Sample records for human duodenal mucosa

  1. Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1983-01-01

    An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

  2. Transcytosis of gastric leptin through the rat duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Cammisotto, Philippe G; Gingras, Diane; Bendayan, Moïse

    2007-10-01

    Leptin is secreted into the gastric juice by epithelial Chief cells and reaches the duodenum in a biologically intact active form. We assessed the possibility that this gastric leptin crosses the intestinal mucosa by transcytosis through enterocytes to reach blood circulation. Endogenous gastric leptin secretion was triggered by cholinergic stimulation. In another set of experiments, recombinant leptin was inserted in vivo into the duodenal lumen. Plasma levels of leptin were assessed by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot, and duodenal tissue was processed for immunocytochemistry. We first observed that leptin was found inside duodenal enterocytes from fed rats but not inside those from fasted ones. Stimulation of gastric secretion by a cholinergic agent led to rapid increases in plasma leptin levels (202 +/- 39%) except when the pylorus was clamped. Insertion of recombinant leptin into the duodenal lumen raised plasma leptin concentrations (558 +/- 34%) quite rapidly, whereas carrier solution without leptin had no effect. The use of FITC-tagged leptin reinforced these results. Light and electron microscopy revealed the cellular compartments involved in its transcytosis, namely, the enterocyte microvilli, the endocytotic vesicles, the Golgi complex, and the basolateral interdigitations. Leptin was also present in the lamina propria, in capillary endothelial cell plasmalemmal vesicles, and in capillary lumina. These results demonstrate that gastric exocrine leptin is internalized by duodenal enterocytes and delivered to the lamina propria and blood circulation. It may thus be able to play important paracrine and endocrine functions for the control of gastric emptying and nutrient absorption. PMID:17673543

  3. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative duodenal fluid versus duodenal mucosa cultures in German Shepherd Dogs with spontaneous small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    E-print Network

    Delles, Edward Kevin

    1993-01-01

    of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery COMPARISON OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DUODENAL FLUID VERSUS DUODENAL MUCOSA...' . Rogers ( ember) John R. A st (Head of Department) August 1993 ABSTRACT Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Duodenal Fluid Versus Duodenal Mucosa Cultures in German Shepherd Dogs with Spontaneous Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth. (August...

  4. Effect of the hexapeptide dalargin on ornithine decarboxylase activity in the duodenal mucosa of rats with experimental duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Yarygin, K.N.; Shitin, A.G.; Polonskii, V.M.; Vinogradov, V.A.

    1987-08-01

    The authors study the effect of dalargin on ornithine decarboxylase in homogenates of the duodenal ulcer from rats with experimental duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine. Activity of the enzyme was expressed in pmoles /sup 14/CO/sub 2//mg protein/h. Protein was determined by Lowry's method. The findings indicate that stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase and the antiulcerative effect of dalargin may be due to direct interaction of the peptide with cells of the intestinal mucosa and with enterocytes.

  5. Clinical Study Duodenal Bulb Mucosa with Hypertrophic Gastric Oxyntic Heterotopia in Patients with Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

    E-print Network

    Emil Kohan; David Oh; Hank Wang; Salar Hazany; Gordon Ohning; Joseph R. Pisegna

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) results in hypersecretion of gastric acid (via gastrinoma) leading to peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We describe the novel discovery of hypertrophic, heterotopic gastric mucosa in the proximal duodenal bulb in patients with ZES, which we

  6. Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer Yang Liu,1 Randall E Shah,2 Curtis Hall,2 and Vadim Backman1 Abstract Purpose: Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most architecture of the epithe- lium.We propose a novel approach to predict pancreatic cancer through

  7. CD4+ T Cell Cytokine Gene and Protein Expression in Duodenal Mucosa of Dogs with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    OHTA, Hiroshi; TAKADA, Kanae; SUNDEN, Yuji; TAMURA, Yu; OSUGA, Tatsuyuki; LIM, Sue Yee; MURAKAMI, Masahiro; SASAKI, Noboru; WICKRAMASEKARA RAJAPAKSHAGE, Bandula Kumara; NAKAMURA, Kensuke; YAMASAKI, Masahiro; TAKIGUCHI, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal signs in dogs. In humans, T helper cells have important roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. In contrast, no specific involvement of a distinct T cell subset has been described in canine IBD. The present study evaluated the gene and protein expression of cytokines of T cell subsets in duodenal mucosa from dogs with IBD. Relative quantification of interleukin (IL)-17A, interferon (IFN)-?, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA transcription was performed using duodenal mucosa from 27 IBD dogs and 8 controls. Duodenal mucosal IL-17A, IFN-? and IL-10 protein levels were determined by ELISA in 15 IBD dogs and 8 controls. There was no significant difference in each cytokines mRNA transcription level between groups. There was no significant difference in IL-17A, IFN-? and IL-10 protein expression levels between groups. Thus, there is no clear evidence for the involvement of distinct Th cytokine in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. PMID:24270804

  8. Effects of alendronate on gastric and duodenal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Lanza; Mary Frances Rack; Thomas J Simon; Antonio Lombardi; Robert Reyes; Shailaja Suryawanshi

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: This single-center, double-blind, randomized study assessed the effect of alendronate 5 and 10 mg on the gastroduodenal mucosa. Methods: Overall, 95 postmenopausal women without a recent history of major upper gastrointestinal (GI) disease and not taking gastric-irritant drugs, were screened with an upper GI endoscopy. Fourteen women (15% of the total) were found to have baseline endoscopic gastric and\\/or

