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Sample records for human duodenal mucosa

  1. Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1983-01-01

    An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

  2. Luminal chemosensing in the duodenal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    The upper gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including gastric acid, CO2 and nutrients. Mucosal chemical sensors are necessary to exert physiological responses such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility. We propose the mucosal chemosensing system by which luminal chemicals are sensed to trigger mucosal defense mechanisms via mucosal acid sensors and taste receptors. Luminal acid/CO2 is sensed via ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases and ion transporters in the epithelial cells and via acid sensors on the afferent nerves in the duodenum and esophagus. Gastric acid sensing is differentially mediated via endocrine cell acid sensors and afferent nerves. Furthermore, a luminal L-glutamate signal is mediated via epithelial L-glutamate receptors, including metabotropic glutamate receptors and taste receptor 1 family heterodimers, with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase, whereas luminal Ca2+ is differently sensed via calcium-sensing receptor in the duodenum. These luminal chemosensors help activate mucosal defense mechanisms in order to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiological responses of the upper GI tract. Stimulation of luminal chemosensing in the upper GI mucosa may prevent mucosal injury, affect nutrient metabolism, and modulate sensory nerve activity. PMID:20518751

  3. In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa

    E-print Network

    Hartline, Jason D.

    In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa,§ and Vadim Backman, PhD* Objectives: To reduce pancreatic cancer mortality, a paradigm shift in cancer) spectroscopy to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer by interrogating the duodenal mucosa. A previous ex

  4. Protective Factors of the Gastric and Duodenal Mucosa: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Yandrapu, Harathi; Sarosiek, Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    The structural and functional integrity of the gastric and duodenal mucosa represents equilibrium between aggressive factors and protective mechanisms. Mucus-buffers-phospholipid layer as pre-epithelial barrier, enhanced by prostaglandins and epidermal growth factor, remains a vanguard of mucosal protection. It maintains a neutral pH at the surface epithelial luminal interface, facing luminal pH dropping to 1.0, i.e., hydrogen ion concentration gradient equal 1,000,000. The surface epithelial cells, elaborating mucins, buffers, phospholipids, prostaglandins, trefoil peptides, peptide growth factor and their receptors, heat shock proteins, cathelicidins, and ?-defensins form the second line of defense. Endothelium exerts mucosal protection through production of potent vasodilators like nitric oxide and prostacyclins and through release of angiogenic growth factors, securing adequate blood flow and representing the third and an ultimate line of mucosal protection. This microcirculation is instrumental for supply of oxygen, nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and removal of ad hoc generated toxic substances as well as for continuous mucosal cell renewal from progenitor cells, secured by growth factors accompanied by survivin preventing early apoptosis. PMID:26109006

  5. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  6. Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer

    E-print Network

    Kim, Young L.

    Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer Yang Liu,1 Randall E Shah,2 Curtis Hall,2 and Vadim Backman1 Abstract Purpose: Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most to develop a highly accurate and minimally invasive (e.g., without instrumentation of the pancreatic duct

  7. Cysteamine-induced inhibition of acid neutralization and the increase in hydrogen ion back-diffusion in duodenal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ohe, K.; Okada, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Inoue, M.; Miyoshi, A.

    1982-03-01

    To investigate the possible impairment of defensive mechanisms in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration, the effect of cysteamine on the neutralization of acid by the duodenum and the back-diffusion of hydrogen ions into the duodenal mucosa has been studied. The results obtained were as follows. (1) The intraduodenal pH started to decrease between 3 and 4 hr after cysteamine injection. (2) By perfusion of the duodenal loop excluding the opening of bile and pancreatic ducts, the amount of hydrogen ions (H+) neutralized was found to be significantly lower in cysteamine-treated animals than in the controls. (3) the back-diffusion of luminal H+ into the duodenal mucosa, estimated by measuring the H+ disappearance from the test solution including 100 mM HCl, was significantly increased by cysteamine. From these findings, it has been concluded that cysteamine reduces the resistance of duodenal mucosa to acid coming from the stomach.

  8. Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission. PMID:24143321

  9. Ultrastructural aspects of duodenal mucosa repair during treatment of peptic disease.

    PubMed

    Zoli, G; Bonvicini, F; Ercoli, C; Gasbarrini, G; Laschi, R

    1984-01-01

    We applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to the study of duodenal ulcer healing during treatment with an H2-receptor antagonist (ranitidine). We also evaluated the changes in the duodenal mucosa close to the lesion, which appeared endoscopically and histologically normal. Endoscopic biopsies were taken from 8 patients both on the edge of the ulcer and in the upper duodenum, before and after 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Endoscopy revealed a decrease of the ulcer crater after the first week and a complete healing after three weeks of therapy. The ulcer edge presented a subtotal mucosal atrophy, cellular exfoliation (dome-shaped cells) and changes in microvilli (bridging, branching, blebs). In the first week of treatment, reepithelization was observed: however, cellular exfoliation and changes in microvilli persisted at least up to the end of the first month of treatment. Short and stumped villi began to reappear after one month. The mucosa farthest from the lesion showed the same alterations but to a lesser extent. The changes tended to decrease after treatment. Two months after the end of treatment the duodenal mucosa was endoscopically and histologically normal, while SEM showed altered microvilli. SEM allowed us to investigate the morphogenesis of mucosal repair and to identify minimal cellular alterations which could represent the morphological basis of the disease and its possible recurrence. PMID:6099683

  10. In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Bajaj, Shailesh; Konda, Vani; Siddiqui, Uzma D.; Waxman, Irving; Goldberg, Michael J.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Gould, Bradley; Eshein, Adam; Upadhye, Sudeep; Koons, Ann; Gonzalez-Haba Ruiz, Mariano; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To reduce pancreatic cancer mortality, a paradigm shift in cancer screening is needed. Our group pioneered the use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer by interrogating the duodenal mucosa. A previous ex vivo study (n = 203) demonstrated excellent diagnostic potential: sensitivity, 95%; specificity, 71%; and accuracy, 85%. The objective of the current case-control study was to evaluate this approach in vivo. Methods We developed a novel endoscope-compatible fiber-optic probe to measure LEBS in the periampullary duodenum of 41 patients undergoing upper endoscopy. This approach enables minimally invasive detection of the ultrastructural consequences of pancreatic field carcinogenesis. Results The LEBS parameters and optical properties were significantly altered in patients harboring adenocarcinomas (including early-stage) throughout the pancreas relative to healthy controls. Test performance characteristics were excellent with sensitivity = 78%, specificity = 85%, and accuracy = 81%. Moreover, the LEBS prediction rule was not confounded by patients’ demographics. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo measurement of histologically normal duodenal mucosa to predict the presence of adenocarcinoma throughout the pancreas. This represents the next step in establishing duodenal LEBS analysis as a prescreening technique that identifies clinically asymptomatic patients who are at elevated risk of PC. PMID:25906443

  11. Neuroregulation of Human Nasal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nerves innervate human nasal mucosa. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular, and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent identification of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of transient receptor potential sensory receptor ion channel proteins may account for the polymodal, chemo- and mechanicosensitivity of many trigeminal neurons. Modulation of these families of proteins, excitatory and inhibitory autoreceptors, and combinations of neurotransmitters introduces a new level of complexity and subtlety to nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air-temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants (“aromatherapy”), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19686200

  12. Neuroregulation of human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, James N; Merck, Samantha J

    2009-07-01

    Multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nerves innervate human nasal mucosa. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular, and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent identification of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of transient receptor potential sensory receptor ion channel proteins may account for the polymodal, chemo- and mechanicosensitivity of many trigeminal neurons. Modulation of these families of proteins, excitatory and inhibitory autoreceptors, and combinations of neurotransmitters introduces a new level of complexity and subtlety to nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air-temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants ("aromatherapy"), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19686200

  13. Nematodirus battus: scanning electron microscope studies of the duodenal mucosa of infected lambs.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Lee, D L

    1980-12-01

    Lambs given 60 000 third-stage larvae of Nematodirus battus were killed on days 16, 20 22, 24 and 32 of the infection and the duodenal mucosa was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On day 16 of the infection the villi were long and finger-like and, although goblet cells were visible, the surface of the villi was not extensively folded, as is the surface of villi of uninfected control animals. By day 20 of the infection the villi had been reduced to flattened, plate-like structures or had formed low, irregular-shaped ridges. On this day of the infection the nematodes appeared to be enclosed by mucus-like material. As the infection progressed the intestinal damage was repaired, so that, by day 24 of the infection, the surface of the intestine was covered by short, smooth, finger-like projections and, by day 32 of the infection, the morphology of the intestine was somewhat similar to that of the control lamb. The possible role of villus atrophy and of mucus in the rejection of N. battus from the intestine is discussed. PMID:7232036

  14. Human keratinocyte culture from the peritonsillar mucosa.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, P; Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Michel, O; Mahrle, G; Krieg, T; Stennert, E

    1996-01-01

    Tonsillectomy tissue can be used as a routine source for cultures of oropharyngeal keratinocytes. In so doing, a peritonsillar strip of unaltered mucosa was dissected in the upper submucosa. Subsequent trypsinization yielded 7.0 +/- 3.4 x 10(6) keratinocytes per bilateral tonsillectomy. Keratinocyte attachment and growth in primary culture were promoted by sublethally irradiated 3T3 murine fibroblasts. Three subcultures could be performed without a feeder layer and were characterized by a population doubling time of 4.5 days during log growth phase. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analysis of the third subculture revealed a strong expression of keratin pairs 5/14 and 6/16 as well as keratins 7 and 19, whereas keratins 8/18 were expressed less intensely. The lowest intensity, was found for keratin 13, which is known to be indicative of the differentiated mucosa. The culture technique thus provides an easily available in vitro model for morphological and functional studies on the epithelial compartment of human oropharyngeal mucosa. PMID:8737778

  15. Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Troost, Freddy J; van Baarlen, Peter; Lindsey, Patrick; Kodde, Andrea; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert-Jan M

    2008-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. Results One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine. PMID:18681965

  16. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  17. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  18. Evaluation of repair in duodenal perforation with human amniotic membrane: An animal model (dog)

    PubMed Central

    Ghahramani, Leila; Jahromi, Ali Bagherpour; Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a growing tendency toward application of human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a biologic substitute in various tissue injuries where a significant tissue loss is a matter of concern. In gastrointestinal injuries especially duodenal ones, some potential limitations in current surgical techniques contribute to not fully acceptable healing outcomes. Thus, this study was carried out to assess repair with HAM patch for duodenal defect in comparison with simple duodenoraphy in an animal model (dog). Materials and Methods: A total of 15 male German shepherd dogs weighing 23-27 kg were randomly divided into two groups. Group A with 10 dogs, which were a candidate for duodenal repair by amniotic membrane patch and Group B consisted of 5 dogs perform simple duodenorraphy. A precise control was made to match all conditions except surgical technique. Macroscopic and microscopic features of the healed duodenal lumen in both groups were recorded. Results: Gross evaluation revealed no difference in luminal diameter in both groups. Statistical analysis of duodenal diameter between both groups after operation also showed no significant difference (Pv = 0.789). Histological assessment indicated less inflammation with better wound healing in Group A. Conclusion: It seems that repairing duodenal wall defect with HAM would result in better histological outcomes compared with what is seen in simple duodenoraphy in animal models. However, there is no significant difference regarding surgical findings. PMID:24804187

  19. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n = 17) and after pretreatment with high dose omeprazole (n = 17) and ranitidine (n = 9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid secretion (pH 6.9 v 6.8; p > 0.05). Omeprazole caused higher rates of basal (mean (SEM)) (597 (48) v 351 (39) mumol/h; p < 0.02) and vagally stimulated (834 (72) v 474 (66) mumol/h; p < 0.02), but not acid stimulated (3351 (678) v 2550 (456) mumol/h; p > 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion compared with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid inhibition. These results show that the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion apparently independent of its gastric acid inhibitory effect. The mechanism of action remains speculative. PMID:8566861

  20. Characterization of duodenal expression and localization of fatty acid-sensing receptors in humans: relationships with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Isaacs, Nicole J; Young, Richard L; Ott, Raffael; Nguyen, Nam Q; Rayner, Christopher K; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2014-11-15

    Fatty acids (FAs) stimulate the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which suppress energy intake. In obesity, gastrointestinal responses to FAs are attenuated. Recent studies have identified a key role for the FA-sensing receptors cluster of differentiation (CD)36, G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40, GPR120, and GPR119 in mediating gastrointestinal hormone secretion. This study aimed to determine the expression and localization of these receptors in the duodenum of humans and to examine relationships with obesity. Duodenal mucosal biopsies were collected from nine lean [body mass index (BMI): 22 ± 1 kg/m2], six overweight (BMI: 28 ± 1 kg/m2), and seven obese (BMI: 49 ± 5 kg/m2) participants. Absolute levels of receptor transcripts were quantified using RT-PCR, while immunohistochemistry was used for localization. Transcripts were expressed in the duodenum of lean, overweight, and obese individuals with abundance of CD36>GPR40>GPR120>GPR119. Expression levels of GPR120 (r = 0.46, P = 0.03) and CD36 (r = 0.69, P = 0.0004) were directly correlated with BMI. There was an inverse correlation between expression of GPR119 with BMI (r2 = 0.26, P = 0.016). Immunolabeling studies localized CD36 to the brush border membrane of the duodenal mucosa and GPR40, GPR120, and GPR119 to enteroendocrine cells. The number of cells immunolabeled with CCK (r = -0.54, P = 0.03) and GLP-1 (r = -0.49, P = 0.045) was inversely correlated with BMI, such that duodenal CCK and GLP-1 cell density decreased with increasing BMI. In conclusion, CD36, GPR40, GPR120, and GPR119 are expressed in the human duodenum. Transcript levels of duodenal FA receptors and enteroendocrine cell density are altered with increasing BMI, suggesting that these changes may underlie decreased gastrointestinal hormone responses to fat and impaired energy intake regulation in obesity. PMID:25258406

  1. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 ± 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1.6%. Duodenal biopsies of 19 HIV patients presenting for evaluation of abdominal pain did not reveal any new diagnoses. Information pertaining to new diagnoses is provided. CONCLUSION: Routine biopsy of normal appearing duodena in patients with abdominal pain should be reserved for those with a high pre-test probability given its low diagnostic yield. PMID:26139995

  2. Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Eliakim, R; Stalnikowicz, R; Ackerman, Z; Amir, G; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide, the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may have a role in tissue injury through its oxidative metabolism. Nitric oxide may have a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the association between gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and peptic disease. In this study, calcium independent nitric oxide synthase activity was detected in human gastric mucosa suggesting expression of the inducible isoform. In 17 duodenal ulcer patients gastric antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity was found to be two and 1.5-fold respectively higher than its activity in the antrum and fundus of 14 normal subjects (p < 0.05). H pylori was detected in the antrum of 15 of 17 duodenal ulcer patients and only in 7 of 14 of the control subjects. Antral nitric oxide synthase activity in H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients was twofold higher than in H pylori positive normal subjects (p < 0.05). In duodenal ulcer patients antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity resumed normal values after induction of ulcer healing with ranitidine. Eradication of H pylori did not further affect gastric nitric oxide synthase activity. These findings suggest that in duodenal ulcer patients stimulated gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthase activity, though independent of the H pylori state, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:7525417

  3. Supplementation of a grape seed and grape marc meal extract decreases activities of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factors NF-?B and Nrf2 in the duodenal mucosa of pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pigs, enteric infections and the development of gut disorders such as diarrhoea are commonly observed, particularly after weaning. The present study investigated the hypothesis that feeding a grape seed and grape marc extract (GSGME) as a dietary supplement has the potential to suppress the inflammatory process in the small intestine of pigs by modulating the activities of NF-?B and Nrf2 due to its high content of flavonoids. Methods Twenty-four crossbred, 6 weeks old pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 12 animals each and fed nutritionally adequate diets without or with 1% GSGME for 4 weeks. Results Pigs administered GSGME had a lower transactivation of NF-?B and Nrf2 and a lower expression of various target genes of these transcription factors in the duodenal mucosa than control pigs (P?duodenal mucosa of pigs and thus might provide a useful dietary strategy to inhibit inflammation in the gut frequently occurring in pigs. Feeding GSGME did not influence vitamin E status and the antioxidant system of the pigs but improved the gain:feed ratio. In overall, the study suggests that polyphenol-rich plant extracts such GSGME could be useful feed supplements in pig nutrition, in order to maintain animal health and improve performance. PMID:23453040

  4. Duodenal atresia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 20-30% of infants with duodenal atresia have Down syndrome. Duodenal atresia is often associated with other birth ... abnormality. Associated problems (such as those related to Down syndrome) must be treated as appropriate.

  5. In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Chen, Szu-Yu; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Lou, Pei-Jen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Recent clinical studies on human skin indicated that in vivo multi-harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) can achieve sub-micron resolution for histopathological analysis with a high penetration depth and leave no energy or photodamages in the interacted tissues. It is thus highly desired to apply HGM for in vivo mucosa histopathological diagnosis. In this paper, the first in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa by using epi-HGM is demonstrated. We modified an upright microscope to rotate the angle of objective for in vivo observation. Our clinical study reveals the capability of HGM to in vivo image cell distributions in human oral mucosa, including epithelium and lamina propria with a high penetration depth greater than 280 ?m and a high spatial resolution better than 500 nm. We also found that the third-harmonic-generation (THG) contrast on nucleus depends strongly on its thicknesses, in agreement with a numerical simulation. Besides, 4% acetic acid was found to be able to enhance the THG contrast of nucleus in oral mucosa, while such enhancement was found to decay due to the metabolic clearance of the contrast enhancer by the oral mucosa. Our clinical study indicated that, the combined epi-THG and epi-second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising imaging tool for in vivo noninvasive optical virtual biopsy and disease diagnosis in human mucosa. PMID:21833368

  6. New concepts of neural regulation in human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, James N; Merck, Samantha J

    2009-03-01

    Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient receptor potential and voltage and calcium gated ion channels, and combinations of neurotransmitters that can be modulated during inflammation by neurotrophic factors has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and subtlety of nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants ("aromatherapy"), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as idiopathic nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19623876

  7. NEW CONCEPTS OF NEURAL REGULATION IN HUMAN NASAL MUCOSA

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient receptor potential and voltage and calcium gated ion channels, and combinations of neurotransmitters that can be modulated during inflammation by neurotrophic factors has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and subtlety of nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants (“aromatherapy”), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as idiopathic nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19623876

  8. [Inhibition of histamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase system of human gastric mucosa by cimetidine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simon, B; Kather, H

    1977-12-01

    Human gastric mucosa contains a histamin-sensitive adenylate cyclase system. The activation of this enzyme system by histamine is competititively inhibited by the H2-receptor blocking agent cimetidine. Our results underscore the rational basis for the use 0f H2-receptor antagonists in the therapy of peptic ulcer. PMID:593028

  9. Effect of dexamethasone and ACC on bacteria-induced mucin expression in human airway mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria can stimulate mucin production, but excessive mucus supports bacterial infection and consequently leads to airway obstruction. Therefore, the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and the antioxidant acetyl-cysteine (ACC) on bacteria-induced mucus expression was investigated. Explanted human airway mucosa and mucoepidermoid cells (Calu-3) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PAM3 (a synthetic lipoprotein). DEX or ACC were added to either LPS- or PAM3-stimulated airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells. Mucin mRNA expression (MUC5AC) and total mucus glycoconjugates (mucin protein) were quantified using real-time PCR and periodic acid Schiff staining. LPS and PAM3 significantly increased mucin expression in airway mucosa and Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). DEX alone had no significant effect on mucin expression in airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells (P > 0.05). In contrast, DEX significantly reduced LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression in explanted mucosal tissue and mucin expression in Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). In explanted human airway mucosa ACC alone significantly increased mucin expression (P < 0.05). In contrast, ACC significantly decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression (P < 0.05). In Calu-3 cells ACC alone had no significant effect on mucin expression (P > 0.05). ACC decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression, but this effect was not significant (P > 0.05). These data suggest that DEX can effectively reduce bacteria-induced mucin expression in the airways. ACC alone may increase mucin expression in noninfected mucosa, but it decreased bacteria-induced mucin expression. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether the effect of DEX or ACC is clinically relevant. PMID:17600317

  10. Lung Mucosa Lining Fluid Modification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Reprogram Human Neutrophil Killing Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arcos, Jesús; Diangelo, Lauren E; Scordo, Julia M; Sasindran, Smitha J; Moliva, Juan I; Turner, Joanne; Torrelles, Jordi B

    2015-09-15

    We have shown that human alveolar lining fluid (ALF) contains homeostatic hydrolases capable of altering the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall and subsequently its interaction with human macrophages. Neutrophils are also an integral part of the host immune response to M. tuberculosis infection. Here we show that the human lung mucosa influences M. tuberculosis interaction with neutrophils, enhancing the intracellular killing of ALF-exposed M. tuberculosis and up-regulating the expression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 8. In contrast, ALF-exposed M. tuberculosis does not induce neutrophil apoptosis or necrosis, degranulation, or release of extracellular traps, and it decreases the oxidative response. These results suggest an important role for the human alveolar mucosa: increasing the innate capacity of the neutrophil to recognize and kill M. tuberculosis by favoring the use of intracellular mechanisms, while at the same time limiting neutrophil extracellular inflammatory responses to minimize their associated tissue damage. PMID:25748325

  11. Classification of normal and malignant human gastric mucosa tissue with confocal Raman microspectroscopy and wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaogai; Shen, Aiguo; Jiang, Tao; Ai, Yong; Hu, Jiming

    2008-02-01

    Thirty-two samples from the human gastric mucosa tissue, including 13 normal and 19 malignant tissue samples were measured by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The low signal-to-background ratio spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues were obtained by this technique without any sample preparation. Raman spectral interferences include a broad featureless sloping background due to fluorescence and noise. They mask most Raman spectral feature and lead to problems with precision and quantitation of the original spectral information. A preprocessed algorithm based on wavelet analysis was used to reduce noise and eliminate background/baseline of Raman spectra. Comparing preprocessed spectra of malignant gastric mucosa tissues with those of counterpart normal ones, there were obvious spectral changes, including intensity increase at ˜1156 cm -1 and intensity decrease at ˜1587 cm -1. The quantitative criterion based upon the intensity ratio of the ˜1156 and ˜1587 cm -1 was extracted for classification of the normal and malignant gastric mucosa tissue samples. This could result in a new diagnostic method, which would assist the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  12. Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

    2015-05-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NF?B signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NF?B signaling in epithelial cells through I?B? phosphorylation, NF?Bp65 nuclear translocation, and TNF? secretion. In addition, NF?B activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival. PMID:25269707

  13. Duodenal polyposis secondary to portal hypertensive duodenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Ananta; Jaffe, Philip E; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Portal hypertensive duodenopathy (PHD) is a recognized, but uncommon finding of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. Lesions associated with PHD include erythema, erosions, ulcers, telangiectasia, exaggerated villous pattern and duodenal varices. However, duodenal polyposis as a manifestation of PHD is rare. We report a case of a 52-year-old man who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and was found with multiple small duodenal polyps ranging in size from 1-8 mm. Biopsy of the representative polyps revealed polypoid fragments of duodenal mucosa with villiform hyperplasia lined by reactive duodenal/gastric foveolar epithelium and underlying lamina propria showed proliferating ectatic and congested capillaries. The features were diagnostic of polyps arising in the setting of PHD. PMID:26634042

  14. Profiling of Olfactory Receptor Gene Expression in Whole Human Olfactory Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Françoise; Dumont, Jacques E.; Chatelain, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the expressed olfactory receptors gene set. PMID:24800820

  15. Gene Signature of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts: Comparison with Dermal Fibroblasts and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Keiko; Horiguchi, Taigo; Tanimura, Ayako; Hagita, Hiroko; Noma, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucosa is a useful material for regeneration therapy with the advantages of its accessibility and versatility regardless of age and gender. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of oral mucosa. Here we report the first comparative profiles of the gene signatures of human oral mucosa fibroblasts (hOFs), human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs), and hOF-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hOF-iPSCs), linking these with biological roles by functional annotation and pathway analyses. As a common feature of fibroblasts, both hOFs and hDFs expressed glycolipid metabolism-related genes at higher levels compared with hOF-iPSCs. Distinct characteristics of hOFs compared with hDFs included a high expression of glycoprotein genes, involved in signaling, extracellular matrix, membrane, and receptor proteins, besides a low expression of HOX genes, the hDFs-markers. The results of the pathway analyses indicated that tissue-reconstructive, proliferative, and signaling pathways are active, whereas senescence-related genes in p53 pathway are inactive in hOFs. Furthermore, more than half of hOF-specific genes were similarly expressed to those of hOF-iPSC genes and might be controlled by WNT signaling. Our findings demonstrated that hOFs have unique cellular characteristics in specificity and plasticity. These data may provide useful insight into application of oral fibroblasts for direct reprograming. PMID:26339586

  16. Antioxidant effects of gastrointestinal digested purple carrot extract on the human cells of colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Kido?, Marcin; Czapski, Janusz; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Olkowicz, Mariola; Dembczy?ski, Rados?aw; Moyer, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrot (PC) is a potential dietary constituent, which represents a valuable source of antioxidants and can modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the gastrointestinal tract. Antioxidant capacity of a PC extract subjected to digestion process simulated in the artificial alimentary tract, including the stomach, small intestine and colon, was analyzed in normal human cells of colon mucosa. Results indicated that the extract obtained upon passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which could come into contact with the colonic cells in situ, was less potent than the extract, which was not subjected to digestion process. Digested PC extract exhibited intracellular ROS-inhibitory capacity, with 1mg/mL showing the ROS clearance of 18.4%. A 20.7% reduction in oxidative DNA damage due to colon mucosa cells' treatment with digested PC extract was observed. These findings indicate that PC extract is capable of colonic cells' protection against the adverse effects of oxidative stress. PMID:26213078

  17. Effect of oral epidermal growth factor on mucosal healing in rats with duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jane CJ; Liu, Kuo-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Fang, Chia-Lang; Tsao, Chih-Wei

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on mucosal healing in rats with duodenal ulcer. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation without EGF, sham operation with EGF, duodenal ulcer without EGF, or duodenal ulcer with EGF groups. Additionally, normal rats without operation served as the control group. Duodenal ulcer was induced in rats by 300 mL/L acetic acid. Rats with EGF were orally administered at a dose of 60 ?g/kg/day in drinking water on the next day of operation (day 1). Healing of duodenal ulcer was detected by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Cell growth of damaged mucosa was determined by the contents of nucleic acids and proteins. The level of EGF in duodenal mucosa was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The pathological results showed that duodenal ulcer rats with EGF improved mucosal healing compared with those without EGF after day 5. Duodenal ulcer rats with EGF significantly increased duodenal DNA content compared with those without EGF on day 15 (6.44 ± 0.54 mg/g vs 1.45 ± 0.52 mg/g mucosa, P < 0.05). Duodenal RNA and protein contents did not differ between duodenal ulcer rats with and without EGF during the experimental period. Sham operation and duodenal ulcer rats with EGF significantly increased duodenal mucosal EGF content compared with those without EGF on day 5 (76.0 ± 13.7 ng/g vs 35.7 ± 12.9 ng/g mucosa in sham operation rats, and 68.3 ± 10.9 ng/g vs 28.3 ± 9.2 ng/g mucosa in duodenal ulcer rats, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Oral EGF can promote mucosal healing of the rats with duodenal ulcer by stimulating mucosal proliferation accompanied by an increase in mucosal EGF content. PMID:14562389

  18. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  19. Solitary chemosensory cells and bitter taste receptor signaling in human sinonasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Barham, HP; Cooper, SE; Anderson, CB; Tizzano, M; Kingdom, TT; Finger, TE; Kinnamon, SC; Ramakrishnan, VR

    2013-01-01

    Background Solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) are specialized cells in the respiratory epithelium that respond to noxious chemicals including bacterial signaling molecules. SCCs express components of bitter taste transduction including the TAS2R bitter taste receptors and downstream signaling effectors: ?-Gustducin, PLC?2, and TRPM5. When activated, SCCs evoke neurogenic reflexes, resulting in local inflammation. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence SCCs in human sinonasal epithelium, and to test for a correlation with inflammatory disease processes such as allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods Patient demographics and biopsies of human sinonasal mucosa were obtained from control patients (n=7) and those with allergic rhinitis and/or chronic rhinosinusitis (n=15). RT-PCR, qPCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine whether expression of signaling effectors was altered in diseased patients. Results RT-PCR demonstrated that bitter taste receptors TAS2R4, TAS2R14 and TAS2R46 and downstream signaling effectors ?-Gustducin, PLC?2, and TRPM5 are expressed in the inferior turbinate, middle turbinate, septum and uncinate of both control and diseased patients. PLC?2/TRPM5-immunoreactive SCCs were identified in the sinonasal mucosa of both control and diseased patients. qPCR showed similar expression of ?-Gustducin and TRPM5 in the uncinate process of control and diseased groups, and there was no correlation between level of expression and SNOT-22 or pain scores. Conclusion SCCs are present in human sinonasal mucosa in functionally relevant areas. Expression level of signaling effectors was similar in control and diseased patients and did not correlate with measures of pain and inflammation. Further study into these pathways may provide insight into nasal inflammatory diseases and may offer potential therapeutic targets. PMID:23404938

  20. Global Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Gene Expression in Human Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    GRAHAM, JAMES E.; PEEK, RICHARD M.; KRISHNA, UMA; COVER, TIMOTHY L.

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: Helicobacter pylori inhabits a highly restricted ecological niche in the human gastric mucosa. Microbial gene expression in the context of persistent infection remains largely uncharacterized. Methods: An RNA analysis method, selective capture of transcribed sequences, was used in conjunction with genomic array hybridization to characterize H. pylori complementary DNAs (cDNAs) obtained from both human and experimentally infected gerbil gastric tissue specimens. Results: Bacterial cDNAs obtained by selective capture of transcribed sequences from tissues hybridized to arrayed DNA fragments representing approximately 70% of open reading frames in the H. pylori genome. RNAs for most of these open reading frames were also detected by array hybridization analyses of total RNA prepared from the isolated H. pylori strains cultured in vitro. However, a subset of H. pylori RNAs detected in gastric tissue specimens was consistently undetectable in bacteria grown in vitro. The majority of these RNAs encode factors unique to H. pylori that are potentially produced in response to interactions with mammalian gastric mucosa. Conclusions: The combination of selective capture of transcribed sequences with array hybridization has allowed a global analysis of bacterial gene expression occurring in human tissues during a natural infection. PMID:12404238

  1. Characterization and distribution of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Valet, P; Senard, J M; Devedjian, J C; Planat, V; Salomon, R; Voisin, T; Drean, G; Couvineau, A; Daviaud, D; Denis, C

    1993-01-01

    The subtype and the expression of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor were investigated in the normal mucosa from human intestine by means of radioligand binding, RNase mapping, and measurement of adenylate cyclase activity. The study of the binding of the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, [3H]RX821002, to epithelial cell membranes indicated the existence of a single class of noninteracting sites displaying a high affinity for the radioligand (Kd = 1.1 +/- 0.5 nM). The rank order of potency of antagonists to inhibit [3H]RX821002 binding (RX821002 > yohimbine = rauwolscine > phentolamine approximately idazoxan >> chlorpromazine > prazosin) suggested that the receptor is of the alpha 2A subtype. A conclusion which is confirmed by the fact that only alpha 2C10 transcripts were found in the human intestine mucosa. Competition curves with (-)-norepinephrine demonstrated that 60% of the receptor population exhibited high affinity for agonists. This high-affinity state was abolished by the addition of GTP plus Na+ or by prior treatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin indicating it corresponded to G protein-coupled receptors. [32P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting experiments identified two pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins corresponding to Gi2 and Gi3. The study of the distribution of the receptor indicated that (a) the proximal colon is the intestine segment exhibiting the highest receptor density and (b) the receptor is predominantly expressed in crypts and is preferentially located in the basolateral membrane of the polarized cell. The distribution of the receptor along the crypt-surface axis of the colon mucosa can be correlated with a higher level of alpha 2C10-specific mRNA and a higher efficiency of UK14304 to inhibit adenylate cyclase in crypt cells. Images PMID:8098045

  2. Histochemical and immunocytochemical study of nitrergic innervation in human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Riederer, A; Held, B; Mayer, B; Wörl, J

    1999-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas that has been found to be produced in neuronal cells by the action of the enzyme brain nitric oxide synthase (bNOS). The aim of this study was to identify NO-containing nerve structures in the human nasal mucosa by localizing bNOS and to find out whether NO production is attached to the parasympathetic system. For this purpose, immunocytochemistry with antibodies to bNOS and neurofilament was performed. Additionally, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d), an enzyme that correlates with the localization of NO synthase, and acetylcholinesterase were visualized in a histochemical double staining technique on frozen sections. The NADPH-d and bNOS reactions were found in axons of nerve bundles and in subepithelial, glandular, and vascular nerve fibers. Arteries showed a distinctly developed nitric innervation, whereas no activity was found in nerve fibers supplying veins. A high coexistence of NADPH-d in parasympathetic nerves could be detected. These findings suggest that NO takes part in the nerve control functions of the human nasal mucosa. PMID:10527278

  3. Ex vivo and in vivo modulatory effects of umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells on human oral mucosa stroma substitutes.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Rodríguez, C A; González-Andrades, E; Jaimes-Parra, B D; Fernández-Valadés, R; Campos, A; Sánchez-Quevedo, M C; Alaminos, M; Garzón, I

    2015-11-01

    Novel oral mucosa substitutes have been developed in the laboratory using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells -HWJSC- as an alternative cell source. In the present work, we have generated human oral mucosa substitutes with oral mucosa keratinocytes and HWJSC to determine the influence of these cell sources on stromal differentiation. First, acellular and cellular stroma substitutes and bilayered oral mucosa substitutes with an epithelial layer consisting of oral mucosa keratinocytes -OM samples- or HWJSC -hOM- were generated. Then, tissues were analyzed by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to quantify all major extracellular matrix components after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of ex vivo development, and OM and hOM were also analyzed after in vivo grafting. The results showed that bioengineered oral mucosa stromas displayed an adequate fibrillar mesh. Synthesis of abundant collagen fibers was detected in OM and hOM after 3 weeks, and in vivo grafting resulted in an increased collagen synthesis. No elastic or reticular fibers were found. Glycoprotein synthesis was found at the epithelial-stromal layer when samples were grafted in vivo. Finally, proteoglycans, decorin, versican and aggrecan were strongly dependent on the in vivo environment and the presence of a well-structured epithelium on top. The use of HWJSC was associated to an increased synthesis of versican. These results confirm the usefulness of fibrin-agarose biomaterials for the generation of an efficient human oral mucosa stroma substitute and the importance of the in vivo environment and the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction for the adequate differentiation of the bioengineered stroma. PMID:25967581

  4. Stimulation of human buccal mucosa fibroblasts in vitro by betel-nut alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Harvey, W; Scutt, A; Meghji, S; Canniff, J P

    1986-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is characterized by excessive collagen production by mucosal fibroblasts and is associated with the habitual chewing of betel-nuts (Areca catechu); nut extracts stimulate fibroblast activity in vitro. The metabolism of arecoline, the major alkaloid in the nut, by human buccal mucosa fibroblasts in vitro was investigated; alkaloid metabolites extracted from culture media were analysed by gas chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. [3H]-arecoline was metabolized predominantly to [3H]-arecaidine and this was accompanied by a concentration-dependent stimulation of collagen synthesis and cell proliferation. Arecaidine was a more potent stimulator than arecoline. The rate of hydrolysis of a series of synthetic arecaidine esters (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl and pentyl) by fibroblasts was closely correlated with the extent of stimulation of collagen synthesis. Thus fibroblasts are responsive to the major metabolite of arecoline and hydrolysis of the ester group may be necessary for this action. Exposure of buccal mucosa fibroblasts to these alkaloids in vivo may contribute to the accumulation of collagen in OSF. PMID:3458437

  5. Crypt regeneration in adult human colonic mucosa during prolonged organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Senior, P V; Pritchett, C J; Sunter, J P; Appleton, D R; Watson, A J

    1982-01-01

    Using a system designed to preserve, in vitro, both the epithelial and the connective tissue elements, we have maintained adult colonic mucosa in organ culture for up to 336 hours and have investigated the sequential morphological changes which occur. During the first 48 hours, normal micro-architecture is preserved, but there is progressive loss of cytoplasmic mucin from crypt cells. Subsequently, accelerated degenerative changes develop; cells are lost from the crypts and, because cell proliferation in the crypt is reduced, these lost cells are not replaced. For a time, the crypts are represented by discrete acinar formations or clusters of cells in the lamina propria, apparently discontinuous with the intact surface epithelial layer. These remnants manifest intense proliferative activity during the period between 72 and 96 hours after explantation, leading to the restoration of well formed crypts lined by columnar epithelial cells between 120 and 144 hours; differentiation of goblet cells ensues and this state of virtually normal structure persists until the termination of culture between 186 and 336 hours. It is concluded that the determination of normal crypt structure and of crypt-cell differentiation is governed by intrinsic control mechanisms although these may be subject to extrinsic modulation. Whether or not the degeneration phase can be eliminated, it is clear that long term culture of adult human colonic mucosa is possible. Such a system may be useful in the study of mucosal function and of mucosal response to drugs, carcinogens and trophic factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7107511

  6. T Lymphocyte Density and Distribution in Human Colorectal Mucosa, and Inefficiency of Current Cell Isolation Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Preza, Gloria Cuevas; Yang, Otto O.; Elliott, Julie; Anton, Peter A.; Ochoa, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal tissues are critical immune effector sites containing complex populations of leukocytes in a tissue microenvironment that remains incompletely understood. We identify and quantify in human distal colorectal tissue absolute mucosal CD3+ lymphocytes, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, by direct visualization using immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and an automated counting protocol (r2=0.90). Sigmoid and rectal mucosal tissues are both densely packed with T lymphocytes in the mucosal compartment. Both compartments had similar densities of CD3+ T lymphocytes with 37,400 ± 2,801 cells/mm3 and 33,700 ± 4,324 cell/mm3, respectively. Sigmoid mucosa contained 57% CD3+CD4+ and 40% CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes which calculates to 21,300 ± 1,476/mm3 and 15,000 ± 275/mm3 T lymphocytes, respectively. Rectal mucosa had 57% CD3+CD4+ and 42% CD3+CD8+ or 21,577 ± 332, and 17,090 ± 1,206 cells/mm3, respectively. By comparison, sigmoid mucosal biopsies subjected to conventional collagenase digestion, mononuclear cell (MMC) isolation and staining for flow cytometry yielded 4,549 ± 381/mm3 and 2,708 ± 245/mm3 CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. These data suggest only ~20.7% recovery compared to IHC results for these markers. Further studies will determine if this reflects a selective bias in only CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells or can be generalized to all flow-analyzed cells from mucosal tissues for phenotyping and functional testing. PMID:25856343

  7. Hyperspectral hybrid method classification for detecting altered mucosa of the human larynx

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the field of earth observation, hyperspectral detector systems allow precise target detections of surface components from remote sensing platforms. This enables specific land covers to be identified without the need to physically travel to the areas examined. In the medical field, efforts are underway to develop optical technologies that detect altering tissue surfaces without the necessity to perform an excisional biopsy. With the establishment of expedient classification procedures, hyperspectral imaging may provide a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows determination of pathological tissue with high reliability. In this study, we examined the performance of a hyperspectral hybrid method classification for the automatic detection of altered mucosa of the human larynx. Materials and methods Hyperspectral Imaging was performed in vivo and 30 bands from 390 to 680?nm for 5 cases of laryngeal disorders (2x hemorrhagic polyp, 3x leukoplakia) were obtained. Image stacks were processed with unsupervised clustering (linear spectral unmixing), spectral signatures were extracted from unlabeled cluster maps and subsequently applied as end-members for supervised classification (spectral angle mapper) of further medical cases with identical diagnosis. Results Linear spectral unmixing clearly highlighted altered mucosa as single spectral clusters in all cases. Matching classes were identified, and extracted spectral signatures could readily be applied for supervised classifications. Automatic target detection performed well, as the considered classes showed notable correspondence with pathological tissue locations. Conclusions Using hyperspectral classification procedures derived from remote sensing applications for diagnostic purposes can create concrete benefits for the medical field. The approach shows that it would be rewarding to collect spectral signatures from histologically different lesions of laryngeal disorders in order to build up a spectral library and to prospectively allow non-invasive optical biopsies. PMID:22720905

  8. A case of a duodenal duplication cyst presenting as melena

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung Yeon; Ko, Sun Hye; Ha, Sungeun; Kim, Mi Sung; Shin, Hyang Mi; Baeg, Myong Ki

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal duplication cysts are benign rare congenital anomalies reported mainly in the pediatric population, but seldom in adults. Symptoms depend on the type and location and can present as abdominal pain, distension, dysphagia or dyspepsia. They have been reported to be responsible for duodenal obstruction, pancreatitis and, in rare cases, gastrointestinal bleeding. We present a case of a duodenal duplication cyst in a 43-year-old man presenting as melena. Initial gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding focus. However, the patient began passing melena after 3 d, with an acute decrease in hemoglobin levels. Subsequent studies revealed a duplication cyst in the second portion of the duodenum which was surgically resected. Histology revealed a duodenal duplication cyst consisting of intestinal mucosa. There was no further bleeding and the patient recovered completely. In rare cases, duodenal duplication cysts might cause gastrointestinal bleeding and should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24151370

  9. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-03-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (I sc). Subsequent I sc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. I sc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation. PMID:26038704

  10. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-01-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (Isc). Subsequent Isc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. Isc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation. PMID:26038704

  11. Performance of full-pupil line-scanning reflectance confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-01-01

    Point-scanning reflectance confocal microscopes continue to be successfully translated for detection of skin cancer. Line-scanning, with the use of a single scanner and a linear-array detector, offers a potentially smaller, simpler and lower cost alternative approach, to accelerate widespread dissemination into the clinic. However, translation will require an understanding of imaging performance deep within scattering and aberrating human tissues. We report the results of an investigation of the performance of a full-pupil line-scanning reflectance confocal microscope in human skin and oral mucosa, in terms of resolution, optical sectioning, contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, imaging and the effect of speckle noise. PMID:21750780

  12. Duodenal Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma in a Celiac Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pisello, Franco; Geraci, Girolamo; Li Volsi, Francesco; Stassi, Francesca; Modica, Giuseppe; Sciumè, Carmelo

    2009-01-01

    Celiac disease results from damage to the small intestinal mucosa due to an inappropriate immune response to a cereal protein. Long-standing or ‘refractory’ celiac disease is associated with an increased risk of autoimmunity and malignancy. We produced a brief literature review starting from a case of duodenal cancer in a celiac patient. The patient with an history of celiac disease since six months presented with acute manifestation of gastric outlet syndrome. A duodenal stricture was diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and confirmed by abdominal computed tomography. He was successfully treated by segmental duodenal resection. In the resected specimens, the diagnosis was duodenal signet cell adenocarcinoma. 6-month follow-up is uneventful. Primary carcinoma of the duodenum is rare (duodenal adenocarcinoma accounts for less than 0.5% of all gastrointestinal cancers and 30–45% of small intestinal cancers). Some patients with duodenal carcinoma are potentially curable by surgery, but conflicting opinions exist on the factors influencing the survival rate and on surgical treatment as the gold standard. Nevertheless, the goal in surgical treatment is to achieve clear margins. At present, surgical resection (pancreaticoduodenectomy or pancreas-sparing duodenal segmental resection) is the only available option for cure of this disease. PMID:20651965

  13. Expression of surfactant protein D in the human gastric mucosa and during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Murray, Emma; Khamri, Wafa; Walker, Marjorie M; Eggleton, Paul; Moran, Anthony P; Ferris, John A; Knapp, Susanne; Karim, Q Najma; Worku, Mulegata; Strong, Peter; Reid, Kenneth B M; Thursz, Mark R

    2002-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori establishes persistent infection of gastric mucosa with diverse clinical outcomes. The innate immune molecule surfactant protein D (SP-D) binds selectively to microorganisms, inducing aggregation and phagocytosis. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of SP-D in gastric mucosa by reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. SP-D is present at the luminal surface and within the gastric pits, with maximal expression at the surface. Levels of expression are significantly increased in H. pylori-associated gastritis compared to those in the normal mucosa. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to demonstrate binding and agglutination of H. pylori by SP-D in a lectin-specific manner. These activities resulted in a 50% reduction in the motility of H. pylori, as judged on the basis of curvilinear velocity measured by using a Hobson BacTracker. Lipopolysaccharides extracted from three H. pylori strains were shown to bind SP-D in a concentration-dependent manner, and there was marked variation in the avidity of binding among the strains. SP-D may therefore play a significant role in the innate immune response to H. pylori infection. PMID:11854236

  14. EP4 receptors mediate prostaglandin E2, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta-induced ion secretion in human and mouse colon mucosa.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Sian E; Smith, Julia E; Borman, Richard A; Cox, Helen M

    2012-11-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is an inflammatory mediator implicated in several gastrointestinal pathologies that cause diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of the four different EP receptors (EP(1-4)) to PGE(2)-induced anion secretion in human and mouse colon mucosa. Electrogenic anion secretion (short-circuit current; I(sc)) was measured across colonic mucosae or T84 monolayers placed in Ussing chambers in response to EP receptor agonists and antagonists. PGE(2) and PGE(1)-alcohol increased I(sc) in human colon mucosa, T84 epithelia and mouse colon mucosa, and these responses were inhibited by the EP(4) receptor antagonist, GW627368X alone. In addition, the EP(2) agonist, butaprost increased I(sc) in all three preparations and these responses were inhibited by the non-selective EP(1,2,3) receptor antagonist, AH6809 but not by GW627368X. Conversely, responses mediated by EP(1) and EP(3) receptors were not observed in human colon or T84 monolayers. However, in mouse colon mucosa the EP(3)-preferring agonist, sulprostone reduced I(sc), indicative of G(i?)-signalling. Taken together these results indicate that PGE(2)-induced ion secretion is mediated predominantly by G(s)-coupled EP(4) receptors and also by EP(2) receptors in human mucosa. Furthermore, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and interleukin 1beta (IL1?) increased I(sc) and these responses were also inhibited by the EP(4) receptor antagonist in human colon mucosa. This study establishes the EP receptor pharmacology present in human epithelial preparations, and suggests that EP(4) receptors may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of secretory diarrhoea where PGE(2) is implicated in the aetiology. PMID:22732652

  15. Thickness of adherent mucus gel on colonic mucosa in humans and its relevance to colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, R D; Thomas, G A; Rhodes, M; Newcombe, R G; Williams, G T; Allen, A; Rhodes, J

    1994-01-01

    The thickness of adherent mucus gel on the surface of colonic mucosa was measured in surgically resected specimens from 46 'control' patients most of whom had carcinoma of the colon; 12 were from right colon, 17 left colon, and 21 from rectum. In addition specimens were examined from 17 patients with ulcerative colitis and 15 patients with Crohn's disease. In controls a continuous layer of mucus was readily seen on specially prepared sections viewed by phase contrast illumination. Mean values for right and left colon and rectum were 107 (48), 134 (68), and 155 (54) microns respectively with a significant difference between right colon and rectum (p = 0.015). Values in ulcerative colitis showed greater variation and in those areas with acute inflammation mucosa was denuded of the mucus layer. In contrast, values for Crohn's disease were normal or greater than normal in thickness--right colon 190 (83) microns compared with 107 48 microns, p = 0.0093. A series of validation experiments are described for the method used to measure mucus thickness. The possible role of mucus in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8150346

  16. Failure of frusemide to increase production of prostaglandin E2 in human nasal mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Mullol, J; Ramis, I; Prat, J; Roselló-Catafau, J; Xaubet, A; Piera, C; Gelpí, E; Picado, C

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that inhaled frusemide protects subjects with asthma against bronchoconstriction by enhancing the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). To evaluate this hypothesis the effect of frusemide on PGE2 production from nasal mucosa was studied. METHODS: Two main arachidonic acid metabolites produced by epithelial cells, PGE2 and 15-hydroxy 5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), were measured by radioimmunoassay in nasal secretions obtained by nasal lavages with saline. Eleven healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to two study days, one week apart, in a double blind crossover study. Nasal instillation with three increasing doses of frusemide (5, 10, and 20 mg) or placebo was carried out at intervals of 15 minutes. Nasal lavages were performed immediately before nasal instillations and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the last instillation. RESULTS: Baseline concentrations of 15-HETE were at least six times higher than PGE2. No differences between frusemide and placebo were detected either on PGE2 or 15-HETE release. CONCLUSIONS: The findings do not support the hypothesis that the antiasthmatic effect of frusemide may be due to increased synthesis of PGE2 or release in the respiratory mucosa. PMID:8497826

  17. Probiotics modify human intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiguang; Guo, Bomin; Gao, Renyuan; Zhu, Qingchao; Wu, Wen; Qin, Huanlong

    2015-10-01

    Studies using animal models have demonstrated that probiotics may have a beneficial role in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects of interventional probiotic treatment on gut microbiota has remained elusive. In the present study, pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was conducted in order to determine the extent to which probiotics alter the microbiota. The observations of the present study indicated that the microbial structure of cancerous tissue differed significantly from that of healthy individuals and that the CRC microbiota exhibited lower diversity. It was indicated that interventional treatment with probiotics increased the density and diversity of mucosal microbes, and altered the mucosa?associated microbiota. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that probiotics significantly reduced (5?fold) the abundance of a bacterial taxon assigned to the genus Fusobacterium, which had been previously suggested to be a contributing factor to increase tumorigenesis. Accordingly, interventional probiotic therapy is suggested to be able to improve the composition of the mucosal microbial flora and significantly reduce the abundance of mucosa-associated pathogens in patients with CRC. PMID:26238090

  18. Sulphation of the heterocyclic amine 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline in the human liver and intestinal mucosa: interindividual variability.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, G M; D'alessandro, C; Gucci, A; Giuliani, L

    1997-01-01

    The sulphation rate of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) was measured in the human liver and in the intestinal mucosa isolated from the transverse colon, ileum and duodenum. The rate (mean +/- SD) of hepatic TIQ sulphation was 500 +/- 174 pmol/min per mg in women (n = 61) and 591 +/- 201 in men (n = 39; P = 0.0087), varying over one order of magnitude in men and women. The sulphation rate of testosterone showed the same sex-dependent pattern and was correlated (r = 0.6055; P < 0.001) with that of TIQ. The frequency distribution of TIQ sulphation rate in human liver was bimodal: 70% of the population fell into the low-activity subgroup and the remaining 30% feel into the high-activity subgroup. In the colon (n = 56), the rate of TIQ sulphation was 30.4 +/- 15.6 pmol/min per mg and the values were similar in men and women (29.8 and 30.9 pmol/min per mg, respectively) but, varied over one order of magnitude and correlated (r = 0.7231; P < 0.001) with that of 4-nitrophenol. The rate of TIQ sulphation changed along the human bowel and mean (+/-SD) estimates for duodenum, ileum and transverse colon were 444 +/- 25, 182 +/- 87 and 30.4 +/- 15.6 pmol/ min per mg, respectively. The present results are consistent with the view that the heterocyclic amine TIQ is sulphated in the human liver and intestinal mucosa. TIQ-sulphotransferase activity varies among subjects and is mostly associated with the liver and duodenum. PMID:9248624

  19. Megaduodenum with Duodenal Diospyrobezoars

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Bezoars are retained masses of ingested materials accumulating within the gastrointestinal track. While gastric bezoars are often observed, duodenal bezoars are rarely reported. A 77-year-old man who had frequently consumed persimmons and had never undergone gastric surgery had symptoms of epigastric pain and early satiety for 10 days. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed many diospyrobezoars in a severely distended duodenal bulb, otherwise known as megaduodenum. The patient's treatment consisted of repeated endoscopic removal of the bezoars by using a retrieval net. PMID:26473129

  20. Astrocyte-Like Cells Derived From Human Oral Mucosa Stem Cells Provide Neuroprotection In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Javier; Arie, Ina; Ben-Zur, Tali; Dadon-Nachum, Michal; Pour, Sammy; Araidy, Shareef; Offen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Human oral mucosa stem cells (hOMSC) are a recently described neural crest-derived stem cell population. Therapeutic quantities of potent hOMSC can be generated from small biopsies obtained by minimally invasive procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of hOMSC to differentiate into astrocyte-like cells and provide peripheral neuroprotection. We induced hOMSC differentiation into cells showing an astrocyte-like morphology that expressed characteristic astrocyte markers as glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100?, and the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 and secreted neurotrophic factors (NTF) such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and insulin-like growth factor 1. Conditioned medium of the induced cells rescued motor neurons from hypoxia or oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective effect mediated by soluble factors. Given the neuronal support (NS) ability of the cells, the differentiated cells were termed hOMSC-NS. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve injury and transplanted with hOMSC-NS showed improved motor function after transplantation. At the graft site we found the transplanted cells, increased levels of NTF, and a significant preservation of functional neuromuscular junctions, as evidenced by colocalization of ?-bungarotoxin and synaptophysin. Our findings show for the first time that hOMSC-NS generated from oral mucosa exhibit neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo and point to their future therapeutic use in neural disorders. PMID:24477074

  1. Gastric metaplasia and duodenal ulcer disease in children infected by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Gormally, S M; Kierce, B M; Daly, L E; Bourke, B; Carroll, R; Durnin, M T; Drumm, B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa is vital in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease. H pylori will only colonise gastric epithelium and its association with duodenal disease is therefore not easily explained. AIMS--To determine if gastric metaplasia in the duodenum increases the risk of duodenal ulcer disease in children infected with H pylori. PATIENTS--All children undergoing upper endoscopy over a 20 month period in a children's hospital in Ireland. METHODS--Two biopsy specimens were obtained from the antral mucosa and two from the first part of the duodenum. One antral biopsy specimen was used in a rapid urease test (Clo Test). Biopsy sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and also with cresyl violet for identification of H pylori. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain was performed to identify areas of gastric metaplasia. RESULTS--Gastric and duodenal biopsy specimens were obtained from 148 patients (M:F 1:2:1). Twenty five children (17%) had H pylori positive gastritis. Thirty four children (23%) had gastric metaplasia in the duodenum. Nine per cent of children under the age of 8 years had gastric metaplasia compared with 38% in those 12 years of age or over (p < 0.005). Seven children had duodenal ulcer disease. Gastric metaplasia was present in six of seven (86%) children with duodenal ulcer disease compared with 28 of 141 (20%) without ulceration (p < 0.001). While both H pylori and gastric metaplasia were each significant risk factors for duodenal ulcer disease, the combined presence of both factors was associated with a pronounced increase in duodenal ulcer disease. Duodenal ulcer disease occurred in over 50% of children with both H pylori infection and gastric metaplasia. In contrast duodenal disease did not occur in children (0 of 100) when both were absent. CONCLUSION--The presence of gastric metaplasia in the duodenum is the major risk factor for duodenal ulcer disease in patients colonised by H pylori. PMID:8707079

  2. Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F. )

    1991-04-01

    During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa.

  3. Derivation of Epithelial Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells as an In Vitro Model of Vocal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lungova, Vlasta; Leydon, Ciara; Thibeault, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Vocal fold epithelial cells are very difficult to study as the vocal fold epithelial cell lines do not exist and they cannot be removed from the healthy larynx without engendering a significant and unacceptable risk to vocal fold function. Here, we describe the procedure to create an engineered vocal fold tissue construct consisting of the scaffold composed of the collagen 1 gel seeded with human fibroblasts and simple epithelial progenitors seeded on the scaffold and cultivated at air-liquid interface for 19-21 days to derive the stratified squamous epithelium. This model of vocal fold mucosa is very similar in morphology, gene expression, and phenotypic characteristics to native vocal fold epithelial cells and the underlying lamina propria and, therefore, offers a promising approach to studying vocal fold biology and biomechanics in health and disease. PMID:25403465

  4. Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease: Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Human Gut Mucosa before and after Rifaximin

    PubMed Central

    Cesaro, Paola; Petruzziello, Lucio; Casciano, Fabio; Costamagna, Guido; Pandolfi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. Uncomplicated diverticular disease (UDD) is a frequent condition in adults. The pathogenesis of symptoms remains unknown. Bacteria are able to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and to induce inflammation through both innate immunity and T-cell recruitment. We investigated the pattern of TLRs 2 and 4 and the intestinal homing in patients with UDD before and after a course of Rifaximin. Methods. Forty consecutive patients with UDD and 20 healthy asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Among UDD patients, 20 were assigned to a 2-month course of treatment with Rifaximin 1.2?g/day for 15 days/month and 20 received placebo. Blood sample and colonic biopsies were obtained from patients and controls. The samples were collected and analyzed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Flow cytometry was performed using monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD103, TCR-gamma/delta, CD14, TLR2, and TLR4). Results. In UDD, TLR2 and TLR4 expression on immune cell subpopulations from blood and mucosa of the affected colon are altered as compared with controls. Rifaximin treatment induced significant modifications of altered conditions. Conclusions. Our data show the role of TLRs in the development of inflammation in UDD. TLRs distribution is altered in UDD and these alterations are reversed after antibiotic treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02068482. PMID:25133198

  5. Raman fiberoptic probe for monitoring human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Okagbare, Paul; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    In oral and maxillofacial surgery, there is a need for tissue engineered constructs for dental implants, reconstructions due to trauma, oral cancer or congenital defects. A non-invasive quality monitoring of the fabrication of tissue engineered constructs during their production and implantation is a required component of any successful tissue engineering technique. We demonstrate the design and application of a Raman spectroscopic probe for rapid and noninvasive monitoring of Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs). We conducted in vivo studies to identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs (already developed in vitro), and found that Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. This is the first step towards the ultimate goal to design a stand-alone system, which will be usable in a clinical setting, as the data processing and analysis will be performed with minimal user intervention, based on already established and tested Raman spectroscopic indicators for EVPOMEs.

  6. Duodenal atresia: late follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, M L; Kalima, T; Jääskeläinen, J; Louhimo, I

    1988-03-01

    In this study, 41 randomly chosen patients aged 15 to 35 years (mean 22 years) were carefully examined. As primary operations there were 13 membrane excisions, five duodenoduodenostomies, 22 duodenojejunostomies, and one gastrojejunostomy. Twenty-eight patients were symptom-free, ten admitted some discomfort, three had major pains, including one with a history of duodenal ulcer. Reoperation for adhesion ileus had been performed in six patients, in the early postoperative phase in one instance. At late follow-up barium meals (N = 41) showed completely normal findings in two cases only, hiatal hernia in two, gastritis in three, duodenogastric reflux in 12, slight dilation of the duodenum with good emptying and no reflux in 16, a huge duodenal sac in nine, diminished peristalsis in eight, delayed emptying in five, slight luminal narrowing in three, duodenal diverticuli in nine, bezoars in two, and a polyp in the duodenum of one patient. Ultrasound (N = 35) revealed a gallbladder septum in one patient and a dilated common bile duct in another; in one subject the gallbladder was not visualized satisfactorily. Isotope biligraphy (N = 15) showed biliary reflux to the stomach in 12 cases. Endoscopy (N = 20) findings were: esophagitis (1), hiatal hernia (2), gastric mucosa in the lower esophagus (2), biliary reflux (9), gastritis (7), gastric polyps (2), dilated duodenum of variable degree (19), diminished peristalsis (4), marked retention (2), abnormal papilla (3), diverticuli (4), and a persistent membrane (1). Histology showed superficial gastritis in three patients. E coli was cultured from the duodenal juice in five patients and Candida found in two.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3357136

  7. Duodenal ESD: conquering difficulties.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hironori; Miura, Yoshimasa

    2014-04-01

    Duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is technically difficult due to the unique anatomic features. The risks include intraprocedural complications, delayed bleeding, and perforation. A small-caliber-tip transparent hood is useful. Mechanical stretching of the submucosal tissue allows safe dissection and effective prevention of bleeding with minimum muscle injury under direct visualization of the submucosal tissue and blood vessels. A short double-balloon endoscope is useful to stabilize control of the endoscope tip in distal duodenal ESD. Selection of ESD in the duodenum should be made cautiously considering both benefits and risks of the procedure. PMID:24679234

  8. Identification of different laminin binding proteins in basolateral cell membranes of human colorectal carcinomas and normal colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Stallmach, A; Riese, H H; Schuppan, D; Bornhöft, G; Stein, H; Riecken, E O

    1991-01-01

    The adhesive properties of tumour cells to laminin, the major glycoprotein of basement membranes, play a crucial part in the complex process of tumour invasion and metastasis. We therefore investigated the expression of laminin binding proteins in isolated basolateral cell membranes of human colorectal carcinomas and the adjacent normal colonic mucosa. Cell membrane binding assays and immunoblotting experiments showed appreciable quantitative and qualitative differences in the expression of these proteins in neoplastic and normal tissue. Epithelial basolateral cell membranes of colorectal carcinomas bound five to eight times more radioactive labelled laminin than basolateral cell membranes of the adjacent normal colonic epithelium. The expression of laminin binding proteins with Mr 66,000-69,000 daltons corresponding to the so called 'Mr 67,000 dalton laminin receptor' was three to four times higher in colorectal carcinomas than in normal colonic epithelium. In addition, laminin binding proteins with higher molecular weights, which may be related to the family of integrins, were also increased in colorectal carcinomas. In particular, laminin binding proteins with Mr 180,000 daltons were exclusively expressed on neoplastic epithelial cells of human colorectal carcinomas. Our data suggest that certain classes of laminin binding proteins may be selectively expressed on colonic tumour cells, leading to an increased capacity for migration, invasion, and metastasis. Images Figure 1 PMID:2013422

  9. Genistein stimulates duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion through PI3K pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Biguang; Wen, Guorong; Song, Penghong; Xu, Jingyu; Liu, Xuemei; Seidler, Ursula; Dong, Hui

    2011-01-25

    Genistein has been proposed as a promising pharmacotherapeutic for cystic fibrosis. We recently found that genistein stimulates murine duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion through cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The aim of the present study was to determine the intracellular signal pathways involved in genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion. Murine duodenal mucosal HCO(3)(-) secretion was examined in vitro in Ussing chambers by the pH-stat technique. The results showed that neither cAMP-dependent signal pathway inhibitors MDL-12330A and KT-5720, nor cGMP signal pathway inhibitors NS2028 and KT5823, nor calcium signal pathway inhibitors verapamil and W-13, altered genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion. In calcium-free solution, genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion was not altered either. Vanadate, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase, only partially inhibited genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion. However, both wortmannin and LY294002, two structurally and mechanistically distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, markedly inhibited genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion. Genistein increased duodenal mucosal PI3K activity and induced the phosphorylation of Akt, a signaling molecule downstream of PI3K, which was again inhibited by wortmannin. Estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI182,780, also markedly inhibited genistein-stimulated duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion and genistein-induced PI3K activity increase in duodenal mucosa. These results demonstrate that genistein stimulates duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion mainly through estrogen receptor and PI3K-dependent pathway. These findings contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of genistein-induced anion secretion and further pharmacotherapeutic development and use of genistein or related substances in the treatment of diseases of epithelial tissues. PMID:21093426

  10. [The ultrastructure of the epithelial endocrinocytes of the appendiceal mucosa in the human fetus].

