breaches the blood-brain barrier, as in trauma. Human alpha-thrombin was radiolabeled with 125I and shown to bind rapidly, reversibly, and with high affinity to human brain and spinal cord. These findings indicate the presence of specific thrombin-binding sites in nervous tissue and may have important clinical implications.

McKinney, M.; Snider, R.M.; Richelson, E.

1983-12-01

168

Mammillotegmental tract in the human brain: diffusion tensor tractography study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionSeveral animal studies have been conducted for the identification of the mammillotegmental tract (MTT); however, no study\\u000a has been reported in the human brain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsIn the current study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we attempted to identify the MTT in the human brain. We recruited\\u000a 31 healthy volunteers for this study. Diffusion tensor images were acquired using 1.5T, and the

Hyeok Gyu Kwon; Ji Heon Hong; Sung Ho Jang

2011-01-01

169

Neurogenesis in the striatum of the adult human brain.  

PubMed

In most mammals, neurons are added throughout life in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. One area where neuroblasts that give rise to adult-born neurons are generated is the lateral ventricle wall of the brain. We show, using histological and carbon-14 dating approaches, that in adult humans new neurons integrate in the striatum, which is adjacent to this neurogenic niche. The neuronal turnover in the striatum appears restricted to interneurons, and postnatally generated striatal neurons are preferentially depleted in patients with Huntington's disease. Our findings demonstrate a unique pattern of neurogenesis in the adult human brain. PMID:24561062

Ernst, Aurlie; Alkass, Kanar; Bernard, Samuel; Salehpour, Mehran; Perl, Shira; Tisdale, John; Possnert, Gran; Druid, Henrik; Frisn, Jonas

2014-02-27

170

Human brain spots emotion in non humanoid robots  

PubMed Central

The computation by which our brain elaborates fast responses to emotional expressions is currently an active field of brain studies. Previous studies have focused on stimuli taken from everyday life. Here, we investigated event-related potentials in response to happy vs neutral stimuli of human and non-humanoid robots. At the behavioural level, emotion shortened reaction times similarly for robotic and human stimuli. Early P1 wave was enhanced in response to happy compared to neutral expressions for robotic as well as for human stimuli, suggesting that emotion from robots is encoded as early as human emotion expression. Congruent with their lower faceness properties compared to human stimuli, robots elicited a later and lower N170 component than human stimuli. These findings challenge the claim that robots need to present an anthropomorphic aspect to interact with humans. Taken together, such results suggest that the early brain processing of emotional expressions is not bounded to human-like arrangements embodying emotion. PMID:20194513

Foucher, Aurelie; Jouvent, Roland; Nadel, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

171

Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size.  

PubMed

When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI sequences, non-wasteful FOV settings are important to achieve the best temporal and spatial resolution. In practice, however, imperfect FOV size estimation often results in partial brain coverage for a significant number of participants per study, or, alternatively, an unnecessarily large voxel-size or number of slices to guarantee full brain coverage. To provide normative FOV guidelines we estimated population distributions of brain size in the x-, y-, and z-direction using data from 14,781 individuals. Our results indicated that 11mm in the z-direction differentiate between obtaining full brain coverage for 90% vs. 99.9% of participants. Importantly, we observed that rotating the FOV to optimally cover the brain, and thus minimize the number of slices needed, effectively reduces the required inferior-superior FOV size by ~5%. For a typical adult imaging study, 99.9% of the population can be imaged with full brain coverage when using an inferior-superior FOV of 142mm, assuming optimal slice orientation and minimal within-scan head motion. By providing population distributions for brain size in the x-, y-, and z-direction we improve the potential for obtaining full brain coverage, especially in 2D-EPI sequences used in most functional and diffusion MRI studies. We further enable optimization of related imaging parameters including the number of slices, TR and total acquisition time. PMID:24747737

Mennes, Maarten; Jenkinson, Mark; Valabregue, Romain; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian; Smith, Stephen

2014-09-01

172

PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it an important topic in research in the neurosciences and an important molecular target in drug development. PET enables the direct measurement of components of the dopamine system in the living human brain. It relies on radiotracers which label dopamine receptors, dopamine transporters, precursors of dopamine or compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade dopamine. Additionally, by using tracers that provide information on regional brain metabolism or blood flow as well as neurochemically specific pharmacological interventions, PET can be used to assess the functional consequences of change in brain dopamine activity. PET dopamine measurements have been used to investigate the normal human brain and its involvement in psychiatric and neurological diseases. It has also been used in psychopharmacological research to investigate dopamine drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease and of schizophrenia as well as to investigate the effects of drugs of abuse on the dopamine system. Since various functional and neurochemical parameters can be studied in the same subject, PET enables investigation of the functional integrity of the dopamine system in the human brain and investigation of the interactions of dopamine with other neurotransmitters. This paper summarizes the different tracers and experimental strategies developed to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and their applications to clinical research. 254 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY-Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-07-01

173

Edaravone Protects against Methylglyoxal-Induced Barrier Damage in Human Brain Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated level of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal, triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. Our aim was to test whether edaravone can exert a protective effect on the barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) treated with methylglyoxal. Methodology Cell viability was monitored in real-time by impedance-based cell electronic sensing. The barrier function of the monolayer was characterized by measurement of resistance and flux of permeability markers, and visualized by immunohistochemistry for claudin-5 and ?-catenin. Cell morphology was also examined by holographic phase imaging. Principal Findings Methylglyoxal exerted a time- and dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human brain endothelial cells: a concentration of 600 M resulted in about 50% toxicity, significantly reduced the integrity and increased the permeability of the barrier. The cell morphology also changed dramatically: the area of cells decreased, their optical height significantly increased. Edaravone (3 mM) provided a complete protection against the toxic effect of methylglyoxal. Co-administration of edaravone restored cell viability, barrier integrity and functions of brain endothelial cells. Similar protection was obtained by the well-known antiglycating molecule, aminoguanidine, our reference compound. Conclusion These results indicate for the first time that edaravone is protective in carbonyl stress induced barrier damage. Our data may contribute to the development of compounds to treat brain endothelial dysfunction in carbonyl stress related diseases. PMID:25033388

Toth, Andrea E.; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Bocsik, Alexandra; Santha, Petra; Veszelka, Szilvia; Nagy, Lajos; Puskas, Laszlo G.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Takata, Fuyuko; Dohgu, Shinya; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Deli, Maria A.

2014-01-01

174

Spatial-temporal atlas of human fetal brain development during the early second trimester.  

PubMed

During the second trimester, the human fetal brain undergoes numerous changes that lead to substantial variation in the neonatal in terms of its morphology and tissue types. As fetal MRI is more and more widely used for studying the human brain development during this period, a spatiotemporal atlas becomes necessary for characterizing the dynamic structural changes. In this study, 34 postmortem human fetal brains with gestational ages ranging from 15 to 22 weeks were scanned using 7.0 T MR. We used automated morphometrics, tensor-based morphometry and surface modeling techniques to analyze the data. Spatiotemporal atlases of each week and the overall atlas covering the whole period with high resolution and contrast were created. These atlases were used for the analysis of age-specific shape changes during this period, including development of the cerebral wall, lateral ventricles, Sylvian fissure, and growth direction based on local surface measurements. Our findings indicate that growth of the subplate zone is especially striking and is the main cause for the lamination pattern changes. Changes in the cortex around Sylvian fissure demonstrate that cortical growth may be one of the mechanisms for gyration. Surface deformation mapping, revealed by local shape analysis, indicates that there is global anterior-posterior growth pattern, with frontal and temporal lobes developing relatively quickly during this period. Our results are valuable for understanding the normal brain development trajectories and anatomical characteristics. These week-by-week fetal brain atlases can be used as reference in in vivo studies, and may facilitate the quantification of fetal brain development across space and time. PMID:23727529

Zhan, Jinfeng; Dinov, Ivo D; Li, Junning; Zhang, Zhonghe; Hobel, Sam; Shi, Yonggang; Lin, Xiangtao; Zamanyan, Alen; Feng, Lei; Teng, Gaojun; Fang, Fang; Tang, Yuchun; Zang, Fengchao; Toga, Arthur W; Liu, Shuwei

2013-11-15

175

Bevacizumab treatment leads to observable morphological and metabolic changes in brain radiation necrosis.  

PubMed

We investigated morphological and metabolic changes of radiation necrosis (RN) of the brain following bevacizumab (BEV) treatment by using neuroimaging. Nine patients with symptomatic RN, who had already been treated with radiation therapy for malignant brain tumors (6 glioblastomas, 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and 2 metastatic brain tumors), were enrolled in this prospective clinical study. RN diagnosis was neuroradiologically determined with Gd-enhanced MRI and 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET). RN clinical and radiological changes in MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and PET were assessed following BEV therapy. Karnofsky performance status scores improved in seven patients (77.8 %). Both volumes of the Gd-enhanced area and FLAIR-high area from MRI decreased in all patients after BEV therapy and the mean size reduction rates of the lesions were 80.0 and 65.0 %, respectively. MRS, which was performed in three patients, showed a significant reduction in Cho/Cr ratio after BEV therapy. Lesion/normal tissue (L/N) ratios in MET- and 11C-choline positron emission tomography (CHO-PET) decreased in 8 (89 %) and 9 patients (100 %), respectively, and the mean L/N ratio reduction rates were 24.4 and 60.7 %, respectively. BEV-related adverse effects of grade 1 or 2 (anemia, neutropenia and lymphocytopenia) occurred in three patients. These results demonstrated that BEV therapy improved RN both clinically and radiologically. BEV therapeutic mechanisms on RN have been suggested to be related not only to the effect on vascular permeability reduction by repairing the blood-brain barrier, but also to the effect on suppression of tissue biological activity, such as immunoreactions and inflammation. PMID:24789256

Yonezawa, Shingo; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Shinoda, Jun; Nomura, Yuichi; Asano, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Ohe, Naoyuki; Yano, Hirohito; Iwama, Toru

2014-08-01

176

Low level lead inhibits the human brain cation pump  

SciTech Connect

The impact of low level lead exposure on human central nervous system function is a major public health concern. This study addresses the inhibition of the cation pump enzyme Na,K-ATPase by low level lead. Human brain tissue was obtained at autopsy and frozen until use. Brain homogenates were preincubated with PbCl{sub 2} for 20 min at 0{degree}C. Inhibition of K-paranitrophenylphosphatase (pNPPase), a measure of the dephosphorylation step of Na,K-ATPase, reached steady state within 10 min. K-pNPPase activity, expressed as a percentage of control, fell to 96.3 {plus minus} 0.9% at 0.25 uM (PbCl{sub 2}) to 82.0 {plus minus} 1.6% at 2.5 uM (PbCl{sub 2}) in homogenates prepared from normal brain. Similar results were obtained with homogenates prepared from brains of patients with a history of alcohol abuse and of those with other miscellaneous conditions. Since the mean blood level of lead in the US has ranged recently from m9.2 to 16.0 ug/dl, these results indicate that current in vivo levels of lead exposure may impair important human brain function.

Bertoni, J.M.; Sprenkle, P.M. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA))

1991-01-01

177

Nonselenium Glutathione Peroxidase in Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Nonselenium glutathione peroxidase (NSGP) is a new member of the antioxidant family. Using antibodies to recombinant NSGP we have examined the distribution of this enzyme in normal, Parkinsons disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy body disease (DLB) brains. We have also co-localized this enzyme with ?-synuclein as a marker for Lewy bodies. In normal brains there was a very low level of NSGP staining in astrocytes. In PD and DLB there were increases in the number and staining intensity of NSGP-positive astrocytes in both gray and white matter. Cell counting of NSGP cells in PD and DLB frontal and cingulated cortices indicated there was 10 to 15 times more positive cells in gray matter and three times more positive cells in white matter than in control cortices. Some neurons were positive for both ?-synuclein and NSGP in PD and DLB, and double staining indicated that NSGP neurons contained either diffuse cytoplasmic ?-synuclein deposits or Lewy bodies. In concentric Lewy bodies, ?-synuclein staining was peripheral whereas NSGP staining was confined to the central core. Immunoprecipitation indicated there was direct interaction between ?-synuclein and NSGP. These results suggest oxidative stress conditions exist in PD and DLB and that certain cells have responded by up-regulating this novel antioxidant enzyme. PMID:12213717

Power, John H. T.; Shannon, John M.; Blumbergs, Peter C.; Gai, Wei-Ping

2002-01-01

178

Genetic Control of Human Brain Transcript Expression in Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

We recently surveyed the relationship between the human brain transcriptome and genome in a series of neuropathologically normal postmortem samples. We have now analyzed additional samples with a confirmed pathologic diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD; final n = 188 controls, 176 cases). Nine percent of the cortical transcripts that we analyzed had expression profiles correlated with their genotypes in the combined cohort, and approximately 5% of transcripts had SNP-transcript relationships that could distinguish LOAD samples. Two of these transcripts have been previously implicated in LOAD candidate-gene SNP-expression screens. This study shows how the relationship between common inherited genetic variants and brain transcript expression can be used in the study of human brain disorders. We suggest that studying the transcriptome as a quantitative endo-phenotype has greater power for discovering risk SNPs influencing expression than the use of discrete diagnostic categories such as presence or absence of disease. PMID:19361613

Webster, Jennifer A.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Clarke, Jennifer; Ray, Monika; Zhang, Weixiong; Holmans, Peter; Rohrer, Kristen; Zhao, Alice; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; McCorquodale, Donald S.; Cuello, Cindy; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Nath, Priti; Zismann, Victoria L.; Joshipura, Keta; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Hu-Lince, Diane; Coon, Keith D.; Craig, David W.; Pearson, John V.; Heward, Christopher B.; Reiman, Eric M.; Stephan, Dietrich; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda J.

2009-01-01

179

Accelerated Evolution of the ASPM Gene Controlling Brain Size Begins Prior to Human Brain Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of

Natalay Kouprina; Adam Pavlicek; Ganeshwaran H Mochida; Gregory Solomon; William Gersch; Young-Ho Yoon; Randall Collura; Maryellen Ruvolo; J. Carl Barrett; C. Geoffrey Woods; Christopher A Walsh; Jerzy Jurka; Vladimir Larionov

2004-01-01

180

Effects of Electroacupuncture versus Manual Acupuncture on the Human Brain  

E-print Network

Effects of Electroacupuncture versus Manual Acupuncture on the Human Brain as Measured by f frequencies with traditional Chinese manual acupuncture. Although not as time-tested as manual acupuncture and quantifiably. Manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture at 2 Hz and 100 Hz, and tactile control stimulation were

Napadow, Vitaly

181

Prefrontal cognitive systems in schizophrenia : Towards human genetic brain mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia has complex genetic heritability. It is also genetically heterogeneous. To the extent that genes are associated with symptom constellations in schizophrenia, they do so by affecting the development and function of neural systems that mediate the expression of such diverse behavioral, cognitive and perceptual phenomena. The genetic mechanisms of human brain dysfunction remain to be well understood. Imaging genetics

Hao-Yang Tan; Joseph H. Callicott; Daniel R. Weinberger

2009-01-01

182

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns  

E-print Network

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns Tom M. Mitchell, Svetlana V activation Mean activation is over 60 different stimuli The difference images are used during analysis - = Bottle Activation Mean Activation Bottle - Mean Bottle #12;7 Motivation for the Model #12;8 How Does

Matwin, Stan

183

The power of love on the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Romantic love has been the source for some of the greatest achievements of mankind throughout the ages. The recent localization of romantic love within subcorticocortical reward, motivation and emotion systems in the human brain has suggested that love is a goal-directed drive with predictable facilitation effects on cognitive behavior, rather than a pure emotion. Here we show that the subliminal

Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli; Scott T. Grafton; Stephanie Ortigue

2006-01-01

184

Neural Control: Closed-Loop Human Brain Reading  

E-print Network

single neurons and small groups of neurons, which lead to the discovery of a highly explicit, narrowly temporal lobe neurons in humans reveals top-down effects, opening new possibilities for describing neural computations in the brain based on the averaged activity of millions of neurons. Knowing when and where

Földiák, Peter

185

A Collaborative Brain-Computer Interface for Improving Human Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have been studied since the 1970s. Currently, the main focus of BCI research lies on the clinical use, which aims to provide a new communication channel to patients with motor disabilities to improve their quality of life. However, the BCI technology can also be used to improve human performance for normal healthy users. Although

Yijun Wang; Tzyy-Ping Jung; Pedro Antonio Valdes-Sosa

2011-01-01

186

Quantitative MRI measurements of human fetal brain development in utero  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for high resolution imaging of the central nervous system. We have tested the feasibility of using MRI in conjunction with quantitative image analysis to perform volumetric measurements of the brain in the developing human fetus in utero. The database comprises MR images of a total of 56 fetuses (gestational age 2541weeks) referred because of suspected

Rachel Grossman; Chen Hoffman; Yael Mardor; Anat Biegon

2006-01-01

187

Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Syntax  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically) structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal. PMID:19478999

Friedrich, Roland; Friederici, Angela D.

2009-01-01

188

Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.  

PubMed

Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically) structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal. PMID:19478999

Friedrich, Roland; Friederici, Angela D

2009-01-01

189

Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).  

SciTech Connect

A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

2011-09-27

190

Rock magnetism linked to human brain magnetite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetite has a long and distinguished career as one of the most important minerals in geophysics, as it is responsible for most of the remanent magnetization in marine sediments and the oceanic crust. It may come as a surprise to discover that it also ranks as the third or fourth most diverse mineral product formed biochemically by living organisms, and forms naturally in a variety of human tissues [Kirschvink et al., 1992].Magnetite was discovered in teeth of the Polyplacophora mollusks over 30 years ago, in magnetotactic bacteria nearly 20 years ago, in honey bees and homing pigeons nearly 15 years ago, but only recently in human tissue.

Kirschvink, Joseph L.

191

Computed Tomography-Estimated Specific Gravity of Noncontused Brain Areas as a Marker of Severity in Human Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we assessed the relationship between brain estimated specific gravity (eSG) and clinical symptoms, therapeutic intensity level, and outcome in human traumatic brain injury (TBI). Brain weight, volume, and eSG of the noncontused hemispheric areas were measured from computed tomography (CT) DICOM images on the initial (5 6 h) CT of 120 patients with severe TBI. Control values

Vincent Degos; Thomas Lescot; Abderrezak Zouaoui; Harold Hermann; Pierre Coriat; Louis Puybasset

2006-01-01

192

Visualization of specific binding sites of benzodiazepine in human brain  

SciTech Connect

Using 11C-labeled Ro15-1788 and positron emission tomography, studies of benzodiazepine binding sites in the human brain were performed on four normal volunteers. Rapid and high accumulation of 11C activity was observed in the brain after i.v. injection of (11C)Ro15-1788, the maximum of which was within 12 min. Initial distribution of 11C activity in the brain was similar to the distribution of the normal cerebral blood flow. Ten minutes after injection, however, a high uptake of 11C activity was observed in the cerebral cortex and moderate uptake was seen in the cerebellar cortex, the basal ganglia, and the thalamus. The accumulation of 11C activity was low in the brain stem. This distribution of 11C activity was approximately parallel to the known distribution of benzodiazepine receptors. Saturation experiments were performed on four volunteers with oral administration of 0.3-1.8 mg/kg of cold Ro15-1788 prior to injection. Initial distribution of 11C activity following injection peaked within 2 min and then the accumulation of 11C activity decreased rapidly and remarkably throughout the brain. The results indicated that (11C) Ro15-1788 associates and dissociates to specific and nonspecific binding sites rapidly and has a high ratio of specific receptor binding to nonspecific binding in vivo. Carbon-11 Ro15-1788 is a suitable radioligand for the study of benzodiazepine receptors in vivo in humans.

Shinotoh, H.; Yamasaki, T.; Inoue, O.; Itoh, T.; Suzuki, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Tateno, Y.; Ikehira, H.

1986-10-01

193

Robotic actions in the human brain Robotic movement preferentially engages the action observation network  

E-print Network

Robotic actions in the human brain 1 Robotic movement., Stadler, W. & Prinz, W. (in press / 2011). Robotic movement preferentially engages the action observation network. Human Brain Mapping. #12;Robotic

Hamilton, Antonia

194

Morphological and behavioral markers of environmentally induced retardation of brain development: an animal model  

SciTech Connect

In most neurotoxicological studies morphological assessment focuses on pathological effects, like degenerative changes in neuronal perikarya, axonopathy, demyelination, and glial and endothelial cell reactions. Similarly, the assessment of physiological and behavioral effects center on evident neurological symptoms, like EEG and EMG abnormalities, resting and intention tremor, abnormal gait, and abnormal reflexes. This paper reviews briefly another central nervous system target of harmful environmental agents, which results in behavioral abnormalities without any qualitatively evident neuropathology. This is called microneuronal hypoplasia, a retardation of brain development characterized by a quantitative reduction in the normal population of late-generated, short-axoned neurons in specific brain regions. Correlated descriptive and experimental neurogenetic studies in the rat have established that all the cerebellar granule cells and a very high proportion of hippocampal granule cells are produced postnatally, and that focal, low-dose X-irradiation either of the cerebellum or of the hippocampus after birth selectively interferes with the acquisition of the full complement of granule cells (microneuronal hypoplasia). Subsequent behavioral investigations showed that cerebellar microneuronal hypoplasia results in profound hyperactivity without motor abnormalities, while hippocampal microneuronal hypoplasia results in hyperactivity, as well as attentional and learning deficits. There is much indirect clinical evidence that various harmful environmental agents affecting the pregnant mother and/or the infant lead to such childhood disorders as hyperactivity and attentional and learning disorders. 109 references.

Altman, J.

1987-10-01

195

Mathematical modeling of human brain physiological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a mathematical model of the basic physiological processes regulating the cerebral perfusion and oxygen supply was introduced [Jung , J. Math. Biol.JMBLAJ0303-681210.1007/s00285-005-0343-5 51, 491 (2005)]. Although this model correctly describes the interdependence of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP), it fails badly when it comes to explaining certain abnormal correlations seen in about 80% of the recordings of ABP together with ICP and the partial oxygen pressure (TiPO2) of the neuronal tissue, taken at an intensive care unit during neuromonitoring of patients with a severe brain trauma. Such recordings occasionally show segments, where the mean arterial blood pressure is correlated with the partial oxygen pressure in tissue but anticorrelated with the intracranial pressure. The origin of such abnormal correlations has not been fully understood yet. Here, two extensions to the previous approach are proposed which can reproduce such abnormal correlations in simulations quantitatively. Furthermore, as the simulations are based on a mathematical model, additional insight into the physiological mechanisms from which such abnormal correlations originate can be gained.

Bhm, Matthias; Faltermeier, Rupert; Brawanski, Alexander; Lang, Elmar W.

2013-12-01

196

Telomerase activity in human brain tumors: astrocytoma and meningioma.  

PubMed

Somatic cells do not have telomerase activity but immortalized cell lines and more than 85% of the cancer cells show telomerase activation to prevent the telomere from progressive shortening. The activation of this enzyme has been found in a variety of human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, but only few studies on telomerase activity in human brain tumors have been reported. Here, we evaluated telomerase activity in different grades of human astrocytoma and meningioma brain tumors. In this study, assay for telomerase activity performed on 50 eligible cases consisted of 26 meningioma, 24 astrocytoma according to the standard protocols. In the brain tissues, telomerase activity was positive in 39 (65%) of 50 patients. One sample t test showed that the telomerase activity in meningioma and astrocytoma tumors was significantly positive entirely (P<0.001). Also, grade I of meningioma and low grades of astrocytoma (grades I and II) significantly showed telomerase activity. According to our results, we suggest that activation of telomerase is an event that starts mostly at low grades of brain including meningioma and astrocytoma tumors. PMID:23512291

Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Mehdipour, Parvin

2013-05-01

197

Driving and Driven Architectures of Directed Small-World Human Brain Functional Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the investigation of the human brain connectome that describes the patterns of structural and functional connectivity networks of the human brain. Many studies of the human connectome have demonstrated that the brain network follows a small-world topology with an intrinsically cohesive modular structure and includes several network hubs in the medial parietal regions.

Chaogan Yan; Yong He

2011-01-01

198

-Amyloid-induced migration of monocytes across human brain endothelial cells involves RAGE and PECAM-1  

E-print Network

-Amyloid-induced migration of monocytes across human brain endothelial cells involves RAGE, Berislav Zlokovic, and Vijay K. Kalra. -Amyloid-in- duced migration of monocytes across human brain endothe). Our studies show that interaction of A 1­40 with monolayer of human brain endothelial cells results

Giri, Ranjit K.

199

Survival of the fattest: fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 2 million years, the hominid lineage leading to modern humans evolved significantly larger and more sophisticated brains than other primates. We propose that the modern human brain was a product of having first evolved fat babies. Hence, the fattest (infants) became, mentally, the fittest adults. Human babies have brains and body fat each contributing to 1114% of

Stephen C. Cunnane; Michael A. Crawford

2003-01-01

200

Parallel Computation in Simulating Di usion and Deformation in Human Brain  

E-print Network

in the development of improved approaches for the reconstruction of nerve #12;ber tracts in the human brainParallel Computation in Simulating Di#11;usion and Deformation in Human Brain #3; Ning Kang y Jun of parallel and high performance computation in simulating the di#11;usion process in the human brain

Zhang, Jun

201

Learning Shapes the Representation of Behavioral Choice in the Human Brain  

E-print Network

Neuron Article Learning Shapes the Representation of Behavioral Choice in the Human Brain Sheng Li experience. However, the human brain mechanisms that mediate flexible decisions through learning remain of the human brain plasticity mecha- nisms that mediate learning to support efficient and flexible deci- sions

Kourtzi, Zoe

202

Mapping the brain pathways of declarative verbal memory: Evidence from white matter lesions in the living human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the contribution of the brain white matter pathways to declarative verbal memory processes has been hindered by the lack of an adequate model in humans. An attractive and underexplored approach to study white matter region functionality in the living human brain is through the use of non-aprioristic models which specifically search disrupted white matter pathways. For this purpose, we

Jorge Sepulcre; Joseph C. Masdeu; Jaume Sastre-Garriga; Joaqun Goi; Nieves Vlez-de-Mendizbal; Beatriz Duque; Maria A. Pastor; Bartolom Bejarano; Pablo Villoslada

2008-01-01

203

Morphological method for the diagnosis of human adult type hypolactasia.  