  9. Geraniol-a flavoring agent with multifunctional effects in protecting the gastric and duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid Moraes; Bonamin, Flavia; Dos Santos, Raquel Cássia; Périco, Larissa Lucena; Beserra, Fernando Pereira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Filho, José Maria Barbosa; da Rocha, Lucia Regina Machado; Hiruma-Lima, Clelia Akiko

    2014-04-01

    Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol commonly used as a flavoring agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate antiulcerogenic effects of geraniol and to determine the possible mechanisms involved in this action. In the model of the ethanol-induced ulcer, treatment of rats with geraniol by oral route significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 70 % (7.50 mg/kg) to 99 % (200 mg/kg). Analysis of the gastric tissue of rats treated with geraniol (7.50 mg/kg) revealed that total glutathione content levels (GSH) increased and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) decreased in the gastric mucosa. Oral treatment with geraniol significantly decreased the number of ulcerative lesions induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury by 71 % and the duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine by 68 %. The action of geraniol was mediated by the activation of defensive mucosa-protective factors such as the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, endogenous prostaglandins, increased mucus production, increased sulfhydryl compounds, antioxidant properties and the stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release through the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV). The multifaceted gastroprotective mechanisms of geraniol represent a promising option for the treatment of gastric and duodenal mucosa injury. PMID:24337826

  10. Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freddy J Troost; Peter van Baarlen; Patrick Lindsey; Andrea Kodde; Willem M de Vos; Michiel Kleerebezem; Robert-Jan M Brummer

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal

  11. Human Oral Mucosa and Gingiva

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q.Z.; Nguyen, A.L.; Yu, W.H.; Le, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of progenitor cells with self-renewal and multipotent differentiation potential. Aside from their regenerative role, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that MSCs are capable of potent immunomodulatory effects on a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells. In this article, we will review recent experimental studies on the characterization of a unique population of MSCs derived from human oral mucosa and gingiva, especially their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions and their application in the treatment of several in vivo models of inflammatory diseases. The ease of isolation, accessible tissue source, and rapid ex vivo expansion, with maintenance of stable stem-cell-like phenotypes, render oral mucosa- and gingiva-derived MSCs a promising alternative cell source for MSC-based therapies. PMID:22988012

  12. Nematodirus battus: scanning electron microscope studies of the duodenal mucosa of infected lambs.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Lee, D L

    1980-12-01

    Lambs given 60 000 third-stage larvae of Nematodirus battus were killed on days 16, 20 22, 24 and 32 of the infection and the duodenal mucosa was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On day 16 of the infection the villi were long and finger-like and, although goblet cells were visible, the surface of the villi was not extensively folded, as is the surface of villi of uninfected control animals. By day 20 of the infection the villi had been reduced to flattened, plate-like structures or had formed low, irregular-shaped ridges. On this day of the infection the nematodes appeared to be enclosed by mucus-like material. As the infection progressed the intestinal damage was repaired, so that, by day 24 of the infection, the surface of the intestine was covered by short, smooth, finger-like projections and, by day 32 of the infection, the morphology of the intestine was somewhat similar to that of the control lamb. The possible role of villus atrophy and of mucus in the rejection of N. battus from the intestine is discussed. PMID:7232036

  13. Photodynamic therapy of pancreatic cancer and elastic scattering spectroscopy of the duodenal mucosa for the detection of pancreaticobiliary malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggett, M. T.; Baddeley, R. N. B.; Sandanayake, N. S.; Webster, G. J. M.; Bown, S. G.; Lovat, L. B.; Gillams, A.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.

    2011-02-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of pancreaticobiliary malignancy is of major interest to our group. Building on prior work, we undertook a phase I study of verteporfin photodynamic therapy in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, pancreatic cancer. We also initiated an optical diagnostic study using elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) of the normal-appearing periampullary duodenal mucosa in vivo to investigate the hypothesis of a field effect in pancreaticobiliary malignancy. In a phase I dose escalation study, patients were treated with interstitial verteporfin PDT via a single fibre, to determine its general safety profile and the optimum treatment parameters needed to achieve effective and safe necrosis of tumour, With increasing light doses, there was a linear increase in the extent of tumour necrosis around the fibre, without serious adverse events. Follow-on studies using multiple fibres are planned. In 30 patients with benign or malignant pancreaticobiliary disease undergoing clinically-indicated endoscopy, ESS spectra were collected from the normal-appearing duodenum and antrum and a diagnostic algorithm generated by principle component and linear discriminant analysis. Pooled data from duodenal sites distal to the ampulla gave a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 72% (82% AUC) for the detection of malignancy, whereas those from the periampullary region had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 61% (72% AUC); antral measurements were not able to discriminate with such accuracy. These early results suggest that ESS of the duodenal mucosa could represent a novel minimally invasive diagnostic test for pancreaticobiliary malignancy.

  14. Early ultrastructural changes in rat duodenal mucosa associated with cysteamine-induced ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, C.J.; Pfeiffer, D.C.; Szabo, S.