    PubMed

    Kostiukevich, S V

    1995-01-01

    An electron microscope study of the epithelium of vermiform processes of 11-26 week old human fetuses showed seven types of endocrinocytes differing in ultrastructure and dimensions of secretory granules. In addition to the six known types of endocrinocytes (EC, D, D1, I, L and P), endocrinocytes of a 7th type were discovered which are beyond the International classification of endocrinocytes of the gastroenteropancreatic system. The overwhelming majority of endocrinocytes of the vermiform process epithelium form EC-cells. Besides, cells of a "mixed" type, both exo-endocrine and endo-endocrine cells, were revealed. PMID:8553456

  11. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the natural history of duodenal ulcer disease

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, N; Rowland, M; Imrie, C; Walsh, D; Clyne, M; Drumm, B

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Duodenal ulcer disease is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa. Eradication of H pylori from the gastric mucosa in adults is associated with long term healing of ulcers.?AIMS—To follow a cohort of children with duodenal ulcer disease for a minimum of two years after the eradication of H pylori.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—Over a three year period, all children diagnosed with duodenal ulcer disease had their symptoms documented and their H pylori status evaluated. The histories of these children were carefully screened to determine previous symptoms and to document previous treatment regimens.?RESULTS—Sixteen children were diagnosed with ulcers and 15 were available for treatment and long term follow up. The median age at which symptoms first occurred was 10.5 years (range, 6-14) and the median duration of symptoms was 24 months (range, 2-60). Ten of the children had been treated with H2 receptor antagonists for a median of 3.5 months (range, 1-60). Duodenal ulcers healed in all children after eradication of H pylori and all children have remained asymptomatic for a median of 37 months (range, 26-62). No child has required subsequent admission to hospital.?CONCLUSION—Eradication of H pylori is very effective in the long term healing of duodenal ulcer disease. H pylori eradication should be the standard treatment for all infected children who present with duodenal ulcer disease.?? PMID:10210995

  12. Distribution of beta 7 integrins in human intestinal mucosa and organized gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Farstad, I N; Halstensen, T S; Lien, B; Kilshaw, P J; Lazarovits, A I; Brandtzaeg, P; Lazarovitz, A I

    1996-01-01

    Two alternative integrins involved in mucosal homing (alpha 4 beta 7) or epithelial retention (alpha E beta 7) of lymphocytes were examined in the human gut. The distribution of the beta 7 subunit [monoclonal antibody (mAb) M301] was bimodal in that it was strongly expressed by alpha E beta 7 + cells but weakly by alpha 4 beta 7 + cells. More than 90% of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), including the minor subsets of CD4+, T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma/delta +, and CD3- cells, expressed alpha E beta 7 as did most lamina propria CD8+ (88%) and a fraction (36%) of CD4+ lymphocytes. Conversely, B-lineage cells (CD19+) and macrophages (CD68+) were negative. In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT: Peyer's patches and appendix) only a few (< 5%) cells were positive for alpha E beta 7 (confined to CD8+ lymphocytes and CD11c+ putative dendritic cells). A relatively small fraction of IEL (30-50%) expressed alpha 4 beta 7 (mAb Act-1), while most (70%) lamina propria T and B lymphocytes, blasts, plasma cells and macrophages were positive. In GALT, T lymphocytes expressed similar levels of alpha 4 beta 7 as in the lamina propria whereas relatively few B lymphocytes (< 50%) were positive. Isolated lamina propria CD8+, CD4+, CD19+, and CD38+ cells contained mRNA for alpha 4 and the former three subsets as well as appendix CD8+ cells also for beta 7 while only lamina propria CD8+ cells had mRNA for alpha E. Together, the results suggested that alpha E beta 7 and alpha 4 beta 7 are differentially regulated in inductive sites and effector sites of the human gut. Because lymphoid cells at both sites expressed mainly alpha 4 beta 7, this integrin may be a homing receptor on memory and effector cells bound for lamina propria as well as on naive lymphocytes extravasating in GALT. Conversely, because alpha E beta 7 was mainly expressed by CD8+ cells in epithelium and lamina propria, it was probably induced after extravasation, in agreement with the observation that IEL and a fraction of lamina propria T lymphocytes (mainly CD8+ cells) generally expressed higher levels of beta 7 than most CD4+ and B cells. Also a subset of putative dendritic cells located near the follicle-associated epithelium of GALT expressed alpha E beta 7, perhaps reflecting epithelial interaction during primary immune responses. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8943719

  13. Antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W attenuates Candida albicans virulence by modulating its effects on Toll-like receptor, human ?-defensin, and cytokine expression by engineered human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Semlali, A; Leung, K P; Curt, S; Rouabhia, M

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the toxicity of synthetic antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W on normal human gingival epithelial cell cultures, its effect on Candida albicans adhesion and growth, and the activation of epithelial cell innate immunity. Our results indicate that KSL-W had no toxic effect on cell adhesion or growth, suggesting its safe use with human cells. Pre-treating C. albicans with KSL-W attenuated the yeast's virulence as demonstrated by its reduced adhesion and growth on engineered human oral mucosa epithelium and the subsequent decreased expression of some innate defense molecules by targeted epithelial cells. Indeed, the expression of Toll-like receptors and human ?-defensins was reduced in tissues infected with KSL-W-treated Candida. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1? and IL-6) by the epithelial cells was also regulated by KSL-W in a manner similar to that of antifungal molecule amphotericin B. These findings therefore show that KSL-W is safe for use with human cells and is able to attenuate Candida virulence by modulating its effects on host innate immunity. This study proposes the potential application of KSL-W peptide as an alternative antifungal agent. PMID:21291939

  14. Pre-Analytical Determination of the Effect of Extended Warm or Cold Ischaemia on RNA Stability in the Human Ileum Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Serene M L; Schelcher, Celine; Thasler, Reinhard; Schiergens, Tobias S; Thasler, Wolfgang E

    2015-01-01

    The use of banked human tissue, obtained with informed consent after elective surgical procedures, represents a powerful model for understanding underlying mechanisms of diseases or therapeutic interventions and for establishing prognostic markers. However, donated tissues typically have varying times of warm ischaemia in situ due to blood arrest or cold ischaemia due to procurement and transportation. Hence, before using these tissues, it is important to carry out pre-analytical studies to ensure that they are representative of the in vivo state. In particular, tissues of the gastrointestinal tract have been thought to have low RNA stability. Therefore, this study aimed to determine if extended warm or cold ischaemia times and snap-freezing or banking in RNA stabilization solution affects RNA integrity or gene expression in human ileum mucosa. In short, ileum mucosa was collected for up to 1.5 h and 6 h of simulated warm or cold ischaemia respectively. Subsequently, RNA integrity and gene expressions were determined. It was found that RNA integrity remained high over the course of warm and cold ischaemia examined and there were in general no significant differences between snap-freezing and banking in RNA stabilization solution. Following the same trend, there were in general no significant changes in gene expressions measured (MYC, HIF1?, CDX, HMOX1 and IL1?). In conclusion, RNA in the ileum mucosa is maintained at a high integrity and has stable gene expression over the examined time course of warm or cold ischaemia when banked in RNA stabilization solution or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. As the average warm and cold ischaemia times imposed by surgery and the process of tissue banking are shorter than the time period examined in this study, human ileum mucosa samples collected after surgeries could be used for gene expression studies. PMID:26371767

  15. Pre-Analytical Determination of the Effect of Extended Warm or Cold Ischaemia on RNA Stability in the Human Ileum Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Thasler, Reinhard; Schiergens, Tobias S.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of banked human tissue, obtained with informed consent after elective surgical procedures, represents a powerful model for understanding underlying mechanisms of diseases or therapeutic interventions and for establishing prognostic markers. However, donated tissues typically have varying times of warm ischaemia in situ due to blood arrest or cold ischaemia due to procurement and transportation. Hence, before using these tissues, it is important to carry out pre-analytical studies to ensure that they are representative of the in vivo state. In particular, tissues of the gastrointestinal tract have been thought to have low RNA stability. Therefore, this study aimed to determine if extended warm or cold ischaemia times and snap-freezing or banking in RNA stabilization solution affects RNA integrity or gene expression in human ileum mucosa. In short, ileum mucosa was collected for up to 1.5 h and 6 h of simulated warm or cold ischaemia respectively. Subsequently, RNA integrity and gene expressions were determined. It was found that RNA integrity remained high over the course of warm and cold ischaemia examined and there were in general no significant differences between snap-freezing and banking in RNA stabilization solution. Following the same trend, there were in general no significant changes in gene expressions measured (MYC, HIF1?, CDX, HMOX1 and IL1?). In conclusion, RNA in the ileum mucosa is maintained at a high integrity and has stable gene expression over the examined time course of warm or cold ischaemia when banked in RNA stabilization solution or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. As the average warm and cold ischaemia times imposed by surgery and the process of tissue banking are shorter than the time period examined in this study, human ileum mucosa samples collected after surgeries could be used for gene expression studies. PMID:26371767

  16. From cysteamine to MPTP: structure-activity studies with duodenal ulcerogens

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Cho, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteamine is the first chemical identified that induces acute and chronic duodenal ulcers in rodents. Structure-activity studies with cysteamine, propionitrile and their derivatives, as well as with analogues of toluene, revealed numerous alkyl and aryl duodenal ulcerogens. Among these, one of the most interesting from an etiologic and pathogenetic point of view is the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP, which shows structural similarities with toluene. The chemically-induced duodenal ulcers are similar and localized on the anterior and posterior wall of the duodenal bulb. Both cysteamine and MPTP affect endogenous dopamine; MPTP is especially potent in depleting central dopamine and inducing lesions in the substantia nigra. MPTP given in high doses induces Parkinson's disease-like syndrome and gastric ulcers. Cysteamine and propionitrile also cause dyskinesia in large and multiple doses. The motility disorders and duodenal ulcers are abolished by dopamine agonists. Cysteamine and MPTP have been known to increase and decrease gastric acid secretion, respectively. However, both compounds induced duodenal dysmotility, decreased bicarbonate production, and reduced its delivery from distal to proximal duodenum. These factors decrease acid neutralization in the duodenal bulb and contribute to duodenal ulceration. Thus, studies with animal models may reveal endogenous mediators and specific receptors which might be involved in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. Specific structure-activity studies in toxicology may lead to new insights in the pathogenesis and pharmacology of a poorly understood human disorder such as duodenal ulceration. 39 references.

  17. Human adenoid organ culture: a model to study the interaction of influenza A with human nasopharyngeal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Edwards, K M; Snyder, P N; Stephens, D S; Wright, P F

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies of infections with influenza A in animal models have stressed the tropism of this virus for the upper respiratory tract. To assess the interaction of influenza A virus with human respiratory tissue, we maintained adenoids, consisting of ciliated epithelium with underlying lymphoid follicles, in organ culture. When the organ cultures were inoculated with wild-type influenza A/Alaska (H3N2), epithelial damage and migration of inflammatory cells from the follicles into the lamina propria were seen. Growth of the virus and ciliary damage in infected organ cultures from seronegative donors were significantly greater than that seen in organ cultures from seropositive donors. Adenoidal lymphocytes were then studied to determine which factors might modulate infectivity. Specific in vitro production of antibody to influenza A/Alaska was demonstrated by adenoidal lymphocytes from seropositive donors, whereas lymphocytes from seronegative donors did not produce antibody. The human adenoid organ culture provides an attractive model to study the pathogenesis of influenza A infections and the resultant local immune response. PMID:3510261

  18. Endoscopic duodenal "windsock" diverticulotomy.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Tyler; Chand, Bipan; Winans, Charles

    2013-04-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Her symptoms were severe, and she required total parenteral nutrition for nutrition support. Both CT and barium upper GI series demonstrated a large "windsock" diverticulum that obstructed the duodenal lumen. The patient was referred to undergo a surgical diverticulectomy. After a multidisciplinary discussion, a less invasive endoscopic diverticulotomy was recommended, and the patient agreed. The linked video demonstrates the endoscopic findings and therapeutic technique. Upper endoscopy showed the diverticulum arising from the proximal duodenum. The scope could not traverse the true lumen due to compression by the diverticulum. A guidewire was passed to delineate the true lumen. At that point, the diverticulum spontaneously inverted into a proximal position. The tip of the diverticulum was then clipped to the duodenal wall to increase exposure and to allow a more controlled incision. Clips were placed on the vascular pedicle of the diverticulum to prevent bleeding. An incremental incision was performed using a needle-knife to divide the diverticulum completely. Mild bleeding occurred twice and was managed with clips. A complete diverticulotomy was accomplished, allowing easy passage of the endoscope. The patient had an uneventful postprocedural recovery and was discharged the same day with instructions for dietary advancement. After 2 months, the patient reported complete symptom resolution. She was eating well, had gained weight, and had discontinued total parenteral nutrition. A repeat endoscopy confirmed a patent lumen and no recurrence of the diverticulum. This case demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of endoscopic diverticulotomy performed from a proximally inverted position. This "top-down" approach provided very good exposure for the incision and easy treatment of bleeding complications. PMID:23076458

  19. Gastrokine 1 Expression in the Human Gastric Mucosa Is Closely Associated with the Degree of Gastritis and DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Suk; Seo, Ho Suk; Song, Kyo Young; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Olga; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Gastrokine 1 plays an important role in gastric mucosal defense. Additionally, the Gastrokine 1-miR-185-DNMT1 axis has been shown to suppress gastric carcinogenesis through regulation of epigenetic alteration. Here, we investigated the effects of Gastrokine 1 on DNA methylation and gastritis. Materials and Methods Expression of Gastrokine 1, DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc proteins, and the presence of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein were determined in 55 non-neoplastic gastric mucosal tissue samples by western blot analysis. The CpG island methylation phenotype was also examined using six markers (p16, hMLH1, CDH1, MINT1, MINT2 and MINT31) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Histological gastritis was assessed according to the updated Sydney classification system. Results Reduced Gastrokine 1 expression was found in 20 of the 55 (36.4%) gastric mucosal tissue samples and was closely associated with miR-185 expression. The Gastrokine 1 expression level was inversely correlated with that of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc, and closely associated with the degree of gastritis. The H. pylori CagA protein was detected in 26 of the 55 (47.3%) gastric mucosal tissues and was positively associated with the expression of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc. In addition, 30 (54.5%) and 23 (41.9%) of the gastric mucosal tissues could be classified as CpG island methylation phenotype-low and CpG island methylation phenotype-high, respectively. Reduced expression of Gastrokine 1 and miR-185, and increased expression of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc were detected in the CpG island methylation phenotype-high gastric mucosa. Conclusions Gastrokine 1 has a crucial role in gastric inflammation and DNA methylation in gastric mucosa. PMID:24511419

  20. Inhibition of water absorption and selective damage to human colonic mucosa induced by Shiga toxin-2 are enhanced by Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Adriana; Gerhardt, Elizabeth; García, Hugo; Amigo, Natalia; Cataldi, Angel; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for a variety of clinical syndromes including bloody and non-bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Although multiple serotypes of STEC have been isolated from hemorrhagic colitis cases, E. coli O157:H7 is by far the most prevalent serotype associated with HUS. Shiga toxin is the major virulence factor of E. coli O157:H7 and is responsible for the more severe symptoms of the infection. However, the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea mediated by Stx2 are not well known. In this study, we have determined the effects of E. coli O157:H7 strain 125/99 wild type (wt) on the human colonic mucosa mounted in an Ussing chamber. In response to 125/99wt, an inhibition of water absorption across human colonic mucosa was observed. Histological sections showed severe necrosis with detachment of the surface epithelium, mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and loss of goblet cells after 1h of incubation with 125/99wt. These alterations were not observed with the isogenic mutant strain lacking stx2 or with the filter-sterilized culture supernatant from the 125/99wt strain. These results indicate that the cell damages in human colon are induced by Stx2, and that Stx2 production is increased by the interaction with bacterial cells. Identification of host cell-derived factors responsible for increasing Stx2 can lead to new strategies for modulating STEC infections. PMID:25794836

  1. Duodenal hemorrhage and dermal vasculitis associated with mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Hirose, W; Nakane, H; Misumi, J; Sugi, T; Hara, M; Kawagoe, M; Nakamura, H

    1993-01-01

    We describe a 23-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) who developed duodenal bleeding responsive to treatment with corticosteroid and recurrent skin eruptions due to leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The endoscopic findings revealed patchy, reddened, edematous, friable mucosa with scattered small ulcers and oozing of blood in the second portion of the duodenum. Endoscopic pictures from the onset to healing are presented. This appears to be the first recorded occurrence of such findings in MCTD. PMID:8441150

  2. [Traumatic perforation of a duodenal diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela Martínez, M José; Bonasa, Elma; Sánchez, José Manuel; Arribas, M Dolores; Córdoba, Elena; Santero, M Pilar; Albiach, Manuel; Martínez, Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Duodenal diverticulum is a frequent abnormality that is usually diagnosed incidentally. Clinical manifestations usually mimic highly varied entities. Among the complications of duodenal diverticulum, perforation is fairly rare and rupture due to blunt trauma is even rarer. We describe the case of a male patient who presented a perforated duodenal diverticulum after an accidental fall. PMID:17040673

  3. Human Mucosa-Associated Invariant T Cells Accumulate in Colon Adenocarcinomas but Produce Reduced Amounts of IFN-?.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Patrik; Ahlmanner, Filip; Akéus, Paulina; Sundquist, Malin; Alsén, Samuel; Yrlid, Ulf; Börjesson, Lars; Sjöling, Åsa; Gustavsson, Bengt; Wong, S B Justin; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne

    2015-10-01

    Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells with a conserved TCR ?-chain recognizing bacterial metabolites presented on the invariant MHC-related 1 molecule. MAIT cells are present in intestinal tissues and liver, and they rapidly secrete IFN-? and IL-17 in response to bacterial insult. In colon cancer, IL-17-driven inflammation promotes tumor progression, whereas IFN-? production is essential for antitumor immunity. Thus, tumor-associated MAIT cells may affect antitumor immune responses by their secreted cytokines. However, the knowledge of MAIT cell presence and function in tumors is virtually absent. In this study, we determined the frequency, phenotype, and functional capacity of MAIT cells in colon adenocarcinomas and unaffected colon lamina propria. Flow cytometric analyses showed significant accumulation of MAIT cells in tumor tissue, irrespective of tumor stage or localization. Colonic MAIT cells displayed an activated memory phenotype and expression of chemokine receptors CCR6 and CCR9. Most MAIT cells in unaffected colon tissues produced IFN-?, whereas only few produced IL-17. Colonic MAIT cells also produced TNF-?, IL-2, and granzyme B. In the tumors, significantly lower frequencies of IFN-?-producing MAIT cells were seen, whereas there were no differences in the other cytokines analyzed, and in vitro studies showed that secreted factors from tumor tissue reduced IFN-? production from MAIT cells. In conclusion, MAIT cells infiltrate colon tumors but their ability to produce IFN-? is substantially reduced. We suggest that MAIT cells have the capacity to promote local immune responses to tumors, but factors in the tumor microenvironment act to reduce MAIT cell IFN-? production. PMID:26297765

  4. Bio-physical characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosa of celiac patients: comparison with control subjects and effect of gluten free diet-

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucosa is leaky in celiac disease (CD), and this alteration may involve changes in hydrophobicity of the mucus surface barrier in addition to alteration of the epithelial barrier. The aims of our study were i) to compare duodenal hydrophobicity as an index of mucus barrier integrity in CD patients studied before (n = 38) and during gluten- free diet (GFD, n = 68), and in control subjects (n = 90), and ii) to check for regional differences of hydrophobicity in the gastro-intestinal tract. Methods Hydrophobicity was assessed by measurement of contact angle (CA) (Rame Hart 100/10 goniometer) generated by a drop of water placed on intestinal mucosal biopsies. Results CA (mean ± SD) of distal duodenum was significantly lower in CD patients (56° ± 10°)) than in control subjects (69° ± 9°, p < 0.0001), and persisted abnormal in patients studied during gluten free diet (56° ± 9°; p < 0.005). CA was significantly higher (62° ± 9°) in histologically normal duodenal biopsies than in biopsies with Marsh 1-2 (58° ± 10°; p < 0.02) and Marsh 3 lesions (57° ± 10°; p < 0.02) in pooled results of all patients and controls studied. The order of hydrofobicity along the gastrointestinal tract in control subjects follows the pattern: gastric antrum > corpus > rectum > duodenum > oesophagus > ileum. Conclusions We conclude that the hydrophobicity of duodenal mucous layer is reduced in CD patients, and that the resulting decreased capacity to repel luminal contents may contribute to the increased intestinal permeability of CD. This alteration mirrors the severity of the mucosal lesions and is not completely reverted by gluten-free diet. Intestinal hydrophobicity exhibits regional differences in the human intestinal tract. PMID:22060617

  5. Double-blind randomised clinical trial of a pepsin-inhibitory pentapeptide (pepstatin) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnevie, O; Svendsen, L B; Holst-Christensen, J; Johansen, T S; Søltoft, J; Christiansen, P M

    1979-01-01

    In a double-blind randomised clinical trial a specific inhibition of peptic activity with a pentapeptide, pepstatin, had no significant advantage over placebo in the ulcer healing and symptomatology of duodenal ulcer. Thus, the inhibition of pepsin in human gastric juice does not appear to have a major influence on the healing of duodenal ulcer. PMID:385457

  6. Traumatic perforation of duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Poostizadeh, A; Gow, K W; Al-Mahmeed, T; Allardyce, D B

    1997-08-01

    A fragile 72-year-old female with previous coronary artery disease sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle crash. A ruptured duodenum was identified by computed tomography scanning. Exploratory laparotomy revealed that the duodenal rupture was caused by perforation of a diverticulum in the second portion of the duodenum. The surgical management of the injury to the duodenum is described in detail. PMID:9291392

  7. Abdominal compartment syndrome from bleeding duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Groth, Shawn S; Leon, Jorge A; Mohr, William J

    2012-04-01

    Duodenal diverticuli are acquired false diverticuli of unknown etiology. Although mostly asymptomatic, they can occasionally cause upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rarely with massive bleeding. In this report, we present (to the best of our knowledge) the first reported case of duodenal diverticular bleeding, causing abdominal compartment syndrome. Albeit a rare event, duodenal diverticular bleeding should be included in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As with our case, a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients is crucial. PMID:22787350

  8. Management of complicated duodenal diverticula.

    PubMed

    Oukachbi, N; Brouzes, S

    2013-06-01

    The duodenum is the second most common location of intestinal diverticula after the colon. Duodenal diverticulum (DD) is usually located in the second portion of the duodenum (D2), close to the papilla. Most duodenal diverticula are extraluminal and acquired rather than congenital; more rare is the congenital, intraluminal diverticulum. DD is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, but can become symptomatic in 1% to 5% of cases when complicated by gastroduodenal, biliary and/or pancreatic obstruction, by perforation or by hemorrhage. Endoscopic treatment is the most common first-line treatment for biliopancreatic complications caused by juxtapapillary diverticula and also for bleeding. Conservative treatment of perforated DD based on fasting and broad-spectrum antibiotics may be offered in some selected cases when diagnosis is made early in stable patients, or in elderly patients with comorbidities who are poor operative candidates. Surgical treatment is currently reserved for failure of endoscopic or conservative treatment. The main postoperative complication of diverticulectomy is duodenal leak or fistula, which carries up to a 30% mortality rate. PMID:23810155

  9. Characterization of human ethmoid sinus mucosa derived mesenchymal stem cells (hESMSCs) and the application of hESMSCs cell sheets in bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Wang, Zi; Huang, Yazhuo; Bi, Xiaoping; Zhou, Huifang; Lin, Ming; Yu, Zhang; Wang, Yefei; Ni, Ni; Sun, Jing; Wu, Si; You, Zhengwei; Guo, Chunyu; Sun, Hao; Wang, Yadong; Gu, Ping; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively applied in the field of tissue regeneration. MSCs derived from various tissues exhibit different characteristics. In this study, a cluster of cells were isolated from human ethmoid sinus mucosa membrane and termed as hESMSCs. hESMSCs was demonstrated to have MSC-specific characteristics of self-renewal and tri-lineage differentiation. In particular, hESMSCs displayed strong osteogenic differentiation potential, and also remarkably promoted the proliferation and osteogenesis of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) in vitro. Next, hESMSCs were prepared into a cell sheet and combined with a PSeD scaffold seeded with rBMSCs to repair critical-sized calvarial defects in rats, which showed excellent reparative effects. Additionally, ELISA assays revealed that secreted cytokines, such as BMP-2, BMP-4 and bFGF, were higher in the hESMSCs conditioned medium, and immunohistochemistry validated that hESMSCs cell sheet promoted the expression of BMP signaling downstream genes in newly formed bone. In conclusion, hESMSCs were demonstrated to be a class of mesenchymal stem cells that possessed high self-renewal capacity along with strong osteogenic potential, and the cell sheet of hESMSCs could remarkably promote new bone regeneration, indicating that hESMSCs cell sheet could serve as a novel and promising alternative strategy in the management of bone regeneration. PMID:26196534

  10. Cytolysins Augment Superantigen Penetration of Stratified Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Mantz, Mary J.; Squier, Christopher A.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes colonize mucosal surfaces of the human body to cause disease. A group of virulence factors known as superantigens are produced by both of these organisms, which allows them to cause serious diseases from the vaginal (staphylococci) or oral mucosa (streptococci) of the body. Superantigens interact with T cells and antigen presenting cells to cause massive cytokine release to mediate the symptoms collectively known as toxic shock syndrome. Here we demonstrate that another group of virulence factors, cytolysins, aid in the penetration of superantigens across vaginal mucosa as a representative nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelial surface. The staphylococcal cytolysin ? toxin and the streptococcal cytolysin streptolysin O enhanced penetration of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A, respectively, across porcine vaginal mucosa in an ex vivo model of superantigen penetration. Upon histological examination, both cytolysins caused damage to the uppermost layers of the vaginal tissue. In vitro evidence using immortalized human vaginal epithelial cells demonstrated that although both superantigens were proinflammatory, only the staphylococcal cytolysin ? toxin induced a strong immune response from the cells. Streptolysin O damaged and killed the cells quickly, allowing only a small release of interleukin-1?. Two separate models of superantigen penetration are proposed: staphylococcal ? toxin induces a strong proinflammatory response from epithelial cells to disrupt the mucosa enough to allow for enhanced penetration of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, whereas streptolysin O directly damages the mucosa to allow for penetration of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and possibly viable streptococci. PMID:19201891

  11. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

  12. Appearance of specific antibody-bearing cells in human bronchial mucosa after local immunization with bacterial vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Latil, F; Vervloet, D; Casanova, P; Garbe, L; Fuentes, P; Wierzbicki, N; Charpin, J

    1986-01-01

    The immune response to local in vivo inhalation of a lysed bacteria vaccine was assessed in surgical specimens of main-stem bronchi from patients who had undergone pneumectomy for cancer. The patient population included 22 subjects; 11 of these received the aerosol vaccine twice a day for 10 days prior to surgery, while the remaining 11 patients were used as controls and were not immunized. The submucous glands of immunized subjects showed significantly more cells than did those of the controls, i.e., 62 +/- 8 versus 37 +/- 7, respectively (P less than 0.05). The following five antigens were chosen for study by fluorescence assay: Streptococcus pneumoniae types II and III, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus sp. strain D19, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An immunization-dependent correlation was found between immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin A-bearing cells, and specific antibody-bearing cells on the one hand and three of the five antigens (S. pneumoniae types II and III and Streptococcus sp. strain D19) on the other hand. This is the first time that a relationship has been established between bacterial immunization of the lower respiratory tract and local immunoglobulin production in humans. Images PMID:3519666

  13. Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in the Human Gastric Mucosa and Blood: Role in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Booth, Jayaum S; Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Blanchard, Thomas G; Patil, Seema A; Kader, Howard A; Safta, Anca M; Morningstar, Lindsay M; Czinn, Steven J; Greenwald, Bruce D; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent a class of antimicrobial innate-like T cells that have been characterized in human blood, liver, lungs, and intestine. Here, we investigated, for the first time, the presence of MAIT cells in the stomach of children, adults, and the elderly undergoing routine endoscopy and assessed their reactivity to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori?-?Hp), a major gastric pathogen. We observed that MAIT cells are present in the lamina propria compartment of the stomach and display a similar memory phenotype to blood MAIT cells. We then demonstrated that gastric and blood MAIT cells are able to recognize H. pylori. We found that CD8(+) and CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative) MAIT cell subsets respond to H. pylori-infected macrophages stimulation in a MR-1 restrictive manner by producing cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-17A) and exhibiting cytotoxic activity. Interestingly, we observed that blood MAIT cell frequency in Hp(+ve) individuals was significantly lower than in Hp(-ve) individuals. However, gastric MAIT cell frequency was not significantly different between Hp(+ve) and Hp(-ve) individuals, demonstrating a dichotomy between blood and gastric tissues. Further, we observed that the majority of gastric MAIT cells (>80%) expressed tissue-resident markers (CD69(+) CD103(+)), which were only marginally present on PBMC MAIT cells (<3%), suggesting that gastric MAIT cells are readily available to respond quickly to pathogens. These results contribute important new information to the understanding of MAIT cells function on peripheral and mucosal tissues and its possible implications in the host response to H. pylori. PMID:26441971

  14. Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in the Human Gastric Mucosa and Blood: Role in Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Jayaum S.; Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Blanchard, Thomas G.; Patil, Seema A.; Kader, Howard A.; Safta, Anca M.; Morningstar, Lindsay M.; Czinn, Steven J.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent a class of antimicrobial innate-like T cells that have been characterized in human blood, liver, lungs, and intestine. Here, we investigated, for the first time, the presence of MAIT cells in the stomach of children, adults, and the elderly undergoing routine endoscopy and assessed their reactivity to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori?–?Hp), a major gastric pathogen. We observed that MAIT cells are present in the lamina propria compartment of the stomach and display a similar memory phenotype to blood MAIT cells. We then demonstrated that gastric and blood MAIT cells are able to recognize H. pylori. We found that CD8+ and CD4?CD8? (double negative) MAIT cell subsets respond to H. pylori-infected macrophages stimulation in a MR-1 restrictive manner by producing cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-17A) and exhibiting cytotoxic activity. Interestingly, we observed that blood MAIT cell frequency in Hp+ve individuals was significantly lower than in Hp?ve individuals. However, gastric MAIT cell frequency was not significantly different between Hp+ve and Hp?ve individuals, demonstrating a dichotomy between blood and gastric tissues. Further, we observed that the majority of gastric MAIT cells (>80%) expressed tissue-resident markers (CD69+ CD103+), which were only marginally present on PBMC MAIT cells (<3%), suggesting that gastric MAIT cells are readily available to respond quickly to pathogens. These results contribute important new information to the understanding of MAIT cells function on peripheral and mucosal tissues and its possible implications in the host response to H. pylori. PMID:26441971

  15. Biomechanics of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  16. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  17. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J; Burlingham, William J; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2015-11-18

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. We isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease. PMID:26582902

  18. Congenital duodenal obstruction associated with Down's syndrome presenting with hematemesis.

    PubMed

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Mandhan, Parkash; Elkadhi, Abdelrahman; Ali, Mansour J; Latif, Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Congenital duodenal obstruction is usually characterized by onset of early vomiting due to high bowel obstruction. Presentation of congenital duodenal obstruction with acute gastrointestinal bleeding is very uncommon. We present an unusual case of congenital intrinsic duodenal obstruction associated with the Down's syndrome presenting with hematemesis secondary to duodenitis. This is a rare presentation of congenital duodenal obstruction associated with Down's syndrome in addition to seven cases previously reported in the English literature. PMID:24968438

  19. Congenital duodenal obstruction associated with Down's syndrome presenting with hematemesis

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Mandhan, Parkash; Elkadhi, Abdelrahman; Ali, Mansour J.; Latif, Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Congenital duodenal obstruction is usually characterized by onset of early vomiting due to high bowel obstruction. Presentation of congenital duodenal obstruction with acute gastrointestinal bleeding is very uncommon. We present an unusual case of congenital intrinsic duodenal obstruction associated with the Down's syndrome presenting with hematemesis secondary to duodenitis. This is a rare presentation of congenital duodenal obstruction associated with Down's syndrome in addition to seven cases previously reported in the English literature. PMID:24968438

  20. Giant duodenal diverticulum: presentation by blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, M P; Ritota, P; Swan, K G

    1999-06-01

    Most duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, small (i.e., less than 5 cm in greatest dimension), acquired, extraluminal, and false. The only report of a massive or giant duodenal diverticulum (i.e., 10 cm or more), in the current literature, included severe nocturnal diarrhea. The present case report is the incidental finding of a massive duodenal diverticulum in a 34-year-old male trauma victim. The insidious nature of this case and the patient's age suggest a congenital etiology. We believe this is the first report of such a case. PMID:10372639

  1. Duodenal Perforation Precipitated by Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Rajat, Raghunath; Deepu, David; Jonathan, Arul Jeevan; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness usually presenting with fever, myalgia, headache, and a pathognomonic eschar. Severe infection may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in the form of gastric mucosal erosions and ulcerations owing to vasculitis resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding is common. This process may worsen a pre-existent asymptomatic peptic ulcer, causing duodenal perforation, and present as an acute abdomen requiring surgical exploration. We report the case of a patient with no previous symptoms or risk factors for a duodenal ulcer, who presented with an acute duodenal perforation, probably precipitated by scrub typhus infection. PMID:26069430

  2. Duodenal-Mucosal Bacteria Associated with Celiac Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

  3. Duodenal-mucosal bacteria associated with celiac disease in children.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor; Sanz, Yolanda

    2013-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

  4. Future directions of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Satohiro; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic therapies for lesions of the duodenum are technically more difficult than those for lesions of the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract due to the anatomical features of the duodenum, and the incidence rate of complications such as perforation and bleeding is also higher. These aforementioned trends were especially noticeable for the case of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The indication for ESD of duodenal tumors should be determined by assessment of the histopathology, macroscopic morphology, and diameter of the tumors. The three types of candidate lesions for endoscopic therapy are adenoma, carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors. For applying endoscopic therapies to duodenal lesions, accurate preoperative histopathological diagnosis is necessary. The most important technical issue in duodenal ESD is the submucosal dissection process. In duodenal ESD, a short needle-type knife is suitable for the mucosal incision and submucosal dissection processes, and the Small-caliber-tip Transparent hood is an important tool. After endoscopic therapies, the wound should be closed by clipping in order to prevent complications such as secondary hemorrhage and delayed perforation. At present, the criteria for selection between ESD and EMR vary among institutions. The indications for ESD should be carefully considered. Duodenal ESD should have limitations, such as the need for its being performed by experts with abundant experience in performing the procedure. PMID:25901218

  5. Preoperative endoscopic diagnosis of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors, including magnifying endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Shigetsugu; Doyama, Hisashi; Tsuji, Kunihiro; Tsuyama, Sho; Tominaga, Kei; Yoshida, Naohiro; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Niwa, Hideki; Katayanagi, Kazuyoshi; Kurumaya, Hiroshi; Okada, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumor (SNADET) is defined as a sporadic tumor that is confined to the mucosa or submucosa that does not arise from Vater’s papilla, and it includes adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Recent developments in endoscopic technology, such as high-resolution endoscopy and image-enhanced endoscopy, may increase the chances of detecting SNADET lesions. However, because SNADET is rare, little is known about its preoperative endoscopic diagnosis. The use of endoscopic resection for SNADET, which has no risk of metastasis, is increasing, but the incidence of complications, such as perforation, is significantly higher than in any other part of the digestive tract. A preoperative diagnosis is required to distinguish between lesions that should be followed up and those that require treatment. Retrospective studies have revealed certain endoscopic findings that suggest malignancy. In recent years, several new imaging modalities have been developed and explored for real-time diagnosis of these lesion types. Establishing an endoscopic diagnostic tool to differentiate between adenoma and adenocarcinoma in SNADET lesions is required to select the most appropriate treatment. This review describes the current state of knowledge about preoperative endoscopic diagnosis of SNADETs, such as duodenal adenoma and duodenal adenocarcinoma. Newer endoscopic techniques, including magnifying endoscopy, may help to guide these diagnostics, but their additional advantages remain unclear, and further studies are required to clarify these issues. PMID:26557007

  6. Duodenal Implications in the Pathophysiology of Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2010-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a heterogeneous disorder associated with diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms. Studies have shown duodenal implications in the pathophysiology of FD. Duodenal hypersensitivity to acid, increased duodenal acid exposure, and abnormal responses to duodenal lipids or released cholecystokinin have been observed in patients with FD. Moreover, there is evidence indicating duodenal immune activation in FD. Alterations in the number of duodenal eosinophils or intraepithelial lymphocytes have been reported in a subset of FD patients, particularly in patients with post-infectious FD. Whether these abnormalities in the duodenum play a crucial role in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms needs to be elucidated. Further investigations on the relationship between duodenal abnormalities and well-known pathophysiologic mechanisms of FD are required. Furthermore, the causative factors related to the development of duodenal abnormalities in FD warrant further study. PMID:20680163

  7. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 ?g DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 ?g DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  8. Giardia lamblia rearranges F-actin and alpha-actinin in human colonic and duodenal monolayers and reduces transepithelial electrical resistance.

    PubMed

    Teoh, D A; Kamieniecki, D; Pang, G; Buret, A G

    2000-08-01

    The mechanisms of epithelial injury in giardiasis remain unknown. The effects of live Giardia lamblia on cellular G-actin, F-actin, alpha-actinin, and electrical resistance of human intestinal epithelial monolayers were investigated using SCBN and Caco2 cell lines grown on chamber slides or Transwell filter membranes. In separate experiments, some monolayers were also exposed to sonicated trophozoites, some to supernatant from live G. lamblia cultures, and some with or without the Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil. After 2, 24, or 48 hr of coincubation with G. lamblia, monolayers were assessed for cytoskeletal arrangement under fluorescence and confocal laser microscopy, and transepithelial electrical resistance was measured. Exposure to live G. lamblia trophozoites induced localized condensation of F-actin and loss of perijunctional alpha-actinin while G-actin remained unchanged. Confocal laser microscopy indicated that F-actin rearrangement was not affected by verapamil and was localized within the terminal web area. Coincubation of monolayers with G. lamblia lysates or with spent medium alone similarly rearranged F-actin. Verapamil alone did not alter F-actin. Electrical resistance of SCBN and Caco2 monolayers exposed to G. lamblia was significantly decreased versus controls regardless of whether live or lysed trophozoite samples were used. The results indicate that G. lamblia-induced epithelial injury is associated with F-actin and alpha-actinin rearrangements in the terminal web area via mechanisms independent of extracellular Ca2+. These alterations are associated with reduced transepithelial electrical resistance and are due at least in part to trophozoite products. PMID:10958459

  9. Feasibility and safety of endoscopic cryoablation at the duodenal papilla: Porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis; Reinhard, Mary K; Wagh, Mihir S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the feasibility and safety of liquid nitrogen spray cryoablation at the duodenal papilla in a porcine model. METHODS: This prospective study protocol was approved by the University of Florida Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Six pigs underwent liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy at the duodenal papilla. Freeze time of 20-s was applied per cycle (4 cycles/session). Survival animals (n = 4) were monitored for adverse events. Hemoglobin, white blood count, liver tests, and lipase were obtained at baseline and post-treatment. EGD was performed on day#7 to evaluate the papilla and for histology. All animals were euthanized and necropsy was performed at the end of the one-week survival period. Feasibility was defined as successful placement of the decompression tube in the duodenum, followed by delivery of spray cryotherapy to the duodenal papilla. Safety was determined by monitoring post-treatment blood tests and clinical course. Treatment effect was defined as endoscopic and histologic changes after cryotherapy. This was established by comparing endoscopic and histologic findings from mucosal biopsies prior to cryotherapy and on post-operative day (POD)#7. Full-thickness specimen was obtained post-mortem to assess depth of injury. RESULTS: Spray cryotherapy was feasible and successfully performed in all 6/6 (100%) animals. Cryospray with liquid nitrogen (four 20-s freeze-thaw cycles) at the duodenal papilla resulted in white frost formation at and around the target region. The mean procedural time was 54.5 min (range 50-58 min). All six animals studied had stable blood pressure, heart rate, and pulse oximetry measurements during the procedure. There were no significant intra-procedural adverse events. There were no significant differences in hemoglobin, white cell count, liver tests or lipase from baseline to post-cryotherapy. Survival animals were monitored daily post-operatively without any clinical ill effects from the cryotherapy. There was no bleeding, infection, or perforation on necropsy. Endoscopic on POD#7 showed edema and ulceration at the duodenal papilla. On histology, there was loss of crypt architecture with moderate to severe necrosis and acute mixed inflammatory infiltration in each specimen following cryotherapy. The extent of cryogen-induced tissue necrosis (depth of injury) was limited to the mucosa on full-thickness specimen evaluation. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy is feasible and safe for ablation at the duodenal papilla in a porcine model. PMID:26140100

  10. Prostaglandin pathways in duodenal chemosensing

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Acid-sensing pathways, which trigger mucosal defense mechanisms in response to luminal acid, involve the rapid afferent-mediated ‘capsaicin pathway’ and the sustained, ‘prostaglandin (PG) pathway’. Luminal acid quickly increases protective PG synthesis and release from epithelia, although the mechanism by which luminal acid induces PG synthesis is still mostly unknown. Acid exposure augments purinergic ATP-P2Y signaling by inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity. Since P2Y activation increases intracellular Ca2+, we further hypothesized that ATP-P2Y signals increase the generation of H2O2 derived from dual oxidase (Duox), a member of the NADPH oxidase family activated by Ca2+. Our recent studies suggest that acid exposure increases H2O2 output, followed by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclooxygenase (COX) activation, increasing PG synthesis. Released PGE2 augments protective HCO3? and mucus secretion via EP4 receptor activation. Thus, the PG pathway as a component of duodenal acid sensing consists of acid-related IAP inhibition, ATP-P2Y signals, Duox2-derived H2O2 production, PLA2 activation, PGE2 synthesis and EP4 receptor activation. The PG pathway is also involved in luminal bacterial sensing in the duodenum via activation of pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD2. The presence of acute mucosal responses to luminal bacteria suggests that the duodenum is important for host defenses and may reduce bacterial loading to the hindgut using H2O2, complementing gastric acidity and anti-bacterial bile acids. PMID:25521740

  11. Duodenal diverticula: potential complications and common imaging pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, T C; Hartman, M; Heller, M; Klepchick, P; Ilkhanipour, K

    2014-10-01

    A duodenal diverticulum is a commonly encountered entity in gastrointestinal radiology with a wide variety of appearances. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy and embryology of the duodenum, discuss the differences between a true versus intraluminal duodenal diverticulum, and to highlight the normal appearance, potential complications, and imaging pitfalls of duodenal diverticula. PMID:25110301

  12. Impact of familial amyloid associated polyneuropathy on duodenal endocrine cells.

    PubMed Central

    el-Salhy, M; Suhr, O; Stenling, R; Wilander, E; Grimelius, L

    1994-01-01

    Duodenal endocrine cells in 11 patients with familial amyloid associated polyneuropathy (FAP) were compared with those in 12 healthy volunteers by means of immunohistochemistry and morphometry. The total endocrine cell content, determined by the argyrophilic reaction and chromogranin A immunoreactivity, was significantly reduced in FAP patients compared with controls. There was a significant reduction in the serotonin, cholecystokinin/gastrin, and secretin immunoreactive cell content. A decreased cell content was also noted for somatostatin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide immunoreactive cells but this was not statistically significant. Amyloid deposits were noted in seven of the 11 biopsy specimens from FAP patients, but otherwise the duodenum was histologically normal in both groups. The reduction in endocrine cell content was not correlated with the degree of amyloid deposit in the duodenum. These findings indicate that patients with FAP have reduced intestinal endocrine cells. This does not seem to be related to amyloid deposits in the mucosa or to villous or crypt abnormalities. The observed changes in endocrine cells may contribute to the development of intestinal motility dysfunction and maldigestion in these patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7959197

  13. Prognostic characteristics of duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q; Shou, C-H; Yu, J-R; Yang, W-L; Liu, X-S; Yu, H; Gao, Y; Shen, Q-Y; Zhao, Z-C

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the clinical characteristics, surgical procedures and prognosis of duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Methods Patients with a diagnosis of primary duodenal GIST treated between January 2000 and December 2012 were analysed. Patients with gastric and small intestinal GISTs were chosen as control groups according to the following parameters: age, tumour size, mitotic index and adjuvant imatinib therapy. Operative procedures for patients with duodenal GIST included pancreaticoduodenectomy or limited resection. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Some 71 patients with duodenal, 71 with gastric and 70 with small intestinal GISTs were included in the study. DFS of patients with duodenal GIST was shorter than that of patients with gastric GIST (3-year DFS 84 versus 94 per cent; hazard ratio (HR) 3.67, 95 per cent c.i. 1.21 to 11.16; P?=?0.014), but was similar to that of patients with small intestinal GIST (3-year DFS 84 versus 81 per cent; HR 0.75, 0.37 to 1.51; P?=?0.491). Patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy were older, and had larger tumours and a higher mitotic index than patients who had limited resection. The 3-year DFS was 93 per cent among patients who had limited resection compared with 64 per cent for those who underwent PD (HR 0.18, 0.06 to 0.59; P?=?0.001). Conclusion The prognosis of duodenal GISTs is similar to that of small intestinal GISTs. Prognosis no different than for small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumours PMID:25980461

  14. Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in a Cow

    PubMed Central

    Fatimah, I.; Butler, D. G.; Physick-Sheard, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    A case report of perforated duodenal ulcer in a ten year old Holstein cow is presented. On three occasions, sudden anorexia and rapidly progressing abdominal fluid distension were associated with metabolic alkalosis, hypochloremia and hypokalemia. Rumen fluid at the time of the second episode was acidic and contained an excessive amount of chloride ion. An abdominal mass dorsal to the abomasum involving the pylorus and several loops of small bowel was identified but not corrected at surgery. Necropsy confirmed a 1.5 cm diameter duodenal ulcer 6 cm distal to the pylorus. PMID:17422146

  15. Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hun; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Nam, Sung Min; Lee, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Il Ho; Park, Jin Young; Im, Yun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Il Young; Han, Sok Won

    2012-10-14

    Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely. PMID:23082068

  16. AUTOMATIVE QUANTIFICATION OF RAT DUODENAL RHYTHMIC CONTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pacemaker activity of longitudinal muscle, as reflected by in vitro rhythmic contractions of the adult male rat's duodenum, has been examined in terms of intercontraction intervals that were collected using a microprocessor-based system. For each duodenal segment studied, 512...

  17. Heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli stimulates a non-CFTR-mediated duodenal bicarbonate secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Zachary M; Childs, Debbie; Chow, Jimmy Y C; Smith, Anders J; Hogan, Daniel L; Isenberg, Jon I; Dong, Hui; Barrett, Kim E; Pratha, Vijaya S

    2005-04-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an important pathway for duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. Duodenal biopsies from CF patients secrete bicarbonate in response to heat-stable enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (STa) but not cAMP. To explore the mechanism of STa-induced bicarbonate secretion in CF more fully, we examined the role of CFTR in STa-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion in mice. In vivo, the duodenum of CFTR (-/-) or control mice was perfused with forskolin (10(-4) M), STa (10(-7) M), uroguanylin (10(-7) M), 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) (10(-3) M), genistein (10(-6) M) plus STa, or herbimycin A (10(-6) M) plus STa. In vitro, duodenal mucosae were voltage-clamped in Ussing chambers, and bicarbonate secretion was measured by pH-stat. The effect of genistein, DIDS (10(-4) M), and chloride removal was also studied in vitro. Control, but not CF, mice produced a significant increase in duodenal bicarbonate secretion after perfusion with forskolin, uroguanylin, or 8-Br-cGMP. However, both control and CF animals responded to STa with significant increases in bicarbonate output. Genistein and herbimycin A abolished this response in CF mice but not in controls. In vitro, STa-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in CF tissues was inhibited by genistein, DIDS, and chloride-free conditions, whereas bicarbonate secretion persisted in control mice. In the CF duodenum, STa can stimulate bicarbonate secretion via tyrosine kinase activity resulting in apical Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. Further studies elucidating the intracellular mechanisms responsible for such non-CFTR mediated bicarbonate secretion may lead to important therapies for CF. PMID:15513951

  18. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR) -196 to 174del polymorphism in gastro-duodenal diseases in Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Wang, Fangyu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Masakatsu; Sakata, Mikijyu; Hirata, Ichiro; Nakano, Hiroshi

    2008-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in the signaling of many pathogen-related molecules and endogenous proteins associated with immune activation. -196 to -174del polymorphism affects the TLR2 gene and alters its promoter activity. We investigated the influence of TLR2 -196 to -174del polymorphism on the risk of gastro-duodenal diseases, on the severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in a Japanese population. The study was performed on 309 patients with abdominal discomfort and 146 healthy controls. -196 to -174del polymorphism of TLR2 was investigated by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method in all of the subjects. Gastritis scores of antral gastric mucosa were assessed according to the updated Sydney system in H. pylori-positive subjects (n = 156). Patients with abdominal discomfort was consisted of 80 gastric ulcers (25.9%), 38 duodenal ulcers (12.3%), five gastric + duodenal ulcers (1.6%), 105 patients with gastritis (34.0%) and 81 normal healthy stomachs (26.2%). We did not find any association between TLR2 polymorphism and risk of gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric and duodenal ulcer and gastritis compared to healthy controls. However, the TLR2-196 to -174ins allele was associated with severity of intestinal metaplasia in more than 60 years of ages (P = 0.02). The same allele also increased the risks of developing more severe gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in female subjects (P < 0.05, P = 0.07 respectively). No association was observed between TLR2 polymorphism and severity of neutrophil and mononuclear cell infiltration. Our data suggest that the TLR2-196 to -174ins allele was associated with more severe intestinal metaplasia in patients older than was correlated with severity of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in female subjects. PMID:17934843

  19. Genetic errors of the human caspase recruitment domain-B-cell lymphoma 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (CBM) complex: Molecular, immunologic, and clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Diego, Rebeca; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Ferreira Cerdán, Antonio; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Three members of the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of adaptors (CARD9, CARD10, and CARD11) are known to form heterotrimers with B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1). These 3 CARD-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes activate nuclear factor ?B in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Human inherited defects of the 3 components of the CBM complex, including the 2 adaptors CARD9 and CARD11 and the 2 core components BCL10 and MALT1, have recently been reported. Biallelic loss-of-function mutant alleles underlie several different immunologic and clinical phenotypes, which can be assigned to 2 distinct categories. Isolated invasive fungal infections of unclear cellular basis are associated with CARD9 deficiency, whereas a broad range of clinical manifestations, including those characteristic of T- and B-lymphocyte defects, are associated with CARD11, MALT1, and BCL10 deficiencies. Interestingly, human subjects with these mutations have some features in common with the corresponding knockout mice, but other features are different between human subjects and mice. Moreover, germline and somatic gain-of-function mutations of MALT1, BCL10, and CARD11 have also been found in patients with other lymphoproliferative disorders. This broad range of germline and somatic CBM lesions, including loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, highlights the contribution of each of the components of the CBM complex to human immunity. PMID:26277595

  20. A Metagenomic Investigation of the Duodenal Microbiota Reveals Links with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Frédéric; Bachar, Dipankar; Laugier, René; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Robert, Catherine; Michelle, Caroline; Henrissat, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have tested the small intestine microbiota in humans, where most nutrient digestion and absorption occur. Here, our objective was to examine the duodenal microbiota between obese and normal volunteers using metagenomic techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested duodenal samples from five obese and five normal volunteers using 16S rDNA V6 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq deep sequencing. The predominant phyla of the duodenal microbiota were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, whereas Bacteroidetes were absent. Obese individuals had a significant increase in anaerobic genera (p < 0.001) and a higher abundance of genes encoding Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (p = 0.0018) compared to the control group. Obese individuals also had a reduced abundance of genes encoding sucrose phosphorylase (p = 0.015) and 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme (p = 0.05). Normal weight people had significantly increased FabK (p = 0.027), and the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway revealed the presence of phospholipase A1 only in the control group (p = 0.05). Conclusions/Significance The duodenal microbiota of obese individuals exhibit alterations in the fatty acid and sucrose breakdown pathways, probably induced by diet imbalance. PMID:26356733

  1. Pancreatic-induced intramural duodenal haematoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Julius K; Ng, Kelvin K; Poon, Ronnie T; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2008-04-01

    Spontaneous intramural duodenal haematoma (IDH) is an uncommon pathology and it is usually related to anticoagulant therapy. Other causes include various pancreatic diseases, connective tissue disease, peptic ulcer disease and pancreaticoduodenal aneurysm. IDH of pancreatic origin has been infrequently reported. The disease course can be life-threatening and serious complications may occur, including gastric outlet obstruction, duodenal perforation and septicaemia. A case of pancreatic-induced IDH is presented, for which pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed as definitive treatment. In general, medical treatment with continuous nasogastric aspiration and total parenteral nutrition is recommended as initial management strategy. Surgical interventions (evacuation of blood clot or surgical resection) are reserved for patients in whom medical treatment fails or complications occur. PMID:18490220

  2. Association of interleukin 1 gene family polymorphisms with duodenal ulcer disease

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA-GONZALEZ, M A; LANAS, A; SAVELKOUL, P H M; SANTOLARIA, S; BENITO, R; CRUSIUS, J B A; PEÑA, A S

    2003-01-01

    Cytokine genes taking part in the immunological response to Helicobacter pylori infection are good candidates to study for genetic predisposition to duodenal ulcer disease (DU). Among cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1? and its natural specific inhibitor, the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, are cytokines that play a key role in regulating gastric acid secretion and modulating the immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. We aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in the IL-1B and IL-1RN genes are involved in the susceptibility to duodenal ulcer. DNA from 131 unrelated Spanish Caucasian patients with DU and 105 ethnically matched healthy controls was typed for the IL-1B-511, IL-1B-31, and IL-1B + 3954 gene polymorphisms, and the VNTR polymorphism in intron 2 of the IL-1RN gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and TaqMan assays. H. pylori status and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use was determined in all patients and controls. Logistic regression analysis identified H. pylori infection (OR: 9·74; 95%CI = 3·53–26·89) and NSAIDs use (OR: 8·82; 95%CI = 3·51–22·17) as independent risk factors for DU. In addition, the simultaneous carriage of IL-1RN*2, IL-1B-511*C, IL-1B-31*T and IL-1B + 3954*C alleles was a genetic risk factor for DU in patients with H. pylori infection (OR: 3·22; 95%CI = 1·09–9·47). No significant differences in IL-1RN and IL-1B genotypes were found when patients were categorized according to gender, age of onset, smoking habit, NSAIDs use, type of complication and positive family history. Our results provide further evidence that host genetic factors play a key role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer. PMID:14632761

  3. Management of Perforated Duodenal Diverticulum: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Song, Sanghyun

    2015-09-01

    Duodenal diverticula are common, but perforated duodenal diverticulum is rare. Because of the disease rarity, there is no standard management protocol for perforated duodenal diverticulum. To properly manage this rare complication, a clear preoperative diagnosis and clinical disease severity assessment are important. An abdomino-pelvic CT is an unquestionably crucial diagnostic tool. Perforation is considered a surgical emergency, although conservative treatment based on fasting and broad-spectrum antibiotics may be offered in some selected cases. Herein, we report two cases of perforated duodenal diverticulum, one case managed with surgical treatment and one with conservative treatment. PMID:26387699

  4. Prophylactic pancreaticoduodenectomy for premalignant duodenal polyposis in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Causeret, S; François, Y; Griot, J B; Flourie, B; Gilly, F N; Vignal, J

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of duodenal adenomas in patients with, familial adenomatous polyposis is high. Duodenal adenoma has malignant potential, and duodenal adenocarcinoma is one of the main causes of death in patients who have had previous proctocolectomy. A conservative approach to the treatment of duodenal adenomas (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, endoscopy, polypectomy through duodenotomy) is inefficient and unsafe. When invasive cancer occurs in duodenal adenomas, the result of surgery is poor. We have performed prophylactic pancreaticoduodenal resection (PDR) for nonmalignant severe duodenal polyposis in five patients since 1991. No operative mortality was observed. One patient developed a pancreatic fistula which was successfully managed by medical treatment. The mean follow-up was 35 months. All five patients are still alive and have a good functional outcome. Prophylactic PDR may be indicated in familial adenomatous polyposis when duodenal polyposis is severe. Stages III and IV of Spigelman's classification, periampullary adenoma, age above 40, and family history of duodenal cancer are factors that may lead to the decision to perform prophylactic PDR. PMID:9548099

  5. Characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in bovine small intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Virkel, G; Carletti, M; Cantiello, M; Della Donna, L; Gardini, G; Girolami, F; Nebbia, C

    2010-06-01

    The intestinal mucosa plays a capital role in dictating the bioavailability of a large array of orally ingested drugs and toxicants. The activity and the expression of several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes were measured in subcellular fractions from the duodenal mucosa of male veal calves and beef cattle displaying a functional rumen but differing in both age (about 8 months vs. 18 to 24 months) and dietary regimens (i.e., milk replacer plus hay and straw vs. corn and concentrated meal). Intestinal microsomes showed cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B, 2C- and 3A-mediated activities and the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins, but no proof of CYP1A expression and/or functions could be provided. Intestinal microsomes were also active in performing reactions typically mediated by carboxylesterases (indophenylacetate hydrolysis), flavin-containing monooxygenases (methimazole S-oxidation), and uridindiphosphoglucuronyltransferases (1-naphthol glucuronidation), respectively. Cytosolic fractions displayed the glutathione S-transferase (GST)-dependent conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; besides, the GST-mediated conjugation of ethacrinic acid (GSTpi) or cumene hydroperoxide (GSTalpha) was matched by the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins. Conversely, despite the lack of measurable activity with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, a protein cross reacting with anti-rat GSTmu antibodies could be clearly detected. Although, as detected by densitometry, CYPs and GST isoenzymes tended to be more expressed in beef cattle than in veal calf preparations, there was a general poor correlation with the rate of the in vitro metabolism of the selected diagnostic probes. PMID:20557447

  6. Dynamic change in natural killer cell type in the human ocular mucosa in situ as means of immune evasion by adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Yawata, N; Selva, K J; Liu, Y-C; Tan, K P; Lee, A W L; Siak, J; Lan, W; Vania, M; Arundhati, A; Tong, L; Li, J; Mehta, J S; Yawata, M

    2016-01-01

    The most severe form of virus-induced inflammation at the ocular surface is epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), often caused by group D human adenoviruses (HAdVs). We investigated the dynamics and mechanisms of changes in natural killer (NK) cell types in the human ocular mucosal surface in situ over the course of infection. In the acute phase of infection, the mature CD56(dim)NK cells that comprise a major subpopulation in the normal human conjunctiva are replaced by CD56(bright)NK cells recruited to the ocular surface by chemokines produced by the infected epithelium, and NKG2A-expressing CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) NK cells become the major subpopulations in severe inflammation. These NK cells attracted to the mucosal surface are however incapable of mounting a strong antiviral response because of upregulation of the inhibitory ligand human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) on infected epithelium. Furthermore, group D HAdVs downregulate ligands for activating NK cell receptors, thus rendering even the mature NKG2A(-)NK cells unresponsive, an immune-escape mechanism distinct from other adenoviruses. Our findings imply that the EKC-causing group D HAdVs utilize these multiple pathways to inhibit antiviral NK cell responses in the initial stages of the infection. PMID:26080707

  7. Endoscopic retrieval of a duodenal perforating teaspoon.

    PubMed

    Boškoski, Ivo; Tringali, Andrea; Landi, Rosario; Familiari, Pietro; Contini, Anna Chiara Iolanda; Pintus, Claudio; Costamagna, Guido

    2013-04-16

    Foreign objects ingestion occur commonly in pediatric patients. The majority of ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously the gastrointestinal tract and surgery is rarely required for extraction. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies larger than 10 cm has not yet been described. We present the case of a 16 years old bulimic girl that swallowed a 12 cm long teaspoon in order to provoke vomiting. The teaspoon perforated the duodenum. However, it was removed during gastroscopy and the site of perforation was closed endoscopically. This particular case shows the importance of endoscopy for retrieval of large foreign bodies, and the possibility to endoscopically close a perforated duodenal wall. PMID:23596543

  8. Endoscopic retrieval of a duodenal perforating teaspoon

    PubMed Central

    Boškoski, Ivo; Tringali, Andrea; Landi, Rosario; Familiari, Pietro; Contini, Anna Chiara Iolanda; Pintus, Claudio; Costamagna, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Foreign objects ingestion occur commonly in pediatric patients. The majority of ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously the gastrointestinal tract and surgery is rarely required for extraction. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies larger than 10 cm has not yet been described. We present the case of a 16 years old bulimic girl that swallowed a 12 cm long teaspoon in order to provoke vomiting. The teaspoon perforated the duodenum. However, it was removed during gastroscopy and the site of perforation was closed endoscopically. This particular case shows the importance of endoscopy for retrieval of large foreign bodies, and the possibility to endoscopically close a perforated duodenal wall. PMID:23596543

  9. Physical activity at work and duodenal ulcer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Katschinski, B D; Logan, R F; Edmond, M; Langman, M J

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether the social class differences in duodenal ulcer frequency may be explained by differences in physical activity at work, the energy expenditure during work, smoking habits, and social class were compared in 76 recently diagnosed duodenal ulcer patients and in age and sex matched community controls. As anticipated, the relative risk of duodenal ulcer showed significant associations with smoking and social class. Social class and physical activity at work were associated with one another. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and social class, physically active work was still associated with duodenal ulcer, with relative risks for moderate and high activity compared with sedentary work being 1.3 (0.6-3.0) and 3.6 (1.3-7.8) respectively. Within each social class stratum, the relative risk of having a duodenal ulcer was greater in those with a high level of occupational activity than in those undertaking sedentary work. PMID:1916502

  10. Gene Expression Profiling of Human Vaginal Cells In Vitro Discriminates Compounds with Pro-Inflammatory and Mucosa-Altering Properties: Novel Biomarkers for Preclinical Testing of HIV Microbicide Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Zalenskaya, Irina A.; Joseph, Theresa; Bavarva, Jasmin; Yousefieh, Nazita; Jackson, Suzanne S.; Fashemi, Titilayo; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Settlage, Robert; Fichorova, Raina N.; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation and immune activation of the cervicovaginal mucosa are considered factors that increase susceptibility to HIV infection. Therefore, it is essential to screen candidate anti-HIV microbicides for potential mucosal immunomodulatory/inflammatory effects prior to further clinical development. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro method for preclinical evaluation of the inflammatory potential of new candidate microbicides using a microarray gene expression profiling strategy. Methods To this end, we compared transcriptomes of human vaginal cells (Vk2/E6E7) treated with well-characterized pro-inflammatory (PIC) and non-inflammatory (NIC) compounds. PICs included compounds with different mechanisms of action. Gene expression was analyzed using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2 arrays. Data processing was performed using GeneSpring 11.5 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). Results Microarraray comparative analysis allowed us to generate a panel of 20 genes that were consistently deregulated by PICs compared to NICs, thus distinguishing between these two groups. Functional analysis mapped 14 of these genes to immune and inflammatory responses. This was confirmed by the fact that PICs induced NFkB pathway activation in Vk2 cells. By testing microbicide candidates previously characterized in clinical trials we demonstrated that the selected PIC-associated genes properly identified compounds with mucosa-altering effects. The discriminatory power of these genes was further demonstrated after culturing vaginal cells with vaginal bacteria. Prevotella bivia, prevalent bacteria in the disturbed microbiota of bacterial vaginosis, induced strong upregulation of seven selected PIC-associated genes, while a commensal Lactobacillus gasseri associated to vaginal health did not cause any changes. Conclusions In vitro evaluation of the immunoinflammatory potential of microbicides using the PIC-associated genes defined in this study could help in the initial screening of candidates prior to entering clinical trials. Additional characterization of these genes can provide further insight into the cervicovaginal immunoinflammatory and mucosal-altering processes that facilitate or limit HIV transmission with implications for the design of prevention strategies. PMID:26052926

  11. Spectral Markers in Preneoplastic Intestinal Mucosa: An Accurate Predictor of Tumor Risk in the MIN Mouse

    E-print Network

    Kim, Young L.

