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Sample records for human cdna encoding

  1. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding human sterol carrier protein 2

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Ritsu; Kallen, C.B.; Babalola, G.O.; Rennert, H.; Strauss, J.F. III ); Billheimer, J.T. )

    1991-01-15

    The authors report the cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding human sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP{sub 2}). The 1.3-kilobase (kb) cDNA contains an open reading frame which encompasses a 143-amino acid sequence which is 89% identical to the rat SCP{sub 2} amino acid sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence of the polypeptide reveals a 20-residue amino-terminal leader sequence in front of the mature polypeptide, which contains a carboxyl-terminal tripeptide (Ala-Lys-Leu) related to the peroxisome targeting sequence. The expressed cDNA in COS-7 cells yields a 15.3-kDa polypeptide and increased amounts of a 13.2-kDa polypeptide, both reacting with a specific rabbit antiserum to rat liver SCP{sub 2}. The cDNA insert hybridizes with 3.2- and 1.8-kb mRNA species in human liver poly(A){sup +} RNA. In human fibroblasts and placenta the 1.8-kb mRNA was most abundant. Southern blot analysis suggests either that there are multiple copies of the SCP{sub 2} gene in the human genome or that the SCP{sub 2} gene is very large. Coexpression of the SCP{sub 2} cDNA with expression vectors for cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and adrenodoxin resulted in a 2.5-fold enhancement of progestin synthesis over that obtained with expression of the steroidogenic enzyme system alone. These findings are concordant with the notion that SCP{sub 2} plays a role in regulating steroidogenesis, among other possible functions.

  2. Cloning and characterization of human liver cDNA encoding a protein S precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, J.; Norman, D.K.; Beckmann, R.J.; Long, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Human liver cDNA encoding a protein S precursor was isolated from two cDNA libraries by two different techniques. Based upon the frequency of positive clones, the abundance of mRNA for protein S is approx. = 0.01%. Blot hybridization of electrophoretically fractionated poly(A)/sup +/ RNA revealed a major mRNA approx. = 4 kilobases long and two minor forms of approx. = 3.1 and approx. = 2.6 kilobases. One of the cDNA clones contains a segment encoding a 676 amino acid protein S precursor, as well as 108 and 1132 nucleotides of 5' and 3' noncoding sequence, respectively, plus a poly(A) region at the 3' end. The cDNAs are adenosine plus thymidine-rich (60%) except for the 5' noncoding region, where 78% of the nucleotides are guanosine or cytosine. The protein precursor consists of a 41 amino acid leader peptide followed by 635 amino acids corresponding to mature protein S. Comparison of the mature protein region with homologous vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins shows that it is composed of the following domains: an amino-terminal ..gamma..-carboxyglutamic acid-rich region of 37 amino acids; a 36 amino acid linker region rich in hydroxy amino acids; four epidermal growth factor-like segments, each approx. = 45 amino acids long; and a 387 amino acid carboxyl-terminal domain of unrecognized structure and unknown function.

  3. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding the human Sm-D autoantigen

    SciTech Connect

    Rokeach, L.A.; Haselby, J.A.; Hoch, S.O. )

    1988-07-01

    Antibodies to the Sm-D polypeptide antigen are closely associated with the rheumatic disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Sm-D exists in the cell as one of the core proteins of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes implicated in RNA processing. The authors have isolated a cDNA clone, D45-2, coding for the Sm-D human nuclear antigen by screening a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library with synthetic oligonucleotide probes. The 1633-base-pair clone contains an open reading frame (ORF) 357 nucleotides long, capable of encoding a 13,282-dalton polypeptide. The Sm-D coding region is initiated at an AUG codon downstream from a sequence with excellent match to the consensus for the eukaryotic ribosome-binding site. The Sm-D ORF is preceded by a 150-nucleotide-long untranslated leader and followed by a 1126-nucleotide-long untranslated region containing four putative poly(A) signals. The predicted amino acid sequence reveals a (Gly-Arg){sub 9} repeated motif at the C terminus, which may constitute one of the Sm-D immunoreactive determinants. Moreover, this C terminus shows interesting features: (i) a good homology to protamines as expected for a nucleic acid binding protein and (ii) a striking similarity to a region in the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen.

  4. Fabry disease: isolation of a cDNA clone encoding human alpha-galactosidase A.

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, D H; Bishop, D F; Bernstein, H S; Quinn, M; Hantzopoulos, P; Desnick, R J

    1985-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked inborn error of metabolism resulting from the deficient activity of the lysosomal hydrolase, alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A; alpha-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.22). To investigate the structure, organization, and expression of alpha-Gal A, as well as the nature of mutations in Fabry disease, a clone encoding human alpha-Gal A was isolated from a lambda gt11 human liver cDNA expression library. To facilitate screening, an improved affinity purification procedure was used to obtain sufficient homogeneous enzyme for production of monospecific antibodies and for amino-terminal and peptide microsequencing. On the basis of an amino-terminal sequence of 24 residues, two sets of oligonucleotide mixtures were synthesized corresponding to adjacent, but not overlapping, amino acid sequences. In addition, an oligonucleotide mixture was synthesized based on a sequence derived from an alpha-Gal A internal tryptic peptide isolated by reversed-phase HPLC. Four positive clones were initially identified by antibody screening of 1.4 X 10(7) plaques. Of these, only one clone (designated lambda AG18) demonstrated both antibody binding specificity by competition studies using homogeneous enzyme and specific hybridization to synthetic oligonucleotide mixtures corresponding to amino-terminal and internal amino acid sequences. Nucleotide sequencing of the 5' end of the 1250-base-pair EcoRI insert of clone lambda AG18 revealed an exact correspondence between the predicted and known amino-terminal amino acid sequence. The insert of clone lambda AG18 appears to contain the full-length coding region of the processed, enzymatically active alpha-Gal A, as well as sequences coding for five amino acids of the amino-terminal propeptide, which is posttranslationally cleaved during enzyme maturation. Images PMID:2997789

  5. Characterization of cDNA clones encoding rabbit and human serum paraoxonase: The mature protein retains its signal sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, C.; Richter, R.J.; Humbert, R.; Omiecinski, C.J.; Furlong, C.E. ); Chapline, C.; Crabb, J.W. )

    1991-10-22

    Serum paraoxonase hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. High serum paraoxonase levels appear to protect against the neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus substrates of this enzyme. The amino acid sequence accounting for 42% of rabbit paraoxonase was determined. From these data, two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen a rabbit liver cDNA library. Human paraoxonase clones were isolated from a liver cDNA library by using the rabbit cDNA as a hybridization probe. Inserts from three of the longest clones were sequenced, and one full-length clone contained an open reading frame encoding 355 amino acids, four less than the rabbit paraoxonase protein. Amino-terminal sequences derived from purified rabbit and human paraoxonase proteins suggested that the signal sequence is retained, with the exception of the initiator methionine residue. Characterization of the rabbit and human paraoxonase cDNA clones confirms that the signal sequences are not processed, except for the N-terminal methionine residue. The rabbit and human cDNA clones demonstrate striking nucleotide and deduced amino acid similarities (greater than 85%), suggesting an important metabolic role and constraints on the evolution of this protein.

  6. Sanfilippo syndrome type B: cDNA and gene encoding human {alpha}-N-acetylglucosaminidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H.G.; Lopez, R.; Rennecker, J.

    1994-09-01

    Deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme {alpha}-N-acetlyglucosaminidase underlies the type B Sanfilippo syndrome (MPS III B), a mucopolysaccharide storage disease with profound neurologic deterioration. We are acquiring tools to study the molecular basis of the disorder. The enzyme was purified from bovine testis; after ConA-, DEAE- and phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, it was subjected to SDS-PAGE without preheating. Of two bands of activity detected on the gel, 170 kDa and 87 kDa, the larger one, which coincided with a well-defined Coomassie blue band, was selected for sequence analysis. Degenerate 17-base oligonucleotides, corresponding to the ends of an internal 23 amino acid sequence, were used for RT-PCR of RNA from human fibroblasts. A 41-mer was synthesized from the sequence of the RT-PCR product and used to screen a human testis cDNA library. A number of cDNA inserts were isolated, all lacking the 5{prime} end and none longer than 1.7 kb. An additional 300 bp segment has been obtained by RACE. The cDNA sequence accounts for 9 of 11 peptides, allowing for species difference. Northern analysis of fibroblast RNA with a 1.5 kb cDNA probe showed the presence of a 3 kb mRNA; marked deficiency of this mRNA in two MPS III B fibroblast lines confirmed the authenticity of the cloned cDNA. While no homologous amino acid sequence has been found in a search of GenBank, the nucleotide sequence (interrupted by 4 introns) is present in a flanking region upstream of an unrelated gene on chromosome 17q11-21 (human 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). This must therefore be the chromosomal locus of the {alpha}-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene and of MPS III B.

  7. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of a cDNA clone encoding part of human transketolase.

    PubMed

    Abedinia, M; Layfield, R; Jones, S M; Nixon, P F; Mattick, J S

    1992-03-31

    Transketolase is a key enzyme in the pentose-phosphate pathway which has been implicated in the latent human genetic disease, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Here we report the cloning and partial characterisation of the coding sequences encoding human transketolase from a human brain cDNA library. The library was screened with oligonucleotide probes based on the amino acid sequence of proteolytic fragments of the purified protein. Northern blots showed that the transketolase mRNA is approximately 2.2 kb, close to the minimum expected, of which approximately 60% was represented in the largest cDNA clone. Sequence analysis of the transketolase coding sequences reveals a number of homologies with related enzymes from other species. PMID:1567394

  8. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding transformation-sensitive tropomyosin isoform 3 from tumorigenic human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.S.; Leavitt, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone from the tumorigenic human fibroblast cell line HuT-14 that contains the entire protein coding region of tropomyosin isoform 3 (Tm3) and 781 base pairs of 5'- and 3'-untranslated sequences. Tm3, despite its apparent smaller molecular weight than Tm1 in two-dimensional gels, has the same peptide length as Tm1 (284 amino acids) and shares 83% homology with Tm1. Tm3 cDNA hybridized to an abundant mRNA of 1.3 kilobases in fetal muscle and cardiac muscle, suggesting that Tm3 is related to an ..cap alpha../sub fast/-tropomyosin. The first 188 amino acids of Tm3 are identical to those of rat or rabbit skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin, and the last 71 amino acids differ from those of rat smooth muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin by only 1 residue. Tm3 therefore appears to be encoded by the same gene that encodes the fast skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin and the smooth muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin via an alternative RNA-splicing mechanism. In contrast to Tm4 and Tm5, Tm3 has a small gene family, with, at best, only one pseudogene.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a human cDNA and gene encoding a novel acid ceramidase-like protein.

    PubMed

    Hong, S B; Li, C M; Rhee, H J; Park, J H; He, X; Levy, B; Yoo, O J; Schuchman, E H

    1999-12-01

    Computer-assisted database analysis of sequences homologous to human acid ceramidase (ASAH) revealed a 1233-bp cDNA (previously designated cPj-LTR) whose 266-amino-acid open reading frame had approximately 36% identity with the ASAH polypeptide. Based on this high degree of homology, we undertook further molecular characterization of cPj-LTR and now report the full-length cDNA sequence, complete gene structure (renamed human ASAHL since it is a human acid ceramidase-like sequence), chromosomal location, primer extension and promoter analysis, and transient expression results. The full-length human ASAHL cDNA was 1825 bp and contained an open-reading frame encoding a 359-amino-acid polypeptide that was 33% identical and 69% similar to the ASAH polypeptide over its entire length. Numerous short regions of complete identity were observed between these two sequences and two sequences obtained from the Caenorhabditis elegans genome database. The 30-kb human ASAHL genomic sequence contained 11 exons, which ranged in size from 26 to 671 bp, and 10 introns, which ranged from 150 bp to 6.4 kb. The gene was localized to the chromosomal region 4q21.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Northern blotting experiments revealed a major 2.0-kb ASAHL transcript that was expressed at high levels in the liver and kidney, but at relatively low levels in other tissues such as the lung, heart, and brain. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the human ASAHL gene revealed a putative promoter region that lacked a TATA box and was GC rich, typical features of a housekeeping gene promoter, as well as several tissue-specific and/or hormone-induced transcription regulatory sites. 5'-Deletion analysis localized the promoter activity to a 1. 1-kb fragment within this region. A major transcription start site also was located 72 bp upstream from the ATG translation initiation site by primer extension analysis. Expression analysis of a green fluorescence protein/ASAHL fusion

  10. Isolation and characterization of human cDNA clones encoding the. alpha. and the. alpha. prime subunits of casein kinase II

    SciTech Connect

    Lozeman, F.J.; Litchfield, D.W.; Piening, C.; Takio, Koji; Walsh, K.A.; Krebs E.G. )

    1990-09-11

    Casein kinase II is a widely distributed protein serine/threonine kinase. The holoenzyme appears to be a tetramer, containing two {alpha} or {alpha}{prime} subunits (or one of each) and two {beta} subunits. Complementary DNA clones encoding the subunits of casein kinase II were isolated from a human T-cell {lambda}gt 10 library using cDNA clones isolated from Drosophila melanogasten. One of the human cDNA clones (hT4.1) was 2.2 kb long, including a coding region of 1176 bp preceded by 156 bp (5{prime} untranslated region) and followed by 871 bp (3{prime} untranslated region). The hT4.1 close was nearly identical in size and sequence with a cDNA clone from HepG2 human hepatoma cultured cells. Another of the human T-cell cDNA clones (hT9.1) was 1.8 kb long, containing a coding region of 1053 bp preceded by 171 by (5{prime} untranslated region) and followed by 550 bp (3{prime} untranslated region). Amino acid sequences deduced from these two cDNA clones were about 85% identical. Most of the difference between the two encoded polypeptides was in the carboxy-terminal region, but heterogeneity was distributed throughout the molecules. Partial amino acid sequence was determined in a mixture of {alpha} and {alpha}{prime} subunits from bovine lung casein kinase II. The bovine sequences aligned with the 2 human cDNA-encoded polypeptides with only 2 discrepancies out of 535 amino acid positions. This confirmed that the two human T-cell cDNA clones encoded the {alpha} and {alpha}{prime} subunits of casein kinase II. These studies show that there are two distinct catalytic subunits for casein II ({alpha} and {alpha}{prime}) and that the sequence of these subunits is largely conserved between the bovine and the human.

  11. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding human inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Dewaste, V; Pouillon, V; Moreau, C; Shears, S; Takazawa, K; Erneux, C

    2000-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)] 3-kinase catalyses the phosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) to Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4). cDNAs encoding two isoenzymes of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) 3-kinase (3-kinases A and B) have been described previously. In the present study, we report the cloning of a full-length 2052 bp cDNA encoding a third human isoenzyme of the Ins(1,4,5)P(3) 3-kinase family, referred to as isoform C. This novel enzyme has a calculated molecular mass of 75. 207 kDa and a K(m) for Ins(1,4,5)P(3) of 6 microM. Northern-blot analysis showed the presence of a transcript of approx. 3.9 kb in various human tissues. Inositol trisphosphate 3-kinase C demonstrates enzymic activity when expressed in DH5alphaF' bacteria or COS-7 cells. Calcium alone decreases the Ins(1,4,5)P(3) 3-kinase activity of the 3-kinase C isoenzyme in transfected COS-7 cells. This inhibitory effect is reversed in the presence of calmodulin. The recombinant bacterial 3-kinase C can be adsorbed on calmodulin-Sepharose in the presence of calcium. The present data show that Ins(1,4,5)P(3) 3-kinase C: (i) shares a conserved catalytic domain of about 275 amino acids with the two other mammalian isoforms, (ii) could be purified on a calmodulin-Sepharose column and (iii) could be distinguished from the A and B isoenzymes by the effects of calcium and of calmodulin. PMID:11085927

  12. Cloning of cDNA encoding human rapsyn and mapping of the RAPSN gene locus to chromosome 11p11.2-p11.1

    SciTech Connect

    Buckel, A.; Beeson, D.; Vincent, A.

    1996-08-01

    We have isolated and sequenced cDNA clones for the human 43-kDa acetylcholine receptor-associated protein rapsyn. The cDNA encodes a 412-amino-acid protein that has a predicted molecular mass of 46,330 Da and shows 96% sequence identity with mouse rapsyn. Analysis of PCR amplifications, first from somatic cell hybrids and subsequently from radiation hybrids, localizes the human RAPSN gene locus to chromosome 11p11.2-p11.1 in close proximity to ACP2. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding human fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, the enzyme deficient in hereditary tyrosinemia: assignment of the gene to chromosome 15.

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, D; Labelle, Y; Bérubé, D; Arden, K; Cavenee, W; Gagné, R; Tanguay, R M

    1991-01-01

    Type 1 hereditary tyrosinemia (HT) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH; E.C.3.7.1.2). We have isolated human FAH cDNA clones by screening a liver cDNA expression library using specific antibodies and plaque hybridization with a rat FAH cDNA probe. A 1,477-bp cDNA was sequenced and shown to code for FAH by an in vitro transcription-translation assay and sequence homology with tryptic fragments of purified FAH. Transient expression of this FAH cDNA in transfected CV-1 mammalian cells resulted in the synthesis of an immunoreactive protein comigrating with purified human liver FAH on SDS-PAGE and having enzymatic activity as shown by the hydrolysis of the natural substrate fumarylacetoacetate. This indicates that the single polypeptide chain encoded by the FAH gene contains all the genetic information required for functional activity, suggesting that the dimer found in vivo is a homodimer. The human FAH cDNA was used as a probe to determine the gene's chromosomal localization using somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. The human FAH gene maps to the long arm of chromosome 15 in the region q23-q25. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:1998338

  14. Cloning and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific trypsin-like serine protease

    SciTech Connect

    Gershenfeld, H.K.; Hershberger, R.J.; Shows, T.B.; Weissman, I.L.

    1988-02-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a human T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease was obtained by screening a phage lambdagt10 cDNA library from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the mouse Hanukah factor cDNA clone. In an RNA blot-hybridization analysis, this human Hanukah factor cDNA hybridized with a 1.3-kilobase band in allogeneic-stimulated cytotoxic T cells and the Jurkat cell line, but this transcript was not detectable in normal muscle, liver, tonsil, or thymus. By dot-blot hybridization, this cDNA hybridized with RNA from three cytolytic T-cell clones and three noncytolytic T-cell clones grown in vitro as well as with purified CD16/sup +/ natural killer cells and CD3/sup +/, CD16/sup -/ T-cell large granular lymphocytes from peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD = cluster designation). The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA clone encodes a predicted serine protease of 262 amino acids. The active enzyme is 71% and 77% similar to the mouse sequence at the amino acid and DNA level, respectively. The human and mouse sequences conserve the active site residues of serine proteases--the trypsin-specific Asp-189 and all 10 cysteine residues. The gene for the human Hanukah factor serine protease is located on human chromosome 5. The authors propose that this trypsin-like serine protease may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

  15. In vitro mutagenesis and functional expression in Escherichia coli of a cDNA encoding the catalytic domain of human DNA ligase I.

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, K; Barnes, D E; Lindahl, T

    1991-01-01

    Human cDNAs encoding fragments of DNA ligase I, the major replicative DNA ligase in mammalian cells, have been expressed as lacZ fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. A cDNA encoding the carboxyl-terminal catalytic domain of human DNA ligase I was able to complement a conditional-lethal DNA ligase mutation in E. coli as measured by growth of the mutant strain at the non-permissive temperature. Targeted deletions of the amino and carboxyl termini of the catalytic domain identified a minimum size necessary for catalytic function and a maximum size for optimal complementing activity in E. coli. The human cDNA was subjected to systematic site-directed mutagenesis in vitro and mutant polypeptides assayed for functional expression in the E. coli DNA ligase mutant. Such functional analysis of the active site of DNA ligase I identified specific residues required for the formation of an enzyme-adenylate reaction intermediate. Images PMID:1956768

  16. cDNA isolated from a human T-cell library encodes a member of the protein-tyrosine-phosphatase family

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, D.E.; Tonks, N.K.; Charbonneau, H.; Walsh, K.A.; Fischer, E.H.; Krebs, E.G. )

    1989-07-01

    A human peripheral T-cell cDNA library was screened with two labeled synthetic oligonucleotides encoding regions of a human placenta protein-tyrosine-phosphatase. One positive clone was isolated and the nucleotide sequence was determined. It contained 1,305 base pairs of open reading frame followed by a TAA stop codon and 978 base pairs of 3{prime} untranslated end, although a poly(A){sup +} tail was not found. An initiator methionine residue was predicted at position 61, which would result in a protein of 415 amino acid residues. This was supported by the synthesis of a M{sub r} 48,000 protein in an in vitro reticulocyte lysate translation system using RNA transcribed from the cloned cDNA and T7 RNA polymerase. The deduced amino acid sequence was compared to other known proteins revealing 65% identity to the low M{sub r} PTPase 1B isolated from placenta. In view of the high degree of similarity, the T-cell cDNA likely encodes a newly discovered protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, thus expanding this family of genes.

  17. Molecular characterization of hNRP, a cDNA encoding a human nucleosome-assembly-protein-I-related gene product involved in the induction of cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, H U; Mills, G B; Kozlowski, M; Hogg, D; Branch, D; Ishimi, Y; Siminovitch, K A

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated from a human thymus cDNA library a cDNA clone encoding a potential protein with 54% amino acid similarity to that encoded by a previously identified cDNA for yeast nucleosome assembly protein I (NAP-I). The deduced amino acid sequence for this newly identified cDNA, designated hNRP (human NAP-related protein), contains a potential seven-residue nuclear localization motif, three clusters of highly acidic residues and other structural features found in various proteins implicated in chromatin formation. When expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli, hNRP reacted specifically with a monoclonal antibody raised against human NAP-I. The hNRP transcript was detected in all tissues and cell lines studied, but levels were somewhat increased in rapidly proliferating cells. Moreover, levels of both hNRP mRNA and protein increased rapidly in cultured T-lymphocytes induced to proliferate by incubation with phorbol ester and ionomycin. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin-induced increases in both hNRP mRNA and mitogenesis, as measured by thymidine incorporation, were markedly inhibited, however, in cells treated with an hNRP antisense oligonucleotide. These results demonstrate a correlation between induction of hNRP expression and mitogenesis and taken together with the structural similarities between hNRP and yeast NAP-I suggest that the hNRP gene product participates in DNA replication and thereby plays an important role in the process of cell proliferation. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8297347

  18. Isolation and structural characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the human DNA repair protein for O sup 6 -alkylguanine

    SciTech Connect

    Tano, K.; Shiota, S.; Collier, J.; Foote, R.S.; Mitra, S. )

    1990-01-01

    O{sup 6}-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase a unique DNA repair protein present in most organisms, removes the carcinogenic and mutagenic adduct O{sup 6}-alkylguanine from DNA by stoichiometrically accepting the alkyl group on a cysteine residue in a suicide reaction. The mammalian protein is highly regulated in both somatic and germ-like cells. In addition, the toxicity of certain alkylating drugs in tumor and normal cells is inversely related to the levels of this protein. The cDNA of the human gene, henceforth named MGMT, has been cloned in an expression vector on the basis of its rescue of a methyltransferase-deficient (ada{sup {minus}}) Escherichia coli host. A 22-kDa active methyltransferase encoded entirely by the cDNA contains an amino acid sequence of 61 residues that bears 60-65% similarity with segments of E. coli methyltransferase which encompass the alkyl-acceptor residues. The human cDNA has no sequence similarity with the ada and ogt genes, due in part to differences in codon usage, and shows no detectable homology with E. coli genomic DNA. However, it hybridizes with distinct restriction fragments of human, mouse, and rat DNAs. The lack of methyltransferase observed in many human cell lines is due to the absence of the MGNT gene or to lack of synthesis and/or stability of its 0.95-kilobase poly(A){sup +} RNA transcript.

  19. Identification of a human cDNA encoding a protein that is structurally and functionally related to the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated CAP proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Matviw, Yu, G.; Young, D. )

    1992-11-01

    The adenylyl cyclases of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are associated with related proteins named CAP. In S. cerevisiae, CAP is required for cellular responses mediated by the RAS/cyclic AMP pathway. Both yeast CAPs appear to be bifunctional proteins: The N-terminal domains are required for the proper function of adenylyl cyclase, while loss of the C-terminal domains results in morphological and nutritional defects that appear to be unrelated to the cAMP pathways. Expression of either yeast CAP in the heterologous yeast suppresses phenotypes associated with loss of the C-terminal domain of the endogenous CAP but does not suppress loss of the N-terminal domain. On the basis of the homology between the two yeast CAP proteins, we have designed degenerate oligonucleotides that we used to detect, by the polymerase chain reaction method, a human cDNA fragment encoding a CAP-related peptide. Using the polymerase chain reaction fragment as a probe, we isolated a human cDNA clone encoding a 475-amino-acid protein that is homologous to the yeast CAP proteins. Expressions of the human CAP protein in S. cerevisiae suppresses the phenotypes associated with loss of the C-terminal domain of CAP but does not suppress phenotypes associated with loss of the N-terminal domain. Thus, CAP proteins have been structurally and, to some extent, functionally conserved in evolution between yeasts and mammals. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  20. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

  1. Human general transcription factor TFIIA: characterization of a cDNA encoding the small subunit and requirement for basal and activated transcription.

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, J; Bernstein, R; Roeder, R G

    1995-01-01

    The human general transcription factor TFIIA is one of several factors involved in specific transcription by RNA polymerase II, possibly by regulating the activity of the TATA-binding subunit (TBP) of TFIID. TFIIA purified from HeLa extracts consists of 35-, 19-, and 12-kDa subunits. Here we describe the isolation of a cDNA clone (hTFIIA gamma) encoding the 12-kDa subunit. Using expression constructs derived from hTFIIA gamma and TFIIA alpha/beta (which encodes a 55-kDa precursor to the alpha and beta subunits of natural TFIIA), we have constructed a synthetic TFIIA with a polypeptide composition similar to that of natural TFIIA. The recombinant complex supports the formation of a DNA-TBP-TFIIA complex and mediates both basal and Gal4-VP16-activated transcription by RNA polymerase II in TFIIA-depleted nuclear extracts. In contrast, TFIIA has no effect on tRNA and 5S RNA transcription by RNA polymerase III in this system. We also present evidence that both the p55 and p12 recombinant subunits interact with TBP and that the basic region of TBP is critical for the TFIIA-dependent function of TBP in nuclear extracts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7724559

  2. Characterization of a cDNA encoding a novel human Golgi alpha 1, 2-mannosidase (IC) involved in N-glycan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, L O; Herscovics, A

    2000-10-13

    A human cDNA encoding a 70.9-kDa type II membrane protein with sequence similarity to class I alpha1,2-mannosidases was isolated. The enzymatic properties of the novel alpha1,2-mannosidase IC were studied by expressing its catalytic domain in Pichia pastoris as a secreted glycoprotein. alpha1,2-Mannosidase IC sequentially hydrolyzes the alpha1,2-linked mannose residues of [(3)H]mannose-labeled Man(9)GlcNAc to form [(3)H]Man(6)GlcNAc and a small amount of [(3)H]Man(5)GlcNAc. The enzyme requires calcium for activity and is inhibited by both 1-deoxymannojirimycin and kifunensine. The order of mannose removal was determined by separating oligosaccharide isomers formed from pyridylaminated Man(9)GlcNAc(2) by high performance liquid chromatography. The terminal alpha1,2-linked mannose residue from the middle branch is the last mannose removed by the enzyme. This residue is the mannose cleaved from Man(9)GlcNAc(2) by the endoplasmic reticulum alpha1, 2-mannosidase I to form Man(8)GlcNAc(2) isomer B. The order of mannose hydrolysis from either pyridylaminated Man(9)GlcNAc(2) or Man(8)GlcNAc(2) isomer B differs from that previously reported for mammalian Golgi alpha1,2-mannosidases IA and IB. The full-length alpha1,2-mannosidase IC was localized to the Golgi of MDBK and MDCK cells by indirect immunofluorescence. Northern blot analysis showed tissue-specific expression of a major transcript of 3.8 kilobase pairs. The expression pattern is different from that of human Golgi alpha1,2-mannosidases IA and IB. Therefore, the human genome contains at least three differentially regulated Golgi alpha1, 2-mannosidase genes encoding enzymes with similar, but not identical specificities. PMID:10915796

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human KIN17 cDNA encoding a component of the UVC response that is conserved among metazoans.

    PubMed

    Kannouche, P; Mauffrey, P; Pinon-Lataillade, G; Mattei, M G; Sarasin, A; Daya-Grosjean, L; Angulo, J F

    2000-09-01

    We describe the cloning and characterization of the human KIN17 cDNA encoding a 45 kDa zinc finger nuclear protein. Previous reports indicated that mouse kin17 protein may play a role in illegitimate recombination and in gene regulation. Furthermore, overproduction of mouse kin17 protein inhibits the growth of mammalian cells, particularly the proliferation of human tumour-derived cells. We show here that the KIN17 gene is remarkably conserved during evolution. Indeed, the human and mouse kin17 proteins are 92.4% identical. Furthermore, DNA sequences from fruit fly and filaria code for proteins that are 60% identical to the mammalian kin17 proteins, indicating conservation of the KIN17 gene among metazoans. The human KIN17 gene, named (HSA)KIN17, is located on human chromosome 10 at p15-p14. The (HSA)KIN17 RNA is ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues and organs examined, although muscle, heart and testis display the highest levels. UVC irradiation of quiescent human primary fibroblasts increases (HSA)KIN17 RNA with kinetics similar to those observed in mouse cells, suggesting that up-regulation of the (HSA)KIN17 gene after UVC irradiation is a conserved response in mammalian cells. (HSA)kin17 protein is concentrated in intranuclear focal structures in proliferating cells as judged by indirect immunofluorescence. UVC irradiation disassembles (HSA)kin17 foci in cycling cells, indicating a link between the intranuclear distribution of (HSA)kin17 protein and the DNA damage response. PMID:10964102

  4. Antibody to a human DNA repair protein allows for cloning of a Drosophila cDNA that encodes an apurinic endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.R. ); Venugopal, S.; Harless, J.; Deutsch, W.A. . Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1989-03-01

    The cDNA of a Drosophila DNA repair gene, AP3, was cloned by screening an embryonic lambda gt11 expression library with an antibody that was originally prepared against a purified human apurinicapyrimidine (AP) endonuclease. The 1.2-kilobase (kb) AP3 cDNA mapped to a region on the third chromosome where a number of mutagen-sensitive alleles were located. The cDNA clone yielded an in vitro translation product of 35,000 daltons, in agreement with the predicted size of the translation product of the only open reading frame of AP3, and identical to the molecular size of an AP endonuclease activity recovered following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrymalide gel electrophoresis of Drosophilia extracts. The C-terminal portion of the predicted protein contained regions of presumptive DNA-binding domains, while the DNA sequence at the amino end of AP3 showed similarity to the Escherichia coli recA gene. AP3 is expressed as an abundant 1.3-kb mRNA that is detected throughout the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. Another 3.5-klb mRNA also hybridized to the AP3 cDNA, but species was restricted to the early stages of development.

  5. Identification of cDNA encoding an additional. alpha. subunit of a human GTP-binding protein: Expression of three. alpha. sub i subtypes in human tissues and cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Ang, S.L.; Bloch, D.B.; Bloch, K.D.; Kawahara, Y.; Tolman, C.; Lee, R.; Seidman, J.G.; Neer, E.J. )

    1988-06-01

    The guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which mediate hormonal regulation of many membrane functions, are composed of {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits. The authors have cloned and characterized cDNA from a human T-cell library encoding a form of {alpha}{sub i} that is different from the human {alpha}{sub i} subtypes previously reported. {alpha}{sub i} is the {alpha} subunit of a class of G proteins that inhibits adenylate cyclase and regulates other enzymes and ion channels. This cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 354 amino acids and is assigned to encode the {alpha}{sub i-3} subtype of G proteins on the basis of its similarity to other {alpha}{sub i}-like cDNAs and the presence of a predicted site for ADP ribosylation by pertussis toxin. They have determined the expression of mRNA for this and two other subtypes of human {alpha}{sub i} ({alpha}{sub i-1} and {alpha}{sub i-2}) in a variety of human fetal tissues and in human cell lines. All three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes were present in the tissues tested. However, analysis of individual cell types reveals specificity of {alpha}{sub i-1} expression. mRNA for {alpha}{i-1} is absent in T cells, B cells, and monocytes but is present in other cell lines. The finding of differential expression of {alpha}{sub i-1} genes may permit characterization of distinct physiological roles for this {alpha}{sub i} subunit. mRNA for {alpha}{sub i-2} and {alpha}{sub i-3} was found in all the primary and transformed cell lines tested. Thus, some cells contain all three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes. This observation raises the question of how cells prevent cross talk among receptors that are coupled to effectors through such similar {alpha} proteins.

  6. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  7. Cloning of cDNA encoding steroid 11. beta. -hydroxylase (P450c11)

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, S.C.; Szabo, P.; Vitek, A.; Grzeschik, K.H.; John, M.; White, P.C.

    1987-10-01

    The authors have isolated bovine and human adrenal cDNA clones encoding the adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for 11..beta..-hydroxylation (P450c11). A bovine adrenal cDNA library constructed in the bacteriophage lambda vector gt10 was probed with a previously isolated cDNA clone corresponding to part of the 3' untranslated region of the 4.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA encoding P450c11. Several clones with 3.2-kb cDNA inserts were isolated. Sequence analysis showed that they overlapped the original probe by 300 base pairs (bp). Combined cDNA and RNA sequence data demonstrated a continuous open reading frame of 1509 bases. P450c11 is predicted to contain 479 amino acid residues in the mature protein in addition to a 24-residue amino-terminal mitochondrial signal sequence. A bovine clone was used to isolate a homologous clone with a 3.5-kb insert from a human adrenal cDNA library. A region of 1100 bp was 81% homologous to 769 bp of the coding sequence of the bovine cDNA except for a 400-bp segment presumed to be an unprocessed intron. Hybridization of the human cDNA to DNA from a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid lines and in situ hybridization to metaphase spreads of human chromosomes localized the gene to the middle of the long arm of chromosome 8. These data should be useful in developing reagents for heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis of 11..beta..-hydroxylase deficiency, the second most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  8. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  9. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  10. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  11. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  12. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

  13. Isolation of the cDNA and chromosomal localization of the gene (TAX1) encoding the human axonal glycoprotein TAG-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiotra, P.C.; Karagogeos, D.; Theodorakis, K.; Michaelidis, T.M.; Papamatheakis, J. ); Modi, W.S. ); Furley, A.J.; Jessell, T.M. )

    1993-12-01

    The transient axonal glycoprotein (TAG-1) is a cell adhesion molecule that promotes neurite outgrowth and belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. The authors have isolated cDNAs encoding TAX1, the human homologue of TAG-1. Human TAX1 shows a high degree of homology to rat TAX1 and less to its chick counterpart, axonin-1, with 91 and 75% identity at the amino acid level, respectively. The numbers of immunoglobulin (IgC2) domains and fibronectin repeats present in TAG-1 are conserved among the three species. The highest degree of conservation occurs in the second IgC2 domain (98% with the rat and 82% with the chick). The human homologue also contains a putative N-terminal signal sequence and a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence, suggestive of linkage to the cell membrane via phosphatidylinositol. In addition, the two mammalian TAG-1 proteins share the RDG tripeptide, a motif known to mediate recognition of fibronection by integrins. In situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes maps the TAX1 gene encoding human TAG-1 to a single location on chromosome 1q32. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Cloning of a human cDNA encoding a CDC2-related kinase by complementation of a budding yeast cdc28 mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya-Tsuji, Jun ); Nomoto, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kunihiro ); Yasuda, Hideyo ); Reed, S.I. )

    1991-10-15

    The authors have cloned two different human cDNAs that can complement cdc28 mutations of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One corresponds to a gene encoding human p34{sup CDC2} kinase, and the other to a gene (CDK2; cell division kinase) that has not been characterized previously. The CDK2 protein is highly homologous to p34{sup CDC2} kinase and more significantly is homologous to Xenopus Eg1 kinase, suggesting that CDK2 is the human homolog of Eg1. The human CDC2 and CDK2 genes were both able to complement the inviability of a null allele of S. cerevisiae CDC28. This result indicates that the CDK2 protein has a biological activity closely related to the CDC28 and p34{sup CDC2} kinases. However, CDK2 was unable to complement cdc2 mutants in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under the condition where the human CDC2 gene could complement them. CDK2 mRNA appeared late in G{sub 1} or in early S phase, slightly before CDC2 mRNA, after growth stimulation in normal human fibroblast cells. These results suggest that in human cells, two different CDC2-like kinases may regulate the cell cycle at distinct stages.