PubMed Central

The primary adult type hypolactasia is the most common form of genetically determined disaccharidase deficiency. This study examined a large and homogeneous population of the south of Italy: surgical biopsy specimens of proximal jejunum from 178 adult subjects have been assayed for disaccharidase activities; the expression of lactase protein and lactase activity has also been investigated on tissue sections by immunomorphological and enzymohistochemical techniques. Histograms of lactase to sucrase ratio were found to provide a useful distribution of the lactase activity; a lactase to sucrase ratio of 0.17 was found to show discrimination between tissues with persistence of high lactase activity and tissues with adult type hypolactasia. In all 28 subjects with persistent high lactase activity, a uniform distribution of lactase protein and lactase activity in all villus enterocytes was detected, whereas in all 150 subjects with adult type hypolactasia a variable number of villus enterocytes failed to express the lactase. Moreover in hypolactasic samples the lactase activity on tissue sections was constantly detected later than in samples with persistent high lactase activity. The absolute correlation between the immunohistochemical and enzymohistochemical features and the assessment of lactase activity in intestinal homogenates suggests that the morphological criteria are an alternative method for the diagnosis of adult type hypolactasia in human biopsy specimens from proximal small jejunum. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7926903

Maiuri, L; Rossi, M; Raia, V; Paparo, F; Coletta, S; Mazzeo, F; Breglia, A; Auricchio, S

1994-01-01

204

Human Brain Stem Structures Respond Differentially to Noxious Heat  

PubMed Central

Concerning the physiological correlates of pain, the brain stem is considered to be one core region that is activated by noxious input. In animal studies, different slopes of skin heating (SSH) with noxious heat led to activation in different columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study aimed at finding a method for differentiating structures in PAG and other brain stem structures, which are associated with different qualities of pain in humans according to the structures that were associated with different behavioral significances to noxious thermal stimulation in animals. Brain activity was studied by functional MRI in healthy subjects in response to steep and shallow SSH with noxious heat. We found differential activation to different SSH in the PAG and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). In a second experiment, we demonstrate that the different SSH were associated with different pain qualities. Our experiments provide evidence that brainstem structures, i.e., the PAG and the RVM, become differentially activated by different SSH. Therefore, different SSH can be utilized when brain stem structures are investigated and when it is aimed to activate these structures differentially. Moreover, percepts of first pain were elicited by shallow SSH whereas percepts of second pain were elicited by steep SSH. The stronger activation of these brain stem structures to SSH, eliciting percepts of second vs. first pain, might be of relevance for activating different coping strategies in response to the noxious input with the two types of SSH. PMID:24032012

Ritter, Alexander; Franz, Marcel; Dietrich, Caroline; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Weiss, Thomas

2013-01-01

205

Increased LIS1 expression affects human and mouse brain development.  

PubMed

Deletions of the PAFAH1B1 gene (encoding LIS1) in 17p13.3 result in isolated lissencephaly sequence, and extended deletions including the YWHAE gene (encoding 14-3-3epsilon) cause Miller-Dieker syndrome. We identified seven unrelated individuals with submicroscopic duplication in 17p13.3 involving the PAFAH1B1 and/or YWHAE genes, and using a 'reverse genomics' approach, characterized the clinical consequences of these duplications. Increased PAFAH1B1 dosage causes mild brain structural abnormalities, moderate to severe developmental delay and failure to thrive. Duplication of YWHAE and surrounding genes increases the risk for macrosomia, mild developmental delay and pervasive developmental disorder, and results in shared facial dysmorphologies. Transgenic mice conditionally overexpressing LIS1 in the developing brain showed a decrease in brain size, an increase in apoptotic cells and a distorted cellular organization in the ventricular zone, including reduced cellular polarity but preserved cortical cell layer identity. Collectively, our results show that an increase in LIS1 expression in the developing brain results in brain abnormalities in mice and humans. PMID:19136950

Bi, Weimin; Sapir, Tamar; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A; Hunter, Jill V; Levy, Talia; Shinder, Vera; Peiffer, Daniel A; Gunderson, Kevin L; Nezarati, Marjan M; Shotts, Vern Ann; Amato, Stephen S; Savage, Sarah K; Harris, David J; Day-Salvatore, Debra-Lynn; Horner, Michele; Lu, Xin-Yan; Sahoo, Trilochan; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Beaudet, Arthur L; Cheung, Sau Wai; Martinez, Salvador; Lupski, James R; Reiner, Orly

2009-02-01

206

Lifespan maturation and degeneration of human brain white matter.  

PubMed

Properties of human brain tissue change across the lifespan. Here we model these changes in the living human brain by combining quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of R1 (1/T1) with diffusion MRI and tractography (N=102, ages 7-85). The amount of R1 change during development differs between white-matter fascicles, but in each fascicle the rate of development and decline are mirror-symmetric; the rate of R1 development as the brain approaches maturity predicts the rate of R1 degeneration in aging. Quantitative measurements of macromolecule tissue volume (MTV) confirm that R1 is an accurate index of the growth of new brain tissue. In contrast to R1, diffusion development follows an asymmetric time-course with rapid childhood changes but a slow rate of decline in old age. Together, the time-courses of R1 and diffusion changes demonstrate that multiple biological processes drive changes in white-matter tissue properties over the lifespan. PMID:25230200

Yeatman, Jason D; Wandell, Brian A; Mezer, Aviv A

2014-01-01

207

An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of ~900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals. Transcriptional regulation varies enormously by anatomical location, with different regions and their constituent cell types displaying robust molecular signatures that are highly conserved between individuals. Analysis of differential gene expression and gene co-expression relationships demonstrates that brain-wide variation strongly reflects the distributions of major cell classes such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Local neighbourhood relationships between fine anatomical subdivisions are associated with discrete neuronal subtypes and genes involved with synaptic transmission. The neocortex displays a relatively homogeneous transcriptional pattern, but with distinct features associated selectively with primary sensorimotor cortices and with enriched frontal lobe expression. Notably, the spatial topography of the neocortex is strongly reflected in its molecular topography the closer two cortical regions, the more similar their transcriptomes. This freely accessible online data resource forms a high-resolution transcriptional baseline for neurogenetic studies of normal and abnormal human brain function. PMID:22996553

Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Shen, Elaine H.; Ng, Lydia; Miller, Jeremy A.; van de Lagemaat, Louie N.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L.; Abajian, Chris; Beckmann, Christian F.; Bernard, Amy; Bertagnolli, Darren; Boe, Andrew F.; Cartagena, Preston M.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chapin, Mike; Chong, Jimmy; Dalley, Rachel A.; David Daly, Barry; Dang, Chinh; Datta, Suvro; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Faber, Vance; Feng, David; Fowler, David R.; Goldy, Jeff; Gregor, Benjamin W.; Haradon, Zeb; Haynor, David R.; Hohmann, John G.; Horvath, Steve; Howard, Robert E.; Jeromin, Andreas; Jochim, Jayson M.; Kinnunen, Marty; Lau, Christopher; Lazarz, Evan T.; Lee, Changkyu; Lemon, Tracy A.; Li, Ling; Li, Yang; Morris, John A.; Overly, Caroline C.; Parker, Patrick D.; Parry, Sheana E.; Reding, Melissa; Royall, Joshua J.; Schulkin, Jay; Sequeira, Pedro Adolfo; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R.; Smith, Simon C.; Sodt, Andy J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Swanson, Beryl E.; Vawter, Marquis P.; Williams, Derric; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Hof, Patrick R.; Smith, Stephen M.; Koch, Christof; Grant, Seth G. N.; Jones, Allan R.

2014-01-01

208

The Evolution of Brains from Early Mammals to Humans  

PubMed Central

The large size and complex organization of the human brain makes it unique among primate brains. In particular, the neocortex constitutes about 80% of the brain, and this cortex is subdivided into a large number of functionally specialized regions, the cortical areas. Such a brain mediates accomplishments and abilities unmatched by any other species. How did such a brain evolve? Answers come from comparative studies of the brains of present-day mammals and other vertebrates in conjunction with information about brain sizes and shapes from the fossil record, studies of brain development, and principles derived from studies of scaling and optimal design. Early mammals were small, with small brains, an emphasis on olfaction, and little neocortex. Neocortex was transformed from the single layer of output pyramidal neurons of the dorsal cortex of earlier ancestors to the six layers of all present-day mammals. This small cap of neocortex was divided into 2025 cortical areas, including primary and some of the secondary sensory areas that characterize neocortex in nearly all mammals today. Early placental mammals had a corpus callosum connecting the neocortex of the two hemispheres, a primary motor area, M1, and perhaps one or more premotor areas. One line of evolution, Euarchontoglires, led to present-day primates, tree shrews, flying lemurs, rodents and rabbits. Early primates evolved from small-brained, nocturnal, insect-eating mammals with an expanded region of temporal visual cortex. These early nocturnal primates were adapted to the fine branch niche of the tropical rainforest by having an even more expanded visual system that mediated visually guided reaching and grasping of insects, small vertebrates, and fruits. Neocortex was greatly expanded, and included an array of cortical areas that characterize neocortex of all living primates. Specializations of the visual system included new visual areas that contributed to a dorsal stream of visuomotor processing in a greatly enlarged region of posterior parietal cortex and an expanded motor system and the addition of a ventral premotor area. Higher visual areas in a large temporal lobe facilitated object recognition, and frontal cortex, included granular prefrontal cortex. Auditory cortex included the primary and secondary auditory areas that characterize prosimian and anthropoid primates today. As anthropoids emerged as diurnal primates, the visual system specialized for detailed foveal vision. Other adaptations included an expansion of prefrontal cortex and insular cortex. The human and chimpanzee-bonobo lineages diverged some 68 million years ago with brains that were about one-third the size of modern humans. Over the last two million years, the brains of our more recent ancestors increased greatly in size, especially in the prefrontal, posterior parietal, lateral temporal, and insular regions. Specialization of the two cerebral hemispheres for related, but different functions became pronounced, and language and other impressive cognitive abilities emerged. PMID:23529256

Kaas, Jon H.

2012-01-01

209

Dynamic reconfiguration of human brain networks during learning  

E-print Network

Human learning is a complex phenomenon requiring flexibility to adapt existing brain function and precision in selecting new neurophysiological activities to drive desired behavior. These two attributes -- flexibility and selection -- must operate over multiple temporal scales as performance of a skill changes from being slow and challenging to being fast and automatic. Such selective adaptability is naturally provided by modular structure, which plays a critical role in evolution, development, and optimal network function. Using functional connectivity measurements of brain activity acquired from initial training through mastery of a simple motor skill, we explore the role of modularity in human learning by identifying dynamic changes of modular organization spanning multiple temporal scales. Our results indicate that flexibility, which we measure by the allegiance of nodes to modules, in one experimental session predicts the relative amount of learning in a future session. We also develop a general statisti...

Bassett, Danielle S; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J; Carlson, Jean M; Grafton, Scott T

2011-01-01

210

Inter-brain synchronization during coordination of speech rhythm in human-to-human social interaction  

PubMed Central

Behavioral rhythms synchronize between humans for communication; however, the relationship of brain rhythm synchronization during speech rhythm synchronization between individuals remains unclear. Here, we conducted alternating speech tasks in which two subjects alternately pronounced letters of the alphabet during hyperscanning electroencephalography. Twenty pairs of subjects performed the task before and after each subject individually performed the task with a machine that pronounced letters at almost constant intervals. Speech rhythms were more likely to become synchronized in humanhuman tasks than humanmachine tasks. Moreover, theta/alpha (612?Hz) amplitudes synchronized in the same temporal and lateral-parietal regions in each pair. Behavioral and inter-brain synchronizations were enhanced after humanmachine tasks. These results indicate that inter-brain synchronizations are tightly linked to speech synchronizations between subjects. Furthermore, theta/alpha inter-brain synchronizations were also found in subjects while they observed humanmachine tasks, which suggests that the inter-brain synchronization might reflect empathy for others' speech rhythms. PMID:23603749

Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamada, Yohei; Ushiku, Yosuke; Miyauchi, Eri; Yamaguchi, Yoko

2013-01-01

211

Morphological and morphometric study on sphenoid and basioccipital ossification in normal human fetuses.  

PubMed

Congenital anomalies of the brain frequently correspond to cranial base anomalies, and a detailed description of morphology and individual variations in the developing cranial base is of clinical importance for diagnosing anomalies. Development of the human cranial base has been studied using dissection, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. We here examined development of the normal human fetal cranial base using bone staining, which allows for direct observation of the ossification centers and precise three-dimensional measurements. We observed alizarin red S-stained sphenoids and basiocciputs of 22 normal formalin-fixed human fetuses with crown-rump lengths (CRL) of 115-175 mm. We defined landmarks and measured sphenoids and basiocciputs using a fine caliper. Growth patterns of these ossifying bones were obtained, and we found similarities and differences among the growth patterns. We also observed individual variations in the ossification patterns, in particular, single- or double-ossification center patterns for the basisphenoid. The orbitosphenoid and basisphenoid widths and ratios of the widths to the total cranial base width were significantly different between the two pattern groups, whereas the other measurements and their ratios to the total cranial base did not differ between the groups. We measured the cerebrum and pons in different sets of 22 human fetuses with CRLs of 105-186 mm and found close relationships with the development of corresponding parts of the cranial base. The results contribute to the quantitative and qualitative information about the growth patterns and variations during human fetal cranial base development. PMID:21848997

Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Hui; Udagawa, Jun; Otani, Hiroki

2011-09-01

212

Beyond genotype: serotonin transporter epigenetic modification predicts human brain function.  

PubMed

We examined epigenetic regulation in regards to behaviorally and clinically relevant human brain function. Specifically, we found that increased promoter methylation of the serotonin transporter gene predicted increased threat-related amygdala reactivity and decreased mRNA expression in postmortem amygdala tissue. These patterns were independent of functional genetic variation in the same region. Furthermore, the association with amygdala reactivity was replicated in a second cohort and was robust to both sampling methods and age. PMID:25086606

Nikolova, Yuliya S; Koenen, Karestan C; Galea, Sandro; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Seney, Marianne L; Sibille, Etienne; Williamson, Douglas E; Hariri, Ahmad R

2014-09-01

213

Neurophysiological Architecture of Functional Magnetic Resonance Images of Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated large-scale systems organization of the whole human brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from healthy volunteers in a no-task or 'resting' state. Images were parcellated using a prior anatomical template, yielding regional mean time series for each of 90 regions (major cortical gyri and subcortical nuclei) in each subject. Significant pairwise func- tional connections, defined

Raymond Salvador; John Suckling; Martin R. Coleman; John D. Pickard; David Menon; Ed Bullmore

2005-01-01

214

Alterations of telomere length in human brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomeres at the ends of human chromosomes consist of tandem hexametric (TTAGGG)n repeats, which protect them from degradation. At each cycle of cell division, most normal somatic cells lose approximately\\u000a 50100bp of the terminal telomeric repeat DNA. Precise prediction of growth and estimation of the malignant potential of\\u000a brain tumors require additional markers. DNA extraction was performed from the 51

Majid Kheirollahi; Masoud Mehrazin; Naser Kamalian; Parvin Mehdipour

215

A Human IAP-Family Gene, Apollon, Expressed in Human Brain Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

IAP is a family of protein that has baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains and inhibits apoptosis. We found a human IAP family gene, which we named Apollon, encoding a huge protein (530 kDa) that contains a single BIR domain and a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme domain, that is a human homolog of BRUCE. Apollon protein was expressed in four of six brain

Zhihong Chen; Mikihiko Naito; Satoko Hori; Tetsuo Mashima; Takao Yamori; Takashi Tsuruo

1999-01-01

216

Morphological and Genetic Activation of Microglia After Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors experience long-term post-traumatic morbidities. In diffuse brain-injured rats, a chronic sensory sensitivity to whisker stimulation models the agitation of TBI survivors and provides anatomical landmarks across the whisker-barrel circuit to evaluate post-traumatic neuropathology. As a consequence of TBI, acute and chronic microglial activation can contribute to degenerative and reparative events underlying post-traumatic morbidity. Here we hypothesize that a temporal sequence of microglial activation states contributes to the circuit pathology responsible for post-traumatic morbidity, and test the hypothesis by examining microglial morphological activation and neuroinflammatory markers for activation states through gene expression and receptor binding affinity. Adult male, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a single moderate midline fluid percussion (FPI) or sham injury. Microglial activation was determined by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and receptor autoradiography in the primary somatosensory barrel field (S1BF) and ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus (VPM) at 7 and 28 days following FPI. Morphological changes indicative of microglial activation, including swollen cell body with thicker, shrunken processes, were evident in S1BF and VPM at 7 and 28 days post-injury. Principally at 7 days post-injury in VPM, general inflammatory gene expression (MHC-I, MHC-II, translocator protein 18 kDa [TSPO]) is increased above sham level and TSPO gene expression confirmed by receptor autoradiography. Further, CD45, a marker of classical activation, and TGF-?I, an acquired deactivation marker, were elevated significantly above sham at 7 days post-injury. Daily administration of the anti-inflammatory ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the expression of these genes. Evidence for alternative activation (arginase 1) was not observed. Thus, these data demonstrate concomitant classical activation and acquired deactivation phenotypes of microglia in diffuse TBI in the absence of overt contusion or cavitation. Anti-inflammatory treatment may further alleviate the neuropathological burden of post-traumatic inflammation. PMID:22960311

Cao, Tuoxin; Thomas, Theresa C.; Ziebell, Jenna M.; Pauly, James R.; Lifshitz, Jonathan

2012-01-01

217

Distribution of immunoreactive prolyl oligopeptidase in human and rat brain.  

PubMed

Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endoprotease that hydrolyses peptides shorter than 30-mer. POP may have a role in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)) signaling and in the actions of antidepressants, and POP inhibitors have exhibited antiamnesic and neuroprotective properties. However, little is known about the distribution of POP protein in the brain. We used immunohistochemistry to localize POP enzyme in the human whole hemisphere and in the rat whole brain. In humans, the highest POP densities were observed in caudate nucleus and putamen, hippocampus and cortex. In the rat, the highest POP densities were found in substantia nigra, hippocampus, cerebellum and caudate putamen. In general, the distribution of POP in human and rat brains was very similar and resembled that of IP(3) receptors. Our findings are support for a role of POP in movement regulation, cognition and possibly in IP(3) signaling. The expression of POP in processing nuclei further supports its function beyond neuropeptide metabolism. PMID:17401647

Myhnen, Timo T; Venlinen, Jarkko I; Tupala, Erkki; Garcia-Horsman, J Arturo; Miettinen, Riitta; Mnnist, Pekka T

2007-08-01

218

Negative Association of Neuroticism with Brain Volume Ratio in Healthy Humans  

E-print Network

Negative Association of Neuroticism with Brain Volume Ratio in Healthy Humans Brian Knutson, Reza Momenan, Robert R. Rawlings, Grace W. Fong, and Daniel Hommer Background: Brain volume decreases reactivity (i.e., neuroti- cism) would also predict reductions in brain volume. Methods: Brain volume ratios

Knutson, Brian

219

The neuroinflammatory response in humans after traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Aims Traumatic brain injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An epidemiological association between head injury and long-term cognitive decline has been described for many years and recent clinical studies have highlighted functional impairment within 12 months of a mild head injury. In addition chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a recently described condition in cases of repetitive head injury. There are shared mechanisms between traumatic brain injury and Alzheimers disease, and it has been hypothesised that neuroinflammation, in the form of microglial activation, may be a mechanism underlying chronic neurodegenerative processes after traumatic brain injury. Methods This study assessed the microglial reaction after head injury in a range of ages and survival periods, from <24 hours survival through to 47 years survival. Immunohistochemistry for reactive microglia (CD68 and CR3/43) was performed on human autopsy brain tissue and assessed blind by quantitative image analysis. Head injury cases were compared to age matched controls, and within the traumatic brain injury group cases with diffuse traumatic axonal injury were compared to cases without diffuse traumatic axonal injury. Results A major finding was a neuroinflammatory response which develops within the first week and persists for several months after TBI, but has returned to control levels after several years. In cases with diffuse traumatic axonal injury the microglial reaction is particularly pronounced in the white matter. Conclusions These results demonstrate that prolonged microglial activation is a feature of traumatic brain injury, but that the neuroinflammatory response returns to control levels after several years. PMID:23231074

Smith, Colin; Gentleman, Stephen M; Leclercq, Pascale D; Murray, Lilian S; Griffin, W Sue T; Graham, David I; Nicoll, James A R

2013-01-01

220

Accuracy Test of Microsoft Kinect for Human Morphologic Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Microsoft Kinect sensor, a popular gaming console, is widely used in a large number of applications, including close-range 3D measurements. This low-end device is rather inexpensive compared to similar active imaging systems. The Kinect sensors include an RGB camera, an IR projector, an IR camera and an audio unit. The human morphologic measurements require high accuracy with fast data acquisition rate. To achieve the highest accuracy, the depth sensor and the RGB camera should be calibrated and co-registered to achieve high-quality 3D point cloud as well as optical imagery. Since this is a low-end sensor, developed for different purpose, the accuracy could be critical for 3D measurement-based applications. Therefore, two types of accuracy test are performed: (1) for describing the absolute accuracy, the ranging accuracy of the device in the range of 0.4 to 15 m should be estimated, and (2) the relative accuracy of points depending on the range should be characterized. For the accuracy investigation, a test field was created with two spheres, while the relative accuracy is described by sphere fitting performance and the distance estimation between the sphere center points. Some other factors can be also considered, such as the angle of incidence or the material used in these tests. The non-ambiguity range of the sensor is from 0.3 to 4 m, but, based on our experiences, it can be extended up to 20 m. Obviously, this methodology raises some accuracy issues which make accuracy testing really important.

Molnr, B.; Toth, C. K.; Detrek?i, A.

2012-08-01

221

Animal models are reliably mimicking human diseases? A morphological study that compares animal with human NAFLD.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical-pathological syndrome that includes a wide spectrum of morphological alterations. In research, animal models are crucial in evaluating not only the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression, but also the therapeutic effects of various agents. Investigations on the ultrastructural features of NAFLD in humans are not copious, due to the difficulty to obtain human samples and to the long time of NAFLD to evolve. Translational comparative studies on the reliability of animal models in representing the histopathologic picture as seen in humans are missing. To overcome this lack of investigations, we compared the ultrastructural NAFLD features of an animal model versus human. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 1-4 weeks, while control rats were fed with a standard diet. Human specimens were collected from patients with diagnosed fatty liver disease, undergoing liver biopsies or surgery. Rat and human samples were examined by light microscopy and by transmission and high resolution scanning electron microscopy. The present work demonstrated that NAFLD in animal model and in human, share overlapping ultrastructural features. In conclusion, animal HFD represent an appropriate tool in studying the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:790-796, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044260

Solinas, Paola; Isola, Michela; Lilliu, Maria Alberta; Conti, Gabriele; Civolani, Alberto; Demelia, Luigi; Loy, Francesco; Isola, Raffaella

2014-10-01

222

Neurochemical and morphological responses to acutely and chronically implanted brain microdialysis probes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare, in rats, brain microdialysis results obtained using microdialysis probes implanted acutely for 2 h versus probes implanted chronically for 24 h in the caudate. Specific comparisons included: (1) dialysate purine and amino acid profiles during cerebral ischemia; (2) diffusional characteristics of the microdialysis probe; and (3) tissue morphology surrounding the probe. During ischemia, the increase in dialysate levels of adenosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine was less pronounced from probes implanted chronically, while dialysate xanthine levels increased to a greater extent. An increase in dialysate amino acid neurotransmitters during cerebral ischemia was observed in the acutely implanted probes within 10 min of the onset of cerebral ischemia; in the chronically implanted probes this increase did not occur until after 50 min of severe ischemia. Both in vitro and in vivo tests revealed a diffusional barrier in chronically implanted probes. Moreover, the tissue surrounding chronically implanted probes exhibited a high degree of inflammation, and fibrin deposits were substantial. In addition, uric acid levels (an indicator of tissue injury) sampled from chronically implanted probes were 7-fold greater than levels sampled from acutely implanted probes. These data raise concerns about the use of chronically implanted microdialysis probes for the measurement of purine and amino acid profiles during cerebral ischemia. PMID:10223512

Grabb, M C; Sciotti, V M; Gidday, J M; Cohen, S A; van Wylen, D G

1998-07-01

223

Localization of tissue thromboplastin in the human brain.  

PubMed

Monospecific antisera against the purified protein component of tissue thromboplastin (apoprotein-III) from human brain have been raised in goats and rabbits. The antisera neutralized tissue thromboplastin prepared from brain, thyroid gland and pulmonary tissue, indicating that apoproteins in the various preparations cross-reacted immunologically and therefore were similar or identical. Comparison of the activities of tissue thromboplastin preparations from 34 different areas of the brain demonstrated a characteristic distribution pattern and a wide range of activities. White and grey matter from the same areas had similar activities. Bulbus and tractus olfactorius, medulla oblongata, corpus pineale, hippocampus and hypothalamus contained 160-270% of the average activity, whereas cerebellum globus pallidus, nucleus ruber and substantia nigra contained 30-60%. The distinct distribution pattern was unrelated to tissue vascularization, and may suggest that apoprotein-III could serve other functions, apart from the coagulation of blood. The predominance in phylogenetically older brain regions would suggest that it represents a primitive or fundamental feature. PMID:576520

Bjorklid, E; Storm-Mathisen, J; Storm, E; Prydz, H

1977-02-28

224

MRI of the human brain at 130 microtesla  

PubMed Central

We present in vivo images of the human brain acquired with an ultralow field MRI (ULFMRI) system operating at a magnetic field B0 ? 130 ?T. The system features prepolarization of the proton spins at Bp ? 80 mT and detection of the NMR signals with a superconducting, second-derivative gradiometer inductively coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We report measurements of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 of brain tissue, blood, and scalp fat at B0 and Bp, and cerebrospinal fluid at B0. We use these T1 values to construct inversion recovery sequences that we combine with CarrPurcellMeiboomGill echo trains to obtain images in which one species can be nulled and another species emphasized. In particular, we show an image in which only blood is visible. Such techniques greatly enhance the already high intrinsic T1 contrast obtainable at ULF. We further present 2D images of T1 and the transverse relaxation time T2 of the brain and show that, as expected at ULF, they exhibit similar contrast. Applications of brain ULFMRI include integration with systems for magnetoencephalography. More generally, these techniques may be applicable, for example, to the imaging of tumors without the need for a contrast agent and to modalities recently demonstrated with T1? contrast imaging (T1 in the rotating frame) at fields of 1.5 T and above. PMID:24255111

Inglis, Ben; Buckenmaier, Kai; SanGiorgio, Paul; Pedersen, Anders F.; Nichols, Matthew A.; Clarke, John

2013-01-01

225

A novel approach to the human connectome: Ultrahigh resolution mapping of fiber tracts in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal transmission between different brain regions requires connecting fiber tracts, the structural basis of the human connectome. In contrast to animal brains, where a multitude of tract tracing methods can be used, magnetic resonance (MR)-based diffusion imaging is presently the only promising approach to study fiber tracts between specific human brain regions. However, this procedure has various inherent restrictions caused

Markus Axer; Katrin Amunts; David Grssel; Christoph Palm; Jrgen Dammers; Hubertus Axer; Uwe Pietrzyk; Karl Zilles

2011-01-01

226

Three-Dimensional Statistical Analysis of Sulcal Variability in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric variance of the human brain is qualitatively ob- servable in surface features of the cortex. Statistical analysis of sulcal geometry will facilitate multisubject atlasing, neurosurgi- cal studies, and multimodality brain mapping applications. This investigation describes the variability in location and geometry of five sulci surveyed in each hemisphere of six postmortem human brains placed within the Talairach stereotaxic grid.