    Spectral Markers in Preneoplastic Intestinal Mucosa: An Accurate Predictor of Tumor Risk in the MIN intestinal tumorigenesis, thus replicating the human syn- drome, familial adenomatous polyposis. Spectral tumorigenesis. Additionally, these markers spatially correlated with future adenoma development (small intestine

  12. The ?F508-CFTR mutation inhibits wild-type CFTR processing and function when co-expressed in human airway epithelia and in mouse nasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rescue or correction of CFTR function in native epithelia is the ultimate goal of CF therapeutics development. Wild-type (WT) CFTR introduction and replacement is also of particular interest. Such therapies may be complicated by possible CFTR self-assembly into an oligomer or multimer. Results Surprisingly, functional CFTR assays in native airway epithelia showed that the most common CFTR mutant, ?F508-CFTR (?F-CFTR), inhibits WT-CFTR when both forms are co-expressed. To examine more mechanistically, both forms of CFTR were transfected transiently in varying amounts into IB3-1 CF human airway epithelial cells and HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cells null for endogenous CFTR protein expression. Increasing amounts of ?F-CFTR inhibited WT-CFTR protein processing and function in CF human airway epithelial cells but not in heterologous HEK-293 cells. Stably expressed ?F-CFTR in clones of the non-CF human airway epithelial cell line, CALU-3, also showed reduction in cAMP-stimulated anion secretion and in WT-CFTR processing. An ultimate test of this dominant negative-like effect of ?F-CFTR on WT-CFTR was the parallel study of two different CF mouse models: the ?F-CFTR mouse and the bitransgenic CFTR mouse corrected in the gut but null in the lung and airways. WT/?F heterozygotes had an intermediate phenotype with regard to CFTR agonist responses in in vivo nasal potential difference (NPD) recordings and in Ussing chamber recordings of short-circuit current (ISC) in vitro on primary tracheal epithelial cells isolated from the same mice. In contrast, CFTR bitransgenic +/? heterozygotes had no difference in their responses versus +/+ wild-type mice. Conclusions Taken altogether, these data suggest that ?F-CFTR and WT-CFTR co-assemble into an oligomeric macromolecular complex in native epithelia and share protein processing machinery and regulation at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As a consequence, ?F-CFTR slows WT-CFTR protein processing and limits its expression and function in the apical membrane of native airway epithelia. Implications of these data for the relative health of CF heterozygous carriers, for CFTR protein processing in native airway epithelia, and for the relative efficacy of different CF therapeutic approaches is significant and is discussed. PMID:22999299

  13. [Zantac (ranitidine) in treating duodenal ulcers].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, Iu V

    2002-01-01

    There are the results of the examination and treatment of 68 patients with duodenal ulcers, 52 of them having the Helicobacter pylori (HP) semination of the mucous coat of stomach revealed by the histologic method and/or fast urease test before the treatment. The healing of the duodenal bulb ulcer was recorded in 82.7% of cases in this group of patients after the four-week treatment (ranitidine, 150 mg b.i.d. for four weeks in combination with amoxicillin, 500 mg q.i.d., and metronidazole, 500 mg b.i.d. for the initial ten-day period); the healing of ulcers was recorded in 81.3% of cases in the second group of patients who had no HP revealed and were treated only with ranitidine, 150 mg b.i.d. for four weeks. The eradication of HP in the first group of patients was recorded in 86.5% of cases after 28-42 days following the termination of the treatment. PMID:12353395

  14. Histopathology of the minor duodenal papilla.

    PubMed

    Suda, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    The minor duodenal papilla, which is the orifice of the accessory, or dorsal, pancreatic duct/Santorini duct, mostly accompanied by pancreatic tissue, is situated about 2 cm ventroproximal to the major duodenal papilla. The patency of the terminal accessory pancreatic duct (APD) is recognized in about half or more of cases, and is related to the degree of fibrosis. The APD is lined with simple columnar epithelium and encircled by a smooth muscle layer. It is still controversial whether or not these muscle tissues comprise a sphincter muscle. Pancreatic tissue was found in about 80% of cases in the minor papilla. Among these cases, pancreatic tissue was continuous and/or closely related to the proper pancreas in about 40% of cases, and might have the same exocrine and endocrine morphologies/functions, suggesting that it is a portion of the dorsal pancreas and not an ectopic one. Endocrine cell micronests are frequently found in the ductal wall/surrounding area of the terminal APD, and predominantly consist of somatostatin- and/or pancreatic-polypeptide-containing cells. In cases of pancreas divisum, inadequate pancreatic juice drainage from the minor papilla might occur, resulting in dorsal pancreatitis. In the minor papilla, all ductal tumors may occur, such as an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and invasive ductal carcinoma, but carcinoid tumors are rare. PMID:20551659

  15. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  16. A human homologue to the yeast omnipotent suppressor 45 maps 100 kb centromeric to HLA-A

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvel, B.; Dorval, I.; Fergelot, P.

    1995-04-01

    Idipathic hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive inherited disorder of iron metabolism. The molecular defect is unknown. However, the gene responsible for the disease (HFE) has been localized on the short arm of chromosome 6. It is closely linked to the HLA class I genes and possibly within a 350 kilobase (kb) region around the HLA-A locus. In order to identify candidate genes for hemochromatosis, we applied a cDNA selection technique to isolate transcribed sequences encoded on yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC). At first, we screened a cDNA library derived from normal human duodenal mucosa with the YAC B30 H3. This YAC contains a 320 kb DNA insert including the HLA-A gene and spanning 150 kb of the 350 kb zone where the hemochromatosis gene is in linkage disequilibrium with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Preparation of the cDNA library of duodenal mucosa in Lambda Zap II phage and library screening with YAC B30 were carried out as previously described. In this way, we isolated seven non-HLA-A cDNAs corresponding to seven new genomic sequences. These potential genes were named hemochromatosis candidate gene (HCG) and numbered I to VII. The survey of all these cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences is in progress. In this work, we are especially interested in one of the seven non-HLA class I cDNA clones, named clone 58. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-10-01

    Introduction?Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives?Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report?A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion?Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach. PMID:26491486

  18. Integrating-Sphere Measurements for Determining Optical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, A. M.; Cardona, J. C.; Garzón, I.; Oliveira, A. C.; Ghinea, R.; Alaminos, M.; Pérez, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    Surgical procedures carried out in the oral and maxillofacial region can result in large tissue defects. Accounting for the shortage of oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues, different models of an organotypic substitute of the oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering have recently been proposed. In this work, the propagation of light radiation through artificial human oral mucosa substitutes based on fibrin-agarose scaffolds (fibrin, fibrin-0.1% agarose, fibrin-0.2%agarose) is investigated, and their optical properties are determined using the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method based on integrating-sphere measurements. Similar values for the absorption and scattering coefficients between the fibrin and fibrin-0.1% agarose bioengineered tissues and the native oral mucosa were found. These results suggest the adequacy of these biomaterials for potential clinical use in human oral mucosa applications. These optical properties represent useful references and data for applications requiring the knowledge of the light transport through this type of tissues, applications used in clinical practice. It also provides a new method of information analysis for the quality control of the development of the artificial nanostructured oral mucosa substitutes and its comparison with native oral mucosa tissues.

  19. Duodenal adenoma surveillance in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Sulbaran, Marianny; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana Vaz; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-08-10

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary disorder caused by Adenomatous Polyposis Gene mutations that lead to the development of colorectal polyps with great malignant risk throughout life. Moreover, numerous extracolonic manifestations incorporate different clinical features to produce varied individual phenotypes. Among them, the occurrence of duodenal adenomatous polyps is considered an almost inevitable event, and their incidence rates increase as a patient's age advances. Although the majority of patients exhibit different grades of duodenal adenomatosis as they age, only a small proportion (1%-5%) of patients will ultimately develop duodenal carcinoma. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to review the data regarding the epidemiology, classification, genetic features, endoscopic features, carcinogenesis, surveillance and management of duodenal polyps in patients with FAP. PMID:26265988

  20. Duodenal adenoma surveillance in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Sulbaran, Marianny; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana Vaz; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary disorder caused by Adenomatous Polyposis Gene mutations that lead to the development of colorectal polyps with great malignant risk throughout life. Moreover, numerous extracolonic manifestations incorporate different clinical features to produce varied individual phenotypes. Among them, the occurrence of duodenal adenomatous polyps is considered an almost inevitable event, and their incidence rates increase as a patient’s age advances. Although the majority of patients exhibit different grades of duodenal adenomatosis as they age, only a small proportion (1%-5%) of patients will ultimately develop duodenal carcinoma. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to review the data regarding the epidemiology, classification, genetic features, endoscopic features, carcinogenesis, surveillance and management of duodenal polyps in patients with FAP. PMID:26265988

  1. [Perforated juxta-papillary duodenal diverticula: two cases].

    PubMed

    Atmani, Abdelhakim; Lachachi, Fouzi; Sodji, Maxime; Durand-Fontanier, Sylvaine; Moumouni, Issifou; Pech De La Clause, Bertrand; Valleix, Denis; Descottes, Bernard

    2002-03-01

    Perforation of juxta-ampullary duodenal diverticula, occurring spontaneously or after abdominal trauma, is a severe condition. Diagnosis is difficult to establish and is based on tomodensitometry, which is the most reliable diagnostic tool. Treatment consists in diverticulectomy that can be associated with drainage of the duodenum or anastomosis between digestive and biliary tract. We report two cases of perforated juxta-ampullary duodenal diverticula. Perforation was spontaneous in one case and complicated a blunt abdominal trauma in the other case. PMID:11981473

  2. Determination of thickness of palatal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kolliyavar, Bharati; Setty, Swati; Thakur, Srinath L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The palatal masticatory mucosa is widely used as a donor material in periodontal plastic surgery. The thickness of graft tissue is an important factor for the graft survival. The purpose of this study was to determine the thickness of palatal mucosa by a bone sounding technique. The association of age and gender with the thickness of palatal mucosa was also examined. Materials and Methods: Twenty four healthy subjects had participated in the study. The younger age group of 16-30 years consisted of 12 subjects of 7 females and 5 males, and the older age group of 31-54 years consisted of 12 subjects, of 5 females and 7 males. A bone sounding method using a periodontal probe was done to assess the thickness of palatal mucosa at 15 measurement sites defined according to the gingival margin and palatal line. Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the difference in mucosal thickness between both the groups. Results: The younger age group had thinner mucosa ranged from 2 to 3.1 mm in thickness than the older age group which ranged from 3.2 to 3.7 mm. In the same age group, females had thinner mucosa than males in the same age group. The mean thickness of palatal masticatory mucosa ranged from 2.5 to 3.7 mm. Conclusion: The younger subjects had thinner mucosa than older subjects. The canine and premolar areas appeared to be the most appropriate donor site for grafting procedures. PMID:22628968

  3. Endoscopic Web Localization for Laparoscopic Duodenal Web Excision.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Nicholas E; Gibbons, Alexander T; Wyneski, Matthew J; Ponsky, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    When performing an open duodenal web excision, it is helpful to identify the web using a nasogastric tube because it is often difficult to determine where the web origin is located when looking at the serosal side of the bowel. However, it may be challenging to navigate the nasogastric tube to the web during laparoscopy. We present a novel technique that utilizes intraoperative endoscopy to precisely identify the location of the duodenal web, facilitating laparoscopic excision. Intraoperative endoscopy was implemented in the case of a 3-month-old boy undergoing laparoscopic excision of a duodenal web. With endoscopic visualization and transillumination, the duodenal web was precisely identified and excised laparoscopically. A supplemental video of the case presentation and technique is provided in the online version of this manuscript (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/SLE/A134). The procedure was completed successfully and the patient did well postoperatively. Flexible endoscopy is a useful adjunct for duodenal web localization during laparoscopy, improving on the previous method of estimating the location based on a change in duodenal caliber. PMID:26551236

  4. Prevalence of Duodenal Diverticulum in South Indians: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Thiagarajan, Sivakami

    2013-01-01

    Background. Duodenum is the second most common site of diverticula after the colon. Diagnosis of duodenal diverticula is incidental and found during other therapeutic procedures. In 90% of cases, they are asymptomatic, and less than 10% develop clinical symptoms. The difficulty to ascertain the true incidence of duodenal diverticula demanded for the present study to elucidate the prevalence of the duodenal diverticulum in South Indians. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty specimens of duodenum were utilized for the study. The prevalence, anatomical location, and dimension of duodenal diverticulum were studied. Results. Among the 120 specimens of duodenum, five specimens had solitary, extraluminal, and globular-shaped diverticula in the medial wall of the duodenum. In three (60%) cases, it was found in the second part of duodenum and in two (40%) cases in the third part. The mean size of the diverticula was 1.4?cm. Conclusion. In the present study in South Indian people, the prevalence (4.2%) of duodenal diverticula is low comparable to other studies in the literature. Even though most of the duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, the knowledge about its frequency and location is of great importance to prevent complications like diverticulitis, hemorrhage, obstructive jaundice, and perforation. PMID:25938103

  5. Prevalence of duodenal diverticulum in South indians: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Sulochana; Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Thiagarajan, Sivakami

    2013-01-01

    Background. Duodenum is the second most common site of diverticula after the colon. Diagnosis of duodenal diverticula is incidental and found during other therapeutic procedures. In 90% of cases, they are asymptomatic, and less than 10% develop clinical symptoms. The difficulty to ascertain the true incidence of duodenal diverticula demanded for the present study to elucidate the prevalence of the duodenal diverticulum in South Indians. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty specimens of duodenum were utilized for the study. The prevalence, anatomical location, and dimension of duodenal diverticulum were studied. Results. Among the 120 specimens of duodenum, five specimens had solitary, extraluminal, and globular-shaped diverticula in the medial wall of the duodenum. In three (60%) cases, it was found in the second part of duodenum and in two (40%) cases in the third part. The mean size of the diverticula was 1.4?cm. Conclusion. In the present study in South Indian people, the prevalence (4.2%) of duodenal diverticula is low comparable to other studies in the literature. Even though most of the duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, the knowledge about its frequency and location is of great importance to prevent complications like diverticulitis, hemorrhage, obstructive jaundice, and perforation. PMID:25938103

  6. The terminal web of the duodenal enterocyte.

    PubMed

    Leeson, T S

    1982-06-01

    The terminal web-brush border complex of rodent duodenal enterocytes has been studied by electron microscopy to investigate its structure in relation to currently accepted models of motility in this region. The main adherens zone is composed chiefly of a fine feltwork of 5 to 7 nm filaments, some of which originate in zonulae adherentes. In some cells, this is not a complete layer or sheet. Passing into it from its deep aspect are 10 nm tonofilaments, which also form the basal zone. The filament density in the basal zone is less than that of the adherens zone, and many of the tonofilaments are associated with spot desmosomes. The apical zone contains a loose meshwork of 5 to 7 nm filaments with more filaments lying adjacent to plasmalemmae of the zonula occludens. The core of each microvillus contains a bundle of 17 to 48 microfilaments, 5-7 nm in diameter, apparently attached to the apical plasmalemma and with some slender cross filaments between core filaments and the plasmalemma. In the main, these core bundles of microfilaments pass deeply into and often through the adherens zone of the terminal web where they terminate abruptly. Filaments of the terminal web appear to interconnect microfilaments of adjacent core bundles but without positive evidence of 'splaying' of microfilaments of a core bundle within the adherens zone. These findings are discussed in relation to movement of microvilli. PMID:6890056

  7. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-12-16

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  8. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  9. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P Anitha

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa. PMID:23422613

  10. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jung Suk Lee, Hae Giu Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

  11. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds. PMID:488012

  12. [Importance of the morphofunctional status of APUD cells in the prognosis of duodenal ulcer hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Seidov, V D; Alekberzade, A V

    2000-01-01

    In 24 patients with uncomplicated duodenal ulcer and 40 patients with acute bleeding duodenal ulcer morphofunctional status of the local paraendocrine adjusting system of the duodenal mucous membrane in the periulcer, ulcer and remote zones was studied with histochemical and electron-microscopic techniques. It is established, that ECL- and G-apudocytes hyperplasia and hyperfunction and vice versa D-cells reduction of the number and suppression of the secretory activity are reliable prognostic criteria of duodenal ulcer bleeding. PMID:11026195

  13. Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective effects of proglumide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, M.; Parmar, N.S.; Ageel, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Proglumide has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect the gastroduodenal mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, cysteamine and the cytodestructing agents: 80% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and 30 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in 0.35 M HCl in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that proglumide has both prophylactic and curative effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rats and reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, mucosal damaging agents and that of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The intensity of gastric lesions induced by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and reserpine was also reduced significantly by proglumide. Cimetidine, which was used as a standard antiulcer drug for comparison, also produced a similar protective effect in most of the models used by us. It was found to have a more potent antisecretory effect but failed to protect the rats against the gastric mucosal damage induced by hyperthermic restraint stress and 0.2 M NaOH. Our findings suggest that proglumide exerts these antiulcer effects by its antisecretory, gastric mucosal resistance increasing and cytoprotective activities. Further studies are required to find out its exact mechanism of action and therapeutic usefulness.

  14. Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jalouli, Miranda-Masoumeh; Jalouli, Jamshid; Hasséus, Bengt; Öhman, Jenny; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. Results HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected. Key words:HSV-1, nested PCR, PCR. PMID:26449432

  15. Isolated duodenal varices as the initial presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Okoli, Amara; Raymond, Pascale; Ammannagari, Nischala; Merrell, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal varices are an uncommon, life-threatening cause of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding commonly caused by portal hypertension. Though generally regarded as a complication of advanced cirrhosis and portal hypertension, often overlooked is that in about 2.7% of cases, it can be the first presenting symptom of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report a case of an isolated, duodenal variceal bleeding as the first clinical manifestation of HCC, complicated by portal venous thrombosis. Diagnosis of HCC was established by a markedly elevated ?-fetoprotein, hepatitis B surface and core antibody positivity and consistent radiological findings. Although not the first choice, variceal bleeding was successfully arrested with endoclips. The patient thereafter declined further evaluation and unsurprisingly died within a few weeks from a massive GI bleed. An initial bleed from a duodenal varix often confers a poor prognosis. Patients with HCC who present with variceal bleeding reportedly have a median survival of 71?days. PMID:24347452

  16. A Rare Cause of Acute Pancreatitis: Intramural Duodenal Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Hemant; Singla, Umesh; Agrawal, Roli R.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an interesting case of intramural duodenal hematoma in an otherwise healthy male who presented to emergency room with gradually progressive abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. This condition was missed on initial evaluation and patient was discharged from emergency room with diagnosis of acute gastritis. After 3 days, patient came back to emergency room and abdominal imaging studies were conducted which showed that patient had intramural duodenal hematoma associated with gastric outlet obstruction and pancreatitis. Hematoma was the cause of acute pancreatitis as pancreatic enzymes levels were normal at the time of first presentation, but later as the hematoma grew in size, it caused compression of pancreas and subsequent elevation of pancreatic enzymes. We experienced a case of pancreatitis which was caused by intramural duodenal hematoma. This case was missed on initial evaluation. We suggest that physicians should be more vigilant about this condition. PMID:23091743

  17. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence, a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities. PMID:25170399

  18. [Radiologic aspects of the complications of duodenal diverticula].

    PubMed

    Oddo, F; Chevallier, P; Souci, J; Baque, J; Buckley, M J; Fabiani, P; Diaine, B; Coussement, A

    1999-02-01

    The duodenum is the second most common site, after the colon, for intestinal diverticulae. This condition is most often asymptomatic and is usually an accidental finding. Complications, with variable clinical presentations, may occur in up to 5% of such individuals. We report a retrospective analysis of 5 patients who presented with complicated duodenal diverticular disease. The complications, either isolated or multiple, consisted of bezoar formation (n = 2), diverticulitis (n = 2), extrinsic compression of the common bile duct (n = 3), perforation (n = 1), choledocholithiasis (n = 1), and an abnormality of the bilio-pancreatic ductal convergence (n = 1). The radiological aspects, in particular, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features are reviewed. These are, to our knowledge, the first descriptions of MRI and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatographic (MRCP) findings in complicated duodenal diverticular disease. MRI facilitates precise delineation of the complicated duodenal diverticulum while MRCP allows assessment of the effects on the biliary and pancreatic ducts. PMID:10209709

  19. Evaluation of Microbial Load in Oropharyngeal Mucosa from Tannery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Arévalo, Diana C.; Castellanos-Arévalo, Andrea P.; Camarena-Pozos, David A.; Colli-Mull, Juan G.; Maldonado-Vega, María

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal skin provides an ideal medium for the propagation of microorganisms and it is used like raw material in the tannery and footware industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the microbial load in oropharyngeal mucosa of tannery employees. Methods The health risk was estimated based on the identification of microorganisms found in the oropharyngeal mucosa samples. The study was conducted in a tanners group and a control group. Samples were taken from oropharyngeal mucosa and inoculated on plates with selective medium. In the samples, bacteria were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and the yeasts through a presumptive method. In addition, the sensitivity of these microorganisms to antibiotics/antifungals was evaluated. Results The identified bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, of which some species are considered as pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms; these bacteria were not present in the control group. Forty-two percent of bacteria identified in the tanners group are correlated with respiratory diseases. Yeasts were also identified, including the following species: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Candida krusei. Regarding the sensitivity test of bacteria identified in the tanners group, 90% showed sensitivity to piperacillin/tazobactam, 87% showed sensitivity to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 74% showed sensitivity to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 58% showed sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion Several of the bacteria and yeast identified in the oropharyngeal mucosa of tanners have been correlated with infections in humans and have already been reported as airborne microorganisms in this working environment, representing a health risk for workers. PMID:25830072

  20. Duodenal bacterial overgrowth during treatment in outpatients with omeprazole.

    PubMed Central

    Fried, M; Siegrist, H; Frei, R; Froehlich, F; Duroux, P; Thorens, J; Blum, A; Bille, J; Gonvers, J J; Gyr, K

    1994-01-01

    The extent of duodenal bacterial overgrowth during the pronounced inhibition of acid secretion that occurs with omeprazole treatment is unknown. The bacterial content of duodenal juice of patients treated with omeprazole was therefore examined in a controlled prospective study. Duodenal juice was obtained under sterile conditions during diagnostic upper endoscopy. Aspirates were plated quantitatively for anaerobic and aerobic organisms. Twenty five outpatients with peptic ulcer disease were investigated after a 5.7 (0.5) weeks (mean (SEM)) treatment course with 20 mg (nine patients) or 40 mg (16 patients). The control group consisted of 15 outpatients referred for diagnostic endoscopy without prior antisecretory treatment. No patient in the control group had duodenal bacterial overgrowth. In the omeprazole group bacterial overgrowth (> or = 10(5) cfu/ml) was found in 14 (56%) patients (p = 0.0003). The number of bacteria (log10) in duodenal juice in patients treated with omeprazole was distinctly higher (median 5.7; range < 2-8.7) when compared with the control group (median < 2; range < 2-5.0; p = 0.0004). As well as orally derived bacteria, faecal type bacteria were found in seven of 14 and anaerobic bacteria in three of 14 patients. Bacterial overgrowth was similar with the two doses of omeprazole. These results indicate that duodenal bacterial overgrowth of both oral and faecal type bacteria occurs often in ambulatory patients treated with omeprazole. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings, particularly in high risk groups during long term treatment with omeprazole. PMID:8307444

  1. One week's anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment for duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Logan, R P; Gummett, P A; Misiewicz, J J; Karim, Q N; Walker, M M; Baron, J H

    1994-01-01

    This open study tested whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) heals duodenal ulcers as well as decreasing recurrence. H pylori was detected in patients with endoscopic duodenal ulcers by histology, CLO-test, culture, and 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT). Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (120 mg) and amoxycillin (500 mg) each four times daily, were given for seven days, with 400 mg metronidazole five times a day on days 5-7. The 13C-UBT was repeated immediately after treatment and endoscopy repeated within 21 days. After treatment unhealed ulcers were reinspected one month later and healed ulcers followed up by 13C-UBT alone for 12 months. Of 45 patients, 44 were available for follow up. Mean pretreatment excess delta 13CO2 excretion was 25.6 per mil, which fell to 2.4 per mil immediately after finishing treatment, indicating clearance of H pylori in every patient. At the second endoscopy (median interval 20 days from start of treatment) 33 of 44 (75%) duodenal ulcers had healed. Ten of the remaining 11 duodenal ulcers were smaller and those 10 healed in the next two weeks with no further treatment. Two patients' ulcers that initially healed with clearance of H pylori recurred three weeks later (both had metronidazole resistant H pylori). H pylori was eradicated in 28 of 44 (64%) patients (13C-UBT negative for median follow up 10.2 months). Overall 41 of 43 (93%, 95% confidence intervals 81%-99%) duodenal ulcers were healed at one month. This study suggests that one week of anti-H pylori triple treatment is effective in healing duodenal ulcers. PMID:8307442

  2. A Lethal Complication of Endoscopic Therapy: Duodenal Intramural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Calhan, Turan; Kahraman, Resul; Soyda?, Bar??; Tosun, Ali; Cebeci, Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal intramural hematoma (DIH) usually occurs in childhood and young adults following blunt abdominal trauma. It may also develop in the presence of coagulation disorders and may rarely be an iatrogenic outcome of endoscopic procedures. Management of DIH is usually a conservative approach. A case of intramural duodenal hematoma that developed following endoscopic epinephrine sclerotherapy and/or argon plasma coagulation and that was nonresponsive to conservative therapy in a patient with chronic renal failure who died from sepsis is being discussed in this report. Clinicians should be aware of such possible complications after endoscopic hemostasis in patients with coagulation disorders. PMID:26697240

  3. MRI Findings of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Duodenal Abnormalities and Variations.

    PubMed

    Dusunceli Atman, Ebru; Erden, Ayse; Ustuner, Evren; Uzun, Caglar; Bektas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and presentation patterns of anatomical variations and various benign and malignant pathologies of the duodenum, including sphincter contraction, major papilla variation, prominent papilla, diverticulum, annular pancreas, duplication cysts, choledochocele, duodenal wall thickening secondary to acute pancreatitis, postbulbar stenosis, celiac disease, fistula, choledochoduodenostomy, external compression, polyps, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ampullary carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. MRI is a useful imaging tool for demonstrating duodenal pathology and its anatomic relationships with adjacent organs, which is critical for establishing correct diagnosis and planning appropriate treatment, especially for surgery. PMID:26576112

  4. Isolated perforation of a duodenal diverticulum following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Matthew J; Rashid, Tanwir G; Bird, Richard le R

    2010-01-01

    Only 10% of duodenal diverticula are symptomatic. We present the case of a man who fell from a height of 6 ft, landing on his abdomen and presenting 4 h later with severe back pain and a rigid abdomen. At laparotomy, a perforated retroperitoneal duodenal diverticulum was found and repaired with an omental patch. No other injury was noted. Not only is this perforation unusual, but the absence of other injuries sustained during this minor blunt trauma makes this case unique. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion when managing patients with back or abdominal pain following minor trauma. PMID:20165728

  5. Successful Treatment of Bleeding Duodenal Varix by Percutaneous Transsplenic Embolization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Hun; Park, Ji Won; Jeon, Eui Yong; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Kwon, Young Seok; Park, Seung Ah; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-11-25

    Variceal bleeding occurs primarily in the esophagus or stomach in patients with liver cirrhosis, but can also occur rarely in the duodenum. Duodenal variceal bleeding has a high mortality and poor prognosis due to heavy blood flow originating from the portal vein (PV) and the technical difficulty of hemostatic procedures. Treatments including endoscopic sclerotherapy, endoscopic ligations, endoscopic clipping and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt have been tried, with only moderate and variable success. A percutaneous transsplenic approach offers another way of accessing the PV. Here we report a case of successfully treated duodenal variceal bleeding by percutaneous transsplenic embolization. PMID:26586353

  6. MRI Findings of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Duodenal Abnormalities and Variations

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Ayse; Ustuner, Evren; Uzun, Caglar; Bektas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and presentation patterns of anatomical variations and various benign and malignant pathologies of the duodenum, including sphincter contraction, major papilla variation, prominent papilla, diverticulum, annular pancreas, duplication cysts, choledochocele, duodenal wall thickening secondary to acute pancreatitis, postbulbar stenosis, celiac disease, fistula, choledochoduodenostomy, external compression, polyps, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ampullary carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. MRI is a useful imaging tool for demonstrating duodenal pathology and its anatomic relationships with adjacent organs, which is critical for establishing correct diagnosis and planning appropriate treatment, especially for surgery. PMID:26576112

  7. Ultrastructure of the rat duodenal endocrine cells after prolonged irradiation.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, E A; Kvetnoi, I M; Trofimov, A V; Tokarev, O Y; Yakovleva, N D

    2001-12-01

    We propose classification of duodenal endocrine cells of intact rats based on ultrastructural signs of secretory granules and subdivided these cells into 10 basic types. The effect of long-term irradiation in a total dose of 2.5 Gy on ultrastructural organization of duodenal apudocytes was studied. Irradiation induced nonspecific changes of cell organelles in apudocytes. Differences in the ultrastructural disorganization were detected between different types of apudocyte populations and between different types of endocrine cells. Under conditions of adaptation to radiation apudocytes released the secretory product not only through molecular extrusion and exocytosis, but also via degranulation. PMID:12152887

  8. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an ?-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with ?-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  9. [Substances harmful for the gastric mucosa].

    PubMed

    Ponce, J; Bixquert, M; Hinojosa, J; Garrigues, V

    1991-10-01

    Gastroduodenal mucosa has a self-defense capacity against a wide range of potentially harmful exogenous and endogenous agents. It has been proven that certain diet compounds damage gastric mucosa, which explains--at lest partially--the regional variations in the incidence of peptic ulcer. Ethanol blocks the defense mechanisms of gastric mucosa and induces the onset of acute lesions, but there is no definite proof to show that ethanol ingestion helps produce the onset of peptic ulcer. It has been confirmed that tobacco negatively affects the healing and relapse of ulcers. From an epidemiological point of view, the controversy of the relationship between tobacco abuse and peptic ulcer genesis is still ongoing. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory non-acid soluble produces lesions acute and chronic) in gastroduodenal mucosa. They can reactivate old lesions and increased the risk of complications. Aspirin is the most harmful compound in this pharmacologic group. Paracetamol is the compound which has the safest spectrum. The harmfulness of steroids is still being discussed, however, it is accepted that they have a rapid effect on gastric mucosa in relation to dosage and duration of treatment. PMID:1751693

  10. A duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor with a large central area of fluid and gas due to fistulization into the duodenal lumen, mimicking a large duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Amin, Hoda Mahmoud; Al-Shazli, Mostafa; Nabil, Ahmed; Hussein, Hossam; Ezzat, Reem

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract especially the stomach and upper small bowel. They are usually solid, but cystic degeneration, necrosis, and focal hemorrhage have been described in larger tumors leading to central necrotic cavitation. The most sensitive marker of GIST is CD117 (c-kit). In computed tomography (CT) scan, it is often difficult to decide the origin of the primary tumor, especially in large GISTs. We report an incidental case of a large duodenal GIST fistulizing into the second part of the duodenum with a large amount of fluid and gas inside, mistaken for a cystic pancreatic neoplasm by CT and mistaken for a duodenal diverticulum by endoscopic ultrasound. PMID:26374586

  11. A duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor with a large central area of fluid and gas due to fistulization into the duodenal lumen, mimicking a large duodenal diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Amin, Hoda Mahmoud; Al-Shazli, Mostafa; Nabil, Ahmed; Hussein, Hossam; Ezzat, Reem

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract especially the stomach and upper small bowel. They are usually solid, but cystic degeneration, necrosis, and focal hemorrhage have been described in larger tumors leading to central necrotic cavitation. The most sensitive marker of GIST is CD117 (c-kit). In computed tomography (CT) scan, it is often difficult to decide the origin of the primary tumor, especially in large GISTs. We report an incidental case of a large duodenal GIST fistulizing into the second part of the duodenum with a large amount of fluid and gas inside, mistaken for a cystic pancreatic neoplasm by CT and mistaken for a duodenal diverticulum by endoscopic ultrasound. PMID:26374586

  12. DUODENAL CYTOCHROME B: A NOVEL FERRIREDUCTASE IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytically active iron in the lung causes oxidative stress and promotes microbial growth that can be limited by intracellular sequestration of iron within ferritin. Because cellular iron uptake requires membrane ferrireductase activity that in the gut can be provided by duoden...

  13. Quadruple therapy for symptomatic spontaneous duodenal ulcer disease

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, M

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To investigate Helicobacter pylori eradication in duodenal ulcer patients with a new regimen, lansoprazole 30 mg daily for one or four weeks plus twice daily tetracycline 500 mg, clarithromycin 250 mg, and metronidazole 400 mg.?BACKGROUND—Spontaneous duodenal ulcer is regularly associated with H pylori, and permanent cure follows eradication of this bacterium. Numerous treatments have been proposed and none is ideal, possibly because of primary or acquired antibiotic resistance. Quadruple regimens with proton pump inhibitor therapy and three antibiotics offer promise as the most effective therapy.?METHODS—From November 1995 all patients with spontaneous duodenal ulcer were offered quadruple therapy. A month after completion a carbon 14 urea breath test (UBT) was performed. Sensitivity of H pylori to the antibiotics used was tested in 1992-3, 1996, and 1999.?RESULTS—A total of 331 patients were treated; 313 attended for a UBT, of which 299 were negative (95.5%). Of those patients who had an endoscopy with positive urease test immediately before treatment, 95/101 (94.0%) on lansoprazole for one week and 116/121 (95.8%) on lansoprazole for four weeks had a negative UBT. H pylori antibiotic sensitivity did not change.?CONCLUSION—This regimen produced some of the best results yet seen and may be generally recommended as first line therapy.???Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; duodenal ulcer PMID:11423595

  14. Delayed perforation of a duodenal diverticulum by a biliary endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Elder, J; Stevenson, G

    1993-02-01

    A 73-year-old woman with cholangitis due to stricture of the bile duct and the presence of stones was treated by the placement of a biliary endoprosthesis. However, 8 weeks later the lower end of the stent had retracted into a duodenal diverticulum and penetrated its inferior wall. The patient was readmitted to hospital for treatment of a retroperitoneal abscess. PMID:8425156

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Arichika; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Mizutani, Satoshi; Ishii, Hideaki; Watanabe, Masanori; Bou, Hideki; Yoshino, Masanori; Komine, Osamu; Uchida, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of adenocarcinoma of the minor papilla of the duodenum treated with transduodenal minor papillectomy. A 64-year-old woman was treated for an asymptomatic duodenal tumor detected on gastroduodenoscopy. Endoscopy showed a 15-mm sessile mass in the descending duodenum proximal to the major papilla. The major papilla was a villous 24-mm-diameter polypoid tumor. Histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen showed tubular adenoma with moderate epithelial atypia. Transduodenal major and minor papillectomies were performed. The orifice of the duct of Santorini and the pancreatic duct were re-approximated to the duodenal wall to prevent acute pancreatitis caused by scarring and stenosis of the duct orifice. Histological findings were consistent with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma limited to the minor duodenal papilla, without infiltration of the duodenal wall submucosa, and confirmed complete resection. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and has remained asymptomatic, without evidence of tumor recurrence or stenosis of the pancreatic duct orifice, for 4 years. PMID:23657071

  16. Duodenal Toxicity After Fractionated Chemoradiation for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Beddar, Sam; Briere, Tina; Pham, Mary; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Improving local control is critical to improving survival and quality of life for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, previous attempts at radiation dose escalation have been limited by duodenal toxicity. In order to guide future studies, we analyzed the clinical and dosimetric factors associated with duodenal toxicity in patients undergoing fractionated chemoradiation for LAPC. Methods and Materials: Medical records and treatment plans of 106 patients with LAPC who were treated with chemoradiation between July 2005 and June 2010 at our institution were reviewed. All patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy. Seventy-eight patients were treated with conventional radiation to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions; 28 patients received dose-escalated radiation therapy (range, 57.5-75.4 Gy in 28-39 fractions). Treatment-related toxicity was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess prognostic influence of clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results: Twenty patients had treatment-related duodenal toxicity events, such as duodenal inflammation, ulceration, and bleeding. Four patients had grade 1 events, 8 had grade 2, 6 had grade 3, 1 had grade 4, and 1 had grade 5. On univariate analysis, a toxicity grade ?2 was associated with tumor location, low platelet count, an absolute volume (cm{sup 3}) receiving a dose of at least 55 Gy (V{sub 55} {sub Gy} > 1 cm{sup 3}), and a maximum point dose >60 Gy. Of these factors, only V{sub 55} {sub Gy} ?1 cm{sup 3} was associated with duodenal toxicity on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 6.7; range, 2.0-18.8; P=.002). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a duodenal V{sub 55} {sub Gy} >1 cm{sup 3} is an important dosimetric predictor of grade 2 or greater duodenal toxicity and establishes it as a dosimetric constraint when treating patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer with concurrent chemoradiation.

  17. A study of the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori negative chronic duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    McColl, K E; el-Nujumi, A M; Chittajallu, R S; Dahill, S W; Dorrian, C A; el-Omar, E; Penman, I; Fitzsimons, E J; Drain, J; Graham, H

    1993-01-01

    In the past five years 12 patients have been identified presenting with chronic duodenal ulcer (DU) disease and with no evidence of current or recent Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. Four of them were taking regular non-steroidal anti inflammatory agents, one was subsequently found to have Crohn's disease of the duodenum, and one to have the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The remaining six patients with idiopathic DU disease were remarkable for their absence of the A1 blood antigen gene. Detailed studies of gastric function were performed in these six patients and compared with H pylori positive patients with DU and with healthy volunteers. The median integrated gastrin response in the patients with idiopathic DU (2810 (range 750-8750) ng/l min) was similar to that of the H pylori positive patients with DU (3355 (550-8725)) and higher than that of the H pylori negative healthy volunteers (560 (225-1125)). The median peak acid output in the patients with idiopathic DU (37 mmol/h, range 17-52) was similar to that of the H pylori positive patients with DU (40 (15-57)) and higher than that of the non-ulcer controls (22 (16-29)). The median percentage of a liquid meal retained in the stomach at 60 minutes was less in the patients with idiopathic DU (23 (15-33)) than in H pylori negative healthy volunteers (34 (30-53) p < 0.01). The median percentage of a solid meal retained at 60 minutes was less in the patients with idiopathic DU (54 (9-83)) than in either H pylori negative healthy volunteers (87 (49-95) p<0.01) or H pylori positive patients with DU (79 (51-100) p<0.01). In conclusion, three abnormalities of gastric function are prevalent in patients with H pylori negative idiopathic DU disease - hypergastrinaemia, increased acid secretion, and the one feature distinguishing them from H pylori positive patients with DU - rapid gastric emptying of both liquids and solids. Each of these abnormalities will increase the exposure of the duodenal mucosa to acid and thus explain its ulceration. The absence of the blood group A1 antigen gene is consistent with a genetic basis for the disturbed gastric function linked to the ABO blood group antigen genes. PMID:8314508

  18. Endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection in the treatment of sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenomatous polyps

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Joana; Baldaque-Silva, Francisco; Pereira, Pedro; Arnelo, Urban; Yahagi, Naohisa; Macedo, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Although uncommon, sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenomas have a growing detection due to the widespread of endoscopy. Endoscopic therapy is being increasingly used for these lesions, since surgery, considered the standard treatment, carries significant morbidity and mortality. However, the knowledge about its risks and benefits is limited, which contributes to the current absence of standardized recommendations. This review aims to discuss the efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the treatment of these lesions. A literature review was performed, using the Pubmed database with the query: “(duodenum or duodenal) (endoscopy or endoscopic) adenoma resection”, in the human species and in English. Of the 189 retrieved articles, and after reading their abstracts, 19 were selected due to their scientific interest. The analysis of their references, led to the inclusion of 23 more articles for their relevance in this subject. The increased use of EMR in the duodenum has shown good results with complete resection rates exceeding 80% and low complication risk (delayed bleeding in less than 12% of the procedures). Although rarely used in the duodenum, ESD achieves close to 100% complete resection rates, but is associated with perforation and bleeding risk in up to one third of the cases. Even though literature is insufficient to draw definitive conclusions, studies suggest that EMR and ESD are valid options for the treatment of nonampullary adenomas. Thus, strategies to improve these techniques, and consequently increase the effectiveness and safety of the resection of these lesions, should be developed. PMID:26140099

  19. Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: The mechanisms and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    This review updates the current views on aging gastric mucosa and the mechanisms of its increased susceptibility to injury. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that gastric mucosa of aging individuals-“aging gastropathy”-has prominent structural and functional abnormalities vs young gastric mucosa. Some of these abnormalities include a partial atrophy of gastric glands, impaired mucosal defense (reduced bicarbonate and prostaglandin generation, decreased sensory innervation), increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), impaired healing of injury and reduced therapeutic efficacy of ulcer-healing drugs. Detailed analysis of the above changes indicates that the following events occur in aging gastric mucosa: reduced mucosal blood flow and impaired oxygen delivery cause hypoxia, which leads to activation of the early growth response-1 (egr-1) transcription factor. Activation of egr-1, in turn, upregulates the dual specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) resulting in activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 and reduced expression of the anti-apoptosis protein, survivin. The imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptosis mediators results in increased apoptosis and increased susceptibility to injury. This paradigm has human relevance since increased expression of PTEN and reduced expression of survivin were demonstrated in gastric mucosa of aging individuals. Other potential mechanisms operating in aging gastric mucosa include reduced telomerase activity, increase in replicative cellular senescence, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and importin-?-a nuclear transport protein essential for transport of transcription factors to nucleus. Aging gastropathy is an important and clinically relevant issue because of: (1) an aging world population due to prolonged life span; (2) older patients have much greater risk of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastrointestinal complications (e.g., NSAIDs-induced gastric injury) than younger patients; and (3) increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury can be potentially reduced or reversed pharmacologically. PMID:24782600

  20. Selective culturing of swine gastrointestinal bacteria on substrates simulating the intestinal mucosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many gastrointestinal (GI) microbes are in intimate contact with the host tissues, and characterizing these tissue-associated communities is important for elucidating their role in animal and human health. The GI mucosa is an environment distinct from the intestinal lumen and is covered by a mucus l...

  1. Adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla and its precursor lesions: a clinical and pathologic study.

    PubMed

    Shia, Jinru; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Olgac, Semra; Cobanov, Brando; Adsay, Volkan; Klimstra, David S

    2014-04-01

    The minor duodenal papilla drains the accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini and lies proximal to the ampulla of Vater. Adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions arising in the minor papilla are rare. Literature data thus far are limited to a few individual case reports, and the condition is consequently poorly defined. Our study cases were composed of carcinomas fulfilling all of the following criteria: location at 1.5 to 2.5 cm proximal to the major papilla; presence of associated submucosal pancreatobiliary-type ducts with periductal glands or acinar tissue; a predominant submucosal location of the tumor; and lack of an intestinal-type adenoma in the adjacent duodenal mucosa. Tumors were studied morphologically, immunohistochemically, and clinically. Nine cases fulfilling the inclusion criteria were identified. There were 5 men and 4 women with an age range of 50 to 76 years (median, 72 y). The tumor size ranged from 1.2 to 4.4 cm (median, 3 cm). The carcinomas were of colloid type (3 tumors), pancreatobiliary type (4), or nonmucinous intestinal type (2). Five cases were associated with an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)-like precursor lesion within the residual structures of the minor papilla in the duodenal submucosa. Immunohistochemically, the intestinal-type and mucinous-type tumors tended to be positive for CK20, CDX2, MUC2, and B72.3, and pancreatobiliary-type tumors tended to be positive for CK7, MUC1, B72.3, and CA125. Loss of DPC4 (Smad4) expression was found in the pancreatobiliary-type carcinomas only. Two tumors showed loss of DNA mismatch-repair protein expression, one losing MLH1 and PMS2 and the other losing MSH6. Both patients were older than 60 years, and neither had germline mutation testing. Follow-up information was available for 6 patients (median follow-up time, 67.5 mo): 3 of the 6 patients died of disease at 60, 75, and 85 months after surgery, respectively, and all 3 patients had an intestinal-type carcinoma (1 colloid and 2 nonmucinous). The patient whose tumor was MSH6 deficient was alive without evidence of disease 51 months after surgery. In conclusion, adenocarcinomas of the minor papilla are rare tumors occurring predominantly in the sixth to seventh decade. Some of them arise from IPMN-like precursors in the residual submucosal minor papilla tissue. Morphologically, immunohistochemically, and clinically they are similar to ampullary or IPMN-associated pancreatic carcinomas and can exhibit either an intestinal, colloid, or pancreaticobiliary phenotype. DNA mismatch-repair deficiency may occur. A careful gross and histologic examination is essential to accurately recognize the site of origin of minor papilla carcinomas. PMID:24625417

  2. [New methods of vagotomy in the treatment of duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Za?tsev, V T; Lagoda, A E; Dudenko, G I; Molotiagin, G E; Lagoda, O G; Bo?ko, V V

    1993-01-01

    The experience to use in the treatment of duodenal ulcer disease the new methods of vagotomy: selective distal antral cellular vagotomy (SDAV) and selective distal vagotomy with pyloroplasty (SDV) is substantiated. By means of these operations, the suppression of phase II of gastric secretion is achieved due to denervation of gastrin-producing antral portion of the stomach. The results of experimental studies in 15 dogs, and the results of treatment of 37 patients with duodenal ulcer disease caused by the increased production at phase II of alimentation are presented. SDAV was performed in 20 patients, SDV--in 17. A result of treatment was studied in 34 patients at the period of up to 3 years. A pronounced acid inhibiting effect of the new methods of vagotomy was noted. No ulcer recurrence was revealed. PMID:8158916

  3. Psychological correlates of gastric and duodenal ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Tennant, C; Goulston, K; Langeluddecke, P

    1986-05-01

    Psychological correlates of gastric and duodenal ulcer disease were assessed in a group of somewhat older patients with ulcer disease identified by endoscopy. Associations between both ulcer types and symptom measures (anxiety and depression) seemed only to reflect severity or chronicity of gastrointestinal symptoms or the impending endoscopy procedure. Associations with 'trait' psychological indices may be of causal significance. Duodenal ulcer patients had higher 'introversion' and 'psychoticism' scores (on the EPQ) than controls, while gastric ulcer patients had higher psychoticism scores and 'trait anxiety' scores. These findings could not be attributed to confounding variables. When the two ulcer groups were compared, the gastric ulcer group had significantly higher neuroticism, psychoticism and hostility scores which were not attributable to confounding variables. The higher depression scores in gastric ulcer patients, however, simply reflected the greater chronicity of their physical symptoms. The groups did not differ significantly on measures of trait anxiety, tension, introversion or Type A behaviour. PMID:3726009

  4. Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum with malposition of the ampulla of Vater.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, D; Shirai, Y; Tsukada, K; Hatakeyama, K

    1997-01-01

    Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum is a rare congenital anomaly, sometimes associated with malposition of the ampulla of Vater. When the diverticulum is excised, the position of the ampulla should be determined carefully to avoid injury to pancreaticobiliary ducts. We report two patients with symptomatic intraluminal duodenal diverticulum and malposition of the ampulla. The ampulla was located on the rim of the diverticulum in one patient; in the others, the ampullary site was the posterior wall of the duodenum. Both patients underwent successful excision of the diverticulum without ductal injuries. As we have been unable to find any case with an ampullary location on the anterior wall of the duodenum, anterior duodenotomy followed by identification of the ampulla must precede excision of the diverticulum in order to avoid pancreaticobiliary ductal injuries. PMID:9222678

  5. Perforated duodenal diverticulae: importance for the surgeon and gastroenterologist.

    PubMed

    Haboubi, Danya; Thapar, Ankur; Bhan, Chetan; Oshowo, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 78-year-old woman who was admitted for an elective left hemicolectomy for diverticular disease. Two days following the elective procedure, bilious fluid was noted in her pelvic drain. The patient returned to theatre, where a perforated duodenal diverticulum was excised and the defect primarily repaired. The patient then developed a low output enterocutaneous fistula which was treated conservatively with nasojejunal feeding and resolved spontaneously. PMID:25270157

  6. Duodenal phytobezoar: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Arda, K; Yilmaz, S; Calikoglu, U; Olçer, T

    1995-01-01

    Phytobezoars are an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction. We report a case of small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar in a 63 year-old female patient who had undergone gastric surgery (truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty) for duodenal ulcer disease complicated by gastric outlet obstruction 10 years ago. We diagnosed this bezoar case by radiologic methods and these methods keep their importance for the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction with phytobezoars. PMID:8776004

  7. The Modified Kimura's Technique for the Treatment of Duodenal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Zuccarello, Biagio; Spada, Antonella; Centorrino, Antonio; Turiaco, Nunzio; Chirico, Maria Rosaria; Parisi, Saveria

    2009-01-01

    Background/Purpose. Kimura's diamond-shaped-duodenoduodenostomy (DSD) is a known technique for the correction of congenital intrinsic duodenal obstruction. We present a modification of the technique and review the advantages of this new technique. Methods. From 1992 to 2006, 14 newborns were treated for duodenal atresia. We inverted the direction of the duodenal incisions: a longitudinal incision was made in the proximal duodenum while the distal was opened by transverse incision. Results. Our “inverted-diamond-shaped-duodenoduodenostomy” (i-DSD) allowed postoperative oral feeding to start on days 2 to 3, peripheral intravenous fluids discontinuity on days 3 to 8 (median values 3.6); time to achieve full oral feeds on days 8 to 12 (median values 9.4); the length of hospitalisation ranged from 10 and 14 days (median value 11.2). No complications related to the anastomosis, by Viz leakage, dehiscence, biliary stasis, or stenosis were observed. Conclusions. The i-DSD provides a safe procedure to protect the ampulla of Vater from injury and avoids any formation of a blind loop. The results show that patients who have i-DSD achieve full oral feeds in a very short time period and, consequently, the length of hospitalisation is also significantly reduced. PMID:19946416

  8. Endoscopic duodenal perforation: surgical strategies in a regional centre

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Duodenal perforation is an uncommon complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) and a rare complication of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Most are minor perforations that settle with conservative management. A few perforations however result in life-threatening retroperitoneal necrosis and require surgical intervention. There is a relative paucity of references specifically describing the surgical interventions required for this eventuality. Methods Five cases of iatrogenic duodenal perforation were ascertained between 2002 and 2007 at Cairns Base Hospital. Clinical features were analyzed and compared, with reference to a review of ERCP at that institution for the years 2005/2006. Results One patient recovered with conservative management. Of the other four, one died after initial laparotomy. The other three survived, undergoing multiple procedures and long inpatient stays. Conclusions Iatrogenic duodenal perforation with retroperitoneal necrosis is an uncommon complication of endoscopy, but when it does occur it is potentially life-threatening. Early recognition may lead to a better outcome through earlier intervention, although a protracted course with multiple procedures should be anticipated. A number of surgical techniques may need to be employed according to the individual circumstances of the case. PMID:24461069

  9. Perforated duodenal diverticulum: Surgical treatment and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Costa Simões, Vitor; Santos, Bruno; Magalhães, Sara; Faria, Gil; Sousa Silva, Donzília; Davide, José

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Duodenum is the second most frequent location for a diverticulum in the digestive tract. Complications are rare and perforation was only reported in less than 200 cases. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 79-year-old female was admitted to Emergency Department with abdominal pain and vomiting for the last 24 h. A CT scan was performed and moderated extra-luminal air was identified. During surgery a fourth portion perforated duodenal diverticulum was diagnosed and duodenal resection was performed. DISCUSSION First reported in 1710, the incidence of duodenal diverticula can be as high as 22%. Nevertheless complications are extremely rare and include haemorrhage, inflammation, compression of surrounding organs, neoplastic progression, cholestasis and perforation. As perforations are often retroperitoneal, symptoms are nonspecific and rarely include peritoneal irritation, making clinical diagnose a challenge. CT scan will usually present extra-luminal retroperitoneal air and mesenteric fat stranding, providing clues for the diagnosis. Although non-operative treatment has been reported in selected patients, standard treatment is surgery and alternatives are diverse including diverticulectomy or duodenopancreatectomy. CONCLUSION Perforated diverticula of the fourth portion of the duodenum are extremely rare and current evidence still supports surgery as the primary treatment modality. PMID:25016082

  10. Perforated duodenal ulcer: An unusual manifestation of allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Riggle, Kevin M; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Williams, Elizabeth M; Riehle, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of a duodenal ulcer secondary to allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) has not been previously reported. We present such a case in a teenager who presented with peritonitis. After exploration and operative repair of his ulcer, he continued to experience intermittent abdominal pain, and further evaluation revealed eosinophilic gastroenteritis in the setting of multiple food allergies. His EGE resolved after adhering to a restrictive diet. Both duodenal ulcers and EGE are very rarely seen in pediatric patients. EGE has a variable presentation depending on the layer(s) of bowel wall affected and the segment of the gastrointestinal tract that is involved. Once diagnosed, it may respond to dietary changes in patients with recognized food allergies, or to steroids in patients in whom an underlying cause is not identified. Our case highlights the need to keep EGE in the differential diagnosis when treating pediatric patients with duodenal ulcers. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of EGE are also discussed, along with a review of the current literature. PMID:26640348

  11. Groove pancreatitis and pancreatic heterotopia in the minor duodenal papilla.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Denis; Vibert, Eric; Yzet, Thierry; Geslin, Guillaume; Bartoli, Eric; Manaouil, David; Delcenserie, Richard; Brevet, Marie; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2005-05-01

    Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of segmental chronic pancreatitis that involves the anatomic space between the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, and the common bile duct. We report 2 cases of groove pancreatitis with pancreatic heterotopia in the minor papilla. Patients were a 44-year-old woman and a 47-year-old man. Both had a past history of alcohol consumption and presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and weight loss caused by duodenal stenosis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed thickening of the duodenal wall and enlargement of the pancreatic head in both patients. In 1 patient, ultrasound endoscopy showed a dilated duct in the head of the pancreas. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed to rule out pancreatic adenocarcinoma and because of the severity of the symptoms. In both cases, gross and microscopic examinations showed fibrous scar of the groove area. The Santorini duct was dilated and contained protein plugs in both patients, with abscesses in 1 of them. In both cases, there were microscopic foci of heterotopic pancreas with mild fibrosis in the wall of the minor papilla. Groove pancreatitis is often diagnosed in middle-aged alcoholic men presenting with clinical symptoms caused by duodenal stenosis. The pathogenesis of this rare entity could be because of disturbance of the pancreatic secretion through the minor papilla. Pancreatitis in heterotopic pancreas located in the minor papilla and chronic consumption of alcohol seem to be important pathogenic factors. PMID:15841034

  12. Optical reconstruction of murine colorectal mucosa at cellular resolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cambrian Y; Dubé, Philip E; Girish, Nandini; Reddy, Ajay T; Polk, D Brent

    2015-05-01

    The mucosal layer of the colon is a unique and dynamic site where host cells interface with one another and the microbiome, with major implications for physiology and disease. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating colonic regeneration, inflammation, dysplasia, and dysbiosis remain undercharacterized, partly because the use of thin tissue sections in many studies removes important volumetric context. To address these challenges in visualization, we have developed the deep mucosal imaging (DMI) method to reconstruct continuous extended volumes of mouse colorectal mucosa at cellular resolution. Use of ScaleA2 and SeeDB clearing agents enabled full visualization of the colonic crypt, the fundamental unit of adult colon. Confocal imaging of large colorectal expanses revealed epithelial structures involved in repair, inflammation, tumorigenesis, and stem cell function, in fluorescent protein-labeled, immunostained, paraffin-embedded, or human biopsy samples. We provide freely available software to reconstruct and explore on computers with standard memory allocations the large DMI datasets containing in toto representations of distal colonic mucosal volume. Extended-volume imaging of colonic mucosa through the novel, extensible, and readily adopted DMI approach will expedite mechanistic investigations of intestinal physiology and pathophysiology at intracrypt to multicrypt length scales. PMID:25721303

  13. Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.

    1985-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

  14. Modeling the transcriptome of genital tract epithelial cells and macrophages in healthy mucosa versus mucosa inflamed by Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars are intracellular bacteria that parasitize human reproductive tract epithelium. As the principal cell type supporting bacterial replication, epithelial cells are central to Chlamydia immunobiology initially as sentries and innate defenders, and subsequently as collaborators in adaptive immunity-mediated bacterial clearance. In asymptomatic individuals who do not seek medical care a decisive struggle between C. trachomatis and host defenses occurs at the epithelial interface. For this study, we modeled the immunobiology of epithelial cells and macrophages lining healthy genital mucosa and inflamed/infected mucosa during the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Upper reproductive tract epithelial cell line responses were compared to bone marrow-derived macrophages utilizing gene expression microarray technology. Those comparisons showed minor differences in the intrinsic innate defenses of macrophages and epithelial cells. Major lineage-specific differences in immunobiology relate to epithelial collaboration with adaptive immunity including an epithelial requirement for inflammatory cytokines to express MHC class II molecules, and a paucity and imbalance between costimulatory and coinhibitory ligands on epithelial cells that potentially limits sterilizing immunity (replication termination) to Chlamydia-specific T cells activated with limited or unconventional second signals. PMID:26519447

  15. Evolution of nonspecific duodenal lymphocytosis over 2 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Losurdo, Giuseppe; Piscitelli, Domenico; Giangaspero, Antonio; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Buffelli, Francesca; Giorgio, Floriana; Montenegro, Lucia; Sorrentino, Claudia; Amoruso, Annacinzia; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the evolution of duodenal lymphocytosis (DL), a condition characterized by increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), over 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy/histology for abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, weakness or other extraintestinal features compatible with celiac disease (CD) were included. Evaluation of IELs infiltrate in duodenal biopsy samples was carried out by CD3-immunohistochemistry and expressed as number of positive cells/100 enterocytes. Diagnostic agreement on the IELs count was tested by calculating the weighted k coefficient. All patients underwent serological detection of autoantibodies associated with CD: IgG and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and endomysium. Each patient underwent further investigations to clarify the origin of DL at baseline and/or in the course of 2 years of follow-up every six months. Autoimmune thyroiditis, intestinal infections, parasitic diseases, bacterial intestinal overgrowth, hypolactasia and wheat allergy were detected. Colonoscopy and enteric magnetic resonance imaging were performed when necessary. Risk factors affecting the final diagnosis were detected by multinomial logistic regression and expressed as OR. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients (16 males, 69 females, aged 34.1 ± 12.5 years) were followed up for a mean period of 21.7 ± 11.7 mo. At baseline, endoscopy/duodenal biopsy, CD3 immunohistochemistry revealed: > 25 IELs/100 enterocytes in 22 subjects, 15-25 IELs in 37 and < 15 IELs in 26. They all had negative serum anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium, whilst 5 showed IgG anti-gliadin positivity. In the course of follow-up, 23 developed CD seropositivity and gluten sensitivity (GS) was identified in 19. Other diagnoses were: 5 Helicobacter pylori infections, 4 jejunal Crohn’s disease, 1 lymphocytic colitis and 1 systemic sclerosis. The disease in the remaining 32 patients was classified as irritable bowel syndrome because of the lack of diagnostic evidence. At multivariate analysis, the evolution towards CD was associated with an IELs infiltrate > 25 (OR = 1640.4) or 15-25 (OR = 16.95), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/8 (OR = 140.85) or DQA1*0501 (OR = 15.36), diarrhea (OR = 5.56) and weakness (OR = 11.57). GS was associated with IELs 15-25 (OR = 28.59), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR = 87.63), folate deficiency (OR = 48.53) and diarrhea (OR = 54.87). CONCLUSION: DL may have a multifactorial origin but the IELs infiltrate and HLA are strong predictive factors for CD development and a clinical diagnosis of GS. PMID:26140001

  16. Surgical Excision of Duodenal/Pancreatic Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Eduardo; Hassani, Ali; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Shi, Dongping; Pontes, J. Edson; Weaver, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a potential to metastasize to almost any site and this may occur many years following nephrectomy. We present six cases with uncommon sites of metastasis: four patients presented with distal pancreatic metastasis and two with duodenal/head of the pancreas metastasis. Time to metastatic disease varied from 1 to 19?years following renal surgery. For patients are alive and two succumbed to their disease. Long-term survival can be achieved with aggressive surgical excision of disease. PMID:25177547

  17. Telomere length in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) and its relationship to the severe clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Sumi, Kazuya; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Masakatsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Ohmiya, Naoki; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Hirata, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Telomere shortening occurs with human aging in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by rapid cell turnover and oxidative injury. To clarify the clinical importance of telomere shortening in colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC), we measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa in UC patients and assessed its relationship to various clinical subtypes. Relative telomere length in genomic DNA was measured in colonic biopsies obtained from rectal inflammatory mucosa from 86 UC patients as well as paired non-inflammatory proximal colonic mucosae from 10 patients. Data were correlated with various clinical phenotypes. In paired samples, average relative telomere length of rectal inflammatory mucosa was shortened compared to normal appearing proximal colon in eight out of ten cases (p = 0.01). Telomere length shortening was significantly associated with more severe Mayo endoscopic subscore (p < 0.0001) and cases needing surgery due to toxic megacolon or cancer occurrence (p = 0.043). When the severe clinical phenotype was defined as having at least one of following phenotypes, more than two times of hospitalization, highest Mayo endoscopic subscore, steroid dependent, refractory, or needing operation, average relative telomere length was significantly shortened in the same phenotypes than the others (p = 0.003). Telomere shortening is associated with more severe clinical phenotypes of UC, reflecting severe inflammatory state in the colonic mucosa. PMID:24925640

  18. Intestinal mucosa of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Krause, W J

    1975-02-01

    The intestinal mucosa of the platypus takes the form of numerous transverse surface folds. These folds are made up of a lamina propria covered by pseudostratified epithelium which lies on a thick modified basement membrane. The cells of the intestinal epithelium consist of columnar cells which generally resemble typical intestinal epithelium and cuboidal cells, which are undifferentiated in appearance, show few organelles and possess an electron lucent cytoplasm. Numerous desmosomes are found between the adjacent cell membranes of both cell types. Villi are absent and appear to be represented by the large surface folds. Intestinal glands are composed of columnar epithelium similar to that found in the intestinal glands of other mammalian species. Groups of these glands drain into common tubular ducts which follow a tortuous course and empty into the intestinal lumen between the surface folds. The peculiar morphological features of the platypus intestinal mucosa raise questions concerning traditional concepts of intestinal gland formation as well as the origin and migration of intestinal epithelium with regard to this particular species. PMID:1115355

  19. Gastric and Duodenal Stents: Follow-Up and Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto Pabon, Isabel Teresa; Paul Diaz, Laura; Ruiz de Adana, Juan Carlos; Lopez Herrero, Julio

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of self-expanding metallic stents in treating inoperable gastric and duodenal stenoses during follow-up and to evaluate the complications encountered.Methods: A total of 31 patients suffering from gastroduodenal obstruction (29 malignant, 2 benign) were treated with a self-expanding metallic stent (Wallstent). In 24 cases insertion was by the peroral route, in seven cases via gastrostomy.Results: All the strictures were successfully negotiated under fluoroscopic guidance without having to resort to endoscopy. A total of 27 patients (87%) were able to resume a regular diet, a soft diet, or a liquid diet orally. Complications included one case of stent malpositioning, one case of leakage of ascitic fluid through the gastrostomy orifice, one case of perforation and fistula to the biliary tree, and two cases of hematemesis. In two patients (6%) additional stents were implanted to improve patency. In all patients follow-up was maintained until death. Recurrence of symptoms immediately before death occurred in seven cases (23%). Mean survival time of patients was 13.3 weeks (SE {+-} 4.6).Conclusions: The deployment of gastroduodenal stents resulted in good palliation of inoperable gastric and duodenal stenoses. Certain technical aspects, e.g., adaptation of stents to bowel morphology, is critical to proper stent function and avoidance of complications.