  15. Comparative mapping on the mouse and human X chromosomes of a human cDNA clone encoding the vasopressin renal-type receptor (AVP2R)

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, C.J.; Gonzales, J.C.; Seibold, A.; Birnbaumer, M.; Herman, G.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Mutation in the gene for the human renal-type vasopressin receptor (V2R) have recently been identified in patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Both V2R and NDI have been independently mapped to Xq28. Using a combination of genetic and physical mapping, we have localized the murine V2r locus to within 100 kb of L1Cam on the mouse X chromosome in a region syntenic with human Xq28. Based on conserved gene order of mouse and human loci in this region, physical mapping using DNA derived form human lymphoblasts has established that the corresponding human loci V2R and L1CAM are linked within 210 kb. The efficiency and precision of genetic mapping of V2r and other loci in the mouse suggest that it might be easier to map additional human genes in the mouse first and infer the corresponding human location. More precise physical mapping in man could then be performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and/or yeast artificial chromosomes. 16 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab.

  16. Horse cDNA clones encoding two MHC class I genes

    SciTech Connect

    Barbis, D.P.; Maher, J.K.; Stanek, J.; Klaunberg, B.A.; Antczak, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    Two full-length clones encoding MHC class I genes were isolated by screening a horse cDNA library, using a probe encoding in human HLA-A2.2Y allele. The library was made in the pcDNA1 vector (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA), using mRNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from a Thoroughbred stallion (No. 0834) homozygous for a common horse MHC haplotype (ELA-A2, -B2, -D2; Antczak et al. 1984; Donaldson et al. 1988). The clones were sequenced, using SP6 and T7 universal primers and horse-specific oligonucleotides designed to extend previously determined sequences.

  17. A cDNA clone encoding a peptide highly specific for hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Arima, T; Mori, C; Takamizawa, A; Shimomura, H; Tsuji, T

    1990-04-01

    A random primed lambda gt11-cDNA library was constructed from donors plasma presumably infected by blood-borne non-A, non-B hepatitis (hepatitis C:HC) agent and immunoscreened with serum pooled from patients with acute or chronic HC. Twelve lambda gt11-cDNA clones encoding antigens associated with HC infection in Japan as well as in the USA were isolated. Of these one clone consisting of 114 nucleotides and showing a discrete band on an immunoblot analysis, was extensively studied. The clone is not derived from the host DNA encoding one polypeptide specific and highly sensitive for serum from patients with HC and has no homology to the nucleotide sequences of known human viruses including hepatitis A,B and D viruses, Ebstein-Barr virus, coxsackievirus, immunodeficiency virus type 1 or Japanese encephalitis virus. These results suggest that this clone is derived from the genome of HC agent. PMID:1693349

  18. Characterization of Cxorf5 (71-7A), a novel human cDNA mapping to Xp22 and encoding a protein containing coiled-coil alpha-helical domains.

    PubMed

    de Conciliis, L; Marchitiello, A; Wapenaar, M C; Borsani, G; Giglio, S; Mariani, M; Consalez, G G; Zuffardi, O; Franco, B; Ballabio, A; Banfi, S

    1998-07-15

    The human X chromosome is known to contain several disease genes yet to be cloned. In the course of a project aimed at the construction of a transcription map of the Xp22 region, we fully characterized a novel cDNA, Cxorf5 (HGMW-approved symbol, alias 71-7A), previously mapped to this region but for which no sequence information was available. We isolated and sequenced the full-length transcript, which encodes a predicted protein of unknown function containing a large number of coiled-coild domains, typically presented in a variety of different molecules, from fibrous proteins to transcription factors. We showed that the Cxorf5 cDNA is ubiquitously expressed, undergoes alternative splicing, and escapes X inactivation. Furthermore, we precisely mapped two additional Cxorf5-related loci on the Y chromosome and on chromosome 5. By virtue of its mapping assignment to the Xp22 region, Cxorf5 represents a candidate gene for at least four human diseases, namely spondyloepiphiseal dysplasia late, oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1, craniofrontonasal syndrome, and a nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness. PMID:9722947

  19. Isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding the antigenic protein of the human tRNP(Ser)Sec complex recognized by autoantibodies from patients with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J L; Czaja, A J; Gelpí, C

    2000-01-01

    We previously described autoantibodies against a UGA serine tRNA–protein complex (tRNP(Ser)Sec) in patients with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis [1] and now define the specificity and frequency of this autoantibody and the DNA sequence encoding the tRNA(Ser)Sec-associated antigenic protein. The presence of anti‐tRNP(Ser)Sec antibodies was highly specific for type-1 autoimmune hepatitis, as 47·5% of patients were positive compared with none of the control subjects. To characterize the antigenic protein(s), we immunoscreened a human cDNA library with anti-tRNP(Ser)Sec-positive sera. Two clones (19 and 13) were isolated. Clone 19 encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 48·8 kD. Clone 13 is a shorter cDNA, almost identical to clone 19, which encodes a 35·9-kD protein. Expression of both cDNAs was accomplished in Escherichia coli as His-tagged recombinant proteins. Antibodies eluted from both purified recombinant proteins were able to immunoprecipitate the tRNA(Ser)Sec from a HeLa S3 cell extract, demonstrating their cross-reactivity with the mammalian antigenic complex. Recent cloning data relating to the target antigen(s) of autoantibodies in autoimmune hepatitis patients that react with a soluble liver antigen (SLA) and a liver-pancreas antigen (LP) have revealed that these two autoantibodies are identical and that the cloned antigen shows 99% amino acid sequence homology with tRNP(Ser)Sec. PMID:10931155

  20. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a putative human very low density lipoprotein/Apolipoprotein E receptor and assignment of the gene to chromosome 9pter-p23[sup 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gafvels, M.E.; Strauss, J.F. III ); Caird, M.; Patterson, D. ); Britt, D.; Jackson, C.L. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors report the cloning of a 3656-bp cDNA encoding a putative human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)/apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor. The gene encoding this protein was mapped to chromosome 9pter-p23. Northern analysis of human RNA identified cognate mRNAs of 6.0 and 3.8 kb with most abundant expression in heart and skeletal muscle, followed by kidney, placenta, pancreas, and brain. The pattern of expression generally paralleled that of lipoprotein lipase mRNA but differed from that of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/[alpha][sub 2]-macroglobulin receptor (LRP), which are members of the same gene family. VLDL/ApoE receptor message was not detected in liver, whereas mRNAs for both LDL receptor and LRP were found in hepatic tissue. In mouse 3T3-L1 cells, VLDL/ApoE receptor mRNA was induced during the transformation of the cells into adipocytes. Expression was also detected in human choriocarcinoma cells, suggesting that at least part of the expression observed in placenta may be in trophoblasts, cells which would be exposed to maternal blood. Expression in brain may be related to high levels of ApoE expression in that organ, an observation of potential relevance to the recently hypothesized role for ApoE in late onset Alzheimer disease. The results suggest that the putative VLDL/ApoE receptor could play a role in the uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles by specific organs including striated and cardiac muscle and adipose tissue and in the transport of maternal lipids across the placenta. The findings presented here, together with recent observations from other laboratories, bring up the possibility that a single gene, the VLDL/ApoE receptor, may play a role in the pathogenesis of certain forms of atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, and obesity.

  1. Cloning a cDNA encoding an alternatively spliced protein of BRCA2-associated factor 35.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chiang; McCarty, Ida M; Balazs, Louisa; Li, Yi; Steiner, Mitchell S

    2002-07-01

    Inheritance of mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, predisposes humans to breast and ovarian cancers. Inherited mutations in the BRCA2 gene are also known to cause susceptibility to prostate cancer. BRCA2 protein exists in a large multi-protein complex from which a novel structural DNA binding protein BRCA2-associated factor 35 (BRAF35) has been isolated. We have cloned a novel cDNA encoding an alternatively spliced protein of BRAF35, designated as BRAF25. BRAF25 transcript is present in various human cells. We have precisely mapped the BRAF25 cDNA sequence to the genomic chromosome 19 sequence. Analysis of the predicted sequence of BRAF25 identified a protein of 215 amino acids. BRAF25 contains a truncated high mobility group domain, a kinesin-like coiled-coil domain and multiple Src homology 2 (SH2) motifs. Western blot analysis using antibodies specific for BRAF25 revealed the presence of BRAF25 in human prostate cancer cells. PMID:12083779

  2. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding a taste-modifying protein, miraculin.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Nirasawa, S; Nakaya, K; Kurihara, Y

    1995-08-19

    A cDNA clone encoding a taste-modifying protein, miraculin (MIR), was isolated and sequenced. The encoded precursor to MIR was composed of 220 amino acid (aa) residues, including a possible signal sequence of 29 aa. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA encoding MIR was already expressed in fruits of Richadella dulcifica at 3 weeks after pollination and was present specifically in the pulp. PMID:7665074

  3. Isolation of distinct cDNA clones encoding HLA-DR beta chains by use of an expression assay.

    PubMed Central

    Long, E O; Wake, C T; Strubin, M; Gross, N; Accolla, R S; Carrel, S; Mach, B

    1982-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding different human Ia antigen beta chains were isolated by use of a complementation-expression assay in Xenopus oocytes. The assay was based on two previous findings. First, oocytes injected with mRNA from a human B-cell line express HLA-DR antigen. The three intracellular DR chains are assembled in oocytes and can be immunoprecipitated with anti-DR monoclonal antibodies. Second, we have isolated cDNA clones encoding DR alpha and intermediate chains. In order to identify beta-chain cDNA clones, mRNA was hybrid-selected with pools of cDNA clones, mixed with mRNA for the alpha and intermediate chains, and injected into oocytes. We isolated two distinct clones that could select DR beta-chain mRNA as demonstrated by assembly of the translation product with DR alpha chains and immunoprecipitation with DR-specific monoclonal antibodies. One clone is specific for a beta chain of the DR locus. The other clone, much weaker in its ability to select DR mRNA, encodes another Ia-like beta chain. Full-length cDNA clones corresponding to the DR and Ia-like beta chains were isolated and compared. Cross-hybridization was detectable in the coding regions but not in the 3' untranslated regions. Distinct RNAs homologous to the DR and the Ia-like beta-chain clones were present in B cells but were undetectable in three T-cell lines. Images PMID:6818545

  4. Cloning and expression of human neuron-specific enolase cDNA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, K A; Gurina, O I; Antonova, O M; Semenova, A V; Chekhonin, V P

    2011-12-01

    cDNA fragment encoding neuron-specific enolase was amplified from the cDNA library of human brain. Then the fragment was cloned for expression in E. coli using the vector pET28-a. High level of neuron-specific enolase expression was confirmed by SDS-PAAG electrophoresis and immunochemical identity by immunoblot analysis. The constructed producer strain is the cheapest source of neuron-specific enolase suitable for the use in diagnostic applications. PMID:22808461

  5. Cloning and functional expression of a human pancreatic islet glucose-transporter cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Permutt, M.A.; Koranyi, L.; Keller, K.; Lacy, P.E.; Scharp, D.W.; Mueckler, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic islet glucose transport is mediated by a high-K{sub m}, low-affinity facilitated transporter similar to that expressed in liver. To determine the relationship between islet and liver glucose transporters, liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clones were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clone hybridized to mRNA transcripts of the same size in human liver and pancreatic islet RNA. A cDNA library was prepared from purified human pancreatic islet tissue and screened with human liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA. The authors isolated two overlapping cDNA clones encompassing 2600 base pairs, which encode a pancreatic islet protein identical in sequence to that of the putative liver-type glucose-transporter protein. Xenopus oocytes injected with synthetic mRNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA construct exhibited increased uptake of 2-deoxyglucose, confirming the functional identity of the clone. These cDNA clones can now be used to study regulation of expression of the gene and to assess the role of inherited defects in this gene as a candidate for inherited susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a Paracentrotus lividus cDNA encoding a stress-inducible chaperonin

    PubMed Central

    Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Antonietta Ragusa, Maria; Roccheri, Maria Carmela; Liegro, Italia Di; Rinaldi, Anna Maria

    2000-01-01

    Chaperonins are ubiquitous proteins that facilitate protein folding in an adenosine triphosphate–dependent manner. Here we report the isolation of a sea urchin cDNA (Plhsp60) coding for mitochondrial chaperonin (Cpn60), whose basal expression is further enhanced by heat shock. The described cDNA corresponds to a full-length mRNA encoding a protein of 582 amino acids, the first 32 of which constitute a putative mitochondrial targeting leader sequence. Comparative analysis has demonstrated that this protein is highly conserved in evolution. PMID:11147969

  7. Isolation and characterization of human defensin cDNA clones

    SciTech Connect

    Daher, K.A.; Lehrer, R.I.; Ganz, T.; Kronenberg, M. )

    1988-10-01

    Four clones that encode defensins, a group of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils, were isolated from an HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cDNA library. Analysis of these clones indicated that the defensins are made as precursor proteins, which must be cleaved to yield the mature peptides. Defensin mRNA was detected in normal bone marrow cells, but not in normal peripheral blood leukocytes. Defensin transcripts were also found in the peripheral leukocytes of some leukemia patients and in some lung and intestine tissues. Defensin mRNA content was augmented by treatment of HL-60 cells with dimethyl sulfoxide. These results define important aspects of the mechanism of synthesis and the tissue-specific expression of a major group of neutrophil granule proteins.

  8. Human DNA ligase I cDNA: Cloning and functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.E.; Kodama, Kenichi; Tomkinson, A.E.; Lindahl, T.; Lasko, D.D. ); Johnston, L.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Human cDNA clones encoding the major DNA ligase activity in proliferating cells, DNA ligase I, were isolated by two independent methods. In one approach, a human cDNA library was screened by hybridization with oligonucleotides deduced from partial amino acid sequence of purified bovine DNA ligase I. In an alternative approach, a human cDNA library was screened for functional expression of a polypeptide able to complement a cdc9 temperature-sensitive DNA ligase mutant of Saccharomuces cerevisiae. The sequence of an apparently full-length cDNA encodes a 102-kDa protein, indistinguishable in size from authentic human DNA ligase I. The deduced amino acid sequence of the human DNA ligase I cDNA is 40% homologous to the smaller DNA ligases of S. cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, homology being confined to the carboxyl-terminal regions of the respective proteins. Hybridization between the cloned sequences and mRNA and genomic DNA indicates that the human enzyme is transcribed from a single-copy gene on chromosome 19.

  9. Analysis of a cDNA encoding the major vault protein from the electric ray Discopyge ommata.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, C; Zimmermann, H; Volknandt, W

    1997-03-25

    The major vault protein is the predominant constituent of vaults ubiquitous large cytosolic ribonucleoprotein particles. A cDNA clone encoding the 100-kDa major vault protein (MVP100) was isolated from an electric lobe library of Discopyge ommata. The complete nucleotide sequence was determined. Northern blot analysis revealed a 2.8-kb transcript with a high expression in neural tissue. Southern blot analysis indicates that the electric ray MVP100 is a single copy-gene with at least two introns. The primary structure of major vault proteins characterized in slime mold, ray, rat and human is evolutionary highly conserved. PMID:9099863

  10. cDNA cloning, sequence analysis, and chromosomal localization of the gene for human carnitine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Finocchiaro, G; Taroni, F; Rocchi, M; Martin, A L; Colombo, I; Tarelli, G T; DiDonato, S

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding human liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPTase; palmitoyl-CoA:L-carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.21), an inner mitochondrial membrane enzyme that plays a major role in the fatty acid oxidation pathway. Mixed oligonucleotide primers whose sequences were deduced from one tryptic peptide obtained from purified CPTase were used in a polymerase chain reaction, allowing the amplification of a 0.12-kilobase fragment of human genomic DNA encoding such a peptide. A 60-base-pair (bp) oligonucleotide synthesized on the basis of the sequence from this fragment was used for the screening of a cDNA library from human liver and hybridized to a cDNA insert of 2255 bp. This cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1974 bp that encodes a protein of 658 amino acid residues including 25 residues of an NH2-terminal leader peptide. The assignment of this open reading frame to human liver CPTase is confirmed by matches to seven different amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides derived from pure human CPTase and by the 82.2% homology with the amino acid sequence of rat CPTase. The NH2-terminal region of CPTase contains a leucine-proline motif that is shared by carnitine acetyl- and octanoyltransferases and by choline acetyltransferase. The gene encoding CPTase was assigned to human chromosome 1, region 1q12-1pter, by hybridization of CPTase cDNA with a DNA panel of 19 human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. Images PMID:1988962

  11. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding partial putative molt-inhibiting hormone from Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2002-09-01

    Total RNA was extracted from eyestalks of shrimp Penaeus chinensis. Eyestalk cDNA was obtained from total RNA by reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was initiated using eyestalk cDNA and degenerate primers designed from the amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from shrimp Penaeus japonicus. A specific cDNA was obtained and cloned into a T vector for sequencing. The cDNA consisted of 201 base pairs and encoding for a peptide of 67 amino acid residues. The peptide of P. chinensis had the highest identity with molt-inhibiting hormones of P. japonicus. The cDNA could be a partial gene of molt-inhibiting hormones from P. chinensis. This paper reports for the first time cDNA encoding for neuropeptide of P. chinensis.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding hexokinase from tomato.

    PubMed

    Menu, T; Rothan, C; Dai, N; Petreikov, M; Etienne, C; Destrac-Irvine, A; Schaffer, A; Granot, D; Ricard, B

    2001-01-01

    Two different partial sequences encoding putative hexokinase (HXK, ATP: hexose-6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.1) were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) by RT-PCR using degenerate primers. Southern blot analysis suggested the existence of two divergent HXK genes. A complete cDNA of one HXK was isolated by screening a cDNA library prepared from young cherry tomato fruit. The 1770 bp cDNA of LeHXK2 contained an open reading frame encoding a 496 amino acid protein that has 69% identity with the two Arabidopsis HXKs, 83 and 85% identity with potato StHXK1 and tobacco NtHXK, respectively. However, this clone had 97% amino acid identity with potato StHXK2 and, therefore, was named LeHXK2. LeHXK2 cDNA was expressed in a triple mutant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strain which lacked the ability to phosphorylate glucose and fructose and, therefore, was unable to grow on these sugars as carbon sources. Mutant cells expressing LeHXK2 grew on both glucose and fructose with shorter doubling time on glucose. The kinetic properties of LeHXK2 expressed in yeast were determined after the purification of LeHXK2 by HPLC-ion exchange chromatography, confirming the identity of LeHXK2 as hexokinase with higher affinity to glucose. LeHXK2 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR expression analysis in all organs and tissues and at all stages of fruit development. However, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that LeHXK2 was most highly expressed in flowers. PMID:11164592

  13. Characterization of cDNA clones selected by the GeneMark analysis from size-fractionated cDNA libraries from human brain.

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, M; Nagase, T; Ishikawa, K; Kikuno, R; Nomura, N; Ohara, O

    1999-10-29

    We have conducted a sequencing project of human cDNAs which encode large proteins in brain. For selection of cDNA clones to be sequenced in this project, cDNA clones have been experimentally examined by in vitro transcription/translation prior to sequencing. In this study, we tested an alternative approach for picking up cDNA clones having a high probability of carrying protein coding region. This approach exploited 5'-end single-pass sequence data and the GeneMark program for assessing protein-coding potential, and allowed us to select 74 clones out of 14,804 redundant cDNA clones. The complete sequence data of these 74 clones revealed that 45% of them encoded proteins consisting of more than 500 amino acid residues while all the clones thus selected carried possible protein coding sequences as expected. The results indicated that the GeneMark analysis of 5'-end sequences of cDNAs offered us a simple and effective means to select cDNA clones with protein-coding potential although the sizes of the encoded proteins could not be predicted. PMID:10574461

  14. Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding an unrecognized component of amyloid in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Uéda, K; Fukushima, H; Masliah, E; Xia, Y; Iwai, A; Yoshimoto, M; Otero, D A; Kondo, J; Ihara, Y; Saitoh, T

    1993-01-01

    A neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is a widespread amyloid deposition. We analyzed the entire amino acid sequences in an amyloid preparation and found, in addition to the major beta/A4-protein (A beta) fragment, two unknown peptides. We raised antibodies against synthetic peptides using subsequences of these peptides. These antibodies immunostained amyloid in neuritic and diffuse plaques as well as vascular amyloid. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that the immunostaining was localized on amyloid fibrils. We have isolated an apparently full-length cDNA encoding a 140-amino-acid protein within which two previously unreported amyloid sequences are encoded in tandem in the most hydrophobic domain. We tentatively named this 35-amino acid peptide NAC (non-A beta component of AD amyloid) and its precursor NACP. NAC is the second component, after A beta, identified chemically in the purified AD amyloid preparation. Secondary structure predictions indicate that the NAC peptide sequence has a strong tendency to form beta-structures consistent with its association with amyloid. NACP is detected as a M(r) 19,000 protein in the cytosolic fraction of brain homogenates and comigrates on immunoblots with NACP synthesized in Escherichia coli from NACP cDNA. NACP mRNA is expressed principally in brain but is also expressed in low concentrations in all tissues examined except in liver, suggesting its ubiquitous and brain-specific functions. The availability of the cDNA encoding full-length NACP should help to elucidate the mechanisms of amyloidosis in AD. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8248242

  15. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human liver arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Y.; Takiguchi, M.; Amaya, Y.; Kawamoto, S.; Matsuda, I.; Mori, M.

    1987-01-01

    Arginase (EC3.5.3.1) catalyzes the last step of the urea cycle in the liver of ureotelic animals. Inherited deficiency of the enzyme results in argininemia, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperammonemia. To facilitate investigation of the enzyme and gene structures and to elucidate the nature of the mutation in argininemia, the authors isolated cDNA clones for human liver arginase. Oligo(dT)-primed and random primer human liver cDNA libraries in lambda gt11 were screened using isolated rat arginase cDNA as a probe. Two of the positive clones, designated lambda hARG6 and lambda hARG109, contained an overlapping cDNA sequence with an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 322 amino acid residues (predicted M/sub r/, 34,732), a 5'-untranslated sequence of 56 base pairs, a 3'-untranslated sequence of 423 base pairs, and a poly(A) segment. Arginase activity was detected in Escherichia coli cells transformed with the plasmid carrying lambda hARG6 cDNA insert. RNA gel blot analysis of human liver RNA showed a single mRNA of 1.6 kilobases. The predicted amino acid sequence of human liver arginase is 87% and 41% identical with those of the rat liver and yeast enzymes, respectively. There are several highly conserved segments among the human, rat, and yeast enzymes.

  16. Molecular cloning, functional expression and chromosomal localization of a cDNA encoding a human Na+/nucleoside cotransporter (hCNT2) selective for purine nucleosides and uridine.

    PubMed

    Ritzel, M W; Yao, S Y; Ng, A M; Mackey, J R; Cass, C E; Young, J D

    1998-01-01

    Two Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters implicated in adenosine and uridine transport in mammalian cells are distinguished functionally on the basis of substrate specificity: CNT1 is selective for pyrimidine nucleosides but also transports adenosine; CNT2 (also termed SPNT) is selective for purine nucleosides but also transports uridine. Both proteins belong to a gene family that includes the NupC proton/nucleoside symporter of E. coli. cDNAs encoding members of the CNT family have been isolated from rat tissues (jejunum, brain, liver; rCNT1 and rCNT2/SPNT) and, most recently, human kidney (hCNT1 and hSPNT1). Here, the molecular cloning and functional characterization of a CNT2/SPNT-type transporter from human small intestine are described. The encoded 658-residue protein (hCNT2 in the nomenclature) had the same predicted amino acid sequence as human kidney hSPNT1, except for a polymorphism at residue 75 (Arg substituted by Ser), and was 83 and 72% identical to rCNT2 and hCNT1, respectively. Sequence differences between hCNT2 and rCNT2 were greatest at the N-terminus. In Xenopus oocytes, recombinant hCNT2 exhibited the functional characteristics of a Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporter with selectivity for adenosine, other purine nucleosides and uridine (adenosine and uridine K(m) app values 8 and 40 microM, respectively). hCNT2 transcripts were found in kidney and small intestine but, unlike rCNT2, were not detected in liver. Deoxyadenosine, which undergoes net renal secretion in humans, was less readily transported than adenosine. hCNT2 also mediated small, but significant, fluxes of the antiviral purine nucleoside analogue 2',3'-dideoxyinosine. hCNT2 is, therefore potentially involved in both the intestinal absorption and renal handling of purine nucleosides (including adenosine), uridine and purine nucleoside drugs. The gene encoding hCNT2 was mapped to chromosome 15q15. PMID:10087507

  17. Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding a bovine adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid 21-hydroxylation.

    PubMed Central

    White, P C; New, M I; Dupont, B

    1984-01-01

    We isolated a cDNA clone encoding a bovine adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid 21-hydroxylation (P-450C21). Serum from rabbits immunized with purified P-450C21 precipitated a single protein from the products of an in vitro translation reaction using bovine adrenal mRNA. This protein migrated with P-450C21 on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After sucrose gradient sedimentation, mRNA encoding P-450C21 was found in the 19S fraction. This fraction was reverse transcribed into double-stranded cDNA and inserted into the Pst I site of pBR322 by the dC X dG tailing procedure. Escherichia coli cells transformed with recombinant plasmids were screened with an in situ immunoassay using anti-P-450C21 serum and 125I-labeled staphylococcal protein A. Two colonies consistently bound anti-P-450C21 serum. They were identified as carrying the same plasmid by restriction mapping. This plasmid, pC21a, contains an insert of 520 base pairs. It hybridizes with mRNA encoding P-450C21. The peptide encoded by the insert in pC21a is highly homologous to two peptides isolated from porcine P-450C21 and shows limited homology to the P-450 induced by phenobarbital in rat liver. This clone may be useful in studying the molecular genetics of human congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Images PMID:6609358

  18. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hev ein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  19. Nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding the precursor of the beta subunit of rat lutropin.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, W W; Godine, J E; Klein, D R; Chang, A S; Tan, L K; Habener, J F

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequences of cDNAs encoding the precursor of the beta subunit of rat lutropin, a polypeptide hormone that regulates gonadal function, including the development of gametes and the production of steroid sex hormones. The cDNAs were prepared from poly(A)+ RNA derived from the pituitary glands of rats 4 weeks after ovariectomy and were cloned in bacterial plasmids. Bacterial colonies containing transfected plasmids were screened by hybridization with a 32P-labeled cDNA encoding the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin, a protein that is related in structure to lutropin. Several recombinant plasmids were detected that by nucleotide sequence analyses contained coding sequences for the precursor of the beta subunit of lutropin. Complete determination of the nucleotide sequences of these cDNAs, as well as of cDNA reverse-transcribed from pituitary poly(A)+ RNA by using a synthetic pentadecanucleotide as a primer of RNA, provided the entire 141-codon sequence of the precursor of the beta subunit of rat lutropin. The precursor consists of a 20 amino acid leader (signal) peptide and an apoprotein of 121 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of the rat lutropin beta subunit shows similarity to the beta subunits of the ovine/bovine, porcine, and human lutropins (81, 86, and 74% of amino acids identical, respectively). Blot hybridization of pituitary RNAs separated by electrophoresis on agarose gels showed that the mRNA encoding the lutropin beta subunit consists of approximately 700 bases. The availability of cDNAs for both the alpha and beta subunits of lutropin will facilitate studies of the regulation of lutropin expression. Images PMID:6192440

  20. Isolation and analysis of a cDNA clone encoding an S. guttatum alternataive oxidase protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, D.M.; McIntosh, L. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing )

    1990-05-01

    Antibodies that recognize the 35, 36, and 37 kilodalton (kDa) alternative oxidase proteins were used to isolate a cDNA proteins were used to isolate a cDNA clone of a nuclearly encoded protein of Sauromatum guttatum. The amino acid sequence deduced from clone pAOSG81 revealed a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 44 kDa, while a 42 kDa protein is immunoprecipitated from in vitro translation products made using S. guttatum poly A+ RNA. The protein contains a 60-65 amino acid transit peptide which is predicted to form amphiphilic helices. We have also identified regions of the mature 42 kDa protein which are likely to be membrane associated. Clone pAOSG81 is being used to screen a genomic library. The genomic clone encoding the 42 kDa protein will be used to investigate the salicylic-acid-controlled transcriptional regulation of the S. guttatum alternative oxidase proteins.

  1. Characterization of long cDNA clones from human adult spleen. II. The complete sequences of 81 cDNA clones.

    PubMed

    Jikuya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Jun; Kikuno, Reiko; Hirosawa, Makoto; Nagase, Takahiro; Nomura, Nobuo; Ohara, Osamu

    2003-02-28

    To accumulate information on the coding sequences (CDSs) of unidentified genes, we have conducted a sequencing project of human long cDNA clones. Both the end sequences of approximately 10,000 cDNA clones from two size-fractionated human spleen cDNA libraries (average sizes of 4.5 kb and 5.6 kb) were determined by single-pass sequencing to select cDNAs with unidentified sequences. We herein present the entire sequences of 81 cDNA clones, most of which were selected by two approaches based on their protein-coding potentialities in silico: Fifty-eight cDNA clones were selected as those having protein-coding potentialities at the 5'-end of single-pass sequences by applying the GeneMark analysis; and 20 cDNA clones were selected as those expected to encode proteins larger than 100 amino acid residues by analysis of the human genome sequences flanked by both the end sequences of cDNAs using the GENSCAN gene prediction program. In addition to these newly identified cDNAs, three cDNA clones were isolated by colony hybridization experiments using probes corresponding to known gene sequences since these cDNAs are likely to contain considerable amounts of new information regarding the genes already annotated. The sequence data indicated that the average sizes of the inserts and corresponding CDSs of cDNA clones analyzed here were 5.0 kb and 2.0 kb (670 amino acid residues), respectively. From the results of homology and motif searches against the public databases, functional categories of the 29 predicted gene products could be assigned; 86% of these predicted gene products (25 gene products) were classified into proteins relating to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. PMID:12693554

  2. cDNA cloning of human plasminogen activator-inhibitor from endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, D; Zeheb, R; Yang, A Y; Rafferty, U M; Andreasen, P A; Nielsen, L; Dano, K; Lebo, R V; Gelehrter, T D

    1986-01-01

    Full-length cDNA for plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) was isolated from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) lambda gt11 cDNA library. Three overlapping clones were identified by immunologic screening of 10(6) recombinant phage using a rabbit anti-human fibrosarcoma PAI-1 antiserum. The fusion proteins encoded by these three clones also react strongly with a monoclonal mouse anti-human fibrosarcoma PAI-1 antibody. By nucleotide sequence analysis, PAI-1 cDNA encodes a protein containing 402 amino acids with a predicted, nonglycosylated molecular mass of 45 kD. Identity of this material as authentic PAI-1 was confirmed by the presence of high level homology with the primary amino acid sequence of an internal peptide prepared from purified rat hepatoma PAI-1. The predicted amino acid sequence also reveals extensive homology with other members of the serine protease inhibitor gene family. Cultured HUVECs contain two PAI-1 mRNA species, both encoded by a single gene, differing by 1 kb in the 3' untranslated region. The PAI-1 gene is located on human chromosome 7. Images PMID:3097076

  3. Molecular analysis of two cDNA clones encoding acidic class I chitinase in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S; Kriz, A L; Widholm, J M

    1994-01-01

    The cloning and analysis of two different cDNA clones encoding putative maize (Zea mays L.) chitinases obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cDNA library screening is described. The cDNA library was made from poly(A)+ RNA from leaves challenged with mercuric chloride for 2 d. The two clones, pCh2 and pCh11, appear to encode class I chitinase isoforms with cysteine-rich domains (not found in pCh11 due to the incomplete sequence) and proline-/glycine-rich or proline-rich hinge domains, respectively. The pCh11 clone resembles a previously reported maize seed chitinase; however, the deduced proteins were found to have acidic isoelectric points. Analysis of all monocot chitinase sequences available to date shows that not all class I chitinases possess the basic isoelectric points usually found in dicotyledonous plants and that monocot class II chitinases do not necessarily exhibit acidic isoelectric points. Based on sequence analysis, the pCh2 protein is apparently synthesized as a precursor polypeptide with a signal peptide. Although these two clones belong to class I chitinases, they share only about 70% amino acid homology in the catalytic domain region. Southern blot analysis showed that pCh2 may be encoded by a small gene family, whereas pCh11 was single copy. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that these genes are differentially regulated by mercuric chloride treatment. Mercuric chloride treatment caused rapid induction of pCh2 from 6 to 48 h, whereas pCh11 responded only slightly to the same treatment. During seed germination, embryos constitutively expressed both chitinase genes and the phytohormone abscisic acid had no effect on the expression. The fungus Aspergillus flavus was able to induce both genes to comparable levels in aleurone layers and embryos but not in endosperm tissue. Maize callus growth on the same plate with A. flavus for 1 week showed induction of the transcripts corresponding to pCh2 but not to pCh11. These studies indicate that

  4. A Potato cDNA Encoding a Homologue of Mammalian Multidrug Resistant P-Glycoprotein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.; Takezawa, D.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    A homologue of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene was obtained while screening a potato stolon tip cDNA expression library with S-15-labeled calmodulin. The mammalian MDR gene codes for a membrane-bound P-glycoprotein (170-180 kDa) which imparts multidrug resistance to cancerous cells. The potato cDNA (PMDR1) codes for a polypeptide of 1313 amino acid residues (ca. 144 kDa) and its structural features are very similar to the MDR P-glycoprotein. The N-terminal half of the PMDR1-encoded protein shares striking homology with its C-terminal half, and each half contains a conserved ATP-binding site and six putative transmembrane domains. Southern blot analysis indicated that potato has one or two MDR-like genes. PMDR1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in all organs studied with higher expression in the stem and stolon tip. The PMDR1 expression was highest during tuber initiation and decreased during tuber development.

  5. Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a novel platelet-endothelial cell tetra-span antigen, PETA-3.

    PubMed

    Fitter, S; Tetaz, T J; Berndt, M C; Ashman, L K

    1995-08-15

    Platelet-endothelial cell tetra-span antigen (PETA-3) was originally identified as a novel human platelet surface glycoprotein, gp27, which was detected by a monoclonal antibody (MoAb), 14A2.H1. Although this glycoprotein is present in low abundance on the platelet surface, MoAb 14A2.H1 stimulates platelet aggregation and mediator release. We now report isolation of a cDNA clone encoding PETA-3 from a library derived from the megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line MO7e. The clone encodes an open reading frame of 253 amino acids that displays 25% to 30% amino acid sequence identity with several members of the newly defined Tetraspan, or Transmembrane 4 superfamily. These proteins consist of four conserved putative transmembrane domains with a large divergent extracellular loop between the third and fourth membrane-spanning regions. PETA-3 has a single consensus sequence for N-linked glycosylation located in this extracellular loop. A single PETA-3 RNA transcript (1.6 kb) was detected in RNA isolated from MO7e cells, bone marrow stromal cells, the C11 endothelial cell line, and several myeloid leukemia cell lines. No transcript was detected in the lymphoblastoid cell lines MOLT-4 and BALM-1. This pattern correlates well with previous protein expression data. Northern blot analysis of RNA from a range of human tissues indicated that the transcript was present in most tissues, the notable exception being brain. PMID:7632941

  6. Suppression of the chemically transformed phenotype of BHK cells by a human cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, M.V.; MacArthur, L.; Okayama, Hiroto )

    1991-10-01

    Transformation of baby hamster kidney cell line BHK SN-10 by chemical carcinogens such as nitrosylmethylurea (NMU) is mediated by the loss of a gene product critical for the suppression of malignant transformation. Somatic cell hybrids between chemically transformed BHK SN-10 cells and either normal hamster kidney or human fibroblast cells are nontransformed; therefore, a recessive mechanism underlies the malignant transformation of BHK SN-10 cells after chemical carcinogenesis. A human fibroblast cDNA library was constructed and introduced into NMU-transformed BHK SN-10 cells (NMU 34m) in order to identify a human cDNA capable of suppressing cellular transformation. NMU-transformed BHK cells were analyzed for reversion to an anchorage-dependent stable reversion of NMU 34m cells encodes the intermediate filament protein vimentin, which is apparently required for maintenance of the normal phenotype in BHK SN-10 cells.