Paul M. Thompson; Craig Schwartz; Robert T. Lin; Aelia A. Khan; Arthur W. Toga

1996-01-01

227

Is human blood a good surrogate for brain tissue in transcriptional studies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since human brain tissue is often unavailable for transcriptional profiling studies, blood expression data is frequently used as a substitute. The underlying hypothesis in such studies is that genes expressed in brain tissue leave a transcriptional footprint in blood. We tested this hypothesis by relating three human brain expression data sets (from cortex, cerebellum and caudate nucleus) to two

Chaochao Cai; Peter Langfelder; Tova F Fuller; Michael C Oldham; Rui Luo; Leonard H van den Berg; Roel A Ophoff; Steve Horvath

2010-01-01

228

Development/Plasticity/Repair A Structural MRI Study of Human Brain Development from  

E-print Network

Development/Plasticity/Repair A Structural MRI Study of Human Brain Development from Birth to 2 of postnatal brain development in humans. This period is likely to be critical in neurodevelopmental disorders Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7510 Brain development in the first 2 years after birth

Utah, University of

229

A NEW MULTIPLE-KERNEL-LEARNING WEIGHTING METHOD FOR LOCALIZING HUMAN BRAIN MAGNETIC ACTIVITY  

E-print Network

A NEW MULTIPLE-KERNEL-LEARNING WEIGHTING METHOD FOR LOCALIZING HUMAN BRAIN MAGNETIC ACTIVITY T School of System Informatics, Kobe University, Japan Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences classification based on machine learning is a powerful tool to analyze human brain activity data obtained

Takiguchi, Tetsuya

230

Learning Shapes the Representation of Visual Categories in the Aging Human Brain  

E-print Network

U ncorrected Proof Learning Shapes the Representation of Visual Categories in the Aging Human Brain Ashby & Maddox, 2005; Keri, 2003) has identified the brain circuits involved in category learning and interactions across the lifespan. However, little is known about the human brain mechanisms that mediate

Kourtzi, Zoe

231

Rich-club organization of the newborn human brain.  

PubMed

Combining diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and network analysis in the adult human brain has identified a set of highly connected cortical hubs that form a "rich club"--a high-cost, high-capacity backbone thought to enable efficient network communication. Rich-club architecture appears to be a persistent feature of the mature mammalian brain, but it is not known when this structure emerges during human development. In this longitudinal study we chart the emergence of structural organization in mid to late gestation. We demonstrate that a rich club of interconnected cortical hubs is already present by 30 wk gestation. Subsequently, until the time of normal birth, the principal development is a proliferation of connections between core hubs and the rest of the brain. We also consider the impact of environmental factors on early network development, and compare term-born neonates to preterm infants at term-equivalent age. Though rich-club organization remains intact following premature birth, we reveal significant disruptions in both in cortical-subcortical connectivity and short-distance corticocortical connections. Rich club organization is present well before the normal time of birth and may provide the fundamental structural architecture for the subsequent emergence of complex neurological functions. Premature exposure to the extrauterine environment is associated with altered network architecture and reduced network capacity, which may in part account for the high prevalence of cognitive problems in preterm infants. PMID:24799693

Ball, Gareth; Aljabar, Paul; Zebari, Sally; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Merchant, Nazakat; Robinson, Emma C; Ogundipe, Enitan; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, A David; Counsell, Serena J

2014-05-20

232

Rich-club organization of the newborn human brain  

PubMed Central

Combining diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and network analysis in the adult human brain has identified a set of highly connected cortical hubs that form a rich cluba high-cost, high-capacity backbone thought to enable efficient network communication. Rich-club architecture appears to be a persistent feature of the mature mammalian brain, but it is not known when this structure emerges during human development. In this longitudinal study we chart the emergence of structural organization in mid to late gestation. We demonstrate that a rich club of interconnected cortical hubs is already present by 30 wk gestation. Subsequently, until the time of normal birth, the principal development is a proliferation of connections between core hubs and the rest of the brain. We also consider the impact of environmental factors on early network development, and compare term-born neonates to preterm infants at term-equivalent age. Though rich-club organization remains intact following premature birth, we reveal significant disruptions in both in corticalsubcortical connectivity and short-distance corticocortical connections. Rich club organization is present well before the normal time of birth and may provide the fundamental structural architecture for the subsequent emergence of complex neurological functions. Premature exposure to the extrauterine environment is associated with altered network architecture and reduced network capacity, which may in part account for the high prevalence of cognitive problems in preterm infants. PMID:24799693

Ball, Gareth; Aljabar, Paul; Zebari, Sally; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Merchant, Nazakat; Robinson, Emma C.; Ogundipe, Enitan; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, A. David; Counsell, Serena J.

2014-01-01

233

Resilience of human brain functional coactivation networks under thresholding  

E-print Network

Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of community structure and rich club nodes, (i.e., highly interconnected, high degree hub nodes), in human brain functional networks. The cognitive relevance of the detected modules and hubs has also been demonstrated, for both task based and default mode networks, suggesting that the brain self-organizes into patterns of co-activated sets of regions for performing specific tasks or in resting state. In this paper, we report studies on the resilience or robustness of this modular structure: under systematic erosion of connectivity in the network under thresholding, how resilient is the modularity and hub structure? The results show that the network shows show strong resilience properties, with the modularity and hub structure maintaining itself over a large range of connection strengths. Then, at a certain critical threshold that falls very close to 0, the connectivity, the modularity, and hub structure suddenly break down, showing a phase transition like propert...

Sarkar, S; Weng, H

2014-01-01

234

The Functional Connectivity Landscape of the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Functional brain networks emerge and dissipate over a primarily static anatomical foundation. The dynamic basis of these networks is inter-regional communication involving local and distal regions. It is assumed that inter-regional distances play a pivotal role in modulating network dynamics. Using three different neuroimaging modalities, 6 datasets were evaluated to determine whether experimental manipulations asymmetrically affect functional relationships based on the distance between brain regions in human participants. Contrary to previous assumptions, here we show that short- and long-range connections are equally likely to strengthen or weaken in response to task demands. Additionally, connections between homotopic areas are the most stable and less likely to change compared to any other type of connection. Our results point to a functional connectivity landscape characterized by fluid transitions between local specialization and global integration. This ability to mediate functional properties irrespective of spatial distance may engender a diverse repertoire of cognitive processes when faced with a dynamic environment. PMID:25350370

Fatima, Zainab; Jonides, John; McIntosh, Anthony R.

2014-01-01

235

Alterations of telomere length in human brain tumors.  

PubMed

Telomeres at the ends of human chromosomes consist of tandem hexametric (TTAGGG)n repeats, which protect them from degradation. At each cycle of cell division, most normal somatic cells lose approximately 50-100bp of the terminal telomeric repeat DNA. Precise prediction of growth and estimation of the malignant potential of brain tumors require additional markers. DNA extraction was performed from the 51 frozen tissues, and a non-radioactive chemiluminescent assay was used for Southern blotting. One sample t-test shows highly significant difference in telomere length in meningioma and astrocytoma with normal range. According to our results, higher grades of meningioma and astrocytoma tumors show more heterogeneity in telomere length, and also it seems shortening process of telomeres is an early event in brain tumors. PMID:20373057

Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Mehdipour, Parvin

2011-09-01

236

The functional connectivity landscape of the human brain.  

PubMed

Functional brain networks emerge and dissipate over a primarily static anatomical foundation. The dynamic basis of these networks is inter-regional communication involving local and distal regions. It is assumed that inter-regional distances play a pivotal role in modulating network dynamics. Using three different neuroimaging modalities, 6 datasets were evaluated to determine whether experimental manipulations asymmetrically affect functional relationships based on the distance between brain regions in human participants. Contrary to previous assumptions, here we show that short- and long-range connections are equally likely to strengthen or weaken in response to task demands. Additionally, connections between homotopic areas are the most stable and less likely to change compared to any other type of connection. Our results point to a functional connectivity landscape characterized by fluid transitions between local specialization and global integration. This ability to mediate functional properties irrespective of spatial distance may engender a diverse repertoire of cognitive processes when faced with a dynamic environment. PMID:25350370

Mii?, Bratislav; Fatima, Zainab; Askren, Mary K; Buschkuehl, Martin; Churchill, Nathan; Cimprich, Bernadine; Deldin, Patricia J; Jaeggi, Susanne; Jung, Misook; Korostil, Michele; Kross, Ethan; Krpan, Katherine M; Peltier, Scott; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Strother, Stephen C; Jonides, John; McIntosh, Anthony R; Berman, Marc G

2014-01-01

237

Predicting human brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns.  

PubMed

The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural activation associated with words for which fMRI data are not yet available. This model is trained with a combination of data from a trillion-word text corpus and observed fMRI data associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation for thousands of other concrete nouns in the text corpus, with highly significant accuracies over the 60 nouns for which we currently have fMRI data. PMID:18511683

Mitchell, Tom M; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Carlson, Andrew; Chang, Kai-Min; Malave, Vicente L; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

2008-05-30

238

Dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the human brain.  

PubMed

The myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes has been suggested to be modulated by experience, which could mediate neural plasticity by optimizing the performance of the circuitry. We have assessed the dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the human brain. The number of oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum is established inchildhood and remains stable after that. Analysis of the integration of nuclear bomb test-derived (14)C revealed that myelin is exchanged at a high rate, whereas the oligodendrocyte population in white matter is remarkably stable in humans, with an annual exchange of 1/300 oligodendrocytes. We conclude that oligodendrocyte turnover contributes minimally to myelin modulation in human white matter and that this instead may be carried out by mature oligodendrocytes, which may facilitate rapid neural plasticity. PMID:25417154

Yeung, Maggie S Y; Zdunek, Sofia; Bergmann, Olaf; Bernard, Samuel; Salehpour, Mehran; Alkass, Kanar; Perl, Shira; Tisdale, John; Possnert, Gran; Brundin, Lou; Druid, Henrik; Frisn, Jonas

2014-11-01

239

Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain  

E-print Network

A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between ...

Thomason, Moriah E.

240

Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain  

E-print Network

Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain ...

Fedorenko, Evelina G.

241

Expression of mRNA for Inducible NO Synthase in Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied expression of inducible NO synthase gene in human brain under conditions of acute or chronic intoxication. Acute alcohol intoxication was accompanied by changes in enzyme expression in certain brain structures.

I. V. Smolina; V. B. Kozhemyako; G. G. Dirlam; M. S. Zavgorodnyaya; V. A. Rasskazov

2005-01-01

242

Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors  

E-print Network

Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic ...

Liua, Hesheng

243

Morphological investigations on axonal swellings and spheroids in various human diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axonal swellings and spheroids in various human diseases were studied by light and electron microscopy. 4 cases of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, 2 of degenerative diseases, 2 brain tumors and 3 of cerebrovascular disease were examined.

Saburo Yagishita

1978-01-01

244

Regional distribution of potassium, calcium, and six trace elements in normal human brain  

SciTech Connect

Eight elements (i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb) were measured in 50 different regions of 12 normal human brains by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The dry weight concentrations of K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb were consistently higher for gray than for white matter areas. The K, Zn and Se concentrations for the regions of mixed composition and, to some extent, also the Rb concentrations, were intermediate between the gray and white matter values, and they tended to decrease with decreasing neuron density. The mean dry weight concentrations of K, Ca, Zn, Se, and Rb in the various brain regions were highly correlated with the mean wet-to-dry weight ratios of these regions. For Mn, Fe, and Cu, however, such a correlation was not observed, and these elements exhibited elevated levels in several structures of the basal ganglia. For K, Fe, and Se the concentrations seemed to change with age. A hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the structures clustered into two large groups, one comprising gray and mixed matter regions, the other white and mixed matter areas. Brain structures involved in the same physiological function or morphologically similar regions often conglomerated in a single subcluster.

Duflou, H.; Maenhaut, W.; De Reuck, J. (Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent (Belgium))

1989-11-01

245

Morphological and Electrical Properties of Human Trophoblast Choriocarcinoma, BeWo Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta arises from fusion of stem cells called cytotrophoblasts. The molecular mechanisms associated with cell fusion and syncytiation of cytotrophoblastic cells remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the morphological and electrical properties of BeWo cells, a human choriocarcinoma-derived trophoblast cell model, with several features of the human cytotrophoblast. Cultured cells tended to

A. J. Ramos; M. R. Cantero; P. Zhang; M. K. Raychowdhury; A. Green; D. MacPhee; H. F. Cantiello

2008-01-01

246

Proteomic Temporal Profile of Human Brain Endothelium After Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Because brain endothelial cells exist at the neurovascular interface, they may serve as cellular reporters of brain dysfunction by releasing biomarkers into the circulation. Methods We used proteomic techniques to screen conditioned media from human brain endothelial cultures subjected to oxidative stress induced by nitric oxide over 24 hours. Plasma samples from human stroke patients were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results In healthy endothelial cells, interaction mapping demonstrated cross-talk involving secreted factors, membrane receptors, and matrix components. In oxidatively challenged endothelial cells, networks of interacting proteins failed to emerge. Instead, inflammatory markers increased, secreted factors oscillated over time, and endothelial injury repair was manifested as changes in factors related to matrix integrity. Elevated inflammatory markers included heat shock protein, chemokine ligand-1, serum amyloid-A1, annexin-A5, and thrombospondin-1. Neurotrophic factors (prosaposin, nucleobindin-1, and tachykinin precursors) peaked at 12 hours, then rapidly decreased by 24 hours. Basement membrane components (fibronectin, desomoglein, profiling-1) were decreased. Cytoskeletal markers (actin, vimentin, nidogen, and filamin B) increased over time. From this initial analysis, the high-ranking candidate thrombospondin-1 was further explored in human plasma. Acute ischemic stroke patients had significantly higher thrombospondin-1 levels within 8 hours of symptom onset compared to controls with similar clinical risk factors (65981 vs 113298 ng/mL; P<0.05; n=20). Conclusions Screening of simplified cell culture systems may aid the discovery of novel biomarkers in clinical neurovascular injury. Further collaborative efforts are warranted to discover and validate more candidates of interest. PMID:21164131

Ning, MingMing; Sarracino, David A.; Kho, Alvin T.; Guo, Shuzhen; Lee, Sun-Ryung; Krastins, Bryan; Buonanno, Ferdinando S.; Vizcaino, Juan A.; Orchard, Sandra; McMullin, David; Wang, Xiaoying; Lo, Eng H.

2013-01-01

247

Motion-responsive regions of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to map motion responsive regions of the human brain by contrasting passive\\u000a viewing of moving and stationary randomly textured patterns. Regions were retained as motion responsive if they reached significance\\u000a either in the group analysis or in the majority of hemispheres in single-subject analysis. They include well-known regions,\\u000a such as V1, hMT\\/V5+, and hV3A,

Stefan Sunaert; Paul Van Hecke; Guy Marchal; Guy A. Orban

1999-01-01

248

Fine structure of a racemose cysticercus from human brain.  

PubMed

The surface of a racemose cysticercus from the human brain was studied by scanning electron microscopy and the tegument of the cyst by transmission electron microscopy. The surface of the larva is covered by microvilli of uniform shape and size. The glycocalyx of the microvilli bears knotlike areas positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Microvilli are interconnected by a fine, electron-dense network. The tegumental and subtegumental tissues vary in thickness from one region to the next, and the tissues below the vesicular layer are scattered irregularly, in a seemingly disordered manner. PMID:156254

Voge, M; Brown, W J

1979-04-01

249

Morphological investigations on axonal swellings and spheroids in various human diseases.  

PubMed

Axonal swellings and spheroids in various human diseases were studied by light and electron microscopy. 4 cases of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, 2 of degenerative diseases, 2 brain tumors and 3 of cerebrovascular disease were examined. Ultrastructurally most spheroids in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy consisted of interconnected tubules, stacked membranotubular profiles, alternating layered membranes and accumulations of neurofilaments. Combinations of these four constituents were seen only in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. "Torpedos" (fusiform swelling of the axon of a Purkinje cell) consisted exclusively of neurofilaments. Spheroids in case 6 (mental retardation) and 7 (atypical teratoma) consisted of interwoven skeins of neurofilaments and grouped mitochondria. Spheroids in case 8 (demyelination) and 9 (cerebrovascular disease) consisted of packed complex bodies and mitochondria. Spheroids in cases 10 and 11 (cerebrovascular disease) consisted of degenerating organelles only. The morphological differences between cases 9, 10 and 11 probably depends on the severity and timing of the cerebral injury. Most spheroids show similar histological and histochemical properties, but ultrastructural study may give some clue to the origin of the bodies. PMID:150108

Yagishita, S

1978-06-15

250

Videomicroscopy, image processing, and analysis of whole histologic sections of the human brain.  

PubMed

Serial histologic sections of a whole human brain may have extensions of up to 130 x 130 mm within the coronal plane around the temporal lobe. To date, however, technology has not provided a bright field microscope that is able to shift the object holder continuously in the x- and y-direction over such distances and still possess the same optical capabilities as comparable devices. We developed a new light microscope to continuously quantify such sections. We also developed the computing environment for controlling the device and for analyzing the data produced. In principle, we are now able to quantify each neuron of a human brain. The data ultimately will provide the most detailed structural information about the human brain ascertained thus far. Such detailed information of the spatial distribution of neurons is essential to develop realistic models for simulation of large-scale neuronal networks and to investigate the significance of neuronal arrangements with respect to neuronal signal processing in the CNS. After preprocessing of the data produced by the new microscope, we are able to detect lamination patterns in the spatial distribution of gravity centers of cells. Furthermore, morphological features like size of the projection area and mean staining intensity are visualized as a particle process. The particle process presents the sizes and staining intensity of perikaryons and allows a distinction of gray matter and white matter. These results provide evidence that the system works correctly and can be applied to a systematic analysis of a larger sequence of serial histologic sections. The objective of this study is to introduce the very large section analyzing microscope (VLSAM) and to present the initial data produced by the system. Moreover, we will discuss workload and future developments of the parallel image analysis system that are associated with the microscope. PMID:15889428

Schmitt, Oliver; Eggers, Reinhard; Modersitzki, Jan

2005-03-01

251

The human brain--from cells to society  

PubMed Central

In December 2011, the European Science Foundation (ESF) brought together experts from a wide range of disciplines to discuss the issues that will influence the development of a healthier, more brain-aware European society. This perspective summarizes the main outcomes of that discussion and highlights important considerations to support improved mental health in Europe, including: The development of integrated neuropsychotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of psychiatric disorders.The development of more valid disease models for research into psychiatric disorders.An improved understanding of the relationship between biology and environment, particularly in relation to developmental plasticity and emerging pathology.More comparative studies to explore how scientific concepts relating to the human brain are received and understood in different sociocultural contexts.Research into the legal and ethical implications of recent developments in the brain sciences, including behavioral screening and manipulation, and emerging neurotechnologies. The broad geographical spread of the consulted experts across the whole of Europe, along with the wide range of disciplines they represent, gives these conclusions a strong scientific and pan-European endorsement. The next step will be to look closely into these five selected topics, in terms of research strategy, science policy, societal implications, and legal and ethical frameworks. PMID:23966920

Hoogland, Eva; Patten, Iain; Berghmans, Stephane

2013-01-01

252

The structure of creative cognition in the human brain  

PubMed Central

Creativity is a vast construct, seemingly intractable to scientific inquiryperhaps due to the vague concepts applied to the field of research. One attempt to limit the purview of creative cognition formulates the construct in terms of evolutionary constraints, namely that of blind variation and selective retention (BVSR). Behaviorally, one can limit the blind variation component to idea generation tests as manifested by measures of divergent thinking. The selective retention component can be represented by measures of convergent thinking, as represented by measures of remote associates. We summarize results from measures of creative cognition, correlated with structural neuroimaging measures including structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We also review lesion studies, considered to be the gold standard of brain-behavioral studies. What emerges is a picture consistent with theories of disinhibitory brain features subserving creative cognition, as described previously (Martindale, 1981). We provide a perspective, involving aspects of the default mode network (DMN), which might provide a first approximation regarding how creative cognition might map on to the human brain. PMID:23847503

Jung, Rex E.; Mead, Brittany S.; Carrasco, Jessica; Flores, Ranee A.

2013-01-01

253

Lineage Pathway of Human Brain Progenitor Cells Identified by JC Virus Susceptability  

E-print Network

human central nervous system progenitor cells, isolated from human fetal brain tissue by selective central nervous system. Ann Neurol 2003;53:636­646 The differentiation of central nervous system (CNSLineage Pathway of Human Brain Progenitor Cells Identified by JC Virus Susceptability Conrad A

Gronostajski, Richard M.

254

From monkeys to humans: what do we now know about brain homologies?  

E-print Network

Tootell Different primate species, including humans, have evolved by a repeated branching of lineages and Old World monkey brains have evolved independently from the brains of apes and humans, resulting of this feature, it is likely that owl monkeys evolved this feature in parallel with apes and humans [3

Sereno, Martin

255

Neurons Express Hemoglobin ?- and ?-Chains in Rat and Human Brains  

PubMed Central

Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrier in vertebrate blood erythrocytes. Here we report that hemoglobin chains are expressed in mammalian brain neurons and are regulated by a mitochondrial toxin. Transcriptome analyses of laser-capture microdissected nigral dopaminergic neurons in rats and striatal neurons in mice revealed the presence of hemoglobin ?, adult chain 2 (Hba-a2) and hemoglobin ? (Hbb) transcripts, whereas other erythroid markers were not detected. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed the expression of Hba-a2 and Hbb in nigral dopaminergic neurons, striatal ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons, and cortical pyramidal neurons in rats. Combined in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry with the neuronal marker neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) in rat brain further confirmed the presence of hemoglobin mRNAs in neurons. Immunohistochemistry identified hemoglobin ?- and ?-chains in both rat and human brains, and hemoglobin proteins were detected by Western blotting in whole rat brain tissue as well as in cultures of mesencephalic neurons, further excluding the possibility of blood contamination. Systemic administration of the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone (2 mg/kg/d, 7d, s.c.) induced a marked decrease in Hba-a2 and Hbb but not neuroglobin or cytoglobin mRNA in transcriptome analyses of nigral dopaminergic neurons. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the transcriptional downregulation of Hba-a2 and Hbb in nigral, striatal, and cortical neurons. Thus, hemoglobin chains are expressed in neurons and are regulated by treatments that affect mitochondria, opening up the possibility that they may play a novel role in neuronal function and response to injury. PMID:19479992

RICHTER, FRANZISKA; MEURERS, BERNHARD H.; ZHU, CHUNNI; MEDVEDEVA, VERA P.; CHESSELET, MARIE-FRANCOISE

2011-01-01

256

Neuronal Avalanches in the Resting MEG of the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

What constitutes normal cortical dynamics in healthy human subjects is a major question in systems neuroscience. Numerous in vitro and in vivo animal studies have shown that ongoing or resting cortical dynamics are characterized by cascades of activity across many spatial scales, termed neuronal avalanches. In experiment and theory, avalanche dynamics are identified by two measures: (1) a power law in the size distribution of activity cascades with an exponent of ?3/2 and (2) a branching parameter of the critical value of 1, reflecting balanced propagation of activity at the border of premature termination and potential blowup. Here we analyzed resting-state brain activity recorded using noninvasive magnetoencephalography (MEG) from 124 healthy human subjects and two different MEG facilities using different sensor technologies. We identified large deflections at single MEG sensors and combined them into spatiotemporal cascades on the sensor array using multiple timescales. Cascade size distributions obeyed power laws. For the timescale at which the branching parameter was close to 1, the power law exponent was ?3/2. This relationship was robust to scaling and coarse graining of the sensor array. It was absent in phase-shuffled controls with the same power spectrum or empty scanner data. Our results demonstrate that normal cortical activity in healthy human subjects at rest organizes as neuronal avalanches and is well described by a critical branching process. Theory and experiment have shown that such critical, scale-free dynamics optimize information processing. Therefore, our findings imply that the human brain attains an optimal dynamical regime for information processing. PMID:23595765

Shriki, Oren; Alstott, Jeff; Carver, Frederick; Holroyd, Tom; Henson, Richard N.A.; Smith, Marie L.; Coppola, Richard; Bullmore, Edward; Plenz, Dietmar

2013-01-01

257

Stoichiometry of wheat germ agglutinin as a morphology controlling agent and as a morphology controlling agent and as a morphology protective agent for the human erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

The lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is an unusually effective agent in controlling both the forward and reverse reactions of the reversible morphology conversion discocyte in equilibrium with echinocyte for the human erythrocyte. Under conditions severe enough to drive the reactions to completion in either direction without the lectin, WGA is able to stabilize both these morphologies and to fully prevent conversion of either morphology. The lectin can quantitatively block both reactions. The ability of WGA to carry out these functions has no obvious rate limitation. Its effectiveness depends mainly on its binding stoichiometry, particularly toward the transmembrane glycoprotein, glycophorin. The critical binding stoichiometries for both the lectin and the echinocytic agent were determined in relation to the binding isotherms using 125I-labeled WGA and 35S-labeled dodecyl sulfate. There appear to be two principal stoichiometries for WGA binding that are important in its control of erythrocyte morphology. The first stoichiometry marks the threshold of obvious protection of the discocyte against strong echinocytic agents such as detergents and, likely, is simply a 1:1 stoichiometry of WGA: glycophorin, assuming currently recognized values of 3--5 x 10(5) copies of glycophorin per cell. The second important stoichiometry, whereby the cell's morphology is protected against extremely severe stress, involves binding of approximately 4--5 WGA molecules per glycophorin. The controls that WGA exerts can be instantly abolished by added N-acetylglucosamine. However, N-acetylglucosamine ligands on the erythrocyte are of less importance than membrane neuraminic acid residues in enabling WGA to control the cell's morphology, as is shown by comparing intact cells with completely desialated cells. WGA can also be used to produce elliptocytes in vitro, but it does this at levels approaching monolayer coverage of the cell with WGA. PMID:7391133

1980-01-01

258

Mapping human brain networks with cortico-cortical evoked potentials.  