  20. Infectious Spondylitis with Bacteremia Caused by Roseomonas mucosa in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong-Young; Hur, Jaehyung; Jo, Wonyong; Hong, Jeongmin; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kang, Dong Ho; Kim, Sunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Roseomonas are a gram-negative bacteria species that have been isolated from environmental sources. Human Roseomonas infections typically occur in immunocompromised patients, most commonly as catheter-related bloodstream infections. However, Roseomonas infections are rarely reported in immunocompetent hosts. We report what we believe to be the first case in Korea of infectious spondylitis with bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in an immunocompetent patient who had undergone vertebroplasty for compression fractures of his thoracic and lumbar spine. PMID:26483995

  1. A prospective study of intraoperative methods to diagnose and resect duodenal gastrinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Sugg, S L; Norton, J A; Fraker, D L; Metz, D C; Pisegna, J R; Fishbeyn, V; Benya, R V; Shawker, T H; Doppman, J L; Jensen, R T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined, prospectively, whether duodenotomy (DX) should be routinely performed in explorations for patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Duodenal gastrinomas are now being found with increasing frequency in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The surgical approach used to detect these tumors is controversial. Some recommend intraoperative endoscopy with transillumination (IOE) at surgery, while others recommend routine DX. METHODS: Beginning in 1989, the authors prospectively compared the ability of palpation, intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS), IOE, and DX (in that sequence) to detect gastrinomas in 35 consecutive patients with ZES. Each patient also underwent preoperative localization studies. RESULTS: Thirty-three of 35 patients (94%) had tumor detected and excised; duodenal gastrinomas were excised in 27 patients (77%). The average size of the duodenal tumors was 0.8 cm, significantly smaller (p < 0.005) than the pancreatic and lymph node tumors in this series. Standard palpation after a Kocher maneuver identified 19 of the 31 duodenal tumors (61%) in the 27 patients. IOUS revealed only eight duodenal tumors (26%) and no new lesions. IOE identified 20 duodenal gastrinomas (64%) and 6 new lesions. DX identified 31 duodenal tumors (100%) and 5 additional tumors. The morbidity rate was 17%. One patient had a duodenal fistula after operation (2.8%) and subsequently recovered. No patient died. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the duodenum is the most common location for gastrinoma in patients with ZES (77%) and that DX to detect and remove duodenal gastrinomas should be routinely performed in all explorations for patients with ZES. Images Figure 3. Figure 6. PMID:8342993

  2. Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa, L, Young, J & Calam, J 1990, 'Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa and investigate your claim. Download date: 05. Jul. 2015 #12;Gut, 1990, 31, 1318-1323 Pancreatic secretory trypsin

  3. Pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum following argon plasma coagulation for a bleeding duodenal diverticulum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Su, Pei-Yuan; Yen, Hsu-Heng

    2010-02-01

    Duodenal diverticula are usually asymptomatic, with an incidence of 0.16% to 22%. Symptomatic bleeding from a duodenal diverticulum is an even rarer event. The management of such a hemorrhage is almost entirely surgically based. Since the first reported case of endoscopic therapy for duodenal diverticular bleeding (DDB) by Sim et al, only two case series have been reported in the literature regarding endoscopic therapy for DDB. Hence, the optimal therapy modality for DDB remains unclear. A rare case involving massive pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum following argon plasma coagulation treatment for DDB is presented. A short discussion of the optimal endoscopic therapy for this rare disease is provided. PMID:20065903

  4. Duodenal Switch Operation for Pathologic Transpyloric Duodenogastric Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Strignano, Paolo; Collard, Jean-Marie; Michel, Jean-Marie; Romagnoli, Renato; Buts, Jean-Paul; De Gheldere, Charles; Volonté, Francesco; Salizzoni, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the long-term results of the duodenal switch operation made for pathologic transpyloric duodenogastric reflux (DGR). Summary Background Data: DGR symptoms and lesions are poorly responsive to medical treatment. Methods: A duodenal switch operation was made on 48 patients suffering from pathologic transpyloric DGR either unrelated (n = 28) or secondary (n = 20) to previous upper gastrointestinal (GI) surgery, including cholecystectomy or vagotomy. The diagnosis was based on the combination of several objective arguments: a long history of gastric symptoms (ie, nausea, epigastric pain, and/or bilious vomiting) poorly responsive to medical treatment (48 of 48), gastroesophageal reflux symptoms unresponsive to proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) (23 of 29), gastritis on upper GI endoscopy (37 of 48) and/or at histology (28 of 41), presence of a bilious gastric lake at >1 upper GI endoscopy (30 of 48), DGR at diisopropyl iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) scintigraphy scanning (7 of 13), pathologic 24-hour intragastric bile monitoring with the Bilitec device (40 of 41), and absence of Helicobacter pylori antral infection (39 of 41). Results: At follow-up (median, 81 months), gastric symptoms were nil, had improved, and remained unchanged in 29 (60.4%), 16 (33.3%), and 2(4.2%) patients, respectively, and 1 patient experienced symptomatic recurrence after a 92-month symptom-free period (2.1%). Among the 44 patients who had postoperative upper GI endoscopy, 42 (95.5%) had no gastritis whereas 5 (11.3%) had an ulcer at the duodenojejunostomy. Gastric exposure to bile at postoperative 24-hour intragastric Bilitec test in 36 patients was nil, within the normal range, and still slightly pathologic in 15 (41.7%), 19 (52.8%), and 2 (5.5%), respectively. Conclusions: The duodenal switch operation made on patients in whom diagnosis of pathologic transpyloric DGR is supported by several objective arguments provides most of them with symptomatic and endoscopic improvement parallel to abolishment or normalization of gastric exposure to bile. Postoperative PPI therapy during a 2-month period is to be recommended to prevent the development of an anastomotic ulcer. PMID:17245178

  5. Duodenal epithelial transport in functional dyspepsia: Role of serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; D’Amato, Mauro; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Laurent, Agneta; Knuhtsen, Svend; Bindslev, Niels; Hansen, Mark Berner; Schmidt, Peter Thelin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate functional duodenal abnormalities in functional dyspepsia (FD) and the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in mucosal ion transport and signalling. METHODS: Duodenal mucosal biopsies were obtained from 15 patients with FD and 18 healthy controls. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the number of 5-HT-containing cells and real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of 5-HT receptors 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, 3E, 4 and 7, as well as expression of the serotonin re-uptake transporter (SERT) gene SLC6A4 and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Biopsies were mounted in Ussing chambers for evaluation of basal and 5-HT-stimulated short-circuit current (SCC). RESULTS: Conductance was lower in FD [42.4 ± 4.7 mS/cm2 (n = 15) vs 62.5 ± 4.5 mS/cm2 (n = 18), P = 0.005]. 5-HT induced a dose dependent rise in SCC in both FD (n = 8) and controls (n = 9), the rise was lower in FD (P < 0.001). Mean number of 5-HT stained cells per high power field was the same [34.4 ± 8.4 in FD (n = 15) and 30.4 ± 3.7 in controls (n = 18), P = 0.647]. The following genes were highly expressed: 5-HT receptor HTR3E, HTR4, HTR7, SERT gene (SLC6A4) and TPH1. Differences in expression levels were observed for HTR3E (higher expression in FD, P = 0.008), HTR7 (lower expression in FD, P = 0.027), SLC6A4 (higher expression in FD, P = 0.033) and TPH1 (lower expression in FD, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Duodenal ion transport in response to exogenous 5-HT is abnormal in FD patients and associated with high expression of the HTR3E receptor and the serotonin transporter. PMID:23755368

  6. Increased Production of Lysozyme Associated with Bacterial Proliferation in Barrett's Esophagitis, Chronic Gastritis, Gluten-induced Atrophic Duodenitis (Celiac Disease), Lymphocytic Colitis, Collagenous Colitis, Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Colitis.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The mucosa of the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine and rectum are unremittingly challenged by adverse micro-environmental factors, such as ingested pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, and harsh secretions with digestive properties with disparate pH, as well as bacteria and secretions from upstream GI organs. Despite the apparently inauspicious mixture of secretions and bacteria, the normal GI mucosa retains a healthy state of cell renewal. To by-pass the tough microenvironment, the epithelia of the GI react by speeding-up cell exfoliation, by increasing peristalsis, eliminating bacteria through secretion of plasma cell-immunoglobulins and by increasing production of natural antibacterial enzymes (lysozyme) and host defense peptides (defensin-5). Lysozyme was recently found up-regulated in Barrett's esophagitis, in chronic gastritis, in gluten-induced atrophic duodenitis (celiac disease), in collagenous colitis, in lymphocytic colitis and in Crohn's colitis. This up-regulation is a response directed towards the special types of bacteria thriving in the microenvironment in each of the aforementioned clinical inflammatory maladies. The purpose of that up-regulation is to protect the mucosa affected by the ongoing chronic inflammation. Bacterial antibiotic resistance continues to exhaust our supply of effective antibiotics. The future challenge is how to solve the increasing menace of bacterial resistance to anti-bacterial drugs. Further research on natural anti-bacterial enzymes such as lysozyme, appears mandatory. PMID:26637845

  7. Effects of tea from Turnera ulmifolia L. on mouse gastric mucosa support the Turneraceae as a new source of antiulcerogenic drugs.

    PubMed

    Gracioso, Juliano de Souza; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2002-04-01

    Turnera ulmifolia is a plant belonging to the family Turneraceae, popularly known in Brazil as chanana. This species is distributed from Guyana to southern Brazil where it is considered a weed. The plant occurs in tropical rain forest, fields, and gardens. Chanana tea is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric dysfunction including gastric and duodenal ulcers. In this study, the ability of a lyophilized infusion, as an aqueous fraction (AqF) of the aerial parts of T. ulmifolia, was investigated for its ability to prevent ulceration of the gastric and duodenal mucosa was examined in mice and rats, respectively. The AqF significantly reduced the formation of lesions associated with HCl/ethanol administration by 39% and 46%, respectively, at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. The AqF also significantly reduced the incidence of gastric lesions induced by a combination of indomethacin and bethanechol by 58% and 72% at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. In stress-induced gastric ulcer, the inhibition by the AqF was 48%, 57%, and 58% at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively (p<0.05). A pyloric ligature experiment showed that the highest dose of the AqF significantly affected the gastric juice parameters by increasing the pH from 2.5 (control) to 5.3 and decreasing the acid output from 11.3 (control) to 3.7 mEq/ml/4 h. The AqF had no significant effect on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Preliminary phytochemical screening confirmed that flavonoids were the major constituents of the AqF of T. ulmifolia. These results indicate that this extract has a significant antiulcerogenic effect, as popularly believed. PMID:11995930

  8. Role of circulating somatostatin in regulation of gastric acid secretion, gastrin release, and islet cell function. Studies in healthy subjects and duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Colturi, T J; Unger, R H; Feldman, M

    1984-01-01

    Studies were designed (a) to determine whether somatostatin is released into the circulation after meals in sufficient amounts to regulate gastric or pancreatic islet function in humans and (b) to investigate the possible role of somatostatin in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease. Mean plasma somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) increased from 6.2 +/- 1.5 pg/ml to a peak level of 13.8 +/- 1.3 pg/ml in eight healthy subjects after a 1,440-cal steak meal (P less than 0.005). When somatostatin-14 was infused intravenously, basal and food-stimulated gastric acid secretion and also basal and food-simulated plasma insulin and glucagon concentrations were reduced significantly at mean plasma SLI concentrations within the range seen after a meal. Thus, the amount of somatostatin reaching the systemic circulation after a steak meal was sufficient to inhibit gastric acid secretion and islet cell function. On the other hand, basal and food-stimulated plasma gastrin concentrations were reduced by intravenous somatostatin only at plasma SLI concentrations that were several-fold greater than post-prandial SLI concentrations. Although duodenal ulcer patients had significantly higher basal, food-stimulated, and peak pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion rates than healthy controls, duodenal ulcer patients and controls had nearly identical basal and food-stimulated SLI concentrations. Moreover, food-stimulated gastric acid secretion and gastrin release were inhibited by intravenous somatostatin to the same extent in ulcer patients and controls. These studies suggest that duodenal ulcer patients release normal amounts of somatostatin into the circulation and that target cells controlling acid secretion and gastrin release are normally sensitive to somatostatin in these patients. PMID:6146638

  9. A modified Rendezvous ERCP technique in duodenal diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Eris, Cengiz; Ozkan, Erkan; Gunay, Emre; Aktekin, Ali; Muftuoglu, MA Tolga

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) failure, we describe a modified Rendezvous technique for an ERCP in patients operated on for common bile duct stone (CBDS) having a T-tube with retained CBDSs. METHODS: Five cases operated on for CBDSs and having retained stones with a T-tube were referred from other hospitals located in or around Istanbul city to the ERCP unit at the Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital. Under sedation anesthesia, a sterile guide-wire was inserted via the T-tube into the common bile duct (CBD) then to the papilla. A guide-wire was held by a loop snare and removed through the mouth. The guide-wire was inserted into the sphincterotome via the duodenoscope from the tip to the handle. The duodenoscope was inserted down to the duodenum with a sphincterotome and a guide-wire in the working channel. With the guidance of a guide-wire, the ERCP and sphincterotomy were successfully performed, the guide-wire was removed from the T-tube, the stones were removed and the CBD was reexamined for retained stones by contrast. RESULTS: An ERCP can be used either preoperatively or postoperatively. Although the success rate in an isolated ERCP treatment ranges from up to 87%-97%, 5%-10% of the patients require two or more ERCP treatments. If a secondary ERCP fails, the clinicians must be ready for a laparoscopic or open exploration. A duodenal diverticulum is one of the most common failures in an ERCP, especially in patients with an intradiverticular papilla. For this small group of patients, an antegrade cannulation via a T-tube can improve the success rate up to nearly 100%. CONCLUSION: The modified Rendezvous technique is a very easy method and increases the success of postoperative ERCP, especially in patients with large duodenal diverticula and with intradiverticular papilla. PMID:24255749

  10. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophageal bicarbonate secretion and thus contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of the drug in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In nine healthy volunteers, oesophageal "steady state" perfusion of a 10 cm open segment of distal oesophagus was performed twice in random order. The volunteers were pretreated with either 60 mg/day omeprazole for three days and 80 mg intravenous omeprazole before perfusion or 600 mg/day ranitidine for three days and 50 mg/h intravenously during the perfusion. Saliva and samples of aspirate from the perfused oesophagus and stomach were collected and bicarbonate concentrations were measured. RESULTS: The median rates (95% confidence intervals) of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203) mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate contaminating the oesophagus accounted for 14% and 3%, respectively, of total oesophageal bicarbonate output. CONCLUSIONS: Bicarbonate secretory capacity of the human oesophagus is less than previously assumed, and the clinical relevance of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate for mucosal defence may be overestimated. As omeprazole and ranitidine did not affect bicarbonate secretion differently there was no evidence that omeprazole acts on bicarbonate secretory cells in the oesophageal mucosa. PMID:9203933

  11. Massive duodenal variceal bleed; complication of extra hepatic portal hypertension: Endoscopic management and literature review.

    PubMed

    Steevens, Christopher; Abdalla, Maisa; Kothari, Truptesh H; Kaul, Vivek; Kothari, Shivangi

    2015-11-01

    Bleeding from duodenal varices is reported to be a catastrophic and often fatal event. Most of the cases in the literature involve patients with underlying cirrhosis. However, approximately one quarter of duodenal variceal bleeds is caused by extrahepatic portal hypertension and they represent a unique population given their lack of liver dysfunction. The authors present a case where a 61-year-old male with history of remote crush injury presented with bright red blood per rectum and was found to have bleeding from massive duodenal varices. Injection sclerotherapy with ethanolamine was performed and the patient experienced a favorable outcome with near resolution of his varices on endoscopic follow-up. The authors conclude that sclerotherapy is a reasonable first line therapy and review the literature surrounding the treatment of duodenal varices secondary to extrahepatic portal hypertension. PMID:26558159

  12. Acute pancreatitis as an adverse event in patients with the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner.

    PubMed

    Betzel, Bark; Homan, Jens; Aarts, Edo; Janssen, Ignace; Spanier, Marcel; Wahab, Peter; Groenen, Marcel; Berends, Frits

    2015-11-01

    Placement of the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is a minimally invasive technique for the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Acute pancreatitis was seen in 5 of 167 patients (3?%) in our series. It is suggested that acute pancreatitis in patients with the DJBL results from either direct blockage or edema of the major duodenal papilla, which may be caused by the following: migration of the anchor of the DJBL, accumulation of food debris between the liner and the duodenal wall, or reflux of duodenal contents into the pancreatic duct due to intraluminal hypertension caused by the liner. Early removal of the DJBL resulted in fast and complete recovery, whereas delayed diagnosis and removal led to severe, necrotizing acute pancreatitis. PMID:26021308

  13. Intraluminal duodenal diverticula: collective review with report of a laparoscopic excision.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Alan Kurt; Meighan, Dennis M; Meinke, Mary E; Mirza, Nadia; Parris, Tchaiko M; Meinke, Richard K

    2013-02-01

    A comprehensive review of intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) is presented, along with a report of a completely laparoscopic excision of this duodenal abnormality as well as a report of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrating the classic fluoroscopic "wind sock sign" pathognomonic appearance of IDD. IDD may easily be missed unless one specifically considers this entity in patients presenting with symptoms of foregut disease. Patients with IDD typically present in the fourth decade of life with duration of symptoms less than 5 years that typically include pain, nausea and vomiting, pancreatitis, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis usually requires imaging studies and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Laparoscopic excision is recommended because of superior visualization of significant intestinal anatomic abnormalities, the need for accurate ampullary localization, and the ability to facilitate complete diverticular excision while maintaining biliary and pancreatic ductal integrity. Review of surgical literature suggests that IDD results from congenital duodenal developmental abnormalities matured by long-term duodenal peristalsis. PMID:23256586

  14. Modeling data for pancreatitis in presence of a duodenal diverticula using logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, S.; Prodanova, K.; Mlachkova, D.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of a periampullary duodenal diverticulum (PDD) is often observed during upper digestive tract barium meal studies and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A few papers reported that the diverticulum had something to do with the incidence of pancreatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate if the presence of duodenal diverticula predisposes to the development of a pancreatic disease. A total 3966 patients who had undergone ERCP were studied retrospectively. They were divided into 2 groups-with and without PDD. Patients with a duodenal diverticula had a higher rate of acute pancreatitis. The duodenal diverticula is a risk factor for acute idiopathic pancreatitis. A multiple logistic regression to obtain adjusted estimate of odds and to identify if a PDD is a predictor of acute or chronic pancreatitis was performed. The software package STATISTICA 10.0 was used for analyzing the real data.

  15. Massive duodenal variceal bleed; complication of extra hepatic portal hypertension: Endoscopic management and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Steevens, Christopher; Abdalla, Maisa; Kothari, Truptesh H; Kaul, Vivek; Kothari, Shivangi

    2015-01-01

    Bleeding from duodenal varices is reported to be a catastrophic and often fatal event. Most of the cases in the literature involve patients with underlying cirrhosis. However, approximately one quarter of duodenal variceal bleeds is caused by extrahepatic portal hypertension and they represent a unique population given their lack of liver dysfunction. The authors present a case where a 61-year-old male with history of remote crush injury presented with bright red blood per rectum and was found to have bleeding from massive duodenal varices. Injection sclerotherapy with ethanolamine was performed and the patient experienced a favorable outcome with near resolution of his varices on endoscopic follow-up. The authors conclude that sclerotherapy is a reasonable first line therapy and review the literature surrounding the treatment of duodenal varices secondary to extrahepatic portal hypertension. PMID:26558159

  16. Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Taura, Kojiro; Arizono, Shigeki; Shimada, Kotaro; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-12-15

    We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40{sup o}C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

  17. Traumatic Rupture of a Duodenal Diverticulum: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Majerus, B; Mathonet, P; Haxhe, J-P

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal diverticula are relatively common and usually asymptomatic (95%). Their perforation is a rare but harmful event. Traumatic perforation is exceptional. We report the case of a patient with such a lesion following a blunt trauma secondary to a car accident, and review the literature. Clinical presentation is aspecific and diagnosis is based upon CT scan imaging. Surgery is the recommended treatment consisting of diverticulectomy with transverse duodenal closure of the duodenum associated with retroperitoneal drainage. PMID:26324035

  18. Simple diversion by duodenojejunostomy for a retroperitoneal perforation of the second portion of the duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Shigeru; Takashina, Motoi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Tomita, Rhyouichi; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe that a Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy is a simple and secure procedure for perforated diverticulum in the second portion of the duodenum. The surgical technique for perforated duodenal diverticulum can be adaptable when it is difficult to achieve closure of the perforated site easily. Patients who undergo the operation may be able to eat meals, even if duodenal fistula occurs in the postoperative course. PMID:25216433

  19. Natural defense by saliva and mucosa against oral infection by Leptospira.

    PubMed

    Asoh, Tatsuma; Saito, Mitsumasa; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-06-01

    Leptospirosis caused by drinking water has not been as frequently reported as percutaneous infection. Resistance to oral infection by pathogenic Leptospira was examined in an experimental hamster infection model. The results suggested some natural defenses against oral infection by Leptospira. First, we found that characteristic linear agglutination of Leptospira rapidly occurs when mixed with human saliva. That human saliva attenuated the infectivity of the treated leptospires by its agglutination activity suggested saliva to be the first line of defense against oral infection by leptospires. Second, only 10(1) Leptospira organisms caused death after submucosal injection into oral mucosa in hamsters, but oral infection with drinking water containing 10(5) organisms/mL did not cause death. This result showed that the mucosa plays the role of a physical barrier. Third, hamsters intragastrically infected by leptospires, with doses lethal to hamsters in oral infection, showed no signs of illness, which suggested that gastric acid plays an important role in preventing oral infection. Based on these results, saliva, mucosa, and gastric acid make up a natural defense, which confers high resistance to hosts against oral infection by leptospires. PMID:24861456

  20. Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptors on plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, R.; Nomura, H.; Iwakawa, S.; Okumura, K. )

    1990-06-01

    The binding of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), beta-urogastrone, to plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa was studied to characterize gastric EGF receptors. The binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF was temperature dependent, reversible, and saturable. A single class of binding sites for EGF with a dissociation constant of 0.42 nM and maximal binding capacity of 42 fmol/mg protein was suggested. There was little change in the binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF upon addition of peptide hormones (secretin, insulin), antiulcer drugs (cimetidine), or an ulcer-inducing reagent (aspirin). Cross-linking of ({sup 125}I)hEGF to gastric plasma membranes with the use of disuccinimidyl suberate resulted in the labeling of a protein of 150 kDa. These results indicate the presence of EGF receptors on plasma membranes of rat gastric mucosa.

  1. Amoxicillin plus omeprazole versus triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer disease: a prospective, randomized, and controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Labenz, J; Gyenes, E; Rühl, G H; Börsch, G

    1993-01-01

    Treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole resulted in encouraging Helicobacter pylori eradication rates in pilot studies that included medium term follow up. These results were evaluated in a prospective, randomised and controlled study. Forty patients with active duodenal ulcer disease and H pylori colonisation of the gastric mucosa were randomly assigned to receive either omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) and amoxicillin suspension (500 mg four times daily) for two weeks (group I) or bismuth subsalicylate (600 mg three times daily), metronidazole (400 mg three times daily), tetracycline (500 mg three times daily), and ranitidine (300 mg in the evening) for two weeks (group II). Study medication was followed in both groups by a four week treatment course with 300 mg ranitidine up to the final examination. One patient from each group was lost to follow up. H pylori was eradicated in 78.9% of group I and 84.2% of group II (p = 1.00). All ulcers in patients on omeprazole plus amoxicillin healed but in the triple treatment group four patients had residual peptic lesions after six weeks (ulcer healing rate: 78.9%, p = 0.11). Complete pain relief occurred after a median duration of 1 day in group I and of 6 days in group II (p = 0.03). There were no major complications in either group but minor side effects were more frequently recorded in patients on triple therapy (63.2% v 15.8%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, two weeks of treatment with omeprazole plus amoxicillin is as good as triple therapy plus ranitidine in eradicating H pylori but seems better with regard to safety, pain relief, and ulcer healing. Thus, amoxicillin plus omeprazole should be recommended as the treatment of choice in eradicating H pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer disease. PMID:8406147

  2. Relation between gastric acid output, Helicobacter pylori, and gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, A W; Gummett, P A; Walker, M M; Misiewicz, J J; Baron, J H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors that determine gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb are ill defined. It is more common and extensive in the presence of high acid output and possibly in the presence of Helicobacter pylori. However, no quantitative relation between acid output and the extent of gastric metaplasia has been demonstrated and its relation to H pylori is uncertain. AIM: To determine the relation between H pylori infection and acid output and the presence and extent of gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb. subjects: H pylori positive and negative patients with duodenal ulcer and healthy controls were studied. METHODS: Quadrantic duodenal bulb biopsy specimens were taken and the presence and extent of gastric metaplasia determined using a computer enhanced image intensifier. Basal and stimulated acid outputs were measured. RESULTS: gastric metaplasia was significantly (p < 0.05 more common and significantly (p < 0.05) greater in extent in patients with duodenal ulcer than in controls. Neither the prevalence or extent of gastric metaplasia was affected by H pylori status. There were significant (p < 0.01) direct correlations between acid output and extent of gastric metaplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence and extent of gastric metaplasia are not related to H pylori in controls, or in patients with duodenal ulcer. Rather, high acid response to gastrin may be more important. Images Figure 1 PMID:8944558

  3. THEMIS and PTPRK in celiac intestinal mucosa: coexpression in disease and after in vitro gliadin challenge.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Constanza; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Irastorza, Iñaki; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca; Chirdo, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2014-03-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune mediated, polygenic disorder, where HLA-DQ2/DQ8 alleles contribute around 35% to genetic risk, but several other genes are also involved. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and the more recent immunochip genotyping projects have fine-mapped 39 regions of genetic susceptibility to the disease, most of which harbor candidate genes that could participate in this disease process. We focused our attention to the GWAS peak on chr6: 127.99-128.38?Mb, a region including two genes, thymocyte-expressed molecule involved in selection (THEMIS) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, kappa (PTPRK), both of which have immune-related functions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression levels of these two genes in duodenal mucosa of active and treated CD patients and in controls, and to determine whether SNPs (rs802734, rs55743914, rs72975916, rs10484718 and rs9491896) associated with CD have any influence on gene expression. THEMIS showed higher expression in active CD compared with treated patients and controls, whereas PTPRK showed lower expression. Our study confirmed the association of this region with CD in our population, but only the genotype of rs802734 showed some influence in the expression of THEMIS. On the other hand, we found a significant positive correlation between THEMIS and PTPRK mRNA levels in CD patients but not in controls. Our results suggest a possible role for both candidate genes in CD pathogenesis and the existence of complex, regulatory relationships that reside in the vast non-coding, functional intergenic regions of the genome. Further investigation is needed to clarify the impact of the disease-associated SNPs on gene function. PMID:23820479

  4. THEMIS and PTPRK in celiac intestinal mucosa: coexpression in disease and after in vitro gliadin challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bondar, Constanza; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Irastorza, Iñaki; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca; Chirdo, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune mediated, polygenic disorder, where HLA-DQ2/DQ8 alleles contribute around 35% to genetic risk, but several other genes are also involved. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and the more recent immunochip genotyping projects have fine-mapped 39 regions of genetic susceptibility to the disease, most of which harbor candidate genes that could participate in this disease process. We focused our attention to the GWAS peak on chr6: 127.99–128.38?Mb, a region including two genes, thymocyte-expressed molecule involved in selection (THEMIS) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, kappa (PTPRK), both of which have immune-related functions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression levels of these two genes in duodenal mucosa of active and treated CD patients and in controls, and to determine whether SNPs (rs802734, rs55743914, rs72975916, rs10484718 and rs9491896) associated with CD have any influence on gene expression. THEMIS showed higher expression in active CD compared with treated patients and controls, whereas PTPRK showed lower expression. Our study confirmed the association of this region with CD in our population, but only the genotype of rs802734 showed some influence in the expression of THEMIS. On the other hand, we found a significant positive correlation between THEMIS and PTPRK mRNA levels in CD patients but not in controls. Our results suggest a possible role for both candidate genes in CD pathogenesis and the existence of complex, regulatory relationships that reside in the vast non-coding, functional intergenic regions of the genome. Further investigation is needed to clarify the impact of the disease-associated SNPs on gene function. PMID:23820479

  5. Application of single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis in pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bing-Yang; Leng, Jian-Jun; Wan, Tao; Zhang, Wen-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the simplicity, reliability, and safety of the application of single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis in pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the data of patients who received pancreaticoduodenectomy completed by the same surgical group between January 2011 and April 2014 in the General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army. In total, 51 cases received single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis and 51 cases received double-layer pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. The diagnoses of pancreatic fistula and clinically relevant pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy were judged strictly by the International Study Group on pancreatic fistula definition. The preoperative and intraoperative data of these two groups were compared. ?2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to analyze the incidences of pancreatic fistula, peritoneal catheterization, abdominal infection and overall complications between the single-layer anastomosis group and double-layer anastomosis group. Rank sum test were used to analyze the difference in operation time, pancreaticojejunal anastomosis time, postoperative hospitalization time, total hospitalization time and hospitalization expenses between the single-layer anastomosis group and double-layer anastomosis group. RESULTS: Patients with grade A pancreatic fistula accounted for 15.69% (8/51) vs 15.69% (8/51) (P = 1.0000), and patients with grades B and C pancreatic fistula accounted for 9.80% (5/51) vs 52.94% (27/51) (P = 0.0000) in the single-layer and double-layer anastomosis groups. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients with grade A pancreatic fistula, there was a significant difference in the percentage of patients with grades B and C pancreatic fistula between the two groups. The operation time (220.059 ± 60.602 min vs 379.412 ± 90.761 min, P = 0.000), pancreaticojejunal anastomosis time (17.922 ± 5.145 min vs 31.333 ± 7.776 min, P = 0.000), postoperative hospitalization time (18.588 ± 5.285 d vs 26.373 ± 15.815 d, P = 0.003), total hospitalization time (25.627 ± 6.551 d vs 33.706 ± 15.899 d, P = 0.002), hospitalization expenses (116787.667 ± 31900.927 yuan vs 162788.608 ± 129732.500 yuan, P = 0.001), as well as the incidences of pancreatic fistula [13/51 (25.49%) vs 35/51 (68.63%), P = 0.0000], peritoneal catheterization [0/51 (0%) vs 6/51 (11.76%), P = 0.0354], abdominal infection [1/51 (1.96%) vs 11/51 (21.57%), P = 0.0021], and overall complications [21/51 (41.18%) vs 37/51 (72.55%), P = 0.0014] in the single-layer anastomosis group were all lower than those in the double-layer anastomosis group. CONCLUSION: Single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis appears to be a simple, reliable, and safe method. Use of this method could reduce the postoperative incidence of complications. PMID:26649157

  6. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Due to Duodenal Erosion by a Biliary Wallstent

    SciTech Connect

    Roebuck, Derek J.; Stanley, Philip; Katz, Michael D.; Parry, Robert L.; Haight, Michael A.

    1998-01-15

    A self-expanding metallic stent (Wallstent) was used to relieve obstruction of the common bile duct in a young male with a desmoplastic small cell tumor of the abdomen. Two months after insertion and following a course of chemotherapy the lower end of the stent eroded the mucosa of the second part of the duodenum causing severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage which necessitated laparotomy and trimming of the stent. This complication may have been due to shrinking of the tumor as well as thrombocytopenia following chemotherapy.

  7. Aggregation factor as an inhibitor of bacterial binding to gut mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lukic, Jovanka; Strahinic, Ivana; Milenkovic, Marina; Nikolic, Milica; Tolinacki, Maja; Kojic, Milan; Begovic, Jelena

    2014-10-01

    Modern research in the area of probiotics is largely devoted to discovering factors that promote the adherence of probiotic candidates to host mucosal surfaces. The aim of the present study was to test the role of aggregation factor (AggL) and mucin-binding protein (MbpL) from Lactococcus sp. in adhesion to gastrointestinal mucosa. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments in rats were used to assess the adhesive potential of these two proteins expressed in heterologous host Lactobacillus salivarius BGHO1. Although there was no influence of MbpL protein expression on BGHO1 adhesion to gut mucosa, expression of AggL had a negative effect on BGHO1 binding to ileal and colonic rat mucosa, as well as to human HT29-MTX cells and porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Because AggL did not decrease the adhesion of bacteria to intestinal fragments in ex vivo tests, where peristaltic simulation conditions were missing, we propose that intestinal motility could be a crucial force for eliminating aggregation-factor-bearing bacteria. Bacterial strains expressing aggregation factor could facilitate the removal of pathogens through the coaggregation mechanism, thus balancing gut microbial ecosystems in people affected by intestinal bacteria overgrowth. PMID:24823989

  8. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Edling, C; Hellquist, H; Odkvist, L

    1988-01-01

    To study the cytotoxic effect of formaldehyde on the human nasal mucosa 75 men with occupational exposure to formaldehyde or to formaldehyde and wood dust, were examined, looking particularly at early signs of irritative effects and histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa. All men underwent a medical examination and a nasal biopsy specimen was examined by a pathologist and graded from 0-8 according to the morphological changes. A high frequency of nasal symptoms, mostly a running nose and crusting, was related to exposure to formaldehyde. Only three men had a normal mucosa; the remainder had loss of cilia and goblet cell hyperplasia (11%) and squamous metaplasia (78%); in six cases (8%) there was a mild dysplasia. The histological grading showed a significantly higher score when compared with unexposed contents (2.9 v 1.8). There was no dose response relation, no malignancies, and no difference in the histological score between those exposed to formaldehyde or to formaldehyde and wood dust. Images PMID:3203081

  9. Quantitative Proteogenomics and the Reconstruction of the Metabolic Pathway in Lactobacillus mucosae LM1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae is a natural resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and a potential probiotic bacterium. To understand the global protein expression profile and metabolic features of L. mucosae LM1 in the early stationary phase, the QExactiveTM Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer was used. Characterization of the intracellular proteome identified 842 proteins, accounting for approximately 35% of the 2,404 protein-coding sequences in the complete genome of L. mucosae LM1. Proteome quantification using QExactiveTM Orbitrap MS detected 19 highly abundant proteins (> 1.0% of the intracellular proteome), including CysK (cysteine synthase, 5.41%) and EF-Tu (elongation factor Tu, 4.91%), which are involved in cell survival against environmental stresses. Metabolic pathway annotation of LM1 proteome using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database showed that half of the proteins expressed are important for basic metabolic and biosynthetic processes, and the other half might be structurally important or involved in basic cellular processes. In addition, glycogen biosynthesis was activated in the early stationary phase, which is important for energy storage and maintenance. The proteogenomic data presented in this study provide a suitable reference to understand the protein expression pattern of lactobacilli in standard conditions.

  10. Emotion profile and behaviour pattern of patients with active duodenal ulcer compared with acute coronary patients.

    PubMed

    Catipovi?-Veselica, K; Mi?unovi?, N; Ilakovac, V; Catipovi?, B; Muji?, N; Lauc, A

    1993-01-01

    The authors examined personality profiles and type A/B behaviour in 100 patients with active duodenal ulcer, and a mean age of 39 years, using the Bortner scale and the Plutchnik Emotional Profile Index (EPI). The authors compared them with acute coronary patients and healthy controls. The mean EPI percentages for the duodenal ulcer patients, compared with acute coronary patients and healthy controls, display the trustful dimension (84.1 +/- 27.4--69.1 +/- 20.4--69.3 +/- 20.0), the aggressive dimension (56.7 +/- 9.3--41.3 +/- 19.2--37.6 +/- 17.3), the depressed dimension (84.5 +/- 12.3--52.8 +/- 19.1--51.4 +/- 23.1) and the dyscontrol dimension (73.5 +/- 32.2--48.4 +/- 27.7--50.2 +/- 17.5) to be significantly higher (P < 0.005). The mean percent scores of the gregarious dimension (44.2 +/- 13.2--72.7 +/- 22.7--68.0 +/- 22.0), control dimension (25.2 +/- 91.--39.1 +/- 31.9--44.3 +/- 15.5) and timid dimension (26.2 23.3--56.0 +/- 19.9--59.8 +/- 29.5), are significantly lower in duodenal ulcer patients than in acute coronary patients and controls (P < 0.005). Behaviour type A was found in 95 (95%) duodenal ulcer patients, in 76 (73.7%) acute coronary patients and in 58 (68%) healthy controls (P < 0.001). The Bortner scale was significantly higher in duodenal ulcer patients than in coronary and control subjects (P < 0.005). The EPI of duodenal ulcer patients in comparison to acute coronary patients and healthy controls, are sadder, more impulsive, do more risky things and are more disorganized and dependent. Type A behaviour was more often in duodenal ulcer patients than in the coronary and control groups. PMID:7505135

  11. Juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula risk development and recurrence of biliary stone.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kang Suk; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Chul; Kim, In Hee; Lee, Seung-Ok

    2012-07-01

    We assessed whether the presence of juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula (JPDD) risks biliary stone disease and recurrence. In total, 695 patients who underwent ERCP were divided into two groups: biliary stone disease (group I, n = 523) and non-stone biliary diseases (group II, n = 172). Additionally, for a control group (group III), 80 age-matched healthy subjects underwent side-view duodenoscopy. In group I, rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis, cannulation failure, and disease recurrence in two-year follow up were compared according to the presence of JPDD. In results, the incidence of JPDD in group I (42.4%) was significantly higher than in group II (16.3%) and III (18.8%). The frequencies of JPDD were increased with age in all groups, and reached statistical significance in group I. In group I, rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis were significantly higher in patients with JPDD (18.5%) compared to JPDD negative (12.6%). The cannulation failure rate was also higher in patients with JPDD (9.9%) compared to JPDD negative (5.3%). Recurrence rate was higher in patients with JPDD (25.3%) compared to JPDD negative (9.2%). In conclusion, JPDD develops with aging and risks biliary stone formation. JPDD also seems to be associated with post-ERCP pancreatitis, cannulation failure and biliary stone recurrence. PMID:22787373

  12. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ? 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  13. Helicobacter pylori in humans: Where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Arshad; Hamid, Shamila

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been associated with colonization of gastro duodenal mucosa of humans from millions of years. The main burden of the disese is in the developing countries, due to overcrowding and poor hygiene. If left untreated it leads to lot of sequlae from minor to sinister diseases over a period of time. The main challenges that remain are prevention of H. pylori-related diseases by effective treatment and screening procedures and development of a vaccine, which can address all these issues including beneficial aspects of H. pylori. The literature pertaining to different aspects of H. pylori were scrutinized from Pubmed. Material on clinical behavior, complications of chronic gastric involvement, and prevention besides role of H. pylori in nongastric diseases and the latest trends of management was collected for research and review. We continue to face many challenges. The prevention of cancer of the stomach, a worst sequlae of H. pylori continues to be a big challenge despite population screening and prevention surveys being underway in many countries. On the other hand continued scientific work has now unfolded involvement of H. pylori in extragastric diseases like cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, sideroblastic anemia, mental diseases, and collagen vascular diseases. In contrast, the beneficial effects of H. pylori with respect to allergic diseases and obesity are now clear. Moreover, problem of drug resistance for eradication of H. pylori has arisen for which novel treatments are being tried. Lactobacillus reuteri having anti H. pylori action is emerging as one of the promising treatment. PMID:24627871

  14. Famotidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcers resistant to other histamine H2-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chen, P H; Wang, T H; Wang, C Y; Chen, C Y; Cheng, T C; Tsai, Y T; Siauw, C P; Yang, K C; Chen, G H; Sung, J L

    1989-01-01

    In 20% of patients with duodenal ulcers, treatment is ineffective. Ulcers are considered resistant when they fail to heal following 8-12 weeks of treatment with full dose duodenal ulcer therapy. The present study reviewed the records and endoscopic findings of 73 patients who were considered by their physicians to have resistant duodenal ulcers. From this population, 15 patients with documented, active duodenal ulcers were chosen to participate in this study. Each had failed treatment with cimetidine or ranitidine at recommended doses administered for from 56 days to more than 2 years. After up to 6 weeks' treatment with 20 mg famotidine given twice daily, eight patients showed endoscopic evidence of healing (S1 or S2) based on the criteria established by the Japanese Society of Digestive Endoscopy. Five others showed moderate to marked improvement H1-H3). No patient experienced side-effects during famotidine treatment. The greater antisecretory effect of famotidine may be useful in treating duodenal ulcer patients who fail to heal with cimetidine or ranitidine. PMID:2566541

  15. Characterization of dopamine receptor subtypes involved in experimentally induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Desai, J K; Goyal, R K; Parmar, N S

    1999-02-01

    There are conflicting reports about the role of dopamine in gastric and duodenal ulcers. This investigation was undertaken to characterize the specific subtypes of dopamine receptor involved in gastric and duodenal ulceration. Administration of dopamine D1 agonist fenoldopam and dopamine D2 antagonist sulpiride elicited a significant decrease in acid secretion, total acid output, pepsin output and histamine content in the gastric juice, and reduced ulcer-index values, in pylorus-ligated rats. However, dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 39166 ((-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H -benzo (d) naptho -(2,1-b) azepine) and the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole led to significant augmentation of these parameters compared with respective controls. In the restraint plus water-immersion stress model the score for intraluminal bleeding and the cumulative gastric lesion length was significantly lower for rats treated with fenoldopam and sulpiride. The opposite effects were observed after pretreatment of rats with SCH 39166 and quinpirole. In the cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer model the mean ulcer area and the score for intensity were significantly lower for fenoldopam and sulpiride and higher for SCH 39166 and quinpirole. Our data suggest that the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have opposite effects on gastric and duodenal ulcers. Whereas stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors inhibits the formation of gastric and duodenal ulcers, stimulation of dopamine D2 receptors has a pro-ulcerogenic effect. PMID:10217318

  16. ERCP-induced duodenal perforation successfully treated with endoscopic purse-string suture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Ge, Xianxiu; Nie, Junjie; Xu, Boming; Zhang, Xiuhua; Jiang, Guobing; Miao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal perforation is one of the most serious complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and is difficult to manage. Recently, endoscopic purse-string suture, using endoloops with endoclips, is a relatively new technology and has provided good clinical results. However, the study and use of endoscopic purse-string suture on duodenal perforation is less and its feasibility and safety are unknown. Here, we report a case of ERCP-induced duodenal perforation successfully treated with endoscopic purse-string suture. During ERCP, fluoroscopy revealed abnormal perinephric gas shadowing after breaking and extracting the stones with a stone-removal basket. Then duodenal endoscopy showed an approximately 2.0 cm × 1.5 cm perforation on the lateral duodenal wall, with visible retroperitoneal loose connective tissue. Titanium clips were used to attempt closure of the perforation but failed because of the long diameter of the injury. Therefore, an endoscopic purse-string suture, using endoloops with endoclips, was employed with an Olympus double-lumen endoscope. The perforation was successfully closed. At the 2-month follow-up visit, the patient had no complaints or symptoms. Our case once again proved its feasibility and safety and provided a new perspective for surgeons. PMID:26068948

  17. Drug-induced lesions of the oesophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Lesions of the oesophageal mucosa are observed in various situations: most often with gastrooesophageal reflux disease, but also with infections, cancer, contact with a toxic substance, etc. When they are symptomatic, these lesions provoke burning sensations, dysphagia, regurgitation and sometimes dorsal pain. The changes to the oesophageal mucosa may take various forms: inflammation, erosion, ulceration or necrosis. Serious or even fatal complications can develop but are rare; they include oesophageal perforation, stricture and haemorrhage. Some oral drugs damage the oesophageal mucosa through direct contact. The symptoms often develop several hours after ingestion. The pain is of sudden onset. The resulting lesions are solitary or multiple ulcers that vary in depth and usually occur in the upper portion of the oesophagus. Various factors prolong contact between a drug and the oesophageal mucosa, in particular: swallowing the drug with insufficient liquid or just before lying down; capsule forms; and oesophageal abnormalities. The drugs most frequently implicated are tetracyclines, particularly doxycycline, bisphosphonates and various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Many drugs, used in various situations, provoke gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, sometimes causing mucosal lesions in the lower oesophagus: calcium-channel blockers, nitrates, exenatide and liraglutide, drugs with antimuscarinic effects, theophylline, etc. Some drugs affect all mucous membranes in the body, including the oesophageal mucosa, irrespective of their route of administration: cancer drugs, isotretinoin, and nicorandil. PMID:26417631

  18. Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Joey M; Bentley, Julie L; Malik, Bilal H; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A; Maitland, Kristen C

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue. PMID:25426310

  19. Modulation of the Interaction of Enteric Bacteria with Intestinal Mucosa by Stress-Related Catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Stress associated with parturition, transport or mixing has long been correlated with enhanced faecal excretion of diarrhoeal zoonotic pathogens in animals such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. It may also predispose humans to infection and/or be associated with more severe outcomes. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is the ability of enteric bacterial pathogens to sense and respond to host stress-related catecholamines. This article reviews evidence of the ability of catecholamine hormones to modulate interactions between Gram-negative diarrhoeal pathogens and intestinal mucosa, as well as the molecular mechanisms that may be at work. PMID:26589217

  20. S-1 treatment leading to complete remission of advanced duodenal adenocarcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LIJUN; SONG, QUANMAO; LI, JINPENG; CHEN, XIAOHUA

    2015-01-01

    Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma (DA) is a rare malignant neoplasm, accounting for 1% of all gastrointestinal tract carcinomas. This is the case report of a 40-year-old male patient with a duodenal lesion detected on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging and diagnosed by endoscopy and biopsy as DA. Following surgical resection and histopathological examination, the tumor was confirmed as differentiated duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma with liver metastasis (TxNxM1). The patient received 8 cycles of palliative chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and S-1 and achieved a clinically complete response, with a treatment-related toxicity profile that was considered as tolerable. Therefore, this regimen exhibited favorable efficacy and a tolerable toxicity profile for the treatment of DA in this case.

  1. Predicting chemically induced duodenal ulcer and adrenal necrosis with classification trees.

    PubMed Central

    Giampaolo, C; Gray, A T; Olshen, R A; Szabo, S

    1991-01-01

    Binary tree-structured statistical classification algorithms and properties of 56 model alkyl nucleophiles were brought to bear on two problems of experimental pharmacology and toxicology. Each rat of a learning sample of 745 was administered one compound and autopsied to determine the presence of duodenal ulcer or adrenal hemorrhagic necrosis. The cited statistical classification schemes were then applied to these outcomes and 67 features of the compounds to ascertain those characteristics that are associated with biologic activity. For predicting duodenal ulceration, dipole moment, melting point, and solubility in octanol are particularly important, while for predicting adrenal necrosis, important features include the number of sulfhydryl groups and double bonds. These methods may constitute inexpensive but powerful ways to screen untested compounds for possible organ-specific toxicity. Mechanisms for the etiology and pathogenesis of the duodenal and adrenal lesions are suggested, as are additional avenues for drug design. PMID:2068109

  2. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjay Balwant; Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Joshi, Pankaj Mangalkumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue. PMID:24497698

  3. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sanjay Balwant; Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Joshi, Pankaj Mangalkumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue. PMID:24497698

  4. Effect of dopamine-related drugs on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine or propionitrile: prevention and aggravation may not be mediated by gastrointestinal secretory changes in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, G.; Brown, A.; Szabo, S.

    1987-03-01

    Dose- and time-response studies have been performed with dopamine agonists and antagonists using the cysteamine and propionitrile duodenal ulcer models in the rat. The experiments demonstrate that the chemically induced duodenal ulcer is prevented by bromocriptine, lergotrile and reduced by apomorphine or L-dopa. Aggravation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was seen especially after (-)-butaclamol, (-)-sulpiride, haloperidol and, less effectively, after other dopaminergic antagonists. The duodenal antiulcerogenic action of dopamine agonists was more prominent after chronic administration than after a single dose, whereas the opposite was found concerning the proulcerogenic effect of dopamine antagonists. In the chronic gastric fistula rat, both the antiulcerogens bromocriptine or lergotrile and the proulcerogens haloperidol, pimozide or (-)-N-(2-chlorethyl)-norapomorphine decreased the cysteamine- or propionitrile-induced gastric secretion. No correlation was apparent between the influence of these drugs on duodenal ulcer development and gastric and duodenal (pancreatic/biliary) secretions. In the chronic duodenal fistula rat, decreased acid content was measured in the proximal duodenum after haloperidol, and diminished duodenal pepsin exposure was recorded after bromocriptine. Furthermore, the aggravation by dopamine antagonists of experimental duodenal ulcer probably involves a peripheral component. The site of dopamine receptors and physiologic effects which modulate experimental duodenal ulcer remain to be identified, but their elucidation may prove to be an important element in the pathogenesis and treatment of duodenal ulcer.

  5. Frequent loss of RUNX3 gene expression in remnant stomach cancer and adjacent mucosa with special reference to topography

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Y; Sakakura, C; Miyagawa, K; Kin, S; Fukuda, K; Yanagisawa, A; Koide, K; Morofuji, N; Hosokawa, Y; Shimomura, K; Katsura, K; Hagiwara, A; Yamagishi, H; Ito, K; Ito, Y

    2005-01-01

    Our previous studies suggest that a lack of RUNX3 function is causally related to the genesis and progression of human gastric cancer. This study was conducted to determine whether alteration of RUNX3 gene expression could be detected in the normal-looking gastric remnant mucosa, and to ascertain any difference in the potential of gastric carcinogenesis between the anastomotic site and other areas in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for peptic ulcer (RB group) or gastric cancer (RM group), by analysing RUNX3 expression with special reference to topography. A total of 89 patients underwent distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer from the intact stomach (GCI group) and 58 patients underwent resection of the remnant stomach for gastric cancer (RB group: 34 cases, RM group: 24 cases). We detected RUNX3 and gene promoter methylation by in situ hybridisation, quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), and methylation-specific PCR. The interval between the initial surgery and surgery for remnant gastric cancer (interval time) was 10.4 years in the RM group, and 27.5 years in the RB group. Cancers in the RB group were significantly more predominant in the anastomosis area (P<0.05). Within the tumour, downregulation of RUNX3 expression ranged from 74.7 to 85.7% in the three groups. The rate of downregulation of RUNX3 of adjacent mucosa was 39.2% (11 in 28 cases) in RB and 47.6% (10 in 21 cases) in RM, which are significantly higher than that of the GCI group (19.5%, 17 in 87 cases). In noncancerous mucosa of the remnant stomach in the RB group, RUNX3 expression decreased more near the anastomosis area. In the RM group, however, there were no significant differences in RUNX3 expression by sampling location. Based on RUNX3 downregulation and clinical features, residual stomach mucosa of the RM group would have a higher potential of gastric carcinogenesis compared to the RB or GCI group. Gastric stump mucosa of the RB group has higher potential especially than other areas of residual stomach mucosa. Measurement of RUNX3 expression and detection of RUNX3 methylation in remnant gastric mucosa may estimate the forward risk of carcinogenesis in the remnant stomach. PMID:15685235

  6. Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa. Methods. Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history. Results. In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition. Conclusions. This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs. PMID:26125023

  7. Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

  8. [Traumatic rupture of duodenal diverticulum. Report of a case and literature review].

    PubMed

    Souza Júnior, A de L; Poggetti, R S; Fontes, B; Bernini, C O; Figueiredo, A M; Branco, P D; Birolini, D

    1996-01-01

    Duodenal diverticulum is a common anatomic abnormality. Its inflammatory perforation is a rare complication, with less than 100 cases reported in the available literature. Traumatic perforation is exceedingly rare (only 3 cases reported). In this report one more case of traumatic perforation is presented, and the literature is reviewed focusing on the pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this severe disease. PMID:9239899

  9. Spontaneous intramural duodenal hematoma in type 2B von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Eichele, Derrick D; Ross, Meredith; Tang, Patrick; Hutchins, Grant F; Mailliard, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Intramural duodenal hematoma is a rare cause of a proximal gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Presentation of intramural duodenal hematoma most often occurs following blunt abdominal trauma in children, but spontaneous non-traumatic cases have been linked to anticoagulant therapy, pancreatitis, malignancy, vasculitis and endoscopy. We report an unusual case of spontaneous intramural duodenal hematoma presenting as an intestinal obstruction associated with acute pancreatitis in a patient with established von Willebrand disease, type 2B. The patient presented with abrupt onset of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography imaging identified an intramural duodenal mass consistent with blood measuring 4.7 cm × 8.7 cm in the second portion of the duodenum abutting on the head of the pancreas. Serum lipase was 3828 units/L. Patient was managed conservatively with bowel rest, continuous nasogastric decompression, total parenteral nutrition, recombinant factor VIII (humateP) and transfusion. Symptoms resolved over the course of the hospitalization. This case highlights an important complication of an inherited coagulopathy. PMID:24222967

  10. Malignant Gastric and Duodenal Stenosis: Palliation by Peroral Implantation of a Self-Expanding Metallic Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Isabel T.

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the use of self-expanding metallic stents in patients with inoperable malignant antrum-pylorus-duodenal obstruction. Methods: Six patients underwent implantation of a Wallstent self-expanding metallic endoprosthesis (20 mm in five patients and 16 mm in one). In five patients a catheter (Berenstein) was introduced perorally into the stomach. A guidewire (Terumo) was introduced through the catheter and advanced through the antrum-pylorus-duodenal stenosis. The guidewire was removed and a 260-cm-long, 0.035'' superstiff guide (Amplatz) was introduced. After the catheter was removed the stent assembly was introduced. In the last patient the stent was implanted through a percutaneous gastrostomy. Results: Treatment of inoperable gastric outlet obstruction caused by tumor compression is difficult and unsatisfactory. Peroral implantation of self-expanding metallic stents resulted in successful palliative therapy of antrum-pylorus-duodenal stenosis in six patients in whom surgery was not possible because of advanced disease and poor general condition. On average, patients were able to eat during 41 days. One patient is tolerating oral intake at 3 months. Conclusion: Implantation of stents resulted in palliative relief of malignant antrum-pylorus-duodenal obstructions.

  11. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  12. Cold snare piecemeal resection of colonic and duodenal polyps ?1?cm

    PubMed Central

    Choksi, Neel; Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Stidham, Ryan W.; Shuster, Dmitry; Piraka, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic removal of duodenal and colorectal adenomas is currently considered to be the standard of care for prevention of adenocarcinoma. The use of cautery carries a risk of delayed bleeding, post-polypectomy syndrome, and perforation. We examined the safety and feasibility of removing colonic and duodenal polyps ??1?cm using a piecemeal cold snare polypectomy technique. Patients: The study included 15 patients with duodenal polyps ??1?cm and 15 patients with colonic polyps ??1?cm. Main outcome measurements: Bleeding, perforation, abdominal pain, or hospitalization occurring within 2 weeks of polypectomy. Results: Between 24 August 2011 and 29 April 2013, 15 patients had removal of duodenal polyps ??1?cm. Mean patient age was 64 years and 9/15 patients were male. The mean polyp size was 24?mm (10?–?60?mm). All polyps were removed with a cold snare and some required cold biopsy forceps. One patient required hospitalization for gastrointestinal blood loss 7 days post-polypectomy; this patient was using Coumadin. Between 27 February 2012 and 30 May 2013, 15 patients underwent resection of a ??1?cm colonic polyp.?Mean patient age was 68 years and 9/15 were male. The mean polyp size was 20?mm (10?–?45?mm). All polyps were primarily removed with a cold snare. None of the patients required hemostatic clips for control of immediate bleeding. One patient presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain 1 day after initial endoscopy. CT scan showed no abnormalities and the patient was discharged. Conclusions: Cold snare polypectomy for large duodenal and colonic polyps is technically feasible and may have a favorable safety profile compared to standard electrocautery-based endoscopic resection. Comparative trials are required to determine the relative safety and efficacy of cold snare techniques for complete and durable resection of large polyps compared to standard hot snare methods. PMID:26528509

  13. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:24833849

  14. Increased HIV-1 activity in anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with unaffected anal mucosa in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Pollakis, Georgios; Richel, Olivier; Vis, Joost D; Prins, Jan M; Paxton, William A; de Vries, Henry J C

    2014-06-01

    We studied 3 patients with focal intra-anal tissue high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). All had increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA in lesions compared with that in healthy mucosa. HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 episomal DNA were indicative of ongoing viral replication, more so in anal HSILs. PMID:24604897

  15. Protection of Gastrointestinal Mucosa from Acute Heavy Alcohol Consumption: The Effect of Berberine and Its Correlation with TLR2, 4/IL1?-TNF? Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Wang, Yu-Gang; Yu, Xuan; Yan, Xiao-Jin; Xing, Dong-Ming; Du, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to confirm the protective effect of berberine (BBR) on gastrointestinal injury caused by acute heavy alcohol exposure, an effect that has not been reported previously. Our research details how BBR protects against gastrointestinal injuries from acute alcohol exposure using both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Acute high alcohol concentrations lead to obvious damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa, resulting in necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. Oral administration of BBR was able to significantly reduce this alcohol-induced damage, inhibit increases of alcohol-induced TNF? and IL-1? expression in gastrointestinal mucosa as well as their upstream signals TLR2 and TLR4, and regulate cytokines that modulate tight junctions. Alcohol consumption is a popular human social behavior worldwide, and the present study reports a comprehensive mechanism by which BBR protects against gastrointestinal injuries from alcohol stress, providing people with a novel application of BBR. PMID:26226164

  16. Pyloro-duodenal hernia with formation of enterocutaneous fistula in a buffalo calf following a dog attack

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakar, G.; Prasad, V. Devi; Devaratnam, J.; Ganeshan, A.

    2015-01-01

    A body wall hernia entrapping abomasum and concurrent duodenal fistula in a buffalo calf aged about 8 months, secondary to a dog bite was successfully treated by closure of fistulous orifice and ventro lateral herniorrhaphy. PMID:26623378

  17. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. ?Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. ?Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequentially from the crypt-villus axis of the rat small intestine. In separate experiments, urokinase activity and epithelial kinetics (measured stathmokinetically) were measured in homogenates of distal colonic mucosa of 14 groups of eight rats fed diets known to alter epithelial turnover. ?Results—From the crypt base, an ascending gradient of expression and activity of urokinase was associated with the epithelial cells. Median mucosal urokinase activities in each of the dietary groups of rats correlated positively with autologous median number of metaphase arrests per crypt (r=0.68; p<0.005) and per 100 crypt cells (r=0.75; p<0.001), but not with crypt column height. ?Conclusions—Localisation of an enzyme capable of leading to digestion of cell substratum in the region where cells are loosely attached to their basement membrane, and the association of its activity with indexes of cell turnover, suggest a role for urokinase in facilitating epithelial cell loss in the intestine. ?? Keywords: urokinase; intestinal epithelium; colon; epithelial proliferation PMID:9824347

  18. T-Cell Depletion in the Colonic Mucosa of Patients With Idiopathic CD4+ Lymphopenia.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Stephen B; Sheikh, Virginia; Thompson, William L; Morcock, David R; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa; Yao, Michael D; Rupert, Adam W; Utay, Netanya S; Roby, Gregg; Freeman, Alexandra F; Estes, Jacob D; Sereti, Irini

    2015-11-15

    Idiopathic CD4(+) lymphopenia (ICL) is a rare syndrome characterized by low peripheral CD4(+) T-cell counts that can lead to serious opportunistic infections. The pathogenesis of ICL remains unclear, and whether effector sites are also lymphopenic is unknown. In this study, rectosigmoid mucosal biopsy specimens from patients with ICL and healthy controls were evaluated. Significant T-cell lymphopenia was observed in the mucosal tissue of patients with ICL by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, compared with healthy controls. Functional capacity of T cells, assessed by production of interferon ? and interleukin 17, was preserved in the mucosa of patients with ICL. In contrast to T lymphocytes, the frequency of myeloid cells (neutrophils and macrophages) was elevated in the colonic mucosa of patients with ICL. Despite the observed mucosal abnormalities, plasma levels of intestinal fatty acid binding protein, a marker of enterocyte turnover and other inflammatory biomarkers, including interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor, were not elevated in patients with ICL, compared with healthy controls, whereas soluble CD14 levels were minimally elevated. These data suggest that patients with ICL, despite gut mucosal lymphopenia and local tissue inflammation, have preserved enterocyte turnover and T-helper type 17 cells with minimal systemic inflammation. These observations highlight differences from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, with or without AIDS, and may partially explain their distinct clinical prognosis. PMID:25995198

  19. Investigation of milk proteins binding to the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Withers, Caroline A; Cook, Michael T; Methven, Lisa; Gosney, Margot A; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2013-11-01

    High protein dairy beverages are considered to be mouth drying. The drying sensation may be due to the product protein content; however the mechanism of this mouth drying is uncertain. This study investigated the potential adhesion of milk proteins to porcine oral mucosa in vitro. Purified casein and ?-lactoglobulin were fluorescently labelled, placed on porcine oral mucosal tissues and their resistance to wash out with simulated saliva was monitored using fluorescence microscopy. Casein was found to be more adhesive to porcine mucosa than ?-lactoglobulin. Some investigation into the reason for this difference in mucoadhesion was conducted by thiol-content analysis, rheology and zeta-potential measurements. The higher viscosity of casein solution and smaller zeta-potential is believed to be responsible for its better retention on mucosal surfaces. These findings suggest that casein and whey protein are both capable of binding and eliciting mouth drying in high protein dairy beverages. PMID:24092277

  20. Advancing forensic RNA typing: On non-target secretions, a nasal mucosa marker, a differential co-extraction protocol and the sensitivity of DNA and RNA profiling.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, Margreet; Bhoelai, Bryan; Harteveld, Joyce; Matai, Anuska; Sijen, Titia

    2016-01-01

    The forensic identification of human body fluids and tissues by means of messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is a long studied methodology that is increasingly applied to casework samples. Previously, we have described an mRNA multiplex system that targets blood, saliva, semen, menstrual secretion, vaginal mucosa and skin (Lindenbergh et al. and van den Berge et al.) [1-2]. In this study we consider various topics to improve this mRNA profiling system or its use and adapt the method accordingly. Bodily secretions that may be encountered at a crime scene whilst not targeted by the multiplex-id est nasal mucosa, sweat, tears, faeces and urine-were examined for false positive signals. The results prompted us to identify a nasal mucosa marker that allows the discrimination of nasal mucosa from saliva or vaginal mucosa and nosebleed blood from peripheral blood. An updated version of the multiplex was prepared to which the nasal mucosa marker was added and in which markers for semen, vaginal mucosa and blood were replaced. Lactobacillus markers were regarded unsuitable as replacement for vaginal mucosa mRNA markers because of background signals on penile swabs that appeared devoid of female DNA. Furthermore, we provide approaches to deal with highly unbalanced mixtures. First, a differential extraction protocol was incorporated into a co-extraction protocol to allow DNA and RNA analysis of separated non-sperm and sperm fractions. In a second approach, besides the standard multiplex, a customized multiplex is used which excludes markers for prevailing cell types. This allows the use of lower cDNA inputs for the prevailing cell types and higher inputs for cell types that appear masked. Additionally, we assessed the relation between the percentage of alleles or markers detected in DNA or RNA profiles when decreasing sample amounts are analysed. While blood, saliva, semen and menstrual secretion show the trend that DNA profiling is more sensitive than RNA profiling, the reverse is seen for skin and variable results occur for vaginal and nasal mucosa. Lastly, we show that replicates are useful for interpretation of RNA data, as variations can be found even for true technical replicates. Increased numbers of replicates (over four) do, however, not cancel out the impact of this variation on data interpretation. Overall, the results of this study further forensic RNA profiling. PMID:26590860

  1. l-Menthol sprayed on gastric mucosa causes edematous change

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Akihiro; Hachiya, Hiroki; Yumura, Takayuki; Ito, Shun; Hayashi, Shintaro; Nozaki, Masashi; Yoshida, Atsui; Ohashi, Noritsugu

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: l-Menthol (LM), sprayed on the distal gastric mucosa, is a safe antispasmodic agent used during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, it seems to affect gastric mucosal endoscopic findings. Therefore, we evaluated whether LM causes specific changes and impacts the endoscopic morphology of gastric lesions. Patients and methods: A total of 98 patients scheduled to undergo EGD were randomly assigned to receive LM solution (160?mg of 0.8?% LM added to 2.5?mL of indigo carmine [IC]; n?=?49; LM group) or decuple-diluted IC solution without LM (n?=?49; placebo group). We compared the incidence of specific mucosal changes and the difference in the endoscopic findings of several gastric lesions between these groups. Results: Annular-reticular – like mucosal changes appeared immediately after the administration of LM solution. This change was observed in 71.4?% of the LM group compared with 12.2?% of the placebo group (P?mucosa into edematous mucosa, and this occurs more frequently in atrophic gastric mucosa than in pathologic lesions. LM may facilitate the demarcation of pathologic gastric lesions without intestinal metaplasia. PMID:26135260

  2. Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, K.