    1987-02-01

    The early morphologic sequelae induced by the duodenal ulcerogen, cysteamine, have been studied in rats by transmission electron microscopy. Cysteamine was administered per os at 70 mg/100 g body wt to groups of female rats sacrificed at 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 20, and 24 hr after chemical treatment, and duodenal tissue sampled from the antimesenteric side of the proximal duodenum, where ulcers develop, was studied. Emphasis was placed on early times as our previous scanning electron microscopic data had demonstrated enhanced in situ cellular necrosis and surface cavitation at 2-4 hr after cysteamine treatment. Results indicated intracellular changes as early as 30 min after treatment and prior to damage of the columnar cell microvilli or epithelial tight junctions. A staging of observed cellular degenerative changes suggested early apical endoplasmic reticular swelling and loss of cytoplasmic ground substance, followed later by moderate internal disruption of mitochondria. Through these stages the cell surface microvilli remained morphologically normal. Subsequently, microvilli degenerated and mitochondrial fine structure became severely disrupted and cell contents were expelled. Deeper villous changes such as separation of columnar cells from the lamina propria and alterations of selected elements within the lamina propria were observed. These data suggest that intracellular cytotoxic reactions at the villous tips occur early and may precede the influence of intraluminal damaging factors induced by cysteamine.

  15. The duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion.

    PubMed

    Sjöblom, Markus

    2005-01-01

    The duodenal lumen is exposed to aggressive factors with a high potential to cause damage to the mucosa. Bicarbonate secretion by the duodenal mucosa is accepted as the primary important defense mechanism against the hydrochloric acid intermittently expelled from the stomach. The present work concerns both the influence of the central nervous system and the effects of the hormone melatonin on duodenal bicarbonate secretion in anesthetized rats in vivo as well as effects of melatonin on intracellular calcium signaling by duodenal enterocyte in vitro examined in tissues of both human and rat origin. The main findings were as follows: Melatonin is a potent stimulant of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion and also seems to be involved in the acid-induced stimulation of the secretion. Stimulation elicited in the central nervous system by the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine induced release of melatonin from the intestinal mucosa and a four-fold increase in alkaline secretion. The melatonin antagonist luzindole abolished the duodenal secretory response to administered melatonin and to central nervous phenylephrine but did not influence the release of intestinal melatonin. Central nervous stimulation was also abolished by synchronous ligation of the vagal trunks and the sympathetic chains at the sub-laryngeal level. Melatonin induced release of calcium from intracellular stores and also influx of extracellular calcium in isolated duodenal enterocytes. Enterocytes in clusters functioned as a syncytium. Overnight fasting rapidly and profoundly down-regulated the responses to the duodenal secretagogue orexin-A and the muscarinic agonist bethanechol but not those to melatonin or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. PMID:16075893

  16. Aberrant Crypts: Putative Preneoplastic Foci in Human Colonie Mucosa1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa P. Pretlow; Betty J. Barrow; Scott Ashton; Thomas G. Pretlow; Joseph A. Jurcisek; Thomas A. Stellato

    Aberrant crypts were identified for the first time in whole-mount preparations of normal-appearing human colonie mucosa after staining with méthylène blue. The foci of aberrant crypts varied from single altered glands to plaques of greater than 30 crypts. The mean proportion of colonie mucosa altered and the number of foci with aberrant crypts per cm2of colonie mucosa were (a) higher

  17. Lectin histochemistry of normal human gastric mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chong Jiang; Sheena F. McClure; Robert W. Stoddart; John McClure

    2003-01-01

    Information about the saccharides expressed in gastric mucosa is mostly limited to the glycan content of gastric mucins and\\u000a there are only a few studies of the glycoprofiling of the constituent cells and their components. Knowledge of the glycan\\u000a expression of normal gastric mucosa is necessary for the interpretation of the significance of changes of expression in disease.\\u000a \\u000a A lectin

  18. Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Troost, Freddy J; van Baarlen, Peter; Lindsey, Patrick; Kodde, Andrea; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert-Jan M

    2008-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. Results One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine. PMID:18681965

  19. Prostaglandin Levels in Human Colorectal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    GIARDIELLO, FRANCIS M.; SPANNHAKE, ERNST W.; DUBOIS, RAYMOND N.; HYLIND, LINDA M.; ROBINSON, C. RAHJ; HUBBARD, WALTER C.; HAMILTON, STANLEY R.; YANG, VINCENT W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may prevent colorectal cancer. The mechanism of action of NSAIDs in chemoprevention is unknown but may be linked to their effect on mucosal prostaglandin levels. Levels of five major prostaglandin metabolites were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in biopsy specimens of flat rectal mucosa from four patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) before and after sulindac therapy and from five healthy individuals. The prostaglandin present at highest concentration in rectal mucosa from FAP and control subjects was prostaglandin E2. The concentration of thromboxane B2 alone was significantly elevated in FAP patients compared to controls (P = 0.016). In FAP patients treated with sulindac, all prostaglandin metabolite levels were significantly reduced compared to pretreatment levels (P < 0.05) except prostaglandin D2 (P = 0.07). Prostaglandins D2, E2, F2?, and 6-ke to-F1? levels also were significantly reduced in FAP patients on sulindac compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). However, interpatient heterogeneity of response to sulindac was evident with changes ranging from +19% to ?89%, and the patient with the greatest reductions after sulindac developed colorectal cancer after 35 months of therapy. Sulindac treatment, at drug doses shown to regress colorectal adenomas in FAP patients, has heterogeneous effects on the level of major prostaglandins in their rectal mucosa and may not prevent colorectal cancer due to uncoupling of prostaglandin levels and carcinogenesis. PMID:9512123

  20. Phagocytes in cell suspensions of human colon mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Beeken, W; Northwood, I; Beliveau, C; Gump, D