PubMed

The cerebral cortex forms a sheet of neurons organized into a network of interconnected modules that is highly expanded in humans and presumably enables our most refined sensory and cognitive abilities. The links of this network form a fundamental aspect of its organization, and a great deal of research is focusing on understanding how information flows within and between different regions. However, an often-overlooked element of this connectivity regards a causal, hierarchical structure of regions, whereby certain nodes of the cortical network may exert greater influence over the others. While this is difficult to ascertain non-invasively, patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy provide a unique window into this aspect of cortical organization. In this review, we highlight the potential for cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping to directly measure neuronal propagation across large-scale brain networks with spatio-temporal resolution that is superior to traditional neuroimaging methods. We first introduce effective connectivity and discuss the mechanisms underlying CCEP generation. Next, we highlight how CCEP mapping has begun to provide insight into the neural basis of non-invasive imaging signals. Finally, we present a novel approach to perturbing and measuring brain network function during cognitive processing. The direct measurement of CCEPs in response to electrical stimulation represents a potentially powerful clinical and basic science tool for probing the large-scale networks of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25180306

Keller, Corey J; Honey, Christopher J; Mgevand, Pierre; Entz, Laszlo; Ulbert, Istvan; Mehta, Ashesh D

2014-10-01

259

Knowledge-based localization of hippocampus in human brain MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hippocampus is an important structure of the human brain limbic system. The variations in the volume and architecture of this structure have been related to certain neurological diseases such as schizophrenia and epilepsy. This paper presents a two-stage method for localizing hippocampus in human brain MRI automatically. The first stage utilizes image processing techniques such as nonlinear filtering and histogram analysis to extract information from MRI. This stage generates binary images, locates lateral and third ventricles, and the inferior limit of Sylvian Fissure. The second stage uses a shell of expert system named VP-EXPERT to analyze the information extracted in the first stage. This stage utilizes absolute and relative spatial rules and spatial symmetry rules to locate the hippocampus. The system has been tested using MRI studies of six epilepsy patients. MRI data consisted of a total of 128 images. The system correctly identified all of the slices without hippocampus, and correctly localized hippocampus is about n 78% of the slices with hippocampus.

Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Siadat, Mohammad-Reza

1999-05-01

260

Dynamic reconfiguration of human brain networks during learning  

E-print Network

Human learning is a complex phenomenon requiring flexibility to adapt existing brain function and precision in selecting new neurophysiological activities to drive desired behavior. These two attributes -- flexibility and selection -- must operate over multiple temporal scales as performance of a skill changes from being slow and challenging to being fast and automatic. Such selective adaptability is naturally provided by modular structure, which plays a critical role in evolution, development, and optimal network function. Using functional connectivity measurements of brain activity acquired from initial training through mastery of a simple motor skill, we explore the role of modularity in human learning by identifying dynamic changes of modular organization spanning multiple temporal scales. Our results indicate that flexibility, which we measure by the allegiance of nodes to modules, in one experimental session predicts the relative amount of learning in a future session. We also develop a general statistical framework for the identification of modular architectures in evolving systems, which is broadly applicable to disciplines where network adaptability is crucial to the understanding of system performance.

Danielle S. Bassett; Nicholas F. Wymbs; Mason A. Porter; Peter J. Mucha; Jean M. Carlson; Scott T. Grafton

2010-10-19

261

[A method of building the finite-element model with the contour line of human brain].  

PubMed

The contour line of human brain was simulated by the curve-fitting methods and then the inner area was discretized by advancing-front methods which was improved at last. The curve-fitting result was similar to the CT picture of the human brain and the discrete result of inner area could be completed quickly by improved advanced-front methods. A finite element model with the contour line of human brain was built primarily which will contribute to the next algorithm study of electrical impedance tomography in human brain. PMID:16156245

Shuai, Wanjun; Dong, Xiuzhen; Fu, Feng; You, Fusheng; Liu, Ruigang; Shi, Xuetao

2005-08-01

262

Determining the sex of human remains through cranial morphology.  

PubMed

Sex determination is the keystone of a biological profile, yet few qualitative methods of cranial sex determination have been tested. This analysis examines the accuracy and precision of 17 morphological features of the skull commonly used to determine the sex of unknown skeletal remains. The sample consists of 46 identified skulls from the 19th century St. Thomas' Anglican Church Cemetery in Belleville, Canada. Nasal aperature, zygomatic extension, malar size/rugosity, and supraorbital ridge proved the most useful; of secondary value are chin form and nuchal crest; mastoid size is of tertiary consideration; nasal size and mandibular symphysis/ramus size rank fourth; forehead shape ranks fifth; and palate size/shape are sixth. Skull size/architecture provides an internal standard to assess the relative sizes of other traits. This research is a necessary step in establishing the credibility of morphological sex determination with respect to the Daubert and Mohan criteria for admissibility in a court of law. PMID:15932077

Rogers, Tracy L

2005-05-01

263

A human IAP-family gene, apollon, expressed in human brain cancer cells.  

PubMed

IAP is a family of protein that has baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains and inhibits apoptosis. We found a human IAP family gene, which we named Apollon, encoding a huge protein (530 kDa) that contains a single BIR domain and a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme domain, that is a human homolog of BRUCE. Apollon protein was expressed in four of six brain cancers (gliomas), and one of five ovarian cancers in 38 human cancer cell lines that we examined. Among the brain cancer cell lines, SNB-78 expressed a high level of Apollon, and this cell line shows resistance against various anticancer drugs. Treating SNB-78 cells with antisense oligonucleotide against Apollon reduced the expression of Apollon protein, and significantly sensitized the cells to apoptosis induced by cisplatin and camptothecin. These results suggest that Apollon protects SNB-78 cells from undergoing apoptosis and, at least in part, plays a role in tumorigenesis and drug resistance of this cell line. PMID:10544019

Chen, Z; Naito, M; Hori, S; Mashima, T; Yamori, T; Tsuruo, T

1999-11-01

264

The Organization of Local and Distant Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information processing in the human brain arises from both interactions between adjacent areas and from distant projections that form distributed brain systems. Here we map interactions across different spatial scales by estimating the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity for the local (?14 mm) neighborhood directly surrounding brain regions as contrasted with distant (>14 mm) interactions. The balance between local and

Jorge Sepulcre; Hesheng Liu; Tanveer Talukdar; Iigo Martincorena; B. T. Thomas Yeo; Randy L. Buckner

2010-01-01

265

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2012) r Cerebral Blood Flow and Gray Matter Volume  

E-print Network

on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th St, Pr Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2012) r Cerebral Blood Flow and Gray Matter Volume Covariance

266

New Approaches for Exploring Anatomical and Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain  

E-print Network

REVIEWS New Approaches for Exploring Anatomical and Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain in the primate brain is based on the complementary principles of modular and distributed information processing. The former emphasizes the specialization of functions within different brain areas. The latter emphasizes

Penny, Will

267

Distribution of transferrin and ferritin binding in normal and multiple sclerotic human brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivery of iron to the brain traditionally has been considered the responsibility of transferrin. However, transferrin receptors in brain are located primarily within gray matter areas rather than in the iron rich white matter tracts. In this report we present the first demonstration of ferritin binding sites in human brain and provide evidence that these binding sites are primarily in

S. W. Hulet; S. Powers; J. R. Connor

1999-01-01

268

15fall 2011 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE The average human brain--weighing in  

E-print Network

endeavor. "There are lots of ways to talk about learning," he says. "The brain is always learning. it's key. "learning is essentially a form of neural plasticity," she says--the ability of individ- ual brain cellsFrom #12;15fall 2011 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE The average human brain--weighing in at a scant three

269

r Human Brain Mapping 34:24022417 (2013) r Relationship of EEG Sources of Neonatal Seizures  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 34:2402�2417 (2013) r Relationship of EEG Sources of Neonatal Seizures seizures are associated with acute brain lesions, the relationship of electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures to acute perinatal brain lesions visible on mag- netic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been

270

Role of laminin and basement membrane in the morphological differentiation of human endothelial cells into capillary-like structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have defined a signal responsible for the morphological differentiation of human umbilical vein and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. We find that human umbilical vein endothelial cells deprived of growth factors undergo morphologi- cal differentiation with tube formation after 6-12 wk, and that human dermal microvascular endothelial cells differentiate after 1 wk of growth factor deprivation. Here,

Yasuo Kubota; Hynda K. Kleinman; George R. Martin; Thomas J. Lawley

1988-01-01

271

A spatio-temporal latent atlas for semi-supervised learning of fetal brain segmentations and morphological age estimation.  

PubMed

Prenatal neuroimaging requires reference models that reflect the normal spectrum of fetal brain development, and summarize observations from a representative sample of individuals. Collecting a sufficiently large data set of manually annotated data to construct a comprehensive in vivo atlas of rapidly developing structures is challenging but necessary for large population studies and clinical application. We propose a method for the semi-supervised learning of a spatio-temporal latent atlas of fetal brain development, and corresponding segmentations of emerging cerebral structures, such as the ventricles or cortex. The atlas is based on the annotation of a few examples, and a large number of imaging data without annotation. It models the morphological and developmental variability across the population. Furthermore, it serves as basis for the estimation of a structures' morphological age, and its deviation from the nominal gestational age during the assessment of pathologies. Experimental results covering the gestational period of 20-30 gestational weeks demonstrate segmentation accuracy achievable with minimal annotation, and precision of morphological age estimation. Age estimation results on fetuses suffering from lissencephaly demonstrate that they detect significant differences in the age offset compared to a control group. PMID:24080527

Dittrich, Eva; Riklin Raviv, Tammy; Kasprian, Gregor; Donner, Ren; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg

2014-01-01

272

Functional, Morphological, and Metabolic Abnormalities of the Cerebral Microcirculation after Concussive Brain Injury in Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We induced experimental concussive brain injury by a fluid percussion device in anes- thetized cats equipped with a cranial window for the observation of the pial microcirculation of the parietal cortex. Brain injury resulted in transient but pronounced increases in arterial blood pressure and in sustained arteriolar vasodilation associated with reduced or absent responsiveness to the vasoconstrictor effect of

ENOCH P. WEI; W. DALTON DIETRICH; JOHN T. POVLISHOCK; RUDOLPH M. NAVARI; HERMES A. KONTOS

273

Morphologic, Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Endothelial Cells Derived from Human Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds\\/Aims: The pathogenesis of cavernous hemangiomas is largely unknown, and it is speculated that abnormal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis may be involved. In this study, the characteristics of cavernous hemangioma endothelial cells (CHECs) derived from the human liver were analyzed in terms of morphology, phenotype and function and compared with human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). Methods and Results: By transmission

Wen-jian Zhang; Li-ya Ye; Lian-qiu Wu; Yu-ling Xin; Feng Gu; Ji-xiao Niu; Zhi-hua Yang; Guang-jin Zhu; Georges E. Grau; Jin-ning Lou

2006-01-01

274

MORPHOLOGY ANALYSIS OF HUMAN KNEE USING MR IMAGERY D. Chetverikov1,2, G. Renner1  

E-print Network

a novel system for building a 3D model of human knee based on a sequence MR images. The system applies to investigate the morphology and functionality of human knee joint. The process of building a 3D model image sequences provide more detailed spatial information on the internal structures (bone, cartilage

Chetverikov, Dmitry

275

5 Minute Brain Teaser Old vs. New Thinking Regarding the Human Brain  

E-print Network

. How a brain develops depends solely on the genes you are born with. B. Brain development depends a decisive impact on how the brain develops, and the extent and nature of adult capacities. B. Experiences the brain is "wired." B. A secure attachment creates a context for development, but it does not directly

276

Selectivity to Translational Egomotion in Human Brain Motion Areas  

PubMed Central

The optic flow generated when a person moves through the environment can be locally decomposed into several basic components, including radial, circular, translational and spiral motion. Since their analysis plays an important part in the visual perception and control of locomotion and posture it is likely that some brain regions in the primate dorsal visual pathway are specialized to distinguish among them. The aim of this study is to explore the sensitivity to different types of egomotion-compatible visual stimulations in the human motion-sensitive regions of the brain. Event-related fMRI experiments, 3D motion and wide-field stimulation, functional localizers and brain mapping methods were used to study the sensitivity of six distinct motion areas (V6, MT, MST+, V3A, CSv and an Intra-Parietal Sulcus motion [IPSmot] region) to different types of optic flow stimuli. Results show that only areas V6, MST+ and IPSmot are specialized in distinguishing among the various types of flow patterns, with a high response for the translational flow which was maximum in V6 and IPSmot and less marked in MST+. Given that during egomotion the translational optic flow conveys differential information about the near and far external objects, areas V6 and IPSmot likely process visual egomotion signals to extract information about the relative distance of objects with respect to the observer. Since area V6 is also involved in distinguishing object-motion from self-motion, it could provide information about location in space of moving and static objects during self-motion, particularly in a dynamically unstable environment. PMID:23577096

Pitzalis, Sabrina; Sdoia, Stefano; Bultrini, Alessandro; Committeri, Giorgia; Di Russo, Francesco; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio; Galati, Gaspare

2013-01-01

277

The envirome and the connectome: exploring the structural noise in the human brain associated with socioeconomic deprivation  

PubMed Central

Complex cognitive functions are widely recognized to be the result of a number of brain regions working together as large-scale networks. Recently, complex network analysis has been used to characterize various structural properties of the large-scale network organization of the brain. For example, the human brain has been found to have a modular architecture i.e., regions within the network form communities (modules) with more connections between regions within the community compared to regions outside it. The aim of this study was to examine the modular and overlapping modular architecture of the brain networks using complex network analysis. We also examined the association between neighborhood level deprivation and brain network structuremodularity and gray nodes. We compared network structure derived from anatomical MRI scans of 42 middle-aged neurologically healthy men from the least (LD) and the most deprived (MD) neighborhoods of Glasgow with their corresponding random networks. Cortical morphological covariance networks were constructed from the cortical thickness derived from the MRI scans of the brain. For a given modularity threshold, networks derived from the MD group showed similar number of modules compared to their corresponding random networks, while networks derived from the LD group had more modules compared to their corresponding random networks. The MD group also had fewer gray nodesa measure of overlapping modular structure. These results suggest that apparent structural difference in brain networks may be driven by differences in cortical thicknesses between groups. This demonstrates a structural organization that is consistent with a system that is less robust and less efficient in information processing. These findings provide some evidence of the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and brain network topology. PMID:24273501

Krishnadas, Rajeev; Kim, Jongrae; McLean, John; Batty, G. David; McLean, Jennifer S.; Millar, Keith; Packard, Chris J.; Cavanagh, Jonathan

2013-01-01

278

COMPUTER MODEL OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY TO COMPLEMENT SPECT ANALYSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerosol therapy protocols could be improved if inhaled pharmacologic drugs were selectively deposited within the human lung. he targeted delivery to specific sites, such as receptors and sensitive airway cells, would enhance the efficacies of airborne pharmaceuticals. he high res...

279

Phenylethylamine N-methylation by human brain preparations  

SciTech Connect

Alterations in the brain metabolism of biogenic amines has been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders. There is some evidence suggesting schizogenic properties for some abnormal neuroamine methylated derivatives. The authors now report that postmortem human brain preparations, obtained from the putamen and thalamus, convert phenylethylamine (PEA) to its behaviorally active derivative N-methyl PEA, a reaction which is carried out by the 100,000 xg supernatant (in presence of 1 x 10 /sup -5/M pargyline) and enhanced by the addition of NADPH. PEA N-methylation occurred in schizophrenics as well as in sex and age matched controls. The formation of increased amounts of (/sup 3/H-) or (/sup 14/C-) N-methyl PEA when incubating either cold amine and /sup 3/H-SAM or 1-/sup 14/C PEA and cold SAM, respectively, indicates that SAM is a methyl group donor in this reaction. They will discuss the physiological and pharmacological implications of these results.

Mosnaim, A.D.; Callaghan, O.H.; Wolf, M.E.

1986-03-05

280

Comparative analysis of the macroscale structural connectivity in the macaque and human brain.  

PubMed

The macaque brain serves as a model for the human brain, but its suitability is challenged by unique human features, including connectivity reconfigurations, which emerged during primate evolution. We perform a quantitative comparative analysis of the whole brain macroscale structural connectivity of the two species. Our findings suggest that the human and macaque brain as a whole are similarly wired. A region-wise analysis reveals many interspecies similarities of connectivity patterns, but also lack thereof, primarily involving cingulate regions. We unravel a common structural backbone in both species involving a highly overlapping set of regions. This structural backbone, important for mediating information across the brain, seems to constitute a feature of the primate brain persevering evolution. Our findings illustrate novel evolutionary aspects at the macroscale connectivity level and offer a quantitative translational bridge between macaque and human research. PMID:24676052

Goulas, Alexandros; Bastiani, Matteo; Bezgin, Gleb; Uylings, Harry B M; Roebroeck, Alard; Stiers, Peter

2014-03-01

281

Comparative Analysis of the Macroscale Structural Connectivity in the Macaque and Human Brain  

PubMed Central

The macaque brain serves as a model for the human brain, but its suitability is challenged by unique human features, including connectivity reconfigurations, which emerged during primate evolution. We perform a quantitative comparative analysis of the whole brain macroscale structural connectivity of the two species. Our findings suggest that the human and macaque brain as a whole are similarly wired. A region-wise analysis reveals many interspecies similarities of connectivity patterns, but also lack thereof, primarily involving cingulate regions. We unravel a common structural backbone in both species involving a highly overlapping set of regions. This structural backbone, important for mediating information across the brain, seems to constitute a feature of the primate brain persevering evolution. Our findings illustrate novel evolutionary aspects at the macroscale connectivity level and offer a quantitative translational bridge between macaque and human research. PMID:24676052

Bezgin, Gleb; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Roebroeck, Alard; Stiers, Peter

2014-01-01

282

Variation in human brains may facilitate evolutionary change toward a limited range of phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Individual variation is the foundation for evolutionary change, but little is known about the nature of normal variation between brains. Phylogenetic variation across mammalian brains is characterized by high inter-correlations in brain region volumes, distinct allometric scaling for each brain region and the relative independence in olfactory and limbic structures volumes from the rest of the brain. Previous work examining brain variation in individuals of some domesticated species showed that these three features of phylogenetic variation were mirrored in individual variation. We extend this analysis to the human brain and 10 of its subdivisions (e.g., isocortex, hippocampus) by using magnetic resonance imaging scans of 90 human brains ranging between 16 to 25 years of age. Human brain variation resembles both the individual variation seen in other species, and variation observed across mammalian species. That is, the relative differences in the slopes of each brain region compared to medulla size within humans and between mammals are concordant, and limbic structures scale with relative independence from other brain regions. This non-random pattern of variation suggests that developmental programs channel the variation available for selection. PMID:23363667

Charvet, Christine J.; Darlington, Richard B.; Finlay, Barbara L.

2013-01-01

283

Human brain development in infants with PET and FDG  

SciTech Connect

The authors used studies of local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMRGlc) to examine development of cerebral organization in 5 days to 1 year old children. A group (n=8) of infants with diverse pediatric disorders allowed investigation of developmental changes in LCMRGlc, while also providing relevant clinical management information. Patients consisted of questionable and definite neonatal seizures, cerebral embolism from cardiac sources, and otherwise normal infants with facial nevi with consideration of Sturge-Weber. Gradual increase in cortical LCMRGlc coincides with suppression of intrinsic subcortical reflexes present in all newborns. Two retarded children (2 years old) showed LCMRGlc developmental patterns of a few days old, which corresponded to their functional and mental status. These studies illustrate great potential of PET to study normal and altered states of human brain development.

Phelps, M.E.; Chugani, H.T.

1985-05-01

284

Spatial attention affects brain activity in human primary visual cortex.  

PubMed

Functional MRI was used to test whether instructing subjects to attend to one or another location in a visual scene would affect neural activity in human primary visual cortex. Stimuli were moving gratings restricted to a pair of peripheral, circular apertures, positioned to the right and to the left of a central fixation point. Subjects were trained to perform a motion discrimination task, attending (without moving their eyes) at any moment to one of the two stimulus apertures. Functional MRI responses were recorded while subjects were cued to alternate their attention between the two apertures. Primary visual cortex responses in each hemisphere modulated with the alternation of the cue; responses were greater when the subject attended to the stimuli in the contralateral hemifield. The attentional modulation of the brain activity was about 25% of that evoked by alternating the stimulus with a uniform field. PMID:10077681

Gandhi, S P; Heeger, D J; Boynton, G M

1999-03-16

285

Scaling laws and persistence in human brain activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the temporal variability of human brain activity in timeseries of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We find that these timeseries show scaling behavior which is quantified by computing various scaling exponents. We demonstrate that mentally active zones are one-to-one related to large exponents, or equivalently, to highly temporally correlated processes, while mentally inactive zones are well described by a simple random walk model. Activation maps of scaling exponents are presented and compared to standard results in fMRI. In contrast to standard model-based activation analyses no prior knowledge of the experimental stimulation paradigm has to be assumed for extracting activation patterns from fMRI timeseries. We mention consequences of persistence in fMRI timeseries for standard statistical analysis.

Thurner, Stefan; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Walla, Peter; Barth, Markus

2003-08-01

286

Voice and emotion processing in the human neonatal brain.  

PubMed

Although the voice-sensitive neural system emerges very early in development, it has yet to be demonstrated whether the neonatal brain is sensitive to voice perception. We measured the EEG mismatch response (MMR) elicited by emotionally spoken syllables "dada" along with correspondingly synthesized nonvocal sounds, whose fundamental frequency contours were matched, in 98 full-term newborns aged 1-5 days. In Experiment 1, happy syllables relative to nonvocal sounds elicited an MMR lateralized to the right hemisphere. In Experiment 2, fearful syllables elicited stronger amplitudes than happy or neutral syllables, and this response had no sex differences. In Experiment 3, angry versus happy syllables elicited an MMR, although their corresponding nonvocal sounds did not. Here, we show that affective discrimination is selectively driven by voice processing per se rather than low-level acoustical features and that the cerebral specialization for human voice and emotion processing emerges over the right hemisphere during the first days of life. PMID:22360593

Cheng, Yawei; Lee, Shin-Yi; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Wang, Ping-Yao; Decety, Jean

2012-06-01

287

Effects of human placental serum on proliferation and morphology of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media used for tissue culture may have significant effects on the growth and morphology of the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). As fetal bovine serum (FBS) may induce an immunological reaction and health risks, this study was designed to evaluate and compare the effects of human placental serum (HPS) on the proliferation and morphology of hADSCs. We cultured hADSCs for

H Shafaei; A Esmaeili; M Mardani; S Razavi; B Hashemibeni; M H Nasr-Esfahani; M B Shiran; E Esfandiari

2011-01-01

288

An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.  

PubMed

Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans. PMID:25267617

Jean, Aurlie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Ral

2014-10-28

289

An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans. PMID:25267617

Jean, Aurelie; Nyein, Michelle K.; Zheng, James Q.; Moore, David F.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Radovitzky, Raul

2014-01-01

290

A hybrid approach to shape-based interpolation of stereotactic atlases of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotactic human brain atlases, either in print or electronic form, are useful not only in functional neurosurgery, but\\u000a also in neuroradiology, human brain mapping, and neuroscience education. The existing atlases represent structures on 2D plates\\u000a taken at variable, often large intervals, which limit their applications. To overcome this problem, we propose ahybrid interpolation\\u000a approach to build high-resolution brain atlases from

Jimin Liu; Wieslaw L. Nowinski

2006-01-01

291

Immunocytochemical localization of the dopamine transporter in human brain.  