  7. Serine protease variants encoded by Echis ocellatus venom gland cDNA: cloning and sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Hasson, S S; Mothana, R A; Sallam, T A; Al-balushi, M S; Rahman, M T; Al-Jabri, A A

    2010-01-01

    Envenoming by Echis saw-scaled viper is the leading cause of death and morbidity in Africa due to snake bite. Despite its medical importance, there have been few investigations into the toxin composition of the venom of this viper. Here, we report the cloning of cDNA sequences encoding four groups or isoforms of the haemostasis-disruptive Serine protease proteins (SPs) from the venom glands of Echis ocellatus. All these SP sequences encoded the cysteine residues scaffold that form the 6-disulphide bonds responsible for the characteristic tertiary structure of venom serine proteases. All the Echis ocellatus EoSP groups showed varying degrees of sequence similarity to published viper venom SPs. However, these groups also showed marked intercluster sequence conservation across them which were significantly different from that of previously published viper SPs. Because viper venom SPs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity and yet exert profoundly different effects on the mammalian haemostatic system, no attempt was made to assign functionality to the new Echis ocellatus EoSPs on the basis of sequence alone. The extraordinary level of interspecific and intergeneric sequence conservation exhibited by the Echis ocellatus EoSPs and analogous serine proteases from other viper species leads us to speculate that antibodies to representative molecules should neutralise (that we will exploit, by epidermal DNA immunization) the biological function of this important group of venom toxins in vipers that are distributed throughout Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. PMID:20936075

  8. Brain cDNA clone for human cholinesterase.

    PubMed Central

    McTiernan, C; Adkins, S; Chatonnet, A; Vaughan, T A; Bartels, C F; Kott, M; Rosenberry, T L; La Du, B N; Lockridge, O

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA library from human basal ganglia was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to portions of the amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8). Five overlapping clones, representing 2.4 kilobases, were isolated. The sequenced cDNA contained 207 base pairs of coding sequence 5' to the amino terminus of the mature protein in which there were four ATG translation start sites in the same reading frame as the protein. Only the ATG coding for Met-(-28) lay within a favorable consensus sequence for functional initiators. There were 1722 base pairs of coding sequence corresponding to the protein found circulating in human serum. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA exactly matched the 574 amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase, as previously determined by Edman degradation. Therefore, our clones represented cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) rather than acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7). It was concluded that the amino acid sequences of cholinesterase from two different tissues, human brain and human serum, were identical. Hybridization of genomic DNA blots suggested that a single gene, or very few genes, coded for cholinesterase. Images PMID:3477799

  9. Human kidney amiloride-binding protein: cDNA structure and functional expression

    SciTech Connect

    Barbry, P.; Chassande, O.; Champigny, G.; Lingueglia, E.; Frelin, C.; Lazdunski, M. ); Champe, M.; Munemitsu, S.; Ullrich, A. ); Maes, P.; Tartar, A. Institut Pasteur de Lille )

    1990-10-01

    Phenamil, an analog of amiloride, is a potent blocker of the epithelial Na{sup plus} channel. It has been used to purify the porcine kidney amiloride-binding protein. Synthetic oligonucleotides derived from partial sequences have been used to screen a human kidney cDNA library and to isolate the cDNA encoding the human amiloride-binding protein. The primary structure was deduced from the DNA sequence analysis. The protein is 713 residues long, with a 19-amino acid signal peptide. The mRNA was expressed in 293-S and NIH 3T3 cells, yielding a glycoprotein (i) that binds amiloride and amiloride analogs with affinities similar to the amiloride receptor associated with the apical Na{sup plus} channel in pig kidney membranes and (ii) that is immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies raised against pig kidney amiloride-binding protein.

  10. Cloning of the cDNA and gene for a human D sub 2 dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.K.; Makam, H.; Stofko, R.E.; Bunzow, J.R.; Civelli, O. ); Marchionni, M.A.; Alfano, M.; Frothingham, L.; Fischer, J.B.; Burke-Howie, K.J.; Server, A.C. )

    1989-12-01

    A clone encoding a human D{sub 2} dopamine receptor was isolated from a pituitary cDNA library and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence is 96% identical with that of the cloned rat receptor with one major difference: the human receptor contains an additional 29 amino acids in its putative third cytoplasmic loop. Southern blotting demonstrated the presence of only one human D{sub 2} receptor gene. Two overlapping phage containing the gene were isolated and characterized. DNA sequence analysis of these clones showed that the coding sequence is interrupted by six introns and that the additional amino acids present in the human pituitary receptor are encoded by a single exon of 87 base pairs. The involvement of this sequence in alternative splicing and its biological significance are discussed.

  11. Isolation of cDNA from Jacaratia mexicana encoding a mexicain-like cysteine protease gene.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Martínez, Erick M; Herrera-Ramírez, Alejandra C; Badillo-Corona, Jesús Agustín; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; González-Rábade, Nuria; Oliver-Salvador, María Del Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Cysteine proteases (CPs) from the C1 family, which are similar to papain, can be found in animals and plants, as well as some viruses and prokaryotes. These enzymes have diverse physiological functions and are thus very attractive for science and industry. Jacaratia mexicana, a member of the Caricaceae plant family, contains several CPs, the principal being mexicain, found to favorably compete against papain for many industrial applications due to its high stability and specific activity. In this study, leaves of J. mexicana were used to isolate a CP-coding gene, similar to those that code for mexicain and chymomexicain. By using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) as well as oligonucleotide design from papain-like conserved amino acids (aa), a sequence of 1404 bp consisting of a 5' terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 153 bp, a 3' terminal UTR of 131 bp, with a polyadenylation (poly(A)) signal sequence and a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1046 bp, was obtained by overlapping three partial sequences. Two full-length cDNA sequences that encode for mexicain-like proteases were cloned from mRNA (JmCP4 and JmCP5). JmCP4 is predicted to have an ORF of 1044 bp, which codifies for polypeptides that have a 26 aa signal peptide region, a 108 aa propeptide region and a mature enzyme of 214 aa. A 969 bp fragment (JmCP5) encodes for a partial sequence of a CP gene, without the signal peptide region but with a full-length propeptide region. The sequence analysis showed that this protease presented a high similarity to other plant CPs from J. mexicana, Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, Vasconcellea stipulata, and Carica papaya, among others, mainly at the conserved catalytic site. Obtaining the sequence of this CP gene from J. mexicana provides an alternative for production in a standard system and could be an initial step towards the commercialization of this enzyme. PMID:22543019

  12. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, J L; Ross, D; McPherson, J; Williams, H; Kurnit, D; Nussbaum, A L; Karathanasis, S K; Zannis, V I

    1982-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Twenty putative apo A-I cDNA clones were selected by screening 10,000 clones of an adult human liver cDNA library with an oligonucleotide probe. The probe was a mixture of synthetic 14-base-long DNA oligomers constructed to correspond to the codons for apo A-I amino acids 105-109. Four of these clones were examined further and showed 600- to 800-base-pair (bp) inserts. Preliminary restriction mapping and partial DNA sequence analysis indicated that the shorter inserts were a subset of the longer DNA inserts. DNA sequence analysis of the clone with an insert of approximately equal to 600 bp, designated pAI-113, revealed that it contained a DNA sequence corresponding to apo A-I amino acids 94-243. The DNA base sequence of this clone also contained a standard termination codon, polyadenylylation signal, and poly(A) tail. Partial DNA sequence of a second clone that contained an 800-bp insert, designated pAI-107, showed that it corresponded to apo A-I amino acids 18-243 and also included the 3' untranslated region. Isolation of these cDNA clones will facilitate molecular analyses of apolipoproteins in normal and disease states. PMID:6294659

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the cerebrovascular and the neuritic plaque amyloid peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Robakis, N.K.; Ramakrishna, N.; Wolfe, G.; Wisniewski, H.M.

    1987-06-01

    Deposits of amyloid fibers are found in large numbers in the walls of blood vessels and in neuritic plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease and adults with Down syndrome. The authors used the amino acid sequence of the amyloid peptide to synthesize oligonucleotide probes specific for the gene encoding this peptide. When a human brain cDNA library was screened with this probe, a clone was found with a 1.7-kilobase insert that contains a long open reading frame coding for 412 amino acid residues including the 28 amino acids of the amyloid peptide. RNA gel blots revealed that a 3.3-kilobase mRNA species was present in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease, with Down syndrome, or with not apparent neurological disorders. Southern blots showed that homologous genes are present in the genomic DNA of humans, rabbits, sheep, hamsters, and mice, suggesting that this gene has been conserved through mammalian evolution. Localization of the corresponding genomic sequences on human chromosome 21 suggest a genetic relationship between Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome, and it may explain the early appearance of large numbers of neuritic plaques in adult Down syndrome patients.

  14. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of cDNA Encoding a Putative Stress-Induced Heat-Shock Protein from Camelus dromedarius

    PubMed Central

    Elrobh, Mohamed S.; Alanazi, Mohammad S.; Khan, Wajahatullah; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Bazzi, Mohammad D.

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock proteins are ubiquitous, induced under a number of environmental and metabolic stresses, with highly conserved DNA sequences among mammalian species. Camelus dromedaries (the Arabian camel) domesticated under semi-desert environments, is well adapted to tolerate and survive against severe drought and high temperatures for extended periods. This is the first report of molecular cloning and characterization of full length cDNA of encoding a putative stress-induced heat shock HSPA6 protein (also called HSP70B′) from Arabian camel. A full-length cDNA (2417 bp) was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and cloned in pET-b expression vector. The sequence analysis of HSPA6 gene showed 1932 bp-long open reading frame encoding 643 amino acids. The complete cDNA sequence of the Arabian camel HSPA6 gene was submitted to NCBI GeneBank (accession number HQ214118.1). The BLAST analysis indicated that C. dromedaries HSPA6 gene nucleotides shared high similarity (77–91%) with heat shock gene nucleotide of other mammals. The deduced 643 amino acid sequences (accession number ADO12067.1) showed that the predicted protein has an estimated molecular weight of 70.5 kDa with a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.0. The comparative analyses of camel HSPA6 protein sequences with other mammalian heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed high identity (80–94%). Predicted camel HSPA6 protein structure using Protein 3D structural analysis high similarities with human and mouse HSPs. Taken together, this study indicates that the cDNA sequences of HSPA6 gene and its amino acid and protein structure from the Arabian camel are highly conserved and have similarities with other mammalian species. PMID:21845074

  15. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte. beta. -spectrin

    SciTech Connect

    Prchal, J.T.; Morley, B.J.; Yoon, S.H.; Coetzer, T.L.; Palek, J.; Conboy, J.G.; Kan, Y.W.

    1987-11-01

    Spectrin is an important structural component of the membrane skeleton that underlies and supports the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It is composed of nonidentical ..cap alpha.. (M/sub r/ 240,000) and ..beta.. (M/sub r/ 220,000) subunits, each of which contains multiple homologous 106-amino acid segments. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of a human erythroid-specific ..beta..-spectrin cDNA clone that encodes parts of the ..beta..-9 through ..beta..-12 repeat segments. This cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to assign the ..beta..-spectrin gene to human chromosome 14 and to begin molecular analysis of the gene and its mRNA transcripts. RNA transfer blot analysis showed that the reticulocyte ..beta..-spectrin mRNA is 7.8 kilobases in length. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) within the ..beta..-spectrin gene locus. The isolation of human spectrin cDNA probes and the identification of closely linked RFLPs will facilitate analysis of mutant spectrin genes causing congenital hemolytic anemias associated with quantitative and qualitative spectrin abnormalities.

  16. Complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human factor V

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny, R.J.; Pittman, D.D.; Toole, J.J.; Kriz, R.W.; Aldape, R.A.; Hewick, R.M.; Kaufman, R.J.; Mann, K.G.

    1987-07-01

    cDNA clones encoding human factor V have been isolated from an oligo(dT)-primed human fetal liver cDNA library prepared with vector Charon 21A. The cDNA sequence of factor V from three overlapping clones includes a 6672-base-pair (bp) coding region, a 90-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 163-bp 3' untranslated region within which is a poly(A)tail. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 2224 amino acids inclusive of a 28-amino acid leader peptide. Direct comparison with human factor VIII reveals considerable homology between proteins in amino acid sequence and domain structure: a triplicated A domain and duplicated C domain show approx. 40% identity with the corresponding domains in factor VIII. As in factor VIII, the A domains of factor V share approx. 40% amino acid-sequence homology with the three highly conserved domains in ceruloplasmin. The B domain of factor V contains 35 tandem and approx. 9 additional semiconserved repeats of nine amino acids of the form Asp-Leu-Ser-Gln-Thr-Thr/Asn-Leu-Ser-Pro and 2 additional semiconserved repeats of 17 amino acids. Factor V contains 37 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, 25 of which are in the B domain, and a total of 19 cysteine residues.

  17. Characterization of cDNA clones for the human c-yes gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, J; Semba, K; Yamanashi, Y; Nishizawa, M; Miyajima, N; Yamamoto, T; Toyoshima, K

    1987-01-01

    Three c-yes cDNA clones were obtained from poly(A)+ RNA of human embryo fibroblasts. Sequence analysis of the clones showed that they contained inserts corresponding to nearly full-length human c-yes mRNA, which could encode a polypeptide of 543 amino acids with a relative molecular weight (Mr) of 60,801. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein has no apparent membrane-spanning region or suspected ligand binding domain and closely resembles pp60c-src. Comparison of the sequences of c-yes and v-yes revealed that the v-yes gene contains most of the c-yes coding sequence except the region encoding its extreme carboxyl terminus. The region missing from the v-yes protein is the part that is highly conserved in cellular gene products of the protein-tyrosine kinase family. PMID:2436037

  18. Cloning and sequence analysis of an Ophiophagus hannah cDNA encoding a precursor of two natriuretic peptide domains.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Jiang, Ping; He, Yingying; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2011-04-01

    The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake. Despite the components are mainly neurotoxins, the venom contains several proteins affecting blood system. Natriuretic peptide (NP), one of the important components of snake venoms, could cause local vasodilatation and a promoted capillary permeability facilitating a rapid diffusion of other toxins into the prey tissues. Due to the low abundance, it is hard to purify the snake venom NPs. The cDNA cloning of the NPs become a useful approach. In this study, a 957 bp natriuretic peptide-encoding cDNA clone was isolated from an O. hannah venom gland cDNA library. The open-reading frame of the cDNA encodes a 210-amino acid residues precursor protein named Oh-NP. Oh-NP has a typical signal peptide sequence of 26 amino acid residues. Surprisingly, Oh-NP has two typical NP domains which consist of the typical sequence of 17-residue loop of CFGXXDRIGC, so it is an unusual NP precursor. These two NP domains share high amino acid sequence identity. In addition, there are two homologous peptides of unknown function within the Oh-NP precursor. To our knowledge, Oh-NP is the first protein precursor containing two NP domains. It might belong to another subclass of snake venom NPs. PMID:21334357

  19. Characterisation and expression of a cDNA encoding the 80-kDa large subunit of Schistosoma japonicum calpain.

    PubMed

    Scott, J C; McManus, D P

    2000-01-01

    We describe the cloning of a full length calpain-encoding cDNA constructed from two truncated cDNAs isolated from a cDNA library prepared with mRNA isolated from adult worms of the Philippine strain of Schistosoma japonicum. The cDNA sequence is 2.456 kb in length and predicts a protein of 758 residues with a molecular mass of 86.61 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.34. Probes spanning the entire calpain cDNA hybridised to multiple bands in genomic DNAs of Philippine (SjP) and Chinese (SjC) S. japonicum, with some restriction fragment length polymorphisms evident between the two strains. Northern hybridisation analysis indicated that the cDNA codes for a single RNA transcript between 2.6 and 3.6 kb in size in the SjP and SjC genomes. After subcloning in the QIA express vectors pQE-31 and pQE-40 and subsequent expression, the recombinant protein was purified and shown to bind calcium. The availability of recombinant S. japonicum calpain will allow its future evaluation as a vaccine candidate, especially in light of recent work with the S. mansoni homologue which has provided evidence that this protein may be a target of protective immunity. PMID:11227760

  20. Identification of a proglucagon cDNA from Rana tigrina rugulosa that encodes two GLP-1s and that is alternatively spliced in a tissue-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C M; Chow, B K

    2001-11-01

    Glucagon plays a pivotal role in the regulation of metabolism. A glucagon receptor has been previously characterized in the frog, Rana tigrina rugulosa, and the frog and human glucagon receptors have been shown to possess similar binding affinities toward human glucagon. To study the structural evolution of glucagon peptide and its receptor in vertebrates, in the current study, a proglucagon cDNA from the same frog species was cloned. Interestingly, in contrast to the mammalian proglucagons that contain only one GLP-1 peptide, the frog proglucagon cDNA encodes two GLP-1 peptides (GLP-1A and GLP-1B) in addition to a glucagon peptide and a glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). By reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis, the proglucagon gene expression was widely detected in the brain, colon, small intestine, liver, lung, and pancreas, suggesting that the proglucagon-derived peptides have diverse functions in frogs. Moreover, tissue-specific alternative mRNA splicing was observed in the brain, colon, and pancreas. In these tissues, proglucagon transcripts with a 135 bp in frame deletion encoding GLP-1A were found. This splicing event in R. tigrina rugulosa is novel because it deletes a GLP-1 encoding sequence instead of the GLP-2 observed in other vertebrates. These findings should enhance understanding of the proglucagon evolution, structure, and expression in vertebrates. PMID:11703080

  1. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA encoding a core protein of the paired helical filament of Alzheimer's disease: Identification as the microtubule-associated protein tau

    SciTech Connect

    Goedert, M.; Wischik, C.M.; Crowther, R.A.; Walker, J.E.; Klug, A. )

    1988-06-01

    Screening of cDNA libraries prepared from the frontal cortex of an Alzheimer's disease patient and from fetal human brain has led to isolation of the cDNA for a core protein of the paired helical filament of Alzheimer's disease. The partial amino acid sequence of this core protein was used to design synthetic oligonucleotide probes. The cDNA encodes a protein of 352 amino acids that contains a characteristic amino acid repeat in its carboxyl-terminal half. This protein is highly homologous to the sequence of the mouse microtubule-associated protein tau and thus constitutes the human equivalent of mouse tau. RNA blot analysis indicates the presence of two major transcripts, 6 and 2 kilobases long, with a wide distribution in normal human brain. Tau protein mRNAs were found in normal amounts in the frontal cortex from patients with Alzheimer's disease. The proof that at least part of tau protein forms a component of the paired helical filament core opens the way to understanding the mode of formation of paired helical filaments and thus, ultimately, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Isolation of a cDNA for HSF 2: Evidence for two heat shock factor genes in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, T.J.; Gallo, G.J.; Sheldon, L.; Kingston, R.E. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Tempst, P. )

    1991-08-15

    The heat shock response is transcriptionally regulated by an evolutionarily conserved protein termed heat shock factor (HSF). The authors report the purification to homogeneity and the partial peptide sequence of HSF from HeLa cells. The peptide sequence was used to isolate a human cDNA with a predicted open reading frame that has homology to the DNA binding domains of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila HSFs. The cDNA directs the synthesis of a protein that binds to the heat shock element with specificity identical to HeLa HSF and stimulates transcription from a heat shock promoter. The expressed protein cross-reacts with anti-HSF antibodies. Surprisingly, however, this cDNA does not encode all of the peptides obtained from purified HeLa HSF. These peptides are encoded by a distinct human cDNA. HSF1. It therefore appears that there is a human heat shock factor gene family and that at least two separate but related HSF proteins regulate the stress response in humans.

  3. Human TOP3: a single-copy gene encoding DNA topoisomerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, R; Caron, P R; Wang, J C

    1996-01-01

    A human cDNA encoding a protein homologous to the Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I subfamily of enzymes has been identified through cloning and sequencing. Expressing the cloned human cDNA in yeast (delta)top1 cells lacking endogenous DNA topoisomerase I yielded an activity in cell extracts that specifically reduces the number of supercoils in a highly negatively supercoiled DNA. On the basis of these results, the human gene containing the cDNA sequence has been denoted TOP3, and the protein it encodes has been denoted DNA topoisomerase III. Screening of a panel of human-rodent somatic hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization of cloned TOP3 genomic DNA to metaphase chromosomes indicate that human TOP3 is a single-copy gene located at chromosome 17p11.2-12. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8622991

  4. A mesocarp-and species-specific cDNA clone from oil palm encodes for sesquiterpene synthase.

    PubMed

    Shah; Cha

    2000-05-29

    The differential display method was used to isolate cDNAs corresponding to transcripts that accumulate during the period of lipid synthesis, 12-20 weeks after anthesis (WAA) in the mesocarp of two oil palms, Elaeis oleifera and Elaeis guineensis, Tenera. DNA-free total RNA from mesocarp and kernel of E. guineensis, Tenera and E. oleifera (15 WAA) were used to obtain differential gene expression patterns between these tissues from the two species. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of a specific cDNA clone, MO1 (434 bp) which was shown to be mesocarp-specific as well as species-specific for E. oleifera Sequencing of this fragment showed homology to the enzyme sesquiterpene synthase. Its longer cDNA clone, pMO1 (1072 bp), isolated from a 15-week E. oleifera mesocarp cDNA library confirmed that it encodes for sesquiterpene synthase. The complete sequence of 1976 bp was obtained using 5'RACE method. Northern hybridization showed that MO1 and pMO1 mRNA transcripts are highly expressed only in the mesocarp of E. oleifera from 5 to 20 WAA. No expression was detected in the kernel (12-17 WAA) and vegetative tissues of both species nor in the mesocarp of E. guineensis. This is the first communication to document on the isolation and characterisation of a mesocarp-and species-specific cDNA clone from oil palm. PMID:10729614

  5. Homology probing: identification of cDNA clones encoding members of the protein-serine kinase family

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Mixed /sup 32/P-labeled oligonucleotide probes were used to screen a HeLa cDNA library for clones encoding amino acid contiguities whose conservation is characteristic of the protein-serine kinase family. Eighty thousand clones were screened, from which 19 were identified as showing strong hybridization to two distinct probes. Four clones were chosen for characterization by partial DNA sequence analysis and 3 of these were found to encode amino acid sequences typical of protein-serine kinases. One deduced amino acid sequence shares 72% identify with rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase ..gamma..-subunit, while another is closely related to the yeast protein-serine kinases CDC2 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and CDC28 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This screening approach should have applications in the identification of clones encoding previously unknown or poorly characterized members of other protein families.

  6. Characterization of the shrimp eyestalk cDNA encoding a novel fushi tarazu-factor 1 (FTZ-F1).

    PubMed

    Chan, S M; Chan, K M

    1999-07-01

    To study the role of ecdysone and the ecdysone inducible gene in the regulation of molting and development in crustaceans, we have cloned a cDNA encoding an orphan nuclear receptor family member from the eyestalk of the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis. The size of the cDNA is 4.3 kb with the longest open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 545 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the shrimp cDNA consists of regions that are characteristic of those of the nuclear hormone receptors. It shows a high degree of amino acid sequence identity in the DNA binding domain, ligand binding domain and the FTZ box as compared to those of invertebrates and vertebrates. Unlike the insects Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori, an AF2 transactivation domain was present in the shrimp FTZ-F1. Northern blot analysis using total RNA indicated that the FTZ-F1 mRNA could also be detected in the mature ovary. Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR analysis showed that the shrimp FTZ-F1 transcripts could be detected in the ovary, newly hatched nauplius, testis, eyestalk and epidermis of the adult shrimp. Although the cDNA clone was isolated from the eyestalk library, the shrimp FTZ-F1 appeared to express most abundantly in the mature oocytes. The presence of abundant FTZ-F1 specific maternal message in the late vitellogenic ovary and early nauplius indicates that it may be important for the early embryonic and larval development of the shrimp. Interestingly, shrimp FTZ-F1 can also be found in testis of the male shrimp. The presence of FTZ-F1 in other tissues such as epidermis suggests that it may also be involved in other physiological processes such as molting. PMID:10413106

  7. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Two cDNA Clones Encoding Dihydroflavonol-4-Reductase from Medicago truncatula1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, De-Yu; Jackson, Lisa A.; Cooper, John D.; Ferreira, Daneel; Paiva, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR; EC1.1.1.219) catalyzes a key step late in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins), and other flavonoids important to plant survival and human nutrition. Two DFR cDNA clones (MtDFR1 and MtDFR2) were isolated from the model legume Medicago truncatula cv Jemalong. Both clones were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, confirming that both encode active DFR proteins that readily reduce taxifolin (dihydroquercetin) to leucocyanidin. M. truncatula leaf anthocyanins were shown to be cyanidin-glucoside derivatives, and the seed coat proanthocyanidins are known catechin and epicatechin derivatives, all biosynthesized from leucocyanidin. Despite high amino acid similarity (79% identical), the recombinant DFR proteins exhibited differing pH and temperature profiles and differing relative substrate preferences. Although no pelargonidin derivatives were identified in M. truncatula, MtDFR1 readily reduced dihydrokaempferol, consistent with the presence of an asparagine residue at a location known to determine substrate specificity in other DFRs, whereas MtDFR2 contained an aspartate residue at the same site and was only marginally active on dihydrokaempferol. Both recombinant DFR proteins very efficiently reduced 5-deoxydihydroflavonol substrates fustin and dihydrorobinetin, substances not previously reported as constituents of M. truncatula. Transcript accumulation for both genes was highest in young seeds and flowers, consistent with accumulation of condensed tannins and leucoanthocyanidins in these tissues. MtDFR1 transcript levels in developing leaves closely paralleled leaf anthocyanin accumulation. Overexpression of MtDFR1 in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) resulted in visible increases in anthocyanin accumulation in flowers, whereas MtDFR2 did not. The data reveal unexpected properties and differences in two DFR proteins from a single species. PMID:14976232

  8. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CDNA ENCODING GIARDIA LAMBLIA d-GIARDIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA coding for d-giardin was cloned from Giardia lamblia trophozoites in order to localize the protein and study its function in mediating surface attachment. Recombinant d-giardin antigen was produced in Escherichia coli as a poly-histidine fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatogr...

  9. Cloning and mapping of a novel human cDNA homologous to DROER, the enhancer of the Drosophila melanogaster rudimentary gene

    SciTech Connect

    Isomura, Minoru; Okui, Keiko; Nakamura, Yusuke

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the isolation and localization to human chromosome 7q34 of a human cDNA clone that encodes a protein which is homologous to DROER, the enhancer of the Drosophila melanogaster rudimentary gene. The structure and expression of this gene is also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Isolation and partial characterization of cDNA clone of human ceruloplasmin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sasina, L K; Tsymbalenko, N V; Platonova, N A; Puchkova, L V; Voronina, O V; Gyulikhandanova, N E; Gaitskhoki, V S

    2000-05-01

    An individual clone, presumably carrying a 3 bp fragment of ceruloplasmin receptor cDNA was isolated from the expression library of human placenta cDNA using polyclonal specific antibodies to ceruloplasmin receptors. EcoR1-hydrolysate of isolated DNA was cloned in a pTZ19 bacterial vector and sequenced in the forward and reverse direction. The comparison of the revealed sequence with known sequences of human genome revealed its high similarity to ceruloplasmin cDNA. PMID:10977961

  11. Molecular cloning and expression of the porcine trigeminal ganglion cDNA encoding a 5-ht(1F) receptor.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Pankaj; Sharma, Hari S; Wurch, Thierry; Pauwels, Petrus J; Saxena, Pramod R

    2002-02-01

    Using a combination of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and inverse-PCR techniques, we amplified, cloned and sequenced a full-length porcine 5-hydroxytryptamine 1F (5-ht(1F)) receptor complementary DNA (cDNA) derived from porcine trigeminal ganglion. Sequence analysis revealed 1101 base pairs (bp) encoding an open reading frame of 366 amino acids showing a high similarity (>90%) with the 5-ht(1F) receptor sequences from other species, including human. The recombinant porcine 5-ht(1F) receptor was expressed in African green monkey kidney cell lines (COS-7 cells) and its ligand binding profile was determined using [3H]5-HT. The affinities of several agonists (LY334370 (5-(4-fluorobenzoyl)amino-3-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-1H-indole fumarate)>CP122638 (N-methyl-3 [pyrrolidin 2(R)-yl methyl]-1H-indol-5-ylmethyl sulphonamide)=naratriptan =5HT>eletriptan>sumatriptan>frovatriptan =avitriptan>dihydroergotamine>zolmitriptan>5-carboxamidotryptamine>rizatriptan>alniditan=donitriptan>L694247 (2-[5-[3-(4-methylsulphonylamino)benzyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-1H-indole-3-yl] ethylamine) and putative antagonists (methiothepin>GR127935 (N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) phenyl]-2'-methyl 4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl) [1,1-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrochloride)>ritanserin>SB224289 (2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1'-methyl-5-[2'-methyl-4'(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl) biphenyl-4-carbonyl] furo [2,3-f] indole-3-spiro-4'-piperidine hydrochloride)>BRL155572 ([1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-[3,3-diphenyl (2-(S,R) hydroxypropanyl)piperazine] hydrochloride)>ketanserin=pindolol) correlated highly with those described for the recombinant human 5-ht(1F) receptor (Spearman correlation coefficient; r(s)=0.942). Nevertheless, as compared to the human homologue, some triptans (i.e. sumatriptan, zolmitriptan and rizatriptan) displayed a 10- to 15-fold lower affinity for the porcine 5-ht(1F) receptor. Using RT-PCR technique, the expression of porcine 5-ht(1F) receptor mRNA was observed in

  12. Cloning of a Locusta cDNA encoding a precursor peptide for two structurally related proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kromer, E; Nakakura, N; Lagueux, M

    1994-03-01

    Two peptides of respectively 35 and 36 residues were recently isolated from Locusta migratoria and their full structural characteristics were established by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. These peptides were subsequently shown to have a proteinase inhibiting activity. We report here the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a 92-residue precursor with three distinct domains: (I) a typical signal peptide of 19 residues; (II) the peptide sequence of the 35-residue inhibitor separated by a Lys-Arg dipeptide cleavage site from (III) the peptide sequence of the 36-residue inhibitor. We show by Northern blot analysis that the gene encoding this precursor is mainly transcribed in the cells of the fat body. PMID:8019577

  13. Isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding Argonaute, a component of RNA silencing in shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Unajak, Sasimanas; Boonsaeng, Vichai; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut

    2006-10-01

    We have identified a cDNA clone that encodes a protein with high sequence homology to Argonaute proteins of mammals and Drosophila melanogaster. The cDNA of Penaeus monodon (Pm Ago) consisted of 3178 nucleotides encoding 939-amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 104 kDa. The primary structure of Pm Ago showed the presence of two signature domains, PAZ and PIWI domains that exhibit highest homology to their counterparts in D. melanogaster. The inferred protein sequence of Pm Ago was 80.8% identical with D. melanogaster and 82.1% identical with Anopheles gambiae Ago proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of Pm Ago with other invertebrate and vertebrate Argonaute proteins suggested that Pm Ago belongs to the Ago1 subfamily that plays crucial roles in stem cell differentiation or RNA interference (RNAi). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene is highly expressed in the lymphoid organ and moderately expressed in intestine, muscle, pleopods and hemocytes. The expression of Pm Ago1 mRNA was 2-3-fold increased during the early period of viral infection but declined rapidly at 30 hour post infection. By contrast, infection of shrimp by a bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi did not induce a reduction of Pm Ago1 mRNA suggesting that its expression is associated with virus infection. PMID:16938476

  14. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding rat liver cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD).

    PubMed

    Reymond, I; Sergeant, A; Tappaz, M

    1996-06-01

    The taurine biosynthesis enzyme, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), was purified to homogeneity from rat liver. Three CSD peptides generated by tryptic cleavage were isolated and partially sequenced. Two of them showed a marked homology with glutamate decarboxylase and their respective position on the CSD amino acid sequence was postulated accordingly. Using appropriate degenerated primers derived from these two peptides, a PCR amplified DNA fragment was generated from liver poly(A)+ mRNA, cloned and used as a probe to screen a rat liver cDNA library. Three cDNAs, length around 1800 bp, were isolated which all contained an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 493 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 55.2 kDa close to the experimental values for CSD. The encoded protein contained the sequence of the three peptides isolated from homogenous liver CSD. Our data confirm and significantly extend those recently published (Kaisaki et al. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1262, 79-82). Indeed, an additional base pair found 1371 bp downstream from the initiation codon led to a shift in the open reading frame which extended the carboxy-terminal end by 15 amino acid residues and altogether modified 36 amino acids. The validity of this correction is supported by the finding that the corrected reading frame encoded a peptide issued from CSD tryptic cleavage that was not encoded anywhere in the CSD sequence previously reported. PMID:8679699

  15. Expression cloning of genes encoding human peroxisomal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Spathaky, J.M.; Tate, A.W.; Cox, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous metabolic disorders associated with diverse peroxisomal defects have been identified but their molecular characterization has been hampered by difficulties associated with the purification of proteins from this fragile organelle. We have utilized antibodies directed against the C-terminal tripeptide peroxisomal targeting signal to detect hitherto unknown peroxisomal proteins in tissue fractions and to isolate genes encoding peroxisonal proteins from human expression libraries. We immunized rabbits with a peptide conjugate encompassing the C-terminal nine amino acids of rat peroxisomal acyl CoA oxidase. Immunoprecipitation assays using radio-labelled peptide showed that the antibody specifically recognizes the terminal SKL motif as well as C-terminal SHL and SRL but not SHL at an internal position. Affinity-purified antibody was used to probe Western blots of crude and peroxisome-enriched monkey liver preparations and detected 8-10 proteins specifically in the peroxisome fractions. 100 positive clones were identified on screening a human liver cDNA expression library in {lambda}-gt11. Sequence analysis has confirmed the identity of cDNA clones for human acyl CoA oxidase and epoxide hydrolase. Four clones show no sequence identity and their putative role in the human peroxisome is being explored.

  16. Characterization of a cDNA encoding a 34-kDa Purkinje neuron protein recognized by sera from patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Furneaux, H.M.; Dropcho, E.J.; Barbut, D.; Chen, Yaotseng; Rosenblum, M.K.; Old, L.J.; Posner, J.B. )

    1989-04-01

    Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a neurological disorder of unknown cause occurring in patients with an identified or occult cancer. An autoimmune etiology is likely since autoantibodies directed against the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum have been found in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of some patients. Two Purkinje cell-specific antigens are recognized by these autoantibodies, a major antigen of 62 kDa (CDR 62, cerebellar degeneration-related 62-kDa protein) and a minor antigen of 34 kDa (CDR 34). Previous studies have described the isolation and characterization of a human cerebellar cDNA that encodes an epitope recognized by sera from patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. The authors have now established by two independent methods that this gene is uniquely expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and corresponds to the minor antigen CDR 34. This antigen is also expressed in tumor tissue from a patient with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration.

  17. Identification of cDNA clones encoding HMG 2, a major protein of the mexican axolotl hydrocortisone-sensitive thymocytes.

    PubMed

    de Guerra, A; Guillet, F; Charlemagne, J; Fellah, J S

    1995-01-01

    We have identified and analyzed cDNA clones encoding a major 26 kDa protein of the HMG1-2 family which is abundant in the cytoplasm and nucleus of axolotl hydrocortisone-sensitive thymocytes. The axolotl HMG2 protein is very similar to proteins belonging to the HMG1-2 family, from teleost fish to mammals. All the molecular features of the HMG1-2 proteins are conserved, including the high proportion of basic and aromatic residues, and the characteristic acidic C-terminus tail. The 3'-untranslated region of the HMG2 axolotl cDNA is also similar to the avian and mammalian HMG2 3'-UT sequences, suggesting that some selective events have acted at the DNA level to conserve this region, which could be important in the differential expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes. The axolotl HMG2 protein contains the two well conserved HMG boxes which are thought to be the DNA-binding domains of the molecule. Axolotl thymocytes and spleen cells contain almost identical amounts of HMG2 mRNAs but HMG2 polypeptide is undetectable in spleen cells using anti-26 kDa antibodies. The reason for the accumulation of HMG1-2 molecules in vertebrate hydrocortisone-sensitive thymocytes is discussed, as well as their possible role in apoptosis. PMID:8654668

  18. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a mammalian cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase from Acanthamoeba healyi.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yeon-Chul; Hwang, Mi-Yul; Yun, Ho-Cheol; Yu, Hak-Sun; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chung, Dong-Il

    2002-03-01

    We have cloned a cDNA encoding a cysteine proteinase of the Acanthamoeba healyi OC-3A strain isolated from the brain of a granulomatous amoebic encephalitis patient. A DNA probe for an A. healyi cDNA library screening was amplified by PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of conserved amino acids franking the active sites of cysteine and asparagine residues that are conserved in the eukaryotic cysteine proteinases. Cysteine proteinase gene of A. healyi (AhCP1) was composed of 330 amino acids with signal sequence, a proposed pro-domain and a predicted active site made up of the catalytic residues. Cys25, His159, and Asn175. Deduced amino acid sequence analysis indicates that AhCP1 belong to ERFNIN subfamily of C1 peptidases. By Northern blot analysis, no direct correlation was observed between AhCP1 mRNA expression and virulence of Acanthamoeba, but the gene was expressed at higher level in amoebae isolated from soil than amoeba from clinical samples. These findings raise the possibility that Ahcp1 protein may play a role in protein metabolism and digestion of phagocytosed bacteria or host tissue debris rather than in invasion of amoebae into host tissue. PMID:11949209

  19. Sequence analysis and mapping of a novel human mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 9 cDNA (ATP5G3)

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, W.L.; Gusella, J.F. |; Haines, J.L. |

    1994-11-15

    The authors describe the cloning, sequence analysis, and chromosomal mapping of a novel mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 9 cDNA, P3. Subunit 9 transports protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane to the F{sub 1}-ATPase protruding on the matrix side, resulting in the generation of ATP. Sequence analysis of the P3 cDNA reveals only 80% identity with the human subunit 9 genes P1 and P2 in the DNA sequence encoding the mature protein identical to P1 and P2. The predicted sequence of the P3 leader peptide differs from the P1 and P2 leaders, but retains the {open_quotes}RFS{close_quotes} motif critical for mitochondrial import and maturation. The P3 gene (ATP5G3) maps to chromosome 2. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Human cytoplasmic actin proteins are encoded by a multigene family

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.; Gunning, P.; Kedes, L.