    1987-01-01

    Because little is known of the phagocytes of the human colon we enumerated these cells in mucosal suspensions and studied their phagocytic activity. Phagocyte rich suspensions were made by EDTA collagenase dissociation followed by elutriation centrifugation. Phagocytosis was evaluated by measuring cellular radioactivity after incubation of phagocytes with 3H-adenine labelled E coli ON2 and checked microscopically. Dissociation of normal mucosa from colorectal neoplasms yielded means of 1.9 X 10(6) eosinophils, 1.4 X 10(6) macrophages and 2 X 10(5) neutrophils per gram of mucosa. Visually normal mucosa of inflammatory states yielded 2.2 X 10(6) eosinophils, 2.3 X 10(6) macrophages and 7 X 10(5) neutrophils per gram of mucosa. Phagocyte rich suspensions of normal mucosa from tumour patients phagocytosed 21.8% of a pool of opsonised tritiated E coli ON2 and by microscopy 100% of mucosal neutrophils ingested bacteria, 83% of eosinophils were phagocytic, and 53% of macrophages contained bacteria. These results suggest that in the human colonic mucosa, the eosinophil is more abundant than the macrophage and the per cent of those cells exhibiting phagocytosis is intermediate between that of the macrophage and the neutrophil. Thus these three types of cells are actively phagocytic and share the potential for a major role in host defence against invasive enteric bacteria. PMID:3666566

  1. Synthesis of IgA by human gastric mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Spohn, M; McColl, I

    1987-07-01

    Human gastric mucosa was removed at gastrectomy for duodenal ulcers. Intact mucosal layer and homogenized mucosal scrapings were incubated in vitro with L-[U-14C]leucine and with D-[U-14C]glucose and incorporation of radioactive label into IgA was investigated. 14C of both the precursors was incorporated into tissue IgA when intact gastric mucosa was incubated indicating synthesis of IgA by the tissue in vitro. IgA isolated from the media which bathed the luminal sides of the mucosae during incubation was also radioactive implying secretion of the newly-synthesized immunoglobulin into the media. When mucosal scrapings were incubated as homogenized suspensions, radioactivity of IgA was below the level of sensitivity of our methods. For analysis, IgA was separated from the bulk of radioactive mucosal proteins of the samples by isopycnic CsCl gradient centrifugation followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 or Sephadex G200 and then Sepharose 4B. The IgA-enriched Sepharose 4B fractions were subjected (1) to immunoprecipitation in agar gels by double diffusion against specific anti alpha-chain serum and (2) to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after reduction. Radioactivity of precipitated IgA, and of the protein band which corresponds to the alpha-chain of IgA on SDS-PAGE gels, was demonstrated autoradiographically. It is suggested that in vivo the mucosa is involved in local synthesis of the constituent IgA of gastric mucus. PMID:3116407

  2. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  3. GLP-1 Receptor Is Expressed in Human Stomach Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Broide, Efrat; Bloch, Olga; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim

    2013-01-01

    The stomach is a target organ of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the cellular expression and glandular distribution of its receptor (GLP-1R) in human gastric mucosa are not known. We determined the expression of GLP-1R in different regions of human stomach mucosa and its specific cellular association and distribution within gastric glands. Tissue samples from stomach body and antrum were obtained from 20 patients during routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy. mRNA encoding GLP-1R protein expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. Determination of cell types bearing GLP-1R, their localization, and their frequency in gastric glands in different gastric regions were estimated by immunohistochemical morphological analysis. Levels of GLP-1R mRNA were similar in body and antrum. GLP-1R immunoreactivity was found throughout the gastric mucosa in various types of glandular cells. The highest frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells was found in the neck area of the principal glands in cells morphologically identified as parietal cells. GLP-1R immunostaining was also found on enteroendocrine-like cells in the pyloric glands. This study provides the first description of GLP-1R expression in human gastric glands and its specific cellular association. Our data suggest that GLP-1 may act directly on the gastric mucosa to modulate its complex functions. PMID:23803499

  4. Hormone-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase in Human Colonic Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Simon; P. Czygan; G. Spaan; J. Dittrich; H. Kather

    1978-01-01

    Human colonic adenylate cyclase has been shown to be sensitive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and prostaglandins of the E- and F-type. Maximal activation of enzyme activity averaged 200% for VIP and 300–350% for the E-prostaglandins. Both classes of hormones had an additive effect on enzyme activity indicating the existence of two distinct hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclases in human colonic mucosa.Copyright

  5. [Long-term damage to duodenal mucosa in malabsorption syndrome as a sequela of Giardia lamblia infection].

    PubMed

    Orth, T; Protzer, U; Mayet, W J; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1995-03-01

    A 35-year-old German woman presented after a three month journey to Sudan with intermittent, persistent watery diarrhea. Stool examination identified Giardia lamblia. The patient was unsuccessfully orally treated with metronidazol 250 mg three times a day for seven days and tinidazol 2 g as single dose. During a two week hospitalization we observed a total villous atrophy in a duodenal biopsy specimen in absence of celiac sprue or a immunodeficiency syndrome. We treated with metronidazol 500 mg three times a day intravenously and discharged the patient in good condition. This case report shows the variability of clinical presentation of infection with Giardia lamblia. Moreover, we demonstrate rarely found histological changes as reason for clinical presentation, unsuccessful oral treatment and malabsorption. The intravenous therapy lead to a permanent eradication of Giardia lamblia. PMID:7754649