PubMed

The dopamine transporter (DAT) was localized in normal human brain tissue by light microscopic immunocytochemistry by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies. Regional distribution of DAT was found in areas with established dopaminergic circuitry, e.g., mesostriatal, mesolimbic, and mesocortical pathways. Mesencephalic DAT-immunoreactivity was enriched in the dendrites and cell bodies of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area. Staining in the striatum and nucleus accumbens was dense and heterogeneous. Mesocortical DAT immunoreactivity in motor, premotor, anterior cingulate, prefrontal, entorhinal/perirhinal, insular, and visual cortices was detected in scattered varicose and a few nonvaricose fibers. Varicose fibers were relatively enriched in the basolateral and central subnuclei of amygdala, with sparser fibers in lateral and basomedial subnuclei. Double-labeling studies combining DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining in the ventral mesencephalon showed two subpopulations of dopaminergic neurons differentiated by the presence or absence of DAT-immunoreactivity in the A9 and A10 cell groups. In other dopaminergic cell groups (All, A13-A15), TH-positive hypothalamic neurons showed no detectable DAT-immunoreactivity. However, fine DAT-immunoreactive axons were scattered throughout the hypothalamus, particularly concentrated along the medial border, with more coarse axons present along the lateral border. These findings demonstrate that most mesotelencephalic dopamine neurons of human brain express high levels of DAT throughout their entire somatodendritic and axonal domains, whereas a smaller subpopulation of mesencephalic dopamine cells and all hypothalamic dopamine cell groups examined express little or no DAT. These data indicate that different subpopulations of dopaminergic neurons use different mechanisms to regulate their extracellular dopamine levels. PMID:10363710

Ciliax, B J; Drash, G W; Staley, J K; Haber, S; Mobley, C J; Miller, G W; Mufson, E J; Mash, D C; Levey, A I

1999-06-21

292

A Collaborative Brain-Computer Interface for Improving Human Performance  

PubMed Central

Electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have been studied since the 1970s. Currently, the main focus of BCI research lies on the clinical use, which aims to provide a new communication channel to patients with motor disabilities to improve their quality of life. However, the BCI technology can also be used to improve human performance for normal healthy users. Although this application has been proposed for a long time, little progress has been made in real-world practices due to technical limits of EEG. To overcome the bottleneck of low single-user BCI performance, this study proposes a collaborative paradigm to improve overall BCI performance by integrating information from multiple users. To test the feasibility of a collaborative BCI, this study quantitatively compares the classification accuracies of collaborative and single-user BCI applied to the EEG data collected from 20 subjects in a movement-planning experiment. This study also explores three different methods for fusing and analyzing EEG data from multiple subjects: (1) Event-related potentials (ERP) averaging, (2) Feature concatenating, and (3) Voting. In a demonstration system using the Voting method, the classification accuracy of predicting movement directions (reaching left vs. reaching right) was enhanced substantially from 66% to 80%, 88%, 93%, and 95% as the numbers of subjects increased from 1 to 5, 10, 15, and 20, respectively. Furthermore, the decision of reaching direction could be made around 100250 ms earlier than the subject's actual motor response by decoding the ERP activities arising mainly from the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), which are related to the processing of visuomotor transmission. Taken together, these results suggest that a collaborative BCI can effectively fuse brain activities of a group of people to improve the overall performance of natural human behavior. PMID:21655253

Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

2011-01-01

293

Chemical Mapping of Anxiety in the Brain of Healthy Humans: An in vivo 1  

E-print Network

Chemical Mapping of Anxiety in the Brain of Healthy Humans: An in vivo 1 H-MRS Study on the Effects recently presented results in an in vivo study of human brain chemistry in `physiologic' anxiety, i.e., the anxiety of normal everyday life. Normal subjects with high anxiety demonstrated increased concentration

Apkarian, A. Vania

294

Video Article Monitoring Acupuncture Effects on Human Brain by fMRI  

E-print Network

Video Article Monitoring Acupuncture Effects on Human Brain by fMRI Kathleen K. S. Hui1, Vitaly). Monitoring Acupuncture Effects on Human Brain by fMRI. JoVE. 38. http://www.jove.com/index/Details.stp?ID=1190, doi: 10.3791/1190 Abstract Functional MRI is used to study the effects of acupuncture on the BOLD

Napadow, Vitaly

295

Functional mapping of the human brain with near-infrared spectroscopy in the frequency-domain  

E-print Network

-to-noise ratio with respect to DC data. In this work, we have collected DC and phase data on the head of a humanFunctional mapping of the human brain with near-infrared spectroscopy in the frequency change) associated with brain activity and its evolution with time. MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiments

Fantini, Sergio

296

Traversal of Candida albicans across Human Blood-Brain Barrier In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, which primarily affects neonates and immunocompromised individuals. The pathogen can invade the central nervous system, resulting in meningitis. At present, the pathogenesis of C. albicans meningitis is unclear. We used an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier to investigate the interaction(s) of C. albicans with human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Binding

AMBROSE Y. JONG; MONIQUE F. STINS; SHENG-HE HUANG; STEVEN H. M. CHEN; KWANG SIK KIM

2001-01-01

297

On the relationship between human brain functions and the foundations of physics, science, and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to discuss the relationship between the functional properties and information-processing modes of the human brain and the evolution of scientific thought. Science has emerged as a tool to carry out predictive operations that exceed the accuracy, temporal scale, and intrinsic operational limitations of the human brain. Yet the scientific method unavoidably reflects some fundamental

Juan G. Roederer

1978-01-01

298

Protease Activated Receptor Signaling Is Required for African Trypanosome Traversal of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUsing human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) as an in vitro model for how African trypanosomes cross the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) we recently reported that the parasites cross the BBB by generating calcium activation signals in HBMECs through the activity of parasite cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L (brucipain). In the current study, we examined the possible role of a

Dennis J. Grab; Jose C. Garcia-Garcia; Olga V. Nikolskaia; Yuri V. Kim; Amanda Brown; Carlos A. Pardo; Yongqing Zhang; Kevin G. Becker; Brenda A. Wilson; Julio Scharfstein; J. Stephen Dumler

2009-01-01

299

Protease Activated Receptor Signaling Is Required for African Trypanosome Traversal of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) as an in vitro model for how African trypanosomes cross the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) we recently reported that the parasites cross the BBB by generating calcium activation signals in HBMECs through the activity of parasite cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L (brucipain). In the current study, we examined the possible role of

Dennis J. Grab; Jose C. Garcia-Garcia; Olga V. Nikolskaia; Yuri V. Kim; Amanda Brown; Carlos A. Pardo; Yongqing Zhang; Kevin G. Becker; Brenda A. Wilson; Julio Scharfstein; J. Stephen Dumler

2009-01-01

300

Reprogramming the fate of human glioma cells to impede brain tumor development.  

PubMed

Malignant gliomas, the most common solid tumors in the central nervous system, are essentially incurable due to their rapid growth and very invasive nature. One potential approach to eradicating glioma cells is to force these cells to undergo terminal differentiation and, in the process, to irreversible postmitotic arrest. Here, we show that neurogenin 2 (NGN2, also known as NEUROG2) synergizes with sex-determining region Y-box 11 (SOX11) to very efficiently convert human glioma cells to terminally differentiated neuron-like cells in both cell culture and adult mouse brains. These cells exhibit neuronal morphology, marker expression, and electrophysiological properties. The conversion process is accompanied by cell cycle exit, which dramatically inhibits glioma cell proliferation and tumor development after orthotopic transplantation. Most importantly, intracranial injection of NGN2- and SOX11-expressing virus into the tumor mass also curtails glioma growth and significantly improves survival of tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, this study shows a simple and highly efficient strategy for reprogramming malignant glioma cells into postmitotic cells, which might be a promising therapeutic approach for brain tumors. PMID:25321470

Su, Z; Zang, T; Liu, M-L; Wang, L-L; Niu, W; Zhang, C-L

2014-01-01

301

Morphological Integration of the Modern Human Mandible during Ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Craniofacial integration is prevalent in anatomical modernity research. Little investigation has been done on mandibular integration. Integration patterns were quantified in a longitudinal modern human sample of mandibles. This integration pattern is one of modularization between the alveolar and muscle attachment regions, but with age-specific differences. The ascending ramus and nonalveolar portions of the corpus remain integrated throughout ontogeny. The alveolar region is dynamic, becoming modularized according to the needs of the mandible at a particular developmental stage. Early in ontogeny, this modularity reflects the need for space for the developing dentition; later, modularity is more reflective of mastication. The overall pattern of modern human mandibular integration follows the integration pattern seen in other mammals, including chimpanzees. Given the differences in craniofacial integration patterns between humans and chimpanzees, but the similarities in mandibular integration, it is likely that the mandible has played the more passive role in hominin skull evolution. PMID:21716741

Polanski, Joshua M.

2011-01-01

302

Morphology of the cervical vertebrae in the fetal-neonatal human skeleton  

PubMed Central

The gross anatomical features of human cervical vertebrae during the fetal-neonatal period were investigated in order to develop morphological standards for the individual ossification centres for use in forensic and anthropological osteology. It was found that the morphology of the cervical vertebral arches and the centra cannot be used for the determination of fetal age although the dens of the axis displays some developmental differences which may be useful for the determination of fetal maturity. PMID:10227677

CASTELLANA, C.; KOSA, F.

1999-01-01

303

Morphology of the cervical vertebrae in the fetal-neonatal human skeleton.  

PubMed

The gross anatomical features of human cervical vertebrae during the fetal-neonatal period were investigated in order to develop morphological standards for the individual ossification centres for use in forensic and anthropological osteology. It was found that the morphology of the cervical vertebral arches and the centra cannot be used for the determination of fetal age although the dens of the axis displays some developmental differences which may be useful for the determination of fetal maturity. PMID:10227677

Castellana, C; Ksa, F

1999-01-01

304

Morphological lesions in the brain preceding the development of postischemic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores how hyperglycemia and enhanced tissue lactic acidosis influence the density and distribution of ischemic brain damage. Ischemia of 10-min duration was produced in glucose-infused rats by bilateral carotid clamping combined with hypotension, and the brains were perfusion-fixed with formaldehyde following recirculation of 3, 6, 12 and 18 h. After about 24 h the hyperglycemic animals developed seizures,

M.-L. Smith; H. Kalimo; D. S. Warner; B. K. Siesj

1988-01-01

305

An efficient algorithm in extracting human iris Morphological features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface of computer technologies and biology is having a huge impact on society. Human recognition research projects promises new life to many security-consulting firms and personal identification system manufacturers. Iris recognition is considered to be the most reliable biometric authentication system. Very few iris recognition algorithms were commercialized. The method proposed in this paper differed from the existing work

Mohamed A. Mohamed; M. E. A. Abou-Elsoud; M. M. Eid

2009-01-01

306

Morphological Analysis of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells During Induced Differentiation and Reverse Programming  

PubMed Central

Abstract The fine analysis of cell components during the generation of pluripotent cells and their comparison to bone fide human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are valuable tools to understand their biological behavior. In this report, human mesenchymal cells (hMSCs) generated from the human ES cell line H9, were reprogrammed back to induced pluripotent state using Oct-4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28 transgenes. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) were analyzed using electron microscopy and compared with regard to the original hESCs and the hMSCs from which they were derived. This analysis shows that hIPSCs and the original hESCs are morphologically undistinguishable but differ from the hMSCs with respect to the presence of several morphological features of undifferentiated cells at both the cytoplasmic (ribosomes, lipid droplets, glycogen, scarce reticulum) and nuclear levels (features of nuclear plasticity, presence of euchromatin, reticulated nucleoli). We show that hIPSC colonies generated this way presented epithelial aspects with specialized junctions highlighting morphological criteria of the mesenchymalepithelial transition in cells engaged in a successful reprogramming process. Electron microscopic analysis revealed also specific morphological aspects of partially reprogrammed cells. These results highlight the valuable use of electron microscopy for a better knowledge of the morphological aspects of IPSC and cellular reprogramming. PMID:25371857

Magniez, Aurlie; Oudrhiri, Noufissa; Fraud, Olivier; Bacci, Josette; Gobbo, Emilie; Proust, Stphanie; Turhan, Ali G.

2014-01-01

307

Optimization of electron microscopy for human brains with long-term fixation and fixed-frozen sections  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal connectivity across brain regions underlies many neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and autism, possibly due to atypical axonal organization within white matter. Attempts at investigating axonal organization on post-mortem human brains have been hindered by the availability of high-quality, morphologically preserved tissue, particularly for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Brains are generally stored in a fixative for long periods of time (often greater than 10 years) and in many cases, already frozen and sectioned on a microtome for histology and immunohistochemistry. Here we present a method to assess the quality and quantity of axons from long-term fixed and frozen-sectioned human brain samples to demonstrate their use for electron microscopy (EM) measures of axonal ultrastructure. Results Six samples were collected from white matter below the superior temporal cortex of three typically developing human brains and prepared for EM analyses. Five samples were stored in fixative for over 10 years, two of which were also flash frozen and sectioned on a freezing microtome, and one additional case was fixed for 3 years and sectioned on a freezing microtome. In all six samples, ultrastructural qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrate that myelinated axons can be identified and counted on the EM images. Although axon density differed between brains, axonal ultrastructure and density was well preserved and did not differ within cases for fixed and frozen tissue. There was no significant difference between cases in axon myelin sheath thickness (g-ratio) or axon diameter; approximately 70% of axons were in the small (0.25 ?m) to medium (0.75 ?m) range. Axon diameter and g-ratio were positively correlated, indicating that larger axons may have thinner myelin sheaths. Conclusion The current study demonstrates that long term formalin fixed and frozen-sectioned human brain tissue can be used for ultrastructural analyses. Axon integrity is well preserved and can be quantified using the methods presented here. The ability to carry out EM on frozen sections allows for investigation of axonal organization in conjunction with other cellular and histological methods, such as immunohistochemistry and stereology, within the same brain and even within the same frozen cut section. PMID:24721148

2014-01-01

308

Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness.  

PubMed

Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized by superior cognition, their muscular performance might be markedly inferior to that of chimpanzees and macaque monkeys. PMID:24866127

Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng; Liu, Xiling; Xiong, Jieyi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tomita, Masaru; Pbo, Svante; Pieszek, Raik; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Ely, John J; Steinhauser, Dirk; Willmitzer, Lothar; Bangsbo, Jens; Hansson, Ola; Call, Josep; Giavalisco, Patrick; Khaitovich, Philipp

2014-05-01

309

Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks  

PubMed Central

The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous structure, ranging from a strongly hierarchical organization in sensorimotor areas to widely distributed networks in areas such as the parieto-frontal cortex. Our study relied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 32 fetuses with no detectable morphological abnormalities. After adapting functional magnetic resonance acquisition, motion correction, and nuisance signal reduction procedures of resting-state functional data analysis to fetuses, we extracted neural activity information for major cortical and subcortical structures. Resting fMRI networks were observed for increasing regional functional connectivity from 21st to 38th gestational weeks (GWs) with a network-based statistical inference approach. The overall connectivity network, short range, and interhemispheric connections showed sigmoid expansion curve peaking at the 2629 GW. In contrast, long-range connections exhibited linear increase with no periods of peaking development. Region-specific increase of functional signal synchrony followed a sequence of occipital (peak: 24.8 GW), temporal (peak: 26 GW), frontal (peak: 26.4 GW), and parietal expansion (peak: 27.5 GW). We successfully adapted functional neuroimaging and image post-processing approaches to correlate macroscopical scale activations in the fetal brain with gestational age. This in vivo study reflects the fact that the mid-fetal period hosts events that cause the architecture of the brain circuitry to mature, which presumably manifests in increasing strength of intra- and interhemispheric functional macro connectivity. PMID:25374531

Jakab, Andras; Schwartz, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Gruber, Gerlinde M.; Prayer, Daniela; Schopf, Veronika; Langs, Georg

2014-01-01

310

Leslie et al., Human Brain Mapping 2014, Hamburg, Germany Measuring and Classifying Musical Engagement using EEG and Motion Capture  

E-print Network

Leslie et al., Human Brain Mapping 2014, Hamburg, Germany Measuring and Classifying Musical Engagement using EEG and Motion Capture Grace Leslie1, 2 tool for music perception research, #12;Leslie et al., Human Brain Mapping

Makeig, Scott

311

The human brain intracerebral microvascular system: development and structure  

PubMed Central

The capillary from the meningeal inner pial lamella play a crucial role in the development and structural organization of the cerebral cortex extrinsic and intrinsic microvascular compartments. Only pial capillaries are capable of perforating through the cortex external glial limiting membrane (EGLM) to enter into the nervous tissue, although incapable of perforating the membrane to exit the brain. Circulatory dynamics and functional demands determine which capillaries become arterial and which capillaries become venous. The perforation of the cortex EGLM by pial capillaries is a complex process characterized by three fundamental stages: (1) pial capillary contact with the EGLM with fusion of vascular and glial basal laminae at the contact site, (2) endothelial cell filopodium penetration through the fussed laminae with the formation of a funnel between them that accompanies it into the nervous tissue while remaining open to the meningeal interstitium and, (3) penetration of the whole capillary carrying the open funnel with it and establishing an extravascular Virchow-Robin Compartment (V-RC) that maintains the perforating vessel extrinsic (outside) the nervous tissue through its entire length. The V-RC is walled internally by the vascular basal lamina and externally by the basal lamina of joined glial cells endfeet. The VRC outer glial wall appear as an extension of the cortex superficial EGLM. All the perforating vessels within the V-RCs constitute the cerebral cortex extrinsic microvascular compartment. These perforating vessels are the only one capable of responding to inflammatory insults. The V-RC remains open (for life) to the meningeal interstitium permitting the exchanges of fluid and of cells between brain and meninges. The V-RC function as the brain sole drainage (prelymphatic) system in both physiological as well as pathological situations. During cortical development, capillaries emerge from the perforating vessels, by endothelial cells growing sprouts analogous to their angiogenesis, entering into their corresponding V-RCs. These new capillaries to enter into the nervous tissue must perforate through the V-RC outer glial wall, a process analogous to the original perforation of the cortex EGLM by pial capillaries. These emerging capillaries are incapable of reentering the V-RCs and/or perforating vessels. As the new capillary enters into the nervous tissue, it becomes surrounded by glial endfeet and carries a single basal lamina (possibly glial). Capillaries emerging from contiguous perforators establish an anastomotic plexus between them, by mechanisms still poorly understood. The capillaries of this anastomotic plexus constitute the cerebral cortex intrinsic microvascular compartment and together constitute the so-called blood-brain-barrier. The intrinsic capillaries are changing and readapting continuously, by both active angiogenesis and reabsorption, to the gray matter neurons developmental and functional needs. The brain intrinsic capillaries are among the most active microvessels of the human body. Unresolved developmental and functional aspects concerning the cerebral cortex intrinsic capillary plexus need to be further investigated. PMID:22993505

Marin-Padilla, Miguel

2012-01-01

312

S100 proteins in Corpora amylacea from normal human brain.  

PubMed

Corpora amylacea (C.A.) also named polyglucosan bodies (P.B.) are one of the hallmarks of normal brain aging. Although their functions are not yet clear, C.A. increase in number in patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. C.A. contain 88% of hexoses and 4% of proteins. Most of the proteins in C.A. are aging or stress proteins such as heat shock proteins, ubiquitinated proteins and advanced glycation end products which are also proinflammatory products. Stimulated by the potential role played by some S100 proteins in the inflammatory process which may be triggered in C.A., we investigated, by immunohistochemistry, the presence of different S100 proteins (S100A1, S100A2, S100A3, S100A4, S100A5, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A12 and S100B) in C.A. from normal human brain. Among the ten S100 proteins analyzed, nine (S100A) were detected in C.A. Three S100 proteins (S100A8, S100A9, S100A12) which are highly expressed in activated macrophages and used as inflammatory markers were detected in C.A. S100A8 was, in addition, found in thick neuronal processes from the pons. One (S100B) could not be found in C.A. although it was highly expressed in astrocytes. In C.A., the staining intensity was estimated by computer-assisted microscopy and gave the following order: S100A1 congruent withS100A8 congruent with S100A9>S100A5> or =S100A4>S100A12>S100A6> S100A2=S100A3. The potential inflammatory role played by S100 proteins in C.A. is discussed. PMID:10837826

Hoyaux, D; Decaestecker, C; Heizmann, C W; Vogl, T; Schfer, B W; Salmon, I; Kiss, R; Pochet, R

2000-06-01

313

Influence of nanoparticles of platinum on chicken embryo development and brain morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum nanoparticles (NP-Pt) are noble metal nanoparticles with unique physiochemical properties that have recently elicited much interest in medical research. However, we still know little about their toxicity and influence on general health. We investigated effects of NP-Pt on the growth and development of the chicken embryo model with emphasis on brain tissue micro- and ultrastructure. The embryos were administered solutions of NP-Pt injected in ovo at concentrations from 1 to 20 ?g/ml. The results demonstrate that NP-Pt did not affect the growth and development of the embryos; however, they induced apoptosis and decreased the number of proliferating cells in the brain tissue. These preliminary results indicate that properties of NP-Pt might be utilized in brain cancer therapy, but potential toxic side effects must be elucidated in extensive follow-up research.

Prasek, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Slawomir; Grodzik, Marta; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Kamaszewski, Maciej; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Chwalibog, Andre

2013-05-01

314

Brain morphological abnormalities in 49,XXXXY syndrome: A pediatric magnetic resonance imaging study???  

PubMed Central

As a group, people with the sex chromosome aneuploidy 49,XXXXY have characteristic physical and cognitive/behavioral tendencies, although there is high individual variation. In this study we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain morphometry in 14 youth with 49,XXXXY compared to 42 age-matched healthy controls. Total brain size was significantly smaller (t=9.0, p<.001), and rates of brain abnormalities such as colpocephaly, plagiocephaly, periventricular cysts, and minor craniofacial abnormalities were significantly increased. White matter lesions were identified in 50% of subjects, supporting the inclusion of 49,XXXXY in the differential diagnosis of small multifocal white matter lesions. Further evidence of abnormal development of white matter was provided by the smaller cross sectional area of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that increased dosage of genes on the X chromosome has adverse effects on white matter development. PMID:23667827

Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Baker, Eva H.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wade, Benjamin; Clasen, Liv S.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

2013-01-01

315

Influence of nanoparticles of platinum on chicken embryo development and brain morphology  

PubMed Central

Platinum nanoparticles (NP-Pt) are noble metal nanoparticles with unique physiochemical properties that have recently elicited much interest in medical research. However, we still know little about their toxicity and influence on general health. We investigated effects of NP-Pt on the growth and development of the chicken embryo model with emphasis on brain tissue micro- and ultrastructure. The embryos were administered solutions of NP-Pt injected in ovo at concentrations from 1 to 20 ?g/ml. The results demonstrate that NP-Pt did not affect the growth and development of the embryos; however, they induced apoptosis and decreased the number of proliferating cells in the brain tissue. These preliminary results indicate that properties of NP-Pt might be utilized in brain cancer therapy, but potential toxic side effects must be elucidated in extensive follow-up research. PMID:23705751

2013-01-01

316

Brain Organization into Resting State Networks Emerges at Criticality on a Model of the Human Connectome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between large-scale brain structure and function is an outstanding open problem in neuroscience. We approach this problem by studying the dynamical regime under which realistic spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity emerge from the empirically derived network of human brain neuroanatomical connections. The results show that critical dynamics unfolding on the structural connectivity of the human brain allow the recovery of many key experimental findings obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging, such as divergence of the correlation length, the anomalous scaling of correlation fluctuations, and the emergence of large-scale resting state networks.

Haimovici, Ariel; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Balenzuela, Pablo; Chialvo, Dante R.

2013-04-01

317

Hearing silences: human auditory processing relies on preactivation of sound-specific brain activity patterns.  

PubMed

The remarkable capabilities displayed by humans in making sense of an overwhelming amount of sensory information cannot be explained easily if perception is viewed as a passive process. Current theoretical and computational models assume that to achieve meaningful and coherent perception, the human brain must anticipate upcoming stimulation. But how are upcoming stimuli predicted in the brain? We unmasked the neural representation of a prediction by omitting the predicted sensory input. Electrophysiological brain signals showed that when a clear prediction can be formulated, the brain activates a template of its response to the predicted stimulus before it arrives to our senses. PMID:23678108

SanMiguel, Iria; Widmann, Andreas; Bendixen, Alexandra; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson; Schrger, Erich

2013-05-15

318

Differences between males and females in rates of serotonin synthesis in human brain  

PubMed Central

Rates of serotonin synthesis were measured in the human brain using positron emission tomography. The sensitivity of the method is indicated by the fact that measurements are possible even after a substantial lowering of synthesis induced by acute tryptophan depletion. Unlike serotonin levels in human brain, which vary greatly in different brain areas, rates of synthesis of the indolamine are rather uniform throughout the brain. The mean rate of synthesis in normal males was found to be 52% higher than in normal females; this marked difference may be a factor relevant to the lower incidence of major unipolar depression in males. PMID:9144233

Nishizawa, S.; Benkelfat, C.; Young, S. N.; Leyton, M.; Mzengeza, S.; de Montigny, C.; Blier, P.; Diksic, M.

1997-01-01

319

ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN A thesis (or dissertation) submitted to the faculty of  

E-print Network

i ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN USING FPGA A thesis (or dissertation Realization of Human Brain's Neo-Cortex Column Using FPGA by Padmavalli Vadali, and that in my opinion Moffatt Professor of Biology #12;iii ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN USING FPGA

Mahmoodi, Hamid

320

The complexity of the human brain permits the development of sophisticated behavioural repertoires, such as language, tool use,  

E-print Network

The complexity of the human brain permits the development of sophisticated behavioural repertoires to the uniqueness of the neuronal heterogeneity and interconnections in our brains, each human is different. Indeed is believed to be lower than that observed in humans. The mouse brain contains approximately 75 million

Cai, Long

321

Real-time classification of activated brain areas for fMRI-based human-brain-interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional MR imaging (fMRI) enables to detect different activated brain areas according to the performed tasks. However, data are usually evaluated after the experiment, which prohibits intra-experiment optimization or more sophisticated applications such as biofeedback experiments. Using a human-brain-interface (HBI), subjects are able to communicate with external programs, e.g. to navigate through virtual scenes, or to experience and modify their own brain activation. These applications require the real-time analysis and classification of activated brain areas. Our paper presents first results of different strategies for real-time pattern analysis and classification realized within a flexible experiment control system that enables the volunteers to move through a 3D virtual scene in real-time using finger tapping tasks, and alternatively only thought-based tasks.