    1982-06-01

    The authors characterized nine human actin genes that they isolated from a library of cloned human DNA. Measurements of the thermal stability of hybrids formed between each cloned actin gene and ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, and ..gamma..-actin mRNA demonstrated that only one of the clones is most homologous to sarcomeric actin mRNA, whereas the remaining eight clones are most homologous to cytoplasmic actin mRNA. By the following criteria they show that these nine clones represent nine different actin gene loci rather than different alleles or different parts of a single gene: (i) the restriction enzyme maps of the coding regions are dissimilar; (ii) each clone contains sufficient coding region to encode all or most of an entire actin gene; and (iii) each clone contains sequences homologous to both the 5' and 3' ends of the coding region of a cloned chicken ..beta..-actin cDNA. They conclude, therefore, that the human cytoplasmic actin proteins are encoded by a multigene family.

  1. Sequence and expression of an Eisenia-fetida-derived cDNA clone that encodes the 40-kDa fetidin antibacterial protein.

    PubMed

    Lassegues, M; Milochau, A; Doignon, F; Du Pasquier, L; Valembois, P

    1997-06-15

    Fetidins are 40-kDa and 45-kDa hemolytic and antibacterial glycoproteins present in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei. By screening a cDNA library with a polyclonal antifetidin serum, we have cloned a cDNA that encoded the 40-kDa fetidin. The clone contains an insert of 1.44 kb encoding a protein of 34 kDa, which corresponds to the size of deglycosylated fetidins. The recombinant protein inhibits Bacillus megaterium growth. Restriction fragment polymorphisms were observed on Southern blots and correspond to a known protein polymorphism. The sequence of the cDNA contains a peroxidase signature and fetidins from earthworm coelomic fluid have peroxidase activity. The 40-kDa and 45-kDa fetidins therefore represent two related polymorphic defence factors in invertebrates. PMID:9219536

  2. Human platelet/erythroleukemia cell prostaglandin G/H synthase: cDNA cloning, expression, and gene chromosomal assignment.

    PubMed

    Funk, C D; Funk, L B; Kennedy, M E; Pong, A S; Fitzgerald, G A

    1991-06-01

    Platelets metabolize arachidonic acid to thromboxane A2, a potent platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor compound. The first step of this transformation is catalyzed by prostaglandin (PG) G/H synthase, a target site for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We have isolated the cDNA for both human platelet and human erythroleukemia cell PGG/H synthase using the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein was expressed in COS-M6 cells. Microsomal fractions from transfected cells produced prostaglandin endoperoxide-derived products which were inhibited by indomethacin and aspirin. Mutagenesis of the serine residue at position 529, the putative aspirin acetylation site, to an asparagine reduced cyclooxygenase activity to barely detectable levels, an effect observed previously with the expressed sheep vesicular gland enzyme. Platelet-derived growth factor and phorbol ester differentially regulated the expression of PGG/H synthase mRNA levels in the megakaryocytic/platelet-like HEL cell line. The PGG/H synthase gene was assigned to chromosome 9 by analysis of a human--hamster somatic hybrid DNA panel. The availability of platelet PGG/H synthase cDNA should enhance our understanding of the important structure/function domains of this protein and its gene regulation. PMID:1907252

  3. Human platelet/erythroleukemia cell prostaglandin G/H synthase: cDNA cloning, expression, and gene chromosomal assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.D.; Funk, L.B.; Kennedy, M.E.; Pong, A.S.; Fitzgerald, G.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Platelets metabolize arachidonic acid to thromboxane A{sub 2}, a potent platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor compound. The first step of this transformation is catalyzed by prostaglandin (PG) G/H synthase, a target site for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We have isolated the cDNA for both human platelet and human erythroleukemia cell PGG/H synthase using the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein was expressed in COS-M6 cells. Microsomal fractions from transfected cells produced prostaglandin endoperoxide derived products which were inhibited by indomethacin and aspirin. Mutagenesis of the serine residue at position 529, the putative aspirin acetylation site, to an asparagine reduced cyclooxygenase activity to barely detectable levels, an effect observed previously with the expressed sheep vesicular gland enzyme. Platelet-derived growth factor and phorbol ester differentially regulated the expression of PGG/H synthase mRNA levels in the megakaryocytic/platelet-like HEL cell line. The PGG/H synthase gene was assigned to chromosome 9 by analysis of a human-hamster somatic hybrid DNA panel. The availability of platelet PGG/H synthase cDNA should enhance our understanding of the important structure/function domains of this protein and it gene regulation.

  4. Isolation, characterization and cloning of a cDNA encoding a new antifungal defensin from Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Games, Patrícia D; Dos Santos, Izabela S; Mello, Erica O; Diz, Mariângela S S; Carvalho, André O; de Souza-Filho, Gonçalo A; Da Cunha, Maura; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Ferreira, Beatriz Dos S; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2008-12-01

    The PvD1 defensin was purified from Phaseolus vulgaris (cv. Pérola) seeds, basically as described by Terras et al. [Terras FRG, Schoofs HME, De Bolle MFC, Van Leuven F, Ress SB, Vanderleyden J, Cammue BPA, Broekaer TWF. Analysis of two novel classes of plant antifungal proteins from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds. J Biol Chem 1992;267(22):15301-9], with some modifications. A DEAE-Sepharose, equilibrated with 20mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, was initially utilized for the separation of peptides after ammonium sulfate fractionation. The basic fraction (the non-retained peak) obtained showed the presence of one unique band in SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis with a molecular mass of approximately 6kDa. The purification of this peptide was confirmed after a reverse-phase chromatography in a C2/C18 column by HPLC, where once again only one peak was observed and denominated H1. H1 was submitted to N-terminal sequencing and the comparative analysis in databanks revealed high similarity with sequences of different defensins isolated from other plants species. The N-terminal sequence of the mature defensin isolated was used to produce a degenerated primer. This primer allowed the amplification of the defensin cDNA by RT-PCR from mRNA of P. vulgaris seeds. The sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA, named PVD1, demonstrated 314bp encoding a polypeptide of 47 amino acids. The deduced peptide presented high similarity with plant defensins of Vigna unguiculata (93%), Cicer arietinum (95%) and Pachyrhizus erosus (87%). PvD1 inhibited the growth of the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida guilliermondii, Kluyveromyces marxiannus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PvD1 also presented an inhibitory activity against the growth of phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium lateritium and Rizoctonia solani. PMID:18786582

  5. Cloning and analysis of human gastric mucin cDNA reveals two types of conserved cysteine-rich domains.

    PubMed Central

    Klomp, L W; Van Rens, L; Strous, G J

    1995-01-01

    Human gastric mucin was isolated by successive CsCl-gradient ultracentrifugation in the presence of guanidinium hydrochloride to prevent degradation of the polypeptide moieties of the molecules. The amino acid sequence of a tryptic fragment of this molecule was identical to that of a tryptic fragment of tracheobronchial mucin. An oligonucleotide based on this sequence hybridized specifically to human stomach mRNA and was subsequently used to screen a human stomach lambda ZAPII cDNA library. The largest of 10 positive clones encoded 850 amino acid residues, including the tryptic fragment, with high amounts of threonine, serine and proline residues. Interestingly, cysteine accounted for almost 8% of the amino acid residues. The 3' part of the sequence was very similar but not identical to the 3' region of human tracheobronchial cDNA. No tandem repeated sequences were present and the deduced polypeptide sequence contained two potential N-linked glycosylation sites. Four cysteine-rich clusters were detected, one of which was apparently homologous to the D-domains present in other mucins and in von Willebrand factor. The arrangement of the cysteines in three other cysteine-rich clusters was conserved in the human gastric mucin cDNA in a similar fashion as in two domains in the MUC2 gene product. The cysteine-rich domains were separated by short stretches of non-repetitive amino acid residues with a very high content of threonine and serine residues. These data suggest that the encoded polypeptide of this clone may be involved in disulphide-bond-mediated oligomerization of the mucin, and provide new insights into the molecular organization of mammalian apomucins. Images Figure 1 PMID:8948439

  6. The complete cDNA sequence of laminin alpha 4 and its relationship to the other human laminin alpha chains.

    PubMed

    Richards, A; Al-Imara, L; Pope, F M

    1996-06-15

    We previously localised the gene (LAMA4) encoding a novel laminin alpha 4 chain to chromosome 6q21. In this study, we describe the complete coding sequence and compare the protein with the other three known human laminin alpha chains. Although closely linked to LAMA2, the LAMA4 product most closely resembles laminin alpha 3, a constituent of laminin 5. Like laminin alpha 3A, the alpha 4 chain is a truncated version of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains, with a much reduced short arm. While the alpha 4 molecule is most similar to alpha 3, it shares some features of the C-terminal domains G4 and G5 in common with alpha 2. Unlike the LAMA3 gene, LAMA4 appears to encode only a single transcript, as determined by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA sequence encodes 1816 amino acids, which include a 24-residue signal peptide. The gene is expressed in skin, placenta, heart, lung, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. We have also shown that the mRNA can be readily reverse transcribed and amplified from cultured dermal fibroblasts. PMID:8706685

  7. Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: cDNA cloning, nucleotide sequence, and hybridization histochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Aldred, P.; Fu, Ping; Barrett, G.; Penschow, J.D.; Wright, R.D.; Coghlan, J.P.; Fernley, R.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones coding for the human secreted carbonic anhydrase isozyme (CAVI) have been isolated and their nucleotide sequences determined. These clones identify a 1.45-kb mRNA that is present in high levels in parotid submandibular salivary glands but absent in other tissues such as the sublingual gland, kidney, liver, and prostate gland. Hybridization histochemistry of human salivary glands shows mRNA for CA VI located in the acinar cells of these glands. The cDNA clones encode a protein of 308 amino acids that includes a 17 amino acid leader sequence typical of secreted proteins. The mature protein has 291 amino acids compared to 259 or 260 for the cytoplasmic isozymes, with most of the extra amino acids present as a carboxyl terminal extension. In comparison, sheep CA VI has a 45 amino acid extension. Overall the human CA VI protein has a sequence identity of 35 {percent} with human CA II, while residues involved in the active site of the enzymes have been conserved. The human and sheep secreted carbonic anhydrases have a sequence identity of 72 {percent}. This includes the two cysteine residues that are known to be involved in an intramolecular disulfide bond in the sheep CA VI. The enzyme is known to be glycosylated and three potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-X-Thr/Ser) have been identified. Two of these are known to be glycosylated in sheep CA VI. Southern analysis of human DNA indicates that there is only one gene coding for CA VI.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of cDNA Encoding Three Dehydrins Expressed During Coffea canephora (Robusta) Grain Development

    PubMed Central

    HINNIGER, CÉCILE; CAILLET, VICTORIA; MICHOUX, FRANCK; BEN AMOR, MOHAMED; TANKSLEY, STEVE; LIN, CHENWEI; MCCARTHY, JAMES

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Dehydrins, or group 2 late embryogenic abundant proteins (LEA), are hydrophilic Gly-rich proteins that are induced in vegetative tissues in response to dehydration, elevated salt, and low temperature, in addition to being expressed during the late stages of seed maturation. With the aim of characterizing and studying genes involved in osmotic stress tolerance in coffee, several full-length cDNA-encoding dehydrins (CcDH1, CcDH2 and CcDH3) and an LEA protein (CcLEA1) from Coffea canephora (robusta) were isolated and characterized. • Methods The protein sequences deduced from the full-length cDNA were analysed to classify each dehydrin/LEA gene product and RT–PCR was used to determine the expression pattern of all four genes during pericarp and grain development, and in several other tissues of C. arabica and C. canephora. Primer-assisted genome walking was used to isolate the promoter region of the grain specific dehydrin gene (CcDH2). • Key Results The CcDH1 and CcDH2 genes encode Y3SK2 dehydrins and the CcDH3 gene encodes an SK3 dehydrin. CcDH1 and CcDH2 are expressed during the final stages of arabica and robusta grain development, but only the CcDH1 transcripts are clearly detected in other tissues such as pericarp, leaves and flowers. CcDH3 transcripts are also found in developing arabica and robusta grain, in addition to being detected in pericarp, stem, leaves and flowers. CcLEA1 transcripts were only detected during a brief period of grain development. Finally, over 1 kb of genomic sequence potentially encoding the entire grain-specific promoter region of the CcDH2 gene was isolated and characterized. • Conclusions cDNA sequences for three dehydrins and one LEA protein have been obtained and the expression of the associated genes has been determined in various tissues of arabica and robusta coffees. Because induction of dehydrin gene expression is associated with osmotic stress in other plants, the dehydrin sequences

  9. Cloning of Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor cDNA and Expression of Recombinant Soluble TNF-Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Patrick W.; Barrett, Kathy; Chantry, David; Turner, Martin; Feldmann, Marc

    1990-10-01

    The cDNA for one of the receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated. This cDNA encodes a protein of 455 amino acids that is divided into an extracellular domain of 171 residues and a cytoplasmic domain of 221 residues. The extracellular domain has been engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and this recombinant derivative binds TNFα with high affinity and inhibits its cytotoxic activity in vitro. The TNF receptor exhibits similarity with a family of cell surface proteins that includes the nerve growth factor receptor, the human B-cell surface antigen CD40, and the rat T-cell surface antigen OX40. The TNF receptor contains four cysteine-rich subdomains in the extra-cellular portion. Mammalian cells transfected with the entire TNF receptor cDNA bind radiolabeled TNFα with an affinity of 2.5 x 10-9 M. This binding can be competitively inhibited with unlabeled TNFα or lymphotoxin (TNFβ).

  10. Isolation and characterisation of cDNA encoding a wheat heavy metal-associated isoprenylated protein involved in stress responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Feng, H; Feng, C; Xu, H; Huang, X; Wang, Q; Duan, X; Wang, X; Wei, G; Huang, L; Kang, Z

    2015-11-01

    In cells, metallochaperones are important proteins that safely transport metal ions. Heavy metal-associated isoprenylated plant proteins (HIPPs) are metallochaperones that contain a metal binding domain and a CaaX isoprenylation motif at the carboxy-terminal end. To investigate the roles of wheat heavy metal-associated isoprenylated plant protein (TaHIPP) genes in plant development and in stress responses, we isolated cDNA encoding the wheat TaHIPP1 gene, which contains a heavy metal-associated domain, nuclear localisation signals and an isoprenylation motif (CaaX motif). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the TaHIPP1 gene was differentially expressed under biotic and abiotic stresses. Specifically, TaHIPP1 expression was up-regulated by ABA exposure or wounding. Additionally, TaHIPP1 over-expression in yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) significantly increased the cell growth rate under Cu(2+) and high salinity stresses. The nuclear localisation of the protein was confirmed with confocal laser scanning microscopy of epidermal onion cells after particle bombardment with chimeric TaHIPP1-GFP constructs. In addition, TaHIPP1 was shown to enhance the susceptibility of wheat to Pst as determined by virus-induced gene silencing. These data indicate that TaHIPP1 is an important component in defence signalling pathways and may play a crucial role in the defence response of wheat to biotic and certain abiotic stresses. PMID:25951496

  11. Characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the calmodulin-binding domain of mouse brain calcineurin.

    PubMed Central

    Kincaid, R L; Nightingale, M S; Martin, B M

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone corresponding to a portion of the catalytic subunit of calmodulin (CaM)-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase (calcineurin) was isolated from a murine brain library by expression vector immunoscreening. A beta-galactosidase fusion protein that reacted on Western blots with anti-calcineurin antibodies and biotinylated CaM was purified in preparative amounts using CaM-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Partial digestion of the hybrid protein with Staphylococcus aureus V-8 protease produced several immunoreactive peptides that appeared identical to fragments generated from authentic brain calcineurin. The 1111-base-pair (bp) EcoRI insert contained an open reading frame encoding a protein of 35 kDa followed by a 190-bp 3' noncoding region; seven peptides obtained by partial amino acid sequencing of the bovine brain enzyme were found in the deduced sequence. A domain approximately 12 kDa from the carboxyl terminus was deduced to be the CaM-binding site based on consensus structural features and a sequence of seven amino acids highly related to smooth muscle myosin light-chain kinase. Two regions with identity to protein phosphatases 1 and 2A were found in the amino half of the cloned sequence; however, the intervening sequence contained apparent insertions, suggesting splicing of subdomains. Thus, the structure of calcineurin is chimeric, consisting of conserved catalytic elements and a regulatory CaM-binding domain. Images PMID:2848250

  12. Isolation of a cDNA encoding 5T4 oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein. An antigen associated with metastasis contains leucine-rich repeats.

    PubMed

    Myers, K A; Rahi-Saund, V; Davison, M D; Young, J A; Cheater, A J; Stern, P L

    1994-03-25

    The monoclonal antibody 5T4 defines a human oncotrophoblast antigen expressed by a variety of carcinomas but with a restricted pattern of expression in normal adult tissues. The 5T4 antigen has been isolated from term placenta as a 72-kDa glycoprotein consisting of a 42-kDa core protein with extensive N-linked glycosylation. A cDNA has been isolated from a human placental library using pools of oligonucleotides based on amino acid sequence obtained from purified 5T4 molecules. The predicted open reading frame encodes a protein of 420 amino acids with a molecular mass of 46 kDa and 8 potential N-glycosylation sites. There are N- and C-terminal hydrophobic segments corresponding to putative signal and membrane anchorage sequences, respectively. Northern analysis has demonstrated a major 2.5-kilobase mRNA present in cell lines serologically reactive with the monoclonal antibody 5T4. Comparison of the 5T4 protein sequence with current sequence data bases has identified the presence of leucine-rich repeats, which are found in a variety of proteins from yeast, insects, and mammals. The 5T4 antigen expression is strongly associated with metastasis in colorectal and gastric cancer, and, hence, the possible functions of the gene product and its relationship to tumor growth and progression are discussed. PMID:8132670

  13. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, A.; Kyle, J.W.; Miller, R.D.; Hoffmann, J.W.; Powell, P.P.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S.; Tropak, M.; Guise, K.S.; Gravel, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    The authors report here the cDNA sequence for human placental ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.31) and demonstrate expression of the human enzyme in transfected COS cells. They also sequenced a partial cDNA clone from human fibroblasts that contained a 153-base-pair deletion within the coding sequence and found a second type of cDNA clone from placenta that contained the same deletion. Nuclease S1 mapping studies demonstrated two types of mRNAs in human placenta that corresponded to the two types of cDNA clones isolated. The NH/sub 2/-terminal amino acid sequence determined for human spleen ..beta..-glucuronidase agreed with that inferred from the DNA sequence of the two placental clones, beginning at amino acid 23, suggesting a cleaved signal sequence of 22 amino acids. When transfected into COS cells, plasmids containing either placental clone expressed an immunoprecipitable protein that contained N-linked oligosaccharides as evidenced by sensitivity to endoglycosidase F. However, only transfection with the clone containing the 153-base-pair segment led to expression of human ..beta..-glucuronidase activity. These studies provide the sequence for the full-length cDNA for human ..beta..-glucuronidase, demonstrate the existence of two populations of mRNA for ..beta..-glucuronidase in human placenta, only one of which specifies a catalytically active enzyme, and illustrate the importance of expression studies in verifying that a cDNA is functionally full-length.

  14. Nucleic acids encoding human trithorax protein

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Glen A.; Djabali, Malek; Selleri, Licia; Parry, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there is provided an isolated peptide having the characteristics of human trithorax protein (as well as DNA encoding same, antisense DNA derived therefrom and antagonists therefor). The invention peptide is characterized by having a DNA binding domain comprising multiple zinc fingers and at least 40% amino acid identity with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein and at least 70% conserved sequence with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein, and wherein said peptide is encoded by a gene located at chromosome 11 of the human genome at q23. Also provided are methods for the treatment of subject(s) suffering from immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer by administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of one of the above-described agents (i.e., peptide, antagonist therefor, DNA encoding said peptide or antisense DNA derived therefrom). Also provided is a method for the diagnosis, in a subject, of immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer associated with disruption of chromosome 11 at q23.

  15. Cataloging of the genes expressed in human keratinocytes: analysis of 607 randomly isolated cDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Konishi, K; Morishima, Y; Ueda, E; Kibe, Y; Nonomura, K; Yamanishi, K; Yasuno, H

    1994-07-29

    The partial nucleotide sequences of 607 cDNAs randomly isolated from a cDNA library of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were determined by single pass sequencing. Homology search of the sequences to the non-redundant nucleotide databases revealed that 27% of the cDNAs matched registered human-or non-human genes encoding not only keratinocyte specific genes, but also a variety of functional proteins, the expression of which had not been identified in keratinocytes. Non-matching cDNAs covering 49% of the cDNAs were not homologous even to ESTs from other organs, suggesting that these cDNAs include novel genes expressed in the cells. The large scale sequencing of keratinocyte cDNAs provides a useful molecular source for research into biology and diseases of the skin. PMID:8048971

  16. Identification and expression analysis of a full-length cDNA encoding a Kandelia candel tonoplast intrinsic protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Fang, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Qi-Fen; Li, Guan-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Ming

    2003-03-01

    Soil salinity is an important issue, as most crop plants are low in salt tolerance. Salt tolerance, a complex, multifactorial, and multigenic process, has been known to be a quantitative trait. The identification of the salt stress responsive genes or salt tolerance genes is essential for the breeding programs. Most recent efforts have been focused on the products of structural genes (transport proteins, ion channels, enzymes of solute synthesis) while little attention were paid to the regulatory aspects of these proteins. Since the first aquaporin gene from plants was cloned and functionally expressed in 1993, there has been a growing interest in the molecular biology of MIPs (membrane intrinsic proteins) and their bearing on the biophysics of water flow across plant membranes. In the last decades, studies on Mangroves, a special kind of wood plants, grow in high-salt and flooding conditions have been concentrated almost exclusively on their physiological and ecological characteristics. Kandelia candel, one of the dominant species of mangroves along the Chinese coast, lacks salt glands or salt hairs used for removal of excess salt in other mangroves. This makes K. candel a perfect model to study the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance in mangrove plants. Using cDNA RDA, a cDNA-specific modification of genomic representational difference analysis, a series of salt responsive genes of Kandelia candel were cloned. Among these gene fragments, a 183 bp fragment (termed as SRGKC1) encoding a tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) in Kandelia candel (KCTIP1) was identified. Based on the sequence of SRGKC1, two gene specific primers were designed, and the 3' and 5' end of the KCTIP1 gene were obtained using the SMART RACE cDNA Amplification Kit. RACE products were purified from low-melting agarose, and sequenced directly with GSPs as the sequencing primers. A 500-bp fragment corresponding to the 3'end of this gene was obtained using the GSP1 primer, and a 690 bp fragment

  17. Alternative splicing of the mRNA encoding the human cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    SciTech Connect

    Inazu, Akihiro; Quinet, E.M.; Suke Wang; Brown, M.L.; Stevenson, S.; Barr, M.L.; Moulin, P.; Tall, A.R. )

    1992-03-03

    The plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is known to facilitate the transfer of lipids between plasma lipoproteins. The human CETP gene is a complex locus encompassing 16 exons. The CETP mRNA is found in liver and small intestine as well as in a variety of peripheral tissues. While the CETP cDNA from human adipose tissue was being cloned, a variant CETP cDNA was discovered which excluded the complete sequence encoded by exon 9, but which was otherwise identical to the full-length CETP cDNA, suggesting modification of the CETP gene transcript by an alternative RNA splicing mechanism. RNase protection analysis of tissue RNA confirmed the presence of exon 9 deleted transcripts and showed that they represented a variable proportion of the total CETP mRNA in various human tissues including adipose tissue (25%), liver (33%), and spleen (46%). Transient expression of the exon 9 deleted cDNA in COS cells or stable expression in CHO cells showed that the protein encoded by the alternatively spliced transcript was inactive in neutral lipid transfer, smaller, and poorly secreted compared to the protein derived from the full-length cDNA. Endo H digestion suggested that the inactive, cell-associated protein was present within the endoplasmic reticulum. The experiments show that the expression of the human CETP gene is modified by alternative splicing of the ninth exon, in a tissue-specific fashion. The function of alternative splicing is unknown but could serve to produce a protein with a function other than plasma neutral lipid transfer, or as an on-off switch to regulate the local concentration of biologically active protein.

  18. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human cathepsin D.

    PubMed Central

    Faust, P L; Kornfeld, S; Chirgwin, J M

    1985-01-01

    An 1110-base-pair cDNA clone for human cathepsin D was obtained by screening a lambda gt10 human hepatoma G2 cDNA library with a human renin exon 3 genomic fragment. Poly(A)+ RNA blot analysis with this cathepsin D clone demonstrated a message length of about 2.2 kilobases. The partial clone was used to screen a size-selected human kidney cDNA library, from which two cathepsin D recombinant plasmids with inserts of about 2200 and 2150 base pairs were obtained. The nucleotide sequences of these clones and of the lambda gt10 clone were determined. The amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence shows that human cathepsin D consists of 412 amino acids with 20 and 44 amino acids in a pre- and a prosegment, respectively. The mature protein region shows 87% amino acid identity with porcine cathepsin D but differs in having nine additional amino acids. Two of these are at the COOH terminus; the other seven are positioned between the previously determined junction for the light and heavy chains of porcine cathepsin D. A high degree of sequence homology was observed between human cathepsin D and other aspartyl proteases, suggesting a conservation of three-dimensional structure in this family of proteins. Images PMID:3927292

  19. Recovery of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C from cDNA: cross-recognition of avian and human metapneumovirus support proteins.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Buchholz, Ursula J; Samal, Siba K

    2006-06-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an acute respiratory disease in turkeys and is associated with "swollen head syndrome" in chickens, contributing to significant economic losses for the U.S. poultry industry. With a long-term goal of developing a better vaccine for controlling AMPV in the United States, we established a reverse genetics system to produce infectious AMPV of subgroup C entirely from cDNA. A cDNA clone encoding the entire 14,150-nucleotide genome of AMPV subgroup C strain Colorado (AMPV/CO) was generated by assembling five cDNA fragments between the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and the autocatalytic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme of a transcription plasmid, pBR 322. Transfection of this plasmid, along with the expression plasmids encoding the N, P, M2-1, and L proteins of AMPV/CO, into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase resulted in the recovery of infectious AMPV/CO. Characterization of the recombinant AMPV/CO showed that its growth properties in tissue culture were similar to those of the parental virus. The potential of AMPV/CO to serve as a viral vector was also assessed by generating another recombinant virus, rAMPV/CO-GFP, that expressed the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a foreign protein. Interestingly, GFP-expressing AMPV and GFP-expressing human metapneumovirus (HMPV) could be recovered using the support plasmids of either virus, denoting that the genome promoters are conserved between the two metapneumoviruses and can be cross-recognized by the polymerase complex proteins of either virus. These results indicate a close functional relationship between AMPV/CO and HMPV. PMID:16731918

  20. Sequence of human hexokinase III cDNA and assignment of the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome band 5q35.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Hiroto; Le Beau, M.M.; Fernald, A.A.

    1996-08-15

    Complementary DNA clones encoding human hexokinase III were isolated from a liver cDNA library. There was 84.7% identity between the amino acid sequences of human and rat hexokinase III. RNA blotting showed the presence of hexokinase III mRNA in liver and lung. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome 5, band q35.2. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  1. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of DTX2, a human WWE and RING-finger gene, in human embryos.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhengfang; Yi, Tingfang; Wu, Zirong

    2006-06-01

    The WWE domain is a conserved globular domain in several proteins and predicted to mediate specificprotein-protein interactions in ubiquitin and ADP ribose conjugation systems. The RING domain is a conserved and specialized zinc-finger motif with 40-60 residues binding to two zinc atoms, which is also probably involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. Here, from human fetal heart cDNA library, we identified DTX2, a human WWE & RING-finger gene, with high similarity with its homologues. Evaluation of full-length cDNA obtained by RACE indicated it encodes a protein composed of two WWE domains and a RING-finger region. The DTX2 gene located in human chromosome 7q11.23 spanning approximately 44.3 kb on the genome and the deduced protein is 622 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed DTX2 was expressed in the 18-week, 22.5-week human embryo hearts and adult hearts, especially with high levels in the 18-week and adult hearts. Taken together, these results indicate that DTX2 is a gene encoding a WWE-RING-finger protein and involved in regulating heart development and heart functions. PMID:17286044

  2. Fibulin-2 (FBLN2): Human cDNA sequence, mRNA expression, and mapping of the gene on human and mouse chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.Z.; Pan, T.C.; Zhang, Z.Y.

    1994-07-15

    Fibulin-2 is a new extracellular matrix protein recently identified by characterizing mouse cDNA clones. Fibulin-2 mRNA is prominently expressed in mouse heart tissue and is present in low amounts in other tissues. In this study, the authors isolated and sequenced a 4.1-kb human fibulin-2 cDNA, which encoded a mature protein of 1157 amino acids preceded by a 27-residue signal sequence. The predicted polypeptide contains three consecutive anaphylatoxin-related segments (domain I) in its central region followed by 10 EGF-like repeats (domain II), 9 of which have a consensus sequence for calcium binding. The 408-residue N-terminal region consists of two separate subdomains, a cysteine-rich segment of 150 residues (Na subdomain) and a cysteine-free segment with a stretch of acidic amino acids (Nb subdomain). The 115-residue C-terminal segment (domain III) is similar to the C variant of fibulin-1. The amino acid sequences of the human and mouse fibulin-2 share {approximately}90% identity in domains Na, I, II, and III but only 62% identity in domain Nb. The human cDNA lacks an EGF-like repeat, which is alternatively spliced in the mouse cDNA clones, and a potential cell-binding Arg-Gly-Asp sequence found in the Nb domain of the mouse counterpart. Northern blot analysis of mRNA from various human tissues reveals an abundant 4.5-kb transcript in heart, placenta, and ovary tissue. The expression pattern differs from that of fibulin-1. The fibulin-2 gene was localized by in situ hybridization to the p24-p25 region of human chromosome 3 and to the band D-E of mouse chromosome 6. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Selection and sequence analysis of a cDNA clone encoding a known chorion protein of the A family.

    PubMed Central

    Tsitilou, S G; Regier, J C; Kafatos, F C

    1980-01-01

    Using as criteria the size, abundance and developmental specificity of hybridizing mRNA sequences, we have selected from our chorion cDNA library a clone corresponding to a specific chorion protein, A4--cl. Comparison between the clone sequence and the largely known sequence of A4--cl validates the use of the cDNA library for sequence analysis of the chorion multigene families. The two major chorion protein families, A and B, share certain structural similarities. Images PMID:7433133

  4. Cloning and expression of small cDNA fragment encoding strong antiviral peptide from Celosia cristata in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, A; Kohnehrouz, B Baghban; Santha, I M; Lodha, M L; Kapoor, H C

    2005-09-01

    A small cDNA fragment containing a ribosome-inactivating site was isolated from the leaf cDNA population of Celosia cristata by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR was conducted linearly using a degenerate primer designed from the partially conserved peptide of ribosome-inactivating/antiviral proteins. Sequence analysis showed that it is 150 bp in length. The cDNA fragment was then cloned in a bacterial expression vector and expressed in Escherichia coli as a ~57 kD fused protein, and its presence was further confirmed by Western blot analysis. The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The purified product showed strong antiviral activity towards tobacco mosaic virus on host plant leaves, Nicotiana glutinosa, indicating the presence of a putative antiviral determinant in the isolated cDNA product. It is speculated that antiviral site is at, or is separate but very close to, the ribosome-inactivating site. We nominate this short cDNA fragment reported here as a good candidate to investigate further the location of the antiviral determinants. The isolated cDNA sequence was submitted to EMBL databases under accession number of AJ535714. PMID:16266271

  5. Characterization and distribution of a maize cDNA encoding a peptide similar to the catalytic region of second messenger dependent protein kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, B.; Johnson, E. M.; Feldman, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) roots respond to a variety of environmental stimuli which are perceived by a specialized group of cells, the root cap. We are studying the transduction of extracellular signals by roots, particularly the role of protein kinases. Protein phosphorylation by kinases is an important step in many eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. As a first phase of this research we have isolated a cDNA encoding a maize protein similar to fungal and animal protein kinases known to be involved in the transduction of extracellular signals. The deduced sequence of this cDNA encodes a polypeptide containing amino acids corresponding to 33 out of 34 invariant or nearly invariant sequence features characteristic of protein kinase catalytic domains. The maize cDNA gene product is more closely related to the branch of serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic domains composed of the cyclic-nucleotide- and calcium-phospholipid-dependent subfamilies than to other protein kinases. Sequence identity is 35% or more between the deduced maize polypeptide and all members of this branch. The high structural similarity strongly suggests that catalytic activity of the encoded maize protein kinase may be regulated by second messengers, like that of all members of this branch whose regulation has been characterized. Northern hybridization with the maize cDNA clone shows a single 2400 base transcript at roughly similar levels in maize coleoptiles, root meristems, and the zone of root elongation, but the transcript is less abundant in mature leaves. In situ hybridization confirms the presence of the transcript in all regions of primary maize root tissue.

  6. Sequence Characterization of cDNA Sequence of Encoding of an Antimicrobial Peptide With No Disulfide Bridge from the Iranian Mesobuthus Eupeus Venomous Glands

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadeh-Sheikh, Ahmad; Jolodar, Abbas; Ghaemmaghami, Shamsedin

    2013-01-01

    Background Scorpion venom glands produce some antimicrobial peptides (AMP) that can rapidly kill a broad range of microbes and have additional activities that impact on the quality and effectiveness of innate responses and inflammation. Objectives In this study, we reported the identification of a cDNA sequence encoding cysteine-free antimicrobial peptides isolated from venomous glands of this species. Materials and Methods Total RNA was extracted from the Iranian mesobuthus eupeus venom glands, and cDNA was synthesized by using the modified oligo (dT). The cDNA was used as the template for applying Semi-nested RT- PCR technique. PCR Products were used for direct nucleotide sequencing and the results were compared with Gen Bank database. Results A 213 BP cDNA fragment encoding the entire coding region of an antimicrobial toxin from the Iranian scorpion M. Eupeus venom glands were isolated. The full-length sequence of the coding region was 210 BP contained an open reading frame of 70 amino with a predicted molecular mass of 7970.48 Da and theoretical Pi of 9.10. The open reading frame consists of 210 BP encoding a precursor of 70 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 23 residues a propertied of 7 residues, and a mature peptide of 34 residues with no disulfide bridge. The peptide has detectable sequence identity to the Lesser Asian mesobuthus eupeus MeVAMP-2 (98%), MeVAMP-9 (60%) and several previously described AMPs from other scorpion venoms including mesobuthus martensii (94%) and buthus occitanus Israelis (82%). Conclusions The secondary structure of the peptide mainly consisted of α-helical structure which was generally conserved by previously reported scorpion counterparts. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Iranian MeAMP-like toxin was similar but not identical with that of venom antimicrobial peptides from lesser Asian scorpion mesobuthus eupeus. PMID:23486842

  7. GENE EXPRESSION IN THE TESTES OF NORMOSPERMIC VERSUS TERATOSPERMIC DOMESTIC CATS USING HUMAN CDNA MICROARRAY ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENE EXPRESSION IN THE TESTES OF NORMOSPERMIC VERSUS TERATOSPERMIC DOMESTIC CATS USING HUMAN cDNA MICROARRAY ANALYSES

    B.S. Pukazhenthi1, J. C. Rockett2, M. Ouyang3, D.J. Dix2, J.G. Howard1, P. Georgopoulos4, W.J. J. Welsh3 and D. E. Wildt1

    1Department of Reproductiv...

  8. cap alpha. /sub i/-3 cDNA encodes the. cap alpha. subunit of G/sub k/, the stimulatory G protein of receptor-regulated K/sup +/ channels

    SciTech Connect

    Codina, J.; Olate, J.; Abramowitz, J.; Mattera, R.; Cook, R.G.; Birnbaumer, L.