  6. Characterization of duodenal expression and localization of fatty acid-sensing receptors in humans: relationships with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Isaacs, Nicole J; Young, Richard L; Ott, Raffael; Nguyen, Nam Q; Rayner, Christopher K; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2014-11-15

    Fatty acids (FAs) stimulate the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which suppress energy intake. In obesity, gastrointestinal responses to FAs are attenuated. Recent studies have identified a key role for the FA-sensing receptors cluster of differentiation (CD)36, G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40, GPR120, and GPR119 in mediating gastrointestinal hormone secretion. This study aimed to determine the expression and localization of these receptors in the duodenum of humans and to examine relationships with obesity. Duodenal mucosal biopsies were collected from nine lean [body mass index (BMI): 22 ± 1 kg/m2], six overweight (BMI: 28 ± 1 kg/m2), and seven obese (BMI: 49 ± 5 kg/m2) participants. Absolute levels of receptor transcripts were quantified using RT-PCR, while immunohistochemistry was used for localization. Transcripts were expressed in the duodenum of lean, overweight, and obese individuals with abundance of CD36>GPR40>GPR120>GPR119. Expression levels of GPR120 (r = 0.46, P = 0.03) and CD36 (r = 0.69, P = 0.0004) were directly correlated with BMI. There was an inverse correlation between expression of GPR119 with BMI (r2 = 0.26, P = 0.016). Immunolabeling studies localized CD36 to the brush border membrane of the duodenal mucosa and GPR40, GPR120, and GPR119 to enteroendocrine cells. The number of cells immunolabeled with CCK (r = -0.54, P = 0.03) and GLP-1 (r = -0.49, P = 0.045) was inversely correlated with BMI, such that duodenal CCK and GLP-1 cell density decreased with increasing BMI. In conclusion, CD36, GPR40, GPR120, and GPR119 are expressed in the human duodenum. Transcript levels of duodenal FA receptors and enteroendocrine cell density are altered with increasing BMI, suggesting that these changes may underlie decreased gastrointestinal hormone responses to fat and impaired energy intake regulation in obesity. PMID:25258406

  7. Epithelial cell proliferation in human fundic and antral mucosae. Influence of superselective vagotomy and relationship with gastritis

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, O.; Lehy, T.; Rene, E.; Gres, L.; Bonfils, S.

    1985-11-01

    Epithelial cell proliferation in the fundic and antral mucosae was studied in 19 duodenal ulcer patients, 11 patients having undergone fundic superselective vagotomy for duodenal ulcer, and 10 controls. This was achieved through in vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine in mucosal biopsies and radioautography. Except for increased fundic mucosal height, duodenal ulcer patients did not differ from controls for all parameters studied. In vagotomized patients, as compared to the other two groups, the labeling index was significantly enhanced in the innervated antral mucosa where atrophic gastritis developed, but there was no change in the labeling index and no worsening of mucosal inflammation in the denervated fundic mucosa. The only abnormality in the latter was a striking expansion, towards the surface, of the proliferative area within the fundic pit. The labeling indices and the degree of gastritis in gastric mucosae are significantly correlated in control and duodenal ulcer patients. If findings in antral mucosa, after superselective vagotomy, seemed related to gastritis lesions, those in fundic mucosa were not and may indicate an alteration due to the vagotomy per se.

  8. Tissue MicroArray Analyses of Pancreatic Duodenal Homeobox-1 in Human Cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Zhi-Jun Li; Jonas Magnusson; F. Charles Brunicardi

    2005-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that rat insulin promoter (RIP)-driven gene therapy successfully targeted human pancreatic tumor PANC-1 cells and mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells, which are both pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1)-positive. The purpose of this study was to perform a human tissue array analysis to determine potential targets for RIP-driven gene therapy. A custom-designed tissue MicroArray analysis of various human

  9. Apolipoprotein B-100: immunolocalization and synthesis in human intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Levy, E; Rochette, C; Londono, I; Roy, C C; Milne, R W; Marcel, Y L; Bendayan, M

    1990-11-01

    Despite the evidence that the human small intestine produces two separate species of apoB mRNA encoding for B-100 and B-48, there is a paucity of data concerning the expression of the latter form in this organ. Using a high resolution immunogold approach, with specific polyclonal antibodies and a panel of monoclonal antibodies (2D8, 3A10, 4G3), both forms of apoB (B-48 and B-100) were revealed over enterocytes of pediatric intestinal samples. Intense labeling was observed over microvilli, apical smooth membrane vesicles, multivesicular bodies, the basolateral membrane, as well as the trans Golgi region. Only low labeling was found over the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Similar patterns of apoB distribution characterized both duodenal and jejunal regions. The presence of labeling over the Golgi apparatus and rER suggests a synthetic activity of both forms of apoB by the epithelial cells. To test this hypothesis, human intestine was incubated with [3H]leucine, homogenized, and subjected to immunoprecipitation for apoB. Immunoprecipitates contained radioactivity mainly in apoB-48 with relatively small amounts in apoB-100 when examined by NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These findings were further supported by the biochemical determination of apoB-100 and apoB-48 in chylomicron particles isolated from thoracic duct lymph of a human donor. Taken together, our data suggest that the human intestine is able to synthesize and to express the apoB-100. PMID:2086693

  10. An acid transporting enzyme in human gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Saccomani, G; Chang, H H; Mihas, A A; Crago, S; Sachs, G