    1981-12-01

    Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

  3. Autogenous hard palate mucosa: the ideal lower eyelid spacer?

    PubMed Central

    Wearne, M.; Sandy, C.; Rose, G.; Pitts, J; Collin, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Raising a displaced lower eyelid frequently involves recession of the lower eyelid retractors with interposition of a "spacer," and several materials for this purpose have been described. This study reviewed the results of autogenous palatal mucosa in the treatment of lower eyelid displacement, including assessment of any donor site morbidity.?METHODS—A retrospective case note review of consecutive patients treated at Moorfields Eye Hospital between 1993 and 1998. All patients underwent insertion of hard palate mucosa between the inferior border of the tarsus and the recessed conjunctiva and lower eyelid retractors. Parameters studied included the underlying diagnosis, measurements of lower lid displacement or retraction, related previous surgery, the experience of the operating surgeon, intraoperative and postoperative complications, surgical outcome, and length of follow up. The main outcome measure was the position of the lower eyelid relative to the globe in primary position of gaze.?RESULTS—102 lower eyelids of 68 patients were included and a satisfactory lid position was achieved in 87/102 (85%), with inadequate lengthening or significant recurrence of displacement occurring in 15 cases. Donor site haemorrhage requiring treatment in the early postoperative period occurred in seven patients (10%).?CONCLUSION—Autogenous hard palate mucosa is an effective eyelid spacer and provides good long term support for the lower eyelid. Donor site complications are the main disadvantage, but may be minimised by attention to meticulous surgical technique and appropriate postoperative management.?? PMID:11567962

  4. Extensive DNA methylation in normal colorectal mucosa in hyperplastic polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Minoo, P; Baker, K; Goswami, R; Chong, G; Foulkes, W D; Ruszkiewicz, A R; Barker, M; Buchanan, D; Young, J; Jass, J R

    2006-01-01

    Background Hyperplastic polyposis of the colorectum is a precancerous condition that has been linked with DNA methylation. The polyps in this condition have been distinguished from typical small hyperplastic polyps and renamed sessile serrated adenomas. Sessile serrated adenomas also occur sporadically and appear to be indistinguishable from their counterparts in hyperplastic polyposis. Aims and methods The existence of distinguishing molecular features was explored in a series of serrated polyps and matched normal mucosa from patients with and without hyperplastic polyposis by assessing mutation of BRAF, DNA methylation in 14 markers (MINTs 1, 2 and 31, p16, MGMT, MLH1, RASSF1, RASSF2, NORE1 (RASSF5), RKIP, MST1, DAPK, FAS, and CHFR), and immunoexpression of MLH1. Results There was more extensive methylation in sessile serrated adenomas from subjects with hyperplastic polyposis (p<0.0001). A more clearcut difference in patients with hyperplastic polyposis was the finding of extensive DNA methylation in normal mucosa from the proximal colon. Conclusions A genetic predisposition may underlie at least some forms of hyperplastic polyposis in which the earliest manifestation may be hypermethylation of multiple gene promoters in normal colorectal mucosa. Additionally, some of the heterogeneity within hyperplastic polyposis may be explained by different propensities for MLH1 inactivation within polyps. PMID:16469793

  5. Local Immunoglobulin E in the Nasal Mucosa: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, Els; Devuyst, Lien; Derycke, Lara; Dullaers, Melissa; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. We review evidence for local production of IgE in allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation (SHM), clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of local IgE in patients with a history of AR or CRSwNP. PMID:25749769

  6. Evaluation of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats and dogs in an adapter-modified Ussing chamber

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasio, John V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Newman, Shelley; Musch, Mark W.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of transport physiology in endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from healthy cats and dogs, as well as dogs with chronic enteropathies. 17 duodenal biopsies from five cats and 51 duodenal biopsies from 13 dogs were obtained. Samples were transferred into an adapter-modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to various absorbagogues and secretagogues. Overall, 78.6% of duodenal samples obtained from cats responded to at least one compound. In duodenal biopsies obtained from dogs, the rate of overall response ranged from 87.5% (healthy individuals; n = 8), to 63.6% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological unremarkable duodenum; n = 15), and 32.1% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases and moderate to severe histopathological lesions; n = 28). Detailed information regarding the magnitude and duration of the response are provided. The adapter-modified Ussing chamber enables investigation of the absorptive and secretory capacity of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from cats and dogs and has the potential to become a valuable research tool. The response of samples was correlated with histopathological findings. PMID:24378587

  7. An unusual case of duodenal perforation caused by a blister pack: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Si-Yuan; Matsui, Yugo; Shiotsu, Souichi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ingestion of foreign bodies is a relatively common clinical problem. Blister packs have been known to be a causative agent of gastrointestinal perforation. We report a rare case of duodenal perforation caused by a blister pack, which was complicated by retroperitoneal abscess and having a poor outcome. Presentation of case A 72 year-old man with a history of dementia presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of backache. Upon radiological findings, perforated peptic ulcer was suspected. However, emergency laparotomy revealed a blister pack protruding from the posterior wall of the third portion of the duodenum. It was complicated by a widespread retroperitoneal abscess. After removal of the foreign body, the perforation was treated with primary suture repair and an omental patch. However, the patient died two days after operation due to sepsis. Discussion According to a literature review, the ileum is the most common site of perforation caused by blister packs. To our knowledge, duodenal perforations have not been documented to date. Curative treatment often involves emergent surgery. However, duodenal perforation in the third portion may lead to retroperitoneal abscess, which can result in severe sepsis and have a poor outcome. As there is no consensus about an ideal surgical approach, retroperitoneal abscess is one of the clinical challenges for surgeons. Even with prompt management, duodenal perforation may become fatal. Conclusion Unnoticed ingestion of blister packs can cause duodenal perforation. Although prompt management is necessary, duodenal perforation, especially in the third portion, may be potentially fatal. PMID:26263453

  8. How diet and lifestyle affect duodenal ulcers. Review of the evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Aldoori, Walid

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the role of diet in reducing or aggravating risk of duodenal ulcer (DU). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2001 for articles on the relationship between diet and lifestyle and DU using the key words duodenal ulcer and diet, fibre, or lifestyle. Evidence that these factors are associated with DU arose mainly from three case-control and three prospective studies (level II evidence) and from expert opinion (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE: A high-fibre diet appears to reduce risk of DU; soluble fibre might be associated with reduced risk also. Vitamin A intake is associated with lower risk of DU. Little evidence indicates that fat, type of fat, protein intake, or consumption of alcohol or caffeine affect the etiology of DU. CONCLUSION: A high-fibre diet, particularly if the fibre comes from fruit and vegetables, could reduce risk of DU; vitamin A might also be beneficial. PMID:15171675

  9. Upper ureteric transitional cell carcinoma, extending to the renal pelvis, presenting as duodenal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stroman, Luke Andrew; Sharma, Naomi; Sullivan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented with weight loss, dysphagia and vomiting. A barium swallow revealed a duodenal obstruction at D3. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed a left upper ureteric tumour extending to the renal pelvis compressing the duodenum and causing left-sided hydronephrosis. Cystoscopy and left-sided ureteroscopy proved difficult and were unable to visualise or biopsy the mass, but a left ureteric stent was placed. Laparoscopic biopsy of the mass was completed and histology revealed transitional cell carcinoma. The patient went on to receive palliative chemotherapy, which relieved the small bowel obstruction, and the patient was able to eat solid food 8?weeks later. This case highlights a previously unreported cause of duodenal obstruction. PMID:26564110

  10. [A case of enterolith ileus secondary to acute pancreatitis associated with a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Morii, Shinji; Doi, Yoko; Makita, Tomoo; Takeda, Shinichiro; Miura, Seiki; Kaneko, Takaaki; Saito, Shuichi; Okabe, Shinichiro

    2015-05-01

    A 63-year-old woman with abdominal pain was referred to our hospital. Her pancreatic enzymes were elevated, and an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed an enlarged pancreas, consistent with pancreatitis, and gas collection containing an impacted stone adjacent to Vater's papilla. This finding raised the suspicion of a duodenal diverticulum. A subsequent ERCP showed a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum (JPDD) filled with calculi and pus. The pancreatitis improved with 2 weeks of conservative treatment. Subsequently, the patient underwent resection of the uterus and bilateral adnexa to remove a large ovarian cyst that was also identified on the admission CT scan. On the third postoperative day, she developed abdominal pain and vomiting. CT revealed small bowel obstruction caused by an enterolith expelled from JPDD. Enterotomy was performed to remove the stone. To our knowledge, only three similar cases have been previously reported in Japan. PMID:25947022

  11. Endoscopic treatment of intraluminal duodenal ("windsock") diverticulum: varying techniques from five cases.

    PubMed

    Law, R; Topazian, M; Baron, T H

    2012-12-01

    The optimal endoscopic approach to intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) has not been established. We report on our experience of endoscopic resection of symptomatic IDD in five patients (three men, two women; mean age 37 years) who were treated between August 2004 and April 2012.?Four patients underwent endoscopic diverticulectomy using a standard polypectomy snare. Following diverticulectomy, the remaining duodenal septum was incised using a needle-knife in two patients. The fifth patient underwent endoscopic diverticulotomy using a needle-knife. In four cases the IDD was resected and reviewed histologically and demonstrated substantial vascularity. All patients developed clinically significant, post-procedural bleeding, which was managed endoscopically. Endoscopic management of symptomatic IDD can be achieved using various approaches. Post-procedural bleeding appears to be a common adverse event, but this complication can be managed endoscopically. PMID:23188665

  12. Down syndrome: Molecular mapping of the congenital heart disease and duodenal stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Korenburg, J.R. ); Bradley, C.; Disteche, C.M. )

    1992-02-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of congenital heart and gut disease and mental retardation. DS individuals also have characteristic facies, hands, and dermatoglyphics, in addition to abnormalities of the immune system, and increased risk of leukemia, and an Alzheimer-like dementia. Although their molecular basis is unknown, recent work on patients with DS and partial duplications of chromosome 21 has suggested small chromosomal regions located in band q22 that are likely to contain the genes for some of these features. The authors now extend these analyses to define molecular markers for the congenital heart disease, the duodenal stenosis, and an 'overlap' region for the facial and some of the skeletal features. They report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis of two patients. These studies provide the molecular basis for the construction of a DS phenotypic map and focus the search for genes responsible for the physical features, congenital heart disease, and duodenal stenosis of DS.

  13. Variant on Manifestation of Duodenal Metastasis 26 Years after Initial Diagnosis of Primary Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Kumiko; Bardier-Dupas, Armelle; Breton, Sylvie; Rousseau, Géraldine; Siksik, Jean-Michel; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Malignant duodenal neoplasms are relatively rare, and the diagnosis is often delayed because of their vague and nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a 79-year-old female who had a medical history of malignant melanoma of the cheek that had initially been diagnosed at 53 years of age. Work-up revealed severe stenosis of the duodenum caused by a large mass with ulceration at the tip of its mucosal surface. Tumor biopsy led to a histological diagnosis of extremely poorly differentiated carcinoma, but it was impossible to determine whether the lesion was a primary neoplasm or represented secondary involvement. Pancreatoduodenectomy was performed, and the surgical specimen showed a protuberant tumor in the nonampullary region of the second portion of the duodenum. Final diagnosis of metastatic duodenal melanoma was made by immunohistological examination. She is currently alive without recurrence 28 months after the surgical treatment. PMID:21103234

  14. Endoscopic fibrin sealant closure of duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Yeh; Chen, Jui-Hao

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, perivaterian duodenal perforation can be managed conservatively or surgically. If a large volume of leakage results in fluid collection in the retroperitoneum, surgery may be necessary. Our case met the surgical indication for perivaterian duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation. The patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after the procedures, and a perivaterian perforation was suggested on computed tomography (CT). CT-guided abscess drainage was performed immediately. We unsuccessfully attempted to close the perforation with hemoclips initially. Subsequently, we used fibrin sealant (Tisseel) injection to occlude the perforation. Fibrin sealant injections have been previously used during endoscopy for wound closure and fistula repair. Based on our report, fibrin sealant injection can be considered as an alternative method for the treatment of ERCP-related type II perforations. PMID:26668519

  15. Endoscopic fibrin sealant closure of duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsin-Yeh; Chen, Jui-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, perivaterian duodenal perforation can be managed conservatively or surgically. If a large volume of leakage results in fluid collection in the retroperitoneum, surgery may be necessary. Our case met the surgical indication for perivaterian duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation. The patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after the procedures, and a perivaterian perforation was suggested on computed tomography (CT). CT-guided abscess drainage was performed immediately. We unsuccessfully attempted to close the perforation with hemoclips initially. Subsequently, we used fibrin sealant (Tisseel) injection to occlude the perforation. Fibrin sealant injections have been previously used during endoscopy for wound closure and fistula repair. Based on our report, fibrin sealant injection can be considered as an alternative method for the treatment of ERCP-related type II perforations. PMID:26668519

  16. Hemoclip-assisted endoscopic polypectomy of large superior duodenal angle polyp using a needle knife.

    PubMed

    Lin, L F; Siauw, C P; Ho, K S; Tung, J C

    2001-12-01

    Endoscopic polypectomy of a large polyp can be difficult due to inability to snare the polyp. The difficulty may increase when the polyp is located at turning corner of the bowel. We presented a case of a 3 cm-sized large pedunculated polyp located at the superior duodenal angle that was not amenable to conventional snare polypectomy, but was instead successfully resected by hemoclip-assisted and needle knife method. Such experience has not been reported in the English literature. PMID:11922495

  17. beta-Catenin-accumulated crypts in the colonic mucosa of juvenile ApcMin/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Hata, Kazuya; Tanaka, Takuji; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Rikako; Qiang, Sheng Hong; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Oyama, Takeshi; Kuno, Toshiya; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Hara, Akira; Mori, Hideki

    2006-07-28

    Although Apc(Min/+) mice are widely used for an animal model of human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a majority of intestinal polyps locate in the small intestine. We recently reported that numerous beta-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCAC), which are reliable precursor lesions for colonic adenocarcinoma, develop in the large bowel of aged Apc(Min/+) mice. In this study, we determined the presence and location of BCAC in the large intestine of juvenile Apc(Min/+) mice (3 and 5 weeks of age). Surprisingly, BCAC were noted in the colon of even Apc(Min/+) mice of both ages, and mainly located in the distal and middle segments of the colon. Also, a few microadenomas were detected in Apc(Min/+) mice of 5-week old. Our results may indicate need of further investigation of the colorectal mucosa of Apc(Min/+) mice for examining colorectal carcinogenesis using Apc(Min/+) mice. PMID:16168560

  18. SIV Infection Induces Accumulation of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in the Gut Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, R. Keith; Evans, Tristan I.; Gillis, Jacqueline; Wong, Fay E.; Kang, Guobin; Li, Qingsheng; Johnson, R. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are depleted and dysfunctional during human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection, but little is known about pDCs in the gut—the primary site of virus replication. Here, we show that during SIV infection, pDCs were reduced 3-fold in the circulation and significantly upregulated the gut-homing marker ?4?7, but were increased 4-fold in rectal biopsies of infected compared to naive macaques. These data revise the understanding of pDC immunobiology during SIV infection, indicating that pDCs are not necessarily depleted, but instead may traffic to and accumulate in the gut mucosa. PMID:22711907

  19. Proliferation and differentiation biomarkers in colorectal mucosa and their application to chemoprevention studies.

    PubMed Central

    Scalmati, A; Lipkin, M

    1993-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Because its prognosis is relatively unaffected by improvements in surgery and chemotherapy, increasing interest has recently been directed toward chemoprevention. Intermediate biomarkers of abnormal cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression have recently been identified and have served to measure effects of chemopreventive agents in rodent models and in short-term human clinical trials. Alterations in cell proliferation and differentiation have been found in preneoplastic diseases and in normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of patients at increased risk for malignancy. Several techniques are available for measuring these alterations, and standardization and comparison of different methods are underway to assess the utility of various intermediate biomarkers in chemoprevention studies. PMID:8319616

  20. A Dosimetric Model of Duodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James D.; Christman-Skieller, Claudia; Kim, Jeff; Dieterich, Sonja; Chang, Daniel T.; Koong, Albert C.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Dose escalation for pancreas cancer is limited by the tolerance of adjacent normal tissues, especially with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The duodenum is generally considered to be the organ at greatest risk. This study reports on the dosimetric determinants of duodenal toxicity with single-fraction SBRT. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma received 25 Gy in a single fraction. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) endpoints evaluated include V{sub 5} (volume of duodenum that received 5 Gy), V{sub 10}, V{sub 15}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 25}, and D{sub max} (maximum dose to 1 cm{sup 3}). Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was evaluated with a Lyman model. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Results: The median time to Grade 2-4 duodenal toxicity was 6.3 months (range, 1.6-11.8 months). The 6- and 12-month actuarial rates of toxicity were 11% and 29%, respectively. V{sub 10}-V{sub 25} and D{sub max} all correlated significantly with duodenal toxicity (p < 0.05). In particular, V{sub 15} {>=} 9.1 cm{sup 3} and V{sub 15} < 9.1 cm{sup 3} yielded duodenal toxicity rates of 52% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.002); V{sub 20} {>=} 3.3 cm{sup 3} and V{sub 20} < 3.3 cm{sup 3} gave toxicity rates of 52% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.002); and D{sub max} {>=} 23 Gy and D{sub max} < 23 Gy gave toxicity rates of 49% and 12%, respectively (p = 0.004). Lyman NTCP model optimization generated the coefficients m = 0.23, n = 0.12, and TD{sub 50} = 24.6 Gy. Only the Lyman NTCP model remained significant in multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Multiple DVH endpoints and a Lyman NTCP model are strongly predictive of duodenal toxicity after SBRT for pancreatic cancer. These dose constraints will be valuable in future abdominal SBRT studies.

  1. Umami Receptor Activation Increases Duodenal Bicarbonate Secretion via Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Release in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joon-Ho; Inoue, Takuya; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Luminal nutrient chemosensing during meal ingestion is mediated by intestinal endocrine cells, which regulate secretion and motility via the release of gut hormones. We have reported that luminal coperfusion of l-Glu and IMP, common condiments providing the umami or proteinaceous taste, synergistically increases duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) possibly via taste receptor heterodimers, taste receptor type 1, member 1 (T1R1)/R3. We hypothesized that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) or glucagon-like peptide (GLP) is released by duodenal perfusion with l-Glu/IMP. We measured DBS with pH and CO2 electrodes through a perfused rat duodenal loop in vivo. GIP, exendin (Ex)-4 (GLP-1 receptor agonist), or GLP-2 was intravenously infused (0.01–1 nmol/kg/h). l-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally perfused with or without bolus intravenous injection (3 or 30 nmol/kg) of the receptor antagonists Pro3GIP, Ex-3(9-39), or GLP-2(3-33). GIP or GLP-2 infusion dose-dependently increased DBS, whereas Ex-4 infusion gradually decreased DBS. Luminal perfusion of l-Glu/IMP increased DBS, with no effect of Pro3GIP or Ex-3(9-39), whereas GLP-2(3-33) inhibited l-Glu/IMP-induced DBS. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)(6–28) intravenously or NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester coperfusion inhibited the effect of l-Glu/IMP. Perfusion of l-Glu/IMP increased portal venous concentrations of GLP-2, followed by a delayed increase of GLP-1, with no effect on GIP release. GLP-1/2 and T1R1/R3 were expressed in duodenal endocrine-like cells. These results suggest that luminal l-Glu/IMP-induced DBS is mediated via GLP-2 release and receptor activation followed by VIP and nitric oxide release. Because GLP-1 is insulinotropic and GLP-2 is intestinotrophic, umami receptor activation may have additional benefits in glucose metabolism and duodenal mucosal protection and regeneration. PMID:21846840

  2. Nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, M; Zadig, E; Digernes, V; Abeler, V; Reith, A

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluates the histological changes, especially the presence of possible precancerous lesions, in the nasal mucosa of workers exposed to formaldehyde. Nasal biopsies of 37 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for more than five years and 37 age matched referents showed a higher degree of metaplastic alterations in the former group. In addition, three cases of epithelial dysplasia were observed among the exposed. These results indicate that formaldehyde may be potentially carcinogenic to man. Combination of this finding with the inconclusive epidemiological studies suggests that formaldehyde is a weak carcinogen and that occupational exposure to formaldehyde alone is insufficient to induce nasal cancer. Images PMID:2310715

  3. Osseous choristoma of the labial mucosa: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, T. S.; Selvamani, M.; Ashwin, S.; Rahul, V. K.; Cyriac, Maria Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Osseous choristoma is a normal bone tissue in an ectopic position. These are slow growing lesions that are usually completely asymptomatic and only present when there is a disruption in the function of the organ due to its large size as it grows. Definitive diagnosis is obtained only after the histopathological examination. The etiology remains still questionable. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. Here we report a case of choristoma in the lower labial mucosa in a 47-year-old female. PMID:26538953

  4. Hydatid cyst of the buccal mucosa: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, R M; Kamath, V V; Komali, Y; Krishnamurthy, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic cyst caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus that occurs primarily in sheep grazing areas worldwide. It is a chronic disease, and the cysts can be localized in unusual anatomical and geographic locations. It is known to affect the head and neck region. Patients must undergo a thorough systemic investigation as 20-30% show multiorgan involvement. We report a case of hydatid cyst occurring in the buccal mucosa of a 45- year -old male presenting as a small asymptomatic lump and emphasize on its rarity and diagnostic issues. PMID:26392735

  5. [The morphologic changes of gastric mucosa before and after the surgical operations].

    PubMed

    Rustamov, E A

    2012-01-01

    The article outlines the morphologic evaluation of the gastric mucosa in 159 patients with different types of pyloroduodenal ulcers. The comparative characteristics of the gastric mucosa of 80 patients before and after the gastric resection. The complete restoration of the mucosa within the year after the selective proximal vagotomy was registered. The gastric resection leads to the chronic gastritis with dystrophic changes and intestinal or pseudopyloric metaplasia. PMID:22810340

  6. Comparative endoscopic evaluation of normal and ulcerated gastric mucosae in Thoroughbred foals

    PubMed Central

    OKAI, Kazuhiko; TAHARAGUCHI, Sadao; ORITA, Yasuhiro; YOKOTA, Hiroshi; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to early diagnosis and treatment of gastric ulcer of foals, we examined the gastric mucosa of healthy and affected foals using an endoscope. In healthy foals, the characteristic changes in the development of the squamous mucosa were seen mainly in the squamous mucosa, and maturation of the squamous mucosa in the greater curvature (GC-S) occurred more slowly than that of the squamous mucosa in the lesser curvature (LC-S). Epithelial desquamation in the LC-S and GC-S was observed between 6 and 90 days but was not observed in the LC-S at about 60 days, whereas it was observed in the GC-S until 90 days old. These findings suggest that there is a difference in the development of the gastric mucosa by region and that desquamation continues over a term longer than studies have reported in the past. In the affected foals, the minimum age at which gastric ulcer was observed was 4 days old. Gastric ulcers formed predominantly in the squamous mucosa (LC-S and GC-S) of foals with an immature mucosa before the weaning period, and the peak incidence occurred between 61 and 90 days old. The differences in the ulceration sites were considered to depend on the difference in the development (maturation) stage of the squamous mucosa. The grading score of the gastric ulcer increased with the growth of the affected foals. The gastric ulcer might be enhanced greatly by stress in the weaning period. PMID:25648790

  7. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  8. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. RESULTS We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. CONCLUSIONS Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  9. Absence of zinc cytotoxicity. Effect of short-term zinc oral administration on rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L E; Mathias, C M; Siry, P; Galle, P

    1990-01-01

    Zinc ions have been reported to stabilize cellular membranes, protecting the gastric mucosa against a wide variety of ulcerative agents. The treatment with zinc sulfate intragastrically administered as one dose (20 mg/kg body weight) daily for 30 consecutive days did not modify the normal aspect of rat gastric mucosa as observed by electron scanning microscopy. Furthermore, the X-ray microanalysis of the lysosome content performed on different gastric mucosa cells did not show the zinc element. These results suggest that zinc ion is a relatively nontoxic element for the rat gastric mucosa. PMID:2101069

  10. Rapid multispectral endoscopic imaging system for near real-time mapping of the mucosa blood supply in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Yasser; Lam, Stephen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a fast multispectral endoscopic imaging system that is capable of acquiring images in 18 optimized spectral bands spanning 400-760 nm by combining a customized light source with six triple-band filters and a standard color CCD camera. A method is developed to calibrate the spectral response of the CCD camera. Imaging speed of 15 spectral image cubes/second is achieved. A spectral analysis algorithm based on a linear matrix inversion approach is developed and implemented in a graphics processing unit (GPU) to map the mucosa blood supply in the lung in vivo. Clinical measurements on human lung patients are demonstrated. PMID:26309761

  11. Rapid multispectral endoscopic imaging system for near real-time mapping of the mucosa blood supply in the lung.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Yasser; Lam, Stephen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a fast multispectral endoscopic imaging system that is capable of acquiring images in 18 optimized spectral bands spanning 400-760 nm by combining a customized light source with six triple-band filters and a standard color CCD camera. A method is developed to calibrate the spectral response of the CCD camera. Imaging speed of 15 spectral image cubes/second is achieved. A spectral analysis algorithm based on a linear matrix inversion approach is developed and implemented in a graphics processing unit (GPU) to map the mucosa blood supply in the lung in vivo. Clinical measurements on human lung patients are demonstrated. PMID:26309761

  12. Characterization of Gastric Mucosa Biopsies Reveals Alterations in Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Andrew C; O'Donovan, Kirsty L; Ekblad, Eva; Sand, Elin; Craufurd, David; Rosser, Anne; Sanders, David; Stoy, Nicholas; Rickards, Hugh; Wierup, Nils; Bates, Gillian P.; Björkqvist, Maria; Quarrell, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss is an important complication of Huntington’s disease (HD), however the mechanism for weight loss in HD is not entirely understood. Mutant huntingtin is expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and, in HD mice, mutant huntingtin inclusions are found within the enteric nervous system along the GI tract. A reduction of neuropeptides, decreased mucosal thickness and villus length, as well as gut motility impairment, have also been shown in HD mice. We therefore set out to study gastric mucosa of patients with HD, looking for abnormalities of mucosal cells using immunohistochemistry. In order to investigate possible histological differences related to gastric acid production, we evaluated the cell density of acid producing parietal cells, as well as gastrin producing cells (the endocrine cell controlling parietal cell function). In addition, we looked at chief cells and somatostatin-containing cells. In gastric mucosa from HD subjects, compared to control subject biopsies, a reduced expression of gastrin (a marker of G cells) was found. This is in line with previous HD mouse studies showing reduction of GI tract neuropeptides. PMID:26581667

  13. Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  14. Lipidomic profiling of sinus mucosa from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Fazlollahi, Farbod; Kongmanas, Kessiri; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj; Mallen-St Clair, Jon; Gopen, Quinton; Faull, Kym F; Suh, Jeffrey D

    2015-04-01

    Sinusitis is a cause of significant morbidity, substantial healthcare costs, and negative effects on quality of life. The primary objective of this study is to characterize the previously unknown lipid profile of sinonasal mucosa from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and from controls. Sinus mucosa samples were analyzed from 9 CRS patients with concomitant nasal polyps, 11 CRS patients without polyps, and 12 controls. Ten lone polyp samples were also analyzed. Samples were subjected to a modified Bligh/Dyer lipid extraction, then high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), combined gas chromatography/electron impact-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS), and flow-injection/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (FI/ESI-MS/MS). Data was analyzed for identification and profiling of major components. HPTLC revealed an array of species reflecting the lipid complexity of the samples. GC/EI-MS revealed cholesterol and several fatty acids. FI/ESI-MSMS revealed numerous lipid species, namely a host of phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, ceramides and cholesteryl esters, but no detectable amounts of phosphatidyinositols or sulfated lipids. These results are a first step to uncover unique molecular biomarkers in CRS. PMID:25588779

  15. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  16. Probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa: Effects on cell proliferation and polyamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Orlando, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed neoplasms. In the last decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the relations between the intestinal microbiota and the onset of both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal neoplasms. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. The internationally accepted definition of probiotics is live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract following probiotic administration have been investigated in vitro and in animal models, as well as in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from different human gastrointestinal diseases. Although several evidences are available on the use of probiotics against the carcinogen Helicobacter pylori, little is still known about the potential cross-interactions among probiotics, the composition and quality of intestinal flora and the neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa. In this connection, a significant role in cell proliferation is played by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine). These small amines are required in both pre-neoplastic and neoplastic tissue to sustain the cell growth and the evidences here provided suggest that probiotics may act as antineoplastic agents in the stomach by affecting also the polyamine content and functions. This review will summarize data on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa and in particular on their ability in modulating cell proliferation, paying attention to the polyamine metabolism. PMID:25309063

  17. Life threatening bleeding from duodenal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ivanecz, Arpad; Sremec, Marko; Cerani?, Davorin; Potr?, Stojan; Skok, Pavel

    2014-12-16

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare, but serious complication of gastric bypass surgery. The inaccessibility of the excluded stomach restrains postoperative examination and treatment of the gastric remnant and duodenum, and represents a major challenge, especially in the emergency setting. A 59-year-old patient with previous history of peptic ulcer disease had an upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a duodenal ulcer two years after having a gastric bypass procedure for morbid obesity. After negative upper endoscopy finding, he was urgently evaluated for gastrointestinal bleeding. At emergency laparotomy, the bleeding duodenal ulcer was identified by intraoperative endoscopy through gastrotomy. The patient recovered well after surgical hemostasis, excision of the duodenal ulcer and completion of the remnant gastrectomy. Every general practitioner, gastroenterologist and general surgeon should be aware of growing incidence of bariatric operations and coherently possible complications after such procedures, which modify patient's anatomy and physiology. PMID:25512773

  18. Carcinogenic potential of duodenal reflux juice from patients with long-standing postgastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhe-Fu; Wang, Zhong-Yu; Zhang, Jun-Ran; Gong, Peng; Chen, Hai-Long

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether study on the carcinogenic potential of reflux juice from patients with remote gastrectomy could clarify the inherent relationship between duodenal reflux and gastric stump cancer. METHODS: A total of 37 reflux juice samples (13 Billroth I, 24 Billroth II) were employed in the present study. A two-stage transformation assay using BALB/c 3T3 cells was carried out to test the initiating or promoting activity of these samples. RESULTS: Two of 18 (11.1%) reflux samples exerted initiating activities, whereas 9/19 (47.4%) samples enhanced the MNNG-initiating cell transformation, suggesting the duodenal reflux juice might more frequently possess the tumor-promoter activity (P = 0.029). In addition, there was no difference in initiating activities of the samples irrespective of surgical procedures (P = 0.488), while Billroth II samples exhibited stronger tumor-promoter activity than Billroth I samples (P = 0.027). Furthermore, the promoter activities were well correlated with the histological changes of the stomas (rs = 0.625, P = 0.004), but neither their cytotoxicities nor initiating activities had this correlation (Probabilities were 0.523 and 0.085, respectively). CONCLUSION: The duodenal reflux juice from patients with remote postgastrectomy did have carcinogenic potential, and suggested that tumor-promoting activity should principally account for the high incidence of gastric cancer in gastrectomy patients. In contrast, it is difficult to explain the high stump-cancer incidence with the "N-nitroso compounds" theory-a popular theory for the intact stomach carcinogenesis, and it seemed to be justified to focus chemoprevention of this cancer on the tumor-promoting potential of reflux juice. PMID:11819793

  19. A rare case of duodenal ulcer perforation accompanied by Boerhaave syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rokicki, Wojciech; Rokicki, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal perforation is the fastest progressing and the most life-threatening disruption of gastrointestinal tract continuity. It must be regarded as an emergency condition that requires early diagnosis as well as very aggressive and rapid implementation of treatment in order to avoid serious complications and death. Methods of treatment for spontaneous esophageal perforation continue to be a matter of controversy. However, all authors emphasize that ultimate success depends largely on the time taken to establish the diagnosis. The authors of this study describe a rare case of duodenal ulcer perforation accompanied by Boerhaave syndrome. PMID:26702287

  20. A comparison of unrefined wheat and rice diets in the management of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-one chronic duodenal ulcer patients in a rice-eating area were put on to an unrefined wheat diet and twenty-one continued on their previous rice diet. After 5 years only 14% of the first group had had relapses compared with 81% of the second group. A similar 5-year relapse rate (80%) was obtained in a group of thirty patients from another area with a more varied rice diet. The author attributes this difference to the increased mastication required by the unrefined wheat diet, which is associated with an increase in saliva, lower stomach acidity and reduced bile output. PMID:625462

  1. Entering the duodenal diverticulum: a method for cannulation of the intradiverticular papilla.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Can; Shi, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Gu, Jun; Tao, Yi-Jing; Wang, Yu-Qin; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-28

    Successful cannulation of the common bile duct may be difficult in patients in whom the papilla is located entirely within a diverticulum. In this study, we report successful biliary cannulation in three patients following intubation of the distal tip of the duodenoscope into the duodenal diverticulum and locating the major papilla. No complications occurred during the operation or during the postoperative period. This method didn't need second incubation an endoscope and might lower the burden of patients. So this skill is useful to deal with the papilla hidden inside the large diverticulum because of its safety and convenience. PMID:23326150

  2. Retained foreign body: associations with elevated lead levels, pica, and duodenal anomaly.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J D; Hingsbergen, E A

    1995-01-01

    A 14-month-old girl presented with elevated lead levels and a metallic foreign body was detected on abdominal radiograph. Subsequent evaluation, performed after the child failed to pass the foreign body with cathartics, revealed a bezoar proximal to a partial duodenal obstruction. The metallic foreign body was later removed and found to contain lead, however, the patient has subsequently had recurrent elevations of lead levels with episodes of pica. This case reiterates the need to evaluate children with retained foreign bodies for lead poisoning due to associated pica. In addition, retained foreign bodies should point to possible congenital anomaly of the duodenum causing partial obstruction. PMID:8545182

  3. Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding originating from a fourth-stage duodenal diverticulum: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rioux, Louis; Groseilliers, Sylvain Des; Fortin, Michel; Mutch, David O.

    1996-01-01

    Duodenal diverticulum is well-known pathologic entity. Most such diverticula are asymptomatic and located on the second stage of the duodenum. The diagnosis is most often established by endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal radiography. Hemorrhage has been described but is an infrequent complication. We report on a patient who presented with massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, originating from a fourth-stage duodenal diverticulum. The diagnosis was made with a combination of arteriography and scanning with technetium 99-labelled red cells. Diverticulectomy was performed with a successful outcome. This report underlines the diagnostic limits of fiberoptic endoscopy for hemorrhagic lesions located past the third stage of the duodenum. PMID:8956821

  4. A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068

  5. A novel method for delineation of oral mucosa for radiotherapy dose-response studies

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Jamie A; Welsh, Liam C; Gulliford, Sarah L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is currently no standard method for delineating the oral mucosa and most attempts are oversimplified. A new method to obtain anatomically accurate contours of the oral mucosa surfaces was developed and applied to 11 patients. This is expected to represent an opportunity for improved toxicity modelling of oral mucositis. PMID:25779721

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of ghrelin in the intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Eissa, N; Ghia, J E

    2015-11-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body and it produces a wide array of hormones and neuropeptides. Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid hormone produced mainly by the X/A-like endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa, has widespread tissue distribution and diverse physiological functions such as hormonal, orexigenic, metabolic, cardiovascular, neurological and immunological activities. Recent research has implicated ghrelin in gastrointestinal pathological conditions and immune system regulation, but its contribution is controversial. Although ghrelin levels are elevated in clinical active inflammatory bowel diseases, confirmation of its exact role using experimental models remains unclear. This review discusses the conflicting effects of ghrelin on intestinal inflammation, through the different possible immune and intracellular mechanisms and highlights new findings. PMID:26503163

  7. Synovial Sarcoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Kumar T. S.; Ponnuswamy, Indira Annamalai; David, Maria Priscilla; Shivhare, Peeyush; Puttaranganayak, Mahalakshmi Ikkanur; Sinha, Pooja

    2013-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient. PMID:23762651

  8. Separation and characteristics of two histaminocytes from rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lemmi, C A

    1984-02-01

    To determine the properties of rat gastric cells involved in histamine metabolism (histaminocytes), fundic mucosa was enzymatically dispersed prior to separation by sedimentation methods. The distribution of histamine content, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity and incorporation of radioactive histidine metabolites were used to determine the characteristics of various populations of gastric cells. All activities measured, as well as most of the dispersed gastric cells, occurred in a narrow range of density between 1.083 and 1.091 g/ml. Velocity sedimentation showed that two populations of histaminocytes can be distinguished. One population has a higher sedimentation rate, suggesting a larger size, contains histamine, HDC activity and incorporates radioactive metabolites. Another population, in fractions with lower sedimentation rates, contains little histamine, has a higher HDC activity than the previous population and also incorporates radiolabelled histidine metabolites. For the first time, two populations of viable histaminocytes have been separated that differ in their biochemical properties. PMID:6711385

  9. Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.

    2004-06-30

    This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

  10. Morphofunctional adaptations of the olfactory mucosa in postnatally developing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kavoi, Boniface M; Makanya, Andrew N; Plendl, Johanna; Johanna, Plendl; Kiama, Stephen G

    2012-08-01

    Rabbits are born blind and deaf and receive unusually limited maternal care. Consequently, their suckling young heavily rely on the olfactory cue for nipple attachment. However, the postnatal morphofunctional adaptations of olfactory mucosa (OM) are not fully elucidated. To clarify on the extent and the pattern of refinement of the OM following birth in the rabbit, morphologic and morphometric analysis of the mucosa were done at neonatal (0-1 days), suckling (2 weeks), weanling (4 weeks), and adult (6-8 months) stages of postnatal development. In all the age groups, the basic components of the OM were present. However, proliferative activity of cells of the mucosal epithelium decreased with increasing age as revealed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Diameters of axon bundles, packing densities of olfactory cells, and cilia numbers per olfactory cell knob increased progressively with age being 5.5, 2.1, and 2.6 times, respectively, in the adult as compared with the neonate. Volume fraction values for the bundles increased by 5.3% from birth to suckling age and by 7.4% from weaning to adulthood and the bundle cores were infiltrated with blood capillaries in all ages except in the adult where such vessels were lacking. The pattern of cilia projection from olfactory cell knobs also showed age-related variations, that is, arose as a tuft from the tips of the knobs in neonates and sucklings and in a radial pattern from the knob bases in weanlings and adults. These morphological changes may be attributed to the high olfactory functional demand associated with postnatal development in the rabbit. PMID:22707244

  11. Endoscopic patterns of gastric mucosa and its clinicopathological significance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Min; Chen, Lei; Fan, Yu-Lin; Li, Xiang-Hong; Yu, Xin; Fang, Dian-Chun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the correlation of magnifying endoscopic patterns and histopathology, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the gastric mucosa. METHODS: Gastric mucosal patterns in 140 patients with chronic gastritis were studied using Olympus GIF-Q240Z magnifying endoscope. Histopathological examination, rapid urease test and Warrthin-Starry staining were taken with biopsy samples from the magnified sites of stomach. The magnifying endoscopic patterns were compared with histopathological results and H. pylori detection. RESULTS: The pit patterns of gastric mucosa were classified as types A (round spot), B (short rod), C (branched), D (reticular) and E (villus). The detection rate of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) by magnifying endoscopy was 94.3% (33/35), which was significantly higher than that by routine endoscopy (22.9%, 8/35) (P < 0.01). The pit patterns of 31 cases of intestinal metaplasia (IM) appeared as type E in 18 cases (58.1%), type D in 8 cases (25.8%) and type C in 5 cases (16.1%). Fourteen out of 18 patients (77.8%) with complete type (type I) of IM appeared as type E of pit patterns, whereas only 4 of 13 (30.8%) patients with incomplete type (types II and III) of IM appeared as type E (P < 0.05). Collecting venules in the anterior of lower part of gastric corpus were subgrouped into types R (regular), I (irregular) and D (disappeared). H. pylori infection was found in 12.2% (9/74), 60% (9/15) and 84.3% (43/51) cases in these types respectively. H. pylori infection rate in type R was significantly lower than that in other two types (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Magnifying endoscopy may have an obvious value in diagnosing chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection. PMID:14606095

  12. Comparative study of the effects of different glucocorticosteroids on eosinophil survival primed by cultured epithelial cell supernatants obtained from nasal mucosa and nasal polyps.

    PubMed Central

    Mullol, J.; Xaubet, A.; López, E.; Roca-Ferrer, J.; Picado, C.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Supernatants from epithelial cell cultures enhance eosinophil survival in vitro, this effect being abrogated by previous incubation of eosinophils with glucocorticosteroids. This property has resulted in the development of an in vitro test to compare the potency of these drugs. A comparative study was performed with dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, deflazacort, and budesonide. METHODS--Human epithelial cell conditioned media (HECM) was generated from cultured epithelial cells obtained from healthy nasal mucosa and polyps. Eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood were incubated with different corticosteroids for one hour before the addition of HECM. The inhibitory potency of the four steroids on the eosinophil survival index was compared using the concentration of steroid causing 50% inhibition (IC50). RESULTS--Eosinophil survival was increased by HECM from both healthy nasal mucosa and polyps. All four steroids blocked HECM-induced eosinophil survival in a dose-dependent manner. On healthy nasal mucosa methylprednisolone was the least potent (IC50 = 536 nM), deflazacort (IC50 = 264 nM) was twice as potent as methylprednisolone, while budesonide and dexamethasone were approximately nine times as potent (both IC50 = 58 nM). When potency was evaluated on the promoting effects of the HECM obtained from nasal polyps, the inhibitory potencies were lower and consequently the IC50 values were higher when compared with HECM generated from healthy nasal mucosa: methylprednisolone (IC50 = 546 nM), deflazacort (IC50 = 390 nM), dexamethasone (IC50 = 76 nM), and budesonide (IC50 = 78 nM). CONCLUSIONS--The potencies of glucocorticosteroids can be compared by evaluating their effects on the survival of eosinophils previously primed by supernatants obtained from epithelial cell culture. The different effects of steroids on eosinophils primed by HECM obtained from healthy nasal mucosa compared with HECM obtained from nasal polyps suggest that polyps might represent more active tissue which is relatively resistant to treatment with corticosteroids. Images PMID:7660341

  13. Pancreatic ?-Amylase Controls Glucose Assimilation by Duodenal Retrieval through N-Glycan-specific Binding, Endocytosis, and Degradation.

    PubMed

    Date, Kimie; Satoh, Ayano; Iida, Kaoruko; Ogawa, Haruko

    2015-07-10

    ?-Amylase, a major pancreatic protein and starch hydrolase, is essential for energy acquisition. Mammalian pancreatic ?-amylase binds specifically to glycoprotein N-glycans in the brush-border membrane to activate starch digestion, whereas it significantly inhibits glucose uptake by Na(+)/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) at high concentrations (Asanuma-Date, K., Hirano, Y., Le, N., Sano, K., Kawasaki, N., Hashii, N., Hiruta, Y., Nakayama, K., Umemura, M., Ishikawa, K., Sakagami, H., and Ogawa, H. (2012) Functional regulation of sugar assimilation by N-glycan-specific interaction of pancreatic ?-amylase with glycoproteins of duodenal brush border membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 23104-23118). However, how the inhibition is stopped was unknown. Here, we show a new mechanism for the regulation of intestinal glucose absorption. Immunohistochemistry revealed that ?-amylase in the duodena of non-fasted, but not fasted, pigs was internalized from the pancreatic fluid and immunostained. We demonstrated that after N-glycan binding, pancreatic ?-amylase underwent internalization into lysosomes in a process that was inhibited by ?-mannoside. The internalized ?-amylase was degraded, showing low enzymatic activity and molecular weight at the basolateral membrane. In a human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, Alexa Fluor 488-labeled pancreatic ?-amylase bound to the cytomembrane was transported to lysosomes through the endocytic pathway and then disappeared, suggesting degradation. Our findings indicate that N-glycan recognition by ?-amylase protects enterocytes against a sudden increase in glucose concentration and restores glucose uptake by gradual internalization, which homeostatically controls the postprandial blood glucose level. The internalization of ?-amylase may also enhance the supply of amino acids required for the high turnover of small intestine epithelial cells. This study provides novel and significant insights into the control of blood sugar during the absorption stage in the intestine. PMID:26023238

  14. Widespread lymph node recurrence of major duodenal papilla cancer following pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bai-Sen; Shi, Hui; Wen, Min; Xiao, Ming-Yong; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Major duodenal papilla cancer (MDPC) represents the primary type of duodenal cancer, and is typically considered a periampullary carcinoma as most tumors arise in this region. This report describes an extremely rare case involving a patient with rapidly and extensively recurrent MDPC following pancreaticoduodenectomy, who achieved complete response by concurrent image-guided radiation and intravenous oxaliplatin plus oral capecitabine therapies. The patient was a 50-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital 6 wk after resection for MDPC for evaluation of a nontender and enlarged node in the left side of her neck. After clinical work-up, the patient was diagnosed with postoperatively recurrent MDPC with widespread lymph node metastases at the bilateral cervix, mediastinum, abdominal cavity, and retroperitoneal area. She was administered whole field image-guided radiation therapy along with four cycles of the intravenous oxaliplatin plus oral capecitabine regimen. A complete response by positron emission tomography with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose was observed 4 months after treatment. The patient continues to be disease-free 2 years after the diagnosis of recurrence.

  15. Eating Behavior in Rats Subjected to Vagotomy, Sleeve Gastrectomy, and Duodenal Switch

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Kulseng, Bård

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim Food intake, eating behavior, and metabolic parameters in rats that underwent bilateral truncal vagotomy, sleeve gastrectomy, and duodenal switch procedures were examined. Methods Rats were subjected to bilateral truncal vagotomy plus pyloroplasty (VTPP), pyloroplasty (PP), laparotomy, sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or duodenal switch (DS; with and without SG). Results VTPP, but neither PP nor laparotomy, reduced body weight (BW; 10%) transiently (1 week postoperatively). SG reduced BW (10%) for 6 weeks, while DS alone or SG followed by DS led to a continuous BW loss from 15% at 1 week to 50% at 8 weeks postoperatively. Food intake was higher and the satiety ratio was lower during the night than the day for all groups of surgeries. Neither VTPP nor SG had measurable effect on food intake, eating behavior and metabolic parameters. DS reduced daily food intake by more than 50%, which was associated with hypercholecystokinin(CCK)emia, reduced meal size and increased satiety ratio, and increased fecal energy content (measured at 8 weeks). Conclusions Weight loss after VTPP, SG, or DS differed in terms of degree, duration, and underlying mechanisms. DS without SG was most effective in the long-term, probably due to hyperCCKemia-induced reduction in food intake and long-limb intestinal bypass-induced malabsorption. PMID:20824380

  16. Duodenal and gallbladder metastasis of regressive melanoma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Elomrani, Fadwa; Elkabous, Mustapha; Rimani, Mouna; Boutayeb, Saber; Mrabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant melanoma involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may be primary or metastatic. Small bowel is the commonest site of GI metastases from cutaneous malignant melanoma, metastatic lesion in the gallbladder is extremely rare. Case presentation This case report describes the presentation of metastatic melanoma in duodenum and gallbladder. A 45-year-old man has presented melena with intermittent abdominal pain. On physical examination we found a small lesion between the fourth and fifth toes, associated with inguinal lymph node. An Abdominal ultrasound revealed diffuse duodenal thickening. Upper endoscopy was performed and discovered an ulcerative lesion in the second part of the duodenum. The biopsy with immunohistochemical stains was in favor of a duodenal location of melanoma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed many circumferential thickening of ileal loops associated with a nodular lesion in the anterior wall of the gallbladder. The patient was treated by palliative chemotherapy. Discussion Malignant melanoma of the GI tract may be primary or secondary. The small bowel is the most affected, but it’s rare in the gallbladder. The clinical presentation can mimic the other intestinal tumors, and the diagnosis is based on imaging; CT scan and GI endoscopy have a key role on the diagnosis, and the treatment depends on the location and the number of lesions. Conclusions Metastases of melanoma in the GI tract are uncommon, the diagnosis must be suspected in any patient with a history of melanoma with digestive signs. PMID:26487955

  17. Feasibility of Endoscopy-Assisted Laparoscopic Full-Thickness Resection for Superficial Duodenal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ohata, Ken; Murakami, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Kimiyasu; Nonaka, Kouichi; Misumi, Nobutsugu; Tashima, Tomoaki; Minato, Yohei; Shozushima, Meiko; Mitsui, Takahiro; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Fu, Kuangi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Superficial duodenal neoplasms (SDNs) are a challenging target in the digestive tract. Surgical resection is invasive, and it is difficult to determine the site and extent of the lesion from outside the intestine and resect it locally. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has scarcely been utilized in the treatment of duodenal tumors because of technical difficulties and possible delayed perforation due to the action of digestive juices. Thus, no standard treatments for SDNs have been established. To challenge this issue, we elaborated endoscopy-assisted laparoscopic full-thickness resection (EALFTR) and analyzed its feasibility and safety. Methods. Twenty-four SDNs in 22 consecutive patients treated by EALFTR between January 2011 and July 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Results. All lesions were removed en bloc. The lateral and vertical margins of the specimens were negative for tumor cells in all cases. The mean sizes of the resected specimens and lesions were 28.9?mm (SD ± 10.5) and 13.3?mm (SD ± 11.6), respectively. The mean operation time and intraoperative estimated blood loss were 133 min (SD ± 45.2) and 16?ml (SD ± 21.1), respectively. Anastomotic leakage occurred in three patients (13.6%) postoperatively, but all were minor leakage and recovered conservatively. Anastomotic stenosis or bleeding did not occur. Conclusions. EALFTR can be a safe and minimally invasive treatment option for SDNs. However, the number of cases in this study was small, and further accumulations of cases and investigation are necessary. PMID:24550694

  18. A Case of Duodenal Obstruction and Pancreatitis Due to Intragastric Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Alaattin; Yavuz, Yunus; Atalay, Talha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intragastric balloons have several advantages such as easy placement and low complication rates over other bariatric procedures. It is very rare for intragastric balloons to dislodge and give rise to pancreatitis. In this article, we present a case of duodenal obstruction caused by a gastric balloon leading to pancreatitis. Case Report: A 38-year-old obese female patient had undergone intragastric implantation one month before admission. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of abdominal pain. On the abdominal ultrasonography and tomography, edematous pancreatitis and cholelithiasis were observed. The patient was given medical treatment for pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography was repeated on the next day, and a distended gallbladder was revealed. Thus, the patient was operated on with the pre-diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and biliary pancreatitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. During the operation, a hard and trapped object was determined in the second part of the duodenal lumen. The patient was reevaluated on the second postoperative day as her pain had increased. On direct abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scan, the tubular part of the gastric balloon was found to be stuck in the duodenum. A gastroscopy was performed, but the balloon could not be removed. Therefore, an immediate laparotomy was performed, and the balloon was removed via gastrotomy. Conclusion: Although intragastric balloons are designed to reduce the risk of displacement, all unexpected patient complaints should lead to a thorough examination of the position and status of the balloon. PMID:26185725

  19. Successful open abdomen treatment for multiple ischemic duodenal perforated ulcers in dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dermatomyositis is an autoimmune disease characterized by proximal myopathy, cutaneous Gottron papules and heliotrope rash; intestinal involvement associated to acute vasculitis is less common but could be a life-threatening condition. Methods A 21-year-old woman, affected by dermatomyositis, presented to our attention with a three-day story of severe abdominal pain, no bowel movement and biliary vomit. She was diagnosed with acute abdomen. A CT scan with bowel contrast demonstrated the presence of a leakage from the retroperitoneal aspect of duodenum. The surgical and clinical management in the light of literature review is presented. Results Our first approach consisted in primary repair of the duodenal perforation with omentopexy. Post-operative course was complicated by hemorrhage. A reintervention showed a new perforation associated with multiple ischemic intestinal areas. We performed a gastroenteric anastomosis with functional exclusion of the damaged duodenum and positioning of drainages to create a biliary fistula. A nutritional enteric tube and an open abdomen vacuum-assisted closure system to monitor the fistula creation and to prevent abdominal contamination and collections were positioned. To reduce the amount of biliary leakage, a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was placed, with progressive fistula flow disappearance in four months. Conclusions In patients with dermatomyositis, when clinical findings and symptoms suggest abdominal vasculitis, it is very important to be aware of the risk of bowel and particularly duodenal perforations. Open abdomen treatment favors control of contamination by gastrointestinal contents, offers temporary abdominal closure, helps ICU care and delays definitive surgery. PMID:26085838

  20. The Oral Mucosa Immune Environment and Oral Transmission of HIV/SIV

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lianna F.; Chahroudi, Ann; Chen, Hui-Ling; Jaspan, Heather B.; Sodora, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The global spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on the ability of this virus to efficiently cross from one host to the next by traversing a mucosal membrane. Unraveling how mucosal exposure of HIV results in systemic infection is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on understanding the immune events associated with the oral route of transmission (via breastfeeding or sexual oral intercourse), which occurs across the oral and/or gastrointestinal mucosa. Studies in both humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey models have identified viral changes and immune events associated with oral HIV/SIV exposure. This review covers our current knowledge of HIV oral transmission in both infants and adults, the use of SIV models in understanding early immune events, oral immune factors that modulate HIV/SIV susceptibility (including mucosal inflammation), and interventions that may impact oral HIV transmission rates. Understanding the factors that influence oral HIV transmission will provide the foundation for developing immune therapeutic and vaccine strategies that can protect both infants and adults from oral HIV transmission. PMID:23772613

  1. Delivery of a Chlamydial Adhesin N-PmpC Subunit Vaccine to the Ocular Mucosa Using Particulate Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Stojanovic, Marijana; Schlacher, Simone; Stein, Elisabeth; Belij-Rammerstorfer, Sandra; Marinkovic, Emilija; Lukic, Ivana; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Schuerer, Nadine; Bintner, Nora; Kovacevic-Jovanovic, Vesna; Krnjaja, Ognjen; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Lubitz, Werner; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2015-01-01

    Trachoma, caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), remains the world’s leading preventable infectious cause of blindness. Recent attempts to develop effective vaccines rely on modified chlamydial antigen delivery platforms. As the mechanisms engaged in the pathology of the disease are not fully understood, designing a subunit vaccine specific to chlamydial antigens could improve safety for human use. We propose the delivery of chlamydia-specific antigens to the ocular mucosa using particulate carriers, bacterial ghosts (BGs). We therefore characterized humoral and cellular immune responses after conjunctival and subcutaneous immunization with a N-terminal portion (amino acid 1–893) of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane protein C (PmpC) of Ct serovar B, expressed in probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 bacterial ghosts (EcN BGs) in BALB/c mice. Three immunizations were performed at two-week intervals, and the immune responses were evaluated two weeks after the final immunization in mice. In a guinea pig model of ocular infection animals were immunized in the same manner as the mice, and protection against challenge was assessed two weeks after the last immunization. N-PmpC was successfully expressed within BGs and delivery to the ocular mucosa was well tolerated without signs of inflammation. N-PmpC-specific mucosal IgA levels in tears yielded significantly increased levels in the group immunized via the conjunctiva compared with the subcutaneously immunized mice. Immunization with N-PmpC EcN BGs via both immunization routes prompted the establishment of an N-PmpC-specific IFN? immune response. Immunization via the conjunctiva resulted in a decrease in intensity of the transitional inflammatory reaction in conjunctiva of challenged guinea pigs compared with subcutaneously and non-immunized animals. The delivery of the chlamydial subunit vaccine to the ocular mucosa using a particulate carrier, such as BGs, induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. Further investigations are needed to improve the immunization scheme and dosage. PMID:26656797

  2. Oral mucosa stem cells alleviates spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) deteriorates various physical functions, in particular, bladder problems occur as a result of damage to the spinal cord. Stem cell therapy for SCI has been focused as the new strategy to treat the injuries and to restore the lost functions. The oral mucosa cells are considered as the stem cells-like progenitor cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of oral mucosa stem cells on the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death and cell proliferation. Results The contraction pressure and the contraction time in the urinary bladder were increased after induction of SCI, in contrast, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells decreased the contraction pressure and the contraction time in the SCI-induced rats. Induction of SCI initiated apoptosis in the spinal cord tissues, whereas treatment with the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed the SCI-induced apoptosis. Disrupted spinal cord by SCI was improved by transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells, and new tissues were increased around the damaged tissues. In addition, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed SCI-induced neuronal activation in the voiding centers. Conclusions Transplantation of oral mucosa stem cells ameliorates the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms by inhibiting apoptosis and by enhancing cell proliferation. As the results, SCI-induced neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers was suppressed, showing the normalization of voiding function. PMID:24884998

  3. Characterization of the motor inhibitory role of colonic mucosa under chemical stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cano, Francisco E; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J

    2014-04-01

    The main roles of the colonic mucosa are the absorption of water and electrolytes and the barrier function that preserves the integrity of the colonic wall. The mediators and mechanisms to accomplish these functions are under continuous investigation, but little attention has been paid to a possible control of colonic motility by the mucosa that would fine tune the relationship between absorption and motility. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of the mucosa in the control of induced colonic contractility. Young ICR-CD1 mice (3-5 mo old) were studied. Isometric tension transducers were used to record contractility in full-thickness (FT) and mucosa-free (MF) strips from proximal colon. Proximal FT strips showed lower KCl- and bethanechol-induced responses than MF strips. The difference was not due to mechanical artefacts since the contractile response of FT strips to electrical field stimulation was around 50% lower than in MF. The inhibitory effects of the mucosa on FT strips were mimicked by immersion of separate strips of mucosa in the organ bath but not by addition of mucosal extract, suggesting gaseous molecules as mediators of this effect. Incubation of MF strips with synthase inhibitors of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide abolished the inhibition caused by addition of the mucosal strip, indicating that mucosal gasotransmitters are the mediators of these effects. This suggests that the control of colonic motility exerted by the mucosa could fine tune the balance between transit and absorption. PMID:24525019

  4. Sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and its relationship with duodenal-biliary reflux, plasma motilin and serum gastrin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Wang, Bing; Su, Yang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Wang, Hao-Lin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To detect whether patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy have duodenal-biliary reflux by measuring the radioactivity of Tc99m-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) in the bile and whether the patients with duodenal-biliary reflux have sphincter of Oddi hypomotility, by measuring the level of plasma and serum gastrin of the patients. Finally to if there is close relationship among sphincter of Oddi hypomotility, duodenal-biliary reflux and gastrointestinal peptides. METHODS: Forty-five patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy were divided into reflux group and control group. The level of plasma and serum gastrin of the patients and of 12 healthy volunteers were measured by radioimmunoassay. Thirty-four were selected randomly to undergo choledochoscope manometry. Sphincter of Oddi basal pressure (SOBP), amplitude (SOCA), frequency of contractions (SOF), duration of contractions (SOD), duodenal pressure (DP) and common bile duct pressure (CBDP) were scored and analyzed. RESULTS: Sixteen (35.6%) patients were detected to have duodenal-biliary reflux. SOBP, SOCA and CBDP in the reflux group were much lower than the control group (t = 5.254, 3.438 and 3.527, P < 0.001). SOD of the reflux group was shorter than the control group (t = 2.049, P < 0.05). The level of serum gastrin and plasma motilin of the reflux group was much lower than the control group (t = -2.230 and -2.235, P < 0.05). There was positive correlation between the level of plasma motilin and SOBP and between the level of serum gastrin and SOBP and CBDP. CONCLUSION: About 35.9% of the patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy have duodenal-biliary reflux. Most of them have sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and the decreased level of plasma motilin and serum gastrin. The disorder of gastrointestinal hormone secretion may result in sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. There is a close relationship between sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and duodenal-biliary reflux. PMID:18609694

  5. Control of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in normal rabbit colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Alpers, D H; Philpott, G W

    1975-10-01

    Although cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP) is known to suppress DNA synthesis is cultured cells and experimental tumors, its role in normal intact tissue has been little explored. This study helps to define the influence of modifiers of cyclic AMP levels on DNA synthesis in rabbit colonic mucosa maintained in short term organ culture system. Base line studies showed that incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA was linear for 24 hr and predominantly in mucosal cells, as shown by autoradiography. Colon from a normal fed rabbit showed a gradient of DNA synthesis, lowest in the cecum and increasing to a maximum, 3-fold greater, at the splenic flexure. This pattern was obliterated by fasting, at which time no formed stool remained in the colon, and all colon mucosa incorporated thymidine at the lower level of the right colon. Known modifiers of intracellular cAMP were found to depress colonic DNA synthesis. Theophylline inhibited DNA synthesis by 35% at 0.5 mM concentration and increased intracellular cAMP levels. This inhibition took 10 hr to be manifest and was at least partly reversible. It was by far the most active of the methylxanthines, consistent with its potency as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. N6,02-dibutyryl cyclic AMP inhibited DNA synthesis at concentrations as low as 0.025 mM, whereas adenosine and sodium butyrate were ineffective up to 1.0 mM. 5'-AMP did inhibit DNA synthesis, but only at 0.1 mM or higher and did not elevate intracellular cAMP levels. Other modifiers of cAMP which were effective included prostaglandins E1, E2, and F2alpha (2 times 10(-6) M) and papaverine (1 muM). Thymidine uptake was not affected by any of these drugs. The intrinsic thymidine pool was estimated at 20 muM by isotope dilution, and was not altered by theophylline. DNA synthesis in rabbit colon can be suppressed by increased cAMP levels within the time period allowed by organ culture. Thus, these drugs that elevated cAMP levels did not seem to suppress DNA synthesis by decreasing intracellular thymidine concentrations. PMID:170158

  6. In vitro adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to human intestinal epithelial cells from mucosal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Knutton, S; Lloyd, D R; Candy, D C; McNeish, A S

    1984-05-01

    An adhesion assay with isolated human enterocytes prepared from duodenal biopsies has been developed and tested by using human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli expressing colonization factor antigens I and II (CFA/I and CFA/II) and type 1 fimbriae. Enterotoxigenic E. coli strains H10407 (CFA/I) and B2C (CFA/II) bound to duodenal enterocytes to a much greater extent (mean of 4.6 and 4.0 bacteria per brush border) than did strain H10407P, a CFA/I- mutant of H10407 (mean of 0.1 bacteria per brush border). Type 1 fimbriae also promoted adhesion of strain H10407P to duodenal enterocytes but attachment was to basolateral rather than brush border surfaces. CFA/I and CFA/II, on the other hand, promoted adhesion only to human enterocyte brush borders. PMID:6370868

  7. Azithromycin in a triple therapy for H.pylori eradication in active duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Lapina, Tatiana L.; Bondarenko, Oksana Yu.; Sklanskaya, Olga A.; Grigoriev, Petr Ya.; Vasiliev, Yuri V.; Yakovenko, Emilia P.; Gulyaev, Pavel V.; Fedchenko, Valeri I.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess and compare the efficacy and safety of two triple regimes: A) metronidazole, amoxicillin and omeprazole, which is still widely used in Russia, and B) azithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole in healing active duodenal ulcer and H. pylori eradication. METHODS: 100 patients with active duodenal ulcer were included in the open, multicentre, randomized study with comparative groups. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following one-week triple regimes: A) metronidazole 500 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 g bid and omeprazole 20 mg bid (OAM, n = 50) and B) azithromycin 1 g od for the first 3 d (total dose 3 g), amoxicillin 1 g bid and omeprazole 20 mg bid (OAA, n = 50). Omeprazole 20 mg od was given after the eradication course as a monotherapy for three weeks. The control endoscopy was performed 8 wk after the entry. H. pylori infection was determined in the entry of the study and four weeks after the cessation of treatment by means of histology and CLO-test. RESULTS: 97 patients completed the study according to the protocol (1 patient of the OAM group did not come to the control endoscopy, 2 patients of the OAA group stopped the treatment because of mild allergic urticaria). Duodenal ulcers were healed in 48 patients of the OAM group (96%; CI 90.5%-100%) and in 46 patients of the OAA group (92%; CI 89.5%-94.5%) (p = ns). H. pylori infection was eradicated in 15 out of 50 patients with OAM (30%; CI 17%-43%) and in 36 out of 50 patients treated with OAA (72%; CI 59%-85%) (P < 0.001) - ITT analysis. CONCLUSION: The triple therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole failed to eradicate H. pylori in the majority of patients, which is an essential argument to withdraw this regimen out of the national recommendations. Macrolide with amoxicillin are preferable to achieve higher eradication rates. Azithromycin (1 g od for the first 3 d) can be considered as a successful component of the triple PPI-based regimen. PMID:12378634

  8. Changing patterns in the surgical treatment of perforated duodenal ulcer – single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Budzy?ski, Piotr; Grzesiak-Kuik, Agata; Natkaniec, Micha?; Major, Piotr; Mat?ok, Maciej; Stanek, Maciej; Wierdak, Mateusz; Migaczewski, Marcin; Pisarska, Magdalena; Budzy?ski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although the surgical treatment of patients with perforated duodenal ulcer is the method of choice, the introduction of effective pharmacotherapy has changed the surgical strategy. Nowadays less extensive procedures are chosen more frequently. The introduction of laparoscopic procedures had a significant impact on treatment results. Aim To present our experience in the treatment of perforated duodenal ulcer in two periods, by comparing open radical anti-ulcer procedures with laparoscopic ulcer repair. Material and methods The analysis covered patients operated on for perforated duodenal ulcer. Two groups of patients were compared. Group 1 included 245 patients operated on in the period 1980–1994 with a traditional method (pyloroplasty + vagotomy) before introduction of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Group 2 included 106 patients treated in the period 2000–2014 with the laparoscopic technique supplemented with PPI therapy. Groups were compared in terms of patients’ demographic structure, operative time, complication rate and mortality. Results The mean operative time in group 1 was shorter than in group 2 (p < 0.0001). Complications were noted in 57 (23.3%) patients in group 1 and 14 (13.5%) patients in group 2 (p = 0.0312). Reoperation was necessary in 13 (5.3%) cases in group 1 and in 5 cases in group 2 (p = 0.8179). The mortality rate in group 1 was significantly higher than in group 2 (10.2% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.0192). In group 1, median length of hospital stay was 9 days and differed significantly from group 2 (6 days, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Within the last 30 years, significant changes in treatment of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) have occurred, mainly related to abandoning routine radical anti-ulcer procedures and replacing the open technique with minimally invasive surgery. Thus it was possible to improve treatment results by reducing complication and mortality rates, and shortening the length of hospital stay. Although the laparoscopic operation is longer, it improves outcomes. In the authors’ opinion, in each patient with suspected peptic ulcer perforation, laparoscopy should be the method of choice.