    1988-05-15

    cDNA cloning has identified the presence in the human genome of three genes encoding ..cap alpha.. subunits of pertussis toxin substrates, generically called G/sub i/. They are named ..cap alpha../sub i/-1, ..cap alpha../sub i/-2 and ..cap alpha../sub i/-3. However, none of these genes has been functionally identified with any of the ..cap alpha.. subunits of several possible G proteins, including pertussis toxin-sensitive G/sub p/'s, stimulatory to phospholipase C or A/sub 2/, G/sub i/, inhibitory to adenylyl cyclase, or G/sub k/, stimulatory to a type of K/sup +/ channels. The authors now report the nucleotide sequence and the complete predicted amino acid sequence of human liver ..cap alpha../sub i/-3 and the partial amino acid sequence of proteolytic fragments of the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human erythrocyte G/sub k/. The amino acid sequence of the proteolytic fragment is uniquely encoded by the cDNA of ..cap alpha../sub i/-3, thus identifying it as ..cap alpha../sub k/. The probable identity of ..cap alpha../sub i/-1 with ..cap alpha../sub p/ and possible roles for ..cap alpha../sub i/-2, as well as additional roles for ..cap alpha../sub i/-1 and ..cap alpha../sub i/-3 (..cap alpha../sub k/) are discussed.

  9. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for the human platelet-derived growth factor receptor: Evidence for more than one receptor class

    SciTech Connect

    Gronwald, R.G.K.; Grant, F.J.; Haldeman, B.A.; Hart, C.E.; O'Hara, P.J.; Hagen, F.S.; Ross, R.; Bowen-Pope, D.F.; Murray, M.J. )

    1988-05-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor is presented. The cDNA contains an open reading frame that codes for a protein of 1106 amino acids. Comparison to the mouse PDGF receptor reveals an overall amino acid sequence identity of 86%. This sequence identity rises to 98% in the cytoplasmic split tyrosine kinase domain. RNA blot hybridization analysis of poly(A){sup +} RNA from human dermal fibroblasts detects a major and a minor transcript using the cDNA as a probe. Baby hamster kidney cells, transfected with an expression vector containing the receptor cDNA, express an {approx} 190-kDa cell surface protein that is recognized by an anti-human PDGF receptor antibody. The recombinant PDGF receptor is functional in the transfected baby hamster kidney cells as demonstrated by ligand-induced phosphorylation of the receptor. Binding properties of the recombinant PDGF receptor were also assessed with pure preparations of BB and AB isoforms of PDGF. Unlike human dermal fibroblasts, which bind both isoforms with high affinity, the transfected baby hamster kidney cells bind only the BB isoform of PDGF with high affinity. This observation is consistent with the existence of more than one PDGF receptor class.

  10. Molecular cloning of a cDNA for human {triangle}{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase, the gene defective in type 2 hyperprolinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, C.A.; Lin, W.; Valle, D.

    1994-09-01

    P5C dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.1.12) is a mitochondrial matrix NAD(P) dependent enzyme catalyzing the conversion of P5C, derived from either proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This reaction is an important component in the pathway interconnecting the urea cycle with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Deficiency of P5C dehydrogenase causes type 2 hyperprolinemia (HPII), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by seizures, hyperprolinemia and accumulation of P5C. To investigate the molecular basis of HPII and the pathophysiology of gyrate atrophy, a disorder of ornithine metabolism, we have cloned a cDNA for P5C dehydrogenase. Utilizing published sequences of peptides from purified human P5C dehydrogenase and the nucleotide sequence of yeast P5C dehydrogenase, we designed degenerate PCR primers to amplify cDNAs from a HepG2 cDNA library. We identified an amplified fragment of the correct size that encoded one of the many peptides and used it to clone near full length clones of the corresponding cDNA. The longest is 1.8 kb with a 1,485 bp ORF encoding a protein corresponding to the C terminal 495 residues of yeast P5C dehydrogenase. The predicted amino acid sequence of this clone has 100% identity to published sequence of human P5C dehydrogenase peptides and 42% identity with the corresponding sequence of the yeast enzyme. This cDNA detects a 2.3 kb transcript in Northern blots of fibroblast RNA. We conclude we have cloned a near full length cDNA for human P5C dehydrogenase. Studies investigating the molecular basis of HPII are in progress.

  11. Human antisera detect a Plasmodium falciparum genomic clone encoding a nonapeptide repeat.

    PubMed

    Koenen, M; Scherf, A; Mercereau, O; Langsley, G; Sibilli, L; Dubois, P; Pereira da Silva, L; Müller-Hill, B

    Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria infections in its human host. Its wide distribution in tropical countries is a major world health problem. Before a vaccine can be produced, the identification and characterization of parasite antigens is necessary. This can be achieved by the cloning and subsequent analysis of genes coding for parasite antigens. Recently established cDNA banks allow the expression of cDNA derived from the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi and P. falciparum in Escherichia coli. Recombinants encoding parasite antigens have been identified by immunodetection in both banks. Two of them contain repetitive units of 11 (ref. 7) or 12 (ref. 5) amino acids. We describe here the construction of an expression bank made directly from randomly generated fragments of P. falciparum genomic DNA. We detect several clones which react strongly with human African immune sera. One clone expresses an antigenic determinant composed of occasionally degenerated repeats of a peptide nonamer. PMID:6090935

  12. Expression cloning in yeast of a cDNA encoding a broad specificity amino acid permease from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Frommer, W B; Hummel, S; Riesmeier, J W

    1993-01-01

    To study amino acid transport in plants at the molecular level, we have isolated an amino acid permease cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana by complementation of a yeast mutant defective in proline uptake with a cDNA. The predicted polypeptide of 53 kDa is highly hydrophobic with 12 putative membrane-spanning regions and shows no significant homologies to other known transporters. Expression of the cDNA enables the yeast mutant to take up L-[14C]proline. Competition studies argue for a broad but stereospecific substrate recognition by the permease, which resembles neutral or general amino acid transport systems from Chlorella and higher plants. Both pH dependence and inhibition by protonophores are consistent with a proton symport mechanism. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8327465

  13. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1993-03-04

    Genetic mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach generated 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

  14. HUGE: a database for human large proteins identified in the Kazusa cDNA sequencing project.

    PubMed

    Kikuno, R; Nagase, T; Suyama, M; Waki, M; Hirosawa, M; Ohara, O

    2000-01-01

    HUGE is a database for human large proteins newly identified in the Kazusa cDNA project, the aim of which is to predict the primary structure of proteins from the sequences of human large cDNAs (>4 kb). In particular, cDNA clones capable of coding for large proteins (>50 kDa) are the current targets of the project. HUGE contains >1100 cDNA sequences and detailed information obtained through analysis of the sequences of cDNAs and the predicted proteins. Besides an increase in the number of cDNA entries, the amount of experimental data for expression profiling has been largely increased and data on chromosomal locations have been newly added. All of the protein-coding regions were examined by GeneMark analysis, and the results of a motif/domain search of each predicted protein sequence against the Pfam database have been newly added. HUGE is available through the WWW at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/huge PMID:10592264

  15. Expression of a full-length cDNA for the human MDR1 gene confers resistance to colchicine, doxorubicin, and vinblastine

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, K.; Cardarelli, C.; Gottesman, M.M.; Pastan, I.

    1987-05-01

    Intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important problem in cancer therapy. MDR in human KB carcinoma cells selected for resistance to colchicine, vinblastine, or doxorubicin (former generic name adriamycin) is associated with overexpression of the MDR1 gene, which encodes P-glycoprotein. The authors previously have isolated an overlapping set of cDNA clones for the human MDR1 gene from multidrug-resistant KB cells. Here they report the construction of a full-length cDNA for the human MDR1 gene and show that this reconstructed cDNA, when inserted into a retroviral expression vector containing the long terminal repeats of Moloney leukemia virus or Harvey sarcoma virus, functions in mouse NIH 3T3 and human KB cells to confer the complete multidrug-resistance phenotype. These results suggest that the human MDR1 gene may be used as a positive selectable marker to introduce genes into human cells and to transform human cells to multidrug resistance without introducing nonhuman antigens.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding granule-bound starch synthase in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its antisense expression in potato.

    PubMed

    Salehuzzaman, S N; Jacobsen, E; Visser, R G

    1993-12-01

    A tuber-specific cDNA library of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was constructed and a full-length cDNA for granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS, also known as waxy protein), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of amylose in reserve starch, was cloned. Sequencing of the cloned cDNA showed that it has 74% identity with potato GBSS and 60-72% identity with GBSS from other plant species. The cDNA encodes a 608 amino acid protein of which 78 amino acids form a chloroplast/amyloplast transit peptide of 8.37 kDa. The mature protein has a predicted molecular mass of 58.61 kDa (530 amino acids). Comparison of the GBSS proteins of various plant species and glycogen synthase of bacteria showed extensive identity among the mature form of plant GBSS proteins, in which the monocots and dicots form two separate branches in the evolutionary tree. From analysis of the genomic DNA of allotetraploid cassava, it is shown that GBSS is a low-copy-number gene. GBSS transcript is synthesized in a number of different organs, but most abundantly in tubers. Potato plants were transformed with the cassava GBSS cDNA in antisense orientation fused between the potato GBSS promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator. The expression of the endogenous GBSS gene in these transgenic potato plants was partially or completely inhibited. Complete inhibition of GBSS activity by the cassava antisense gene resulted in absence of GBSS protein and amylose giving rise to almost complete amylose-free potato starch. This shows that also heterologous genes can be used to achieve antisense effects in other plant species. PMID:8260633

  17. Genomic organization of the human NSP gene, prototype of a novel gene family encoding reticulons

    SciTech Connect

    Roebroek, A.J.M.; Ayoubi, T.A.Y.; Velde, H.J.K. van de; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Pauli, I.G.L.; Van De Ven, W.J.M.

    1996-03-01

    Recently, cDNA cloning and expression of three mRNA variants of the human NSP gene were described. This neuroendocrine-specific gene encodes three NSP protein isoforms with unique amino-terminal parts, but common carboxy-terminal parts. The proteins, with yet unknown function, are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and therefore are named NSP reticulons. Potentially, these proteins are neuroendocrine markers of a novel category in human lung cancer diagnosis. Here, the genomic organization of this gene was studied by analysis of genomic clones isolated from lambda phage and YAC libraries. The NSP exons were found to be dispersed over a genomic region of about 275 kb. The present elucidation of the genomic organization of the NSP gene explains the generation of NSP mRNA variants encoding NSP protein isoforms. Multiple promoters rather than alternative splicing of internal exons seem to be involved in this diversity. Furthermore, comparison of NSP genomic and cDNA sequences with databank nucleotide sequences resulted in the discovery of other human members of this novel family of reticulons encoding genes. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding vitellogenin in the banana shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) merguiensis and sites of vitellogenin mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Phiriyangkul, Pharima; Utarabhand, Prapaporn

    2006-04-01

    In order to determine the primary structure of banana shrimp, Penaeus merguiensis, vitellogenin (Vg), we previously purified vitellin (Vt) from the ovaries of vitellogenic females, and chemically analyzed the N-terminal amino acid sequence of its 78 kDa subunit. In this study, a cDNA from this species encoding Vg was cloned based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the major 78 kDa subunit of Vt and conserved sequences of Vg/Vt from other crustacean species. The complete nucleotide sequence of Vg cDNA was achieved by RT-PCR and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length Vg cDNA consisted of 7,961 nucleotides. The open reading frame of this cDNA encoding a precursor peptide was comprised of 2,586 amino acid residues, with a putative processing site, R-X-K/R-R, recognized by subtilisin-like endoproteases. The deduced amino acid sequence was obtained from the Vg cDNA and its amino acid composition showed a high similarity to that of purified Vt. The deduced primary structure, of P. merguiensis Vg was 91.4% identical to the Vg of Penaeus semisulcatus and was also related to the Vg sequences of six other crustacean species with identities that ranged from 86.9% to 36.6%. In addition, the amino acid sequences corresponding to the signal peptide, N-terminal region and C-terminal region of P. merguiensis Vg were almost identical to the same sequences of the seven other reported crustacean species. Results from RT-PCR analysis showed that Vg mRNA expression was present in both the ovary and hepatopancreas of vitellogenic females but was not detected in other tissues including muscle, heart, and intestine of females or in the hepatopancreas of mature males. These results indicate that the Vg gene may be expressed only by mature P. merguiensis females and that both the ovary and hepatopancreas are possible sites for Vg synthesis in this species of shrimp. PMID:16432892

  19. Cloning of the genes encoding two murine and human cochlear unconventional type I myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Crozet, F.; El Amraoui, Z.; Blanchard, S.

    1997-03-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate a crucial role for unconventional myosins in the function of the sensory hair cells of the inner ear. We report here the characterization of the cDNAs encoding two unconventional type I myosins from a mouse cochlear cDNA library. The first cDNA encodes a putative protein named Myo1c, which is likely to be the murine orthologue of the bullfrog myosin I{beta} and which may be involved in the gating of the mechanotransduction channel of the sensory hair cells. This myosin belongs to the group of short-tailed myosins I, with its tail ending shortly after a polybasic, TH-1-like domain. The second cDNA encodes a novel type I myosin Myo1f which displays three regions: a head domain with the conserved ATP- and actin-binding sites, a neck domain with a single IQ motif, and a tail domain with the tripartite structure initially described in protozoan myosins I. The tail of Myo1f includes (1) a TH-1 region rich in basic residues, which may interact with anionic membrane phospholipids; (2) a TH-2 proline-rich region, expected to contain an ATP-insensitive actin-binding site; and (3) an SH-3 domain found in a variety of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that the genes encoding Myo1c and Myo1f display a widespread tissue expression in the adult mouse. Myo1c and Myo1f were mapped by in situ hybridization to the chromosomal regions 11D-11E and 17B-17C, respectively. The human orthologuous genes MYO1C and MYO1F were also characterized, and mapped to the human chromosomal regions 17p13 and 19p13.2- 19p1.3.3, respectively. 45 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 was isolated from either/ethanol or chloroform/methanol extracts of mammalian pulmonary surfactant. Automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer showed the major N-terminus of the human low molecular weight protein to be Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Try-Cys-Trp-Leu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Leu-. Because of the N-terminal phenylalanine, the surfactant protein was designated SPL(Phe). Antiserum generated against hydrophobic surfactant protein(s) from bovine pulmonary surfactant recognized protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 in immunoblot analysis and was used to screen a lambdagt11 expression library constructed from adult human lung poly(A)/sup +/ RNA. This resulted in identification of a 1.4-kilobase cDNA clone that was shown to encode the N-terminus of the surfactant polypeptide SPL(Phe) (Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-) within an open reading frame for a larger protein. Expression of a fused ..beta..-galactosidase-SPL (Phe) gene in Escherichia coli yielded an immunoreactive M/sub r/ 34,000 fusion peptide. Hybrid-arrested translation with the cDNA and immunoprecipitation of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled in vitro translation products of human poly(A)/sup +/ RNA with a surfactant polyclonal antibody resulted in identification of a M/sub r/ 40,000 precursor protein. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from human lung detected a 2.0-kilobase RNA that was more abundant in adult lung than in fetal lung. These proteins, and specifically SPL(Phe), may therefore be useful for synthesis of replacement surfactants for treatment of hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants or of other surfactant-deficient states.

  1. Cloning of a coconut endosperm cDNA encoding a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase that accepts medium-chain-length substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Knutzon, D S; Lardizabal, K D; Nelsen, J S; Bleibaum, J L; Davies, H M; Metz, J G

    1995-01-01

    Immature coconut (Cocos nucifera) endosperm contains a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (LPAAT) activity that shows a preference for medium-chain-length fatty acyl-coenzyme A substrates (H.M. Davies, D.J. Hawkins, J.S. Nelsen [1995] Phytochemistry 39:989-996). Beginning with solubilized membrane preparations, we have used chromatographic separations to identify a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 29 kD, whose presence in various column fractions correlates with the acyltransferase activity detected in those same fractions. Amino acid sequence data obtained from several peptides generated from this protein were used to isolate a full-length clone from a coconut endosperm cDNA library. Clone pCGN5503 contains a 1325-bp cDNA insert with an open reading frame encoding a 308-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.8 kD. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of pCGN5503 to sequences in the data banks revealed significant homology to other putative LPAAT sequences. Expression of the coconut cDNA in Escherichia coli conferred upon those cells a novel LPAAT activity whose substrate activity profile matched that of the coconut enzyme. PMID:8552723

  2. Identification and molecular characterization of the cDNA encoding Cucumis melo allergen, Cuc m 3, a plant pathogenesis-related protein

    PubMed Central

    Sankian, Mojtaba; Hajavi, Jafar; Moghadam, Malihe; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Melon (Cucumis melo) allergy is one of the most common food allergies, characterized by oral allergy syndrome. To date, two allergen molecules, Cuc m 1 and Cuc m 2, have been fully characterized in melon pulp, but there are few reports about the molecular characteristics of Cuc m 3. Methods: The Cuc m 3 cDNA has been characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), which revealed a 456 base-pair (bp) fragment encoding a 151-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 16.97 kDa, and identified 79 and 178 bp untranslated sequences at the 5′ and 3´ ends, respectively. Results: In silico analysis showed strong similarities between Cuc m 3 and other plant pathogen-related protein 1s from cucumber, grape, bell pepper, and tomato. Conclusion: Here we report the identification and characterization of the Cuc m 3 cDNA, which will be utilized for further analyses of structural and allergenic features of this allergen. PMID:26989726

  3. cDNA cloning and sequencing of human fibrillarin, a conserved nucleolar protein recognized by autoimmune antisera

    SciTech Connect

    Aris, J.P.; Blobel, G. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors have isolated a 1.1-kilobase cDNA clone that encodes human fibrillarin by screening a hepatoma library in parallel with DNA probes derived from the fibrillarin genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NOP1) and Xenopus laevis. RNA blot analysis indicates that the corresponding mRNA is {approximately}1,300 nucleotides in length. Human fibrillarin expressed in vitro migrates on SDS gels as a 36-kDa protein that is specifically immunoprecipitated by antisera from humans with scleroderma autoimmune disease. Human fibrillarin contains an amino-terminal repetitive domain {approximately}75-80 amino acids in length that is rich in glycine and arginine residues and is similar to amino-terminal domains in the yeast and Xenopus fibrillarins. The occurrence of a putative RNA-binding domain and an RNP consensus sequence within the protein is consistent with the association of fibrillarin with small nucleolar RNAs. Protein sequence alignments show that 67% of amino acids from human fibrillarin are identical to those in yeast fibrillarin and that 81% are identical to those in Xenopus fibrillarin. This identity suggests the evolutionary conservation of an important function early in the pathway for ribosome biosynthesis.

  4. In vitro expression of human p53 cDNA clones and characterization of the cloned human p53 gene.

    PubMed

    Wolf, D; Laver-Rudich, Z; Rotter, V

    1985-08-01

    The human p53 gene was cloned and characterized by using a battery of p53 DNA clones. A series of human cDNA clones of various sizes and relative localizations to the mRNA molecule were isolated by using the human p53-H14 (2.35-kilobase) cDNA probe which we previously cloned. One such isolate, clone p53-H7 (2.65 kilobases), spans the entire human mature p53 mRNA molecule. Construction of the human cDNA clones in the pSP65 RNA transcription vector facilitated the generation of p53 transcripts by the SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase. The p53-specific RNA transcripts obtained without further processing were translated into p53 proteins in a cell-free system. By using this rapid in vitro transcription-translation assay, we found that whereas clone p53-H7 (2.65 kilobases) coded for a mature-sized p53 protein, a shorter cDNA clone, p53-H13 (1.8 kilobases), dictated the synthesis of a smaller-sized p53 protein (45 kilodaltons). The p53 proteins synthesized in vitro immunoprecipitated efficiently with human-specific anti-p53 antibodies. Genomic analysis of human DNA revealed the presence of a single p53 gene residing within two EcoRI fragments. Heteroduplex analysis between the full-length cDNA clone p53-H7 and the cloned p53 gene indicated the presence of seven major exons. PMID:3018534

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tomato cDNA encoding a systemically wound-inducible bZIP DNA-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovic, B.; Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wounding of one leaf in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants triggers rapid systemic transcriptional responses that might be involved in defense. To better understand the mechanism(s) of intercellular signal transmission in wounded tomatoes, and to identify the array of genes systemically up-regulated by wounding, a subtractive cDNA library for wounded tomato leaves was constructed. A novel cDNA clone (designated LebZIP1) encoding a DNA-binding protein was isolated and identified. This clone appears to be encoded by a single gene, and belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors shown to be up-regulated by cold and dark treatments. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggests that the transcript for LebZIP1 is both organ-specific and up-regulated by wounding. In wounded wild-type tomatoes, the LebZIP1 mRNA levels in distant tissue were maximally up-regulated within only 5 min following localized wounding. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) prevented the rapid wound-induced increase in LebZIP1 mRNA levels, while the basal levels of LebZIP1 transcripts were higher in the ABA mutants notabilis (not), sitiens (sit), and flacca (flc), and wound-induced increases were greater in the ABA-deficient mutants. Together, these results suggest that ABA acts to curtail the wound-induced synthesis of LebZIP1 mRNA.

  6. Identification of a mouse brain cDNA that encodes a protein related to the Alzheimer disease-associated amyloid beta protein precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Wasco, W; Bupp, K; Magendantz, M; Gusella, J F; Tanzi, R E; Solomon, F

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA from a mouse brain library that encodes a protein whose predicted amino acid sequence is 42% identical and 64% similar to that of the amyloid beta protein precursor (APP). This 653-amino acid protein, which we have termed the amyloid precursor-like protein (APLP), appears to be similar to APP in overall structure as well as amino acid sequence. The amino acid homologies are concentrated within three distinct regions of the two proteins where the identities are 47%, 54%, and 56%. The APLP cDNA hybridizes to two messages of approximately 2.4 and 1.6 kilobases that are present in mouse brain and neuroblastoma cells. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a peptide derived from the C terminus of APLP stain the cytoplasm in a pattern reminiscent of Golgi staining. In addition to APP, APLP also displays significant homology to the Drosophila APP-like protein APPL and a rat testes APP-like protein. These data indicate that the APP gene is a member of a strongly conserved gene family. Studies aimed at determining the functions of the proteins encoded by this gene family should provide valuable clues to their potential role in Alzheimer disease neuropathology. Images PMID:1279693

  7. Cloning and sequence analysis of a full-length cDNA of SmPP1cb encoding turbot protein phosphatase 1 beta catalytic subunit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Fei; Guo, Huarong; Wang, Jian

    2008-02-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation, catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases, is an important and versatile mechanism by which eukaryotic cells regulate almost all the signaling processes. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is the first and well-characterized member of the protein serine/threonine phosphatase family. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the beta isoform of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1(PP1cb), was for the first time isolated and sequenced from the skin tissue of flatfish turbot Scophthalmus maximus, designated SmPP1cb, by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The cDNA sequence of SmPP1cb we obtained contains a 984 bp open reading frame (ORF), flanked by a complete 39 bp 5' untranslated region and 462 bp 3' untranslated region. The ORF encodes a putative 327 amino acid protein, and the N-terminal section of this protein is highly acidic, Met-Ala-Glu-Gly-Glu-Leu-Asp-Val-Asp, a common feature for PP1 catalytic subunit but absent in protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B). And its calculated molecular mass is 37 193 Da and pI 5.8. Sequence analysis indicated that, SmPP1cb is extremely conserved in both amino acid and nucleotide acid levels compared with the PP1cb of other vertebrates and invertebrates, and its Kozak motif contained in the 5'UTR around ATG start codon is GXXAXXGXX ATGG, which is different from mammalian in two positions A-6 and G-3, indicating the possibility of different initiation of translation in turbot, and also the 3'UTR of SmPP1cb is highly diverse in the sequence similarity and length compared with other animals, especially zebrafish. The cloning and sequencing of SmPP1cb gene lays a good foundation for the future work on the biological functions of PP1 in the flatfish turbot.

  8. The human serotonin 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor: Complete cDNA, genomic structure, and alternatively spliced variant

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Enzhong; Zhu, Lingyu; Zhao, Lingyun

    1996-08-01

    The complete 4775-nt cDNA encoding the human serotonin 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor (5-HT{sub 2C}R), a G-protein-coupled receptor, has been isolated. It contains a 1377-nt coding region flanked by a 728-nt 5{prime}-untranslated region and a 2670-nt 3{prime}-untranslated region. By using the cloned 5-HT{sub 2C}R cDNA probe, the complete human gene for this receptor has been isolated and shown to contain six exons and five introns spanning at least 230 kb of DNA. The coding region of the human 5-HT{sub 2C}R gene is interrupted by three introns, and the positions of the intron/exon junctions are conserved between the human and the rodent genes. In addition, an alternatively spliced 5-HT{sub 2C}R RNA that contains a 95-nt deletion in the region coding for the second intracellular loop and the fourth transmembrane domain of the receptor has been identified. This deletion leads to a frameshift and premature termination so that the short isoform RNA encodes a putative protein of 248 amino acids. The ratio for the short isoform over the 5-HT{sub 2C}R RNA was found to be higher in choroid plexus tumor than in normal brain tissue, suggesting the possibility of differential regulation of the 5-HT{sub 2C}R gene in different neural tissues or during tumorigenesis. Transcription of the human 5-HT{sub 2C}R gene was found to be initiated at multiple sites. No classical TATA-box sequence was found at the appropriate location, and the 5{prime}-flanking sequence contains many potential transcription factor-binding sites. A 7.3-kb 5{prime}-flanking 5-HT{sub 2C}R DNA directed the efficient expression of a luciferase reported gene in SK-N-SH and IMR32 neuroblastoma cells, indicating that is contains a functional promoter. 69 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Integrative Annotation of 21,037 Human Genes Validated by Full-Length cDNA Clones

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Tadashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yutaka; O'Donovan, Claire; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Koyanagi, Kanako O.; Barrero, Roberto A.; Tamura, Takuro; Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Tanino, Motohiko; Yura, Kei; Miyazaki, Satoru; Ikeo, Kazuho; Homma, Keiichi; Kasprzyk, Arek; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Hirakawa, Mika; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Ashurst, Jennifer; Jia, Libin; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Thomas, Michael A.; Mulder, Nicola; Karavidopoulou, Youla; Jin, Lihua; Kim, Sangsoo; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Lenhard, Boris; Eveno, Eric; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Yamasaki, Chisato; Takeda, Jun-ichi; Gough, Craig; Hilton, Phillip; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Susumu; Amid, Clara; Bellgard, Matthew; de Fatima Bonaldo, Maria; Bono Hidemasa; Bromberg, Susan K.; Brookes, Anthony J.; Bruford, Elspeth; Carninci Piero; Chelala, Claude; Couillault, Christine; de Souza, Sandro J.; Debily, Marie-Anne; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Dubchak, Inna; Endo, Toshinori; Estreicher, Anne; Eyras, Eduardo; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; Gopinath, Gopal R.; Graudens, Esther; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Han, Michael; Han, Ze-Guang; Hanada, Kousuke; Hanaoka, Hideki; Harada, Erimi; Hashimoto, Katsuyuki; Hinz, Ursula; Hirai, Momoki; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Hopkinson, Ian; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kanapin, Alexander; Kaneko, Yayoi; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kelso, Janet; Kersey, Paul; Kikuno Reiko; Kimura, Kouichi; Korn, Bernhard; Kuryshev, Vladimir; Makalowska, Izabela; Makino Takashi; Mano, Shuhei; Mariage-Samson, Regine; Mashima, Jun; Matsuda, Hideo; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Minoshima, Shinsei; Nagai, Keiichi; Nagasaki, Hideki; Nagata, Naoki; Nigam, Rajni; Ogasawara, Osamu; Ohara, Osamu; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Okada, Norihiro; Okido, Toshihisa; Oota, Satoshi; Ota, Motonori; Ota, Toshio; Otsuki, Tetsuji; Piatier-Tonneau, Dominique; Poustka, Annemarie; Ren, Shuang-Xi; Saitou, Naruya; Sakai, Katsunaga; Sakamoto, Shigetaka; Sakate, Ryuichi; Schupp, Ingo; Servant, Florence; Sherry, Stephen; Shiba Rie; et al.

    2004-01-15

    The human genome sequence defines our inherent biological potential; the realization of the biology encoded therein requires knowledge of the function of each gene. Currently, our knowledge in this area is still limited. Several lines of investigation have been used to elucidate the structure and function of the genes in the human genome. Even so, gene prediction remains a difficult task, as the varieties of transcripts of a gene may vary to a great extent. We thus performed an exhaustive integrative characterization of 41,118 full-length cDNAs that capture the gene transcripts as complete functional cassettes, providing an unequivocal report of structural and functional diversity at the gene level. Our international collaboration has validated 21,037 human gene candidates by analysis of high-quality full-length cDNA clones through curation using unified criteria. This led to the identification of 5,155 new gene candidates. It also manifested the most reliable way to control the quality of the cDNA clones. We have developed a human gene database, called the H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB; http://www.h-invitational.jp/). It provides the following: integrative annotation of human genes, description of gene structures, details of novel alternative splicing isoforms, non-protein-coding RNAs, functional domains, subcellular localizations, metabolic pathways, predictions of protein three-dimensional structure, mapping of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identification of polymorphic microsatellite repeats within human genes, and comparative results with mouse full-length cDNAs. The H-InvDB analysis has shown that up to 4 percent of the human genome sequence (National Center for Biotechnology Information build 34 assembly) may contain misassembled or missing regions. We found that 6.5 percent of the human gene candidates (1,377 loci) did not have a good protein-coding open reading frame, of which 296 loci are strong candidates for nonprotein-coding RNA

  10. Characterization of a Pinus pinaster cDNA encoding an auxin up-regulated putative peroxidase in roots.

    PubMed

    Charvet-Candela, V; Hitchin, S; Reddy, M S; Cournoyer, B; Marmeisse, R; Gay, G

    2002-03-01

    As part of a study to identify host plant genes regulated by fungal auxin during ectomycorrhiza formation, we differentially screened a cDNA library constructed from roots of auxin-treated Pinus pinaster (Ait.) Sol. seedlings. We identified three cDNAs up-regulated by auxin. Sequence analysis of one of these cDNAs, PpPrx75, revealed the presence of an open reading frame of 216 amino acids with the characteristic consensus sequences of plant peroxidases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Arachis hypogaea L. and Stylosanthes humilis HBK cationic peroxidases. Amino acid sequence identities in the conserved domains of plant peroxidases ranged from 60 to 100%. In PpPrx75, there are five cysteine residues and one histidine residue that are found at conserved positions among other peroxidases. A potential glycosylation site (NTS) is present in the deduced sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PpPrx75 is closely related to two A. thaliana peroxidases. The PpPrx75 cDNA was induced by active auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and quercetin, a flavonoid possibly involved in plant-microorganism interactions. Transcript accumulation was detected within 3 h following root induction by auxin, and the amount of mRNA increased over the following 24 h. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide did not inhibit indole-3-acetic acid-induced transcript accumulation, suggesting that PpPrx75 induction is a primary (direct) response to auxin. This cDNA can be used to study expression of an auxin-regulated peroxidase during ectomycorrhiza formation. PMID:11874719

  11. cDNA sequence and chromosomal localization of a novel human protein, RBQ-1 (RBBP6), that binds to the retinoblastoma gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihisa; Saijo, Masafumi; Taya, Yoichi

    1995-11-01

    We have previously isolated cDNA of a novel protein (RBQ-1, HGMW-approved symbol RBBP6) that binds to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB). Total nucleotide sequence of the cDNA has now been determined. It encoded a protein of 140 kDa that consists of 948 amino acids and contains multiple repeated sequences like SRS, YRE, and VPPP. The region used for pRB binding was identified on a small region near the C-terminus. We have mapped this gene to 16p11.2-p12 using polymerase chain reaction analysis on a human-hamster hybrid cell panel and chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Human proviral mRNAs down regulated in choriocarcinoma encode a zinc finger protein related to Krüppel.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, N; Shimotohno, K; VanLeeuwen, D; Cohen, M

    1990-01-01

    RNA transcripts of the HERV-R (ERV3) human provirus that are abundant in placenta but absent in choriocarcinoma contain nonproviral genomic sequences at their 3' ends. We report here the isolation of cDNA clones of these genomic sequences. The transcripts encode a Krüppel-related zinc finger protein consisting of a unique leader region and more than 12 28-amino-acid finger motifs. Images PMID:2115127

  13. Isolation and identification of the cDNA encoding the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide and additional neuropeptides in the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, M Y; Tanaka, M; Kataoka, H; Boo, K S; Tatsuki, S

    1998-10-01

    The present study is concerned with cloning and characterizing Has-PBAN cDNA which is 756 nucleotides long, isolated from the brain and suboesophageal ganglion complex (Br-Sg) of Helicoverpa assulta adults. The 194-amino acid sequence deduced from this cDNA possessed the proteolytic endocleavage sites to generate multiple peptides. From the processing of the prepro-hormone, it can be predicted that the cDNA has a PBAN domain with 33 amino acids and four additional peptide domains: 24 amino acid-, 7 amino acid-, 18 amino acid- and 8 amino acid-long sequences, with FXPR (or K) L (X = G, T or S) amidated at their C-termini. The amino acid sequence of all five predicted peptides, including the PBAN, are identical to that of Helicoverpa zea (Raina, A.K., Jaffe, H., Kempe, T.G., Keim, P., Blacher, R.W., Fales, H.M., Riley, C.T., Klun, J.A., Ridgway, R.L., Hayes, D.K., 1989. Identification of a neuropeptide hormone that regulates sex pheromone production in female moths. Science 244, 796-798 and Ma, P.W.K., Knipple, D.C., Roelofs, W.L., 1994. Structural organization of the Helicoverpa zea gene encoding the precursor protein for pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide and other neuropeptides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 91, 506-510). A single mRNA species corresponding to the size of Has-PBAN cDNA was detected from the Br-Sg of 1-3-day old female and male adults, and their expression was also at a similar level. Pheromone production was induced upon injection of female or male Br-Sg extracts or synthetic PBAN into the haemocoel of decapitated 1-3-day old female adults during the photophase when they are not supposed to produce pheromone. From these results, H. assulta adult females seem to use their own PBAN for regulating sex pheromone biosynthesis. Functions of the four other peptides ending with FXPR (or K) L in the Has-PBAN cDNA and of the male PBAN remain to be elucidated. PMID:9807222

  14. cDNA immunization of mice with human thyroglobulin generates both humoral and T cell responses: a novel model of thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Eric M; Concepcion, Erlinda; Ho, Kenneth; Kopp, Peter; Vono Toniolo, Jussara; Tomer, Yaron

    2011-01-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) represents one of the largest known self-antigens involved in autoimmunity. Numerous studies have implicated it in triggering and perpetuating the autoimmune response in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). Indeed, traditional models of autoimmune thyroid disease, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT), are generated by immunizing mice with thyroglobulin protein in conjunction with an adjuvant, or by high repeated doses of Tg alone, without adjuvant. These extant models are limited in their experimental flexibility, i.e. the ability to make modifications to the Tg used in immunizations. In this study, we have immunized mice with a plasmid cDNA encoding the full-length human Tg (hTG) protein, in order to generate a model of Hashimoto's thyroiditis which is closer to the human disease and does not require adjuvants to breakdown tolerance. Human thyroglobulin cDNA was injected and subsequently electroporated into skeletal muscle using a square wave generator. Following hTg cDNA immunizations, the mice developed both B and T cell responses to Tg, albeit with no evidence of lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid. This novel model will afford investigators the means to test various hypotheses which were unavailable with the previous EAT models, specifically the effects of hTg sequence variations on the induction of thyroiditis. PMID:21559421

  15. Isolation and mapping of human chromosome 21 cDNA: Progress in constructing a chromosome 21 expression map

    SciTech Connect

    Jan-Fang Cheng; Boyartchuk, V.; Zhu Y.