Moench, Tobias; Hollmann, Maurice; Grzeschik, Ramona; Mueller, Charles; Luetzkendorf, Ralf; Baecke, Sebastian; Luchtmann, Michael; Wagegg, Daniela; Bernarding, Johannes

2008-03-01

322

Ablation of the mTORC2 component rictor in brain or Purkinje cells affects size and neuron morphology  

PubMed Central

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) assembles into two distinct multi-protein complexes called mTORC1 and mTORC2. Whereas mTORC1 is known to regulate cell and organismal growth, the role of mTORC2 is less understood. We describe two mouse lines that are devoid of the mTORC2 component rictor in the entire central nervous system or in Purkinje cells. In both lines neurons were smaller and their morphology and function were strongly affected. The phenotypes were accompanied by loss of activation of Akt, PKC, and SGK1 without effects on mTORC1 activity. The striking decrease in the activation and expression of several PKC isoforms, the subsequent loss of activation of GAP-43 and MARCKS, and the established role of PKCs in spinocerebellar ataxia and in shaping the actin cytoskeleton strongly suggest that the morphological deficits observed in rictor-deficient neurons are mediated by PKCs. Together our experiments show that mTORC2 has a particularly important role in the brain and that it affects size, morphology, and function of neurons. PMID:23569215

Thomanetz, Venus; Angliker, Nico; Cloetta, Dimitri; Lustenberger, Regula M.; Schweighauser, Manuel; Oliveri, Filippo; Suzuki, Noboru

2013-01-01

323

Morphology of the osteonal cement line in human bone  

SciTech Connect

While current consensus suggests the absence of collagen in osteonal cement lines, the extent of cement line mineralization and the nature of the ground substance within the cement line are unclear. Samples of human radius were examined by using scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe, and histochemical techniques. X-ray intensities were used to compare the amount of calcium, phosphorus, and sulfur in cement lines with amounts in surrounding lamellar bone. The results indicate that cement lines contain significantly less calcium and phosphorus, but significantly more sulfur, than surrounding bone matrix. The Ca/P ratio of cement lines was significantly greater than that of lamellar bone, suggesting that the mineral in cement lines may not be in the form of mature hydroxyapatite. No selective staining of the cement lines could be demonstrated by using periodic acid-Schiff, Sudan black B, or alcian blue critical electrolyte concentration techniques.

Schaffler, M.B.; Burr, D.B.; Frederickson, R.G.

1987-03-01

324

Yes-associated protein 1 is widely expressed in human brain tumors and promotes glioblastoma growth.  

PubMed

The hippo pathway and its downstream mediator yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) regulate mammalian organ size in part through modulating progenitor cell numbers. YAP1 has also been implicated as an oncogene in multiple human cancers. Currently, little is known about the expression of YAP1 either in normal human brain tissue or in central nervous system neoplasms. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate nuclear YAP1 expression in the fetal and normal adult human brains and in 264 brain tumors. YAP1 was expressed in fetal and adult brain regions known to harbor neural progenitor cells, but there was little YAP1 immunoreactivity in the adult cerebral cortex. YAP1 protein was also readily detected in the nuclei of human brain tumors. In medulloblastoma, the expression varied between histologic subtypes and was most prominent in nodular/desmoplastic tumors. In gliomas, it was frequently expressed in infiltrating astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas but rarely in pilocytic astrocytomas. Using a loss-of-function approach, we show that YAP1 promoted growth of glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. High levels of YAP1 messenger RNA expression were associated with aggressive molecular subsets of glioblastoma and with a nonsignificant trend toward reduced mean survival in human astrocytoma patients. These findings suggest that YAP1 may play an important role in normal human brain development and that it could represent a new target in human brain tumors. PMID:21666501

Orr, Brent A; Bai, Haibo; Odia, Yazmin; Jain, Deepali; Anders, Robert A; Eberhart, Charles G

2011-07-01

325

Oligodendrocyte lineage genes (OLIG) as molecular markers for human glial brain tumors  

PubMed Central

The most common primary tumors of the human brain are thought to be of glial cell origin. However, glial cell neoplasms cannot be fully classified by cellular morphology or with conventional markers for astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or their progenitors. Recent insights into central nervous system tumorigenesis suggest that novel molecular markers might be found among factors that have roles in glial development. Oligodendrocyte lineage genes (Olig1/2) encode basic helixloophelix transcription factors. In the rodent central nervous system, they are expressed exclusively in oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitors, and Olig1 can promote formation of an chondroitin sulfate proteoglycon-positive glial progenitor. Here we show that human OLIG genes are expressed strongly in oligodendroglioma, contrasting absent or low expression in astrocytoma. Our data provide evidence that neoplastic cells of oligodendroglioma resemble oligodendrocytes or their progenitor cells and may derive from cells of this lineage. They further suggest the diagnostic potential of OLIG markers to augment identification of oligodendroglial tumors. PMID:11526205

Lu, Q. Richard; Park, John K.; Noll, Elizabeth; Chan, Jennifer A.; Alberta, John; Yuk, Dongin; Alzamora, M. Garcia; Louis, David N.; Stiles, Charles D.; Rowitch, David H.; Black, Peter M.

2001-01-01

326

Clock Drawing Performance and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive

Thomann, Philipp A.; Toro, Pablo; Santos, Vasco Dos; Essig, Marco; Schroder, Johannes

2008-01-01

327

Opaque for the Reader but Transparent for the Brain: Neural Signatures of Morphological Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within linguistics, words with a complex internal structure are commonly assumed to be decomposed into their constituent morphemes (e.g., un-help-ful). Nevertheless, an ongoing debate concerns the brain structures that subserve this process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study varied the internal complexity of derived

Meinzer, Marcus; Lahiri, Aditi; Flaisch, Tobias; Hannemann, Ronny; Eulitz, Carsten

2009-01-01

328

Pathways of fluid drainage from the brain--morphological aspects and immunological significance in rat and man.  

PubMed

There is firm physiological evidence for the lymphatic drainage of interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid from the brains of rats, rabbits and cats. The object of this review, is to describe firstly the morphological aspects of lymphatic drainage pathways from the rat brain and secondly, to explore through scanning and transmission electron microscope techniques, the possibility of similar lymphatic drainage pathways in man. Interstitial and oedema fluid spreads diffusely through the white matter in the rat and appears to drain into the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. In grey matter, however, tracers pass along perivascular spaces to the surface of the brain and into the cerebrospinal fluid. Paravascular compartments in the subarachnoid space follow the course of major arterial branches to the circle of Willis and thence along the ethmoidal arteries to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. Particulate tracers, such as Indian ink, enter channels in the arachnoid beneath the olfactory bulbs and connect directly with nasal lymphatics through channels which pass through holes in the cribriform plate. Proteins and other solutes may also drain along other cranial nerves. Thus, there is a bulk flow pathway for interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid from the rat brain into cervical lymphatics. In man, it is probable that diffuse interstitial drainage of fluid from the white matter occurs in a similar way to that in the rat. Furthermore, the anatomical pathways exist by which bulk drainage of fluid could occur along perivascular spaces from the grey matter into perivascular spaces of the leptomeningeal arteries and thence into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1341963

Weller, R O; Kida, S; Zhang, E T

1992-10-01

329

Longitudinal imaging studies in schizophrenia: the relationship between brain morphology and outcome measures.  

PubMed

Imaging studies have tried to identify morphological outcome measures of schizophrenia in the last two decades. In particular, longitudinal studies have reported a correlation between larger ventricles, decreased prefrontal volumes and worse outcome. This would potentially allow to isolate subtypes of schizophrenia patients with a worse prognosis and more evident biological impairments, ultimately helping in designing specific rehabilitation interventions. PMID:21261215

Bellani, Marcella; Dusi, Nicola; Brambilla, Paolo

2010-01-01

330

Morphological and sedimentological responses of streams to human impact in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and sedimentological responses of streams to basin-scale impact have been well documented for intensively agricultural or urban areas. Sensitivity thresholds of streams to modest levels of disturbance, however, are not well understood. This study addresses the influence of forest conversion on streams of the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, a region that has received little attention with respect to human

Katie Price; David S. Leigh

2006-01-01

331

Microwear and morphology: Functional relationships between human dental microwear and the mandible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic pits and scratches form on teeth during chewing, but the extent to which their formation is influenced by mandibular morphology is unknown. Digitized micrographs of the base of facet nine of the first, second, and third mandibular molar were used to record microwear features from an archaeological sample of modern humans recovered from Semna South in northern Sudan (n=38;

Patrick Mahoney

2006-01-01

332

Human melanomas of fibroblast and epithelial morphology differ widely in their ability to synthesize retinyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced retinyl ester synthesis has been associated with several forms of cancer; we therefore proposed studying melanoma development from the perspective of this bio- chemical pathway. Cultures of human melanoma cells with fibroblastoid morphology showed negligible retinyl ester synthesis; in sharp contrast, those with epithelioid morpho- logy were capable of retinol esterification. Further, isolated proliferating epidermal melanocytes (HFSC\\/2) esterified retinol,

Denise Perry Simmons; Fausto Andreola; Luigi M. De Luca

333

Pharmacological Dissociation of Novelty Responses in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Repeated processing of the same information is associated with decreased neuronal responses, termed repetition suppression (RS). Although RS effects (i.e., the difference in activity between novel and repeated stimuli) have been demonstrated within several brain regions, such as the medial temporal lobe, their precise neural mechanisms still remain unclear. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging together with psychopharmacology in 48 healthy human subjects, demonstrating that RS effects within the mesolimbic system are differentially modulated by cholinergic and dopaminergic stimulation. The dopamine precursor levodopa (100 mg) attenuated RS within the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, and the degree of this reduction correlated with recognition memory performance 24 h later. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (8 mg), in contrast, reversed RS into repetition enhancement, showing no relationship to subsequent recognition memory. This suggests that novelty sensitive neural populations of the mesolimbic system can dynamically shift their responses depending on the balance of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, and these shifts can influence memory retention. PMID:23307638

Bunzeck, Nico; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J.; Duzel, Emrah

2014-01-01

334

Predicting errors from reconfiguration patterns in human brain networks.  

PubMed

Task preparation is a complex cognitive process that implements anticipatory adjustments to facilitate future task performance. Little is known about quantitative network parameters governing this process in humans. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional connectivity measurements, we show that the large-scale topology of the brain network involved in task preparation shows a pattern of dynamic reconfigurations that guides optimal behavior. This network could be decomposed into two distinct topological structures, an error-resilient core acting as a major hub that integrates most of the network's communication and a predominantly sensory periphery showing more flexible network adaptations. During task preparation, core-periphery interactions were dynamically adjusted. Task-relevant visual areas showed a higher topological proximity to the network core and an enhancement in their local centrality and interconnectivity. Failure to reconfigure the network topology was predictive for errors, indicating that anticipatory network reconfigurations are crucial for successful task performance. On the basis of a unique network decoding approach, we also develop a general framework for the identification of characteristic patterns in complex networks, which is applicable to other fields in neuroscience that relate dynamic network properties to behavior. PMID:23012417

Ekman, Matthias; Derrfuss, Jan; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Fiebach, Christian J

2012-10-01

335

Human microglial cell isolation from adult autopsy brain: Brain pH, regional variation, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microglia are the main source of productive infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the central nervous\\u000a system (CNS). Infection of microglia is difficult to study because nonhuman microglia are not infected by HIV-1, adult human\\u000a microglia from surgically removed brain tissues are scarce, and fetal human microglial cells differ from adult cells in potentially\\u000a important ways. Adult

Kimberly Schuenke; Benjamin B. Gelman

2003-01-01

336

Dickkopf-3 alters the morphological response to retinoic acid during neuronal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Dickkopf-3 (Dkk-3) and Dkkl-1 (Soggy) are secreted proteins of poorly understood function that are highly expressed in subsets of neurons in the brain. To explore their potential roles during neuronal development, we examined their expression in Ntera-2 (NT2) human embryonal carcinoma cells, which differentiate into neurons upon treatment with retinoic acid (RA). RA treatment increased the mRNA and protein levels of Dkk-3 but not of Dkkl-1. Ectopic expression of both Dkk-3 and Dkkl-1 induced apoptosis in NT2 cells. Gene silencing of Dkk-3 did not affect NT2 cell growth or differentiation but altered their response to RA in suspension cultures. RA treatment of NT2 cells cultured in suspension resulted in morphological changes that led to cell attachment and flattening out of cell aggregates. Although there were no significant differences in the expression levels of cell adhesion molecules in control and Dkk-3-silenced cells, this morphological response was not observed in Dkk-3-silenced cells. These findings suggest that Dkk-3 plays a role in the regulation of cell interactions during RA-induced neuronal differentiation. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 74: 1243-1254, 2014. PMID:24909558

Alfonso, Roco Jimnez; Gorroo-Etxebarria, Irantzu; Rabano, Miriam; Vivanco, Maria dM; Kypta, Robert

2014-12-01

337

Evidence for hubs in human functional brain networks  

PubMed Central

Summary Hubs integrate and distribute information in powerful ways due to the number and positioning of their contacts in a network. Several resting state functional connectivity MRI reports have implicated regions of the default mode system as brain hubs; we demonstrate that previous degree-based approaches to hub identification may have identified portions of large brain systems rather than critical nodes of brain networks. We utilize two methods to identify hub-like brain regions: 1) finding network nodes that participate in multiple sub-networks of the brain, and 2) finding spatial locations where several systems are represented within a small volume. These methods converge on a distributed set of regions that differ from previous reports on hubs. This work identifies regions that support multiple systems, leading to spatially constrained predictions about brain function that may be tested in terms of lesions, evoked responses, and dynamic patterns of activity. PMID:23972601

Power, Jonathan D; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Petersen, Steven E

2013-01-01

338

Involvement of Src tyrosine kinase in Escherichia coli invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells is a prerequisite for successful crossing of the bloodbrain barrier by Escherichia coli (E. coli), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we showed activation of Src tyrosine kinase in E. coli K1 invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). E. coli invasion of HBMEC and the E. coli-induced rearrangement of actin filaments

Wei Liu; Wei-Dong Zhao; Jin-Chun Yan; Zhi-Yuan Ren; Wen-Gang Fang; Li Zhu; De-Shu Shang; Yu-Hua Chen

2010-01-01

339

Free d-serine concentration in normal and Alzheimer human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed both free l- and d-serine in frontal cortex of normal and Alzheimer human brain by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There was no significant difference between the two brains. In normal brain, l- and d-serine concentrations were 666 222 and 66 41 nmol\\/g of wet tissue, respectively, and the ratio of d-isomer to l-isomer (dl) was

Yoko Nagata; Mauro Borghi; George H. Fisher; Antimo D'Aniello

1995-01-01

340

Remote effects of hippocampal damage on default network connectivity in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the healthy human brain the hippocampus is known to work in concert with a variety of cortical brain regions. It has recently\\u000a been linked to the default network of the brain, with the precuneus being its core hub. Here we studied the remote effects\\u000a of damage to the hippocampus on functional connectivity patterns of the precuneus. From 14 epilepsy

Lars Frings; Andreas Schulze-Bonhage; Joachim Spreer; Kathrin Wagner

2009-01-01

341

Free D-aspartate regulates neuronal dendritic morphology, synaptic plasticity, gray matter volume and brain activity in mammals  

PubMed Central

D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an atypical amino acid, which is especially abundant in the developing mammalian brain, and can bind to and activate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In line with its pharmacological features, we find that mice chronically treated with D-Asp show enhanced NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and basal cerebral blood volume in fronto-hippocampal areas. In addition, we show that both chronic administration of D-Asp and deletion of the gene coding for the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) trigger plastic modifications of neuronal cytoarchitecture in the prefrontal cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and promote a cytochalasin D-sensitive form of synaptic plasticity in adult mouse brains. To translate these findings in humans and consistent with the experiments using Ddo gene targeting in animals, we performed a hierarchical stepwise translational genetic approach. Specifically, we investigated the association of variation in the gene coding for DDO with complex human prefrontal phenotypes. We demonstrate that genetic variation predicting reduced expression of DDO in postmortem human prefrontal cortex is mapped on greater prefrontal gray matter and activity during working memory as measured with MRI. In conclusion our results identify novel NMDAR-dependent effects of D-Asp on plasticity and physiology in rodents, which also map to prefrontal phenotypes in humans. PMID:25072322

Errico, F; Nistico, R; Di Giorgio, A; Squillace, M; Vitucci, D; Galbusera, A; Piccinin, S; Mango, D; Fazio, L; Middei, S; Trizio, S; Mercuri, N B; Teule, M A; Centonze, D; Gozzi, A; Blasi, G; Bertolino, A; Usiello, A

2014-01-01

342

Free D-aspartate regulates neuronal dendritic morphology, synaptic plasticity, gray matter volume and brain activity in mammals.  

PubMed

D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an atypical amino acid, which is especially abundant in the developing mammalian brain, and can bind to and activate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In line with its pharmacological features, we find that mice chronically treated with D-Asp show enhanced NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and basal cerebral blood volume in fronto-hippocampal areas. In addition, we show that both chronic administration of D-Asp and deletion of the gene coding for the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) trigger plastic modifications of neuronal cytoarchitecture in the prefrontal cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and promote a cytochalasin D-sensitive form of synaptic plasticity in adult mouse brains. To translate these findings in humans and consistent with the experiments using Ddo gene targeting in animals, we performed a hierarchical stepwise translational genetic approach. Specifically, we investigated the association of variation in the gene coding for DDO with complex human prefrontal phenotypes. We demonstrate that genetic variation predicting reduced expression of DDO in postmortem human prefrontal cortex is mapped on greater prefrontal gray matter and activity during working memory as measured with MRI. In conclusion our results identify novel NMDAR-dependent effects of D-Asp on plasticity and physiology in rodents, which also map to prefrontal phenotypes in humans. PMID:25072322

Errico, F; Nistic, R; Di Giorgio, A; Squillace, M; Vitucci, D; Galbusera, A; Piccinin, S; Mango, D; Fazio, L; Middei, S; Trizio, S; Mercuri, N B; Teule, M A; Centonze, D; Gozzi, A; Blasi, G; Bertolino, A; Usiello, A

2014-01-01

343

Apolipoproteins E and C1 and brain morphology in memory impaired elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Previous research has shown that polymorphisms of the apolipoproteins E (APOE) and APOC1 represent genetic risk factors for dementia and for cognitive impairment in the elderly. The brain mechanisms by which these\\u000a genetic variations affect behavior or clinical severity are poorly understood. We studied the effect of APOE and APOC1 genes on magnetic resonance imaging measures in a sample

J. M. Serra-Grabulosa; P. Salgado-Pineda; C. Junqu; C. Sol-Padulls; P. Moral; A. Lpez-Alomar; T. Lpez; A. Lpez-Guilln; N. Bargall; J. M. Mercader; I. C. Clemente; D. Bartrs-Faz

2003-01-01

344

Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies\\u000a of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures\\u000a in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated

H. Oguro; K. Okada; S. Yamaguchi; S. Kobayashi

1998-01-01

345

Neural stem-like cells derived from human amnion tissue are effective in treating traumatic brain injury in rat.  

PubMed

Although human amnion derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSC) are a promising source of stem cells, their therapeutic potential for traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been widely investigated. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of AMSC using a rat TBI model. AMSC were isolated from human amniotic membrane and characterized by flow cytometry. After induction, AMSC differentiated in vitro into neural stem-like cells (AM-NSC) that expressed higher levels of the neural stem cell markers, nestin, sox2 and musashi, in comparison to undifferentiated AMSC. Interestingly, the neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were markedly upregulated after neural stem cell induction. Following transplantation in a rat TBI model, significant improvements in neurological function, brain tissue morphology, and higher levels of BDNF, NGF, NT-3, GDNF and CNTF, were observed in the AM-NSC group compared with the AMSC and Matrigel groups. However, few grafted cells survived with minimal differentiation into neural-like cells. Together, our results suggest that transplantation of AM-NSC promotes functional rehabilitation of rats with TBI, with enhanced expression of neurotrophic factors a likely mechanistic pathway. PMID:23475428

Yan, Zhong-Jie; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Hong-Tian; Hong, Sun-Quan; Zhou, Hong-Long; Zhang, Mao-Ying; Xu, Ru-Xiang

2013-05-01

346

Morphological brain plasticity induced by musical expertise is accompanied by modulation of functional connectivity at rest.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore whether musical practice-related gray matter increases in brain regions are accompanied by modifications in their resting-state functional connectivity. 16 young musically experienced adults and 17 matched nonmusicians underwent an anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI). A whole-brain two-sample t test run on the T1-weighted structural images revealed four clusters exhibiting significant increases in gray matter (GM) volume in the musician group, located within the right posterior and middle cingulate gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus and right inferior orbitofrontal gyrus. Each cluster was used as a seed region to generate and compare whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity maps. The two clusters within the cingulate gyrus exhibited greater connectivity for musicians with the right prefrontal cortex and left temporal pole, which play a role in autobiographical and semantic memory, respectively. The cluster in the left superior temporal gyrus displayed enhanced connectivity with several language-related areas (e.g., left premotor cortex, bilateral supramarginal gyri). Finally, the cluster in the right inferior frontal gyrus displayed more synchronous activity at rest with claustrum, areas thought to play a role in binding sensory and motor information. We interpreted these findings as the consequence of repeated collaborative use in general networks supporting some of the memory, perceptual-motor and emotional features of musical practice. PMID:24418502

Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Chtelat, Gal; Fouquet, Marine; Landeau, Brigitte; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Batrice; Platel, Herv

2014-04-15

347

Brain morphology in children with 47, XYY syndrome: a voxel- and surface-based morphometric study.  

PubMed

The neurocognitive and behavioral profile of individuals with 47,XYY is increasingly documented; however, very little is known about the effect of a supernumerary Y-chromosome on brain development. Establishing the neural phenotype associated with 47,XYY may prove valuable in clarifying the role of Y-chromosome gene dosage effects, a potential factor in several neuropsychiatric disorders that show a prevalence bias toward males, including autism spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated brain structure in 10 young boys with 47,XYY and 10 age-matched healthy controls by combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM). The VBM results show the existence of altered gray matter volume (GMV) in the insular and parietal regions of 47,XYY relative to controls, changes that were paralleled by extensive modifications in white matter (WM) bilaterally in the frontal and superior parietal lobes. The SBM analyses corroborated these findings and revealed the presence of abnormal surface area and cortical thinning in regions with abnormal GMV and WMV. Overall, these preliminary results demonstrate a significant impact of a supernumerary Y-chromosome on brain development, provide a neural basis for the motor, speech and behavior regulation difficulties associated with 47,XYY and may relate to sexual dimorphism in these areas. PMID:24308542

Lepage, J-F; Hong, D S; Raman, M; Marzelli, M; Roeltgen, D P; Lai, S; Ross, J; Reiss, A L

2014-02-01

348

Chemical Heterogeneity of the Living Human Brain: A Proton MR Spectroscopy Study on the Effects of Sex, Age, and Brain Region  

E-print Network

of Sex, Age, and Brain Region Igor D. Grachev1 and A. Vania Apkarian Department of Neurosurgery is chemically heterogeneous. The chemical heteroge- neity is sex and age dependent and specific for brain regionChemical Heterogeneity of the Living Human Brain: A Proton MR Spectroscopy Study on the Effects

Apkarian, A. Vania

349

Functional coupling of simultaneous electrical and metabolic activity in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between brain electrical and metabolic activity are being uncovered currently in animal models using invasive methods; however, in the human brain this relationship remains not well understood. In particular, the relationship between noninvasive measurements of electrical activity and metabolism remains largely undefined. To understand better these relations, cerebral activity was measured simultaneously with electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission

Terrence R. Oakes; Diego A. Pizzagalli; Andrew M. Hendrick; Katherine A. Horras; Christine L. Larson; Heather C. Abercrombie; Stacey M. Schaefer; John V. Koger; Richard J. Davidson

2004-01-01

350

An Input Function Estimation Method for FDG-PET Human Brain Studies 1  

E-print Network

An Input Function Estimation Method for FDG-PET Human Brain Studies 1 Hongbin Guo ,2 Rosemary A Renaut 2 Kewei Chen 3 Abbreviated Title: Input Function Estimation for FDG-PET Abstract Introduction emission tomography (PET) brain studies with bolus injection is presented. Methods: Input data for early

Renaut, Rosemary

351

Discovery of genes that affect human brain connectivity: A genome-wide analysis of the connectome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human brain connectivity is disrupted in a wide range of disorders from Alzheimer's disease to autism but little is known about which specific genes affect it. Here we conducted a genome-wide association for connectivity matrices that capture information on the density of fiber connections between 70 brain regions. We scanned a large twin cohort (N=366) with 4-Tesla high

Neda Jahanshad; Derrek P. Hibar; April Ryles; Arthur W. Toga; Katie L. McMahon; Greig I. de Zubicaray; Narelle K. Hansell; Grant W. Montgomery; Nicholas G. Martin; Margaret J. Wright; Paul M. Thompson

2012-01-01

352

Anatomical structural network analysis of human brain using partial correlations of gray matter volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural connectivity in human brain has been studied by modeling the statistical dependence between features of cortical regions, such as gray matter thickness. Statistical correlations between gray matter thickness have been mainly used as a metric to study this dependence. In this paper, we propose the use of partial correlations instead of Pearson correlation for inferring the brain structural connectivity

Anand A. Joshi; Shantanu H. Joshi; Ivo D. Dinov; David W. Shattuck; Richard M. Leahy; Arthur W. Toga

2010-01-01

353

Notch-1 Signalling Is Activated in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that,

ZhuGe, Qichuan; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, WeiMing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Mao, XiaoOu; Xie, Lin; Chen, Gourong; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

2009-01-01

354

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000000 (2011) r Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000­000 (2011) r Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Coordinated Use of Multiple, Mutually Informative Probes to Understand Brain Structure and Function Xuejun Hao, Satie Shova, Andrew J. Gerber, and Bradley S. Peterson Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons

355

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Identifies Neural Progenitor Cells in the Live Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs) by in vivo brain imaging could have important implications for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purposes. We describe a metabolic biomarker for the detection and quantification of NPCs in the human brain in vivo. We used proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify and characterize a biomarker in which NPCs are enriched

Louis N. Manganas; Xueying Zhang; Yao Li; Raphael D. Hazel; S. David Smith; Mark E. Wagshul; Fritz Henn; Helene Benveniste; Petar M. Djuric; Grigori Enikolopov; Mirjana Maletic-Savatic

2007-01-01

356

Potato not Pope: human brain potentials to gender expectation and agreement in Spanish spoken sentences  

E-print Network

to the immediately preceding article. Differential brain activity at the expected versus unexpected article thusPotato not Pope: human brain potentials to gender expectation and agreement in Spanish spoken the potato and the Pope, respectively. While gender markings alone do not typically make such a drastic

357

Evidence for a relationship between body mass and energy metabolism in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral energy metabolism has been suggested to have an important function in body weight regulation. We therefore examined whether there is a relationship between body mass and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism in the human brain. On the basis of our earlier findings indicating a neuroprotective preferential energy supply of the brain, as compared with peripheral muscle on experimentally induced hypoglycemia,

Andr Schmoller; Torben Hass; Olga Strugovshchikova; Uwe H Melchert; Harald G Scholand-Engler; Achim Peters; Ulrich Schweiger; Fritz Hohagen; Kerstin M Oltmanns

2010-01-01

358

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2012) r Key Functional Circuitry Altered in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2012) r Key Functional Circuitry Altered in Schizophrenia functional and structural changes in the brain in schizophrenia are of most importance, although the main schizophrenia patients, and func- tional connectivity changes were analyzed using resting-state fMRI data from

Feng, Jianfeng

359

Use of Neuroimaging to Clarify How Human Brains Perform Mental Calculations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze participants' levels of hemoglobin as they performed arithmetic mental calculations using Optical Topography (OT, helmet type brain-scanning system, also known as Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy or fNIRS). A central issue in cognitive neuroscience involves the study of how the human brain encodes and

Ortiz, Enrique

2010-01-01

360

Human primary brain tumor cell growth inhibition in serum-free medium optimized for neuron survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults from which about 15,000 patients die each year in the United States. Despite aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, median survival remains only 1 year. Here we evaluate growth of primary human brain tumor cells in a defined nutrient culture medium (Neuregen) that was optimized for neuron regeneration. We hypothesized that

Gregory J. Brewer; Peter D. LeRoux

2007-01-01

361

Searching for a baseline: Functional imaging and the resting human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional brain imaging in humans has revealed task-specific increases in brain activity that are associated with various mental activities. In the same studies, mysterious, task-independent decreases have also frequently been encountered, especially when the tasks of interest have been compared with a passive state, such as simple fixation or eyes closed. These decreases have raised the possibility that there might

Debra A. Gusnard; Marcus E. Raichle

2001-01-01

362

Basic principles of MRI and morphometry studies of human brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging has undergone dramatic development in the past years. This has been paralleled by developments in the tools for extracting quantitative information from these images in support of capturing the anatomic features of brain development in living humans. This has revolutionized our expectations for current and future diagnostic and investigative work with the developing brain. This paper will

David N. Kennedy; Nikos Makris; Martha R. Herbert; Tsutomu Takahashi; Verne S. Caviness Jr

2002-01-01

363

Encoding of Physics Concepts: Concreteness and Presentation Modality Reflected by Human Brain Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal) or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete) of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding

Kevin Lai; Hsiao-Ching She; Sheng-Chang Chen; Wen-Chi Chou; Li-Yu Huang; Tzyy-Ping Jung; Klaus Gramann

2012-01-01

364

THE LOCALIZATION OF OCTOIODOFLUORESCEIN-I¹³¹ IN HUMAN BRAIN TUMORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of I¹³¹-labeled, octoiodofluorescein (OIF-I¹³¹; ) as an agent for localizing human brain tumors in situ was investigatod using a ; manually operated scanning device. The dye was found to produce no toxic ; symptoms in total doses up to 30 mg when given intravenously. Labeled OIF ; correctly localized the presence or indicated the absence of brain tumors

Edward C. Tocus; George T. Okita; Joseph P. Evans; Sean Mullan

1962-01-01

365

Multiple proteins implicated in neurodegenerative diseases accumulate in axons after brain trauma in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in animal models have shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces the rapid accumulation of many of the same key proteins that form pathologic aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we examined whether this rapid process also occurs in humans after TBI. Brain tissue from 18 cases who died after TBI and from 6 control cases was examined using immunohistochemistry.