  9. Vibrio cholerae Represses Polysaccharide Synthesis To Promote Motility in Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuning; Liu, Shengyan; Sheng, Ying; Rueggeberg, Karl-Gustav; Wang, Hui; Li, Jie; Gu, Frank X.; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao

    2015-01-01

    The viscoelastic mucus layer of gastrointestinal tracts is a host defense barrier that a successful enteric pathogen, such as Vibrio cholerae, must circumvent. V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is able to penetrate the mucosa and colonize the epithelial surface of the small intestine. In this study, we found that mucin, the major component of mucus, promoted V. cholerae movement on semisolid medium and in liquid medium. A genome-wide screen revealed that Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) production was inversely correlated with mucin-enhanced motility. Mucin adhesion assays indicated that VPS bound to mucin. Moreover, we found that vps expression was reduced upon exposure to mucin. In an infant mouse colonization model, mutants that overexpressed VPS colonized less effectively than wild-type strains in more distal intestinal regions. These results suggest that V. cholerae is able to sense mucosal signals and modulate vps expression accordingly so as to promote fast motion in mucus, thus allowing for rapid spread throughout the intestines. PMID:25561707

  10. Permeation of quinine across sublingual mucosa, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ong, Charlene M Y; Heard, Charles M

    2009-01-21

    Quinine is the first line treatment in severe P. falciparum malaria and nocturnal leg cramps and a fast, convenient delivery method of this drug quinine is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro the sublingual route for the delivery of quinine. Permeation studies were carried out with Franz diffusion cells containing sublingual mucosa membranes with PBS receptor phase and dosed with solutions of quinine hydrochloride or quinine/2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complexes. Receptor phase samples were taken 2 hourly over a 12h period and quinine was determined by reverse-phase HPLC analysis. The ventral surface of the tongue was significantly more permeable than porcine floor of the mouth (p<0.05) and there was no significant effect of freezing on the ventral surface of the tongue (p 0.2444). The presence of saliva caused a decrease in the permeation of quinine across the ventral surface of the tongue by up to 68%. Inclusion complexation between quinine and 2-HP-beta-CD was supported by (1)H NMR spectral data, and an ethanol vehicle provided the highest quinine flux from the inclusion complex solutions compared to deionised water and PEG. Overall, the data support further investigations into the clinical use of sublingual quinine, particularly for children with falciparum malaria or patients with nocturnal leg cramps. Use of quinine/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes may circumvent compliance issues due to bitter taste. PMID:18835345

  11. The oral mucosa as a therapeutic target for xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Thelin, W R; Brennan, M T; Lockhart, P B; Singh, M L; Fox, P C; Papas, A S; Boucher, R C

    2008-11-01

    Autoimmune disorders, medical interventions, and aging are all known to be associated with salivary gland hypofunction, which results in the uncomfortable feeling of dry mouth (xerostomia) and significantly diminished oral health. The current therapeutic regimen includes increasing oral hydration using over-the-counter oral comfort agents and the use of systemic cholinergic drugs to stimulate salivary output. However, these approaches produce very transient relief or are associated with uncomfortable side-effects. Thus, new treatments that provide long-lasting relief from discomfort and improve oral health with minimal side-effects would benefit the therapy of this disease. The processes that mediate fluid loss from the oral cavity, such as the absorption of fluid from the oral mucosa, represent novel therapeutic targets for xerostomia. Preventing fluid absorption from the oral cavity is predicted to improve oral hydration and alleviate the clinical symptoms and discomfort associated with dry mouth. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies that prevent fluid absorption should complement current approaches that increase salivary output. This review discusses the current understanding of oral fluid balance and how these processes may be manipulated to provide relief for those suffering from dry mouth. PMID:19193197

  12. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  13. Feeding Regulates the Expression of Pancreatic Genes in Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Maria Rita; Yoshioka, Mayumi; St-Amand, Jonny

    2010-01-01

    The ineffective short-term control of feeding behavior compromises energy homeostasis and can lead to obesity. The gastrointestinal tract secretes several regulatory peptides. However, little is known about the stomach peptide contribution to the acute regulation of intake. In an attempt to identify new gastric signals, the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method was used for the transcription profiling of stomach mucosa in 7 groups of mice: fasting and sacrificed 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours after a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) ad libitum meal. In total, 35 genes were differentially modulated by LF and HF meals compared to fasting, including 15 mRNAs coding for digestive enzymes/secretory proteins, and 10 novel transcripts. Although the basic expression profile did not undergo substantial variations, both LF and HF meals influenced the transcription. This study represents the first global analysis of stomach transcriptome as induced by different nutritional stimuli. Further studies including the characterization of novel genes may help to identify new targets for the therapy and prevention of obesity. PMID:21234387

  14. Enzymatic sulfation of mucus glycoprotein in gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Liau, Y.H.; Carter, S.R.; Gwozdzinski, K.; Nadziejko, C.; Slomiany, A.; Slomiany, B.L.

    1986-05-01

    Among the posttranslational modifications that mucus glycoprotein undergo prior to secretion into the gastric lumen is the process of sulfation of the carbohydrate chains. These sulfate groups impart strongly negative charge to nucus glycoprotein and are thought to play a major role in the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. The authors report here the presence and some properties of an enzyme involved in the sulfation of gastric mucus glycoprotein. The sulfotransferase activity which catalyzes the transfer of sulfate ester group from PAPS to mucus glycoprotein was located in the detergent extracts of the microsomal fraction of rat gastric mucosa. Optimum enzymatic activity for sulfation of gastric mucin was obtained using 0.5% Triton X-100 and 25mM NaF at a pH of 6.8. ATP, ADP, MgCl/sub 2/ and MnCl/sub 2/ at concentrations examined were inhibitory. Under optimal conditions, the rate of sulfate incorporation was proportional to the microsomal enzyme protein concentration up to 50..mu..g and remained constant with time of incubation for at least 1h. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for gastric mucus glycoprotein was 8.3 x 10/sup -6/M. The /sup 35/S-labeled product of the enzyme reaction cochromatographed on Bio-Gel A-50 with gastric mucin, and gave on CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation a band at the density of 1.48 in which the /sup 35/S label coincided with the glycoprotein.

  15. Surgical and Medical Treatment of Pyloric and Duodenal Pythiosis in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Dycus, David Lee; Fisher, Cory; Butler, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    A 5 yr old, male, neutered mixed-breed dog was referred for persistent vomiting 2 wk following a pyloric biopsy for a pyloric outflow obstruction. Histopathology at the time of initial surgery was suggestive of pythiosis. Following referral, the dog underwent radical surgical treatment with a Billroth II procedure, partial pancreatectomy, and cholecystoduodenostomy. Histopathology and serology confirmed the diagnosis of pythiosis and medical treatment consisting of itraconazole and terbinafine was started postoperatively. Serology titers were checked again at 8, 12, and 24 wk postoperatively revealing a positive response to treatment and no reoccurrence of pythiosis. Since surgery, the patient experienced waxing and waning elevations of liver values and laparoscopic liver biopsies 10 mo postoperatively revealed hepatic cirrhosis with fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, and chronic inflammation. This report documents successful treatment of pyloric/duodenal pythiosis and the long-term (17 mo) consequences associated with the Billroth II, partial pancreatectomy, and biliary rerouting in the dog. PMID:26535457

  16. Duodenal ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease today: long-term therapy--a sideways glance.

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, K. D.

    1996-01-01

    Acid-peptic disease is widely considered conquered or controlled, future advances being refinements of existing treatments rather than radical new developments. Yet controversies remain and developments have yet to be made. DUODENAL ULCER: Daily maintenance treatment with the anti-secretory drugs, histamine H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump blockers, controls duodenal ulcer effectively, markedly reducing relapse rate at one year after treatment from about 75 percent to 15 to 20 percent (and to about 10 percent on proton pump blockers). In contrast, Helicobacter pylori eradication with a one to two week course of treatment yields prolonged remission or cure. The consequent reduction in drug costs in individual patients, however, has been exceeded by increasing community use on the more expensive proton pump blockers for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The marked decline in elective surgery since the introduction of histamine H2 receptor antagonists is commonly attributed to the power of these drugs. The fall, however, had started much earlier, indicating that the decline is due to changing natural history. In contrast, complication rates remain unaltered. An increasing proportion of newly diagnosed duodenal ulcer patients are elderly, and more of them now present for the first time with complications (in this center, about 40 percent), which consequently cannot be forestalled. Thus, duodenal ulcer disease is likely to remain a problem and in many will be a serious illness. GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE: The proton pump blockers have revolutionized the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In clinical trials they have proven markedly superior to the histamine H2 receptor antagonists in healing (at eight weeks, 80 to 90 percent vs. 50 to 60 percent), symptom relief, prevention of relapse on maintenance therapy and cost-effectiveness. However, several issues remain. The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease seems to be rising and is now probably the commonest acid-peptic disease encountered in the West. Most clinical trials comparing proton pump blockers vs. histamine H2 receptor antagonists have been done in patients with erosive esophagitis, whereas the majority (50 to 60 percent) of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease have milder, generally non-erosive, disease. The therapeutic gain of proton pump blockers diminishes in mild disease so may not be worth the higher drug costs. This is an important area for investigation. The majority of patients with erosive esophagitis relapse when treatment is stopped (about 75 percent at one year). Relapse is markedly reduced (to 20 to 25 percent) by daily maintenance treatment with proton pump blockers. Mild disease relapses less often, so longterm therapy by intermittent treatment may prove acceptable and more cost-effective than maintenance treatment. This strategy remains unexplored in trials. The ideal profile of an anti-secretory drug for intermittent treatment would combine rapid onset of action (similar to histamine H2 receptor antagonists) with powerful effect (as with proton pump blockers). The new class of drug, the reversible proton pump blocker (e.g., BY841) approaches this requirement. PMID:9165690

  17. [The incidence of duodenogastric reflux and its relation to stomach and duodenal diseases].

    PubMed

    Radev, D; Kotsev, I; Pana?otov, P; Karageorgiev, L; Georgiev, M; Bozhanin, D; Dimov, D

    1990-01-01

    The data available in the literature on the incidence of duodenogastric reflux and its relation with diseases of the stomach and duodenum are controversial. A study was performed based on the results of 4256 primary endoscopies of the stomach and duodenum: 3673 in nonoperated patients and 583 in patients having undergone vagotomy and resection. For duodenogastric reflux one judged from the yellow coloration of the gastric juice and regurgitation of bile at the moment of examination. Reflux had 428 patients (10.05 per cent)--330 in the nonoperated group (8.98 per cent) and 98 in the operated group (16.81 per cent). Inference is drawn that duodenogastric reflux does not coincide in incidence with reflux gastritis and that causal relation might be searched between gastritis, reflux esophagitis and duodenitis, on the one hand, and duodenogastric reflux, on the other. PMID:2097428

  18. Mechanistic Comparison between Gastric Bypass vs. Duodenal Switch with Sleeve Gastrectomy in Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Johannessen, Helene; Furnes, Marianne W.; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Johnsen, Gjermund; Mårvik, Ronald; Kulseng, Bård; Chen, Duan

    2013-01-01

    Background Both gastric bypass (GB) and duodenal switch with sleeve gastrectomy (DS) have been widely used as bariatric surgeries, and DS appears to be superior to GB. The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms leading to body weight loss by comparing these two procedures in experimental models of rats. Methods Animals were subjected to GB, DS or laparotomy (controls), and monitored by an open-circuit indirect calorimeter composed of comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system and adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Results Body weight loss was greater after DS than GB. Food intake was reduced after DS but not GB. Energy expenditure was increased after either GB or DS. Fecal energy content was increased after DS but not GB. Conclusion GB induced body weight loss by increasing energy expenditure, whereas DS induced greater body weight loss by reducing food intake, increasing energy expenditure and causing malabsorption in rat models. PMID:24039816

  19. Transcatheter Coil Embolization of an Aneurysm of the Pancreatico-duodenal Artery with Occluded Celiac Trunk

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.H. Pfeifer, K.J.; Tato, F.; Reiser, M.; Rieger, J.

    2005-04-15

    We report on a case of a wide-necked aneurysm of the pancreatico-duodenal artery with occlusion of the celiac trunk in an asymptomatic patient. The aneurysm was considered to be at high risk of rupture. Successful embolization after interdisciplinary consultation was followed with color-coded duplex ultrasound (CCDS) demonstrating significant flow reduction. Three weeks later CCDS and angiography demonstrated exclusion of the aneurysm and a patent arterial supply of the liver and spleen fed by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) collaterals. The patient has done well so far, without major adverse clinical events or evidence for tissue necrosis of the liver, pancreas or spleen. Discussion of the case and review of the literature indicate that transcatheter embolization is the therapy of choice even in complicated cases.

  20. Cigarette smoke effects on innate immune mechanisms in the nasal mucosa. Potential effects on the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), through active smoking and through exposure to secondhand smoke, has immunosuppressive effects, yet how this might affect the microbiome is not known. In this manuscript we focus on the effects of CS on innate host defense response, with particular emphasis on the role of epithelial cells and mucosal immune responses in the nose and the potential effects on the microbiome. The studies described here briefly summarize the effects of CS on specific innate immune cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. A detailed description of how CS affects epithelial cells and why we consider this to be a central defect in the overall immunosuppressive effects of CS in the lung is provided. We summarize data on the role of the "epimmunome" in the context of CS exposure, including the effects on soluble mediator production, such as cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense mediators. Separate emphasis is put on the expression of ligands on epithelial cells, which directly interact with receptors on immune cells, and the effects of CS on these interactions. We introduce the nose and nasal mucosa as a model to study the effects of CS exposure on host defense responses and changes in the microbiome in humans in vivo. Understanding the dynamics of a healthy microbiome and how CS affects this balance is important to uncovering the mechanisms of CS-induced disease. PMID:24437404

  1. Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer by Topical Application of Black Raspberries on High At-Risk Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Blake M.; Casto, Bruce C.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Accurso, Brent T.; Weghorst, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the preclinical efficacy of topical administration of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) to inhibit the progression of premalignant oral lesions and modulate biomarkers of cancer development in high at-risk mucosa (HARM). Study Design Hamster cheek pouches (HCPs) were treated with carcinogen for six weeks to initiate a HARM microenvironment. Subsequently, right HCPs were topically administered a BRB suspension in short-term or long-term studies. After 12 weeks, SCC multiplicity, SCC incidence, and cell proliferation rates were evaluated. mRNA expression was measured in short-term treated pouches for selected oral cancer biomarkers. Results SCC multiplicity (?41.3%), tumor incidence (?37.1%), and proliferation rate (?6.9%) were reduced in HCPs receiving BRBs. Topical BRBs correlated with an increase in Rb1 expression in developing oral lesions. Conclusion Topical BRBs inhibit SCC development when targeted to HARM tissues. These results support the translational role of BRBs to prevent oral cancer development in humans. PMID:25457886

  2. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers means that we can only postulate why we were unable to obtain m-SKPs from the lion and red panda cultures. However the giant panda observations point to the value of archiving cells from rare species, and the possibilities for later progenitor cell derivation. PMID:26398672

  3. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Hilary M. A.; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A.; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers means that we can only postulate why we were unable to obtain m-SKPs from the lion and red panda cultures. However the giant panda observations point to the value of archiving cells from rare species, and the possibilities for later progenitor cell derivation. PMID:26398672

  4. [Epidemiological study on the risk of gastric cancer in patients with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, T

    1991-05-01

    Patients who were diagnosed to have duodenal ulcer (DU) or duodenal ulcer scar (DUS) by gastric mass screening with X-Ray examination from April 1970 to Dec. 1983 were followed up to Dec. 1983 by means of record linkage to the Osaka Cancer Registry, and incident patients of gastric cancer (GC) among the study subjects during the follow-up period were investigated almost completely. Standardized incidence rates (SIR) of GC for the groups categorized by diagnosis at the initial screening, i.e., DU or DUS group and normal group, were calculated by comparing the number of GC among the study groups with the expected number of GC. This expected number was obtained by multiplying the person-year of the study subjects with GC incidence rates for the whole population of Osaka prefecture according to sex and age group. SIR were calculated by sub-groups, i.e., male and female groups, under 5 year follow-up (from the initial screening to GC diagnosis) and 5 year follow-up or over groups, and direct X-Ray examination at the detection center and indirect X-Ray examination in the screening bus groups. The results were as follows. The SIR were 0.41 for the DU or DUS group and 0.74 for the normal group. The risk for the DU or DUS group was lower than that for the normal group (R.R. = 0.55, chi 2 = 3.56, 0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). In all subgroups, the risk of GC for each DU or DUS group was lower than that for the normal group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1880947

  5. Several standard elective operations for duodenal ulcer: ten to 16 year clinical results.

    PubMed Central

    Goligher, J C; Feather, D B; Hall, R; Hall, R A; Hopton, D; Kenny, T E; Latchmore, A J; Matheson, T; Shoesmith, J H; Smiddy, F G; Willson-Pepper, J

    1979-01-01

    A survey was undertaken of 558 men with duodenal ulcer who had been treated ten to 16 years previously by truncal vagotomy and drainage, truncal vagotomy and antrectomy and subtotal gastrectomy. Of the 558, 65 had died and 111, presumed living, could not be traced, leaving 382 available for assessment. Between 75 and 85% of the traced patients were considered to have an excellent or very good result, which is a slight improvement on the previously published results in this same group of patients at five to eight years follow-up. Some of the side effects of operation had diminished slightly in frequency and there had been no significant increase in the incidence of recurrent ulceration since the previous survey. Anemia was an uncommon finding. As between the various forms of operation, truncal vagotomy and antrectomy and subtotal gastrectomy demonstrated significantly better protection against proven recurrent ulcer than did truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty (p less than 0.05). Compared with truncal vagotomy and gastroenterostomy, however, the results of both resection operations, though better, did not achieve statistical significance at p - 0.5 level (p less than 0.1). In regard to Visick gradings the resection procedures had better scores, but the differences were not significant at the p - 0.05 level, except for vagotomy and antractomy as compared with vagotomy and pyloroplasty. But it is stressed that in formulating a policy of surgical therapy for duodenal ulcer the greater inherent immediate risks of resection operations need to be borne in mind. PMID:758858

  6. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Distal Part of Esophagus in a Teenager

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ignat, Ancuta; Paduraru, Gabriela; Mihaila, Doina; Burlea, Marin; Ciubara, Anamaria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the esophagus is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa. It may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis of HGM is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. HGM located in the distal esophagus needs differentiation from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant injury for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Malignant progression of HGM occurs in a stepwise pattern, following the metaplasia–dysplasia–adenocarcinoma sequence. We present a rare case of a teenage girl with HGM located in the distal esophagus, associated with chronic gastritis and biliary duodenogastric reflux. Endoscopy combined with biopsies is a mandatory method in clinical evaluation of metaplastic and nonmetaplastic changes within HGM of the esophagus. PMID:26496283

  7. HELICOBACTER-LIKE ORGANISMS IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) AND GREY FOXES (UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic examination of gastric mucosa of raccoons (Procyon lotor), porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and black bears (Ursus amaricanus) was done on archival tissue blocks for evidence of Helicobacter-like org...

  8. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

    2014-01-01

    Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

  9. Endoscopic rendez-vous after damage control surgery in treatment of retroperitoneal abscess from perforated duodenal diverticulum: a techinal note and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The duodenum is the second seat of onset of diverticula after the colon. Duodenal diverticulosis is usually asymptomatic, but duodenal perforation with abscess may occur. Case presentation Woman, 83 years old, emergency hospitalised for generalized abdominal pain. On the abdominal tomography in the third portion of the duodenum a herniation and a concomitant full-thickness breach of the visceral wall was detected. The patient underwent emergency surgery. A surgical toilette of abscess was performed passing through the perforated diverticula and the Petzer’s tube drainage was placed in the duodenal lumen; the duodenostomic Petzer was endoscopically removed 4 months after the surgery. Discussion A review of medical literature was performed and our treatment has never been described. Conclusion For the treatment of perforated duodenal diverticula a sequential two-stage non resective approach is safe and feasible in selected cases. PMID:23866674

  10. Impairment of aminopyrine clearance in aspirin-damaged canine gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.A.; Henagan, J.M.; Loy, T.M.

    1983-09-01

    Using an in vivo canine chambered stomach preparation, the clearance of (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine across mucosa when intravenously infused and the back-diffusion of this substance from gastric lumen to mucosa when topically applied to gastric epithelium were evaluated in aspirin-damaged gastric epithelium. In mucosa damaged by either 20 mM or 40 mM aspirin, the recovery of (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine, when topically mixed with acid (pH . 1.1) perfusate solution, was not significantly different from nondamaged control mucosa. In addition, the degree of ''trapping'' of this substance from back-diffusion was not different in damaged mucosa from that observed in nondamaged epithelium. In contrast, when (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine was intravenously infused, its clearance was significantly impaired in aspirin-damaged mucosa when compared with control studies, as evidenced by the increased ''trapping'' of this substance in injured epithelium. These findings indicate that movement of aminopyrine from plasma to gastric lumen is impaired in damaged epithelium, making the aminopyrine clearance technique an unreliable method to accurately measure absolute gastric blood flow in this experimental setting.

  11. Histological and morphometrical studies on the mucosa of the equine guttural pouch (auditory tube diverticulum).

    PubMed

    Manglai, D; Wada, R; Kurohmaru, M; Yoshihara, T; Kuwano, A; Oikawa, M; Hayashi, Y

    2000-08-01

    The present study attempted to clarify the characteristics of the guttural pouch mucosa in equines and to evaluate its foreign substance clearance ability. The specimens were collected from nine regions (eight in the guttural pouch mucosa, and one in the nasopharynx mucosa). We first examined the pouch mucosa by light and electron microscopy. We then measured the frequency of goblet cells per 200 epithelial cells, the length of the cilia, the thickness of the epithelial cell layer and lamina propria and statistically analyzed the data. The guttural pouch mucosa consisted of stratified columnar epithelia with brush-like cilia, and there were almost no histological differences between adults and foals. The morphometrical study revealed significant differences in goblet cell frequency (p < 0.001) and the thickness of lamina propria (p < 0.05). By contrast, no statistically significant difference was detected in the length of the cilia or the thickness of the epithelial cell layer. These findings suggest that the guttural pouch mucosa provides foreign substance clearance ability, but that its ability varies among different regions of the epithelium. PMID:10998939

  12. Dosimetric Predictors of Duodenal Toxicity After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Treatment of the Para-aortic Nodes in Gynecologic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jonathan; Sulman, Erik P.; Jhingran, Anuja; Tucker, Susan L.; Rauch, Gaiane M.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Klopp, Ann H.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of duodenal toxicity in patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for treatment of para-aortic nodes and to identify dosimetric parameters predictive of late duodenal toxicity. Methods and Materials: We identified 105 eligible patients with gynecologic malignancies who were treated with IMRT for gross metastatic disease in the para-aortic nodes from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009. Patients were treated to a nodal clinical target volume to 45 to 50.4 Gy with a boost to 60 to 66 Gy. The duodenum was contoured, and dosimetric data were exported for analysis. Duodenal toxicity was scored according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis and recursive partitioning analysis were used to determine associations between dosimetric variables and time to toxicity and to identify the optimal threshold that separated patients according to risk of toxicity. Results: Nine of the 105 patients experienced grade 2 to grade 5 duodenal toxicity, confirmed by endoscopy in all cases. The 3-year actuarial rate of any duodenal toxicity was 11.7%. A larger volume of the duodenum receiving 55 Gy (V55) was associated with higher rates of duodenal toxicity. The 3-year actuarial rates of duodenal toxicity with V55 above and below 15 cm{sup 3} were 48.6% and 7.4%, respectively (P<.01). In Cox univariate analysis of dosimetric variables, V55 was associated with duodenal toxicity (P=.029). In recursive partitioning analysis, V55 less than 13.94% segregated all patients with duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT can safely and effectively treat para-aortic nodal disease in gynecologic malignancies, provided that care is taken to limit the dose to the duodenum to reduce the risk of late duodenal toxicity. Limiting V55 to below 15 cm{sup 3} may reduce the risk of duodenal complications. In cases where the treatment cannot be delivered within these constraints, consideration should be given to other treatment approaches such as resection or initial chemotherapy.

  13. Nivalenol Has a Greater Impact than Deoxynivalenol on Pig Jejunum Mucosa in Vitro on Explants and in Vivo on Intestinal Loops

    PubMed Central

    Cheat, Sophal; Gerez, Juliana R.; Cognié, Juliette; Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. L.; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo. The histological changes induced by DON and NIV were analyzed after four-hour exposure on pig jejunum explants and loops, two alternative models. On explants, dose-dependent increases in the histological changes were induced by DON and NIV, with a two-fold increase in lesion severity at 10 µM NIV. On loops, NIV had a greater impact on the mucosa than DON. The overall proliferative cells showed 30% and 13% decrease after NIV and DON exposure, respectively, and NIV increased the proliferative index of crypt enterocytes. NIV also increased apoptosis at the top of villi and reduced by almost half the proliferative/apoptotic cell ratio. Lamina propria cells (mainly immune cells) were more sensitive than enterocytes (epithelial cells) to apoptosis induced by NIV. Our results demonstrate a greater impact of NIV than DON on the intestinal mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, and highlight the need of a specific hazard characterization for NIV risk assessment. PMID:26035490

  14. Nivalenol has a greater impact than deoxynivalenol on pig jejunum mucosa in vitro on explants and in vivo on intestinal loops.

    PubMed

    Cheat, Sophal; Gerez, Juliana R; Cognié, Juliette; Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Bracarense, Ana Paula F L; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Oswald, Isabelle P; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2015-06-01

    The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo. The histological changes induced by DON and NIV were analyzed after four-hour exposure on pig jejunum explants and loops, two alternative models. On explants, dose-dependent increases in the histological changes were induced by DON and NIV, with a two-fold increase in lesion severity at 10 µM NIV. On loops, NIV had a greater impact on the mucosa than DON. The overall proliferative cells showed 30% and 13% decrease after NIV and DON exposure, respectively, and NIV increased the proliferative index of crypt enterocytes. NIV also increased apoptosis at the top of villi and reduced by almost half the proliferative/apoptotic cell ratio. Lamina propria cells (mainly immune cells) were more sensitive than enterocytes (epithelial cells) to apoptosis induced by NIV. Our results demonstrate a greater impact of NIV than DON on the intestinal mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, and highlight the need of a specific hazard characterization for NIV risk assessment. PMID:26035490

  15. Biochemical indicators of implantation success of tissue-engineered oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, S; Zhou, Y; Kim, H M; Kato, H; Kim, R Y; Bayar, G R; Marcelo, C L; Kennedy, R T; Feinberg, S E

    2015-01-01

    Real-time (RT) determination of the health of in vitro tissue-engineered constructs prior to grafting is essential for prediction of success of the implanted tissue-engineered graft. In addition, the US Food and Drug Administration requires specific release criteria in RT prior to the release of tissue-engineered devices for human use. In principle, assessing the viability and functionality of the cellular component can be achieved by quantifying the secretion of growth factors and chemokines of tissue-engineered constructs. Ex vivo-produced oral mucosa equivalents (EVPOMEs) were fabricated under thermally stressed conditions at 43 °C for 24 h to create a functionally compromised EVPOME. We used microchannel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to evaluate the functionality of the cellular component, oral keratinocytes, of stressed and unstressed EVPOMEs by measuring the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), human ?-defensin 1 (hBD-1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and -2) into the spent medium, which was collected on the same day prior to graft implantation into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Implanted EVPOMEs' histology on the seventh postimplantation day was used to correlate outcomes of grafting to secreted amounts of IL-8, hBD-1, VEGF, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 from corresponding EVPOMEs. Our findings showed that significantly higher levels of IL-8, hBD-1, and TIMP-2 were secreted from controls than from thermally stressed EVPOMEs. We also found a direct correlation between secreted VEGF and IL-8 and blood vessel counts of implanted EVPOMEs. We concluded that measuring the constitutive release of these factors can be used as noninvasive predictors of healthy tissue-engineered EVPOMEs in RT, prior to their implantation. PMID:25348542

  16. Small bowel obstruction due to enterolith (bezoar) formed in a duodenal diverticulum: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shocket, E; Simon, S A

    1982-09-01

    An elderly patient with an acute small bowel obstruction due to an enterolith that evolved within a duodenal diverticulum is reported. Twenty-four prior instances of small bowel obstruction due to an enterolith formed within a small bowel diverticulum have been culled from the world literature and tabulated. In toto, 18 subjects are female and seven are male. The median age is 68 yr. Optimal surgical management is either to break up the enterolith and milk the components into the cecum without an enterotomy or, as is more often necessary, to milk the enterolith orad removing the concretion through an enterotomy made in less edematous small intestine. As in managing gallstone ileus, the bowel should be "run" seeking additional enteroliths. The diagnosis can be established only by documenting the normalcy of the gallbladder and the presence of duodenal and/or jejunal diverticula. PMID:6810693

  17. Effects of duodenal switch alone or in combination with sleeve gastrectomy on body weight and lipid metabolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gudbrandsen, O A; Kodama, Y; Mjøs, S A; Zhao, C-M; Johannessen, H; Brattbakk, H-R; Haugen, C; Kulseng, B; Mellgren, G; Chen, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: A combined procedure of sleeve gastrectomy and duodenal switch (SG+DS) has been applied to the treatment of super obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether duodenal switch alone (DS) leads to similar weight loss and changes in lipid metabolism as SG+DS. Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent sham surgery (Sham, N=7), duodenal switch alone (DS, N=5) or sleeve gastrectomy followed by duodenal switch (SG+DS, N=5). Body weight, feed and water intakes, and ambulatory activity were recorded 2 months post surgery. Tissue and faecal lipids, faecal bile acids, plasma cytokines and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in adipose tissue and liver were analysed. Results: Daily energy intake, relative feed uptake, ambulatory activity and body weight reduction were similar between DS and SG+DS rats. The hepatic triacylglycerol content was higher and faecal secretion of triacylglycerol was lower after SG+DS compared to DS (P<0.05). Faecal bile acid secretion was higher in SG+DS than in DS rats (P<0.05) despite similar hepatic CYP7A1mRNA level. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and tumour necrosis factor alpha were higher in SG+DS than in DS rats (P<0.05). Conclusions: Although DS and SG+DS had similar efficacy in terms of body weight loss, SG+DS resulted in a poorer regulation of lipid metabolism than DS. PMID:24979153

  18. Food impaction in a duodenal diverticulum as an unusual cause of biliary obstruction: case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, K; van der Linden, G H; Beukers, R; Cleophas, T A

    1997-06-01

    We present two patients with upper abdominal complaints and symptoms of biliary obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed that the common bile duct was obstructed by a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum filled with a food bezoar. There were no gallstones or other potential causes of obstruction. The bile flow was restored and symptoms disappeared after rinsing the diverticulum. Eventually, both of the patients were treated surgically because of recurrent symptoms. PMID:9222744

  19. [Surgical treatment of duodenal ulcer associated with Mallory-Weiss syndrome and sliding hiatal hernia and complicated by hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Za?tsev, V T; Bo?ko, V V; Donets, N P; Taraban, I A; Groma, V G

    1997-01-01

    Of 1061 patients with an acute gastro-intestinal haemorrhage the combination of duodenal ulcer disease, Mallory-Weiss syndrome and sliding hiatal hernia was noted in 22 (2.07%). Surgical treatment consisted of the bleeding ulcer excision, cardia defects suturing, lowering of the stomach acid production performing one kind of vagotomy, external and internal decompression of stomach accomplishment (nasogastric tube and pyloroplasty), correction of anatomic-topographic interrelations of cardio-esophageal zone (cruroraphy, fundoplication). PMID:9511312

  20. Motor Vehicle Collision Patient with Simultaneous Duodenal Transection and Thoracic Aorta Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Blunt polytrauma can present complex management decisions. Here we report the case of a 31-year-old male involved in a high speed motor vehicle collision resulting in both duodenal and thoracic aorta injury that was managed collaboratively between the trauma, vascular, and cardiothoracic surgical teams. The patient went on to a full recovery. We also review the management of such injuries which has evolved over the past two decades resulting in less morbidity and mortality. PMID:25688322

  1. Effect of curing Helicobacter pylori infection on intragastric acidity during treatment with ranitidine in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Labenz, J; Tillenburg, B; Peitz, U; Verdú, E; Stolte, M; Börsch, G; Blum, A L

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with duodenal ulcer cure of Helicobacter pylori infection resulted in a pronounced decrease in intragastric pH during treatment with omeprazole. AIM: To test the hypothesis that treatment of H pylori adversely affects the pH response to ranitidine. PATIENTS: Eighteen patients with duodenal ulcer who were infected with H pylori were studied. METHODS: Twenty four hour pH recordings were performed during treatment with ranitidine (300 mg) at night before and four to six weeks after cure of H pylori infection. Presence of H pylori was assessed by a rapid urease test, culture, histology, and a 13C urea breath test. Also, the fasting gastrin concentrations were measured before and after treatment for H pylori infection. RESULTS: Cure of H pylori infection resulted in a considerable improvement in both antral and corpus gastritis and a decrease in fasting gastrin concentrations. As a result of the cure the night time intragastric pH during treatment with ranitidine decreased (median pH 6.8 v 5.4; p = 0.007), whereas the acidity during the daytime was not affected. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with duodenal ulcer the intragastric pH during treatment with ranitidine depends on H pylori. However, the loss of effectiveness in altering pH seems to be less pronounced than previously found with omeprazole. PMID:9274468

  2. A case of gallbladder cancer combined with ectopic individual opening of pancreatic and bile ducts to the duodenal bulb

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woohyung; Park, Ji-Ho; Kim, Ju-Yeon; Kwag, Seung-Jin; Park, Taejin; Jeong, Sang-Ho; Ju, Young-Tae; Jung, Eun-Jung; Lee, Young-Joon; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts (EOPBD) into the duodenal bulb is an extremely rare congenital anomaly with unknown clinical implications. We presented a case of gallbladder cancer with EOPBD into the duodenal bulb. A 57-year-old male was referred to our hospital with intermittent right upper abdominal pain. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed individual EOPBD into the duodenal bulb with no papillary structure, and a focal nodular lesion in the gallbladder. A follow-up abdominal computed tomography scan 9 months later revealed a slight increase in the size of the fundal nodule, which was suspected as gallbladder cancer. An intraoperative frozen biopsy identified the nodular lesion as adenocarcinoma involving the cystic duct, and the patient underwent radical cholecystectomy including bile duct resection with hepaticojejunostomy. EOPBD is an extremely rare condition that can be associated with gallbladder malignancy as well as benign disease. Clinicians should follow up carefully and consider surgical treatment for suspected malignant lesions. PMID:26379734

  3. Down syndrome: molecular mapping of the congenital heart disease and duodenal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Korenberg, J R; Bradley, C; Disteche, C M

    1992-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of congenital heart and gut disease and mental retardation. DS individuals also have characteristic facies, hands, and dermatoglyphics, in addition to abnormalities of the immune system, an increased risk of leukemia, and an Alzheimer-like dementia. Although their molecular basis is unknown, recent work on patients with DS and partial duplications of chromosome 21 has suggested small chromosomal regions located in band q22 that are likely to contain the genes for some of these features. We now extend these analyses to define molecular markers for the congenital heart disease, the duodenal stenosis, and an "overlap" region for the facial and some of the skeletal features. We report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis of two patients. The first is DUP21JS, who carries both a partial duplication of chromosome 21, including the region 21q21.1-q22.13, or proximal q22.2, and DS features including duodenal stenosis. Using quantitative Southern blot dosage analysis and 15 DNA sequences unique to chromosome 21, we have defined the molecular extent of the duplication. This includes the region defined by DNA sequences for APP (amyloid precursor protein), SOD1 (CuZn superoxide dismutase), D21S47, SF57, D21S17, D21S55, D21S3, and D21S15 and excludes the regions defined by DNA sequences for D21S16, D21S46, D21S1, D21S19, BCE I (breast cancer estrogen-inducible gene), D21S39, and D21S44. Using similar techniques, we have also defined the region duplicated in the second case occurring in a family carrying a translocation associated with DS and congenital heart disease. This region includes DNA sequences for D21S55 and D21S3 and excludes DNA sequences for D21S47 and D21S17.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1531166

  4. Microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa after fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Serati, Maurizio; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Iannitti, Tommaso; Salvatore, Stefano; Marotta, Francesco; Calligaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy occurring during menopause is closely related to the dramatic decrease in ovarian estrogens due to the loss of follicular activity. Particularly, significant changes occur in the structure of the vaginal mucosa, with consequent impairment of many physiological functions. In this study, carried out on bioptic vaginal mucosa samples from postmenopausal, nonestrogenized women, we present microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of vaginal mucosa following fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment. We observed the restoration of the vaginal thick squamous stratified epithelium with a significant storage of glycogen in the epithelial cells and a high degree of glycogen-rich shedding cells at the epithelial surface. Moreover, in the connective tissue constituting the lamina propria, active fibroblasts synthesized new components of the extracellular matrix including collagen and ground substance (extrafibrillar matrix) molecules. Differently from atrophic mucosa, newly-formed papillae of connective tissue indented in the epithelium and typical blood capillaries penetrating inside the papillae, were also observed. Our morphological findings support the effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser application for the restoration of vaginal mucosa structure and related physiological trophism. These findings clearly coupled with striking clinical relief from symptoms suffered by the patients before treatment. PMID:25410301

  5. Sleep deprivation increase the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in rat gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xi-Zhong; Koo, Marcel W.L.; Cho, Chi-Hin

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if sleep deprivation is able to increase the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa and its possible role in mucosal defense. METHODS: Rats for sleep disruption were placed inside a computerized rotating drum, gastric mucosa was taken from rats with 1, 3 and 7 d sleep deprivation. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of heat shock protein 70. Ethanol (500 mL·L-1, i.g.) was used to induce gastric mucosa damage. RESULTS: RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining confirmed that the sleep deprivation as a stress resulted in significantly greater expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa of rats. After the 500 mL·L-1 ethanol challenge, the ulcer area found in the rats with 7 d sleep deprivation (19.15 ± 4.2) mm2 was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than the corresponding control (53.7 ± 8.1) mm2. CONCLUSION: Sleep deprivation as a stress, in addition to lowering the gastric mucosal barrier, is able to stimulate the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa of rats, the heat shock protein 70 may play an important role in gastric mucosal protection. PMID:11819816

  6. Relationship between mucin expression of gastric intramucosal signet ring cell carcinoma and its background mucosa.

    PubMed

    Seki, Takayuki; Ito, Tateki; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Sekine, Masaki; Funata, Nobuaki; Takizawa, Touichiro

    2009-03-01

    The intramucosal lesion of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SIG) is known to form a layered structure (LS) that simulates mucin expression in ordinary gastric mucosa. In this study, we suspected the influence of background mucosa on the formation of LS and performed histopathological analysis. We examined 35 cases of intramucosal SIG with a maximum diameter of 30 mm or less. The LS patterns were classified into those with a layer of MUC6-positive cells (complete pattern, CP) and those lacking this layer (incomplete pattern, ICP). The relationship between LS patterns and the characteristics of the background mucosa, the expression of MUC2 (intestinal-type mucin antigen), MUC5AC (foveolar-type mucin antigen), and Ki-67 (the marker of cell proliferation activity) was examined by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Intestinal metaplasia in the background mucosa and MUC2 expression were frequently observed in cases with ICP. Ki-67-positive cells were much more and they were distributed more widely in the lesion of cases with ICP alone than in the other cases. Mucin expression and LS formation of gastric SIG are strongly influenced by its background mucosa. The cases completely lacking MUC6 expression may have higher malignant potential. PMID:19697516

  7. Genome-wide methylation profiling of the bronchial mucosa of asthmatics: relationship to atopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common respiratory disease that is characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway obstruction due to chronic airway inflammation. Atopic asthma is a typical IgE-mediated disease in which the enhanced production of IgE is driven by the activation of Th2 cells, which release a distinct pattern of cytokines, including interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL3, in response to specific antigen presentation. To evaluate the methylation status of the whole genomes of bronchial mucosa tissues from subjects who lacked or had sensitization to Dermatophagoides farina (Df) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). Methods The genome-wide DNA methylation levels in the bronchial mucosa tissues of atopic asthmatics (N?=?10), non-atopic asthmatics (N?=?7), and normal controls (N?=?7) were examined using microarrays. Results In the bronchial mucosa of atopic asthmatics, hypermethylation was detected at 6 loci in 6 genes, while hypomethylation was detected at 49 loci in 48 genes compared to those of non-atopic asthmatics. Genes that were assigned the ontologies of multicellular organismal process, response to organic substance, hormone metabolic process, and growth factor receptor binding were hypomethylated. The methylation levels in the mucosa of asthmatics and normal controls were similar. Conclusions The bronchial mucosa of asthmatics who are atopic to Df or Dp have characteristic methylation patterns for 52 genes. The genes and pathways identified in the present study may be associated with the presence of atopy in asthmatics and therefore represent attractive targets for future research. PMID:23521807

  8. Protective effects of bifidobacterial adhesin on intestinal mucosa of stressed male rats via modulation of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Liang; Yu, Tin-Tin; Kang, Kai; Xu, Han; Lei, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess BA impact on inflammation markers and repair of intestinal mucosa. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into stress (n = 24) and BA (n = 24) groups. Stress was induced by fettering in all animals, fed enterally with 125.4 kJ/kg/d and 0.2 g/kg/d nitrogen. Then, rats were treated for 8 days with 5 mg/kg/d BA (BA group) or 5 mg/kg/d saline (Stress group). Levels of NF-?B, IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured at different time points, in plasma and intestinal mucosa samples. Changes in intestinal mucosa morphology were observed by electron microscopy. Plasma and/or mucosal levels of NF-?B, TNF-?, and IFN-? were significantly higher in both groups after stress induction (P < 0.05). These high levels persisted in control animals throughout the experiment, and were significantly reduced in the BA group, 3 and 8 days after stress induction (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IL-10 levels were increased after BA treatment (P < 0.05). At day 8, ileal mucosal villi and crypt structure were significantly restored in the BA group. Bifidobacterial adhesin plays a role in repairing intestinal mucosa injury after stress by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:25031756

  9. Evaluation of different pig oral mucosa sites as permeability barrier models for drug permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Franz-Montan, Michelle; Serpe, Luciano; Martinelli, Claudia Cristina Maia; da Silva, Camila Batista; Santos, Cleiton Pita Dos; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; Volpato, Maria Cristina; de Paula, Eneida; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of preparation and storage conditions on the histology and permeability of different parts of porcine oral mucosa used for in vitro studies of transbuccal formulations. Fresh and frozen (-20°C and -80°C, with or without cryoprotectant) epithelia of porcine palatal, gingival, dorsum of the tongue, and buccal mucosa were submitted for histological analyses to determine the effects of storage conditions on barrier integrity. Permeation of lidocaine hydrochloride (used as a hydrophilic model drug) across fresh and previously frozen oral epithelium was measured in order to evaluate the barrier function. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the oral epithelium was successfully separated from the connective tissue, except for gingival mucosa. After storage under different conditions, all tissues presented desquamation of superficial layers and spherical spaces induced by the freezing process. The permeability of lidocaine hydrochloride varied among the fresh oral mucosa and generally increased after freezing. In conclusion, fresh epithelium from the buccal and dorsum of the tongue mucosa should be used for in vitro studies investigating hydrophilic drug transport when these are the desired clinical application sites. However, when the palate is the target site, both fresh and frozen (for up to 4weeks, without addition of cryoprotectant) samples could be used. The addition of glycerol as a cryoprotectant should be avoided due to increased lidocaine hydrochloride permeability. PMID:26435216

  10. Immunohistochemical aspects of apoptosis in gingival mucosa with papilloma and condyloma acuminata.

    PubMed

    Scrieciu, Monica; Mercu?, Veronica; Mercu?, R?zvan; Am?r?scu, Marina Olimpia; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Predescu, Anca Mihaela; Bani??, Ileana Monica

    2015-01-01

    The oral mucosa is a component of the oral ecosystem, which can be aggressed by corrosion products released from the dental alloys used in prosthetic dentistry therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vivo effect of nickel and copper compounds on the oral mucosa cells, including their ability to induce cell death, by analyzing the cytochrome c (cyt. c) immunohistochemical expression. Gingival mucosa fragments obtained from the subjects with dentures manufactured by nickel or copper casting alloys were processed through the histological technique of paraffin inclusion. The sections obtained were stained by usually histological methods in order to highlight the histopathological lesions and also analyzed using the immunohistochemical technique in order to study the cyt. c expression. The papillomatosis lesions were observed in the gingival mucosa fragments obtained from the subjects with nickel-based alloy dentures and the condyloma acuminata lesions were observed in those obtained from the subjects with copper-based alloy dentures. The cyt. c immunohistochemical expression was different in the epithelial layer of two types of mucosal fragments but it was the same in their lamina propria connective tissue. We can conclude that the two types of metal alloys have different effects on the adjacent gingival mucosa. PMID:26193209

  11. Apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following oral administration of fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Kamyabi-moghaddam, Zahra; Tavassoli, Abbas; Amini-najafi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Fumonisins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, which contaminate the grains and their products. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine female mice divided into treatment (n=15) and control (n=14) groups. The treatment group received FB1 (150 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks. The gastric atrophy was allocated using grading criteria modeled on the updated Sydney System. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed for evaluation of apoptosis and proliferative activity in gastric mucosa. Results: Mild to moderate gastric atrophy were observed in microscopic findings of the gastric mucosa in treated animals (P<0.05). Number of parietal cells significantly decreased in the treatment group in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Treatment with FB1 for 16 weeks significantly reduced both gastric mucosa height and mitotic index in the gastric glands (P<0.05). TUNEL- and Bax-labeled positive cell numbers significantly increased in the FB1-treated group compared to the control (P<0.05). In addition, proliferative activity of gastric glands in the treated group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Oral administration of FB1 caused atrophy in gastric mucosa both via increasing of apoptosis and suppressing the mitotic activity of these cells. PMID:25810870

  12. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Orzechowska-Wylegala, Boguslawa; Wowra, Bogumil; Wroblewska-Czajka, Ewa; Grolik, Maria; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Wylegala, Edward A.; Micali, Antonio; Aragona, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET) procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes) with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision. PMID:26451366

  13. Release of endogenous opioids from duodenal enteroendocrine cells requires Trpm5

    PubMed Central

    Kokrashvili, Zaza; Rodriguez, Deniliz; Yevshayeva, Valeriya; Zhou, Hang; Margolskee, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Enteroendocrine cells, the largest and most diverse population of mammalian endocrine cells, comprise a number of different cell types in the gut mucosa that produce, store, and secrete small molecules, peptides and/or larger proteins that regulate many aspects of gut physiology. Little is known about less-typical endocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa that do not contain secretory granules, such as brush or caveolated cells. We studied a subset of these enteroendocrine cells in duodenum that produce several peptides, including endogenous opioids, and that also express the Trpm5 cation channel. Methods We studied expression patterns of Trpm5 and other molecules by immunohistochemical and ELISA analyses of intestinal tissues from transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein from theTrpm5 promoter, as well as wild-type and Trpm5-null mice. Results We describe a type of enteroendocrine cell in mouse duodenum that is defined by the presence of the Trpm5, that does not contain typical secretory granules, yet expresses endogenous opioids (?-endorphin and Met-enkephalin) and uroguanylin in apical compartments close to the lumen of the gut. Conclusion Solitary chemosensory cells that co-express ?-endorphin, Met-enkephalin, uroguanylin and Trpm5 exist in mouse duodenum. These cells are likely to secrete the bioactive peptides into the intestinal lumen in response to dietary factors; release of the opioid peptides requires the Trpm5 ion channel. PMID:19272386

  14. Deep-Sea Water Containing Selenium Provides Intestinal Protection against Duodenal Ulcers through the Upregulation of Bcl-2 and Thioredoxin Reductase 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Yao, Chien-An; Lin, Yi-Ruu; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea water (DSW), which is rich in micronutrients and minerals and with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities, may be developed as marine drugs to provide intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers. We determined several characteristics in the modified DSW. We explored duodenal pressure, oxygenation, microvascular blood flow, and changes in pH and oxidative redox potential (ORP) values within the stomach and duodenum in response to tap water (TW, hardness: 2.48 ppm), DSW600 (hardness: 600 ppm), and DSW1200 (hardness: 1200 ppm) in Wistar rats and analyzed oxidative stress and apoptosis gene expressions by cDNA and RNA microarrays in the duodenal epithelium. We compared the effects of drinking DSW, MgCl2, and selenium water on duodenal ulcers using pathologic scoring, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blotting. Our results showed DSW has a higher pH value, lower ORP value, higher scavenging H2O2 and HOCl activity, higher Mg2+ concentrations, and micronutrients selenium compared with TW samples. Water infusion significantly increased intestinal pressure, O2 levels, and microvascular blood flow in DSW and TW groups. Microarray showed DSW600, DSW1200, selenium water upregulated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic genes and downregulated pro-apoptotic gene expression compared with the TW group. Drinking DSW600, DSW1200, and selenium water but not Mg2+ water significantly enhanced Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1 expression. Bax/Bcl-2/caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase signaling was activated during the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. DSW drinking reduced ulcer area as well as apoptotic signaling in acetic acid-induced duodenal ulcers. DSW, which contains selenium, provides intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers through the upregulation of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1. PMID:24984066

  15. Altered Interactions between the Gut Microbiome and Colonic Mucosa Precede Polyposis in APCMin/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Son, Joshua S.; Khair, Shanawaj; Pettet, Donald W.; Ouyang, Nengtai; Tian, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuanhao; Zhu, Wei; Mackenzie, Gerardo G.; Robertson, Charles E.; Ir, Diana; Frank, Daniel N.; Rigas, Basil; Li, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene), an early event in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, is present in 70-80% of sporadic human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. To test the hypothesis that mutation of the APC gene alters microbial interactions with host intestinal mucosa prior to the development of polyposis, culture-independent methods (targeted qPCR assays and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V1V2 hypervariable region) were used to compare the intestinal microbial composition of 30 six-week old C57BL/6 APCMin/+ and 30 congenic wild type (WT) mice. The results demonstrate that similar to 12-14 week old APCMin/+ mice with intestinal neoplasia, 6 week old APCMin/+ mice with no detectable neoplasia, exhibit an increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes spp in the colon. Parallel mouse RNA sequence analysis, conducted on a subset of proximal colonic RNA samples (6 APCMin/+, 6 WT) revealed 130 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, fold change ? 2, FDR <0.05). Hierarchical clustering of the DEGs was carried out by using 1-r dissimilarity measurement, where r stands for the Pearson correlation, and Ward minimum variance linkage, in order to reduce the number of input variables. When the cluster centroids (medians) were included along with APC genotype as input variables in a negative binomial (NB) regression model, four of seven mouse gene clusters, in addition to APC genotype, were significantly associated with the increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes spp. Three of the four clusters include several downregulated genes encoding immunoglobulin variable regions and non-protein coding RNAs. These results support the concept that mutation of the APC gene alters colonic-microbial interactions prior to polyposis. It remains to be determined whether interventions directed at ameliorating dysbiosis in APCMin/+mice, such as through probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics, could reduce tumor formation. PMID:26121046

  16. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) molecular signature in conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chan, C-C; Smith, J A; Shen, D F; Ursea, R; LeHoang, P; Grossniklaus, H E

    2004-10-01

    Conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma that is characterized by an exaggerated clonal expansion of B cells, which implicate a pathological proliferative response to antigen(s) including bacteria. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is recognized as one of the causative agents of gastric MALT lymphoma; however, it has not been reported in extra gastric MALT lymphoma. We studied 5 patients (4 adults and 1 child) with salmon-colored conjunctival lesions. One patient also had a history of abnormal bone marrow biopsy a year earlier with lymphoid aggregates involving 5% of the overall bone marrow. The conjunctival lesions of the 5 patients were biopsied. Histopathological diagnoses were consistent with conjunctival MALT lymphoma. Lymphoma and normal conjunctival cells were microdissected using laser capture microscopy or manual techniques. DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR amplification using H. pylori gene-specific primers from the urease B and vac/m2 gene. Cells from chronic conjunctivitis (normal lymphocytes), conjunctival human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1/adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (HTLV-1/ATL), and orbital B-cell lymphoma were also microdissected, processed and analyzed. PCR amplification and Southern blot hybridization demonstrated H. pylori DNA in the conjunctival MALT lymphoma cells of 4/5 cases. The negative case was the one with a history of abnormal bone marrow. In contrast, H. pylori gene was not detected in normal conjunctival cells from the cases of MALT lymphoma or the lymphocytes, ATL and orbital B-lymphoma cells from the controls. These data suggest that H. pylori may play a role in conjunctival MALT lymphoma. PMID:15375765

  17. Comorbid Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Gastric and Duodenal Strongyloides stercoralis Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Seo, An Na; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul; Kwon, Ohkyoung; Bae, Han-Ik

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis can cause systemic infection, termed strongyloidiasis, and gastrointestinal ulcer disease in immunocompromised patients. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of comorbid gastric adenocarcinoma and S. stercoralis infection. Here, we report a case of an 81-year-old Korean man who presented with S. stercoralis infection coexisting with early gastric adenocarcinoma (T1aN0M0). S. stercoralis eggs, rhabditiform larvae, and adult females were observed in normal gastric and duodenal crypts. They were also observed in atypical glands representative of adenocarcinoma and adenoma. Preliminary laboratory tests revealed mild neutrophilic and eosinophilic leukocytosis. A routine stool test failed to detect rhabditiform larvae in the patient’s fecal sample; however, S. stercoralis was identified by PCR amplification and 18S rRNA sequencing using genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Postoperatively, the patient had a persistent fever and was treated with albendazole for 7 days, which alleviated the fever. The patient was followed-up by monitoring and laboratory testing for 4 months postoperatively, and no abnormalities were observed thus far. The fact that S. stercoralis infection may be fatal in immunocompromised patients should be kept in mind when assessing high-risk patients. PMID:25748714

  18. Endoscopic therapy for weight loss: Gastroplasty, duodenal sleeves, intragastric balloons, and aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm in the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease is developing. The global obesity epidemic continues to expand despite the availability of diet and lifestyle counseling, pharmacologic therapy, and weight loss surgery. Endoscopic procedures have the potential to bridge the gap between medical therapy and surgery. Current primary endoscopic bariatric therapies can be classified as restrictive, bypass, space-occupying, or aspiration therapy. Restrictive procedures include the USGI Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty using Apollo OverStitch, TransOral GAstroplasty, gastric volume reduction using the ACE stapler, and insertion of the TERIS restrictive device. Intestinal bypass has been reported using the EndoBarrier duodenal-jejunal bypass liner. A number of space-occupying devices have been studied or are in use, including intragastric balloons (Orbera, Reshape Duo, Heliosphere BAG, Obalon), Transpyloric Shuttle, and SatiSphere. The AspireAssist aspiration system has demonstrated efficacy. Finally, endoscopic revision of gastric bypass to address weight regain has been studied using Apollo OverStitch, the USGI Incisionless Operating Platform Revision Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, Stomaphyx, and endoscopic sclerotherapy. Endoscopic therapies for weight loss are potentially reversible, repeatable, less invasive, and lower cost than various medical and surgical alternatives. Given the variety of devices under development, in clinical trials, and currently in use, patients will have multiple endoscopic options with greater efficacy than medical therapy, and with lower invasiveness and greater accessibility than surgery. PMID:26240686

  19. Comorbid gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric and duodenal Strongyloides stercoralis infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seo, An Na; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul; Kwon, Ohkyoung; Bae, Han-Ik

    2015-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis can cause systemic infection, termed strongyloidiasis, and gastrointestinal ulcer disease in immunocompromised patients. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of comorbid gastric adenocarcinoma and S. stercoralis infection. Here, we report a case of an 81-year-old Korean man who presented with S. stercoralis infection coexisting with early gastric adenocarcinoma (T1aN0M0). S. stercoralis eggs, rhabditiform larvae, and adult females were observed in normal gastric and duodenal crypts. They were also observed in atypical glands representative of adenocarcinoma and adenoma. Preliminary laboratory tests revealed mild neutrophilic and eosinophilic leukocytosis. A routine stool test failed to detect rhabditiform larvae in the patient's fecal sample; however, S. stercoralis was identified by PCR amplification and 18S rRNA sequencing using genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Postoperatively, the patient had a persistent fever and was treated with albendazole for 7 days, which alleviated the fever. The patient was followed-up by monitoring and laboratory testing for 4 months postoperatively, and no abnormalities were observed thus far. The fact that S. stercoralis infection may be fatal in immunocompromised patients should be kept in mind when assessing high-risk patients. PMID:25748714

  20. Combined endo-laparoscopic approach in a patient with a duodenal foreign body and bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    de Filippo, Francesca Romana; Perrotta, Nicola; Cappiello, Antonio; Esposito, Torquato; Loffredo, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    We report the successful removal of an intraduodenal foreign body (f.b.) by endo-laparoscopic rendezvous, in a 67-year-old patient with mental disorders and duodenal occlusion by a large peach seed impacted in the duodenum. During a first endoscopic diagnostic evaluation it was possible to retract the peach seed into the stomach and have a confirmation of a stenosis of the second portion of the duodenum. Otherwise, the endoscopic procedure failed during removal out of the esophagus due to the large size of the f.b., and a second treatment in general anesthesia was planned. A 4 cm anterior gastrotomy was than performed by laparoscopy, and with a real endo-laparoscopic rendezvous, the peach seed out of the stomach was positioned, avoiding any intra-gastric surgical manouver and directly passing from Dormia basket into laparoscopic plastic retrieval bag. The gastrotomy was than closed with a single cartridge of a linear stapler and reinforced with an oversewn suture. PMID:22392575

  1. Pathogenetic factors affecting gastroesophageal reflux in patients with esophagitis and concomitant duodenal ulcer: a multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui-Ming; Huang, Xun; Deng, Chuang-Zheng; Porro, G. Pianchi; Pace, F.; Sangaletti, O.