    1994-09-01

    We have isolated 175 cDNA clones from a fetal brain library by direct cDNA selection using genomic DNA isolated from pools of human chromosome 21 (HC21) cosmids. DNA sequences have revealed that 16 of these cDNA clones contain overlapping sequences. Of the other 159 cDNA sequences, 10 match previously identified HC21 genes, and 9 match previously determined cDNA sequences, including the Wilms tumor related transcript (QM), the human testican cDNA, the mammalian calponin cDNA, and 6 anonymous expressed sequence tags. All isolated cDNAs were hybridized to their corresponding cosmids, which suggests that they originated from HC21. We have localized 92 cDNA clones to previously reported HC21q YACs. The remaining unmapped cDNAs contain either sequences not included in the isolated HC21q YACs or sequences that hybridize to yeast DNA. The cDNAs not included in the YACs should be useful in isolating new YACs to bridge the gaps. PCR primers were derived from 4 novel cDNA sequences that had been mapped to the YACs in the suspected Down syndrome region and used in RT-PCR analysis. All 4 primer sequences amplified RNA fragments with the expected sizes, suggesting that these sequences could be used for expression analysis. The construction of a chromosome 21 cDNA map not only is important in the refinement of physical maps, but also will identify a set of genes in the disease regions for detailed characterization. 30 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Characterization of a human glycoprotein with a potential role in sperm-egg fusion: cDNA cloning, immunohistochemical localization, and chromosomal assignment of the gene (AEGL1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masaru; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Takano, Hiroko

    1996-03-05

    Acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG), thus far identified only in rodents, is one of the sperm surface proteins involved in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human glycoprotein related to AEG. Although this protein, designated ARP (AEG-related protein), is not the ortholog of rodent AEG, it resembles AEG in that it is an epididymal secretory glycoprotein that binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head. The fact that no AEG mRNA can be detected in the human epididymis suggests that ARP might be the functional counterpart of rodent AEG. The gene encoding ARP (AEGL1) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 6p21.1-p21.2. This result indicates that AEGL1 and the mouse gene for AEG are located in the chromosomal segments with conserved syntenies. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Gene-expression profiling of human mononuclear cells from welders using cDNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Rim, Kyung Taek; Park, Kun Koo; Kim, Yang Ho; Lee, Yong Hwan; Han, Jeong Hee; Chung, Yong Hyun; Yu, Il Je

    2007-08-01

    A toxicogenomic chip developed to detect welding-related diseases was tested and validated for field trials. To verify the suitability of the microarray, white blood cells (WBC) or whole blood was purified and characterized from 20 subjects in the control group (average work experience of 7 yr) and 20 welders in the welding-fume exposed group (welders with an average work experience of 23 yr). Two hundred and fifty-three rat genes homologous to human genes were obtained and spotted on the chip slide. Meanwhile, a human cDNA chip spotted with 8600 human genes was also used to detect any increased or decreased levels of gene expression among the welders. After comparing the levels of gene expression between the control and welder groups using the toxicogenomic chips, 103 genes were identified as likely to be specifically changed by welding-fume exposure. Eighteen of the 253 rat genes were specifically changed in the welders, while 103 genes from the human cDNA chip were specifically changed. The genes specifically expressed by the welders were associated with inflammatory responses, toxic chemical metabolism, stress proteins, transcription factors, and signal transduction. In contrast, there was no significant change in the genes related to short-term welding-fume exposure, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin. In conclusion, if further validation studies are conducted, the present toxicogenomic gene chips could be used for the effective monitoring of welding-fume-exposure-related diseases among welders. PMID:17654244

  18. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding stearoyl-ACP Δ9-desaturase from the endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Liang, Yuanxue; Zhang, Mengdan; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economically tropical fruit tree with special fatty acid compositions. The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) plays a key role in the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, designated CocoFAD, was isolated from cDNA library prepared from the endosperm of coconut (C. nucifera L.). An 1176 bp cDNA from overlapped PCR products containing ORF encoding a 391-amino acid (aa) protein was obtained. The coded protein was virtually identical and shared the homology to other Δ9-desaturase plant sequences (greater than 80% as similarity to that of Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR result indicated that the yield of CocoFAD was the highest in the endosperm of 8-month-old coconut and leaf, and the yield was reduced to 50% of the highest level in the endosperm of 15-month-old coconut. The coding region showed heterologous expression in strain INVSc1 of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). GC-MS analysis showed that the levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) were improved significantly; meanwhile stearic acid (18:0) was reduced. These results indicated that the plastidial Δ9 desaturase from the endosperm of coconut was involved in the biosynthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid, which was similar with other plants. These results may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of fatty acid metabolism and the genetic improvement of CocoFAD gene in palm plants in the future. PMID:25038276

  19. Identification of cDNA clones encoding valosin-containing protein and other plant plasma membrane-associated proteins by a general immunoscreening strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, J; Dixon, R A; Gonzales, R A; Kjellbom, P; Bhattacharyya, M K

    1995-01-01

    An approach was developed for the isolation and characterization of soybean plasma membrane-associated proteins by immunoscreening of a cDNA expression library. An antiserum was raised against purified plasma membrane vesicles. In a differential screening of approximately 500,000 plaque-forming units with the anti-(plasma membrane) serum and DNA probes derived from highly abundant clones isolated in a preliminary screening, 261 clones were selected from approximately 1,200 antiserum-positive plaques. These clones were classified into 40 groups by hybridization analysis and 5'- and 3'-terminal sequencing. By searching nucleic acid and protein sequence data bases, 11 groups of cDNAs were identified, among which valosin-containing protein (VCP), clathrin heavy chain, phospholipase C, and S-adenosylmethionine:delta 24-sterol-C-methyltransferase have not to date been cloned from plants. The remaining 29 groups did not match any current data base entries and may, therefore, represent additional or yet uncharacterized genes. A full-length cDNA encoding the soybean VCP was sequenced. The high level of amino acid identity with vertebrate VCP and yeast CDC48 protein indicates that the soybean protein is a plant homolog of vertebrate VCP and yeast CDC48 protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7753826

  20. From Plant Extract to a cDNA Encoding a Glucosyltransferase Candidate: Proteomics and Transcriptomics as Tools to Help Elucidate Saponin Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Fernanda; Barber, Carla J S; Reed, Darwin W; Covello, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae), a small annual plant that grows in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and other parts of Asia, is well-known as a medicinal herb with a long history of therapeutic uses. The bioactive compounds present in C. asiatica leaves include ursane-type triterpene sapogenins and saponins-asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside. Various bioactivities have been shown for these compounds, although most of the steps in the biosynthesis of triterpene saponins, including glycosylation, remain uncharacterized at the molecular level. This chapter describes an approach that integrates partial enzyme purification, proteomics methods, and transcriptomics, with the aim of reducing the number of cDNA candidates encoding for a glucosyltransferase involved in saponin biosynthesis and facilitating the elucidation of the pathway in this medicinal plant. PMID:26843164

  1. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a surface antigen of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula recognized by sera of vassinated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, J.P.; Tom, T.D.; Strand, M.

    1987-06-01

    Spleen cells of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used to produce monoclonal antibodies directed against newly transformed schistosomular surface antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies recognized a polypeptide of 18 kDa. Binding was measured by radioimmunoassay. This glycoprotein was purified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against it. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the polyclonal antiserum bound to the surface of newly transformed schistosomula and lung-stage organisms but not to the surface of liver-stage and adult worms. Using this polyclonal antiserum we isolated recombinant clones from an adult worm cDNA expression library constructed in lambdagt11. Clone 654.2 contained an insert of 0.52 kilobase and hybridized to a 1.2-kilobase mRNA species from adult worms. Most importantly, clone 654.2 produced a fusion protein of 125 kDa that was reactive with sera of vaccinated mice that are capable of transferring resistance. This result encourages future vaccination trials with the fusion protein.

  2. Human synaptonemal complex protein 1 (SCP1): Isolation and characterization of the cDNA and chromosomal localization of the gene

    SciTech Connect

    Meuwissen, R.L.J.; Meerts, I.; Heyting, C.

    1997-02-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) are structures that are formed between homologous chromosomes (homologs) during meiotic prophase. They consist of two proteinaceous axes, one along each homolog, that are connected along their length by numerous transverse filaments (TFs). The cDNA encoding one major component of TFs of SCs of the rat, rnSCP1, has recently been isolated and characterized. In this paper we describe the isolation and characterization of the cDNA encoding the human protein homologous to rnSCP1, hsSCP1. hsSCP1 and rnSCP1 have 75% amino acid identity. The most prominent structural features and amino acid sequence motifs of rnSCP1 have been conserved in hsSCP1. Most probably, hsSCP1 is functionally homologous to rnSCP1. The hsSCP1 gene was assigned to human chromosome 1p12-p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 44 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, J.L.; Driscoll, C.E.; LeVan, K.M.; Goldberg, E.

    1987-08-01

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHC/sub 4/, LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD/sup +/ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27) has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC/sub 4/ is as different from rodent LDHC/sub 4/ (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA/sub 4/ (76% homology) and porcine LDHB/sub 4/ (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC/sub 4/ and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC/sub 4/ reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC/sub 4/ sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine.

  4. Localization of the human fibromodulin gene (FMOD) to chromosome 1q32 and completion of the cDNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Sztrolovics, R.; Grover, J.; Roughley, P.J.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the cloning of the 3{prime}-untranslated region of the human fibromodulin cDNA and its use to map the gene. For somatic cell hybrids, the generation of the PCR product was concordant with the presence of chromosome 1 and discordant with the presence of all other chromosomes, confirming that the fibromodulin gene is located within region q32 of chromosome 1. The physical mapping of genes is a critical step in the process of identifying which genes may be responsible for various inherited disorders. Specifically, the mapping of the fibromodulin gene now provides the information necessary to evaluate its potential role in genetic disorders of connective tissues. The analysis of previously reported diseases mapped to chromosome 1 reveals two genes located in the proximity of the fibromodulin locus. These are Usher syndrome type II, a recessive disorder characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, and Van der Woude syndrome, a dominant condition associated with abnormalities such as cleft lip and palate and hyperdontia. The genes for both of these disorders have been projected to be localized to 1q32 of a physical map that integrates available genetic linkage and physical data. However, it seems improbable that either of these disorders, exhibiting restricted tissue involvement, could be linked to the fibromodulin gene, given the wide tissue distribution of the encoded proteoglycan, although it remains possible that the relative importance of the quantity and function of the proteoglycan may avry between tissues. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Human thyroid peroxidase: complete cDNA and protein sequence, chromosome mapping, and identification of two alternately spliced mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, S.; Kotani, T.; McBride, O.W.; Umeki, K.; Hirai, K.; Nakayama, T.; Ohtaki, S.

    1987-08-01

    Two forms of human thyroid peroxidase cDNAs were isolated from a lambdagt11 cDNA library, prepared from Graves disease thyroid tissue mRNA, by use of oligonucleotides. The longest complete cDNA, designated phTPO-1, has 3048 nucleotides and an open reading frame consisting of 933 amino acids, which would encode a protein with a molecular weight of 103,026. Five potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites are found in the deduced amino acid sequence. The second peroxidase cDNA, designated phTPO-2, is almost identical to phTPO-1 beginning 605 base pairs downstream except that it contains 1-base-pair difference and lacks 171 base pairs in the middle of the sequence. This results in a loss of 57 amino acids corresponding to a molecular weight of 6282. Interestingly, this 171-nucleotide sequence has GT and AG at its 5' and 3' boundaries, respectively, that are in good agreement with donor and acceptor splice site consensus sequences. Using specific oligonucleotide probes for the mRNAs derived from the cDNA sequences hTOP-1 and hTOP-2, the authors show that both are expressed in all thyroid tissues examined and the relative level of two mRNAs is different in each sample. The results suggest that two thyroid peroxidase proteins might be generated through alternate splicing of the same gene. By using somatic cell hybrid lines, the thyroid peroxidase gene was mapped to the short arm of human chromosome 2.

  6. A human alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH6) encoding an additional class of isozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Yasunami, M; Chen, C S; Yoshida, A

    1991-01-01

    The human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) gene family consists of five known loci (ADH1-ADH5), which have been mapped close together on chromosome 4 (4q21-25). ADH isozymes encoded by these genes are grouped in three distinct classes in terms of their enzymological properties. A moderate structural similarity is observed between the members of different classes. We isolated an additional member of the ADH gene family by means of cross-hybridization with the ADH2 (class I) cDNA probe. cDNA clones corresponding to this gene were derived from PCR-amplified libraries as well. The coding sequence of a 368-amino-acid-long open reading frame was interrupted by introns into eight exons and spanned approximately 17 kilobases on the genome. The gene contains a glucocorticoid response element at the 5' region. The transcript was detected in the stomach and liver. The deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frame showed about 60% positional identity with known human ADHs. This extent of homology is comparable to interclass similarity in the human ADH family. Thus, the newly identified gene, which is designated ADH6, governs the synthesis of an enzyme that belongs to another class of ADHs presumably with a distinct physiological role. Images PMID:1881901

  7. Human type VII collagen: cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of the gene

    SciTech Connect

    Parente, M.G.; Chung, L.C.; Ryynaenen, J.; Monli Chu; Uitto, J. ); Woodley, D.T.; Wynn, K.C.; Bauer, E.A. ); Mattei, M.G. )

    1991-08-15

    A human keratinocyte cDNA expression library in bacteriophage {lambda}gt11 was screened with the purified IgG fraction of serum from a patient with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, which had a high titer of anti-type VII collagen antibodies. Screening of {approx}3 {times} 10{sup 5} plaques identified 8 positive clones, the largest one (K-131) being {approx}1.9 kilobases in size. Dideoxynucleotide sequencing of K-131 indicated that it consisted of 1875 base pairs and contained an open reading frame coding for a putative N-terminal noncollagenous domain of 439 amino acids and a collagenous domain was characterized by repeating Gly-Xaa-Yaa sequences that were interrupted in several positions by insertions or deletions of 1-3 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence also revealed a peptide segment that had a high degree of identity with a published type VII collagen protein sequence. The results mapped the COL7A1 to the locus 3p21. The cDNA clones characterized in this study will be valuable for understanding the protein structure and gene expression of type VII collagen present in anchoring fibrils and its aberrations in the dystrophic forms of heritable epidermolysis bullosa.

  8. The KUP gene, located on human chromosome 14, encodes a protein with two distant zinc fingers.

    PubMed Central

    Chardin, P; Courtois, G; Mattei, M G; Gisselbrecht, S

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated a human cDNA (kup), encoding a new protein with two distantly spaced zinc fingers of the C2H2 type. This gene is highly conserved in mammals and is expressed mainly in hematopoietic cells and testis. Its expression was not higher in the various transformed cells tested than in the normal corresponding tissues. The kup gene is located in region q23-q24 of the long arm of human chromosome 14. The kup protein is 433 a.a. long, has a M.W. close to 50 kD and binds to DNA. Although the structure of the kup protein is unusual, the isolated fingers resemble closely those of the Krüppel family, suggesting that this protein is also a transcription factor. The precise function and DNA motif recognized by the kup protein remain to be determined. Images PMID:2027750

  9. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of a novel human GAP (GAP1M), GTPase-activating protein of Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shaowei; Nakamura, Shun; Hattori, Seisuke

    1996-08-01

    We have previously isolated a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras GAP), Gapl{sup m}, from rat brain. Gap1{sup m} is considered to be a negative regulator of the Ras signaling pathways, like other Ras GAPs, neurofibromin, which is a gene product of the neurofibromatosis type I gene, and p120GAP. In this study we have isolated a human cDNA of this Gap and mapped the gene. The gene encodes a protein of 853 amino acids that shows 89% sequence identity to rat Gapl{sup m}. The human gene was mapped to chromosome 3 by PCR analysis on a panel of human-mouse hybrid cells. FISH analysis refined the location of the gene further to 3q22-q23. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Cloning of murine interferon gamma receptor cDNA: expression in human cells mediates high-affinity binding but is not sufficient to confer sensitivity to murine interferon gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Hemmi, S; Peghini, P; Metzler, M; Merlin, G; Dembic, Z; Aguet, M

    1989-01-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding the murine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) receptor was isolated from a lambda gt11 library using a human IFN-gamma receptor cDNA probe. The deduced amino acid sequence of the murine IFN-gamma receptor shows approximately 53% homology to its human counterpart but no homology to other known proteins. Murine IFN-gamma receptor cDNA was expressed in human HEp-2 cells, which do not bind murine IFN-gamma and are insensitive to its action. Transfectants displayed the same binding properties as mouse cells. The biological responsiveness of such transfectants to various biological effects of both human and murine IFN-gamma was investigated, including modulation of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigen expression, inhibition of cell growth, and antiviral activity. Like parental HEp-2 cells, these transfectants responded only to human, but not to murine, IFN-gamma. Inversely, mouse L929 cells transfected with human IFN-gamma receptor cDNA were insensitive to human IFN-gamma. These results confirm and extend previous findings, suggesting that species-specific cofactors are needed for IFN-gamma-mediated signal transduction. Images PMID:2532365

  11. Cloning of the cDNA encoding adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase 1 and its mRNA expression in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Keyong; Sun, Shujuan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    AMP deaminase catalyzes the conversion of AMP into IMP and ammonia. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of AMPD1 from skeletal muscle of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was cloned and characterized. The 2 526 bp cDNA contains a 5'-UTR of 78 bp, a 3'-UTR of 237 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 211 bp, which encodes a protein of 736 amino acids. The predicted protein contains a highly conserved AMP deaminase motif (SLSTDDP) and an ATP-binding site sequence (EPLMEEYAIAAQVFK). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AMPD1 and AMPD3 genes originate from the same branch, but are evolutionarily distant from the AMPD2 gene. RT-PCR showed that the flounder AMPD1 gene was expressed only in skeletal muscle. QRT-PCR analysis revealed a statistically significant 2.54 fold higher level of AMPD1 mRNA in adult muscle (750±40 g) compared with juvenile muscle (7.5±2 g) ( P<0.05). HPLC analysis showed that the IMP content in adult muscle (3.35±0.21 mg/g) was also statistically significantly higher than in juvenile muscle (1.08±0.04 mg/g) ( P<0.05). There is a direct relationship between the AMPD1 gene expression level and IMP content in the skeletal muscle of juvenile and adult flounders. These results may provide useful information for quality improvement and molecular breeding of aquatic animals.

  12. Cloning, expression and protective immunity evaluation of the full-length cDNA encoding succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur protein of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Yu, JunLong; Wang, ShiPing; Li, WenKai; Dai, Gan; Xu, ShaoRui; He, Zhuo; Peng, XianChu; Zhou, SongHua; Liu, XueQin

    2007-04-01

    1071-bp fragment was obtained from the Schistosoma japonicum (Chinese strain) adult cDNA library after the 3' and 5' ends of the incomplete expression sequence tag (EST) of succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur protein of Schistosoma japonicum (SjSDISP) were amplified by the anchored PCR with 2 pairs of primers designed according to the EST of SjSDISP and the sequence of multiclone sites of the library vector. Sequence analysis indicated that the fragment was a full-length cDNA with a complete open reading frame (ORF), encoding 278 amino acid residues. The fragment was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pQE30, and subsequently sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE and Western-blot analyses showed that the recombinant protein was about 32 kD and could be recognized by the polyclonal antisera from rabbits immunized with Schistosoma japonicum adult worm antigen. Compared with the FCA controls, mice vaccinated with rSjSDISP (test) or rSjGST (positive control) all revealed high levels of specific antibody and significant reduction in worm burden, liver eggs per gram (LEPG), fecal eggs per gram (FEPG) and intrauterine eggs. These results suggest that SjSDISP may be a novel and partially protective vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis. In contrast to the worm burden reduction rate, the higher degree of egg reduction rate in the test group also suggested that SjSDISP vaccine may primarily play a role in anti-embryonation or anti-fecundity immunity. PMID:17447029

  13. Molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human GDP-L-fucose:. beta. -D-galactoside 2-. alpha. -L-fucosyltransferase cDNA that can form the H blood group antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.D.; Ernst, L.K.; Nair, R.P.; Lowe, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The authors have previously used a gene-transfer scheme to isolate a human genomic DNA fragment that determines expression of a GDP-L-fucose:{beta}D-galactoside 2-{alpha}-L-fucosyltransferase. Although this fragment determined expression of an {alpha}(1,2)FT whose kinetic properties mirror those of the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT, their precise nature remained undefined. They describe here the molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human of cDNA corresponding to these human genomic sequences. When expressed in COS-1 cells, the cDNA directs expression of cell surface H structures and a cognate {alpha}(1,2)FT activity with properties analogous to the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT. The cDNA sequence predicts a 365-amino acid polypeptide characteristic of a type II transmembrane glycoprotein with a domain structure analogous to that of other glycosyltransferases but without significant primary sequence similarity to these or other known proteins. To directly demonstrate that the cDNA encodes an {alpha}(1,2)FT, the COOH-terminal domain predicted to be Golgi-resident was expressed in COS-1 cells as a catalytically active, secreted, and soluble protein A fusion peptide. Southern blot analysis showed that this cDNA identified DNA sequences syntenic to the human H locus on chromosome 19. These results strongly suggest that this cloned {alpha}(1,2)FT cDNA represents the product of the human H blood group locus.

  14. Cloning of human genes encoding novel G protein-coupled receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Marchese, A.; Docherty, J.M.; Heiber, M.

    1994-10-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of several novel human genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors. Each of the receptors contained the familiar seven transmembrane topography and most closely resembled peptide binding receptors. Gene GPR1 encoded a receptor protein that is intronless in the coding region and that shared identity (43% in the transmembrane regions) with the opioid receptors. Northern blot analysis revealed that GPR1 transcripts were expressed in the human hippocampus, and the gene was localized to chromosome 15q21.6. Gene GPR2 encoded a protein that most closely resembled an interleukin-8 receptor (51% in the transmembrane regions), and this gene, not expressed in the six brain regions examined, was localized to chromosome 17q2.1-q21.3. A third gene, GPR3, showed identity (56% in the transmembrane regions) with a previously characterized cDNA clone from rat and was localized to chromosome 1p35-p36.1. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. cDNA sequences of variant forms of human placenta diamine oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Kim, J.; McIntire, S.

    1995-08-01

    Genes for two forms of human placenta diamine oxidase (dao) were cloned from a cDNA library and sequenced. One gene, pdao1, is identical in length to human kidney dao but differs from it by two bases in the coding region and differs slightly in the 3{prime} - and 5{prime}-noncoding regions. The second gene, pdao2, is nearly identical to these genes in the coding region, except that it has an extra 57-nucleotide coding segment near the 3{prime} end of this region. This segment corresponds to the contiguous sequence of the 3{prime} end of intron 3 of human kidney dao. pdao2 also differs significantly from pdao1 and human kidney dao in a 13-base sequence in the t{prime}-noncoding region. It is proposed that pdao1 and human kidney dao are polymorphic forms of the same allele. Whether pdao2 is a polymorph of these two is not certain, because of the significant differences in the coding and noncoding regions. pdao2 may represent a different allele. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Human acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins P0, P1, and P2: Analysis of cDNA clones, in vitro synthesis, and assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, B.E.; Steitz, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    cDNA clones encoding three antigenically related human ribosomal phosophoproteins (P-proteins) P0, P1, and P2 were isolated and sequenced. P1 and P2 are analogous to Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L7/L12, and P0 is likely to be an analog of L10. The three proteins have a nearly identical carboxy-terminal 17-amino-acid sequence (KEESEESD(D/E)DMGFGLFD-COOH) that is the basis of their immunological cross-reactivity. The identifies of the P1 and P2 cDNAs were confirmed by the strong similarities of their encoded amino acid sequences to published primary structures of the homologous rat, brine shrimp, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. The P0 cDNA was initially identified by translation of hybrid-selected mRNA and immunoprecipitation of the products. To demonstrate that the coding sequences are full length, the P0, P1, and P2 cDNAs were transcribed in vitro by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the resulting mRNAs were translated in vitro. The synthetic P0, P1, and P2 proteins were serologically and electrophoretically identical to P-proteins extracted from HeLa cells. These synthetic P-proteins were incorporated into 60S but not 40S ribosomes and also assembled into a complex similar to that described for E. coli L7/L12 and L10.

  17. A human cDNA library for high-throughput protein expression screening.

    PubMed

    Büssow, K; Nordhoff, E; Lübbert, C; Lehrach, H; Walter, G

    2000-04-01

    We have constructed a human fetal brain cDNA library in an Escherichia coli expression vector for high-throughput screening of recombinant human proteins. Using robot technology, the library was arrayed in microtiter plates and gridded onto high-density filter membranes. Putative expression clones were detected on the filters using an antibody against the N-terminal sequence RGS-His(6) of fusion proteins. Positive clones were rearrayed into a new sublibrary, and 96 randomly chosen clones were analyzed. Expression products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, affinity purification, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the determined protein masses were compared to masses predicted from DNA sequencing data. It was found that 66% of these clones contained inserts in a correct reading frame. Sixty-four percent of the correct reading frame clones comprised the complete coding sequence of a human protein. High-throughput microtiter plate methods were developed for protein expression, extraction, purification, and mass spectrometric analyses. An enzyme assay for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in native extracts was adapted to the microtiter plate format. Our data indicate that high-throughput screening of an arrayed protein expression library is an economical way of generating large numbers of clones producing recombinant human proteins for structural and functional analyses. PMID:10777659

  18. Characterization of a novel growth hormone receptor-encoding cDNA in rainbow trout and regulation of its expression by nutritional state.

    PubMed

    Walock, Chad N; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Sheridan, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the divergence of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) family, we characterized a novel GHR from a teleost fish (rainbow trout). A 2357-nt cDNA was isolated and found to contain a single initiation site 71 nt from the most 5' end, an open reading frame of 1971 nt encoding a 657-amino acid protein, and a single polyadenylation site 229 nt from the poly-A tail. Based on structural analysis, the protein was identified as a type 1 GHR (GHR1). The new GHR1 shares 42% and 43% amino acid identity, respectively, with GHR2a and GHR2b, the two type 2 GHRs isolated from trout previously. GHR1 mRNA was found in a wide array of tissues with the highest expression in the liver, red muscle, and white muscle. Fasting animals for 4 weeks reduced steady state levels of GHR1 in the liver, adipose, and red muscle. These findings help clarify the divergence and nomenclature of GHRs and provide insight into the function of duplicated GHR types. PMID:24080484

  19. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding epitopes shared by 15- and 60-kilodalton proteins of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, M C; Fayer, R; Tilley, M; Upton, S J

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA (CP15/60) encoding epitopes of Cryptosporidium parvum 15- and 60-kDa sporozoite proteins was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli toward the goal of developing an immunogen for producing high-titer anticryptosporidial colostrum. Antisera prepared in rats to native C. parvum 15-kDa protein and used to identify the CP15/60 bacteriophage clone recognized both 15- and 60-kDa in vitro translation products derived from sporozoite RNA. Antisera specific for recombinant CP15/60 antigen recognized native 15- and 60-kDa C. parvum sporozoite proteins by immunoblotting and identified both surface and internal antigens on C. parvum sporozoites by immunofluorescence staining. Northern (RNA) and Southern blot hybridization experiments using sporozoite RNA and DNA indicated that CP15/60 DNA is transcribed as a single 1.4-kb RNA species from a single-copy gene. Recombinant CP15/60 antigen was recognized by hyperimmune colostrum from cows immunized with C. parvum oocyst-sporozoite protein and by convalescent-phase sera from C. parvum-infected calves. Images PMID:7684726

  20. Primary structure and functional expression of a cDNA encoding the bile canalicular, purine-specific Na(+)-nucleoside cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Che, M; Ortiz, D F; Arias, I M

    1995-06-01

    We previously characterized a purine-specific Na(+)-nucleoside cotransport system in bile canalicular membrane. The function of this transport system may be related to conserving nucleosides and preventing cholestasis. We report here the isolation of a cDNA encoding a Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporter from rat liver using an expression cloning strategy. The substrate specificities and kinetic characteristics of the cloned cotransporter are consistent with the properties of the Na(+)-dependent, purine-selective nucleoside transporter in bile canalicular membranes. The nucleotide sequence predicts a protein of 659 amino acids (72 kDa) with 14 putative membrane-spanning domains. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcripts are present in liver and several other tissues. Data base searches indicate significant sequence similarity to the pyrimidine-selective nucleoside transporter (cNT1) of rat jejunum. Although these two subtypes of Na(+)-nucleoside cotransporter have different substrate specificities and tissue localizations, they are members of a single gene family. PMID:7775409

  1. Mitochondrial HMG to CoA synthase (mHS): cDNA cloning in human, mouse and C. elegans, mapping to human chromosome 1p12-13 and partial human genomic cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Boukaftane, Y.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A. |

    1994-09-01

    mHS catalyzes the rate-limiting first step of ketogenesis in the liver. A cytoplasmic HS isozyme, encoded by another gene, catalyzes an early step in cholesterol synthesis. Starting from a rat mHS cDNA obtained by RT-PCR from the published rat cDNA sequence, we obtained and sequenced human and mouse cDNAs spanning the entire coding sequence of natural human and mouse mHS, as well as sequencing C. elegans HS-like cDNA. Consensus sequences for 3 mitochondrial and 4 cytoplasmic HSs were created and compared to invertebrate HS sequences. We found high conversation in the active site and at other regions presumably important for HS function. We mapped the mHS locus, HMGCS2 by in situ hybridization to chromosome 1P12-13, in contrast to the human cHS locus (HMGCS1) known to be on chromosome 5p13. Comparative mapping results suggest that these two chromosomal regions may be contiguous in other species, constant with a recent gene duplication event. Furthermore, we have characterized a human genomic mHS subclone containing 4 mHS exons, and found the position of all splice junctions to be identical to that of the hamster cHS gene except for one site in the 3{prime} nontranslated region. We calculate that the mHS and cHS genes were derived from a common ancestor 400-700 Myrs ago, implying that ketogenesis from fat may have become possible around the time of emergence of vertebrates ({approximately}500 Myr ago). Ketogenesis has evolved into an important pathway of energy metabolism, and we predict the mHS deficiency may prove to be responsible for some as yet explained cases of Reye-like syndromes in humans. This hypothesis can now be tested at the molecular level without the necessity of obtaining hepatic tissue.

  2. Phonetic Feature Encoding in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG. PMID:24482117

  3. [Cloning and characterization of a novel mouse short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases cDNA mHsdl2#, encoding a protein with a SDR domaid and a SCP2 domain].

    PubMed

    Dai, J; Li, P; Ji, Ch; Feng, C; Gui, M; Sun, Y; Zhang, J; Zhu, J; Dou, Ch; Gu, Sh

    2005-01-01

    The short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) play important roles in body's metabolism. We cloned a novel mouse SDR cDNA which encodes a deduced HSD-like protein with a conserved SDR domain and a SCP2 domain. The 1.8 kb cDNA consists of 11 exons and is mapped to mouse chromosome 4B3. The corresponding gene is widely expressed in normal mouse tissues and its expression level in liver increases after inducement with cholesterol food. The predicted mouse HSDL2 protein, which has a peroxisomal target signal, is localized in the cytoplasm of NIH 3T3 cells. PMID:16240713

  4. Cloning of Human IgG Fc cDNA and Expression of Whole Human Anti-HBsAg Antibody in CHO Cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yi-Gang; Xu, Jing; Liu, Guo-Qi; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Cheng, Wan-Rong; Liu, Shu-Ling; Wang, Hai-Tao

    2000-01-01

    Messenger RNA was extracted from human peripheral lymphocytes and first strand cDNA was prepared by reverse-transciption. The cDNA of Fc fragment of human IgG1 was then obtained by PCR and was cloned into the pGEM T-vector. The DNA sequences encoding signal peptides of both light and heavy chains were synthesized and cloned respectively. For construction of the light chain expression plasmid, the light chain signal sequence was linked with the light chain variable and constant regions (VL-CL) which had been cloned previously by screening of phage display libraries with HBsAg. The resulting full-lenth light chain sequence was then inserted into pcDNA3.1, a mammalian expression vector. For construction of the heavy chain expression plasmid, the heavy chain signal sequence, the variable region, the first constant region (VH-CH1, cloned previously by screening of phage display libraries with HBsAg) and Fc fragment sequence were ligated to form a full-length heavy chain ORF, which was then cloned into another mammalian expression vector, pCI-DHFR1. CHO(dhfr(-)) cells were cotransfected with the above light and heavy chain expression plasmids, and cell clones expressing human anti-HBsAg antibodies were selected by G418 and methotrexate (MTX). The recombinant human antibodies were purified with protein L affinity chromatography from the cell culture medium. As human serum IgG, the recombinant IgG exhibited only one band with a molecular weight of more than 100 kD in non-reducing SDS-PAGE in reducing SDS-PAGE, however, it turned out to be two bands of approximately 50 kD and 25 kD respectively. Western-blot analysis demonstrated that the whole IgG in the non-reducing SDS-PAGE, and the heavy chain in the reducing SDS-PAGE both reacted with goat anti-human Fc antiserum. PMID:12075430

  5. The Human Brain Encodes Event Frequencies While Forming Subjective Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    d’Acremont, Mathieu; Schultz, Wolfram; Bossaerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To make adaptive choices, humans need to estimate the probability of future events. Based on a Bayesian approach, it is assumed that probabilities are inferred by combining a priori, potentially subjective, knowledge with factual observations, but the precise neurobiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we study whether neural encoding centers on subjective posterior probabilities, and data merely lead to updates of posteriors, or whether objective data are encoded separately alongside subjective knowledge. During fMRI, young adults acquired prior knowledge regarding uncertain events, repeatedly observed evidence in the form of stimuli, and estimated event probabilities. Participants combined prior knowledge with factual evidence using Bayesian principles. Expected reward inferred from prior knowledge was encoded in striatum. BOLD response in specific nodes of the default mode network (angular gyri, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex) encoded the actual frequency of stimuli, unaffected by prior knowledge. In this network, activity increased with frequencies and thus reflected the accumulation of evidence. In contrast, Bayesian posterior probabilities, computed from prior knowledge and stimulus frequencies, were encoded in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Here activity increased for improbable events and thus signaled the violation of Bayesian predictions. Thus, subjective beliefs and stimulus frequencies were encoded in separate cortical regions. The advantage of such a separation is that objective evidence can be recombined with newly acquired knowledge when a reinterpretation of the evidence is called for. Overall this study reveals the coexistence in the brain of an experience-based system of inference and a knowledge-based system of inference. PMID:23804108

  6. Genetically encoded optical activation of DNA recombination in human cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Arbely, E; Zhang, J; Chou, C; Uprety, R; Chin, J W; Deiters, A

    2016-06-30

    We developed two tightly regulated, light-activated Cre recombinase enzymes through site-specific incorporation of two genetically-encoded photocaged amino acids in human cells. Excellent optical off to on switching of DNA recombination was achieved. Furthermore, we demonstrated precise spatial control of Cre recombinase through patterned illumination. PMID:27277957

  7. Cloning of cDNAs that encode human mast cell carboxypeptidase A, and comparison of the protein with mouse mast cell carboxypeptidase A and rat pancreatic carboxypeptidases

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.S.; Gurley, D.S.; Stevens, R.L.; Austen, K.F.; Serafin, W.E. Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA ); Sugarbaker, D.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Human skin and lung mast cells and rodent peritoneal cells contain a carboxypeptidase in their secretory granules. The authors have screened human lung cDNA libraries with a mouse mast cell carboxypeptidase A (MC-CPA) cDNA probe to isolate a near-full-length cDNA that encodes human MC-CPA. The 5{prime} end of the human MC-CPA transcript was defined by direct mRNA sequencing and by isolation and partial sequencing of the human MC-CPA gene. Human MC-CPA is predicted to be translated as a 417 amino acid preproenzyme which includes a 15 amino acid signal peptide and a 94-amino acid activation peptide. The mature human MC-CPA enzyme has a predicted size of 36.1 kDa, a net positive charge of 16 at neutral pH, and 86% amino acid sequence identity with mouse MC-CPA. DNA blot analyses showed that human MC-CPA mRNA is transcribed from a single locus in the human genome. Comparison of the human MC-CPA with mouse MC-CPA and with three rat pancreatic carboxypeptidases shows that these enzymes are encoded by distinct but homologous genes.

  8. Identification of a cDNA for a human high-molecular-weight B-cell growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Ambrus, J L; Pippin, J; Joseph, A; Xu, C; Blumenthal, D; Tamayo, A; Claypool, K; McCourt, D; Srikiatchatochorn, A; Ford, R J

    1993-01-01

    Proliferation is necessary for many of the phenotypic changes that occur during B-cell maturation. Further differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells or memory B cells requires additional rounds of proliferation. In this manuscript, we describe a cDNA for a human B-cell growth factor we call high-molecular-weight B-cell growth factor (HMW-BCGF). Purified HMW-BCGF has been shown to induce B-cell proliferation, inhibit immunoglobulin secretion, and selectively expand certain B-cell subpopulations. Studies using antibodies to HMW-BCGF and its receptor have suggested that HMW-BCGF, while produced by T cells and some malignant B cells, acts predominantly on normal and malignant B cells. The HMW-BCGF cDNA was identified by expression cloning using a monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antisera to HMW-BCGF. Protein produced from the cDNA induced B-cell proliferation, inhibited immunoglobulin secretion, and was recognized in immunoblots by anti-HMW-BCGF antibodies. The amino acid sequence of HMW-BCGF deduced from the cDNA predicts a secreted protein of 53 kDa with three potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The identification of this cDNA will allow further studies examining physiologic roles of this cytokine. We propose to call it interleukin 14. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8327514

  9. The human U1-70K snRNP protein: cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, expression, alternative splicing and RNA-binding.