    1979-01-01

    Isolation of a microsomal fraction from human gastric mucosa followed by density gradient centrifugation yielded a vesicular membrane preparation free of mitochondrial markers, containing a K+-activated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase with an activity of 20.7 mumol P1 released/mg protein per h. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis showed that the human gastric membrane vesicles contained a major polypeptide of 110,000 daltons, which accounted for approximately or equal to 30% of the total protein stained and was phosphorylated by [gamma-32P]ATP and dephosphorylated in the presence of K+. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of vesicles with an average size of 0.13 micrometer in diameter. Addition of 0.65 microM ATP to this vesicular preparation resulted in the uptake of 17 nmol H+/mg protein which was dependent on the presence of K+. The gradient was dissipated by a combination of valinomycin and protonophore after consumption of the ATP. Incubation of fixed human fundic sections or human gastric biopsy with monospecific hog gastric membrane antibody followed by fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit gamma-globulin, showed fluorescent staining in the middle portion of the gastric glands. These data indicate that human stomach contains a H+ transport ATPase with characteristics similar to those established for lower species. Images PMID:156736

  11. Effects of nicotine on the human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Greiff, L; Wollmer, P; Erjefält, I; Andersson, M; Pipkorn, U; Persson, C G

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Topical application of nicotine and stimulation of tachykinin containing sensory nerves have been shown to produce mucosal exudation of plasma and derangement of the epithelial lining in guinea pig and rat airways. If this occurred in man these effects might contribute to the pathogenesis of airway disease. This study, performed in healthy volunteers without atopy, examined whether nicotine affects the plasma exudation response and the mucosal absorption permeability of the human nasal airway. METHODS--The acute effects of increasing topical doses of nicotine (0.08-2.0 mg) were examined (n = 8) on nasal symptoms (pain), mucosal exudation of plasma (albumin), mucosal secretion of mucin (fucose), and mucosal exudative responsiveness (histamine induced mucosal exudation of albumin). A separate placebo controlled study was carried out to determine whether frequent applications of the high dose of nicotine (2.0 mg given eight times daily for nine days) had any deleterious effects on the airway mucosa detectable as altered responses to histamine challenge. Both mucosal exudation of plasma (n = 12) and mucosal absorption of chromium-51 labelled EDTA (n = 8) were thus examined in nasal airways exposed to both nicotine and histamine. RESULTS--Nicotine caused nasal pain and produced dose dependent mucosal secretion of fucose but failed to produce any mucosal exudation of albumin. The exudative responsiveness to histamine was, indeed, decreased when the challenge was performed immediately after administration of acute doses of nicotine, whereas the responsiveness was unaffected when histamine challenges were carried out during prolonged treatment with nicotine. The nasal mucosal absorption of 51Cr-EDTA in the presence of histamine did not differ between subjects receiving either placebo or nicotine treatment for nine days. CONCLUSIONS--The results indicate that nicotine applied to the human airway mucosa produces pain and secretion of mucin, but inflammatory changes such as mucosal exudation of plasma and epithelial disruption may not be produced. Neurogenic inflammatory responses, which are so readily produced in guinea pig and rat airways, may not occur in human airways. PMID:8346498

  12. In vitro genotoxicity of ethanol and acetaldehyde in human lymphocytes and the gastrointestinal tract mucosa cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Blasiak; A Trzeciak; E Malecka-Panas; J Drzewoski; M Wojewódzka

    2000-01-01

    The influence of ethanol and acetaldehyde on DNA in human lymphocytes, gastric mucosa (GM) and colonic mucosa (CM) was investigated by using the comet assay. All kinds of cells were exposed to ethanol and acetaldehyde in two regimens: the cells were incubated with either chemical and analysed or they were exposed first to ethanol, washed and then exposed to acetaldehyde

  13. Duodenal atresia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 20-30% of infants with duodenal atresia have Down syndrome. Duodenal atresia is often associated with other birth ... abnormality. Associated problems (such as those related to Down syndrome) must be treated as appropriate.

  14. Supplementation of a grape seed and grape marc meal extract decreases activities of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factors NF-?B and Nrf2 in the duodenal mucosa of pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pigs, enteric infections and the development of gut disorders such as diarrhoea are commonly observed, particularly after weaning. The present study investigated the hypothesis that feeding a grape seed and grape marc extract (GSGME) as a dietary supplement has the potential to suppress the inflammatory process in the small intestine of pigs by modulating the activities of NF-?B and Nrf2 due to its high content of flavonoids. Methods Twenty-four crossbred, 6 weeks old pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 12 animals each and fed nutritionally adequate diets without or with 1% GSGME for 4 weeks. Results Pigs administered GSGME had a lower transactivation of NF-?B and Nrf2 and a lower expression of various target genes of these transcription factors in the duodenal mucosa than control pigs (P?duodenal mucosa of pigs and thus might provide a useful dietary strategy to inhibit inflammation in the gut frequently occurring in pigs. Feeding GSGME did not influence vitamin E status and the antioxidant system of the pigs but improved the gain:feed ratio. In overall, the study suggests that polyphenol-rich plant extracts such GSGME could be useful feed supplements in pig nutrition, in order to maintain animal health and improve performance. PMID:23453040