Kunihiro Uryu; Xiao-Han Chen; Dan Martinez; Kevin D. Browne; Victoria E. Johnson; David I. Graham; Virginia M.-Y. Lee; John Q. Trojanowski; Douglas H. Smith

2007-01-01

366

Glutamate concentrations in human brain using single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for quantitative determination of the glutamate (Glu) concentration in human brain using PRESS-based single voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 T has been developed and validated by repeatedly analyzing voxels comprising the anterior cingulate cortex (acc) and the left hippocampus (hc) in 40 healthy volunteer brains. At an optimum echo time of 80 ms, the C4 resonance of

Florian Schubert; Jrgen Gallinat; Frank Seifert; Herbert Rinneberg

2004-01-01

367

Lineage pathway of human brain progenitor cells identified by JC virus susceptability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipotential human central nervous system progenitor cells, isolated from human fetal brain tissue by selective growth conditions, were cultured as undifferentiated, attached cell layers. Selective differentiation yielded highly purified pop- ulations of neurons or astrocytes. This report describes the novel use of this cell culture model to study cell type-specific recognition of a human neurotropic virus, JC virus. Infection by

Conrad A. Messam; Jean Hou; Richard M. Gronostajski; Eugene O. Major

2003-01-01

368

Editorial: The Evolution of Interdisciplinary Research on Human Behavior, Brain, and Body  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL Editorial: The Evolution of Interdisciplinary Research on Human Behavior, Brain, and Body. It is undeniable that a primary force in the evolution of interdisciplinary studies of human behavior has been Dario Maestripieri # Springer International Publishing 2014 The scientific study of human behavior has

Maestripieri, Dario

369

Did brain-specific genes evolve faster in humans than in chimpanzees?  

E-print Network

in the nervous system during human origins. Here we test this hypothesis by a genome-wide analysis of genes only 24 nervous system genes between human and chimpanzee ­ the most relevant species pair for studying evolution of the human brain. Second, their list of nervous system genes was manually compiled and might

Zhang, Jianzhi

370

Peculiarity oriented fMRI brain data analysis for studying human multi-perception mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many cognitive and brain scientists have already studied human information processing mechanism of auditory and visual, separately, the relevance between auditory and visual information processing needs to be investigated in depth. We investigate human multi-perception mechanism by combining various psychological experiments, physiological measurements, data cleaning, modeling, transformation and mining techniques for developing artificial systems which match human ability in

Ning Zhong; Jing-Long Wu; Akio Nakamaru; Muneaki Ohshima; Hiroaki Mizuhara

2004-01-01

371

Global developmental gene expression and pathway analysis of normal brain development and mouse models of human neuronal migration defects.  

PubMed

Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3? that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted gene mutations of Lis1, Dcx, Ywhae (coding for 14-3-3?), and Ndel1 lead to neuronal migration defects in mouse and provide models of human lissencephaly, as well as aid the study of related neuro-developmental diseases. Here we investigated the developing brain of these four mutants and wild-type mice using expression microarrays, bioinformatic analyses, and in vivo/in vitro experiments to address whether mutations in different members of the LIS1 neuronal migration complex lead to similar and/or distinct global gene expression alterations. Consistent with the overall successful development of the mutant brains, unsupervised clustering and co-expression analysis suggested that cell cycle and synaptogenesis genes are similarly expressed and co-regulated in WT and mutant brains in a time-dependent fashion. By contrast, focused co-expression analysis in the Lis1 and Ndel1 mutants uncovered substantial differences in the correlation among pathways. Differential expression analysis revealed that cell cycle, cell adhesion, and cytoskeleton organization pathways are commonly altered in all mutants, while synaptogenesis, cell morphology, and inflammation/immune response are specifically altered in one or more mutants. We found several commonly dysregulated genes located within pathogenic deletion/duplication regions, which represent novel candidates of human mental retardation and neurocognitive disabilities. Our analysis suggests that gene expression and pathway analysis in mouse models of a similar disorder or within a common pathway can be used to define novel candidates for related human diseases. PMID:21423666

Pramparo, Tiziano; Libiger, Ondrej; Jain, Sonia; Li, Hong; Youn, Yong Ha; Hirotsune, Shinji; Schork, Nicholas J; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

2011-03-01

372

Global Developmental Gene Expression and Pathway Analysis of Normal Brain Development and Mouse Models of Human Neuronal Migration Defects  

PubMed Central

Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3? that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted gene mutations of Lis1, Dcx, Ywhae (coding for 14-3-3?), and Ndel1 lead to neuronal migration defects in mouse and provide models of human lissencephaly, as well as aid the study of related neuro-developmental diseases. Here we investigated the developing brain of these four mutants and wild-type mice using expression microarrays, bioinformatic analyses, and in vivo/in vitro experiments to address whether mutations in different members of the LIS1 neuronal migration complex lead to similar and/or distinct global gene expression alterations. Consistent with the overall successful development of the mutant brains, unsupervised clustering and co-expression analysis suggested that cell cycle and synaptogenesis genes are similarly expressed and co-regulated in WT and mutant brains in a time-dependent fashion. By contrast, focused co-expression analysis in the Lis1 and Ndel1 mutants uncovered substantial differences in the correlation among pathways. Differential expression analysis revealed that cell cycle, cell adhesion, and cytoskeleton organization pathways are commonly altered in all mutants, while synaptogenesis, cell morphology, and inflammation/immune response are specifically altered in one or more mutants. We found several commonly dysregulated genes located within pathogenic deletion/duplication regions, which represent novel candidates of human mental retardation and neurocognitive disabilities. Our analysis suggests that gene expression and pathway analysis in mouse models of a similar disorder or within a common pathway can be used to define novel candidates for related human diseases. PMID:21423666

Pramparo, Tiziano; Libiger, Ondrej; Jain, Sonia; Li, Hong; Youn, Yong Ha; Hirotsune, Shinji; Schork, Nicholas J.; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

2011-01-01

373

Oxidative stress in the human fetal brain: an immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Because accumulation of oxidative modification products seems to relate to aging and has not been fully studied in fetal brains, an immunohistochemical examination was performed on nine brains ranging from 22-40 weeks of gestation. These brains did not demonstrate lesions except hypoxic-ischemic changes. Advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal are generally reported to be negative in neurons of normal young brains, but, in the present study, distinct positive immunoreaction was observed in neurons of fetal brains. Positive immunoreaction appeared earlier in the medulla oblongata than in the cerebrum, and 4-hydroxynonenal began to accumulate earlier than advanced glycation end products. As for glial cells, advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal were positive in reactive astrocytes in mid- to late gestation. Because hypoxic-ischemic changes were observed in most of the patients, it is possible that oxidative stress caused by hypoxic-ischemic may be involved in the accumulation of these products in the fetal brain. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was negative even in patients demonstrating positive reaction for advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal. In the fetal brain, DNA might be strongly protected from oxidative damage. 4-Hydroxynonenal is generally positive in the cytoplasm but was positive in the nucleus of immature neurons and glial cells in the present study, suggesting a unique metabolism of the fetal brain. PMID:11897475

Yamamoto, Tomoko; Shibata, Noriyuki; Muramatsu, Fumiaki; Sakayori, Noriko; Kobayashi, Makio

2002-02-01

374

Changing our Brains: Systemic Causality in Complex Human Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we change our mind about something, does it change our brains? According to George Lakoff, the way we view the world is conditioned by frames, metaphors and narratives that, over time, become hard-wired in our brains. It is not easy to overcome established patterns of thought (or our instincts) when trying to make sense of new information. Is the

David F. Batten

2009-01-01

375

Serotonin and brain development: role in human developmental diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin is known to play a role in brain development prior to the time it assumes its role as a neurotransmitter in the mature brain. Serotonin regulates both the development of serotonergic neurons (termed autoregulation of development) and the development of target tissues. In both cases, the astroglial-derived protein, S-100? plays a role. Disruption of serotonergic development can leave permanent

Patricia M. Whitaker-Azmitia

2001-01-01

376

Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters

Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

2010-01-01

377

Bovine brain ribonuclease is the functional homolog of human ribonuclease 1.  

PubMed

Mounting evidence suggests that human pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase 1) plays important roles in vivo, ranging from regulating blood clotting and inflammation to directly counteracting tumorigenic cells. Understanding these putative roles has been pursued with continual comparisons of human RNase 1 to bovine RNase A, an enzyme that appears to function primarily in the ruminant gut. Our results imply a different physiology for human RNase 1. We demonstrate distinct functional differences between human RNase 1 and bovine RNase A. Moreover, we characterize another RNase 1 homolog, bovine brain ribonuclease, and find pronounced similarities between that enzyme and human RNase 1. We report that human RNase 1 and bovine brain ribonuclease share high catalytic activity against double-stranded RNA substrates, a rare quality among ribonucleases. Both human RNase 1 and bovine brain RNase are readily endocytosed by mammalian cells, aided by tight interactions with cell surface glycans. Finally, we show that both human RNase 1 and bovine brain RNase are secreted from endothelial cells in a regulated manner, implying a potential role in vascular homeostasis. Our results suggest that brain ribonuclease, not RNase A, is the true bovine homolog of human RNase 1, and provide fundamental insight into the ancestral roles and functional adaptations of RNase 1 in mammals. PMID:25078100

Eller, Chelcie H; Lomax, Jo E; Raines, Ronald T

2014-09-19

378

Direct visualization of the perforant pathway in the human brain with ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging  

E-print Network

Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging yields high resolution images that reveal detailed cerebral anatomy and explicit cytoarchitecture in the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, and white matter in the human brain. Our ...

Augustinack, Jean C.

379

Top down processing of faces in human brain: A Behavioral Study  

E-print Network

Notwithstanding the extensive research effort has gone into understanding face perception by human brain. The concept of face recognition is established yet is selectively impaired relative to recognition of faces of ...

Gandhi, T.

380

In vivo human brain biochemistry after aerobic exercise: preliminary report on functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOur aim was to disclose whether the positive psychological changes observed after a single bout of aerobic exercise have a biochemical correlate that can be visualized by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the human brain.

Ertunga a?lar; Hakan Sabuncuo?lu; Tlay Keskin; Sedat I??kl?; Semih Keskil; Feza Korkusuz

2005-01-01

381

On the Theoretical Possibility of Quantum Visual Information Transfer to the Human Brain  

E-print Network

The feasibility of wave function collapse in the human brain has been the subject of vigorous scientific debates since the advent of quantum theory. Scientists like Von Neumann, London, Bauer and Wigner (initially) believed that wave function collapse occurs in the brain or is caused by the mind of the observer. It is a legitimate question to ask how human brain can receive subtle external visual quantum information intact when it must pass through very noisy and complex pathways from the eye to the brain? There are several approaches to investigate information processing in the brain, each of which presents a different set of conclusions. Penrose and Hameroff have hypothesized that there is quantum information processing inside the human brain whose material substrate involves microtubules and consciousness is the result of a collective wavefunction collapse occurring in these structures. Conversely, Tegmark stated that owing to thermal decoherence there cannot be any quantum processing in neurons of the brain and processing in the brain must be classical for cognitive processes. However, Rosa and Faber presented an argument for a middle way which shows that none of the previous authors are completely right and despite the presence of decoherence, it is still possible to consider the brain to be a quantum system. Additionally, Thaheld, has concluded that quantum states of photons do collapse in the human eye and there is no possibility for collapse of visual quantum states in the brain and thus there is no possibility for the quantum state reduction in the brain. In this paper we conclude that if we accept the main essence of the above approaches taken together, each of them can provide a different part of a teleportation mechanism.

V. Salari; M. Rahnama; J. A. Tuszynski

2008-08-29

382

Differences in Brain Morphological Findings between Narcolepsy with and without Cataplexy  

PubMed Central

Objective Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can detect microscopic axonal changes by estimating the diffusivity of water molecules using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We applied an MRI voxel-based statistical approach to FA and ADC maps to evaluate microstructural abnormalities in the brain in narcolepsy and to investigate differences between patients having narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Methods Twelve patients with drug-naive narcolepsy with cataplexy (NA/CA), 12 with drug-naive narcolepsy without cataplexy (NA w/o CA) and 12 age-matched healthy normal controls (NC) were enrolled. FA and ADC maps for these 3 groups were statistically compared by using voxel-based one-way ANOVA. In addition, we investigated the correlation between FA and ADC values and clinical variables in the patient groups. Results Compared to the NC group, the NA/CA group showed higher ADC values in the left inferior frontal gyrus and left amygdala, and a lower ADC value in the left postcentral gyrus. The ADC value in the right inferior frontal gyrus and FA value in the right precuneus were higher for NA/CA group than for the NA w/o CA group. However, no significant differences were observed in FA and ADC values between the NA w/o CA and NC groups in any of the areas investigated. In addition, no correlation was found between the clinical variables and ADC and FA values of any brain areas in these patient groups. Conclusions Several microstructural changes were noted in the inferior frontal gyrus and amygdala in the NA/CA but not in the NA w/o CA group. These findings suggest that these 2 narcolepsy conditions have different pathological mechanisms: narcolepsy without cataplexy form appears to be a potentially broader condition without any significant brain imaging differences from normal controls. PMID:24312261

Nakamura, Masaki; Nishida, Shingo; Hayashida, Kenichi; Ueki, Yoichiro; Dauvilliers, Yves; Inoue, Yuichi

2013-01-01

383

Functional Assessment of Human Brain with Non-Invasive Electrophysiological Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related brain measurements (ERPs) provide unique non-invasive approaches\\u000a to study in-vivo human cerebral functions with a temporal resolution of milliseconds. These techniques have proved to be helpful to assess\\u000a cognitive abilities, differentiate between brain states, and support the diagnosis in neurological and psychiatric diseases.\\u000a Human neurophysiological correlates of learning have also been revealed by task-dependent increases

J. L. Cantero; M. Atienza

384

Ways to Develop Human-Level Web Intelligence: A Brain Informatics Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we briefly investigate several ways to develop human-level Web intelligence (WI) from a brain informatics (BI)\\u000a perspective. BI can be regarded as brain sciences in WI centric IT age and emphasizes on a systematic approach for investigating\\u000a human information processing mechanism. The recently designed instrumentation (fMRI etc.) and advanced IT are causing an impending\\u000a revolution in both

Ning Zhong

2007-01-01

385

Sex Differences in Hemispheric Asymmetries of the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE minor and seemingly random morphological differences between the two hemispheres stand in contrast to the marked and consistent differences in their functions, as reflected, for example, in the specialization of the left hemisphere for speech1. Some evidence that unilateral removals of cerebral tissue have different effects in the two sexes2 suggests that relationships between morphology and function might become

H. Lansdell

1964-01-01

386

Brain bioavailability of human intravenous immunoglobulin and its transport through the murine blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is currently evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of various disorders of the central nervous system. To assess its capacity to reach central therapeutic targets, the brain bioavailability of IVIg must be determined. We thus quantified the passage of IVIg through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of C57Bl/6 mice using complementary quantitative and qualitative methodologies. As determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a small proportion of systemically injected IVIg was detected in the brain of mice (0.0090.001% of injected dose in the cortex) whereas immunostaining revealed localization mainly within microvessels and less frequently in neurons. Pharmacokinetic analyses evidenced a low elimination rate constant (0.0053? per hour) in the cortex, consistent with accumulation within cerebral tissue. In situ cerebral perfusion experiments revealed that a fraction of IVIg crossed the BBB without causing leakage. A dose-dependent decrease of brain uptake was consistent with a saturable blood-to-brain transport mechanism. Finally, brain uptake of IVIg after a subchronic treatment was similar in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer disease compared with nontransgenic controls. In summary, our results provide evidence of BBB passage and bioavailability of IVIg into the brain in the absence of BBB leakage and in sufficient concentration to interact with the therapeutic targets. PMID:24045402

St-Amour, Isabelle; Par, Isabelle; Alata, Wael; Coulombe, Katherine; Ringuette-Goulet, Cassandra; Drouin-Ouellet, Janelle; Vandal, Milne; Soulet, Denis; Bazin, Rene; Calon, Frdric

2013-12-01

387

Morphologic representation of visual and antennal information in the ant brain.  

PubMed

Ants in general are primarily olfactory animals, but many species also express visual behaviors. We analyze in 14 species, which range from purely olfactory to predominantly visually behaving ants, how the brains are equipped to control such behavior. We take the size and manifestation of the eyes as an indicator for the prevalence of vision in a given species, and we correlate it with the size of particular brain regions. Our morphometric data show that the size of the eyes generally correlates well with that of the optic lobes. The antennal lobes and the mushroom bodies have a surprisingly constant relative volume whereas, as expected, the relative size of the optic lobes varies strongly across species. Males of different species are more similar. Compared with workers, they all have large eyes, relatively larger optic lobes, smaller mushroom bodies, and similarly sized antennal lobes. The input regions of the mushroom bodies, the lip and the collar, generally correlate with the size of the optic and antennal lobe, respectively. Accordingly, the composition of the calyx reflects the importance of vision for the animal. We present data supporting the view that the mushroom bodies may participate in spatial orientation, landmark recognition, and visual information storage. PMID:10441753

Gronenberg, W; Hlldobler, B

1999-09-20

388

Effects of brain and facial size on basicranial form in human and primate evolution Markus Bastir a,*, Antonio Rosas a  

E-print Network

Effects of brain and facial size on basicranial form in human and primate evolution Markus Bastir a-brained modern humans. To determine whether or not this is a consequence of differences in facial size, geometric and some Mid-Pleistocene humans have less flexed cranial bases than modern humans, despite their relatively

389

Combining Time Series Similarity with Density-Based Clustering to Identify Fiber Bundles in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the connectome of the human brain is a major challenge in neuroscience. Discovering the wiring and the major cables of the brain is essential for a better understanding of brain function. Diffusion Tensor imaging (DTI) provides the potential way of exploring the organization of white matter fiber tracts in human subjects in a non-invasive way. However, it is a

Junming Shao; Klaus Hahn; Qinli Yang; Christian Bhm; Afra M. Wohlschlger; Nicholas Myers; Claudia Plant

2010-01-01

390

The Somatostatin 2A Receptor Is Enriched in Migrating Neurons during Rat and Human Brain Development and  

E-print Network

The Somatostatin 2A Receptor Is Enriched in Migrating Neurons during Rat and Human Brain and function in the developing mammalian brain. In this study, we have first characterized the developmental during rat and human brain ontogenesis. Citation: Le Verche V, Kaindl AM, Verney C, Csaba Z, Peineau S

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Copyright 2003 by the Genetics Society of America Evolution of the Human ASPM Gene, a Major Determinant of Brain Size  

E-print Network

, 2003 ABSTRACT The size of human brain tripled over a period of 2 million years (MY) that ended 0 of genes controlling brain development may shed light on it. ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly characterized by a 70% reduction in brain size. Here I provide evidence suggesting that human ASPM went through

Zhang, Jianzhi

392

Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: the meaning of neandertal skeletal morphology.  

PubMed

A procedure is outlined for distinguishing among competing hypotheses for fossil morphology and then used to evaluate current views on the meaning of Neandertal skeletal morphology. Three explanations have dominated debates about the meaning of Neandertal cranial features: climatic adaptation, anterior dental loading, and genetic drift. Neither climatic adaptation nor anterior dental loading are well supported, but genetic drift is consistent with the available evidence. Climatic adaptation and activity patterns are the most discussed explanations for Neandertal postcranial features. Robust empirical relationships between climate and body form in extant humans and other endotherms currently make climatic adaptation the most plausible explanation for the wide bodies and relatively short limbs of Neandertals, and many additional postcranial features are likely secondary consequences of these overall skeletal proportions. Activity patterns may explain certain Neandertal postcranial features, but unlike the situation for climate, relationships in extant humans between morphology and activities are typically not well established. For both the cranium and the postcranium, changes in diet or activity patterns may underlie why Neandertals and Pleistocene modern humans tend to be more robust than Holocene humans. PMID:19805258

Weaver, Timothy D

2009-09-22

393

Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis.  

PubMed

The modern human mandibular symphysis differs from those of all other primates in being vertically orientated and possessing a chin, but the functional significance of this unique morphology is not well understood. Some hypotheses propose that it is an adaptation to specific loads occurring during masticatory function. This study uses finite element analysis to examine these symphyseal loads in a model of a modern human mandible. By modifying the symphyseal cross-sectional form, the mechanical significance of the presence of the chin and symphyseal orientation is tested, and modern human and Neanderthal symphyseal cross-sections are compared with regard to their ability to withstand different loads. The results show that changes in symphyseal form have profound effects on the strains. The presence of a chin leads to lower symphyseal strains overall, whereas a vertical orientation of the symphysis results in higher strains under wishboning, but not under vertical bending in the coronal plane and dorsoventral shear. Compared to Neanderthals, the modern human symphysis shows higher strains during dorsoventral shear and wishboning, but is as effective as the Neanderthal symphysis in resisting vertical bending in the coronal plane and the loads resulting from simulated incision and unilateral molar biting. In general, the results of this study corroborate prior hypotheses about the mechanical effects of the human chin and vertical symphyseal orientation and support the idea that the relative importance of wishboning and vertical bending in the coronal plane might have played a role in the evolution of modern human symphyseal morphology. PMID:21404235

Grning, Flora; Liu, Jia; Fagan, Michael J; O'Higgins, Paul

2011-04-01

394

Integration of visual and motor functional streams in the human brain.  

PubMed

A long-standing difficulty in brain research has been to disentangle how information flows across circuits composed by multiple local and distant cerebral areas. At the large-scale level, several brain imaging methods have contributed to the understanding of those circuits by capturing the covariance or coupling patterns of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity between distributed brain regions. The hypothesis is that underlying information processes are closely associated to synchronized brain activity, and therefore to the functional connectivity structure of the human brain. In this study, we have used a recently developed method called stepwise functional connectivity analysis. Our results show that motor and visual connectivity merge in a multimodal integration network that links together perception, action and cognition in the human functional connectome. PMID:24699175

Sepulcre, Jorge

2014-05-01

395

HUlip, a human homologue of unc -33-like phosphoprotein of Caenorhabditis elegans ; Immunohistochemical localization in the developing human brain and patterns of expression in nervous system tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

HUlip is a human homologue of a C. elegans gene, unc-33, that is developmentally regulated during maturation of the nervous system. HUlip is highly expressed only in the fetal brain and spinal cord, and is undetected in the adult brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of hUlip expression in the developing human brain and nervous

Yoon-La Choi; Chong Jai Kim; Tatsuya Matsuo; Carlo Gaetano; Rita Falconi; Yeon-Lim Suh; Seok-Hyung Kim; Young Kee Shin; Seong Hoe Park; Je Geun Chi; Carol J. Thiele

2005-01-01

396

Resting-state fMRI: a window into human brain plasticity.  