    PubMed Central

    Spritz, R A; Strunk, K; Surowy, C S; Hoch, S O; Barton, D E; Francke, U

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced cDNA clones encoding the human U1-70K snRNP protein, and have mapped this locus (U1AP1) to human chromosome 19. The gene produces two size classes of RNA, a major 1.7-kb RNA and a minor 3.9-kb RNA. The 1.7-kb species appears to be the functional mRNA; the role of the 3.9-kb RNA, which extends further in the 5' direction, is unclear. The actual size of the hU1-70K protein is probably 52 kd, rather than 70 kd. The protein contains three regions similar to known nucleic acid-binding proteins, and it binds RNA in an in vitro assay. Comparison of the cDNA sequences indicates that there are multiple subclasses of mRNA that arise by alternative pre-mRNA splicing of at least four alternative exon segments. This suggests that multiple forms of the hU1-70K protein may exist, possibly with different functions in vivo. Images PMID:2447561

  10. Characterization of cDNA clones for human myeloperoxidase: predicted amino acid sequence and evidence for multiple mRNA species.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K R; Nauseef, W M; Care, A; Wheelock, M J; Shane, S; Hudson, S; Koeffler, H P; Selsted, M; Miller, C; Rovera, G

    1987-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is a component of the microbicidal network of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The enzyme is a tetramer consisting of two heavy and two light subunits. A large proportion of humans demonstrate genetic deficiencies in the production of myeloperoxidase. As a first step in analyzing these deficiencies in more detail, we have isolated cDNA clones for myeloperoxidase from an expression library of the HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. Two overlapping plasmids (pMP02 and pMP062) were identified as myeloperoxidase cDNA clones based on the detection with myeloperoxidase antiserum of 70 kDa protein expressed in pMP02-containing bacteria and a 75 kDa polypeptide produced by hybridization selection and translation using pMP062 and HL-60 RNA. Formal identification of the clones was made by matching the predicted amino acid sequences with the amino terminal sequences of the heavy and light subunits. Both subunits are encoded by one mRNA in the following order: pre-pro-sequences--light subunit--heavy subunit. The molecular weight of the predicted primary translation product is 83.7 kDa. Northern blots reveal two size classes of hybridizing RNAs (approximately 3.0-3.3 and 3.5-4.0 kilobases) whose expression is restricted to cells of the granulocytic lineage and parallels the changes in enzymatic activity observed during differentiation. Images PMID:3031585

  11. CDNA cloning of p112, the largest regulatory subunit of the human 26s proteasome, and functional analysis of its yeast homologue, sen3p.

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, K; Kagawa, S; Shimizu, Y; Akioka, H; Tsurumi, C; Noda, C; Fujimuro, M; Yokosawa, H; Fujiwara, T; Takahashi, E; Ohba, M; Yamasaki, M; DeMartino, G N; Slaughter, C A; Toh-e, A; Tanaka, K

    1996-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a large multisubunit protease complex, the largest regulatory subunit of which is a component named p112. Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding human p112 revealed a polypeptide predicted to have 953 amino acid residues and a molecular mass of 105,865. The human p112 gene was mapped to the q37.1-q37.2 region of chromosome 2. Computer analysis showed that p112 has strong similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sen3p, which has been listed in a gene bank as a factor affecting tRNA splicing endonuclease. The SEN3 also was identified in a synthetic lethal screen with the nin1-1 mutant, a temperature-sensitive mutant of NIN1. NIN1 encodes p31, another regulatory subunit of the 26S proteasome, which is necessary for activation of Cdc28p kinase. Disruption of the SEN3 did not affect cell viability, but led to temperature-sensitive growth. The human p112 cDNA suppressed the growth defect at high temperature in a SEN3 disruptant, indicating that p112 is a functional homologue of the yeast Sen3p. Maintenance of SEN3 disruptant cells at the restrictive temperature resulted in a variety of cellular dysfunctions, including defects in proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin pathway, in the N-end rule system, in the stress response upon cadmium exposure, and in nuclear protein transportation. The functional abnormality induced by SEN3 disruption differs considerably from various phenotypes shown by the nin1-1 mutation, suggesting that these two regulatory subunits of the 26S proteasome play distinct roles in the various processes mediated by the 26S proteasome. Images PMID:8816993

  12. Isolation and sequence of complementary DNA encoding human extracellular superoxide dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Hjalmarsson, K.; Marklund, S.L.; Engstroem, A.; Edlund, T.

    1987-09-01

    A complementary DNA (cDNA) clone from a human placenta cDNA library encoding extracellular superoxide dismutase has been isolated and the nucleotide sequence determined. The cDNA has a very high G + C content. EC-SOD is synthesized with a putative 18-amino acid signal peptide, preceding the 222 amino acids in the mature enzyme, indicating that the enzyme is a secretory protein. The first 95 amino acids of the mature enzyme show no sequence homology with other sequenced proteins and there is one possible N-glycosylation site (Asn-89). The amino acid sequence from residues 96-193 shows strong homology (approx. 50%) with the final two-thirds of the sequences of all know eukaryotic CuZn SODs, whereas the homology with the P. leiognathi CuZn SOD is clearly lower. The ligands to Cu and Zn, the cysteines forming the intrasubunit disulfide bridge in the CuZn SODs, and the arginine found in all CuZn SODs in the entrance to the active site can all be identified in EC-SOD. A comparison with bovine CuZn SOD, the three-dimensional structure of which is known, reveals that the homologies occur in the active site and the divergencies are in the part constituting the subunit contact area in CuZn SOD. Amino acid sequence 194-222 in the carboxyl-terminal end of EC-SOD is strongly hydrophilic and contains nine amino acids with a positive charge. This sequence probably confers the affinity of EC-SOD for heparin and heparan sulfate. An analysis of the amino acid sequence homologies with CuZn SODs from various species indicates that the EC-SODs may have evolved form the CuZn SODs before the evolution of fungi and plants.

  13. A human papilloma virus type 11 transcript encoding an E1--E4 protein.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, M; Hirochika, R; Broker, T R; Chow, L T

    1987-08-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) associated with a genital wart (condyloma acuminatum) was determined to be type 11. The majority of the viral DNA molecules were monomeric circles present in the cells at high copy number, as demonstrated by one- and two-dimensional agarose gell electrophoretic separation followed by Southern blot analysis. A cDNA library in phage lambda gt11 was constructed from poly(A)-selected mRNA recovered from the tissue. Recombinant clones corresponding to the most abundant 1.2-kb viral mRNA species detected by Northern blot hybridization and by electron microscopic analysis of R loops were isolated and their nucleotide sequence was determined. Comparison to the prototype HPV-11 DNA sequence revealed that this message consisted of two exons. The promotor-proximal exon spanned nucleotides 716 through 847 and the distal exon included nucleotides 3325 through 4390 or 4392. The mRNAs were alternatively polyadenylated after either of these latter two sites, in both cases following a G and preceding a U residue. Fourteen or sixteen bases upstream from the poly(A) was the hexanucleotide AGUAAA, which apparently serves as the signal for cleavage and polyadenylation of the nascent message. The splice donor and acceptor sites conformed to the usual /GU. . .AG/pattern. The exons joined open reading frame (ORF) E1, which contributed the initiation codon and four additional triplets, to ORF E4, which specified 85 amino acids to encode a protein of 10,022 Da. The cDNA also contained the ORFs E5a and E5b toward the 3' end. The complete sequence of the cDNA revealed three single-base changes from the prototype HPV-11, two resulting in altered amino acids in E4. Neither affects the coding potential of the overlapping E2 ORF. The function of the E1--E4 protein is unknown. PMID:2887066

  14. Identification of an NADH-Cytochrome b5 Reductase Gene from an Arachidonic Acid-Producing Fungus, Mortierella alpina 1S-4, by Sequencing of the Encoding cDNA and Heterologous Expression in a Fungus, Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sakuradani, Eiji; Kobayashi, Michihiko; Shimizu, Sakayu

    1999-01-01

    Based on the sequence information for bovine and yeast NADH-cytochrome b5 reductases (CbRs), a DNA fragment was cloned from Mortierella alpina 1S-4 after PCR amplification. This fragment was used as a probe to isolate a cDNA clone with an open reading frame encoding 298 amino acid residues which show marked sequence similarity to CbRs from other sources, such as yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), bovine, human, and rat CbRs. These results suggested that this cDNA is a CbR gene. The results of a structural comparison of the flavin-binding β-barrel domains of CbRs from various species and that of the M. alpina enzyme suggested that the overall barrel-folding patterns are similar to each other and that a specific arrangement of three highly conserved amino acid residues (i.e., arginine, tyrosine, and serine) plays a role in binding with the flavin (another prosthetic group) through hydrogen bonds. The corresponding genomic gene, which was also cloned from M. alpina 1S-4 by means of a hybridization method with the above probe, had four introns of different sizes. These introns had GT at the 5′ end and AG at the 3′ end, according to a general GT-AG rule. The expression of the full-length cDNA in a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, resulted in an increase (4.7 times) in ferricyanide reduction activity involving the use of NADH as an electron donor in the microsomes. The M. alpina CbR was purified by solubilization of microsomes with cholic acid sodium salt, followed by DEAE-Sephacel, Mono-Q HR 5/5, and AMP-Sepharose 4B affinity column chromatographies; there was a 645-fold increase in the NADH-ferricyanide reductase specific activity. The purified CbR preferred NADH over NADPH as an electron donor. This is the first report of an analysis of this enzyme in filamentous fungi. PMID:10473389

  15. Molecular characterization of the body site-specific human epidermal cytokeratin 9: cDNA cloning, amino acid sequence, and tissue specificity of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Langbein, L; Heid, H W; Moll, I; Franke, W W

    1993-12-01

    Differentiation of human plantar and palmar epidermis is characterized by the suprabasal synthesis of a major special intermediate-sized filament (IF) protein, the type I (acidic) cytokeratin 9 (CK 9). Using partial amino acid (aa) sequence information obtained by direct Edman sequencing of peptides resulting from proteolytic digestion of purified CK 9, we synthesized several redundant primers by 'back-translation'. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cDNAs obtained by reverse transcription of mRNAs from human foot sole epidermis, including 5'-primer extension, resulted in multiple overlapping cDNA clones, from which the complete cDNA (2353 bp) could be constructed. This cDNA encoded the CK 9 polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 61,987 and an isoelectric point at about pH 5.0. The aa sequence deduced from cDNA was verified in several parts by comparison with the peptide sequences and showed the typical structure of type I CKs, with a head (153 aa), and alpha-helical coiled-coil-forming rod (306 aa), and a tail (163 aa) domain. The protein displayed the highest homology to human CK 10, not only in the highly conserved rod domain but also in large parts of the head and the tail domains. On the other hand, the aa sequence revealed some remarkable differences from CK 10 and other CKs, even in the most conserved segments of the rod domain. The nuclease digestion pattern seen on Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA indicated the existence of a unique CK 9 gene. Using CK 9-specific riboprobes for hybridization on Northern blots of RNAs from various epithelia, a mRNA of about 2.4 kb in length could be identified only in foot sole epidermis, and a weaker cross-hybridization signal was seen in RNA from bovine heel pad epidermis at about 2.0 kb. A large number of tissues and cell cultures were examined by PCR of mRNA-derived cDNAs, using CK 9-specific primers. But even with this very sensitive signal amplification, only palmar

  16. [Cloning and analysis of cDNA encoding key enzyme gene (dxr) of the non-MVA pathway in Taxus chinensis cells].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qing-Ping; Yu, Long-Jiang; Liu, Zhi; Li, Mo-Yi; Xiang, Fu; Yang, Qin

    2004-07-01

    Two distinct routes (classical mevalonate pathway and a novel mevalonate-independent pathway) are utilized by plants for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the universal precursor of isoprenoids (Fig. 1). Present researches indicated that taxol was synthesized mainly via non-mevalonate pathway, but not genetic evidence was showed. The second step in non-mevalonate pathway involves an intramolecular rearrangement and subsequent reduction of deoxyxylulose phosphate to yield 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate, and 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) with responsibility for this reaction was considered as a key enzyme. As a tool for the isolation of genes in terpenoid biosynthesis in plants, total RNA was prepared from Taxus chinensis suspension cells, a cell type highly specialized for diterpene (taxol). A reverse transcription-PCR strategy based on the design of degenerated oligonucleotides was developed for isolating the gene encoding a gymnosperm homolog of this enzyme from Taxus chinensis. Through sequence analysis by Blast P online, the resulting cDNA showed highly homologous to 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerases, with 95% identification compared with Arabidopsis thaliana (Q9XFS9), 94% with Mentha x piperita (Q9XESO), 80% with Synechococcus elongatus (Q8DK30), 78% with Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Q55663) and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Q8YP49), and 73% with Synechococcus leopoliensis (Q9RKT1). Deduced amino acid sequences were also analyzed by PROSITE, ClustalX (1.81) and Phylio (3.6 alpha), and data present evidence for the existence of this deoxyxyluose phosphate reductoisomerase in Taxus chinensis. This is the first report of the dxr gene cloned from gymnosperm. PMID:15968987

  17. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA encoding the Jerusalem artichoke cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, a major plant cytochrome P450 involved in the general phenylpropanoid pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Teutsch, H G; Hasenfratz, M P; Lesot, A; Stoltz, C; Garnier, J M; Jeltsch, J M; Durst, F; Werck-Reichhart, D

    1993-01-01

    Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase [CA4H; trans-cinnamate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating), EC 1.14.13.11] is a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the first oxygenation step of the general phenylpropanoid metabolism in higher plants. The compounds formed are essential for lignification and defense against predators and pathogens. We recently reported the purification of this enzyme from Mn(2+)-induced Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber tissues. Highly selective polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified protein were used to screen a lambda gt11 cDNA expression library from wound-induced Jerusalem artichoke, allowing isolation of a 1130-base-pair insert. Typical P450 domains were identified in this incomplete sequence, which was used as a probe for the isolation of a 1.7-kilobase clone in a lambda gt10 library. A full-length open reading frame of 1515 base pairs, encoding a P450 protein of 505 residues (M(r) = 57,927), was sequenced. The N terminus, essentially composed of hydrophobic residues, matches perfectly the microsequenced N terminus of the purified protein. The calculated pI is 9.78, in agreement with the chromatographic behavior and two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of CA4H. Synthesis of the corresponding mRNA is induced in wounded plant tissues, in correlation with CA4H enzymatic activity. This P450 protein exhibits the most similarity (28% amino acid identity) with avocado CYP71, but also good similarity with CYP17 and CYP21, or with CYP1 and CYP2 families. According to current criteria, it qualifies as a member of a new P450 family. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8097885

  18. Isolation and sequence analysis of a cDNA encoding the c subunit of a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase from the CAM plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, D M; Rees, D J; Rambaut, A; Smith, J A

    1996-05-01

    We report the sequence of a cDNA clone encoding the c ("16 kDa') subunit of a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) from Kalanchoë daigremontiana, a plant in which the cell vacuole plays a pivotal role in crassulacean acid metabolism. The clone, pKVA211, was isolated from a K. daigremontiana leaf cDNA library constructed in lambda ZAP II using a homologous PCR-generated cDNA probe for the V-ATPase c subunit. The KVA211 cDNA was 839 nucleotides long and included a 20 bp poly(A)+ tail together with a complete 495 bp coding region for a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 16659 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence was highly conserved across the wide range of eukaryotes (vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, plants and protozoa) in which this gene has now been identified. Sequence comparison of several PCR products and genomic Southern analysis indicated that the V-ATPase c subunit in K. daigremontiana is encoded by a small multi-gene family. Steady-state levels of the KVA211 mRNA were much higher in leaves than in roots or flowers, and expression of this transcript in leaves was shown to be strongly light-dependent. PMID:8756609

  19. Analysis of the C4 genes in baleen whales using a human cDNA probe.

    PubMed

    Spilliaert, R; Palsdottir, A; Arnason, A

    1990-01-01

    We have used a human C4 cDNA probe to investigate the complement component C4 gene in four members of the family Balaenopteridae: fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), sei whale (B. borealis), minke whale (B. acutorostrata), and bryde's whale (B. edeni). Restriction mapping of genomic DNA from the first three species suggests the presence of only one locus in these species, and also shows that the C4 genes in the three species are very similar. We have used 14 restriction endonucleases to investigate the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of fin whales, 13 enzymes for sei whales, and 8 enzymes for the minke whale. No polymorphism was seen in DNA from the five minke whale samples, but Rsa I and Taq I restriction enzymes gave polymorphism in fin and sei whales whereas Hind III and Msp I restriction enzymes showed polymorphism in sei whales only. Only one bryde's whale sample was available for investigation. The study of DNA available from mother-fetus pairs from the two polymorphic species demonstrated a simple, two-allele transmission of RFLP alleles. PMID:1975799

  20. Cloning and expression of a human kidney cDNA for an /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Kobilka, T.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Kobilka, B.K.

    1988-09-01

    An /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtype has been cloned from a human kidney cDNA library using the gene for the human platelet /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor as a probe. The deduced amino acid sequence resembles the human platelet /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor and is consistent with the structure of other members of he family of guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors. The cDNA was expressed in a mammalian cell line (COS-7), and the /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic ligand (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine was bound. Competition curve analysis with a variety of adrenergic ligands suggests that this cDNA clone represents the /alpha//sub 2/B-adrenergic receptor. The gene for this receptor is on human chromosome 4, whereas the gene for the human platelet /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor (/alpha//sub 2/A) lies on chromosome 10. This ability to express the receptor in mammalian cells, free of other adrenergic receptor subtypes, should help in developing more selective /alpha/-adrenergic ligands.

  1. Sequence, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of mRNA encoding a human glucose transporter-like protein

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Hirofumi; Seino, Susumu; Imura, Hiroo; Seino, Yutaka; Eddy, R.L.; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Byers, M.G.; Shows, T.B.; Bell, G.I. )

    1988-08-01

    Recombinant DNA clones encoding a glucose transporter-like protein have been isolated from adult human liver and kidney cDNA libraries by cross-hybridization with the human HepG2/erythrocyte glucose transporter cDNA. Analysis of the sequence of this 524-amino acid glucose transporter-like protein indicates that is has 55.5% identity with the HepG2/erythrocyte glucose transporter as well as a similar structural organization. Studies of the tissue distribution of the mRNA coding for this glucose transporter-like protein in adult human tissues indicate that the highest amounts are present in liver with lower amounts in kidney and small intestine. The amounts of glucose transporter-like mRNA in other tissues, including colon, stomach, cerebrum, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, were below the level of sensitivity of our assay. The single-copy gene encoding this glucose transporter-like protein has been localized to the q26.1{yields}q26.3 region of chromosome 3.

  2. Human. cap alpha. /sub 2/-HS-glycoprotein: the A and B chains with a connecting sequence are encoded by a single mRNA transcript

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Bowman, B.H.; Yang, F.

    1987-07-01

    The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) is a plasma protein reported to play roles in bone mineralization and in the immune response. It is composed of two subunits, the A and B chains. Recombinant plasmids containing human cDNA AHSG have been isolated by screening an adult human liver library with a mixed oligonucleotide probe. The cDNA clones containing AHSG inserts span approximately 1.5 kilobase pairs and include the entire AHSG coding sequence, demonstrating that the A and B chains are encoded by a single mRNA transcript. The cDNA sequence predicts an 18-amino-acid signal peptide, followed by the A-chain sequence of AHSG. A heretofore unseen connecting sequence of 40 amino acids was deduced between the A- and B-chain sequences. The connecting sequence demonstrates the unique amino acid doublets and collagen triplets found in the A and B chains; it is not homologous with other reported amino acid sequences. The connecting sequence may be cleaved in a posttranslational step by limited proteolysis before mature AHSG is released into the circulation or may vary in its presence because of alternative processing. The AHSG cDNA was utilized for mapping the AHSG gene to the 3q21..-->..qter region of human chromosome 3. The availability of the AHSG cDNA clone will facilitate the analysis of its genetic control and gene expression during development and bone formation.

  3. Sequence and regulation of a gene encoding a human 89-kilodalton heat shock protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, E.; Brandon, S.E.; Weber, L.A.; Lloyd, D.

    1989-06-01

    Vertebrate cells synthesize two forms of the 82- to 90-kilodalton heat shock protein that are encoded by distinct gene families. In HeLa cells, both proteins (hsp89/alpha/ and hspio/beta/) are abundant under normal growth conditions and are synthesized at increased rates in response to heat stress. Only the larger form, hsp89/alpha/, is induced by the adenovirus E1A gene product. The authors have isolated a human hsp89/alpha/ gene that shows complete sequence identity with heat- and E1A-inducible cDNA used as a hybridization probe. The 5'-flanking region contained overlapping and inverted consensus heat shock control elements that can confer heat-inducible expression n a /beta/-globin reporter gene. The gene contained 10 intervening sequences. The first intron was located adjacent to the translation start codon, an arrangement also found in the Drosophila hsp82 gene. The spliced mRNA sequence contained a single open reading frame encoding an 84,564-dalton polypeptide showing high homology with the hsp82 to hsp90 proteins of other organisms. The deduced hsp89/alpha/ protein sequence differed from the human hsp89/beta/ sequence reported elsewhere in at least 99 out of the 732 amino acids. Transcription of the hsp89/alpha/ gene was induced by serum during normal cell growth, but expression did not appear to be restricted to a particular stage of the cell cycles. hsp89/alpha/ mRNA was considerably more stable than the mRNA encoding hsp70, which can account for the higher constitutive rate of hsp89 synthesis in unstressed cells.

  4. ERCC4 (XPF) encodes a human nucleotide excision repair protein with eukaryotic recombination homologs.

    PubMed

    Brookman, K W; Lamerdin, J E; Thelen, M P; Hwang, M; Reardon, J T; Sancar, A; Zhou, Z Q; Walter, C A; Parris, C N; Thompson, L H

    1996-11-01

    ERCC4 is an essential human gene in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, which is responsible for removing UV-C photoproducts and bulky adducts from DNA. Among the NER genes, ERCC4 and ERCC1 are also uniquely involved in removing DNA interstrand cross-linking damage. The ERCC1-ERCC4 heterodimer, like the homologous Rad10-Rad1 complex, was recently found to possess an endonucleolytic activity that incises on the 5' side of damage. The ERCC4 gene, assigned to chromosome 16p13.1-p13.2, was previously isolated by using a chromosome 16 cosmid library. It corrects the defect in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutants of NER complementation group 4 and is implicated in complementation group F of the human disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. We describe the ERCC4 gene structure and functional cDNA sequence encoding a 916-amino-acid protein (104 kDa), which has substantial homology with the eukaryotic DNA repair and recombination proteins MEI-9 (Drosophila melanogaster), Rad16 (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), and Rad1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). ERCC4 cDNA efficiently corrected mutants in rodent NER complementation groups 4 and 11, showing the equivalence of these groups, and ERCC4 protein levels were reduced in mutants of both groups. In cells of an XP-F patient, the ERCC4 protein level was reduced to less than 5%, consistent with XPF being the ERCC4 gene. The considerable identity (40%) between ERCC4 and MEI-9 suggests a possible involvement of ERCC4 in meiosis. In baboon tissues, ERCC4 was expressed weakly and was not significantly higher in testis than in nonmeiotic tissues. PMID:8887684

  5. [ENCODE apophenia or a panglossian analysis of the human genome].

    PubMed

    Casane, Didier; Fumey, Julien; Laurenti, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In September 2012, a batch of more than 30 articles presenting the results of the ENCODE (Encyclopaedia of DNA Elements) project was released. Many of these articles appeared in Nature and Science, the two most prestigious interdisciplinary scientific journals. Since that time, hundreds of other articles dedicated to the further analyses of the Encode data have been published. The time of hundreds of scientists and hundreds of millions of dollars were not invested in vain since this project had led to an apparent paradigm shift: contrary to the classical view, 80% of the human genome is not junk DNA, but is functional. This hypothesis has been criticized by evolutionary biologists, sometimes eagerly, and detailed refutations have been published in specialized journals with impact factors far below those that published the main contribution of the Encode project to our understanding of genome architecture. In 2014, the Encode consortium released a new batch of articles that neither suggested that 80% of the genome is functional nor commented on the disappearance of their 2012 scientific breakthrough. Unfortunately, by that time many biologists had accepted the idea that 80% of the genome is functional, or at least, that this idea is a valid alternative to the long held evolutionary genetic view that it is not. In order to understand the dynamics of the genome, it is necessary to re-examine the basics of evolutionary genetics because, not only are they well established, they also will allow us to avoid the pitfall of a panglossian interpretation of Encode. Actually, the architecture of the genome and its dynamics are the product of trade-offs between various evolutionary forces, and many structural features are not related to functional properties. In other words, evolution does not produce the best of all worlds, not even the best of all possible worlds, but only one possible world. PMID:26152174

  6. Differential Encoding of Losses and Gains in the Human Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Ben; Daw, Nathaniel; Dayan, Peter; Singer, Tania; Dolan, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Studies on human monetary prediction and decision making emphasize the role of the striatum in encoding prediction errors for financial reward. However, less is known about how the brain encodes financial loss. Using Pavlovian conditioning of visual cues to outcomes that simultaneously incorporate the chance of financial reward and loss, we show that striatal activation reflects positively signed prediction errors for both. Furthermore, we show functional segregation within the striatum, with more anterior regions showing relative selectivity for rewards and more posterior regions for losses. These findings mirror the anteroposterior valence-specific gradient reported in rodents and endorse the role of the striatum in aversive motivational learning about financial losses, illustrating functional and anatomical consistencies with primary aversive outcomes such as pain. PMID:17475790

  7. Mass spectrometry-based cDNA profiling as a potential tool for human body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Donfack, Joseph; Wiley, Anissa

    2015-05-01

    Several mRNA markers have been exhaustively evaluated for the identification of human venous blood, saliva, and semen in forensic genetics. As new candidate human body fluid specific markers are discovered, evaluated, and reported in the scientific literature, there is an increasing trend toward determining the ideal markers for cDNA profiling of body fluids of forensic interest. However, it has not been determined which molecular genetics-based technique(s) should be utilized to assess the performance of these markers. In recent years, only a few confirmatory, mRNA/cDNA-based methods have been evaluated for applications in body fluid identification. The most frequently described methods tested to date include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However these methods, in particular qPCR, often favor narrow multiplex PCR due to the availability of a limited number of fluorescent dyes/tags. In an attempt to address this technological constraint, this study explored matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for human body fluid identification via cDNA profiling of venous blood, saliva, and semen. Using cDNA samples at 20pg input phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) amounts, body fluid specific markers for the candidate genes were amplified in their corresponding body fluid (i.e., venous blood, saliva, or semen) and absent in the remaining two (100% specificity). The results of this study provide an initial indication that MALDI-TOF MS is a potential fluorescent dye-free alternative method for body fluid identification in forensic casework. However, the inherent issues of low amounts of mRNA, and the damage caused to mRNA by environmental exposures, extraction processes, and storage conditions are important factors that significantly hinder the implementation of cDNA profiling into forensic casework. PMID:25594487

  8. Random rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RRACE) allows for cloning of multiple novel human cDNA fragments containing (CAG)n repeats.

    PubMed

    Carney, J P; McKnight, C; VanEpps, S; Kelley, M R

    1995-04-01

    We describe a new technique for isolating cDNA fragments in which (i) either a partial sequence of the cDNA is known or (ii) a repeat sequence is utilized. We have used this technique, termed random rapid amplification of cDNA ends (random RACE), to isolate a number of trinucleotide repeat (CAG)n-containing genes. Using the random RACE (RRACE) technique, we have isolated over a hundred (CAG)n-containing genes. The results of our initial analysis of ten clones indicate that three are identical to previously cloned (CAG)n-containing genes. Three of our clones matched with expressed sequence tags, one of which contained a CA repeat. The remaining four clones did not match with any sequence in GenBank. These results indicate that this approach provides a rapid and efficient method for isolating trinucleotide repeat-containing cDNA fragments. Finally, this technique may be used for purposes other than cloning repeat-containing cDNA fragments. If only a partial sequence of a gene is known, our system, described here, provides a rapid and efficient method for isolating a fragment of the gene of interest. PMID:7536696

  9. Human placental Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Chehab, F.F.; Kan, Y.W.; Law, M.L.; Hartz, J.; Kao, F.T.; Blostein, R.

    1987-11-01

    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (approx. = 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine > placenta > liver > pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia > butyrate-induced colon > colon > brain > HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with the authors failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected ( > 2 kilobases) lambdagt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed by a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the ..cap alpha.. subunit is on the short is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1.

  10. Dynamic Encoding of Speech Sequence Probability in Human Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Matthew K.; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Tang, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing involves identification of stimulus features, but also integration with the surrounding sensory and cognitive context. Previous work in animals and humans has shown fine-scale sensitivity to context in the form of learned knowledge about the statistics of the sensory environment, including relative probabilities of discrete units in a stream of sequential auditory input. These statistics are a defining characteristic of one of the most important sequential signals humans encounter: speech. For speech, extensive exposure to a language tunes listeners to the statistics of sound sequences. To address how speech sequence statistics are neurally encoded, we used high-resolution direct cortical recordings from human lateral superior temporal cortex as subjects listened to words and nonwords with varying transition probabilities between sound segments. In addition to their sensitivity to acoustic features (including contextual features, such as coarticulation), we found that neural responses dynamically encoded the language-level probability of both preceding and upcoming speech sounds. Transition probability first negatively modulated neural responses, followed by positive modulation of neural responses, consistent with coordinated predictive and retrospective recognition processes, respectively. Furthermore, transition probability encoding was different for real English words compared with nonwords, providing evidence for online interactions with high-order linguistic knowledge. These results demonstrate that sensory processing of deeply learned stimuli involves integrating physical stimulus features with their contextual sequential structure. Despite not being consciously aware of phoneme sequence statistics, listeners use this information to process spoken input and to link low-level acoustic representations with linguistic information about word identity and meaning. PMID:25948269

  11. cDNA cloning and gene structure of a novel water channel expressed exclusively in human kidney: Evidence for a gene cluster of aquaporins at chromosome locus 12q13

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Tonghui; Yang, Baoxue; Verkman, A.S.

    1996-08-01

    A 1.8-kb cDNA clone (designed hKID, gene symbol AQP2L) with homology to the aquaporins was isolated from a human kidney cDNA library. The longest open reading frame of 846 bp encoded a 282-amino-acid hydrophobic protein that contained the conserved NPA motifs of MIP family members. Cell-free translation produced a nonglycosylated protein migrating at 29 kDa. Northern blot analysis revealed a 2.2-kb transcript expressed only in human kidney. PCR/Southern blot analysis of human kidney cDNA using primers flanking the hKID coding sequence revealed expression of a full-length mRNA and short transcripts with partial exon 1 and partial exon 4 deletions. Genomic Southern blot indicted a single-copy hKID gene. PCR analysis of a human/rodent somatic hybrid panel localized the hKID gene to chromosome 12. Chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization mapped the hKID (AQP2L) gene to chromosome locus 12q13, the same location a as the AQP-2 and MIP genes. The high sequence homology, similar genomic structure, and identical chromosomal loci of hKID, MIP, and AQP-2 suggest a MIP family gene cluster at chromosome locus 12q13. Further work is needed to establish the physiological significance of hKID. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Cross-species hybridisation of human and bovine orthologous genes on high density cDNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Adjaye, James; Herwig, Ralf; Herrmann, Doris; Wruck, Wasco; BenKahla, Alia; Brink, Thore C; Nowak, Monika; Carnwath, Joseph W; Hultschig, Claus; Niemann, Heiner; Lehrach, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Background Cross-species gene-expression comparison is a powerful tool for the discovery of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms and pathways of expression control. The usefulness of cDNA microarrays in this context is that broad areas of homology are compared and hybridization probes are sufficiently large that small inter-species differences in nucleotide sequence would not affect the analytical results. This comparative genomics approach would allow a common set of genes within a specific developmental, metabolic, or disease-related gene pathway to be evaluated in experimental models of human diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of cross-species analysis employing a human cDNA microarray as probe. Results As a proof of principle, total RNA derived from human and bovine fetal brains was used as a source of labelled targets for hybridisation onto a human cDNA microarray composed of 349 characterised genes. Each gene was spotted 20 times representing 6,980 data points thus enabling highly reproducible spot quantification. Employing high stringency hybridisation and washing conditions, followed by data analysis, revealed slight differences in the expression levels and reproducibility of the signals between the two species. We also assigned each of the genes into three expression level categories- i.e. high, medium and low. The correlation co-efficient of cross hybridisation between the orthologous genes was 0.94. Verification of the array data by semi-quantitative RT-PCR using common primer sequences enabled co-amplification of both human and bovine transcripts. Finally, we were able to assign gene names to previously uncharacterised bovine ESTs. Conclusions Results of our study demonstrate the harnessing and utilisation power of comparative genomics and prove the feasibility of using human microarrays to facilitate the identification of co-expressed orthologous genes in common tissues derived from different

  13. Isolation and characterization of human cDNAs encoding a cGMP-stimulated 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Rosman, G J; Martins, T J; Sonnenburg, W K; Beavo, J A; Ferguson, K; Loughney, K

    1997-05-20

    Human cyclic GMP-stimulated 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2A3) cDNAs were cloned from hippocampus and fetal brain cDNA libraries. A 4.2-kb composite DNA sequence constructed from overlapping cDNA clones encodes a 941 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 105,715 Da. Extracts prepared from yeast expressing the human PDE2A3 hydrolyzed both cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP). This activity was inhibited by EHNA, a selective PDE2 inhibitor, and was stimulated three-fold by cGMP. Human PDE2A is expressed in brain and to a lesser extent in heart, placenta, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. The human PDE2A3 differs from the bovine PDE2A1 and rat PDE2A2 proteins at the amino terminus but its amino-terminal sequence is identical to the bovine PDE2A3 sequence. The different amino termini probably arise from alternative exon splicing of the PDE2A mRNA. PMID:9210593

  14. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  15. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  16. A neural circuit encoding sexual preference in humans.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Langguth, Berthold; Rupprecht, Rainer; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Sexual preference determines mate choice for reproduction and hence guarantees conservation of species in mammals. Despite this fundamental role in human behavior, current knowledge on its target-specific neurofunctional substrate is based on lesion studies and therefore limited. We used meta-analytic remodeling of neuroimaging data from 364 human subjects with diverse sexual interests during sexual stimulation to quantify neural regions associated with sexual preference manipulations. We found that sexual preference is encoded by four phylogenetically old, subcortical brain structures. More specifically, sexual preference is controlled by the anterior and preoptic area of the hypothalamus, the anterior and mediodorsal thalamus, the septal area, and the perirhinal parahippocampus including the dentate gyrus. In contrast, sexual non-preference is regulated by the substantia innominata. We anticipate the identification of a core neural circuit for sexual preferences to be a starting point for further sophisticated investigations into the neural principles of sexual behavior and particularly of its aberrations. PMID:27339689

  17. YAC contig mapping of six expressed sequences encoded by human chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J.; Cox, M.; Patterson, D. |

    1995-03-01

    Six cDNA clones from human chromosome 21 have been mapped in a set of complete YAC contig spanning the entire chromosome 21q. The mapping positions between two STSs on the YAC contig and the NotI coordinates starting from the telomere of 21q were determined for the cDNA clones. The YAC contig mapping positions agree well with those using a comprehensive somatic cell hybrid mapping panel. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of the human cytochrome P4507B1: production of a monoclonal antibody after cDNA immunization.

    PubMed

    Trap, Catherine; Nato, Farida; Chalbot, Sonia; Kim, Sae-Bom; Lafaye, Pierre; Morfin, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The cytochrome P4507B1 (P4507B1) is responsible for the 7alpha-hydroxylation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and other 3beta-hydroxysteroids in the brain and other organs. The cDNA of human P4507B1 was used for DNA immunization of mice. The best responding mouse led to the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The clone D16-37 produced an IgM specific for P4507B1 with no cross-reaction with other human P450s. This antibody permitted the immunohistochemical detection of P4507B1 in slices of human hippocampus. P4507B1 was expressed in neurons only. This new tool will be used for the extensive examination of the P4507B1 presence and determination of its levels in slices of human normal and diseased brain and in other human tissues. PMID:15652401

  19. EGASP: the human ENCODE Genome Annotation Assessment Project

    PubMed Central

    Guigó, Roderic; Flicek, Paul; Abril, Josep F; Reymond, Alexandre; Lagarde, Julien; Denoeud, France; Antonarakis, Stylianos; Ashburner, Michael; Bajic, Vladimir B; Birney, Ewan; Castelo, Robert; Eyras, Eduardo; Ucla, Catherine; Gingeras, Thomas R; Harrow, Jennifer; Hubbard, Tim; Lewis, Suzanna E; Reese, Martin G

    2006-01-01

    Background We present the results of EGASP, a community experiment to assess the state-of-the-art in genome annotation within the ENCODE regions, which span 1% of the human genome sequence. The experiment had two major goals: the assessment of the accuracy of computational methods to predict protein coding genes; and the overall assessment of the completeness of the current human genome annotations as represented in the ENCODE regions. For the computational prediction assessment, eighteen groups contributed gene predictions. We evaluated these submissions against each other based on a 'reference set' of annotations generated as part of the GENCODE project. These annotations were not available to the prediction groups prior to the submission deadline, so that their predictions were blind and an external advisory committee could perform a fair assessment. Results The best methods had at least one gene transcript correctly predicted for close to 70% of the annotated genes. Nevertheless, the multiple transcript accuracy, taking into account alternative splicing, reached only approximately 40% to 50% accuracy. At the coding nucleotide level, the best programs reached an accuracy of 90% in both sensitivity and specificity. Programs relying on mRNA and protein sequences were the most accurate in reproducing the manually curated annotations. Experimental validation shows that only a very small percentage (3.2%) of the selected 221 computationally predicted exons outside of the existing annotation could be verified. Conclusion This is the first such experiment in human DNA, and we have followed the standards established in a similar experiment, GASP1, in Drosophila melanogaster. We believe the results presented here contribute to the value of ongoing large-scale annotation projects and should guide further experimental methods when being scaled up to the entire human genome sequence. PMID:16925836

  20. Identification of endothelial antigens relevant to transplant coronary artery disease from a human endothelial cell cDNA expression library.