  15. Intraoral Grafting of Tissue-Engineered Human Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Kenji; Neiva, Rodrigo F.; Feinberg, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of a tissue-engineered human ex vivo–produced oral mucosa equivalent (EVPOME) in intraoral grafting procedures. The secondary objective was to assess the efficacy of the grafted EVPOME in producing a keratinized mucosal surface epithelium. Materials and Methods Five patients who met the inclusion criteria of having one mucogingival defect or a lack of keratinized gingiva on a nonmolar tooth, along with radiographic evidence of sufficient interdental bone height, were recruited as subjects to increase the width of keratinized gingiva at the defect site. A punch biopsy specimen of the hard palate was taken to acquire oral keratinocytes, which were expanded, seeded, and cultured on an acellular dermal matrix for fabrication of an EVPOME. EVPOME grafts were applied directly over an intact periosteal bed and secured in place. At baseline (biopsy specimen retrieval) and at 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postsurgery, Plaque Index and Gingival Index were recorded for each subject. In addition, probing depths, keratinized gingival width, and keratinized gingival thickness were recorded at baseline, 30, 90, and 180 days. Results No complications or adverse reactions to EVPOME were observed in any subjects during the study. The mean gain in keratinized gingival width was 3 mm (range, 3 to 4 mm). The mean gain in keratinized gingival thickness was 1 mm (range, 1 to 2 mm). No significant changes in probing depths were observed. Conclusion Based on these findings, it can be concluded that EVPOME is safe for intraoral use and has the ability to augment keratinized tissue around teeth. Future clinical trials are needed to further explore this potential. PMID:24066347

  16. Quantitative determinations of sensory and pain thresholds on human oral mucosa by argon laser stimulation.

    PubMed

    Svensson, P; Bjerring, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Kaaber, S

    1992-05-01

    High-energy light from an argon laser was applied to human oral mucosa in order to investigate regional pain sensitivity. Significant regional differences in sensory and pain thresholds were observed between the test sites on the hard and soft palatal mucosa, the buccal mucosa, the tongue, the lower lip, and the skin on the hand. Pain thresholds were lowest on the tip of the tongue and highest on the hard palate. Sensory and pain thresholds were influenced by different stimulus parameters: pulse duration and laser beam diameter. Blackening of the mucosa in regions with high optical reflectance, such as the hard palate, increased light absorption and, hence, reduced both thresholds significantly. Reflectance spectrophotometric measurements indicated that the hard palatal mucosa reflected argon laser light about 1.5 times more than the tip of the tongue. The different threshold values could, in part, be ascribed to different reflectance and absorption properties of the mucosal areas but also indicated substantial regional variation in pain sensitivity of the human oral mucosa. Measurement of laser thresholds is an appropriate and standardized method for investigating sensory differences in human oral mucosa and may be used to study various pain conditions, e.g., burning mouth syndrome. PMID:1608647

  17. In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Stennert, Eberhard; Siefer, Oliver; Zheng, Meihua; Walger, Martin; Mickenhagen, Axel

    2008-09-01

    It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal restrictions on the removal of human tissue and changing surgical techniques have led to a lack of fresh human mucosa for culturing. Most of the animals that have been used as donors up to now are genetically not very close to human beings and must all be sacrificed for such studies. We, therefore, established a modified system of culturing mucosa cells from the trachea of pigs, which is available as a regular by-product after slaughtering. With respect to the possibility of developing "beating" cilia, it could be shown that the speed of cell proliferation until adhesion to the coated culture dishes, the formation of conjunctions of cell clusters and the proliferation of cilia were comparable for porcine and human mucosa. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the porcine cilia beat frequency of 7.57 +/- 1.39 Hz was comparable to the human mucosa cells beat frequency of 7.3 +/- 1.4 Hz and that this beat frequency was absolutely constant over the investigation time of 360 min. In order to prove whether the reaction to different drugs is comparable between the porcine and human cilia, we initially tested benzalkonium chloride, which is known to be toxic for human cells, followed by naphazoline, which we found in previous studies on human mucosa to be non-toxic. The results clearly showed that the functional and morphological reactions of the porcine ciliated cells to these substances were similar to the reaction we found in the in vitro cultured human mucosa. PMID:18458926

  18. In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Siefer, Oliver; Zheng, Meihua; Walger, Martin; Mickenhagen, Axel

    2008-01-01

    It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal restrictions on the removal of human tissue and changing surgical techniques have led to a lack of fresh human mucosa for culturing. Most of the animals that have been used as donors up to now are genetically not very close to human beings and must all be sacrificed for such studies. We, therefore, established a modified system of culturing mucosa cells from the trachea of pigs, which is available as a regular by-product after slaughtering. With respect to the possibility of developing “beating” cilia, it could be shown that the speed of cell proliferation until adhesion to the coated culture dishes, the formation of conjunctions of cell clusters and the proliferation of cilia were comparable for porcine and human mucosa. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the porcine cilia beat frequency of 7.57 ± 1.39 Hz was comparable to the human mucosa cells beat frequency of 7.3 ± 1.4 Hz and that this beat frequency was absolutely constant over the investigation time of 360 min. In order to prove whether the reaction to different drugs is comparable between the porcine and human cilia, we initially tested benzalkonium chloride, which is known to be toxic for human cells, followed by naphazoline, which we found in previous studies on human mucosa to be non-toxic. The results clearly showed that the functional and morphological reactions of the porcine ciliated cells to these substances were similar to the reaction we found in the in vitro cultured human mucosa. PMID:18458926

  19. Laser capture microdissection and metagenomic analysis of intact mucosa-associated microbial communities of human colon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunwei; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Zhu, Xiaorong; Harrell, Laura; Hanan, Ira; Alverdy, John C; Meyer, Folker; Musch, Mark W; Young, Vincent B; Chang, Eugene B