PubMed

Although brain plasticity is greatest in the first few years of life, the brain continues to be shaped by experience throughout adulthood. Advances in fMRI have enabled us to examine the plasticity of large-scale networks using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) correlations measured at rest. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis makes it possible to measure task-independent changes in brain function and therefore could provide unique insights into experience-dependent brain plasticity in humans. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that resting-state functional connectivity reflects the repeated history of co-activation between brain regions. To this end, we review resting-state fMRI studies in the sensory, motor, and cognitive learning literature. This body of research provides evidence that the brain's resting-state functional architecture displays dynamic properties in young adulthood. PMID:24561514

Guerra-Carrillo, Beln; Mackey, Allyson P; Bunge, Silvia A

2014-10-01

397

Working Memory Performance Is Correlated with Local Brain Morphology in the Medial Frontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Fibromyalgia Patients: Structural Correlates of Pain-Cognition Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder of unknown aetiology, characterized by chronic widespread pain, stiffness and sleep disturbances. In addition, patients frequently complain of memory and attention deficits. Accumulating evidence suggests that FM is associated with CNS dysfunction and with an altered brain morphology. However, few studies have

Luerding, R.; Weigand, T.; Bogdahn, U.; Schmidt-Wilcke, T.

2008-01-01

398

Structure-function relationships in human brain development  

E-print Network

The integration of anatomical, functional, and developmental approaches in cognitive neuroscience is essential for generating mechanistic explanations of brain function. In this thesis, I first establish a proof-of-principle ...

Saygin, Zeynep Mevhibe

2012-01-01

399

A Mind of Three Minds: Evolution of the Human Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines the evolutionary and neural roots of a triune intelligence comprised of a primal mind, an emotional mind, and a rational mind. A simple brain model and some definitions of unfamiliar behavioral terms are included. (Author/MA)

MacLean, Paul D.

1978-01-01

400

Computational modeling of primary blast effects on the human brain  

E-print Network

Since the beginning of the military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, there have been over 250,000 diagnoses of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the U.S. military, with the majority of incidents caused by improvised explosive ...

Nyein, Michelle K. (Michelle Kyaw)

2013-01-01

401

Study of Sources in the Human Brain Associated with Stereopsis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stereopsis, is an important and interesting subject of study for many reasons. Clearly, the brain codes, and stores, complex information about the relative positions of objects in space; how this is accomplished is not only important for an understanding ...

H. Weinberg, P. Brickett, A. Robertson, D. Crisp, D. Cheyne

1988-01-01

402

Late human brain plasticity: vestibular substitution with a tongue BrainPorthuman -machine interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The brain is capable of major reorganization even many,years after an injury, with appropriate rehabilitation. The highly plastic brain responds best when the therapy is motivating and has a benefit that is recognized by the patient. The major objective of this study was to estimate feasibility and efficacy of an electro-tactile vestibular substitution system,(ETVSS)in aiding recovery of posture control

Paul Bach-y-rita; Yuri Danilov; Mitchell E. Tylersup?; Robert J. Grimm

403

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and brain atrophy: a computer-based human brain model study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at exploring the effect of cortical brain atrophy on the currents induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation\\u000a (TMS). We compared the currents induced by various TMS conditions on several different MRI derived finite element head models\\u000a of brain atrophy, incorporating both decreasing cortical volume and widened sulci. The current densities induced in the cortex\\u000a were dependent upon

Tim Wagner; Uri Eden; Felipe Fregni; Antoni Valero-Cabre; Ciro Ramos-Estebanez; Valerie Pronio-Stelluto; Alan Grodzinsky; Markus Zahn; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2008-01-01

404

In vivo CT measurement of blood-brain transfer constant of iopamidol in human brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an in vivo method of measuring the blood-brain transfer constant (K) of iopamidol and the cerebral plasma volume (Vp) in brain tumors using a clinical X-ray CT scanner. In patient studies, Isovue 300 (iopamidol) was injected at a dosage of 1 ml\\/kg patient body weight. Serial CT scans of the tumor site and arterial blood samples from

W. T. Ivan Yeung; Ting-Yim Lee; Rolando F. Del Maestro; Roman Kozak; Thomas Brown

1992-01-01

405

Acute Effects of Cocaine on Human Brain Activity and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated brain circuitry mediating cocaine- induced euphoria and craving using functional MRI (fMRI). During double-blind cocaine (0.6 mg\\/kg) and saline infusions in cocaine-dependent subjects, the entire brain was imaged for 5 min before and 13 min after infusion while subjects rated scales for rush, high, low, and craving. Cocaine induced focal signal increases in nucleus accumbens\\/subcallosal cortex (NAc\\/SCC), caudate,

Hans C Breiter; Randy L Gollub; Robert M Weisskoff; David N Kennedy; Nikos Makris; Joshua D Berke; Julie M Goodman; Howard L Kantor; David R Gastfriend; Jonn P Riorden; R. Thomas Mathew; Bruce R Rosen; Steven E Hyman

1997-01-01

406

The human knowledge system: music and brain coherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper aims to explore the relationship between music and learning in the mind\\/brain. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Taking a consilience approach, this paper briefly introduces how music affects the mind\\/brain, then moves through several historical highlights of the emergent understanding of the role of music in learning; for example, the much-misunderstood Mozart effect. Then the role of music in

Alex Bennet; David Bennet

2008-01-01

407

Small RNAs in Human Brain Development and Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small RNA is a variable and abundant type of non-coding RNAs in brain. The function of these RNAs is mainly unknown. A specific\\u000a class of small RNA, microRNA, is dynamically regulated in neurogenesis and in embryo brain development. The genes for synaptic\\u000a formation and some mental retardation disorders are putative targets for microRNA predicted by computational algorithms. The\\u000a molecular pathways

E. I. Rogaev

2005-01-01

408

Detecting Genetic Association of Common Human Facial Morphological Variation Using High Density 3D Image Registration  

PubMed Central

Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can result in decreased statistical power and unclear inference of shape changes. In this study, we applied a new image registration approach that automatically identified the salient landmarks and aligned the sample faces using high density pixel points. Based on this high density registration, three different phenotype data schemes were used to test the association between the common facial morphological variation and 10 candidate SNPs, and their performances were compared. The first scheme used traditional landmark-distances; the second relied on the geometric analysis of 15 landmarks and the third used geometric analysis of a dense registration of ?30,000 3D points. We found that the two geometric approaches were highly consistent in their detection of morphological changes. The geometric method using dense registration further demonstrated superiority in the fine inference of shape changes and 3D face modeling. Several candidate SNPs showed potential associations with different facial features. In particular, one SNP, a known risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lips/palates, rs642961 in the IRF6 gene, was validated to strongly predict normal lip shape variation in female Han Chinese. This study further demonstrated that dense face registration may substantially improve the detection and characterization of genetic association in common facial variation. PMID:24339768

Hu, Sile; Zhou, Hang; Guo, Jing; Jin, Li; Tang, Kun

2013-01-01

409

Detecting genetic association of common human facial morphological variation using high density 3D image registration.  

PubMed

Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can result in decreased statistical power and unclear inference of shape changes. In this study, we applied a new image registration approach that automatically identified the salient landmarks and aligned the sample faces using high density pixel points. Based on this high density registration, three different phenotype data schemes were used to test the association between the common facial morphological variation and 10 candidate SNPs, and their performances were compared. The first scheme used traditional landmark-distances; the second relied on the geometric analysis of 15 landmarks and the third used geometric analysis of a dense registration of ?30,000 3D points. We found that the two geometric approaches were highly consistent in their detection of morphological changes. The geometric method using dense registration further demonstrated superiority in the fine inference of shape changes and 3D face modeling. Several candidate SNPs showed potential associations with different facial features. In particular, one SNP, a known risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lips/palates, rs642961 in the IRF6 gene, was validated to strongly predict normal lip shape variation in female Han Chinese. This study further demonstrated that dense face registration may substantially improve the detection and characterization of genetic association in common facial variation. PMID:24339768

Peng, Shouneng; Tan, Jingze; Hu, Sile; Zhou, Hang; Guo, Jing; Jin, Li; Tang, Kun

2013-01-01

410

Morphological restriction of human coronary artery endothelial cells substantially impacts global gene expression patterns  

PubMed Central

Alterations in cell shape have been shown to modulate chromatin condensation and cell lineage specification, however the mechanisms controlling these processes are largely unknown. Because endothelial cells experience cyclic mechanical changes from blood flow during normal physiological processes and disrupted mechanical changes due to abnormal blood flow, cell shape deformation, and loss of polarization during coronary artery disease, we sought to elucidate how morphological restriction affects global gene expression patterns. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were cultured on spatially defined adhesive micropatterns forcing them to conform to unique cellular morphologies differing in cellular polarization and angularity. We utilized pattern recognition algorithms and statistical analysis to validate the cytoskeletal pattern reproducibility and uniqueness of each micropattern, and performed microarray analysis on normal shaped and micropatterned HCAECs to determine how constrained cellular morphology affects gene expression patterns. Analysis of the data revealed that forcing HCAECs to conform to geometrically defined shapes significantly affects their global transcription patterns compared to non-restricted shapes. Interestingly, gene expression patterns were altered in response to morphological restriction in general, but were consistent regardless of the particular shape the cells conformed to. These data suggest that the ability of HCAECs to spread, but not necessarily their particular morphology, dictates their genomics patterns. PMID:23802622

Stiles, Jessica M.; Pham, Robert; Rowntree, Rebecca K.; Amaya, Clarissa; Battiste, James; Boucheron, Laura E.; Mitchell, Dianne C.; Bryan, Brad A.

2013-01-01

411

Transforming growth factor-?2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2) on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) in vitro. METHODS After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-?2 at different concentrations, the morphology, cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence or Western Blot. RESULTS TGF-?2 at the concentration of 3-15 g/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 g/L was the peak concentration. TGF-?2 (9 g/L) altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36h, increased the mean optical density (P<0.01) and the length of F-actin, reduced the mean optical density (P<0.01) of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix (ECM) and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72h. CONCLUTION TGF-?2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV. PMID:25349788

Wang, Jing; Fan, Ting-Jun; Yang, Xiu-Xia; Chang, Shi-Min

2014-01-01

412

Hyper-Brain Networks Support Romantic Kissing in Humans  

PubMed Central

Coordinated social interaction is associated with, and presumably dependent on, oscillatory couplings within and between brains, which, in turn, consist of an interplay across different frequencies. Here, we introduce a method of network construction based on the cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and examine whether coordinated social interaction is associated with CFC within and between brains. Specifically, we compare the electroencephalograms (EEG) of 15 heterosexual couples during romantic kissing to kissing ones own hand, and to kissing one another while performing silent arithmetic. Using graph-theory methods, we identify thetaalpha hyper-brain networks, with alpha serving a cleaving or pacemaker function. Network strengths were higher and characteristic path lengths shorter when individuals were kissing each other than when they were kissing their own hand. In both partner-oriented kissing conditions, greater strength and shorter path length for 5-Hz oscillation nodes correlated reliably with greater partner-oriented kissing satisfaction. This correlation was especially strong for inter-brain connections in both partner-oriented kissing conditions but not during kissing ones own hand. Kissing quality assessed after the kissing with silent arithmetic correlated reliably with intra-brain strength of 10-Hz oscillation nodes during both romantic kissing and kissing with silent arithmetic. We conclude that hyper-brain networks based on CFC may capture neural mechanisms that support interpersonally coordinated voluntary action and bonding behavior. PMID:25375132

Muller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

2014-01-01

413

Automatic processing of political preferences in the human brain.  

PubMed

Individual political preferences as expressed, for instance, in votes or donations are fundamental to democratic societies. However, the relevance of deliberative processing for political preferences has been highly debated, putting automatic processes in the focus of attention. Based on this notion, the present study tested whether brain responses reflect participants' preferences for politicians and their associated political parties in the absence of explicit deliberation and attention. Participants were instructed to perform a demanding visual fixation task while their brain responses were measured using fMRI. Occasionally, task-irrelevant images of German politicians from two major competing parties were presented in the background while the distraction task was continued. Subsequent to scanning, participants' political preferences for these politicians and their affiliated parties were obtained. Brain responses in distinct brain areas predicted automatic political preferences at the different levels of abstraction: activation in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with preference ranks for unattended politicians, whereas participants' preferences for the affiliated political parties were reflected in activity in the insula and the cingulate cortex. Using an additional donation task, we showed that the automatic preference-related processing in the brain extended to real-world behavior that involved actual financial loss to participants. Together, these findings indicate that brain responses triggered by unattended and task-irrelevant political images reflect individual political preferences at different levels of abstraction. PMID:23353599

Tusche, Anita; Kahnt, Thorsten; Wisniewski, David; Haynes, John-Dylan

2013-05-15

414

Blood-brain transfer of Pittsburgh compound B in humans  

PubMed Central

In the labeled form, the Pittsburgh compound B (2-(4?-{N-methyl-[11C]}methyl-aminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole, [11C]PiB), is used as a biomarker for positron emission tomography (PET) of brain ?-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The permeability of [11C]PiB in the blood-brain barrier is held to be high but the permeability-surface area product and extraction fractions in patients or healthy volunteers are not known. We used PET to determine the clearance associated with the unidrectional blood-brain transfer of [11C]PiB and the corresponding cerebral blood flow rates in frontal lobe, whole cerebral cortex, and cerebellum of patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy volunteers. Regional cerebral blood flow rates differed significantly between the two groups. Thus, regional and whole-brain permeability-surface area products were identical, in agreement with the observation that numerically, but insignificantly, unidirectional blood-brain clearances are lower and extraction fractions higher in the patients. The evidence of unchanged permeability-surface area products in the patients implies that blood flow changes can be deduced from the unidirectional blood-brain clearances of [11C]PiB in the patients. PMID:24223554

Gjedde, Albert; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans; Rodell, Anders B.

2013-01-01

415

Stepwise Connectivity of the Modal Cortex Reveals the Multimodal Organization of the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

How human beings integrate information from external sources and internal cognition to produce a coherent experience is still not well understood. During the past decades, anatomical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging research in multimodal integration have stood out in the effort to understand the perceptual binding properties of the brain. Areas in the human lateral occipito-temporal, prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices have been associated with sensory multimodal processing. Even though this, rather patchy, organization of brain regions gives us a glimpse of the perceptual convergence, the articulation of the flow of information from modality-related to the more parallel cognitive processing systems remains elusive. Using a method called Stepwise Functional Connectivity analysis, the present study analyzes the functional connectome and transitions from primary sensory cortices to higher-order brain systems. We identify the large-scale multimodal integration network and essential connectivity axes for perceptual integration in the human brain. PMID:22855814

Sepulcre, Jorge; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Yeo, Thomas B.; Liu, Hesheng; Johnson, Keith A.

2012-01-01

416

Fifth dimension of life and the 4/5 allometric scaling law for human brain.  

PubMed

Brain cells are not spherical. The basal metabolic rate (B) of a spherical cell scales as B approximately r2, where r is the radius of the cell; that of a brain cell scales as B approximately r(d), where r is the characteristic radius of the cell and d is the fractal dimensionality of its contour. The fractal geometry of the cell leads to a 4/5 allometric scaling law for human brain, uniquely endowing humans with a 5th dimension and successfully explains why the scaling exponent varies during rest and exercise. A striking analogy between Kleiber's 3/4 law and Newton's second law is heuristically illustrated. A physical explanation is given for the 4th dimension of life for three-dimensional organisms and the 5th dimension for human brain. PMID:15563403

He, Ji-Huan; Zhang, Juan

2004-01-01

417

5-HT Radioligands for Human Brain Imaging With PET and SPECT  

PubMed Central

The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main caveats. The success of a PET or SPECT radioligand can ultimately be assessed by its frequency of use, its utility in humans, and the number of research sites using it relative to its invention date, and so these aspects are also covered. In conclusion, the development of PET and SPECT radioligands to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging. PMID:21674551

Paterson, Louise M.; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Nutt, David J.; Pike, Victor W.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

2014-01-01

418

Brain Response to a Humanoid Robot in Areas Implicated in the Perception of Human Emotional Gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents.MethodologyHere, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of

Thierry Chaminade; Massimiliano Zecca; Sarah-Jayne Blakemore; Atsuo Takanishi; Chris D. Frith; Silvestro Micera; Paolo Dario; Giacomo Rizzolatti; Vittorio Gallese; Maria Alessandra Umilt; Jan Lauwereyns

2010-01-01

419

Dyrk1A Haploinsufficiency Affects Viability and Causes Developmental Delay and Abnormal Brain Morphology in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

DYRK1A is the human orthologue of the Drosophila minibrain (mnb) gene, which is involved in postembryonic neurogenesis in flies. Because of its mapping position on chromosome 21 and the neurobehavioral alterations shown by mice overexpressing this gene, involvement of DYRK1A in some of the neurological defects of Down syndrome patients has been suggested. To gain insight into its physiological role,

Vassiliki Fotaki; Mara Dierssen; Soledad Alcantara; S. Martinez; E. Marti; Caty Casas; Joana Visa; Eduardo Soriano; Xavier Estivill; Maria L. Arbones

2002-01-01

420

QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY OF THE HUMAN THYMUS CORRELATE WITH INFANT CAUSE OF DEATH  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the morphological and molecular changes in the thymus for common causes of human infant death. Thymic architecture and molecular changes apparent in human infant head trauma victims were assessed by microscopy and quantified by image analysis of digital whole slide images. Thymuses from victims of SIDS and suffocated infants displaying normal thymus architecture were used for comparison. Molecular expression of proliferation and serotonin receptor and transporter protein markers was evaluated. Duplicate morphological and molecular studies of rodent thymuses were completed with both mouse and rat models. Quantification of novel parameters of digital images of thymuses from human infants suffering mortal head trauma revealed a disruption of the corticomedullary organization of the thymus, particularly involving dissolution of the corticomedullary border. A similar result was obtained for related mouse and rat models. The human thymuses from head trauma cases also displayed a higher percentage of Ki-67-positive thymocytes. Finally, we determined that thymus expression of the human serotonin receptor, and the serotonin transporter, occur almost exclusively in the thymic medulla. Head trauma leads to a disruption of the thymic, corticomedullary border, and molecular expression patterns in a robust and quantifiable manner. PMID:25309682

Lloyd, Mark C.; Burke, Nancy; Kalantarpour, Fatemeh; Niesen, Melissa I.; Hall, Aaron; Pennypacker, Keith; Citron, Bruce; Pick, Chaim G.; Adams, Vernard; Das, Mahasweta; Mohapatra, Shyam; Cualing, Hernani; Blanck, George

2014-01-01

421

Quantification of trace elements in normal human brain by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

Eight normal human brain autopsy samples were analyzed for Na, K, P, Ca, Mg, Si, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Al, Cd, Pb and As in 12 regions of brain (frontal cerebrum, temporal cerebrum, parietal cerebrum, somatosensory cortex, occipital cerebrum, cerebellum, mid-brain, pons, hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus and medulla oblongata) using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES). The distribution of these 15 elements varied significantly from region to region of the brain. Potassium was most abundant in nearly all regions of the brain, followed by sodium and phosphorus (mg/g). The concentration of Al was found to be comparatively high and varied in different areas of the brain (58-196 microg/g). Moderate levels of Pb, Cd and As were observed in different regions. Ratios of Al to Fe were found to be high in temporal cerebrum (8.07) and hippocampus (9.05) and these two regions are significantly involved in Alzheimer's disease. The concentration of Na in mole percentage showed an inverse correlation with that of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cr. Direct correlation was observed in the concentration of all analyzed elements, which indicated for the first time the direct dependency of concentration of trace elements in one brain region to other regions. The mole ratios between different elements in different brain regions and total amounts of the elements in an average weight of 1.4 kg human brain were also computed. The present study provides new and in-depth data which may be used as base line data for normal human brains. PMID:9077512

Rajan, M T; Jagannatha Rao, K S; Mamatha, B M; Rao, R V; Shanmugavelu, P; Menon, R B; Pavithran, M V

1997-03-10

422

Glucose-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Transfer across Human Brain Endothelium and Enter Astrocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 m/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:24339894

Gromnicova, Radka; Davies, Heather A.; Sreekanthreddy, Peddagangannagari; Romero, Ignacio A.; Lund, Torben; Roitt, Ivan M.; Phillips, James B.; Male, David K.

2013-01-01

423

Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-06-01

424

Astrocyte cultures derived from human brain tissue express angiotensinogen mRNA  

SciTech Connect

The authors have identified human cultured cell lines that are useful for studying angiotensinogen gene expression and its regulation in the central nervous system. A model cell system of human central nervous system origin expressing angiotensinogen has not previously been available. Expression of angiotensinogen mRNA appears to be a basal property of noninduced human astrocytes, since astrocytic cell lines derived from human glioblastomas or nonneoplastic human brain tissue invariably produced angiotensinogen mRNA. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that angiotensinogen mRNA production was not limited to a subpopulation of astrocytes because >99% of cells in these cultures contained angiotensinogen mRNA. These cell lines will be useful in studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling angiotensin synthesis and the role of biologically active angiotensin in the human brain by allowing the authors to examine regulation of expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human astrocyte cultures.

Milsted, A.; Barna, B.P.; Ransohoff, R.M.; Brosnihan, K.B.; Ferrario, C.M. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))

1990-08-01

425

Systematic network lesioning reveals the core white matter scaffold of the human brain  

PubMed Central

Brain connectivity loss due to traumatic brain injury, stroke or multiple sclerosis can have serious consequences on life quality and a measurable impact upon neural and cognitive function. Though brain network properties are known to be affected disproportionately by injuries to certain gray matter regions, the manner in which white matter (WM) insults affect such properties remains poorly understood. Here, network-theoretic analysis allows us to identify the existence of a macroscopic neural connectivity core in the adult human brain which is particularly sensitive to network lesioning. The systematic lesion analysis of brain connectivity matrices from diffusion neuroimaging over a large sample (N = 110) reveals that the global vulnerability of brain networks can be predicated upon the extent to which injuries disrupt this connectivity core, which is found to be quite distinct from the set of connections between rich club nodes in the brain. Thus, in addition to connectivity within the rich club, the brain as a network also contains a distinct core scaffold of network edges consisting of WM connections whose damage dramatically lowers the integrative properties of brain networks. This pattern of core WM fasciculi whose injury results in major alterations to overall network integrity presents new avenues for clinical outcome prediction following brain injury by relating lesion locations to connectivity core disruption and implications for recovery. The findings of this study contribute substantially to current understanding of the human WM connectome, its sensitivity to injury, and clarify a long-standing debate regarding the relative prominence of gray vs. WM regions in the context of brain structure and connectomic architecture. PMID:24574993

Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John D.

2013-01-01

426

Sensitivity to musical structure in the human brain  

PubMed Central

Evidence from brain-damaged patients suggests that regions in the temporal lobes, distinct from those engaged in lower-level auditory analysis, process the pitch and rhythmic structure in music. In contrast, neuroimaging studies targeting the representation of music structure have primarily implicated regions in the inferior frontal cortices. Combining individual-subject fMRI analyses with a scrambling method that manipulated musical structure, we provide evidence of brain regions sensitive to musical structure bilaterally in the temporal lobes, thus reconciling the neuroimaging and patient findings. We further show that these regions are sensitive to the scrambling of both pitch and rhythmic structure but are insensitive to high-level linguistic structure. Our results suggest the existence of brain regions with representations of musical structure that are distinct from high-level linguistic representations and lower-level acoustic representations. These regions provide targets for future research investigating possible neural specialization for music or its associated mental processes. PMID:23019005

McDermott, Josh H.; Norman-Haignere, Sam; Kanwisher, Nancy

2012-01-01

427

Divergent Whole-Genome Methylation Maps of Human and Chimpanzee Brains Reveal  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Divergent Whole-Genome Methylation Maps of Human and Chimpanzee Brains Reveal Epigenetic Basis of Human Regulatory Evolution Jia Zeng,1 Genevieve Konopka,2,3 Brendan G. Hunt,1 Todd M. Preuss,4 methylation vary across individ- uals within species according to the age and the sex of the individuals. We

Yi, Soojin

428

Acute Effects of Cocaine in Lower Human Brain: An FMRI Study P. R. Kufahl1  

E-print Network

Acute Effects of Cocaine in Lower Human Brain: An FMRI Study P. R. Kufahl1 , Z. Li1 , R. Risinger1: This FMRI study used controlled doses of cocaine to induce BOLD signal changes in the human orbitofrontal cocaine-induced activation patterns across nine different subjects imaged at 1.5 Tesla. INTRODUCTION

Rowe, Daniel B.

429

Brain Drain and Human Capital Formation in Developing Countries: Winners and Losers &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using new data on emigration rates by education level, we examine the impact of brain drain migration on human capital formation in developing countries. We find evidence of a positive effect of skilled migration prospects on gross human capital formation in a cross-section of 127 countries. For each country of the sample we then estimate the net effect of the

Michel Beine; Frderic Docquier; Hillel Rapoport

2008-01-01

430

Novel triplet repeat containing genes in human brain: Cloning, expression, and length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human genes containing triplet repeats may markedly expand in length and cause neuropsychiatric disease, explaining the phenomenon of anticipation (increasing severity or earlier age of onset in successive generations in a pedigree). To identify novel genes with triplet repeats, the authors screened a human brain cDNA library with oligonucleotide probes containing CTG or CCG triplet repeats. Fourteen of 40 clones

Shi Hua Li; R. L. Margolis; C. A. Ross; M. G. McInnis; S. E. Antonarakis

1993-01-01

431

Low-field MRI for studies of human pulmonary physiology and traumatic brain injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe recent progress on the development of an open-access low-magnetic-field MRI system for studies of human pulmonary physiology and traumatic brain injury. Low-field MRI benefits from reduced magnetic susceptibility effects and can provide high-resolution images of the human body when used with hyperpolarized media such as 3He and 129Xe.

Wilson, Alyssa; Devience, Stephen; Rosen, Matthew; Walsworth, Ronald

2011-06-01

432

Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind  

E-print Network

Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, each carrying out a specific aspect of human cognition, or is it more of a general-purpose device, in which each component participates in a wide ...

Kanwisher, Nancy

433

r Human Brain Mapping 0000:0000 (2010) r Eye Muscle Proprioception Is Represented  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 0000:00­00 (2010) r Eye Muscle Proprioception Is Represented Bilaterally of the extraocular muscles (EOM) of an eye were recently found within the con- tralateral central sulcus. In humans: The cortical representation of eye position is still uncertain. In the monkey a propriocep- tive representation

Miall, Chris