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relationship between gastric acid output (GAO) and both pattern of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and esophageal lesions, and to evaluate the role of GAO and other potential pathogenetic factors in the development of esophagitis. METHODS: Gastric acid secretory testing and 24-h intraesophageal pH monitoring were performed in 31 patients with esophagitis and concomitant duodenal ulcer (E + DU) and compared with those of 72 patients with esophagitis (E) alone. RESULTS: The GAO in patients with E + DU was significantly higher than in patients with E (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients as to endoscopicl findings and parameters of GER (P > 0.05). A multiple regression analysis with stepwise deletion showed that the presence of hiatal hernia (HH), GER in upright position and age appeared to correlate significantly with the presence of esophagitis. CONCLUSIONS: No parallel relationship between GAO and severity of GER or esophageal lesions exists in patients with E + DU, and that GAO is not a major pathogenetic factor in GER disease. PMID:11819262

  2. Perforated duodenal diverticulum, a rare complication of a common pathology: A seven-patient case series.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Andrea; Christian, Buchs Nicolas; Pascal, Bucher; Stephane, Dominguez; Philippe, Morel

    2013-03-27

    Duodenal diverticula (DD) are frequently encountered and are usually asymptomatic, with an incidence at autopsy of 22%. Perforation of DD is a rare complication (around 160 cases reported) with potentially dramatic consequences. However, little evidence regarding its treatment is available in the literature. The aim of this study was to review our experience of perforated DD, with a focus on surgical management. Between January 2001 and June 2011, all perforated DD were retrospectively reviewed at a single centre. Seven cases (5 women and 2 men; median age: 72.4 years old, rang: 48-91 years) were found. The median American Society of Anesthesiologists' score in this population was 3 (range: 3-4). The perforation was located in the second portion of duodenum (D2) in six patients and in the third portion (D3) in one patient. Six of these patients were treated surgically: five patients underwent DD resection with direct closure and one was treated by surgical drainage and laparostomy. One patient was treated conservatively. One patient died and one patient presented a leak that was successfully treated conservatively. The median hospital stay was 21.1 d (range: 15-30 d). Perforated DD is an uncommon presentation of a common pathology. Diverticular excision with direct closure seems to offer the best chance of survival and was associated with a low morbidity, even in fragile patients. PMID:23556061

  3. Endoscopic therapy for weight loss: Gastroplasty, duodenal sleeves, intragastric balloons, and aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin

    2015-07-25

    A new paradigm in the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease is developing. The global obesity epidemic continues to expand despite the availability of diet and lifestyle counseling, pharmacologic therapy, and weight loss surgery. Endoscopic procedures have the potential to bridge the gap between medical therapy and surgery. Current primary endoscopic bariatric therapies can be classified as restrictive, bypass, space-occupying, or aspiration therapy. Restrictive procedures include the USGI Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty using Apollo OverStitch, TransOral GAstroplasty, gastric volume reduction using the ACE stapler, and insertion of the TERIS restrictive device. Intestinal bypass has been reported using the EndoBarrier duodenal-jejunal bypass liner. A number of space-occupying devices have been studied or are in use, including intragastric balloons (Orbera, Reshape Duo, Heliosphere BAG, Obalon), Transpyloric Shuttle, and SatiSphere. The AspireAssist aspiration system has demonstrated efficacy. Finally, endoscopic revision of gastric bypass to address weight regain has been studied using Apollo OverStitch, the USGI Incisionless Operating Platform Revision Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, Stomaphyx, and endoscopic sclerotherapy. Endoscopic therapies for weight loss are potentially reversible, repeatable, less invasive, and lower cost than various medical and surgical alternatives. Given the variety of devices under development, in clinical trials, and currently in use, patients will have multiple endoscopic options with greater efficacy than medical therapy, and with lower invasiveness and greater accessibility than surgery. PMID:26240686

  4. Duodenal seromyectomy in the management of adherent colonic carcinoma in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Peeyush; Klaasen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Objective To determine if partial denudation of the duodenum by seromyectomy can achieve tumour clearance in elderly patients with adherent primary colonic carcinoma. Design A case series. Setting An urban tertiary care centre. Patients Seven elderly patients with Dukes’ class C primary adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon adherent to the duodenum but without distant metastases. The follow-up ranged from 29 to 41 months. Interventions Right hemicolectomy and seromyectomy of the duodenum at the site of adhesion. Main outcome measures Patient survival and tumour recurrence. Results One patient died 29 months postoperatively of myocardial infarction but without tumour recurrence. Another patient had a solitary metastasis in the right liver lobe 7 months postoperatively. She was disease free 34 months after a right hemihepatectomy. The other 5 patients were alive and disease free at their last follow-up. Conclusion Duodenal seromyectomy with postoperative chemotherapy for locally advanced adherent colonic cancer seems to be an acceptable management strategy for elderly patients in whom major en bloc resections present a greater than average risk of death. PMID:9267298

  5. A Modern Cohort of Duodenal Obstruction Patients: Predictors of Delayed Transition to Full Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Yu, David C.; Khan, Faraz Ali; Pathak, Bhavana; Grabowski, Matthew J.; Zurakowski, David; Linden, Bradley C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. A common site for neonatal intestinal obstruction is the duodenum. Delayed establishment of enteral nutritional autonomy continues to challenge surgeons and, since early institution of nutritional support is critical in postoperative newborns, identification of patients likely to require alternative nutritional support may improve their outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate risk factors leading to delayed establishment of full enteral nutrition in these patients. Methods. 87 patients who were surgically treated for intrinsic duodenal obstructions from 1998 to 2012 were reviewed. Variables were tested as potential risk factors. Median time to full enteral nutrition was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Independent risk factors of delayed transition were identified using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results. Median time to transition to full enteral nutrition was 12 days (interquartile range: 9–17 days). Multivariate Cox analysis identified three significant risk factors for delayed enteral nutrition: gestational age (GA) ? 35 weeks (P < .001), congenital heart disease (CHD) (P = .02), and malrotation (P = .03). Conclusions. CHD and Prematurity are most commonly associated with delayed transition to full enteral nutrition. Thus, in these patients, supportive nutrition should strongly be considered pending enteral nutritional autonomy. PMID:25210625

  6. Aluminum effects upon calbindin D9k-linked duodenal calcium transport in diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, D; Favre, C; Monti, J A; Carnovale, C E; Carrillo, M C

    1999-02-22

    In order to elucidate if the inhibition mechanisms of Aluminum (Al) on intestinal calcium flux involve some possible action on calbindin-D9k, a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were carried out in normal and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. The dose-response curves obtained from the in vitro studies indicate that, in the diabetic group (which has a lower content of calbindin-D9k), the effect of Al on JCa(ms) has a small dependence on rising Al concentration (0-10 microM). The parameters obtained from those curves: Emax (maximum reduction percentage of JCa(ms)) and ED50 (Al concentration that produces half of the highest inhibition) were significantly diminished in this group compared to control. Both s.c. injections of calcitriol (D3) at doses of 0.08 and 0.40 microg/kg body wt. per day and insulin (10 IU/kg body wt. per day), increase the inhibitory effect of Al to levels that did not differ from controls. In vivo gavage of 60 mg/kg body wt. per day of aluminum chloride for 1 week reveals that the degree of reduction of intestinal CaBP9k by Al is directly correlated to duodenal content of this protein (r2 = 0.683, P = 0.022). PMID:10079056

  7. Bleeding duodenal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: the value of laparoscopic gastroduodenoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hussain; Al-Saif, Osama; Al-Momen, Sami; Bseiso, Bahaa; Al-Salem, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a common surgical procedure used to treat patients with morbid obesity. One of the rare, but potentially fatal complications of gastric bypass is upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which can pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. This report describes a 39-year-old male with morbid obesity who underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Three months postoperatively, he sustained repeated and severe upper attacks of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. He received multiple blood transfusions, and had repeated upper and lower endoscopies with no diagnostic yield. Finally, he underwent laparoscopic endoscopy which revealed a bleeding duodenal ulcer. About 5 ml of saline with adrenaline was injected, followed by electrocoagulation to seal the overlying cleft and blood vessel. He was also treated with a course of a proton pump inhibitor and given treatment for H pylori eradication with no further attacks of bleeding. Taking in consideration the difficulties in accessing the bypassed stomach endoscopically, laparoscopic endoscopy is a feasible and valuable diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in patients who had gastric bypass. PMID:20103961

  8. Duodenal patch and sphincterotomy: modification of an old technique to prevent graft pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Grochowiecki, T; Szmidt, J; Galazka, Z; Nazarewski, S; Madej, K; Frunze, S; Jakimowicz, T; Wojtaszek, M; Pietrasik, K; Swiech-Zarzycka, A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the duodenal patch technique combined with open sphincterotomy in terms of prevention of graft pancreatitis. From April 2003 to March 2005, 17 simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantations were performed using this technique. All recipients are alive with good renal transplant function. Directly after sphincterotomy in 16 pancreatic grafts a good outflow of clear pancreatic juice and a lessening of graft tenseness were observed during surgery. In two transplants an additional sphincterotomy of the Santorini duct sphincter was necessary. In one recipient no pancreatic juice secretion was observed and insulin independence was not obtained. This graft was explanted shortly afterward. In 13 recipients no graft pancreatic or peripancreatic fluid collection requiring intervention was observed. Of the three recipients who developed graft pancreatitis, two required graft pancreatectomy. In conclusion, Sphincterotomy facilitates pancreatic juice outflow by reducing intraoperative graft edema, which could lead to subsequent inflammation. Further studies on the factors inducing graft pancreatitis are necessary to eliminate this severe complication. PMID:16504722

  9. Discoloration of the Peri-implant Mucosa Caused by Zirconia and Titanium Implants.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Daniel S; Ioannidis, Alexis; Cathomen, Elena; Hämmerle, Christoph Hf; Hüsler, Jürg; Jung, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the discoloration of the peri-implant mucosa caused by zirconia (Zr) and titanium (Ti) dental implants with and without soft tissue grafting (STG). Zr and Ti implants were inserted in edentulous areas in pig maxillae. Spectrophotometric measurements were performed prior to and after the insertion of the implants, and following the placement of a STG on the buccal side. A significant discoloration of the mucosa was observed with a mean ?E of 8.05 (± 2.51) (Ti) and 4.93 (± 3.18) (Zr). In conjunction with a STG, ?E values amounted to 5.31 ± 3.50 (Ti) and 5.95 (± 3.68) (Zr). The placement of Zr implants led to less discoloration of the mucosa than Ti implants without STG. PMID:26697552

  10. Penetration of antibiotics into the normal and diseased maxillary sinus mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ekedahl, C; Holm, S E; Bergholm, A M

    1978-01-01

    A micro-method was developed for determination of the concentrations of antibiotics in the mucous membranes of the maxillary sinus in man. At different times after the administration of antibiotics (potassium phenoxymethylpenicillin, lymecycline and bacampicillin) the concentration was determined in serum and in pieces of maxillary sinus mucosa obtained at operation. It was found that the concentrations in the mucosa varied within wide ranges during the first 60 minutes after the operation but in samples taken at 90 minutes the fluctuations between the individuals were within the standard error of the method. Concentrations well above the MIC values for the majority of bacterias found in sinusitis were registered in the peaks. Six hours after the administration considerable amounts of active antibiotics were still detected in the maxillary sinus mucosa. PMID:100874

  11. [The antifungal and immunomodulating lymphotropic therapy of candidiasis of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Shumski?, A V; Pozharitskaia, M M; Iurchenko, E V

    1996-01-01

    Lymphotropic and endolymphatic therapy was carried out in 52 patients with candidiasis of the buccal mucosa. After preliminary injection of lidase, levorin was injected subcutaneously in the middle third of the shin to patients in a standing posture, after which a cuff with 45-50 mm Hg pressure was placed on the femur for 2-2.5 hours. Immunocorrector thymogen was injected in the submaxillary and chin lymph nodes. A course consisted of 5-6 sessions. The status of the buccal mucosa normalized after treatment. Contamination of the mucosa with yeast cells appreciably decreased, the content of substances with medium-molecular mass in the saliva reduced, and cellular and humoral immunity parameters normalized. PMID:8992656

  12. Is there a 'mucosa-sparing' benefit of IMRT for head-and-neck cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe . E-mail: gisangui@utmb.edu; Endres, Eugene; Gunn, Brandon G.; Parker, Brent

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows more mucosal sparing than standard three-field technique (3FT) radiotherapy for early oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Whole-field IMRT plans were generated for 5 patients with early-stage oropharyngeal cancer according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0022 (66 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks) guidelines with and without a dose objective on the portion of mucosa not overlapping any PTV. 3FT plans were also generated for the same 5 patients with two fractionation schedules: conventional fractionation (CF) to 70 Gy/35 fractions/7 weeks and concomitant boost (CB) to 72 Gy/40 fractions/6 weeks. Cumulative dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the overall mucosal volume (as per in-house definition) from all trials were compared after transformation into the linear quadratic equivalent dose at 2 Gy per fraction with a time factor correction. Results: Compared with IMRT without dose objective on the mucosa, a 30-Gy maximum dose objective on the mucosa allows {approx}20% and {approx}12% mean absolute reduction in the percentage of mucosa volume exposed to a dose equivalent to 30 Gy (p < 0.01) and 70 Gy (p < 0.01) at 2 Gy in 3 and 7 weeks, respectively, without detrimental effect on the coverage of other regions of interest. Without mucosal dose objective, IMRT is associated with a larger amount of mucosa exposed to clinically relevant doses compared with both concomitant boost and conventional fractionation; however, if a dose objective is placed, the reverse is true, with up to {approx}30% reduction in the volume of the mucosa in the high-dose region compared with both concomitant boost and conventional fractionation (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy can be potentially provide more mucosal sparing than traditional approaches.

  13. Ber-ACT8: new monoclonal antibody to the mucosa lymphocyte antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Kruschwitz, M; Fritzsche, G; Schwarting, R; Micklem, K; Mason, D Y; Falini, B; Stein, H

    1991-01-01

    Using a newly established HTLV-1 positive T cell line as an immunogen, a new monoclonal antibody, Ber-ACT8, was produced. It reacts with in vitro activated T cells and a small subset of normal resting T cells, but not with resting B cells or any of the 29 established human permanent cell lines tested. Immunohistological analysis of a wide spectrum of human tissues showed that Ber-ACT8 reactivity is restricted to a few T cells in the peripheral blood, the extrafollicular areas of lymph nodes and tonsils, and splenic red pulp. In the gut Ber-ACT8 labelled most intraepithelial T cells and up to 50% of lamina propria T cells. The antibody also immunostained T cells present in the oral and bronchial mucosa. Double labelling on splenic cells, fresh blood lymphocytes, and in vitro activated T cells showed that most Ber-ACT8 positive cells coexpressed CD8. Ber-ACT8 did not react with any of the 14 Hodgkin's lymphomas nor any of the 172 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas tested, with the exception of 10 cases of T cell lymphomas, five of which were located in the jejunum and associated with coeliac disease, and one B cell lymphoma, and most cases of hairy cell leukaemia tested. Parallel immunostainings with Ber-ACT8, anti-TCR-beta (beta F1), and anti-TCR-delta showed that most Ber-ACT8 positive T cells carry the TCR of alpha beta type. Comparison of Ber-ACT8 with HML-1, B-ly7, and LF61 showed essentially the same reactivity and an identical molecular target. The molecular structure recognised seems to be a trimeric molecule with components of 150, 125 and 105 kilodaltons, with the Ber-ACT8 epitope localised on the 150 kilodalton chain. The 150 kilodalton molecule contains an 0-linked carbohydrate moiety of about 10 kilodaltons. Because of its very selective distribution, the trimeric antigen is a powerful reagent for the diagnosis of gut T cell-derived T cell lymphomas and other extranodal T cell lymphomas, as well as hairy cell leukaemia. Images PMID:1890196

  14. Management of duodenal stump fistula after gastrectomy for gastric cancer: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Aurello, Paolo; Sirimarco, Dario; Magistri, Paolo; Petrucciani, Niccolò; Berardi, Giammauro; Amato, Silvia; Gasparrini, Marcello; D’Angelo, Francesco; Nigri, Giuseppe; Ramacciato, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify the most effective treatment of duodenal stump fistula (DSF) after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CILEA Archive, BMJ Clinical Evidence and UpToDate databases were analyzed. Three hundred eighty-eight manuscripts were retrieved and analyzed and thirteen studies published between 1988 and 2014 were finally selected according to the inclusion criteria, for a total of 145 cases of DSF, which represented our group of study. Only patients with DSF after gastrectomy for malignancy were selected. Data about patients’ characteristics, type of treatment, short and long-term outcomes were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: In the 13 studies different types of treatment were proposed: conservative approach, surgical approach, percutaneous approach and endoscopic approach (3 cases). The overall mortality rate was 11.7% for the entire cohort. The more frequent complications were sepsis, abscesses, peritonitis, bleeding, pneumonia and multi-organ failure. Conservative approach was performed in 6 studies for a total of 79 patients, in patients with stable general condition, often associated with percutaneous approach. A complete resolution of the leakage was achieved in 92.3% of these patients, with a healing time ranging from 17 to 71 d. Surgical approach included duodenostomy, duodeno-jejunostomy, pancreatoduodenectomy and the use of rectus muscle flap. In-hospital stay of patients who underwent relaparotomy ranged from 1 to 1035 d. The percutaneous approach included drainage of abscesses or duodenostomy (32 cases) and percutaneous biliary diversion (13 cases). The median healing time in this group was 43 d. CONCLUSION: Conservative approach is the treatment of choice, eventually associated with percutaneus drainage. Surgical approach should be reserved for severe cases or when conservative approaches fail. PMID:26140005

  15. In-Depth Duodenal Transcriptome Survey in Chickens with Divergent Feed Efficiency Using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Bi, Huijuan; Yan, Wei; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2015-01-01

    Since the feed cost is a major determinant of profitability in poultry industry, how to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection is an intriguing subject for breeders and producers. As a more suitable indicator assessing feed efficiency, residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on maintenance and growth. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for RFI in chickens are still less well appreciated. In this study, we investigated the duodenal transcriptome architecture of extreme RFI phenotypes in the six brown-egg dwarf hens (three per group) using RNA sequencing technology. Among all mapped reads, an average of 75.62% fell into annotated exons, 5.50% were located in introns, and the remaining 18.88% were assigned to intergenic regions. In total, we identified 41 promising candidate genes by differential expression analysis between the low and high RFI groups. Furthermore, qRT-PCR assays were designed for 10 randomly chosen genes, and nine (90.00%) were successfully validated. Functional annotation analyses revealed that these significant genes belong to several specific biological functions related to digestibility, metabolism and biosynthesis processes as well as energy homeostasis. We also predicted 253 intergenic coding transcripts, and these transcripts were mainly involved in fundamental biological regulation and metabolism processes. Our findings provided a pioneering exploration of biological basis underlying divergent RFI using RNA-Seq, which pinpoints promising candidate genes of functional relevance, is helpful to guide future breeding strategies to optimize feed efficiency and assists in improving the current gene annotation in chickens. PMID:26418546

  16. Late hepatic metastasis from a duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (29 years after surgery): report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ginori, Alessandro; Scaramuzzino, Francesco; Marsili, Stefania; Tripodi, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) metastases are found most commonly in the liver, on average 16 to 38 months after resection of the primary tumor, even if some delayed hepatic metastases from GISTs have been described. We report a case of a man with a giant liver mass at computed tomography scan. In September 1984, the patient had undergone resection of a duodenal tumor, diagnosed as schwannoma. A liver biopsy revealed a neoplasm composed of epithelioid and spindled cells, immunohistochemically positive to c-kit and Dog-1. Reexamining the duodenal tumor resected in 1984, it was reclassified as GIST. Sequencing revealed the same mutation of the c-kit gene in both duodenal and hepatic lesions. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the longest disease-free interval between a primary GIST and its metastasis. A brief review of the literature and an analysis of the potential prognostic role of particular c-kit mutations are also provided. PMID:25722316

  17. Successful emergency combined therapy with partial splenic arterial embolization and endoscopic injection therapy against a bleeding duodenal varix in a child.

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Hironori; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Akira; Sugimori, Satoshi; Morotomi, Yoshiki; Taniguchi, Shino; Nakaya, Masaharu; Cho, Yuki; Matsui, Katsutoshi; Kasuga, Saki; Sakae, Yukari; Yamato, Kazumi; Nishida, Norifumi; Tokimasa, Sadao; Shintaku, Haruo

    2015-06-01

    There is no consensus guidelines for treating duodenal variceal bleeding, which is a rare and life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. Here we report an exceedingly unusual case in a 9-year-old boy who had developed left-sided portal hypertension after surgical treatment for pancreatoblastoma followed by a duodenal variceal bleeding with massive melena, severe anemia (hemoglobin 4.5 g/dL) and hypovolemic shock. Emergency partial splenic arterial embolization (PSE) provided a reduction of variceal bleeding and improved blood pressure. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) was subsequently performed and stopped the duodenal variceal bleeding without the complication of portal vein thrombosis caused by injected sclerosant under hepatopetal flow. Our case demonstrates that emergency combined therapy with PSE and EIS can be considered as the therapeutic option for the management of left-sided portal hypertension-induced ectopic variceal bleedings in order to avoid the complication of portal embolization by EIS and provide effective hematostasis. PMID:25851961

  18. Prospective multicentre study of risk factors associated with delayed healing of recurrent duodenal ulcers (RUDER). RUDER Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, D; Arnold, R; Classen, M; Fischer, M; Goebell, H; Blum, A L

    1993-01-01

    Risk factors for delayed duodenal ulcer healing during treatment with ranitidine (300 mg daily) were examined in a multicentre German study of 1923 patients with endoscopically proved, recurrent duodenal ulceration. Healing rates, per protocol, were 39.5% at two weeks, 70.9% at four weeks, and 93.2% at eight weeks. Prospective testing of five, predefined risk factors indicated that smoking (p = 0.0039) was associated with a decreased healing rate at two weeks. Frequent prior recurrence (p = 0.464), a heavy physical workload (p = 0.145), and psychological stress (p = 0.062) were not associated with a decreased healing rate and there were too few patients at risk to allow assessment of the effect of regular NSAID intake. Exploratory analysis identified prior slow healing, a large ulcer, multiple ulcers, and prior ulcer complications, in addition to smoking, as markers of slow healing. In the absence of these risk factors, the mean healing time was 3.3 weeks (95% confidence interval 3.0, 3.5), rising to 3.7 weeks (3.5, 3.9) for one, 4.4 weeks (4.1, 4.7) for two, and 5.1 weeks (4.5, 5.6) for three to five risk factors. Delayed duodenal ulcer healing is associated with multiple factors whose effect is cumulative; for patients with two or more of five easily identified risk factors, more than four weeks' treatment with a histamine H2 receptor antagonist is required to achieve ulcer healing. PMID:8244095

  19. Innate Immunity Components and Cytokines in Gastric Mucosa in Children with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczyslawa; Szaflarska-Poplawska, Anna; Mierzwa, Grazyna; Marszalek, Andrzej; Nowak, Magdalena; Dzierzanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the expression of innate immunity components and cytokines in the gastric mucosa among H. pylori infected and uninfected children. Materials and Methods. Biopsies of the antral gastric mucosa from children with dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated. Gene expressions of innate immunity receptors and cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression of selected molecules was tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. H. pylori infection did not lead to a significant upregulation of MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, CD14, TREM1, and TREM2 mRNA expression but instead resulted in high mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-?, TNF-?, and CD163. H. pylori cagA(+) infection was associated with higher IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression, as compared to cagA(?) strains. H. pylori infected children showed increased IFN-? and TNF-? protein levels. IFN-? mRNA expression correlated with both H. pylori density of colonization and lymphocytic infiltration in the gastric mucosa, whereas TNF-? protein expression correlated with bacterial density. Conclusion. H. pylori infection in children was characterized by (a) Th1 expression profile, (b) lack of mRNA overexpression of natural immunity receptors, and (c) strong anti-inflammatory activities in the gastric mucosa, possibly resulting from increased activity of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. This may explain the mildly inflammatory gastric inflammation often observed among H. pylori infected children. PMID:25948881

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Mannitol-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573

    PubMed Central

    Bleckwedel, Juliana; Terán, Lucrecia C.; Bonacina, Julieta; Saavedra, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573, isolated from child fecal samples, efficiently converts fructose and/or sucrose into the low-calorie sugar mannitol when cultured in modified MRS medium at pH 5.0. Also, the strain is capable of producing bacteriocin. The draft genome sequence of this strain with potential industrial applications is presented here. PMID:25502678

  1. [Ultrastructure of gastric antrum mucosa in patients receiving long-term treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Makher; Skliarova, O Ie; Skliarov, Ie Ia

    2014-01-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of gastric antrum mucosa on the background long-term use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We demonstrated that long-term use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs leads to decrease of mucous granule secretion by epitheliocytes of gastric antrum mucous membrane. PMID:25796830

  2. Cytokine mRNA expression in the mucosa of treated coeliac patients after wheat peptide challenge.

    PubMed

    Kontakou, M; Przemioslo, R T; Sturgess, R P; Limb, G A; Ellis, H J; Day, P; Ciclitira, P J

    1995-07-01

    This study investigated the presence of mRNA coding for interferon gamma (IFN gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and interleukins 2 (IL2) and 6 (IL6), in the mucosa of four coeliac patients in remission who had been challenged with either gliadin or synthetic gliadin oligopeptides. Jejunal biopsy specimens from these patients, taken before and at two, four, and six hours after challenge, were hybridised with specific 35S-labelled DNA oligonucleotide probes. The lamina propria of all the patients contained significantly increased numbers of cytokine mRNA expressing cells four hours after challenge with gliadin or an oligopeptide corresponding to amino acids 31-49 of A-gliadin (peptide A). No significant changes were seen with the peptides corresponding to aminoacids 202-220 (peptide B) or 3-21 (peptide C) of A-gliadin, with the exception of one patient who showed a significant increase in the number of TNF alpha mRNA expressing cells four hours after challenge with peptide B. In vivo studies in coeliac disease have shown that significant histological changes occur in the mucosa of treated coeliac patients four hours after challenge with either gliadin or peptide A. These findings suggest that the histological changes seen previously in the mucosa of coeliac patients after wheat peptide challenge may be caused by increased expression of cytokines within the mucosa. PMID:7672681

  3. Buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty in a case of urethral amyloidosis presenting with long anterior urethral stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kurbatov, Dmitry; Stojanovic, Borko; Dubskiy, Sergey; Lepetukhin, Alex; Djordjevic, Miroslav L.

    2015-01-01

    Urethral amyloidosis is a rare condition, but clinically relevant because it can mimic urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of localized urethral amyloidosis presenting with a long anterior urethral stricture. We used extensive grafts of buccal mucosa for standard augmentation urethroplasty, with a successful outcome at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600896

  4. Percutaneous Transhepatic Duodenal Drainage as an Alternative Approach in Afferent Loop Obstruction with Secondary Obstructive Jaundice in Recurrent Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, N.-S.; Wu, C.-W.; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Liu, Jacqueline M.; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Chen, L.-T.

    1998-07-15

    Two cases are reported of chronic, partial afferent loop obstruction with resultant obstructive jaundice in recurrent gastric cancer. The diagnosis was made by characteristic clinical presentations, abdominal computed tomography, and cholescintigraphy. Percutaneous transhepatic duodenal drainage (PTDD) provided effective palliation for both afferent loop obstruction and biliary stasis. We conclude that cholescintigraphy is of value in making the diagnosis of partial afferent loop obstruction and in differentiating the cause of obstructive jaundice in such patients, and PTDD provides palliation for those patients in whom surgical intervention is not feasible.

  5. Elevation of total homocysteine levels in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with duodenal levodopa/carbidopa gel.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Jugel, Constanze; Ehret, Reinhard; Ebersbach, Georg; Bengel, Gunar; Muhlack, Siegfried; Klostermann, Fabian

    2011-09-01

    Levodopa/carbidopa (LD/CD) application elevates total plasma homocysteine (thcys). We determined thcys-, LD- and 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) concentrations in 28 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on a LD/CD duodenal gel treatment. We found a distinct thcys increase (29.52 ± 28.98 ?mol/l [median ± SD]) above the 15 ?mol/l threshold and a significant (R = 0.7) correlation between LD and 3-OMD. thcys ascent was observed in relation with the onset of atherosclerosis, non-motor symptoms and polyneuropathy in PD patients in the long term. PMID:21359971

  6. Small intestinal digestion of raw cornstarch in cattle consuming a soybean hull-based diet is improved by duodenal casein infusion.

    PubMed

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Bailey, E A; Anderson, D E

    2014-09-01

    Six duodenally and ileally cannulated steers were used in 3 sequential studies to measure 1) basal nutrient flows from a soybean hull-based diet, 2) small intestinal digestibility of raw cornstarch continuously infused into the duodenum, and 3) responses of small intestinal starch digestion to duodenal infusion of 200 or 400 g/d casein. Our objective was to evaluate responses in small intestinal starch digestion in cattle over time and to measure responses in small intestinal starch digestion to increasing amounts of MP. On average, cattle consumed 3.7 kg/d DM, 68 g/d dietary N, and 70 g/d dietary starch. Starch flow to the duodenum was small (38 g/d), and N flow was 91 g/d. Small intestinal digestibility of duodenal N was 57%, and small intestinal digestion of duodenal starch flow was extensive (92%). Small intestinal starch digestibility was 34% when 1.5 kg/d raw cornstarch was continuously infused into the duodenum. Subsequently, cattle were placed in 1 of 2 replicated Latin squares that were balanced for carryover effects to determine response to casein infusions and time required for adaptation. Duodenal infusion of casein linearly increased (P ? 0.05) small intestinal starch digestibility, and small intestinal starch digestion adapted to infusion of casein in 6 d. Ethanol-soluble starch and unpolymerized glucose flowing to the ileum increased linearly (P ? 0.05) with increasing infusion of casein. Plasma cholecystokinin was not affected by casein infusion, but circulating levels of glucose were increased by casein supplementation (P ? 0.05). Responses in small intestinal starch digestion in cattle adapted to casein within 6 d, and increases in duodenal supply of casein up to 400 g/d increased small intestinal starch digestion in cattle. PMID:25023803

  7. Histamine-stimulated hydrogen ion secretion by in vitro piglet gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Forte, J G; Forte, T M; Machen, T E

    1975-01-01

    1. A new preparation of gastric mucosa isolated from new-born piglets is described. The piglet gastric mucosa was easily separated from the serosal muscle layers by a "blistering" technique which appeared to cause minimal trauma to the tissue and which allowed extended study in vitro in a suitable chamber. Normal resting p.d. was approximately minus 30 mV (mucosal side negative with respect to serosal side), resistance about 100 omega. cm-2 and H+ secretion was absent or occurred at very low rates (0-1mu-equiv/cm-2. hr). 2. Maximally stimulating doses of histamine (1-6 times 10-5 M) caused H+ secretion to increase (up to 15 muequiv/cm-2. hr), p.d. to increase and resistance to decrease. A close correlation was observed between the increase in H+ secretion and decrease in transmucosal resistance. The threshold dose of histamine appeared to be 10-8 M; concentrations 10-4 M and higher reduced H+ secretion somewhat. 3. Pentagastrin ( 10-9-10-7 M) and acetylcholine (10-7-10-5 M) did not significantly stimulate the piglet gastric mucosa. Pentagastrin concentrations above 4 times 10-6 M reversibly inhibited H+ secretion of histamine-stimulated mucosa. High concentrations of acetylcholine (above 4 times 10-4 M) did not affect histamine-stimulated H+ secretion, but a significant reduction in p.d. was observed. 4. This investigation demonstrates the utility of the piglet gastric mucosa for in vitro studies of the mechanism H+ secretion and the action of secretagogues. From a consideration of such factors as the thinness of tissue and ease of preparation it is suggested that neonatal animals may represent a good source of in vitro mammalian gastric tissue. Images Plate 1 PMID:1123738

  8. Confocal laser endomicroscopy to monitor the colonic mucosa of mice.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Lisa; Preaudet, Adele; Belz, Gabrielle; Putoczki, Tracy

    2015-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is a unique organ system that provides an epithelial barrier between our underlying immune system and luminal pathogens. Disruption of gastrointestinal homeostasis, as a result of impaired barrier function, is associated with numerous pathologies including inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. In parallel to the clinical development of endoscopy technologies to monitor and diagnose these pathologies in humans, advanced mouse colonoscopy techniques are being developed. When these technologies are coupled with model systems of human disease, which are essential to our understanding of the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal diseases, the requirement for euthanasia of multiple cohorts of mice is eliminated. Here we highlight the suitability of white light endoscopy to monitor the progression of colitis in mice. We further outline the experimental power of combined standard endoscopy with confocal microendoscopy, which permits visualization of fluorescent markers in a single animal in real-time. Together, these technologies will enhance our understanding of the interplay between components of the gastrointestinal microenvironment and their role in disease. PMID:25960174

  9. Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, XIN; DENG, XIAOXIAO; PARK, KUN-YOUNG; QIU, LIHUA; PANG, LIANG

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice. PMID:23403521

  10. Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies

    E-print Network

    Selinger, Brent

    Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal 2009 Keywords: Intestine Mucosa-associated bacteria Single-stranded artifacts T-RFLP Statistical for recovering bacterial community DNA associated with intestinal mucosa of mice (i.e. mechanical agitation

  11. Combined anti-muscarinic and H2 receptor blockade in the healing of refractory duodenal ulcer. A double blind study.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, K D; Thompson, M; Bose, K; Hinchliffe, R F; Crowe, J; Weir, D G; McCarthy, C; Walters, J; Thomson, T J; Thompson, M H

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if pirenzepine and cimetidine given together was superior to cimetidine alone in inducing healing of refractory duodenal ulcers which remained unhealed after treatment with cimetidine or ranitidine for at least eight weeks. One hundred and thirty one patients from six centres were randomised to receive either cimetidine (C) 800 mg daily or cimetidine 800 mg plus pirenzepine (C + P) 100 mg daily under double blind conditions for six weeks. The healing rate was similar in both groups, irrespective of the method of calculation. On an intent-to-treat analysis, healing was: C 66%, C + P 57%, and amongst the patients who completed treatment, healing was 70% in both groups. Patients on C and on C + P experienced a similar decrease in daytime and in night time pain. Side effects of treatment, notably dry mouth and blurred vision, were reported more often by patients on combination therapy. Combined treatment with cimetidine plus pirenzepine in patients with refractory duodenal ulcer is unlikely to be beneficial. PMID:3322955

  12. Combined anti-muscarinic and H2 receptor blockade in the healing of refractory duodenal ulcer. A double blind study.

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, K D; Thompson, M; Bose, K; Hinchliffe, R F; Crowe, J; Weir, D G; McCarthy, C; Walters, J; Thomson, T J; Thompson, M H

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if pirenzepine and cimetidine given together was superior to cimetidine alone in inducing healing of refractory duodenal ulcers which remained unhealed after treatment with cimetidine or ranitidine for at least eight weeks. One hundred and thirty one patients from six centres were randomised to receive either cimetidine (C) 800 mg daily or cimetidine 800 mg plus pirenzepine (C + P) 100 mg daily under double blind conditions for six weeks. The healing rate was similar in both groups, irrespective of the method of calculation. On an intent-to-treat analysis, healing was: C 66%, C + P 57%, and amongst the patients who completed treatment, healing was 70% in both groups. Patients on C and on C + P experienced a similar decrease in daytime and in night time pain. Side effects of treatment, notably dry mouth and blurred vision, were reported more often by patients on combination therapy. Combined treatment with cimetidine plus pirenzepine in patients with refractory duodenal ulcer is unlikely to be beneficial. PMID:3322955

  13. A duodenal follicular lymphoma associated with the lesion mimicking MALT lymphoma in terminal ileum and Bauhin valve.

    PubMed

    Tari, Akira; Sato, Yasuharu; Asaoku, Hideki; Kunihiro, Masaki; Fukumoto, Akira; Tanaka, Shinji; Fujihara, Megumu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2010-09-01

    This is a case report of a 66-year-old woman who consulted us with a 1-week history of postprandial epigastric discomfort and dyspepsia. Upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and double-balloon enteroscopy revealed lesions in three parts: a swelling with a shallow depression in the ampulla of Vater, flat and rough nodules in the jejunum, and a mixture of lymphoid polyposis and rough surface of follicular lymphoma of the terminal ileum and Bauhin valve. The histological, immunophenotypic, and molecular findings of the duodenal lesion confirmed the diagnosis of follicular lymphoma. We initially diagnosed the ileal lesion as MALT lymphoma immunohistochemically. However, Southern blot hybridization analysis for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement showed identical monoclonal bands in both the duodenal and ileal lesions. The molecular cytogenetic studies were also positive for the 14;18 translocation in both lesions. Therefore, the true diagnosis of this ileal lesion should be a follicular lymphoma with marginal zone differentiation. Primary follicular lymphomas of gastrointestinal tract were suggested to have intermediate features between nodal follicular lymphoma and MALT lymphoma. This case is an important clue to prove the similarity of follicular lymphoma of gastrointestinal tract to MALT lymphoma and will be crucial in considering the therapeutic strategy. PMID:20857267

  14. Duodenal enteroendocrine I-cells contain mRNA transcripts encoding key endocannabinoid and fatty acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Sykaras, Alexandros G; Demenis, Claire; Case, R Maynard; McLaughlin, John T; Smith, Craig P

    2012-01-01

    Enteroendocrine cells have a critical role in regulation of appetite and energy balance. I-cells are a subtype of enteroendocrine cells localized in duodenum that release cholecystokinin in response to ingested fat and amino-acids. Despite their potentially pivotal role in nutrient sensing and feeding behaviour, native I-cells have previously been difficult to isolate and study. Here we describe a robust protocol for the isolation and characterization of native duodenal I-cells and additionally, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR we determined that mouse duodenal I-cells contain mRNA transcripts encoding key fatty acid and endocannabinoid receptors including the long chain fatty acid receptors GPR40/FFAR1, GPR120/O3FAR1; short chain fatty acid receptors GPR41/FFAR3 and GPR43/FFAR2; the oleoylethanolamide receptor GPR119 and the classic endocannabinoid receptor CB1. These data suggest that I-cells sense a wide range of gut lumen nutrients and also have the capacity to respond to signals of fatty-acid derivatives or endocannabinoid peptides. PMID:22876318

  15. An exploration of the microrheological environment around the distal ileal villi and proximal colonic mucosa of the possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Lim, Y F; Williams, M A K; Lentle, R G; Janssen, P W M; Mansel, B W; Keen, S A J; Chambers, P

    2013-04-01

    Multiple particle-tracking techniques were used to quantify the thermally driven motion of ensembles of naked polystyrene (0.5 µm diameter) microbeads in order to determine the microrheological characteristics around the gut mucosa. The microbeads were introduced into living ex vivo preparations of the wall of the terminal ileum and proximal colon of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). The fluid environment surrounding both the ileal villi and colonic mucosa was heterogeneous; probably comprising discrete viscoelastic regions suspended in a continuous Newtonian fluid of viscosity close to water. Neither the viscosity of the continuous phase, the elastic modulus (G') nor the sizes of viscoelastic regions varied significantly between areas within 20 µm and areas more than 20 µm from the villous mucosa nor from the tip to the sides of the villous mucosa. The viscosity of the continuous phase at distances further than 20 µm from the colonic mucosa was greater than that at the same distance from the ileal villous mucosa. Furthermore, the estimated sizes of viscoelastic regions were significantly greater in the colon than in the ileum. These findings validate the sensitivity of the method and call into question previous hypotheses that a contiguous layer of mucus envelops all intestinal mucosa and restricts diffusive mass transfer. Our findings suggest that, in the terminal ileum and colon at least, mixing and mass transfer are governed by more complex dynamics than were previously assumed, perhaps with gel filtration by viscoelastic regions that are suspended in a Newtonian fluid. PMID:23389898

  16. An exploration of the microrheological environment around the distal ileal villi and proximal colonic mucosa of the possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Y. F.; Williams, M. A. K.; Lentle, R. G.; Janssen, P. W. M.; Mansel, B. W.; Keen, S. A. J.; Chambers, P.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple particle-tracking techniques were used to quantify the thermally driven motion of ensembles of naked polystyrene (0.5 µm diameter) microbeads in order to determine the microrheological characteristics around the gut mucosa. The microbeads were introduced into living ex vivo preparations of the wall of the terminal ileum and proximal colon of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). The fluid environment surrounding both the ileal villi and colonic mucosa was heterogeneous; probably comprising discrete viscoelastic regions suspended in a continuous Newtonian fluid of viscosity close to water. Neither the viscosity of the continuous phase, the elastic modulus (G’) nor the sizes of viscoelastic regions varied significantly between areas within 20 µm and areas more than 20 µm from the villous mucosa nor from the tip to the sides of the villous mucosa. The viscosity of the continuous phase at distances further than 20 µm from the colonic mucosa was greater than that at the same distance from the ileal villous mucosa. Furthermore, the estimated sizes of viscoelastic regions were significantly greater in the colon than in the ileum. These findings validate the sensitivity of the method and call into question previous hypotheses that a contiguous layer of mucus envelops all intestinal mucosa and restricts diffusive mass transfer. Our findings suggest that, in the terminal ileum and colon at least, mixing and mass transfer are governed by more complex dynamics than were previously assumed, perhaps with gel filtration by viscoelastic regions that are suspended in a Newtonian fluid. PMID:23389898

  17. Non-invasive monitoring of vascularization of grafted engineered human oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, D. E.; Seetamraju, M.; Gurjar, R. S.; Kuo, R. S.; Fasi, A.; Feinberg, S. E.

    2012-03-01

    Accident victims and victims of explosive devices often suffer from complex maxillofacial injuries. The lips are one of the most difficult areas of the face to reconstruct after an avulsion. Lip avulsion results in compromised facial esthetics and functions of speech and mastication. The process of reconstruction requires assessment of the vascularization of grafted ex vivo engineered tissue while it is buried underneath the skin. We describe the design and animal testing of a hand-held surgical probe based upon diffuse correlation spectroscopy to assess vascularization.

  18. Effect of genotype on duodenal expression of nutrient transporter genes in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown clear differences between dairy breeds in their feed intake and production efficiencies. The duodenum is critical in the coordination of digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study examined gene transcript abundance of important classes of nutrient transporters in the duodenum of non lactating dairy cows of different feed efficiency potential, namely Holstein-Friesian (HF), Jersey (JE) and their F1 hybrid. Duodenal epithelial tissue was collected at slaughter and stored at -80°C. Total RNA was extracted from tissue and reverse transcribed to generate cDNA. Gene expression of the following transporters, namely nucleoside; amino acid; sugar; mineral; and lipid transporters was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Data were statistically analysed using mixed models ANOVA in SAS. Orthogonal contrasts were used to test for potential heterotic effects and spearman correlation coefficients calculated to determine potential associations amongst gene expression values and production efficiency variables. Results While there were no direct effects of genotype on expression values for any of the genes examined, there was evidence for a heterotic effect (P?

  19. Indirect action of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the isolated muscularis mucosae of the guinea-pig oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Yuichiro; Shimo, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    1 The site of action of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was examined on the isolated muscularis mucosae attached to the submucous plexus of the guinea-pig oesophagus. Isotonic responses of the longitudinal muscularis mucosae were recorded. 2 5-HT produced a transient contraction of the muscularis mucosae at concentrations higher than 3 ?M. The contraction was rapid in onset, reaching a peak in about 15 s or less, and was restored to the basal level after 20 to 30 s without washing out 5-HT. When the 5-HT-induced contraction faded to the basal tone, successive applications of 5-HT no longer produced any contracture. 3 Nicotine (Nic), at concentrations higher than 10 ?M, also produced a transient contraction which had a very similar pattern to that induced by 5-HT. Again, the successive application of Nic no longer produced any contracture following prior treatment with Nic itself. However, the 5-HT-induced contraction was not modified by the presence of Nic. 4 Exogenously applied acetylcholine (ACh) produced a concentration-dependent contraction of the muscularis mucoase, the 50% effective concentration (EC50) was 69 ± 5.6 nM. The contraction was sustained during incubation with ACh, and was not modified by prior treatment with 5-HT or Nic. 5 The 5-HT (100 ?M)-induced contraction was completely abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.2 ?M) and atropine (0.2 ?M). This means that the action is mediated by stimulating cholinergic nerves in the submucous plexus attached to muscularis mucosae. Moreover, the stimulating action of 5-HT does not involve nicotinic receptors, since the action was not blocked by hexamethonium (100 ?M). 6 Among several 5-MT antagonists examined, methysergide (1 ?M), ketanserin (1 ?M) and morphine (100 ?M) failed to modify the 5-HT (100 ?M)-induced contraction significantly. Cinanserin (0.1-3 ?M), cyproheptadine (3-100 nM) and phenoxybenzamine (0.1-3 ?M) inhibited the 5-HT-induced contraction, in a concentration-dependent manner, and each highest concentration abolished the response. However, none of these antagonists was specific for 5-HT, but the Nic (100 ?M) or ACh (0.1 ?M)-induced contractions were also inhibited by them. 7 The present results indicate that 5-HT contracts the muscularis mucosae of the guinea-pig oesophagus indirectly by stimulating cholinergic nerves in the submucous plexus, and has no direct action on the muscularis mucosae. In addition, the type of 5-HT receptors responsible for the stimulant action may be different from those in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels or brain, because of the different effects of 5-HT antagonists. PMID:6824809

  20. Electrochemical measurements of serotonin (5-HT) release from the guinea pig mucosa using continuous amperometry with a boron-doped diamond microelectrode

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Bian, Xiaochun; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by chronic abdominal discomfort, including pain, bloating and changes in bowel habits. The exact cause of IBS is not entirely understood. Recent studies have shown that IBS may be associated with altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels within the GI tract. About 90% of 5-HT in the human body is produced and stored in enterochromaffin (EC) cells that reside in the mucosal layer of the intestine. Measurements of serotonin availability locally in the mucosa can provide insight on the functionality of these cells and potentially the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study, we used continuous amperometry with a diamond microelectrode to record serotonin levels in vitro in the ileum mucosa as an oxidation current. The boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode is quite practical for these measurements because if its low background signal, low sensitivity to solution pH changes, and excellent resistance to fouling by adsorbed serotonin oxidation reaction products. In fact, the measurements are only possible because of the unique properties of diamond. We present electrochemical data that demonstrate the diamond microelectrode’s utility for assessment of enterochromaffin cell function. Confirmation that the oxidation current was associated with indogenous serotonin release came from pharmacological studies. We are hopeful that these types of in vitro electrochemical measurements will lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of IBS. PMID:20209031

  1. Staining procedures for the endocrine cells of the upper gastrointestinal mucosa: Light-electron microscopic correlation for the gastrin-producing cell

    PubMed Central

    Bencosme, Sergio A.; Lechago, Juan

    1973-01-01

    Although histochemical, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic methods have led to the identification of a large variety of endocrine cells in the upper gastrointestinal mucosa, no conventional light microscopic technique capable of the simultaneous identification of these cells has been reported. Such a staining method would be of considerable value to the pathologist as the malfunction of the endocrine cells of the gut, which produce numerous digestive hormones and biogenic amines, is closely related to a number of clinical conditions afflicting man. In this work, after testing three different polychrome staining methods, it has been concluded that a slightly modified Herlant's tetrachrome in tissues fixed in Zenker-formol is the procedure of choice. This method allows the distinction of several different cell types in the upper gastrointestinal mucosa of man and dog and permits the easy identification of the gastrin-producing cells on a routine basis. This identification has been confirmed in the case of two patients with gastrin cell hyperplasia, seen by both light and electron microscopy. Herlant's tetrachrome has proven valuable in the screening of human as well as experimental gastrointestinal tissues and it has been found to be very suitable for recognizing gastrin-producing cell hyperplasias. The usefulness of this method is expected to increase with the establishment of further correlations between the light and electron microscopy of the endocrine cells of the gut. Images PMID:4124158

  2. Duodenal perforation following esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with cautery and epinephrine injection for peptic ulcer disease: An interesting case of nonoperative management in the medical intensive care unit (MICU)

    PubMed Central

    Chertoff, Jason; Khullar, Vikas; Burke, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The utilization of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and related procedures continues to rise. Due to this increase in utilization is an inevitable rise in serious complications such as hemorrhage and perforation. One understudied and dreaded complication of EGD causing significant morbidity and mortality is duodenal perforation. Presentation of case We present the case of a 63-year-old male who presented to our institution’s emergency room with dyspepsia, melanic stools, tachycardia, and hypotension. Initial laboratory evaluation was significant for severe anemia, lactic acidosis, and acute kidney injury, while CT scan of the abdomen pelvis did not suggest retroperitoneal hematoma or bowel perforation. An emergent EGD was performed which showed multiple bleeding duodenal ulcers that were cauterized and injected with epinephrine. Post-procedure the patient developed worsening abdominal pain, distension, diaphoresis, and tachypnea, requiring emergent intubation. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with oral contrast confirmed pneumoperitoneum and duodenal perforation. Discussion Due to the patient’s hemodynamic instability and multiple comorbidities, he was treated non-operatively with strict bowel rest and intravenous antibiotics. The patient ultimately had a 19-day hospital course complicated by renal failure requiring hemodialysis and an ischemic limb necessitating above knee amputation. Conclusion This case describes an unsuccessful attempt at nonoperative management of duodenal perforation following EGD. PMID:25837967

  3. Spatial heterogeneity and co-occurrence patterns of human mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Geng, Jiawei; Tang, Xiaodan; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jinchao; Wen, Xiujun; Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Shi, Peng

    2014-04-01

    Human gut microbiota shows high inter-subject variations, but the actual spatial distribution and co-occurrence patterns of gut mucosa microbiota that occur within a healthy human instestinal tract remain poorly understood. In this study, we illustrated a model of this mucosa bacterial communities' biogeography, based on the largest data set so far, obtained via 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rDNAs associated with 77 matched biopsy tissue samples taken from terminal ileum, ileocecal valve, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 11 healthy adult subjects. Borrowing from macro-ecology, we used both Taylor's power law analysis and phylogeny-based beta-diversity metrics to uncover a highly heterogeneous distribution pattern of mucosa microbial inhabitants along the length of the intestinal tract. We then developed a spatial dispersion model with an R-squared value greater than 0.950 to map out the gut mucosa-associated flora's non-linear spatial distribution pattern for 51.60% of the 188 most abundant gut bacterial species. Furthermore, spatial co-occurring network analysis of mucosa microbial inhabitants together with occupancy (that is habitat generalists, specialists and opportunist) analyses implies that ecological relationships (both oppositional and symbiotic) between mucosa microbial inhabitants may be important contributors to the observed spatial heterogeneity of mucosa microbiota along the human intestine and may even potentially be associated with mutual cooperation within and functional stability of the gut ecosystem. PMID:24132077

  4. Immune responses that adapt the intestinal mucosa to commensal intestinal bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, Andrew J; Geuking, Markus B; McCoy, Kathy D

    2005-01-01

    Animals contain an enormous load of non-pathogenic bacteria in the lower intestine, which exploit an environment with a stable temperature and abundant carbon sources. Our load of bacteria outnumbers our own cells. In order to survive with such a high number of organisms in very close proximity to host tissues the intestinal mucosa and its immune system is highly adapted. Mucosal immune responses are induced by small numbers of live commensal organisms penetrating the Peyer's patches and persisting in dendritic cells (DC). These DC can induce immunoglobulin A+ (IgA+) B cells, which recirculate through the lymph and bloodstream to populate the lamina propria and secrete protective IgA. Because DC loaded with commensal bacteria do not penetrate further than the mesenteric lymph nodes, immune induction to commensals is confined to the mucosa, allowing strong mucosal immune responses to be induced whilst the systemic immune system remains relatively ignorant of these organisms. PMID:15885120

  5. Mucoadhesion and mucosa-mimetic materials-A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Cook, Michael T; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2015-11-30

    Mucoadhesion describes an attractive interaction between dosage form and mucosal membrane. The evaluation of mucoadhesive excipients often requires the use of ex vivo mucosal tissues taken from laboratory animals. These can be difficult to source, highly heterogeneous, and require the use of animal products. Thus, from both a user-convenience and ethical point-of-view, it is desirable to produce a synthetic alternative to these tissues-a mucosa-mimetic material. In this mini-review, the use of alternative materials to test the performance of mucoadhesives is reviewed and discussed. There is a surprising prevalence of the use of mucosa-mimics in the literature, which hitherto has not been compiled and compared. PMID:26440734

  6. Histology of the mucosa of the oesophagogastric junction and the stomach in adult Rana perezi.

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Huidobro, J; Pastor, L M

    1996-01-01

    The histological structure of the frog digestive mucosa changes at the oesophagogastric junction. The pseudostratified ciliated mucosal epithelium of oesophageal type changes to a simple mucus-secreting epithelium of gastric type. The glands straighten and the muscularis mucosae develops as a complete layer. The muscularis increases in thickness. Unlike the mammalian stomach, in the frog the surface of the plicae forms convoluted ridges that delimit furrow-shaped pits. Two types of gastric glands are distinguished, fundal and pyloric. The former consist of mucous, oxynticopeptic and endocrine cells. The pyloric glandular cells are mainly of mucus-secreting type with scattered endocrine cells. Scattered endocrine cells of P, D, G, A, EC, and EC-L-like types are found in the glands along the stomach. It is concluded that the mucosal structure of the anuran oesophagogastric junction and stomach is less complicated than that of mammals, including man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8621343

  7. Results of examination of the nasal mucosa. [in Apollo 17 BIOCORE pocket mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.; Vogel, F. S.; Lloyd, B.; Benton, E. V.; Cruty, M. R.; Haymaker, W.; Leon, H. A.; Billingham, J.; Turnbill, C. E.; Teas, V.

    1975-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium, but not the nasal respiratory epithelium, of the four pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that survived their flight on Apollo XVII showed both diffuse alterations and numerous disseminated focal lesions. The olfactory mucosa of the mouse that died during flight was also affected, but to a minor degree insofar as could be determined. All this was in contrast to the normal appearance of the olfactory mucosa of the numerous control animals. A number of possible causes were considered: systemic or regional infection; inhaled particulate material (seed dust); by-products from the KO2 bed in aerosol or particulate form; gas contaminants originating in the flight package; volatile substances from the dead mouse; weightlessness; and cosmic ray particle radiation. Where feasible, studies were conducted in an effort to rule in or rule out some of these potentially causative factors. No definitive conclusions were reached as to the cause of the lesions in the flight mice.

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy planning with duodenal sparing using volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer: A dosimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rachit; Wild, Aaron T.; Ziegler, Mark A.; Hooker, Ted K.; Dah, Samson D.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Kang, Jun; Smith, Koren; Zeng, Jing; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Tryggestad, Erik; Ford, Eric; Herman, Joseph M.

    2013-10-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) achieves excellent local control for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), but may increase late duodenal toxicity. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivers intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a rotating gantry rather than multiple fixed beams. This study dosimetrically evaluates the feasibility of implementing duodenal constraints for SBRT using VMAT vs IMRT. Non–duodenal sparing (NS) and duodenal-sparing (DS) VMAT and IMRT plans delivering 25 Gy in 1 fraction were generated for 15 patients with LAPC. DS plans were constrained to duodenal D{sub max} of<30 Gy at any point. VMAT used 1 360° coplanar arc with 4° spacing between control points, whereas IMRT used 9 coplanar beams with fixed gantry positions at 40° angles. Dosimetric parameters for target volumes and organs at risk were compared for DS planning vs NS planning and VMAT vs IMRT using paired-sample Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Both DS VMAT and DS IMRT achieved significantly reduced duodenal D{sub mean}, D{sub max}, D{sub 1cc}, D{sub 4%}, and V{sub 20} {sub Gy} compared with NS plans (all p?0.002). DS constraints compromised target coverage for IMRT as demonstrated by reduced V{sub 95%} (p = 0.01) and D{sub mean} (p = 0.02), but not for VMAT. DS constraints resulted in increased dose to right kidney, spinal cord, stomach, and liver for VMAT. Direct comparison of DS VMAT and DS IMRT revealed that VMAT was superior in sparing the left kidney (p<0.001) and the spinal cord (p<0.001), whereas IMRT was superior in sparing the stomach (p = 0.05) and the liver (p = 0.003). DS VMAT required 21% fewer monitor units (p<0.001) and delivered treatment 2.4 minutes faster (p<0.001) than DS IMRT. Implementing DS constraints during SBRT planning for LAPC can significantly reduce duodenal point or volumetric dose parameters for both VMAT and IMRT. The primary consequence of implementing DS constraints for VMAT is increased dose to other organs at risk, whereas for IMRT it is compromised target coverage. These findings suggest clinical situations where each technique may be most useful if DS constraints are to be employed.

  9. Physiology and pathophysiology of respiratory mucosa of the nose and the paranasal sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Beule, Achim G.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, anatomy and physiology of the respiratory mucosa of nose and paranasal sinuses are summarized under the aspect of its clinical significance. Basics of endonasal cleaning including mucociliary clearance and nasal reflexes, as well as defence mechanisms are explained. Physiological wound healing, aspects of endonasal topical medical therapy and typical diagnostic procedures to evaluate the respiratory functions are presented. Finally, the pathophysiologies of different subtypes of non-allergic rhinitis are outlined together with treatment recommendations. PMID:22073111

  10. Isolation and Identification of Helicobacter spp. from Canine and Feline Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jalava, Katri; On, Stephen L. W.; Vandamme, Peter A. R.; Happonen, Irmeli; Sukura, Antti; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    1998-01-01

    It is known that virtually all healthy adult dogs and cats harbor spiral helicobacters in their gastric mucosa. Three species, Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, and Helicobacter salomonis have been isolated in vitro from the gastric mucosa of these animals. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of an isolation method for canine and feline gastric helicobacters that has been developed at the University of Helsinki; to estimate the prevalence and distribution of these taxa in the samples examined; and to assess the efficacy and validity of an extensive set of standardized conventional phenotypic tests, whole-cell protein profiling, and ultrastructural analysis in identifying the different species isolated from canine and feline gastric mucosa. We cultured 95 and 22 gastric mucosal biopsies from dogs and cats, respectively. Twenty-one H. bizzozeronii strains, 8 H. felis strains, 8 H. salomonis strains, 3 mixed cultures, 2 “Flexispira rappini”-like organisms, and 3 as yet uncharacterized strains were isolated from the dogs, and 3 H. felis strains were isolated from the cats. The methods used here yielded Helicobacter isolation rates of 51% from dogs and 13.6% from cats, which exceed those reported previously. The main difficulties were primary isolation, mixed cultures, and identification to the species level. In the species identification, a detailed morphological examination was found to yield important phenotypic characteristics. A large panel of biochemical and tolerance tests did not clearly differentiate the closely related species H. bizzozeronii, H. felis, and H. salomonis. Highly standardized whole-cell protein profiling was shown to be an excellent method for species identification. Improvements in culture conditions for these bacteria are still needed, especially for cats. A genetic identification method not requiring culture is needed for future studies of these very fastidious helicobacters, as the clinical significance and ecology of these species within the gastric mucosa of the domestic carnivores remain largely unknown. PMID:9758832

  11. Evaluation of intraoral complications of buccal mucosa graft in augmentation urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Güne?, Mustafa; Koca, Orhan; Sertkaya, Zülfü; Kanbero?lu, Hüseyin; Karaman, Muhammet ?hsan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate intraoral complications of buccal mucosa grafts harvested from one cheek, and used in augmentation urethroplasty. Material and methods: Twenty-one patients with anterior urethral strictures were included in our study. In twelve patients, dorsal onlay, in five patients ventral onlay and in four patients lateral onlay procedures were applied. Average length of buccal mucosa graft from one cheek was 5.2 cm (3–8 cm). In all graft harvesting patients, bleeding in graft side, swelling, pain intensity of oral or perineal area, analgesic use, transition time to normal diet, slurred speech, loss of sensation, and patients’ opinions about oral mucosa regrafting using this technique were evaluated using nine-item questionnaire forms. Results: Eighteen (85.7%) of our patients had mild pain, 13 (61.9%) had mild intraoral swelling, none of our patients had oral bleeding that needed extra procedure and all of our patients were observed to start off their normal diet in the first 3 days. Twelve (57.1%) of our patients needed analgesic agents after the operation while 14 (66.7%) of them have remarked that perineal incision was more painful. Twenty (95.3%) of our patients stated that they could go under the same procedure again. None of our patients had speech disorders or intraoral numbness. Conclusion: Even though buccal mucosal grafting used in augmentation urethroplasty is not a completely painless procedure, buccal mucosa graft is an ideal source of allograft in terms of safe and easy obtainance and improved patient tolerance. PMID:26328170

  12. Thickness of Palatal Masticatory Mucosa and Its Relationship with Different Parameters in Turkish Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Duygu; Aksu, Seden; Di?çi, Rian; Demirel, Korkud

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to clinically investigate the mucosal variations in different parts of hard palate subject to soft tissue harvesting and its relationship with selected parameters in patients with gingival recessions. Materials & Methods: Fifty periodontally healthy, dentate subjects (13 males) with gingival recessions were enrolled into the study. After initial periodontal therapy they were scheduled for surgical procedures. Palatal masticatory mucosa of five teeth was evaluated at five different points from the gingival margin and two points on the buccal gingival mucosa were evaluated on the day of surgical intervention via bone sounding method. Totally 27 assessments were performed for each patient. Results: The overall mean thickness of palatal masticatory mucosa (PMM) was 2.55±0.49mm. The mean mid-facial gingival thickness was 1.11±0.39mm. The PMM showed an increase towards the posterior and raphe palatina. No difference was observed between genders, and no association of body mass index (BMI) and age with PMM was determined. An association was observed between the thicknesses of mid-facial gingival and palatal masticatory mucosa. Conclusion: The thickness of PMM in this study seems to be less than other reports possibly due to ethnicity or measurement design. Canine and premolar region reveals higher thickness values, and the increase in the tissue thickness towards the midline should also been taken into consideration. Clinicians planning soft tissue harvesting from the palate should take this variation into consideration. In this regard transmucosal probing of the donor site may provide valuable information where considerable variation exists. PMID:25076847

  13. The influence of gut function on lymphoid cell populations in the intestinal mucosa of lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J D; Morris, B

    1983-01-01

    The number and type of lymphoid cells in the intestinal mucosa of lambs change during the first weeks after birth. The influence of gut function on these changes was examined by comparing the evolution of lymphoid cell populations in normal ileum with that in lengths of ileum which had been isolated surgically from the functional intestinal tract of the lamb before birth. The isolated lengths of ileum had a normal blood and nerve supply and they remained healthy throughout a period of at least 2 years, although they did not have a normal histological development. In comparison with normal ileum, the villi of the isolated ileal segments were much smaller and there were many fewer intraepithelial lymphocytes; the lamina propria had significantly fewer lymphocytes than the functional ileum and only a few plasma cells. When isolated ileal segments were reconnected into the intestinal tract after having been isolated from it for 1-3 months, the histology of the mucosa reverted to that of the normal gut, with the same number and types of lymphoid cells. Radiolabelled lymphoblasts collected from intestinal lymph and injected intravenously accumulated to only a small extent in isolated segments of ileum compared with either the normal or the reconnected segments of ileum. This suggested that the paucity of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the isolated segments was due to a reduced extravasation of these cells there. The influence which the gut contents exert on the lymphoid cell population in the mucosa is probably associated with antigenic stimulation but may also be related to other factors concerned in the normal digestive functions of the gut. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6862523

  14. Differential Gene Expression in the Oxyntic and Pyloric Mucosa of the Young Pig

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Michela; Priori, Davide; Trevisi, Paolo; Bosi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The stomach is often considered a single compartment, although morphological differences among specific areas are well known. Oxyntic mucosa (OXY) and pyloric mucosa (PYL, in other species called antral mucosa) are primarily equipped for acid secretion and gastrin production, respectively, while it is not yet clear how the remainder of genes expressed differs in these areas. Here, the differential gene expression between OXY and PYL mucosa was assessed in seven starter pigs. Total RNA expression was analyzed by whole genome Affymetrix Porcine Gene 1.1_ST array strips. Exploratory functional analysis of gene expression values was done by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, comparing OXY and PYL. Normalized enrichment scores (NESs) were calculated for each gene (statistical significance defined when False Discovery Rate % <25 and P-values of NES<0.05). Expression values were selected for a set of 44 genes and the effect of point of gastric sample was tested by analysis of variance with the procedure for repeated measures. In OXY, HYDROGEN ION TRANSMEMBRANE TRANSPORTER ACTIVITY gene set was the most enriched set compared to PYL, including the two genes for H+/K+-ATPase. Pathways related to mitochondrial activity and feeding behavior were also enriched (primarily cholecystokinin receptors and ghrelin). Aquaporin 4 was the top-ranking gene. In PYL, two gene sets were enriched compared with OXY: LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION and LIPID RAFT, a gene set involved in cholesterol-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane. The single most differentially expressed genes were gastrin and secretoglobin 1A, member 1, presumably located in the epithelial line, to inactivate inflammatory mediators. Several genes related to mucosal integrity, immune response, detoxification and epithelium renewal were also enriched in PYL (P<0.05). The data indicate that there is significant differential gene expression between OXY of the young pig and PYL and further functional studies are needed to confirm their physiological importance. PMID:25357124

  15. O3-induced mucosa-linked airway muscle hyperresponsiveness in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Murlas, C.G.; Murphy, T.P.; Chodimella, V. )

    1990-07-01

    We investigated the effects of ozone exposure (3.0 ppm, 2 h) on the responsiveness of guinea pig airway muscle in vitro from animals developing bronchial hyperreactivity. Muscarinic reactivity in vivo was determined by measuring specific airway resistance (sRaw) in response to increasing concentrations of aerosolized acetylcholine (ACh) administered before and 30 min after exposure. Immediately after reactivity testing, multiple tracheal rings from ozone- and air-exposed animals were prepared and the contractile responses to increasing concentrations of substance P, ACh, or KCl were assessed in the presence of 10 microM indomethacin with or without 1 microM phosphoramidon, an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase. Isometric force generation in vitro was measured on stimulation by cumulative concentrations of the agonists, and force generation (in g/cm2) was calculated after determination of muscle cross-sectional area. The smooth muscle of mucosa-intact airways from guinea pigs with ozone-induced bronchial hyper-reactivity proved to be hyperresponsive in vitro to substance P and ACh but not to KCl. Pretreatment with phosphoramidon abolished the increase in substance P responsiveness but had no effect on muscarinic hyperresponsiveness after ozone exposure. Furthermore, substance P responsiveness was not augmented in ozone-exposed airways in which the mucosa had been removed before testing in vitro. Likewise, muscarinic hyperresponsiveness was not present in ozone-exposed airways without mucosa. Our data indicate that airway smooth muscle responsiveness is increased in guinea pigs with ozone-induced bronchial hyperreactivity and suggest that this hyperresponsiveness may be linked to non-cyclooxygenase mucosa-derived factors.