    PubMed

    Ationu, A

    1998-06-01

    Accelerated transplant coronary artery disease (TxCAD) results in increased expression of antiendothelial antibodies whose target antigens remain largely unidentified. One of these endothelial antigens has been identified as vimentin, a cytoskeletal protein present in cells of the blood vessel walls. In the present study, SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of human endothelial cell (EAHy 926) lysates probed with sera from a TxCAD patient were used to confirm immunoreactivity of antiendothelial antibodies towards several endothelial proteins. To further elucidate the identity of these putative antigens, a human endothelial cell (EAHy 926) cDNA expression library was immunoscreened with serum obtained from a TxCAD patient. Two positive cDNA clones were identified by partial nucleotide sequence analysis and GenBank/EMBL database searches for homology as the 85 kDa human CD36 antigen (a cell surface glycoprotein expressed in various cells including epithelial and endothelial cells) and a 50 kDa keratin-like protein (a member of the intermediate filament protein expressed in epithelial cells). These results are the first to demonstrate that human CD36 antigen and a keratin-like protein may be additional target proteins for the anti-endothelial antibodies associated with TxCAD. PMID:9852639

  1. Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): Localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sohocki, M.M.; Sullivan, L.S.; Daiger, S.P.

    1997-03-01

    Two frequent protein variants of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) (E.C.2.6.1.2) have been used as genetic markers in humans for more than two decades, although chromosomal mapping of the GPT locus in the 1980s produced conflicting results. To resolve this conflict and develop useful DNA markers for this gene, we isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic clones of GPT. We have definitively mapped human GPT to the terminus of 8q using several methods. First, two cosmids shown to contain the GPT sequence were derived from a chromosome 8-specific library. Second, by fluorescence in situ hybridization, we mapped the cosmid containing the human GPT gene to chromosome band 8q24.3. Third, we mapped the rat gpt cDNA to the syntenic region of rat chromosome 7. Finally, PCR primers specific to human GPT amplify sequences contained within a {open_quotes}half-YAC{close_quotes} from the long arm of chromosome 8, that is, a YAC containing the 8q telomere. The human GPT genomic sequence spans 2.7 kb and consists of 11 exons, ranging in size from 79 to 243 bp. The exonic sequence encodes a protein of 495 amino acids that is nearly identical to the previously reported protein sequence of human GPT-1. The two polymorphic GPT isozymes are the result of a nucleotide substitution in codon 14. In addition, a cosmid containing the GPT sequence also contains a previously unmapped, polymorphic microsatellite sequence, D8S421. The cloned GPT gene and associated polymorphisms will be useful for linkage and physical mapping of disease loci that map to the terminus of 8q, including atypical vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD1) and epidermolysis bullosa simplex, type Ogna (EBS1). In addition, this will be a useful system for characterizing the telomeric region of 8q. Finally, determination of the molecular basis of the GPT isozyme variants will permit PCR-based detection of this world-wide polymorphism. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Prefrontal Gamma Oscillations Encode Tonic Pain in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Enrico; May, Elisabeth S.; Postorino, Martina; Tiemann, Laura; Nickel, Moritz M.; Witkovsky, Viktor; Schmidt, Paul; Gross, Joachim; Ploner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, momentary pain serves vital protective functions. Ongoing pain in chronic pain states, on the other hand, is a pathological condition that causes widespread suffering and whose treatment remains unsatisfactory. The brain mechanisms of ongoing pain are largely unknown. In this study, we applied tonic painful heat stimuli of varying degree to healthy human subjects, obtained continuous pain ratings, and recorded electroencephalograms to relate ongoing pain to brain activity. Our results reveal that the subjective perception of tonic pain is selectively encoded by gamma oscillations in the medial prefrontal cortex. We further observed that the encoding of subjective pain intensity experienced by the participants differs fundamentally from that of objective stimulus intensity and from that of brief pain stimuli. These observations point to a role for gamma oscillations in the medial prefrontal cortex in ongoing, tonic pain and thereby extend current concepts of the brain mechanisms of pain to the clinically relevant state of ongoing pain. Furthermore, our approach might help to identify a brain marker of ongoing pain, which may prove useful for the diagnosis and therapy of chronic pain. PMID:25754338

  3. Encoding of Sensory Prediction Errors in the Human Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Schlerf, John; Ivry, Richard B.; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    A central tenet of motor neuroscience is that the cerebellum learns from sensory prediction errors. Surprisingly, neuroimaging studies have not revealed definitive signatures of error processing in the cerebellum. Furthermore, neurophysiologic studies suggest an asymmetry, such that the cerebellum may encode errors arising from unexpected sensory events, but not errors reflecting the omission of expected stimuli. We conducted an imaging study to compare the cerebellar response to these two types of errors. Participants made fast out-and-back reaching movements, aiming either for an object that delivered a force pulse if intersected or for a gap between two objects, either of which delivered a force pulse if intersected. Errors (missing the target) could therefore be signaled either through the presence or absence of a force pulse. In an initial analysis, the cerebellar BOLD response was smaller on trials with errors compared with trials without errors. However, we also observed an error-related decrease in heart rate. After correcting for variation in heart rate, increased activation during error trials was observed in the hand area of lobules V and VI. This effect was similar for the two error types. The results provide evidence for the encoding of errors resulting from either the unexpected presence or unexpected absence of sensory stimulation in the human cerebellum. PMID:22492047

  4. Characterization of cDNAs encoding human pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, L; Wexler, I D; Liu, T C; Thekkumkara, T J; Patel, M S

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA clone (1423 base pairs) comprising the entire coding region of the precursor form of the alpha subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1 alpha) has been isolated from a human liver cDNA library in phage lambda gt11. The first 29 amino acids deduced from the open reading frame correspond to a typical mitochondrial targeting leader sequence. The remaining 361 amino acids, starting at the N terminus with phenylalanine, represent the mature mitochondrial E1 alpha peptide. The cDNA has 43 base pairs in the 5' untranslated region and 210 base pairs in the 3' untranslated region, including a polyadenylylation signal and a short poly(A) tract. The nucleotide sequence of human liver E1 alpha cDNA was confirmed by the nucleotide sequences of three overlapping fragments generated from human liver and fibroblast RNA by reverse transcription and DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. This consensus nucleotide sequence of human liver E1 alpha cDNA resolves existing discrepancies among three previously reported human E1 alpha cDNAs and provides the unambiguous reference sequence needed for the characterization of genetic mutations in pyruvate dehydrogenase-deficient patients. Images PMID:2748588

  5. Nuclear-encoded chloroplast ribosomal protein L12 of Nicotiana tabacum: characterization of mature protein and isolation and sequence analysis of cDNA clones encoding its cytoplasmic precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, G A; Thomas, F J; McCreery, T P; Bourque, D P

    1992-01-01

    Poly(A)+ mRNA isolated from Nicotiana tabacum (cv. Petite Havana) leaves was used to prepare a cDNA library in the expression vector lambda gt11. Recombinant phage containing cDNAs coding for chloroplast ribosomal protein L12 were identified and sequenced. Mature tobacco L12 protein has 44% amino acid identity with ribosomal protein L7/L12 of Escherichia coli. The longest L12 cDNA (733 nucleotides) codes for a 13,823 molecular weight polypeptide with a transit peptide of 53 amino acids and a mature protein of 133 amino acids. The transit peptide and mature protein share 43% and 79% amino acid identity, respectively, with corresponding regions of spinach chloroplast ribosomal protein L12. The predicted amino terminus of the mature protein was confirmed by partial sequence analysis of HPLC-purified tobacco chloroplast ribosomal protein L12. A single L12 mRNA of about 0.8 kb was detected by hybridization of L12 cDNA to poly(A)+ and total leaf RNA. Hybridization patterns of restriction fragments of tobacco genomic DNA probed with the L12 cDNA suggested the existence of more than one gene for ribosomal protein L12. Characterization of a second cDNA with an identical L12 coding sequence but a different 3'-noncoding sequence provided evidence that at least two L12 genes are expressed in tobacco. Images PMID:1542565

  6. Csa-19, a radiation-responsive human gene, identified by an unbiased two-gel cDNA library screening method in human cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcer-Kubiczek, E. K.; Meltzer, S. J.; Han, L. H.; Zhang, X. F.; Shi, Z. M.; Harrison, G. H.; Abraham, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was used to identify candidate genes whose expression is altered in cancer cells by ionizing radiation. Transcriptional induction of randomly selected genes in control versus irradiated human HL60 cells was compared. Among several complementary DNA (cDNA) clones recovered by this approach, one cDNA clone (CL68-5) was downregulated in X-irradiated HL60 cells but unaffected by 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, forskolin, or cyclosporin-A. DNA sequencing of the CL68-5 cDNA revealed 100% nucleotide sequence homology to the reported human Csa-19 gene. Northern blot analysis of RNA from control and irradiated cells revealed the expression of a single 0.7-kilobase (kb) messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript. This 0.7-kb Csa-19 mRNA transcript was also expressed in a variety of human adult and corresponding fetal normal tissues. Moreover, when the effect of X- or fission neutron-irradiation on Csa-19 mRNA was compared in cultured human cells differing in p53 gene status (p53-/- versus p53+/+), downregulation of Csa-19 by X-rays or fission neutrons was similar in p53-wild type and p53-null cell lines. Our results provide the first known example of a radiation-responsive gene in human cancer cells whose expression is not associated with p53, adenylate cyclase or protein kinase C.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene synthase B from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, S; Saito, T; Abe, H; Yamane, H; Murofushi, N; Kamiya, Y

    1996-08-01

    The first committed step in the formation of diterpenoids leading to gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis is the conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to ent-kaurene. ent-Kaurene synthase A (KSA) catalyzes the conversion of GGDP to copalyl diphosphate (CDP), which is subsequently converted to ent-kaurene by ent-kaurene synthase B (KSB). A full-length KSB cDNA was isolated from developing cotyledons in immature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.). Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed from the amino acid sequences obtained from the purified protein to amplify a cDNA fragment, which was used for library screening. The isolated full-length cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which demonstrated the KSB activity to cyclize [3H]CDP to [3H]ent-kaurene. The KSB transcript was most abundant in growing tissues, but was detected in every organ in pumpkin seedlings. The deduced amino acid sequence shares significant homology with other terpene cyclases, including the conserved DDXXD motif, a putative divalent metal ion-diphosphate complex binding site. A putative transit peptide sequence that may target the translated product into the plastids is present in the N-terminal region. PMID:8771778

  8. The human CCGl gene, essential for progression of the G sub 1 phase, encodes a 210-kilodalton nuclear DNA-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Nohiro, Yukiko; Hisamoto, Naoki; Nishimoto, Takeharu ); Nakamura, Yasuhara )

    1991-06-01

    The human CCGl gene complements tsBN462, a temperature-sensitive G{sup 1} mutant of the BHK21 cell line. The previously cloned cDNA turned out to be a truncated form of the actual CCGl cDNA. The newly cloned CCGl cDNA was 6.0 kb and encoded a protein with a molecular mass of 210 kDa. Using an antibody to a predicted peptide from the CCGl protein, a protein with a molecular mass of over 200 kDa was identified in human, monkey, and hamster cell lines. In the newly defined C-terminal region, an acidic domain was found. It contained four consensus target sequences for casein kinase 2 and was phosphorylated by this enzyme in vitro. However, this C-terminal region was not required to complement tsBN462 mutation since the region encoding the C-terminal part was frequently missing in complemented clones derived by DNA-mediated gene transfer, CCGl contains a sequence similar to the putative DNA-binding domain of HMGl in addition to the previously detected amino acid sequences common in nuclear proteins, such as a proline cluster and a nuclear translocation signal. Consistent with these predictions, CCGl was present in nuclei, possessed DNA-binding activity, and was eluted with similar concentrations of salt, 0.3 to 0.4 M NaCl either from isolated nuclei or from a DNA-cellulose column.

  9. The vitellogenin cDNA of Cherax quadricarinatus encodes a lipoprotein with calcium binding ability, and its expression is induced following the removal of the androgenic gland in a sexually plastic system.

    PubMed

    Abdu, Uri; Davis, Claytus; Khalaila, Isam; Sagi, Amir

    2002-07-01

    Oocyte maturation in decapod crustaceans is a two step process. Primary vitellogenesis is followed by a variable hiatus that lasts up to the onset of secondary vitellogenesis, which is marked by the rapid accumulation of yolk proteins in the oocytes. We have cloned a complete Cherax quadricarinatus vitellogenin cDNA. The sequenced cDNA contains a 2584 aa open reading frame which shows sequence similarity to vitellogenins from other crustaceans. The mRNA encodes at least two of the previously identified vitellin components, indicating that the primary translation product is subject to post-translational modification, including proteolytic cleavage. The region close to the 3(') end of the mRNA encodes a previously characterized negatively charged protein (provisionally designated P(106)). We show here that the negative charge of P(106) could be due to its ability to bind calcium. Northern blot data show that this gene is expressed as a single 8000 nt transcript and is present in the hepatopancreas of secondary-vitellogenic females. Primary vitellogenic and other tissues examined in male and female animals were negative. In sexually plastic intersex animals, removal of the androgenic gland results in vitellogenin transcription, indicating that the gene is negatively regulated by the androgenic gland. PMID:12225768

  10. Epstein-Barr virus shuttle vector for stable episomal replication of cDNA expression libraries in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Margolskee, R F; Kavathas, P; Berg, P

    1988-01-01

    Efficient transfection and expression of cDNA libraries in human cells has been achieved with an Epstein-Barr virus-based subcloning vector (EBO-pcD). The plasmid vector contains a resistance marker for hygromycin B to permit selection for transformed cells. The Epstein-Barr virus origin for plasmid replication (oriP) and the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen gene have also been incorporated into the vector to ensure that the plasmids are maintained stably and extrachromosomally. Human lymphoblastoid cells can be stably transformed at high efficiency (10 to 15%) by such plasmids, thereby permitting the ready isolation of 10(6) to 10(7) independent transformants. Consequently, entire high-complexity EBO-pcD expression libraries can be introduced into these cells. Furthermore, since EBO-pcD plasmids are maintained as episomes at two to eight copies per cell, intact cDNA clones can be readily isolated from transformants and recovered by propagation in Escherichia coli. By using such vectors, human cells have been stably transformed with EBO-pcD-hprt to express hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and with EBO-pcD-Leu-2 to express the human T-cell surface marker Leu-2 (CD8). Reconstruction experiments with mixtures of EBO-pcD plasmids demonstrated that one clone of EBO-pcD-hprt per 10(6) total clones or one clone of EBO-pcD-Leu-2 per 2 x 10(4) total clones can be recovered intact from the transformed cells. The ability to directly select for expression of very rare EBO-pcD clones and to then recover these episomes should make it possible to clone certain genes where hybridization and immunological screening methods are not applicable but where a phenotype can be scored or selected in human cell lines. Images PMID:2841588

  11. Auditory modulation of visual stimulus encoding in human retinotopic cortex

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Benjamin; Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Urner, Maren; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Sounds can modulate visual perception as well as neural activity in retinotopic cortex. Most studies in this context investigated how sounds change neural amplitude and oscillatory phase reset in visual cortex. However, recent studies in macaque monkeys show that congruence of audio-visual stimuli also modulates the amount of stimulus information carried by spiking activity of primary auditory and visual neurons. Here, we used naturalistic video stimuli and recorded the spatial patterns of functional MRI signals in human retinotopic cortex to test whether the discriminability of such patterns varied with the presence and congruence of co-occurring sounds. We found that incongruent sounds significantly impaired stimulus decoding from area V2 and there was a similar trend for V3. This effect was associated with reduced inter-trial reliability of patterns (i.e. higher levels of noise), but was not accompanied by any detectable modulation of overall signal amplitude. We conclude that sounds modulate naturalistic stimulus encoding in early human retinotopic cortex without affecting overall signal amplitude. Subthreshold modulation, oscillatory phase reset and dynamic attentional modulation are candidate neural and cognitive mechanisms mediating these effects. PMID:23296187

  12. Isolation and characterization of expressible cDNA clones encoding the M1 and M2 subunits of mouse ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Thelander, L; Berg, P

    1986-01-01

    Mammalian ribonucleotide reductase consists of two nonidentical subunits, proteins M1 and M2, which are differentially regulated during the cell cycle. We have isolated expressible cDNA clones of both subunits from an Okayama-Berg cDNA library made with mRNA from hydroxyurea-resistant, M2 protein-overproducing mouse TA3 cells. Expression of M2 protein could be demonstrated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy after transfection of COS-7 monkey cells with the plasmid. Electrophoresis and blot analyses of the parent and hydroxyurea-resistant TA3 mRNA revealed two M2 transcripts, a major one of 2.1 kilobases and a minor one of about 1.6 kilobases. Restriction endonuclease mapping of the corresponding cDNAs indicated that the two mRNAs differed only in the length of the 3' untranslated ends. By contrast, there was only one mRNA corresponding to the M1 protein, and its mobility corresponded to about 3.1 kilobases. The hydroxyurea-resistant TA3 cells contained a 50- to 100-fold excess of the M2 mRNAs over that of the parent cells and a 10-fold excess of the M1 mRNA. However, a Southern blot analysis of the corresponding genomic DNA sequences showed that the M2 gene was amplified fivefold but the M1 gene was still single copy. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 2,111-base-pair-long M2 cDNA revealed an open reading frame coding for 390 amino acids, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 45,100. The mouse M2 protein sequence was quite homologous to the equivalent protein in the clam Spisula solidissima, while the homology to the smaller subunits of Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus type 2, and Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductases were less pronounced. Images PMID:3025593

  13. Localization of the gene encoding peptidylglycine [alpha]-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) to human chromosome 5q14-5q21

    SciTech Connect

    Ouafik, L.H.; Giraud, P.; Oliver, C. ); Mattei, M.G. ); Eipper, B.A.; Mains, R.E. )

    1993-11-01

    Peptidylglycine [alpha]-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 1.14.17.3) is a multifunctional protein containing two enzymes that act sequentially to catalyze the [alpha]-amidation of neuroendocrine peptides. Southern blot analysis of human placental DNA demonstrated that PAM is encoded by a single gene. The chromosomal localization of the PAM gene was established using in situ hybridization. A 2.2-kb human PAM cDNA hybridized to human metaphase chromosomes revealed a significant clustering of silver grains over chromosome 5 bands q14-q21. The gene encoding another enzyme important in the post-translational processing of neuroendocrine precursors, prohormone convertase 1 (PC1), is localized in the same region (5q15-q21). 14 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r

    SciTech Connect

    Tosi, M.; Duponchel, C.; Meo, T.; Julier, C.

    1987-12-29

    Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls.

  15. Cloning and expresion of cDNA for rat O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Sakumi, K; Shiraishi, A; Hayakawa, H; Sekiguchi, M

    1991-01-01

    cDNA for O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase was isolated by screening rat liver cDNA libraries, using as a probe the human cDNA sequence for methyltransferase. The rat cDNA encodes a protein with 209 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence of the rat methyltransferase exhibits considerable homology with those of the human, yeast and bacterial enzymes, especially around putative methyl acceptor sites. When the cDNA was placed under control of the lac promoter and expressed in methyltransferase-deficient Escherichia coli (ada-, ogt-) cells, a characteristic methyltransferase protein was produced. The rat DNA methyltransferase thus expressed could complement the biological defects of the E. coli cell caused by lack of its own DNA methyltransferases; e.g. increased sensitivity to alkylating agents in terms of both cell death and mutation induction. Images PMID:1945835

  16. Bioinformatics Annotation of Human Y Chromosome-Encoded Protein Pathways and Interactions.

    PubMed

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-09-01

    We performed a comprehensive analysis of human Y chromosome-encoded proteins, their pathways, and their interactions using bioinformatics tools. From the NCBI annotation release 107 of human genome, we retrieved a total of 66 proteins encoded on Y chromosome. Most of the retrieved proteins were also matched with the proteins listed in the core databases of the Human Proteome Project including neXtProt, PeptideAtlas, and the Human Protein Atlas. When we examined the pathways of human Y-encoded proteins through KEGG database and Pathway Studio software, many of proteins fall into the categories related to cell signaling pathways. Using the STRING program, we found a total of 49 human Y-encoded proteins showing strong/medium interaction with each other. While using the Pathway studio software, we found that a total of 16 proteins interact with other chromosome-encoded proteins. In particular, the SRY protein interacted with 17 proteins encoded on other chromosomes. Additionally, we aligned the sequences of human Y-encoded proteins with the sequences of chimpanzee and mouse Y-encoded proteins using the NCBI BLAST program. This analysis resulted in a significant number of orthologous proteins between human, chimpanzee, and mouse. Collectively, our findings provide the scientific community with additional information on the human Y chromosome-encoded proteins. PMID:26279084

  17. Molecular characterization of cDNA encoding oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 increased by salt treatment in the mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, K; Hanagata, N; Dubinsky, Z; Baba, S; Karube, I

    2000-11-01

    Young plants of the common Okinawa mangrove species Bruguiera gymnorrhiza were transferred from freshwater to a medium with seawater salt level (500 mM NaCl). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed in the leaf extract of the plant a 33 kDa protein with pI 5.2, whose quantity increased as a result of NaCl treatment. The N-terminal amino acids sequence of this protein had a significant homology with mature region of oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 (OEE1) precursor. The cloning of OEE1 precursor cDNA fragment was carried out by means of reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using degenerated primers. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The deduced amino acid sequence consisted of 322 amino acids and was 87% identical to that of Nicotiana tabacum. In B. gymnorrhiza, the predicted amino acid sequence of the mature protein starts at the residue number 85 of the open reading frame. The first 84-amino acid residues correspond to a typical transit sequence for the signal directing OEE1 to its appropriate compartment of chloroplast. The expression of OEE1 was analyzed together with other OEE subunits and D1 protein of photosystem II. The transcript levels of all the three OEEs were enhanced by NaCl treatment, but the significant increase of D1 protein was not observed. PMID:11092914

  18. Characterization of a cDNA encoding RP43, a CUB-domain-containing protein from the tube of Riftia pachyptila (Vestimentifera), and distribution of its transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Chamoy, L; Nicolaï, M; Quennedey, B; Gaill, F; Delachambre, J

    2000-01-01

    A major 43 kDa protein from the protective tube of Riftia pachyptila (Vestimentifera), named RP43, was partly microsequenced after isolation by SDS/PAGE from the protein fraction of tubes collected around the hydrothermal vents at the East Pacific Rise. On the basis of the partial peptide sequences obtained, experiments using reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends led to the complete cDNA sequence. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence of RP43 showed the presence of CUB domains (100-110-residue-spanning domains first reported in the complement subcomponents C1r/C1s, epidermal-growth-factor-related sea urchin protein and bone morphogenetic protein 1) that seem to be involved in protein-protein and glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions. This peculiarity strongly suggests that RP43 might have a crucial role in tightening the different elements of the worm tube. However, the absence of chitin-binding motifs inclines us to favour a role in protein-protein interactions during assembly of the tube components. The RP43 mRNA was found to be present in specific epidermal cells from the worm body wall but never in the chitin-synthesizing gland cells. This unexpected result clearly indicates that the major tube protein is synthesized in specialized areas of the outer epithelium and that at least two different tissues are involved in the synthesis of the exoskeleton. PMID:10947956

  19. Isolation and properties of Drosophila melanogaster ferritin--molecular cloning of a cDNA that encodes one subunit, and localization of the gene on the third chromosome.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, A; Georgieva, T; Gospodov, I; Law, J H; Dunkov, B C; Ralcheva, N; Barillas-Mury, C; Ralchev, K; Kafatos, F C

    1997-07-15

    Ferritin was purified from iron-fed Drosophila melanogaster extracts by centrifugation in a gradient of potassium bromide. On polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the product showed two protein bands corresponding to the ferritin monomer and dimer. Electrophoresis following dissociation with SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol revealed three strong bands of approximately 25, 26, and 28 kDa. N-terminal amino acid sequences were identical for the 25-kDa and 26-kDa subunits, but different for the 28-kDa subunit. Conserved ferritin PCR primers were used to amplify a 360-bp cDNA product, which was used to isolate a clone from a D. melanogaster cDNA library that contained the complete coding sequence for a ferritin subunit. Additional 5' sequence obtained by the RACE method revealed the presence of a putative iron regulatory element. The PCR product was also used to locate the position of the ferritin subunit gene at region 99F on the right arm of the third chromosome. The deduced amino acid sequence of the D. melanogaster ferritin subunit contained a signal sequence and resembled most closely ferritin of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The evolution of ferritin sequences is discussed. PMID:9266686

  20. Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Deschampsia antarctica and its expression regulated by cold and UV stresses

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Venegas, Jaime R; Dinamarca, Jorge; Moraga, Ana Gutiérrez; Gidekel, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background The Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) gene, SOD gene, was isolated from a Deschampsia antarctica Desv. by cDNA library screening. The expression of SOD gene in the leaves of D. antarctica was determined by RT-PCR and its differential expression of gene transcripts in conditions of cold and UV radiation stresses was revealed by northern blot. Findings The molecular characterization shows that SOD cDNA is 709 bp in length, which translates an ORF of 152 amino acids that correspond to a protein of predicted molecular mass of 15 kDa. The assay shows that the expression of SOD gene increases when D. antarctica is acclimatised to 4°C and exposed to UV radiation. These results indicate that the SOD gene of D. antarctica is involved in the antioxidative process triggered by oxidative stress induced by the conditions of environmental change in which they live. Conclusion The present results allow us to know the characteristics of Cu/ZnSOD gene from D. antarctica and understand that its expression is regulated by cold and UV radiation. PMID:19785762

  1. Oligosaccharide processing in the expression of human plasminogen cDNA by lepidopteran insect (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, D.J.; Fraser, M.J.; Castellino, F.J. )

    1990-06-12

    A comparison has been made between the Asn{sup 289}-linked oligosaccharide structures of human plasma plasminogen and a recombinant human plasminogen, expressed in lepidopteran insect (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells, after infection of these cells with a recombinant baculovirus containing the entire human plasminogen cDNA. Using anion-exchange liquid chromatography mapping of the oligosaccharide units cleaved from the proteins by glycopeptidase F, compared with elution positions of standard oligosaccharide structures, coupled with monosaccharide compositional analysis, the authors find that the human plasma protein contained only bisialo-biantennary complex-type carbohydrate and asialo-biantennary complex carbohydrate, confirming earlier work published by this laboratory. The glycosylation pattern of the insect cell expressed recombinant human plasminogen showed considerable microheterogeneity, with identifiable high-mannose carbohydrate and truncated high-mannose oligosaccharide. Of major importance, approximately 40% of the oligosaccharide population consisted of complex carbohydrate (bisialo-biantennary), identical in structure with that of the human plasma protein. This the first direct identification of complex carbohydrate in proteins produced in insect cells and demonstrates that trimming and processing of high-mannose carbohydrate into complex-type oligosaccharide can occur. The data indicate that both normal and alternate pathways exist in these cells for incorporation and trimming of high-mannose oligosaccharides and that mannosidases, as well as galactosyl-, hexosaminidasyl-, and sialyltransferases are present, and/or can be induced, in these cells. From these observations, the authors conclude that amino acid sequences and/or protein conformational properties can control oligosaccharide processing events.

  2. Human ESP1/CRP2, a member of the LIM domain protein family: Characterization of the cDNA and assignment of the gene locus to chromosome 14q32.3

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Mohammad Azharul; Ohta, Kohji; Matsuda, Ichiro

    1996-01-15

    The LIM domain is present in a wide variety of proteins with diverse functions and exhibits characteristic arrangements of Cys and His residues with a novel zinc-binding motif. LIM domain proteins have been implicated in development, cell regulation, and cell structure. A LIM domain protein was identified by screening a human cDNA library with rat cysteine-rich intestinal protein (CRIP) as a probe, under conditions of low stringency. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence with several LIM domain proteins revealed 93% of the residues to be identical to rat LIM domain protein, termed ESP1 or CRP2. Thus, the protein is hereafter referred to as human ESP1/CRP2. The cDNA encompasses a 1171-base region, including 26, 624, and 521 bases in the 5{prime}-noncoding region, coding region, and 3{prime}-noncoding regions, respectively, and encodes the entire ESP1/CRP2 protein has two LIM domains, and each shares 35.1% and 77 or 79% identical residues with human cysteine-rich protein (CRP) and rat CRIP, respectively. Northern blot analysis of ESP1/CRP2 in various human tissues showed distinct tissue distributions compared with CRP and CRIP, suggesting that each might serve related but specific roles in tissue organization or function. Using a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, the ESP1/CRP2 locus was assigned to chromosome 14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, using cDNA and a genome DNA fragment of the ESP1/CRP2 as probes, confirms this assignment and relegates regional localization to band 14q32.3 47 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Isolation of an insulin-like growth factor II cDNA with a unique 5 prime untranslated region from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Shujane; Daimon, Makoto; Wang, Chunyeh; Ilan, J. ); Jansen, M. )

    1988-03-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) cDNA from a placental library was isolated and sequenced. The 5{prime} untranslated region (5{prime}-UTR) sequence of this cDNA differs completely from that of adult human liver and has considerable base sequence identity to the same region of an IGF-II cDNA of a rat liver cell line, BRL-3A. Human placental poly(A){sup +} RNA was probed with either the 5{prime}-UTR of the isolated human placental IGF-II cDNA or the 5{prime}-UTR of the IGF-II cDNA obtained from adult human liver. No transcripts were detected by using the 5{prime}-UTR of the adult liver IGF-II as the probe. In contrast, three transcripts of 6.0, 3.2, and 2.2 kilobases were detected by using the 5{prime}-UTR of the placental IGF-II cDNA as the probe or the probe from the coding sequence. A fourth IGF-II transcript of 4.9 kilobases presumably containing a 5{prime}-UTR consisting of a base sequence dissimilar to that of either IGF-II 5{prime}-UTR was apparent. Therefore, IGF-II transcripts detected may be products of alternative splicing as their 5{prime}-UTR sequence is contained within the human IGF-II gene or they may be a consequence of alternative promoter utilization in placenta.

  4. Partial purification of the chloroplast ATP synthase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the gamma subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The chloroplast ATP synthase was partially purified from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by extracting membranes with deoxycholate and KCl, followed by centrifugation and ammonium sulfate fractionation of the supernatant. The enzyme assay involved the reconstitution of such fractions with bacteriorhodopsin and soybean phospholipids to form vesicles capable of light-dependent ({sup 32}P)-phosphate esterification. A cDNA for the gamma subunit from Chlamydomonas was isolated, expressed in vitro and sequenced. It contains the entire coding region for the gamma subunit precursor. A 35 amino acid long transit peptide resides at the NH{sub 2}-terminus of a 323 amino acid long mature peptide that is 77% similar to the spinach gamma subunit. Six cysteines were found; three were conserved in Chlamydomonas and spinach.

  5. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a plasma membrane-associated, uronide binding phosphoprotein with physical properties similar to viral movement proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Reymond, P; Kunz, B; Paul-Pletzer, K; Grimm, R; Eckerskorn, C; Farmer, E E

    1996-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides are structural and regulatory homopolymers from the extracellular pectic matrix of plants. In vitro micromolar concentrations of oligogalacturonates and polygalacturonates were shown previously to stimulate the phosphorylation of a small plasma membrane-associated protein in potato. Immunologically cross-reactive proteins were detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions from all angiosperm subclasses in the Cronquist system. Polygalacturonate-enhanced phosphorylation of the protein was observed in four of the six dicotyledon subclasses but not in any of the five monocotyledon subclasses. A cDNA for the protein was cloned from potato. The deduced protein is extremely hydrophilic and has a proline-rich N terminus. The C-terminal half of the protein was predicted to be a coiled coil, suggesting that the protein interacts with other macromolecules. The recombinant protein was found to bind both simple and complex galacturonides. The behavior of the protein suggests several parallels with viral proteins involved in intercellular communication. PMID:8989883

  6. Use of PCR amplification of cDNA to study mechanisms of human cell mutagenesis and malignant transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, V.M.; Yang, Jialing; Chen, Rueyhwa; McGregor, W.G.; Lukash, L.; Scheid, J.M.; Reinhold, D.S.; McCormick, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    PCR is widely employed to amplify short segments of genomic DNA to determine if a specific change has occurred. But some investigators need to sequence the entire coding region of mammalian genes to determine what specific changes have occurred. In 1989, the authors described a method to copy mRNA of the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene directly from the lysate of a clone of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutant diploid human fibroblasts without the need for RNA extraction or DNA template purification. The consensus sequence of the cDNA is determined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Using this method, they have investigated the kinds of mutations induced by carcinogens in the coding region of the HPRT gene and their location in the gene and examined the role of DNA repair were exposed to mutagens in exponential growth or synchronized and exposed at the beginning of S phase or in G{sub 1} phase several hr prior to DNA replication.

  7. Identification of human rotavirus serotype by hybridization to polymerase chain reaction-generated probes derived from a hyperdivergent region of the gene encoding outer capsid protein VP7

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J.; Sears, J.; Schael, I.P.; White, L.; Garcia, D.; Lanata, C.; Kapikian, A.Z. )

    1990-08-01

    We have synthesized {sup 32}P-labeled hybridization probes from a hyperdivergent region (nucleotides 51 to 392) of the rotavirus gene encoding the VP7 glycoprotein by using the polymerase chain reaction method. Both RNA (after an initial reverse transcription step) and cloned cDNA from human rotavirus serotypes 1 through 4 could be used as templates to amplify this region. High-stringency hybridization of each of the four probes to rotavirus RNAs dotted on nylon membranes allowed the specific detection of corresponding sequences and thus permitted identification of the serotype of the strains dotted. The procedure was useful when applied to rotaviruses isolated from field studies.

  8. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding (S)-cis-N-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase from opium poppy, a key enzyme in sanguinarine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-02-15

    Sanguinarine is a benzo[c]phenenthridine alkaloid with potent antimicrobial properties found commonly in plants of the Papaveraceae, including the roots of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Sanguinarine is formed from the central 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediate (S)-reticuline via the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, which undergoes five enzymatic oxidations and an N-methylation. The first four oxidations from (S)-scoulerine are catalyzed by cytochromes P450, whereas the final conversion involves a flavoprotein oxidase. All but one gene in the biosynthetic pathway from (S)-reticuline to sanguinarine has been identified. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of (S)-cis-N-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase (MSH) from opium poppy based on the transcriptional induction in elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures and root-specific expression of the corresponding gene. Along with protopine 6-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the subsequent and penultimate step in sanguinarine biosynthesis, MSH is a member of the CYP82N subfamily of cytochromes P450. The full-length MSH cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the recombinant microsomal protein was tested for enzymatic activity using 25 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids representing a wide range of structural subgroups. The only enzymatic substrates were the N-methylated protoberberine alkaloids N-methylstylopine and N-methylcanadine, which were converted to protopine and allocryptopine, respectively. PMID:23313486

  10. Cloning and Characterization of an Armillaria gallica cDNA Encoding Protoilludene Synthase, Which Catalyzes the First Committed Step in the Synthesis of Antimicrobial Melleolides*

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Benedikt; Heinig, Uwe; Grothe, Torsten; Stadler, Marc; Jennewein, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Melleolides and related fungal sesquiterpenoid aryl esters are antimicrobial and cytotoxic natural products derived from cultures of the Homobasidiomycetes genus Armillaria. The initial step in the biosynthesis of all melleolides involves cyclization of the universal sesquiterpene precursor farnesyl diphosphate to produce protoilludene, a reaction catalyzed by protoilludene synthase. We achieved the partial purification of protoilludene synthase from a mycelial culture of Armillaria gallica and found that 6-protoilludene was its exclusive reaction product. Therefore, a further isomerization reaction is necessary to convert the 6–7 double bond into the 7–8 double bond found in melleolides. We expressed an A. gallica protoilludene synthase cDNA in Escherichia coli, and this also led to the exclusive production of 6-protoilludene. Sequence comparison of the isolated sesquiterpene synthase revealed a distant relationship to other fungal terpene synthases. The isolation of the genomic sequence identified the 6-protoilludene synthase to be present as a single copy gene in the genome of A. gallica, possessing an open reading frame interrupted with eight introns. PMID:21148562