  16. Serial analysis of gene expression in adenocarcinoma samples and normal colonic mucosa in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Gao, F; Li, W; Tang, W Z; Zhang, S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the differences in gene expression between adenocarcinoma samples and colonic normal mucosa of a Chinese population. Gene expression libraries of adenocarcinoma and normal colonic mucosa were generated by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Expression tags were obtained from sequencing results using the SAGE2000 software. Representative genes of tags were determined based on the SAGEmap from NCBI. Expressed genes were selected and their expression in different libraries was compared using the SPSS 17.0 software. The expression of 78 tags representing 88 types of genes showed significant differences. Compared with normal mucosa, 38 genes showed decreased expression in cancer, whereas the expression of the remaining 50 genes showed significant up-regulation. Expressed tags in SAGE libraries of normal and cancerous tissues were significantly different. Further studies examining these genes, which showed different expression levels between the 2 tissues, may be used as tumor markers and offer clues for studying the etiopathogenesis of colon cancer. PMID:26505443

  17. Tumor Thickness: A predictor of nodal disease in early squamous cell carcinomas of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, G; Das, S

    2015-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of buccal mucosa is one the highest number of malignancies seen in the Southeast Asian region. It is related to chewing a combination of tobacco mixed with betel leaves, areca nut, and lime shell called quid. As it is most commonly due to substance abuse and affects younger population, it has tremendous economical and social consequences. Surgery is the most successful modality of management in these patients. The surgery involves wide excision of the diseased mucosa and neck dissection. Neck dissection is associated with certain morbidities, but is routinely practiced in some centers like ours. We have attempted to evaluate the occurrence of the nodal disease in relation to the thickness of the tumor in cases of early cancers of buccal mucosa (stage I and II). We have used ultrasound of the lesion as our modality to assess the tumor thickness preoperatively. AJCC 7th edition was used to assess the clinical and pathological stage of the disease. We have studied 52 patients of early buccal mucosal squamous cell carcinoma, and we observed that tumors thicker than 7mm (p-0.05) have highest co-relation with nodal metastases. This study also recommends that neck dissection should be prophylactically performed for tumors thicker than 4mm. Tumor characteristics such as grade, perineural invasion, and lymphatic invasion should be considered as predictors for early nodal involvement. PMID:26003104

  18. Cross-Sample Validation Provides Enhanced Proteome Coverage in Rat Vocal Fold Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Nathan V.; Yamashita, Masaru; Choi, Seong Hee; Ling, Changying

    2011-01-01

    The vocal fold mucosa is a biomechanically unique tissue comprised of a densely cellular epithelium, superficial to an extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich lamina propria. Such ECM-rich tissues are challenging to analyze using proteomic assays, primarily due to extensive crosslinking and glycosylation of the majority of high Mr ECM proteins. In this study, we implemented an LC-MS/MS-based strategy to characterize the rat vocal fold mucosa proteome. Our sample preparation protocol successfully solubilized both proteins and certain high Mr glycoconjugates and resulted in the identification of hundreds of mucosal proteins. A straightforward approach to the treatment of protein identifications attributed to single peptide hits allowed the retention of potentially important low abundance identifications (validated by a cross-sample match and de novo interpretation of relevant spectra) while still eliminating potentially spurious identifications (global single peptide hits with no cross-sample match). The resulting vocal fold mucosa proteome was characterized by a wide range of cellular and extracellular proteins spanning 12 functional categories. PMID:21423617

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq.) grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Barboza, Thiago José; Ferreira, Andréa Fonseca; de Paula Rosa Ignacio, Ana Claudia; Albarello, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time. PMID:26413061

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq.) grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Thiago José de Souza; Ferreira, Andréa Fonseca; Ignacio, Ana Claudia de Paula Rosa; Albarello, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time. PMID:26413061

  1. Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria

    PubMed Central

    Arvio, P.; Arvio, M.; Kero, M.; Pirinen, S.; Lukinmaa, P.

    1999-01-01

    Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens.?  Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001).?  Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.???Keywords: aspartylglucosaminidase; lysosomal storage disease; oral mucosa; skin tumours PMID:10353787

  2. A three-dimensional coculture of enterocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells to model inflamed intestinal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Fransisca; Collnot, Eva-Maria; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2010-12-01

    While epithelial cell culture models (e.g., Caco-2 cell line) are widely used to assess the absorption of drug molecules across healthy intestinal mucosa, there are no suitable in vitro models of the intestinal barrier in the state of inflammation. Thus development of novel drugs and formulations for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is largely bound to animal models. We here report on the development of a complex in vitro model of the inflamed intestinal mucosa, starting with the selection of suitable enterocyte cell line and proinflammatory stimulus and progressing to the setup and characterization of a three-dimensional coculture of human intestinal epithelial cells and immunocompetent macrophages and dendritic cells. In the 3D setup, controlled inflammation can be induced allowing the mimicking of pathophysiological changes occurring in vivo in the inflamed intestine. Different combinations of proinflammatory stimuli (lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, interleukin-1?, interferon-?) and intestinal epithelial cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, T84) were evaluated, and only Caco-2 cells were responsive to stimulation, with interleukin-1? being the strongest stimulator. Caco-2 cells responded to the proinflammatory stimulus with a moderate upregulation of proinflammatory markers and a slight, but significant, decrease (20%) of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) indicating changes in the epithelial barrier properties. Setting up the coculture model, macrophages and dendritic cells derived from periphery blood monocytes were embedded in a collagen layer on a Transwell filter insert and Caco-2 cells were seeded atop. Even in the presence of immunocompetent cells Caco-2 cells formed a tight monolayer. Addition of IL-1? increased inflammatory cytokine response more strongly compared to Caco-2 single culture and stimulated immunocompetent cells proved to be highly active in sampling apically applied nanoparticles. Thus the 3D coculture provides additional complexity and information compared to the stimulated single cell model. The coculture system may serve as a valuable tool for developing drugs and formulations for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, as well as for studying the interaction of xenobiotics and nanoparticles with the intestinal epithelial barrier in the state of inflammation. PMID:20809575

  3. Mucosal expression and luminal release of epidermal and transforming growth factors in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, P C; Ernst, H; Konturek, S J; Bobrzy?ski, A J; Faller, G; Klingler, C; Hahn, E G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) are potent gastric acid inhibitors and stimuli of mucosal growth and protection but their involvement in Helicobacter pylori associated duodenal ulcer has been little examined. AIM: To assess gastric acid secretion, plasma gastrin concentrations, mucosal content of EGF and TGF alpha, and mucosal expression of these peptides and their receptor (EGFr) as well as salivary and gastric luminal release of EGF under basal conditions and after pentagastrin stimulation in 10 healthy subjects and in 25 H pylori positive patients with duodenal ulcer before and after two weeks of triple anti-H pylori therapy and four weeks after the termination of this therapy. RESULTS: Pentagastrin stimulation caused a significant increase in salivary and gastric release of EGF both in healthy controls and patients with duodenal ulcers but in the patients, the eradication of H pylori resulted in several fold higher gastric luminal (but not salivary) EGF release than before the anti-H pylori therapy. Mucosal contents of immunoreactive EGF and TGF alpha and mucosal expression of EGF, TGF alpha, and EGFr in H pylori positive patients with duodenal ulcer were significantly higher than those in healthy H pylori negative controls and this increase persisted after eradication of H pylori. Basal plasma gastrin was significantly reduced after two weeks of triple therapy and four weeks after the H pylori eradication all ulcers were completely healed. CONCLUSIONS: (1) H pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer was accompanied by enhanced plasma gastrin and increased mucosal content and expression of TGF alpha, EGF, and EGFr; (2) H pylori eradication resulted in ulcer healing, reduction in plasma gastrin, and enhancement of gastric (but not salivary) luminal release of EGF, particularly after pentagastrin stimulation; and (3) enhanced mucosal content and expression of TGF alpha, EGF, and EGFr and increased luminal release of EGF may contribute to ulcer healing after eradication of H pylori. PMID:9176072

  4. Duodenal and Other Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical and Endometrial Cancer Treated With Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Paraaortic Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Poorvu, Philip D.; Sadow, Cheryl A.; Townamchai, Kanokpis; Damato, Antonio L.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize the rates of acute and late duodenal and other gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities among patients treated for cervical and endometrial cancers with extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) to the paraaortic nodes and to analyze dose-volume relationships of GI toxicities. Methods and Materials: Fifty-three patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent EF-IMRT to the paraaortic nodes, of whom 46 met the inclusion criteria for GI toxicity and 45 for duodenal toxicity analysis. The median prescribed dose to the paraaortic nodes was 54 Gy (range, 41.4-65 Gy). The 4 duodenal segments, whole duodenum, small bowel loops, peritoneum, and peritoneum plus retroperitoneal segments of colon were contoured retrospectively, and dosimetric analysis was performed to identify dose-volume relationships to grade ?3 acute (<90 day) and late (?90 day) GI toxicity. Results: Only 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced acute grade ?3 GI toxicity and 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced late grade ?3 GI toxicity. The median dose administered to these 6 patients was 50.4 Gy. One of 12 patients who received 63 to 65 Gy at the level of the renal hilum experienced grade 3 GI toxicity. Dosimetric analysis of patients with and without toxicity revealed no differences between the mean absolute or fractional volumes at any 5-Gy interval between 5 Gy and the maximum dose. None of the patients experienced duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment of paraaortic nodes with IMRT is associated with low rates of GI toxicities and no duodenal-specific toxicity, including patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy. This technique may allow sufficient dose sparing of the bowel to enable safe dose escalation to at least 65 Gy.

  5. Characterization of a bovine isolate Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 which produces an exopolysaccharide composed predominantly of mannose residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Identification of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactobacilli as EPS production is potentially a very important trait among probiotic lactobacilli from technological and health promoting perspectives. Methods and Results: Characterization of EPS-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in de...

  6. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Schoffen, João Paulo F; Vicentini, Fernando A; Marcelino, Carolina G; Araújo, Eduardo J A; Pedrosa, Maria M D; Natali, Maria R M

    2014-12-01

    The effects of food restriction (FR) on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa. PMID:25590720

  7. Umbilical cord ulceration after prenatal diagnosis of duodenal atresia with interstitial deletion of chromosome 13q: a case report.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Akihito; Yamada, Takashi; Okazaki, Kaoru; Morita, Kiyoko; Kondo, Masatoshi; Ishida, Takafumi; Nishina, Takako; Yokota, Akishige; Nakai, Akihito; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Umbilical cord ulceration complicated by massive local hemorrhage may be a lethal event in the fetus, and this ulceration has been reported to be associated with upper intestinal atresia. The diagnosis of umbilical cord bleeding is difficult. We present a case of umbilical cord ulceration, hemorrhage, and duodenal atresia which had, in addition, an interstitial deletion of chromosome 13q. A female infant weighing 1,691 g was delivered by cesarean section at 34 weeks of gestation and had resuscitation and laparotomy. Just before the cesarean section, ultrasonography showed a 'double bubble' sign and a linear shadow, suggesting fibrin in the amniotic cavity. This finding may help in the diagnosis of bleeding from the cord. PMID:18648211

  8. Acute Cholangitis following Biliary Obstruction after Duodenal OTSC Placement in a Case of Large Chronic Duodenocutaneous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Alastal, Yaseen; Hammad, Tariq A.; Nawras, Mohamad; Khalil, Basmah W.; Alaradi, Osama; Nawras, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Over-the-Scope Clip system, also called “Bear Claw,” is a novel endoscopic modality used for closure of gastrointestinal defect with high efficacy and safety. We present a patient with history of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and multiple abdominal surgeries including Billroth II gastrectomy complicated by a large chronic duodenocutaneous fistula from a Billroth II afferent limb to the abdominal wall. Bear Claw clip was used for closure of this fistula. The patient developed acute cholangitis one day after placement of the Bear Claw clip. Acute cholangitis due to papillary obstruction is a potential complication of Bear Claw placement at the dome of the duodenal stump (afferent limb) in patient with Billroth II surgery due to its close proximity to the major papilla. PMID:26185690

  9. Increased disomic homozygosity in the telomeric region of chromosome 21 among Down Syndrome individuals with duodenal atresia

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, N.E.; Feingold, E.; Sherman, S.L.

    1994-09-01

    Although duodenal atresia (DA) is present in only 4-7% of all Down Syndrome (DS) individuals, 30-50% of all congenital duodenal atresias occur in the DS population, suggesting the presence of gene(s) on chromosome 21 that play an important role in intestinal development. We recently proposed a chromosome 21 gene dosage model to explain the phenotypic variance seen among DS individuals and presented a strategy to map genes involved in these phenotypic traits. We suggest that {open_quote}hyper-dosage{close_quote} resulting from normal allelic differences explains the phenotypic variation. A proportion of trisomic genotypes would exceed some activity threshold and express the trait. In affected individuals, this increase in expression is due to the presence of two identical copies of {open_quote}susceptibility{close_quote} allele, inherited from a heterozygous parent of origin. Individuals with trisomy 21 and a specific phenotypic defect should exhibit increased levels of disomic homozygosity in the region containing the gene involved in the defect`s etiology. These data can be used to map these genes. Using this approach, we have examined markers along the long arm of chromosome 21 among DS individuals with DA and determined the degree of disomic homozygosity at each marker. This frequency was compared to the level of disomic homozygosity among our entire DS study population consisting of approximately 380 DS families to test for linkage between DA and each marker. Preliminary analysis of 13 DS cases with DA indicates an increase in disomic homozygosity along the distal region of the chromosome, from HMG14 to D21S171, the most telomeric marker analyzed. An additional 15 cases are currently being analyzed to confirm and better define this candidate region.

  10. The Ethanol-Induced Stimulation of Rat Duodenal Mucosal Bicarbonate Secretion In Vivo Is Critically Dependent on Luminal Cl–

    PubMed Central

    Sommansson, Anna; Wan Saudi, Wan Salman; Nylander, Olof; Sjöblom, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol may induce metabolic and functional changes in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, contributing to impaired mucosal barrier function. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) is a primary epithelial defense against gastric acid and also has an important function in maintaining the homeostasis of the juxtamucosal microenvironment. The aim in this study was to investigate the effects of the luminal perfusion of moderate concentrations of ethanol in vivo on epithelial DBS, fluid secretion and paracellular permeability. Under thiobarbiturate anesthesia, a ?30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ in rats. The effects on DBS, duodenal transepithelial net fluid flux and the blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-EDTA were investigated. Perfusing the duodenum with isotonic solutions of 10% or 15% ethanol-by-volume for 30 min increased DBS in a concentration-dependent manner, while the net fluid flux did not change. Pre-treatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172 (i.p. or i.v.) did not change the secretory response to ethanol, while removing Cl? from the luminal perfusate abolished the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. The administration of hexamethonium (i.v.) but not capsazepine significantly reduced the basal net fluid flux and the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. Perfusing the duodenum with a combination of 1.0 mM HCl and 15% ethanol induced significantly greater increases in DBS than 15% ethanol or 1.0 mM HCl alone but did not influence fluid flux. Our data demonstrate that ethanol induces increases in DBS through a mechanism that is critically dependent on luminal Cl? and partly dependent on enteric neural pathways involving nicotinic receptors. Ethanol and HCl appears to stimulate DBS via the activation of different bicarbonate transporting mechanisms. PMID:25033198

  11. Duodenal calcium transporter mRNA expression in stressed male rats treated with diazepam, fluoxetine, reboxetine, or venlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Lapmanee, Sarawut; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima

    2012-10-01

    Chronic stress has been reported to decrease bone density and intestinal calcium absorption, but its underlying mechanism remains elusive. Since long-term exposure to glucocorticoids, major stress hormones from adrenal gland, is known to downregulate the mRNA expression of intestinal calcium transporter TRPV6, the present study aimed to demonstrate whether decreases in mRNA expressions of duodenal calcium transporter genes were observed in male rats subjected to restraint stress for 4 weeks. The results from quantitative real-time PCR showed that restraint stress significantly downregulated the mRNA expressions of apical calcium channels (TRPV6 and Ca(v)1.3), cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein (calbindin-D(9k)), and basolateral calcium pump (PMCA(1b)), but not the expression of TRPV5 or NCX1. The mRNA expressions of paracellular genes, ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-3, were not altered by restraint stress. Since several antidepressant or anxiolytic drugs effectively alleviate stress-induced depressive and anxiety symptoms, we further hypothesized that these drugs may also enhance calcium transporter gene expression in stressed rats. As expected, 4-week daily administration of 10 mg/kg fluoxetine, 10 mg/kg reboxetine, or 10 mg/kg venlafaxine differentially increased calcium transporter mRNA expression in stressed rats, whereas 2 mg/kg diazepam had no such effect. It could, therefore, be concluded that 4-week restraint stress downregulated some important calcium transporter mRNA expression in the duodenal epithelial cells of male rats, which could be prevented by oral administration of fluoxetine, reboxetine, and venlafaxine. The present findings may be applied to help alleviate the stress-induced bone loss and osteoporosis by restoring intestinal calcium absorption to provide calcium for bone formation. PMID:22766765

  12. Is Duodenal Invasion a Relevant Prognosticator in Patients Undergoing Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Distal Common Bile Duct Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for patients with distal common bile duct (CBD) cancer who underwent curative surgery, and to identify the prognostic factors for these patients. Methods and Materials: Between January 1991 and December 2002, 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the distal CBD underwent curative resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. There were 27 men and 11 women, and the median age was 60 years (range, 34-73). Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered to the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes up to 40 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction with a 2-week planned rest. Intravenous 5-fluorouracil (500mg/m{sup 2}/day) was given on day 1 to day 3 of each split course. The median follow-up period was 39 months. Results: The 5-year overall survival rate of all patients was 49.1%. On univariate analysis, only histologic differentiation (p = 0.0005) was associated with overall survival. Tumor size ({<=}2cm vs. >2cm) had a marginally significant impact on the treatment outcome (p = 0.0624). However, there was no difference in overall survival rates between T3 and T4 tumors (p = 0.6189), for which the main determinants were pancreatic and duodenal invasion, respectively. On multivariate analysis, histologic differentiation (p = 0.0092) and tumor size (p = 0.0046) were independent risk factors for overall survival. Conclusions: Long-term survival can be expected in patients with distal CBD cancer undergoing curative surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Histologic differentiation and tumor size were significant prognostic factors predicting overall survival, whereas duodenal invasion was not. This finding suggests the need for further refinement in tumor staging.

  13. Characterization of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-Antigen Deletion Mutant and Effect of the Deletion on Bacterial Persistence in the Mouse Intestine and Colonization at the Bovine Terminal Rectal Mucosa?

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Haiqing; Lim, Ji Youn; Watkins, Maryann K.; Minnich, Scott A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans and transiently colonizes healthy cattle at the terminal rectal mucosa. To investigate the role of the O antigen in persistence and colonization in the animal host, we generated an E. coli O157:H7 mutant defective in the synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide side chain (O antigen) by deletion of a putative perosamine synthetase gene (per) in the rfb cluster. The lack of O antigen was confirmed by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and anti-O157 antibody. The growth rate and cell membrane permeability of the ?per mutant were similar to the growth rate and cell membrane permeability of the wild type. Changes in membrane and secreted proteins were observed, but the expression of intimin, EspA, and EspB, implicated in bacterial intestinal colonization, was not altered, as determined by immunoblotting and reverse transcription-PCR. Similar to other O-antigen deletion mutants, the ?per mutant was pleiotropic for autoaggregation and motility (it was FliC negative as determined by immunoblotting and flagellum negative as determined by electron microscopy). The abilities of the mutant and the wild type to persist in the murine intestine and to colonize the bovine terminal rectal mucosa were compared. Mice fed the ?per mutant shed lower numbers of bacteria (P < 0.05) over a shorter time than mice fed the wild-type or complemented strain. After rectal application in steers, lower numbers of the ?per mutant than of the wild type colonized the rectoanal junction mucosa, and the duration of the colonization was shorter (P < 0.05). Our previous work showed that flagella do not influence E. coli O157:H7 colonization at the bovine terminal rectal mucosa, so the current findings suggest that the O antigen contributes to efficient bovine colonization. PMID:18552194

  14. Stimulation by nizatidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, of duodenal HCO3- secretion in rats: relation to anti-cholinesterase activity

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Koji; Kawauchi, Shoji; Araki, Hideo; Ueki, Shigeru; Furukawa, Osamu

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether nizatidine stimulates duodenal HCO3- secretion in rats by inhibiting AChE activity. METHODS: Under pentobarbital anesthesia, a proximal duodenal loop was perfused with saline, and the HCO3- secretion was measured at pH7.0 using a pH-stat method and by adding 10 mM HCl. Nizatidine, neostigmine, carbachol or famotidine was administered i.v. as a single injection. RESULTS: Intravenous administration of nizatidine (3-30 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased duodenal HCO3- secretion, and the effect at 10 mg/kg was equivalent to that obtained by carbachol at 0.01 mg/kg. This nizatidine action was observed at the same dose range that inhibited acid secretion and enhanced gastric motility, mimicked by i.v. injection of neostigmine (0.03 mg/kg), and significantly attenuated by bilateral vagotomy and prior s.c. administration of atropine but not by indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NO synthase inhibitor. The HCO3- secretory response to acetylcholine (0.001 mg/kg) was significantly potentiated by the concurrent administration of nizatidine (3 mg/kg, i.v.). The IC50 of nizatidine for AChE of rat erythrocytes was 1.4 × 10-6 M, about 12 times higher than that of neostigmine. Neither famotidine (> 10-3 M, 30 mg/kg, i.v.) nor cisapride (> 10-3 M, 3 mg/kg, i.v.) had any influence on AChE activity or duodenal HCO3- secretion. Duodenal damage induced by acid perfusion (100 mM HCl for 4 h) in the presence of indomethacin was significantly prevented by nizatidine and neostigmine, at the doses that increased the HCO3- secretion. CONCLUSION: Nizatidine stimulates duodenal HCO3- secretion, in both vagal-dependent and atropine-sensitive manners, and the action is associated with the anti-AChE activity of this agent. PMID:11819669

  15. Tactile Corpuscle-like Bodies in Gastrointestinal-type Mucosa: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Celeiro-Muñoz, Catuxa; Huebner, Thomas A; Robertson, Scott A; Pittman, Meredith E; Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A; Bhaijee, Feriyl; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Tactile corpuscle-like bodies (TCLB) are microscopic Schwannian structures that simulate the superficial mechanoreceptors of the peripheral nervous system (Wagner-Meissner corpuscles). They have been described nearly exclusively in peripheral nerve sheath tumors, namely diffuse neurofibromas, and schwannomas but also in cellular nevi. There are rare reports of these structures in the gastrointestinal tract (predominantly the lower tract), with the presumption that they are incidental reactive neural proliferations. We compiled 9 cases showing this rare phenomenon in gastrointestinal-type mucosa in nonsyndromic patients to further characterize its features. There were 6 men and 3 women (age range, 39 to 79 y, mean 56 y) with lesions involving esophagus/gastro-esophageal junction (n=7), sigmoid colon (n=1), and gastric heterotopia of the cricopharynx (n=1). Endoscopic examination was abnormal in 6 of the 7 cases (including changes consistent with Barrett esophagus and polypoid/nodular mucosa) and normal in 1 of 7 cases for which this information was available. The histologic features were similar in all cases, with unencapsulated clusters of lamellated and concentrically arranged spindle cells in the lamina propria. The foci of TCLB ranged in size from <0.1 to 1.5 mm in the greatest dimension. Abnormal histopathologic findings were identified in the background mucosa in 6 of 9 cases (including Barrett esophagus, active and inactive chronic gastritis, enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, and gastric intestinal metaplasia). None of the patients showed signs of neurofibromatosis type 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B, Cowden syndrome, or other inherited syndrome. No morbidity related to TCLB was reported for the patients with available follow-up. PMID:26291509

  16. Lack of usefulness of ureteral reconstruction with free bladder mucosa flap in dogs confirmed by microangiography

    PubMed Central

    Kuzaka, Boles?aw; Borkowski, Tomasz; Kuzaka, Piotr; Szostek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data addressing the blood supply in the surgically reconstructed ureter, and complete lack of microangiographic studies of the reconstructed ureter with the use of a free bladder mucosa flap. The present study evaluated the blood supply in the reconstructed dog ureter after a 5-centimeter segment resection, supplemented by a tube constructed from a free bladder mucosa flap. Material/Methods Female mongrel dogs (n=29) were used in this study. Under general anaesthesia, a 5-centimeter autologous free bladder mucosa flap was used to construct a tube, which was afterwards grafted to replace a 5-centimeter ureter resection. After a period of 3 months (n=2) and after 1 year (n=2), microangiography was performed to assess the revascularization of the grafted ureter. Results In our study, we observed the continuity of the ureter, but the grafted reconstruction was narrowed by the cicatrization in about 86% (n=25) of cases. This resulted in the development of hydronephrosis, as described in previous publications. The ureteral wall was covered by a normal urothelium, but consisted of fibrous connective tissue, which failed to restore a regular (normal) coat. The reconstructed segment showed no smooth muscle cells. A few smooth monocytes were found only at the border with intact portions of the ureter. The microangiography performed at the end of the experiments showed no vascularization of the restored segment of the ureter. Conclusions The experiments showed a whole regeneration of urothelium in the transected and reanastomosed ureters. However, there was no regeneration of the muscular coat and a complete lack of revascularization. PMID:24980521

  17. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

  18. Effects of celecoxib on acid-challenged gastric mucosa of rats: comparison with metamizol and piroxicam.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Bettina; Alarcón De La Lastra, Catalina; Motilva, Virginia; La Casa, Carmen; Herrerias, Juan Manuel; Pozo, David; Calero, María José Martin

    2004-06-01

    Selective COX-2 inhibitors have been shown to produce fewer gastrointestinal adverse reactions than classical NSAIDs. Nevertheless, these new agents may worsen and delay the healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in animals. In this study, we compared the effects of a selective COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), a preferential COX-1 inhibitor (piroxicam), and a nonnarcotic analgesic (metamizol) on normal gastric mucosa of rats and, on the other hand, in a setting of preexisting acute gastric lesions induced by 0.6 N hydrochloric acid. Under normal conditions, only piroxicam produced appreciable gastric lesions. However, after acid challenge the three assayed drugs induced significant macroscopic and microscopic damage. Myeloperoxidase activity as an index of neutrophil infiltration was elevated with celecoxib and piroxicam on normal gastric mucosa. On inflamed mucosa, celecoxib augmented enzymatic activity at the lower dose, which was parallelled by an increase in the interleukin 1beta level. Acid instillaton produced a significant rise in PGE2 content at 7 hr. Drug treatment after acid challenge decreased prostaglandin values in all cases, although to a lesser extent than after single drug dose administration. COX-2 mRNA expression was visible 1 hr after acid application, whereas COX-2 protein could only be detected at 7 hr. Piroxicam increased both expression levels. All NSAIDs enhanced transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor immunoreactivity around the acid-induced lesions. It is concluded that selective COX-2 inhibitors, like conventional NSAIDs, impair the healing of gastric damage, and therefore special attention should be paid in patients with gastric pathologies. PMID:15309881

  19. High-energy ball milling of saquinavir increases permeability across the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Branham, Michael; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), a candidate for buccal drug delivery, is limited by poor solubility. This study identified the effects of high-energy ball milling on the buccal permeability of SQV and compared it to the effects of chemical enhancers, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and beta cyclodextrin (?-cyclodextrin). SQV was ball milled using a high energy planetary mill (1, 3, 15 and 30?h) and permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed using franz diffusion cells. Drug was quantified by UV spectrophotometry. Both unmilled and milled SQV samples were able to permeate the buccal mucosa. Milled samples of 15?h displayed the greatest flux of 10.40?±?1.24?µg/cm(2?)h and an enhancement ratio of 2.61. All enhancers were able to increase the buccal permeability of unmilled SQV, with SLS achieving the greatest flux (6.99?±?0.7?µg/cm(2)) and an enhancement ratio of 1.75. However, all the milled SQV samples displayed greater permeability than SLS, the best chemical enhancer for unmilled SQV. Enhanced permeability by ball milling was attributed to reduction in particle size, formation of solid dispersions and an increase in solubility of milled samples. Microscopical evaluation revealed no significant loss in mucosal cellular integrity treated with either unmilled or milled SQV. Histological studies suggest that SQV uses both the paracellular and transcellular route of transport across the mucosa, with drug treatment having no permanent affects. High-energy ball milling was superior to the chemical enhancers studied for enhancement of SQV buccal permeation. PMID:24499179

  20. Colonic Chicken Skin Mucosa is an Independent Endoscopic Predictor of Advanced Colorectal Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Ju; Lee, Ji Young; Choe, Jaewon; Chang, Hye-Sook; Kim, Jongcheol; Yang, Dong Hoon; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Chicken skin mucosa (CSM), surrounding colorectal adenoma, is an endoscopic finding with pale yellow-speckled mucosa; however, its clinical significance is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of CSM, and the association between colorectal carcinogenesis and CSM. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed in 733 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic polypectomy for colorectal adenoma after the screening of colonoscopy at the Asan Health Promotion Center between June 2009 and December 2011. The colonoscopic and pathological findings of colorectal adenoma including number, size, location, dysplasia, morphology, and clinical parameters were reviewed. Results The prevalence of CSM was 30.7% (225 of 733 patients), and most CSM-related adenomas were located in the distal colon (93.3%). Histological analysis revealed lipid-laden macrophages in the lamina propria of the mucosa. Multivariate analyses showed that CSM was significantly associated with advanced pathology, including villous adenoma and high-grade dysplasia (odds ratio [OR], 2.078; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.191-3.627; P=0.010), multiple adenomas (i.e., ?2 adenomas; OR, 1.692; 95% CI, 1.143-2.507; P=0.009), and a protruding morphology (OR, 1.493; 95% CI, 1.027-2.170; P=0.036). There were no significant differences in polyp size or clinical parameters between patients with and without CSM. Conclusions CSM-related adenoma was mainly found in the distal colon, and was associated with advanced pathology and multiple adenomas. CSM could be a potential predictive marker of the carcinogenetic progression of distally located colorectal adenomas. PMID:26576137

  1. The inflammatory and normal transcriptome of mouse bladder detrusor and mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Marcia R; Hellmich, Helen L; Turner, Mary; Nguyen, Ngoc-Bich; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Dyer, David W; Hurst, Robert E; Centola, Michael; Saban, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Background An organ such as the bladder consists of complex, interacting set of tissues and cells. Inflammation has been implicated in every major disease of the bladder, including cancer, interstitial cystitis, and infection. However, scanty is the information about individual detrusor and urothelium transcriptomes in response to inflammation. Here, we used suppression subtractive hybridizations (SSH) to determine bladder tissue- and disease-specific genes and transcriptional regulatory elements (TRE)s. Unique TREs and genes were assembled into putative networks. Results It was found that the control bladder mucosa presented regulatory elements driving genes such as myosin light chain phosphatase and calponin 1 that influence the smooth muscle phenotype. In the control detrusor network the Pax-3 TRE was significantly over-represented. During development, the Pax-3 transcription factor (TF) maintains progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state whereas, during inflammation, Pax-3 was suppressed and genes involved in neuronal development (synapsin I) were up-regulated. Therefore, during inflammation, an increased maturation of neural progenitor cells in the muscle may underlie detrusor instability. NF-?B was specifically over-represented in the inflamed mucosa regulatory network. When the inflamed detrusor was compared to control, two major pathways were found, one encoding synapsin I, a neuron-specific phosphoprotein, and the other an important apoptotic protein, siva. In response to LPS-induced inflammation, the liver X receptor was over-represented in both mucosa and detrusor regulatory networks confirming a role for this nuclear receptor in LPS-induced gene expression. Conclusion A new approach for understanding bladder muscle-urothelium interaction was developed by assembling SSH, real time PCR, and TRE analysis results into regulatory networks. Interestingly, some of the TREs and their downstream transcripts originally involved in organogenesis and oncogenesis were also activated during inflammation. The latter represents an additional link between inflammation and cancer. The regulatory networks represent key targets for development of novel drugs targeting bladder diseases. PMID:16420690

  2. Ectopic Compound Odontoma in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed. PMID:25810930

  3. Protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on the jejunal graft mucosa injury during cold preservation.

    PubMed

    Jonecova, Zuzana; Toth, Stefan; Maretta, Milan; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Varga, Jan; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Protection of intestinal graft mucosa during cold preservation is still an unmet need in clinical practice, thus affecting the success of transplantation. The present study investigates the ability of two ischemic preconditioning (IPC) procedures to limit cold preservation injury. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were recruited (n=11 each) as follows: the short IPC (SIPC) performed through 4cycles of mesenteric ischemia of 4min each followed by 10min of reperfusion, the long IPC (LIPC) obtained by 2 ischemic cycles of 12min each followed by 10min of reperfusion, and the control group (C) without IPC. Grafts were then stored in cold histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution and samples were taken at 0, 3, 6 and 9h lasting preservation. Both IPC groups showed an advanced degree of preservation with delayed development of graft mucosa damage, mainly in the crypt region. At the beginning of preservation, the graft mucosa in both IPC groups showed lower degree of mucosal injury index (MII) by 50% in comparison with C group. Specifically, a significant improvement of MII was observed after 3h of preservation in the LIPC group (p<0.05) in comparison with untreated C grafts. Significant atrophy of the intestinal mucosa in C group was found after 3h of preservation (p<0.01), in SIPC group the progress of atrophy was delayed to 6h (p<0.001), and in LIPC group only moderate decrease in that was found. A parallel increase of laminin expression with the MII rate after 6 and 9h of preservation in comparison with the level at time 0 was observed in all grafts (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). In both IPC groups the apoptotic cell (AC) rate was significantly reduced at the beginning of cold preservation (p<0.05 both). Moreover, in both the SIPC and C groups, the progressive increase in MII rate connected with AC rate decrease was due to a predominance of necrosis. By contrast in the LIPC group, after an increase of nearly 50% in the AC rate at the 3rd hour, its level remained fairly constant during the further 6h of preservation, thus probably preventing necrosis and improving graft viability. PMID:26123930

  4. Binding of TH-iloprost to rat gastric mucosa: a pitfall in performing radioligand binding assays

    SciTech Connect

    Beinborn, M.; Kromer, W.; Staar, U.; Sewing, K.F.

    1985-09-01

    Binding of TH-iloprost was studied in a 20,000 x g sediment of the rat gastric mucosa. When pH in both test tubes for total and non-specific binding was kept identical, no displaceable binding of iloprost could be detected. When no care was taken to keep the pH identical in corresponding test tubes of the binding assay, changes in pH simulated specific and displaceable binding of iloprost. Therefore it is concluded that - in contrast to earlier reports - it is not possible to demonstrate specific iloprost binding using the given method.

  5. Generation and Characterization of a Cyp2f2-Null Mouse and Studies on the Role of CYP2F2 in Naphthalene-Induced Toxicity in the Lung and Nasal Olfactory MucosaS?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Wei, Yuan; Van Winkle, Laura; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Hu, Jinping; Xie, Fang; Kluetzman, Kerri

    2011-01-01

    The CYP2F enzymes, abundantly expressed in the respiratory tract, are active toward many xenobiotic compounds, including naphthalene (NA). However, the precise roles of these enzymes in tissue-selective chemical toxicity have been difficult to resolve. A Cyp2f2-null mouse was generated in this study by disrupting the Cyp2f2 fourth exon. Homozygous Cyp2f2-null mice, which had no CYP2F2 expression and showed no changes in the expression of other P450 genes examined, were viable and fertile and had no in utero lethality or developmental deficits. The loss of CYP2F2 expression led to substantial decreases in the in vitro catalytic efficiency of microsomal NA epoxygenases in lung (up to ?160-fold), liver (?3-fold), and nasal olfactory mucosa (OM; up to ?16-fold), and significant decreases in rates of systemic NA (300 mg/kg i.p.) clearance. The Cyp2f2-null mice were largely resistant to NA-induced cytotoxicity, when examined at 24 h after NA dosing (at 300 mg/kg i.p.), and to NA-induced depletion of total nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH), examined at 2 h after dosing, in the lungs. In contrast, the loss of CYP2F2 expression did not alleviate NA-induced NPSH depletion or tissue toxicity in the OM. Mouse CYP2F2 clearly plays an essential role in the bioactivation and toxicity of NA in the lung but not in the OM. The Cyp2f2-null mouse should be valuable for studies on the role of CYP2F2 in the metabolism and toxicity of numerous other xenobiotic compounds and for future production of a CYP2F1-humanized mouse. PMID:21730012

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacilli bacterium Strain VT-13-104 Isolated from the Intestine of a Patient with Duodenal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tetz, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Bacilli bacterium strain VT-13-104 isolated from the intestine of a patient with duodenal cancer. The genome is composed of 3,573,421 bp, with a G+C content of 35.7%. It possesses 3,254 predicted protein-coding genes encoding multidrug resistance transporters, resistance to antibiotics, and virulence factors. PMID:26139715

  7. Bisphenol A inhibits duodenal movement ex vivo of rat through nitric oxide-mediated soluble guanylyl cyclase and ?-adrenergic signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kaushik; Tarafder, Panchali; Paul, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is directly exposed to bisphenol A (BPA)-tainted foods and beverages stored in polycarbonate plastic containers. The effect of BPA on the movement of small intestine has not been reported until now. We report here the effect of BPA on the movement of the duodenum ex vivo in a rat model. We found significant inhibition of duodenal movement by BPA (10-320?µ M). We suggest that BPA-induced inhibition of duodenal movement might be due to the suppression of stimulatory and/or activation of inhibitory motor neurons in enteric plexuses innervating the longitudinal and circular visceral smooth muscle cells in the duodenal wall. We observed a significant reversal of BPA-induced depression of duodenal movement by methylene blue, a soluble guanylyl cyclase blocker and N-?-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor; but significant potentiation of the movement by sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor. From the results, we may suggest that BPA-induced inhibition of the movement might be partially due to activation of inhibitory motor neurons that secrete NO, a relaxant, on to smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, we found significant reversal of BPA-induced depression of the movement in phentolamine, an ?-adrenergic receptor blocker, pretreated preparation. This result proves that norepinephrine secreting motor neurons may also be involved in BPA-induced inhibition of the movement. From the results, we conclude that BPA inhibits the movement of the duodenum through NO-mediated soluble guanylyl cyclase and ?-adrenergic signaling pathways in visceral smooth muscle cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25884437

  8. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of Cr(VI) in the oral mucosa of Big Blue® transgenic F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Suh, Mina; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of oral tumors in F344 rats in a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. These tumors primarily occurred at 180 ppm Cr(VI) and appeared to originate from the gingival mucosa surrounding the upper molar teeth. To investigate whether these tumors could have resulted from a mutagenic mode of action (MOA), a transgenic mutation assay based on OECD Test Guideline 488 was conducted in Big Blue(®) TgF344 rats. The mutagenic oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) served as a positive control. Mutant frequency was measured in the inner gingiva with adjacent palate, and outer gingiva with adjacent buccal tissue. Exposure to 10 ppm 4-NQO in drinking water for 28 days increased mutant frequency in the cII transgene significantly, from 39.1?±?7.5 × 10(-6) to 688?±?250 × 10(-6) in the gingival/buccal region, and from 49.8?±?17.8 × 10(-6) to 1818?±?362 × 10(-6) in the gingival/palate region. Exposure to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase the mutant frequency in the gingival/buccal (44.4?±?25.4 × 10(-6)) or the gingival/palate (57.8?±?9.1 × 10(-6)) regions relative to controls. These data indicate that high (?180,000 times expected human exposure), tumorigenic concentrations of Cr(VI) did not significantly increase mutations in the gingival epithelium, and suggest that Cr(VI) does not act by a mutagenic MOA in the rat oral cavity. PMID:26010270

  9. Gene expression profiling of gastric mucosa in mice lacking CCK and gastrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Kodama, Yosuke; Flatberg, Arnar; Beisvag, Vidar; Kulseng, Bård; Sandvik, Arne K; Rehfeld, Jens F; Chen, Duan

    2014-01-01

    The stomach produces acid, which may play an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. The aim of this study was to reveal signaling pathways in the gastric mucosa that involve the acid secretion and possibly the bone metabolism in CCK1 and/or CCK2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Gastric acid secretion was impaired and the ECL cell signaling pathway was inhibited in CCK2 receptor KO mice but not in CCK1 receptor KO mice. However, in CCK1+2 receptor double KO mice the acid secretion in response to pylorus ligation-induced vagal stimulation and the ECL cell pathway were partially normalized, which was associated with an up-regulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1). The basal part of the gastric mucosa expressed parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) in a subpopulation of likely ECL cells (and possibly other cells) and vitamin D3 1? hydroxylase probably in trefoil peptide2-immunoreactive cells. In conclusion, mice lacking CCK receptors exhibited a functional shift from the gastrin-CCK pathways to the neuronal pathway in control of the ECL cells and eventually the acid secretion. Taking the present data together with previous findings, we suggest a possible link between gastric PTHLH and vitamin D and bone metabolism. PMID:25160855

  10. A novel mechanism for NETosis provides antimicrobial defense at the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Tirthankar; Sjögren, Jonathan; Kahn, Fredrik; Abu-Humaidan, Anas H A; Fisker, Niels; Assing, Kristian; Mörgelin, Matthias; Bengtsson, Anders A; Borregaard, Niels; Sørensen, Ole E

    2015-10-29

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense at the oral mucosa and neutropenia or functional neutrophil defects lead to disordered oral homeostasis. We found that neutrophils from the oral mucosa harvested from morning saliva had released neutrophil extracellular traps (undergone NETosis) in vivo. The NETosis was mediated through intracellular signals elicited by binding of sialyl Lewis(X) present on salival mucins to l-selectin on neutrophils. This led to rapid loss of nuclear membrane and intracellular release of granule proteins with subsequent neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release independent of elastase and reduced NAD phosphate-oxidase activation. The saliva-induced NETs were more DNase-resistant and had higher capacity to bind and kill bacteria than NETs induced by bacteria or by phorbol-myristate acetate. Furthermore, saliva/sialyl Lewis(X) mediated signaling enhanced intracellular killing of bacteria by neutrophils. Saliva from patients with aphthous ulcers and Behçet disease prone to oral ulcers failed to induce NETosis, but for different reasons it demonstrated that disordered homeostasis in the oral cavity may result in deficient saliva-mediated NETosis. PMID:26243777

  11. Orbital passage of pterygopalatine ganglion efferents to paranasal sinuses and nasal mucosa in man.

    PubMed

    Ruskell, Gordon L

    2003-01-01

    Parasympathetic nerves of pterygopalatine ganglion origin are considered to enter the orbit and distribute to the nasal mucosa with the anterior ethmoidal nerve. As their distribution has never been demonstrated the present study was undertaken to seek evidence of their passage and to identify their relationship with the ethmoidal nerves. The soft tissues of the pterygopalatine fossa and orbit from sixteen sides of twelve cadavers were removed in one piece and either dissected or cut coronally into slabs and prepared histologically using montages of thin resin-embedded sections at intervals suitable for nerve path tracing. Several of the rami orbitales passing mediodorsally from the ganglion enter the orbit apically, branch and enter the posterior ethmoidal foramen terminating in the lining of the paranasal sinuses and others advance to enter the anterior ethmoidal canal to reach the nasal mucosa. No junctions were made with ethmoidal nerves within the orbit or the canal. Failure of surgical lesions of the anterior ethmoidal nerve as a treatment for vasomotor rhinitis may be attributed to the sparing of the separate parasympathetic nerves. Appropriate chemical lesions, on the other hand, could ensure destruction of isolated parasympathetic nerves while limiting damage to the larger anterior ethmoidal nerve. PMID:14707402

  12. A prospective study on duodenogastric reflux and on histological changes in gastric mucosa after cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, D; Pezzolla, F; Cavallini, A; Messa, C; Giorgio, P; Caruso, M L; Piccioli, E; Guerra, V; Misciagna, G

    1992-01-01

    The authors carried out a prospective study to evaluate variations with time in postcholecystectomy duodenogastric reflux (expressed as "fasting bile reflux" in mumol/h) and in gastric mucosal damage. Ten patients underwent (before cholecystectomy, 6 months after surgery and after a median period of 4 years from surgery) a gastric drainage to assess total (enzymatic method) and single (high performance liquid chromatography) intragastric bile acids, and a gastroscopy with biopsies of the antrum and gastric body to assess histological damage to the mucosa. The results showed that there was a progressive increase in the fasting bile reflux of total bile acids with time (precholecystectomy median value 0.295 mumol/h; 6 months control median value 12.045 mumol/h; late control medial value 19.9 mumol/h; Friedman test, P = 0.0022). Examination of the gastric mucosa at the three moments of the study showed that histological damage worsened progressively. In fact chronic atrophic gastritis of the antrum was present in 10 percent of cases before surgery and in 50 percent 4 years after, and the prevalence of chronic superficial gastritis of the body progressed from 0 to 40 percent. Studies on larger groups of patients are necessary to evaluate whether these two phenomena are correlated. PMID:1397852

  13. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    The olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the Corriedale sheep were examined using lectin histochemistry in order to clarify the histochemical and glycohistochemical differences between these two tissues. The olfactory epithelium was stained with 13 lectins out of 21 lectins examined, while the respiratory epithelium was positive to 16 lectins. The free border of both of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia was stained with 12 lectins: Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120), Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). The associated glands of the olfactory mucosa, Bowman's glands, were stained with 13 lectins. While both the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands were stained with 8 lectins; five of them (WGA, s-WGA, STL, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) and ECL) were mutually positive among the Bowman's glands, mucous nasal glands and the goblet cells. These findings indicate that the glycohistochemical characteristics of the free borders of both olfactory and respiratory epithelia are similar to each other, suggesting that secretions from the Bowman's glands and those of the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands are partially exchanged between the surface of two epithelia to contribute the functions of the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory receptor cells, respectively. PMID:24200894

  14. Demonstration of Helicobacter pylori-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of captive exotic carnivores.

    PubMed

    Jakob, W; Stolte, M; Valentin, A; Schröder, H D

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gastric tissue from the cardiac, fundic and pyloric region of 30 carnivores comprising 12 tigers (Panthera tigris), 10 lions (Panthera leo), three pumas (Felis concolor), two leopards (Panthera pardus), one serval (Felis serval), one wolf (Canis lupus) and one hyena (Crocuta crocuta) kept at German zoological gardens were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Selected tissue specimens of 12 animals were examined also by electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter-like organisms in carnivores and to record infection rates, degree of colonization and associated histopathological changes. Three morphologically different types of spiral-shaped bacteria were demonstrated. A Helicobacter pylori-like organism (HPLO) was found in 42% of the tigers and 90% of the lions examined. Large Helicobacter-like organisms (HLOs) were identified in three pumas, one serval, one hyena and in three lions (in the latter, in coexistence with HPLOs). A third organism with a spiral periplasmic fibril (Helicobacter felis-like) was demonstrated in a wolf. The most striking histopathological finding associated with HPLO and HLO colonization was the formation of lymphoid follicles in the mucosa. Additional lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic infiltrates in the gastric mucosa were found in a number of tigers and lions infected with HPLOs, but none in the other carnivores infected with HLOs. From these results it is concluded that gastric bacteria similar or identical with H. pylori may also be an important cause of chronic gastritis in tigers and lions. PMID:9076597

  15. Replicating phages in the epidermal mucosa of the eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Amaro, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we used the eel (Anguilla anguilla) as an animal model to test the hypothesis of Barr et al. (2013a,b) about the putative role of the epidermal mucosa as a phage enrichment layer. To this end, we analyzed the microbial content of the skin mucus of wild and farmed eels by using a metagenomic approach. We found a great abundance of replicating phage genomes (concatemers) in all the samples. They were assembled in four complete genomes of three Myovirus and one Podovirus. We also found evidences that ?KZ and Podovirus phages could be part of the resident microbiota associated to the eel mucosal surface and persist on them over the time. Moreover, the viral abundance estimated by epiflorescent counts and by metagenomic recruitment from eel mucosa was higher than that of the surrounding water. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that claims a possible role of phages in the animal mucus as agents controlling bacterial populations, including pathogenic species, providing a kind of innate immunity. PMID:25688234

  16. A case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Kousuke; Akahira, Jun-Ichi; Niikura, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Moriya, Takuya; Murakami, Takashi; Kameoka, Jun-Ichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2004-09-01

    We report the first case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the vagina, the diagnosis of which is supported by genetic and immunophenotypic studies. A 65-year-old, para 2 woman presented to our hospital in July 1997 with a history of prolonged vaginal discharge. Although cytologic examination suggested possible malignancy, a biopsy of the vaginal wall was diagnosed as chronic inflammation. In June 2000, she underwent gynecologic examination because of anuria. Excisional biopsy revealed subepithelial infiltration of atypical lymphoid cells that stained for CD20, CD79a, and BCL-2; stained weakly for IgM; and did not stain for CD3, CD5, CD7, CD10, CD56, CD23, and IgD, suggesting marginal zone B-cell lineage. Monoclonality was detected by Southern blot analysis, and this patient was finally diagnosed as having primary MALT lymphoma of the vagina. She received 3 cycles of chemotherapy (THP-COP) and concurrent radiation to the whole pelvis. The patient is alive and well 40 months after treatment. Because the vagina is one of the mucosa-associated tissues, MALT lymphoma, though rare, must be included in the differential diagnosis of the vaginal neoplasms. PMID:15343521

  17. Replicating phages in the epidermal mucosa of the eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    PubMed Central

    Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Amaro, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we used the eel (Anguilla anguilla) as an animal model to test the hypothesis of Barr et al. (2013a,b) about the putative role of the epidermal mucosa as a phage enrichment layer. To this end, we analyzed the microbial content of the skin mucus of wild and farmed eels by using a metagenomic approach. We found a great abundance of replicating phage genomes (concatemers) in all the samples. They were assembled in four complete genomes of three Myovirus and one Podovirus. We also found evidences that ?KZ and Podovirus phages could be part of the resident microbiota associated to the eel mucosal surface and persist on them over the time. Moreover, the viral abundance estimated by epiflorescent counts and by metagenomic recruitment from eel mucosa was higher than that of the surrounding water. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that claims a possible role of phages in the animal mucus as agents controlling bacterial populations, including pathogenic species, providing a kind of innate immunity. PMID:25688234

  18. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate cell metabolism in malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, Angelika; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, Simone; Kalinina, Sviatlana

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnosis of tumor tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results interfere with the outcome. Improvement through observation of cell metabolism might offer the solution, but needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. With respect to this, spectrally resolved multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging was investigated to analyze cell metabolism in metabolic phenotypes of malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells. The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of NADH were measured in cells of different origins. The fluorescence lifetime of bound and free NADH was calculated from biexponential fitting of the fluorescence intensity decay within different spectral regions. The mean lifetime was increased from nonmalignant oral mucosa cells to different squamous carcinoma cells, where the most aggressive cells showed the longest lifetime. In correlation with reports in the literature, the total amount of NADH seemed to be less for the carcinoma cells and the ratio of free/bound NADH was decreased from nonmalignant to squamous carcinoma cells. Moreover for squamous carcinoma cells a high concentration of bound NADH was found in cytoplasmic organelles (mainly mitochondria). This all together indicates that oxidative phosphorylation and a high redox potential play an important role in the energy metabolism of these cells.

  19. Adjuvant activity of naturally occurring monophosphoryl lipopolysaccharide preparations from mucosa-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Paula M; Hadel, Diana M; To, Thao T; Mitchell, Thomas C; Darveau, Richard P

    2013-09-01

    Natural heterogeneity in the structure of the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces differential effects on the innate immune response. Gram-negative bacterial species produce LPS structures that differ from the classic endotoxic LPS structures. These differences include hypoacylation and hypophosphorylation of the diglucosamine backbone, both differences known to decrease LPS toxicity. The effect of decreased toxicity on the adjuvant properties of many of these LPS structures has not been fully explored. Here we demonstrate that two naturally produced forms of monophosphorylated LPS, from the mucosa-associated bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Prevotella intermedia, function as immunological adjuvants for antigen-specific immune responses. Each form of mucosal LPS increased vaccination-initiated antigen-specific antibody titers in both quantity and quality when given simultaneously with vaccine antigen preparations. Interestingly, adjuvant effects on initial T cell clonal expansion were selective for CD4 T cells. No significant increase in CD8 T cell expansion was detected. MyD88/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TRIF/TLR4 signaling pathways showed equally decreased signaling with the LPS forms studied here as with endotoxic LPS or detoxified monophosphorylated lipid A (MPLA). Natural monophosphorylated LPS from mucosa-associated bacteria functions as a weak but effective adjuvant for specific immune responses, with preferential effects on antibody and CD4 T cell responses over CD8 T cell responses. PMID:23798540

  20. Vagal Afferent Innervation of the Proximal Gastrointestinal Tract Mucosa: Chemoreceptor and Mechanoreceptor Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Powley, Terry L.; Spaulding, Ryan A.; Haglof, Stanley A.

    2014-01-01

    The vagus nerve supplies low-threshold chemo- and mechanosensitive afferents to the mucosa of the proximal gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The absence of a full characterization of the morphology and distributions of these projections has hampered comprehensive functional analyses. In the present experiment, dextran (10K) conjugated with tetramethylrhodamine and biotin was injected into the nodose ganglion and used to label the terminal arbors of individual vagal afferents of both rats and mice. Series of serial 100-µm thick sections of the initial segment of the duodenum as well as the pyloric antrum were collected and processed with diaminobenzidine for permanent tracer labeling. Examination of over 400 isolated afferent fibers, more than 200 from each species, indicated that three vagal afferent specializations, each distinct in morphology and in targets, innervate the mucosa of the proximal GI tract. One population of fibers, the villus afferents, supplies plates of varicose endings to the apical tips of intestinal villi, immediately subjacent to the epithelial wall. A second type of afferent, the crypt afferent, forms subepithelial rings of varicose processes encircling the intestinal glands or crypts, immediately below the cryptvillus junction. Statistical assessment of the isolated fibers indicated that the villus arbors and the crypt endings are independent, issued by different vagal afferents. A third vagal afferent specialization, the antral gland afferent, arborizes along the gastric antral glands and forms terminal concentrations immediately below the luminal epithelial wall. The terminal locations, morphological features, and regional distributions of these three specializations provide inferences about the sensitivities of the afferents. PMID:21246548

  1. Histological features of the gastric mucosa in children with primary bile reflux gastritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bile reflux is one of the primary factors involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal lesions in patients with chronic gastritis; however, little is known about the exact histological features of bile reflux and its contributions to gastric mucosal lesions in this disease, especially in children with primary bile reflux gastritis (BRG). The aim of this study was to investigate the classic histological changes of the gastric mucosa in children with primary BRG. Methods The Bilitec 2000 was used for 24 h monitoring of gastric bile in 59 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The histological characteristics of the gastric mucosa were examined and scored. Results Thirteen of the 59 patients had a helicobacter pylori infection and were excluded; therefore, 46 cases were included in this study. The positive rate of pathological duodenogastric reflux was significantly higher in patients with foveolar hyperplasia than those without foveolar hyperplasia; however, the rate was significantly lower in patients with vascular congestion than those without vascular congestion. The longest reflux time and the total percentage time of bile reflux were significantly lower in patients with vascular congestion than those without vascular congestion. A total of 9 types of histological changes were analyzed using a binary logistic regression. Foveolar hyperplasia and vascular congestion in the superficial layer became significant variables in the last step of the stepwise regression. Conclusions Foveolar hyperplasia was associated with the severity of bile reflux, suggesting that it is a histological feature of primary BRG in children, while vascular congestion may be a protective factor. PMID:22289498

  2. Catecholamine-Directed Epithelial Cell Interactions with Bacteria in the Intestinal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Brown, David R

    2016-01-01

    The catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine are present in or have access to mucous membranes in the digestive, respiratory and genitourinary tracts, which represent the first sites of microbial colonization and infection within the body. Epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces establish and maintain symbiotic microbial communities and serve as the initial cellular point of contact for pathogens with the animal host. These cells express receptors that are capable of detecting and responding to microbe-associated molecular patterns and in most host species express G protein-coupled receptors for catecholamines. Although it is increasingly recognized that substances produced and released from nerves and endocrine cells can exert immuno-modulatory actions at mucosal sites, there have been few investigations focused specifically on the catecholaminergic modulation of interactions between the mucosal epithelium and bacteria or other mucosa-associated microorganisms. The potential biomedical importance of this phenomenon cannot be understated. For example, psychological stress or other conditions that activate the sympathetic nervous system to release epinephrine and norepinephrine may act to produce short-term changes in luminal and mucosal microbial communities or alter the course of a bacterial infection. This chapter will briefly review this developing and important research area of mucosa-microbe interactions with a focus on intestinal host defense. PMID:26589214

  3. Pancreas-Preserving Approach to “Paraduodenal Pancreatitis” Treatment: Why, When, and How? Experience of Treatment of 62 Patients with Duodenal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, V. I.; Vankovich, A. N.; Petrov, R. V.; Starostina, N. S.; Butkevich, A. Ts.; Sazhin, A. V.; Stepanova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term “paraduodenal pancreatitis” (PP) was proposed as a synonym for duodenal dystrophy (DD) and groove pancreatitis, but it is still unclear what organ PP originates from and how to treat it properly. Objective. To assess the results of different types of treatment for PP. Method. Prospective analysis of 62 cases of PP (2004–2013) with histopathology of 40 specimens was performed; clinical presentation was assessed and the results of treatment were recorded.??Results. Preoperative diagnosis was correct in all the cases except one (1.9%). Patients presented with abdominal pain (100%), weight loss (76%), vomiting (30%), and jaundice (18%). CT, MRI, and endoUS were the most useful diagnostic modalities. Ten patients were treated conservatively, 24 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD), pancreatico- and cystoenterostomies (8), Nakao procedures (5), duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resections (5), and 10 pancreas-preserving duodenal resections (PPDR) without mortality. Full pain control was achieved after PPRDs in 83%, after PDs in 85%, and after PPPH resections and draining procedures in 18% of cases. Diabetes mellitus developed thrice after PD. Conclusions. PD is the main surgical option for PP treatment at present; early diagnosis makes PPDR the treatment of choice for PP; efficacy of PPDR for DD treatment provides proof that so-called PP is an entity of duodenal, but not “paraduodenal,” origin. PMID:24995273

  4. Experimental reconstruction of the airway with buccal mucosa and cortical bone in a single-stage procedure.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, L; Lindholm, C E; Jansson, B

    1984-01-01

    Autogenous buccal mucosa and cortical bone were transplanted in a one-stage procedure to an anterior tracheal defect in 5 beagles. The result was studied by endoscopy, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bone graft was shaped as an oval disc and perforated with large holes for vascular nutrition of the mucosal graft. Small holes were made along the periphery for suturing the buccal mucosa to the bone disc and for suturing the composite graft to the tracheal defect. The mucosa sloughed off from the framework during the first 2 weeks and the bone graft was subsequently expelled through the airway. The mucosal graft was replaced by ciliated columnar epithelium supported by firm connective tissue. Various surface structures were found in the regenerating epithelium. Although the animals did not suffocate or develop a stenosis, this procedure cannot in its present form be recommended for use in clinical practice. PMID:6395622

  5. Maintenance of intragastric pH > 4 with famotidine in duodenal ulcer patients: factors influencing drug requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Delchier, J C; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Stanescu, L; Deharvengt, M C; Elouaer Blanc, L

    1994-01-01

    The gastrojet, a closed loop pH feedback infusion pump capable of maintaining intragastric pH at a target value by infusing H2 blockers at variable rates, was used to assess factors influencing the quantity of famotidine required to maintain intragastric pH above 4 for 24 hours in 34 fed patients with duodenal ulcers. The following factors were considered: sex, age, duration of the disease, previous bleeding, previous poor response to H2 blockers (ulcer unhealed at six weeks, or recurrence within three months during maintenance treatment), activity of the ulcer disease, smoking habits, cirrhosis. The patients had taken no antisecretory drugs for the 15 days before the study. Two standardised meals were given during the study period (from 1000 to 1000). Fifty ml of famotidine (4 mg/ml) was loaded into infusion bags and the pump was programmed to deliver the drug intravenously at 11 rates varying from 0 to 40 microliters/min. The target pH was 4. Mean famotidine use was 111 mg (range 33 to 200), the 23 hour median pH was 5.3, and the mean time during which pH was above 4 was 75.4%. There was a negative correlation (p < 0.001) between famotidine delivery and the inhibition of gastric acidity. Statistical analysis showed that only cirrhosis significantly influenced drug delivery, median pH, and the time during which pH was above 4. Mean drug delivery in the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients was 135 v 97 mg (p < 0.04), 23 hour median pH was 4.7 v 5.6 (p < 0.01), and the mean time at pH > 4 was 65.9 v 81.6% (p < 0.01). There were large interindividual variations in famotidine requirements, but not only cirrhosis was predictive of dose requirement. These results suggest that the appropriate amount of famotidine to treat duodenal ulcer in cirrhotic patients is probably higher than the usually recommended dose. PMID:8020798

  6. Identification of the major regenerative III protein (RegIII) in the porcine intestinal mucosa as RegIII?, not RegIII?.

    PubMed

    Soler, L; Miller, I; Nöbauer, K; Carpentier, S; Niewold, T

    2015-09-15

    During the last years, an antimicrobial protein from the RegIII family has been consistently identified as one of the main up-regulated mRNA transcripts in the pig small intestinal mucosa during different infections such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). This transcript has been mainly referred to in the literature as pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP/RegIII?). However, the identity of this transcript has not been confirmed, and no evidence of its expression at the protein level is available in the literature, because the absence of a specific antibody. In this study, we first unequivocally identified the PAP/RegIII family protein mainly expressed in ETEC infected pig intestine as RegIII? by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. This shows that the pig differs from species like human and mice in that RegIII? (and not RegIII?) might be the major RegIII isotype during intestinal infection. Immunoblotting analysis with a specifically generated polyclonal rabbit antibody revealed that pig RegIII? is expressed throughout the intestinal tract, but most abundantly in the ileum. Although a higher abundance of mRNA was paralleled by higher protein abundance, a lack of linear relationship was found between RegIII? mRNA and protein abundances in the jejunal mucosa, the latter most pronounced in the case of natural infection. This may be related to the secretory nature of RegIII?. This would mean that the antimicrobial protein RegIII? is a good candidate as a non-invasive faecal intestinal health biomarker in swine. PMID:26187439

  7. Role of Helicobacter pylori in ulcer healing and recurrence of gastric and duodenal ulcers in longterm NSAID users. Response to omeprazole dual therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi Porro, G; Parente, F; Imbesi, V; Montrone, F; Caruso, I

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relation between Helicobacter pylori infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-associated peptic ulcers remains unclear; in particular, it is not known whether H pylori plays a part in the healing and recurrence of these ulcers. AIMS: To evaluate prospectively in a consecutive series of arthritis patients receiving longterm NSAID treatment the prevalence of peptic ulcer as well as the effect of H pylori eradication on the healing and recurrence of gastric and duodenal ulcer found. PATIENTS: Some 278 consecutive patients underwent gastroscopy with multiple biopsies of the gastric antrum and corpus for histological examination and rapid urease test. One hundred peptic ulcers (59 gastric ulcers, 39 duodenal ulcers, and two gastric ulcers concomitant with a duodenal ulcer) were found. Seventy per cent of these ulcers were H pylori positive. METHODS: According to their H pylori status, ulcer patients were randomised to one of the following treatments: H pylori negative ulcers received omeprazole 20 mg twice daily for four to eight weeks, whereas H pylori positive lesions were treated with omeprazole 20 mg twice daily plus amoxycillin 1 g twice daily (the second of these for the first two weeks) or omeprazole alone for four to eight weeks while continuing NSAID therapy. Patients with healed ulcers were endoscopically followed up for six months after stopping antiulcer therapy while continuing NSAIDs. RESULTS: Endoscopic healing rates for gastric and duodenal ulcers in the three different groups were similar both at four and eight weeks. H pylori eradication did not influence healing, which occurred in 14 of 20 (70%) of patients in whom H pylori was eradicated, compared with 14 of 17 (82%) of patients with persistent infection. Cumulative recurrence rates at six months did not statistically differ among the three different groups (27% in H pylori negative, 46% in H pylori positive, and 31% in those where H pylori was eradicated during the healing phase), although a numerical trend in favour of a higher recurrence rate in infected patients was evident. CONCLUSIONS: H pylori eradication does not confer any significant advantage on the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers associated with longterm NSAID use. It remains to be established with certainty whether eradication may be helpful in the reduction of recurrence in a specific subset of NSAID associated ulcer. PMID:8881802

  8. Long-term duodenal levodopa infusion in Parkinson's disease: a 3-year motor and cognitive follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Zibetti, Maurizio; Merola, Aristide; Ricchi, Valeria; Marchisio, Alice; Artusi, Carlo Alberto; Rizzi, Laura; Montanaro, Elisa; Reggio, Dario; De Angelis, Claudio; Rizzone, Mario; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal infusion of levodopa/carbidopa gel (Duodopa) is an effective treatment option for advanced Parkinson's dis