    2010-12-01

    Metagenomic analysis of colonic mucosa-associated microbes has been complicated by technical challenges that disrupt or alter community structure and function. In the present study, we determined the feasibility of laser capture microdissection (LCM) of intact regional human colonic mucosa-associated microbes followed by phi29 multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and massively parallel sequencing for metagenomic analysis. Samples were obtained from the healthy human subject without bowel preparation and frozen sections immediately prepared. Regional mucosa-associated microbes were successfully dissected using LCM with minimal contamination by host cells, their DNA extracted and subjected to phi29 MDA with a high fidelity, prior to shotgun sequencing using the GS-FLX DNA sequencer. Metagenomic analysis of approximately 67 million base pairs of DNA sequences from two samples revealed that the metabolic functional profiles in mucosa-associated microbes were as diverse as those reported in feces, specifically the representation of functional genes associated with carbohydrate, protein, and nucleic acid utilization. In summary, these studies demonstrate the feasibility of the approach to study the structure and metagenomic profiles of human intestinal mucosa-associated microbial communities at small spatial scales. PMID:20931185

  20. Sample taking problems in measuring actual histamine levels of human gastroduodenal mucosa: specific and general relevance in clinical trials on peptic ulcer pathogenesis and selective proximal vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Thon, K P; Lorenz, W; Ohmann, C; Weber, D; Rohde, H; Röher, H D

    1985-01-01

    Changes in histamine storage in the oxyntic mucosa of duodenal ulcer patients and their reversal by vagotomy and the histamine H2-antagonist cimetidine supported the hypothesis that histamine could be a causal factor in peptic ulcer pathogenesis. The specificity of these findings was impaired by problems in biopsy taking, however, and in the preparative steps before measuring the actual histamine contents in all parts of the gastric mucosa and in the duodenum. A prospective trial was carried out in 190 patients to identify these sources of bias and to overcome them by appropriate study designs. Usually a direct correlation was found between weight of biopsy and mucosal histamine content. This problem was solved by selecting a biopsy forceps producing smaller variations in sample size, by limiting the time of cold ischaemia to four to five minutes only and by taking three biopsy specimens for each single histamine value. The actual histamine content of mucosal biopsies remained constant for about four to five minutes only. The 'disappearance' rate was faster in control subjects than in duodenal ulcer patients. Hence by variation of the cold ischaemia time any artefacts of differences between mucosal histamine levels in controls and duodenal ulcer patients could be produced. Using the optimised sample taking procedure mucosal histamine contents of several gastric regions and the duodenal bulb were measured in 24 patients with duodenal ulcer, after selective proximal vagotomy without drainage and in control subjects without any stomach disease (randomised controlled trial). The histamine content was lower in all parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract in duodenal ulcer patients than in controls and was raised again in all regions after selective proximal vagotomy. As the most likely hypothesis it is suggested that vagal reflexes with afferent fibres coming from the oxyntic mucosa stimulate histamine release in duodenal ulcer patients by efferent peptidergic neurones to all parts of the stomach and the duodenum where the ulcer lesion is situated. PMID:3905529

  1. NEW CONCEPTS OF NEURAL REGULATION IN HUMAN NASAL MUCOSA

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient receptor potential and voltage and calcium gated ion channels, and combinations of neurotransmitters that can be modulated during inflammation by neurotrophic factors has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and subtlety of nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants (“aromatherapy”), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as idiopathic nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19623876

  2. [Various mechanisms of cytoprotective effect of omeprazole and low intensity laser radiation on the gastroduodenal mucosa in the treatment of patients with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Akhmadkhodzhaev, A M

    2002-01-01

    Clinical studies were made in 130 patients with duodenal ulcer in the phase of exacerbation of the disease. There were 98 men and 32 women who ranged from 17 to 50 years old. Results of examination of 7 essentially healthy subjects were regarded as control. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I patients (n = 48) received a conventional therapy; in group II patients, the adopted therapy was supplemented by omeprazol, 20 mg twice daily, group III patients (n = 43) were (in addition to the above therapeutic regimen) exposed to a session of endoscopic low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) for 5 min (overall 6 to 8 LILI procedures). It has been ascertained that omeprazol exerts a cytoprotective effect on the mucozal barrier of the gastroduodenal zone brought about by increase in the synthesis of glucoproteins in the mucous membrane, improvement of the water-and-elastic properties, and enhancement of resistance of the mucosal barrier to the action of the aggressive factors. Administration of endoscopic LILI treatments in DU patients has also been found out to have a cytoprotective effect but superior to omeprazol. A protective action of LILI is believed to be caused by stimulation of synthesis of the most important components of glycoproteins. A cytoprotective effect of omeprazol and endoscopic LILI is ccompanied by a significant shortening of time for the clinical symptoms to get dispelled, the ulcer cicatrization frequency increased. PMID:11944382

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Penetrates the Basement Membrane in Human Nasal Respiratory Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Glorieux; Claus Bachert; Herman W. Favoreel; Annelies P. Vandekerckhove; Lennert Steukers; Anamaria Rekecki; Wim Van den Broeck; Joline Goossens; Siska Croubels; Reginald F. Clayton; Hans J. Nauwynck

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundHerpes simplex virus infections are highly prevalent in humans. However, the current therapeutics suffer important drawbacks such as limited results in neonates, increasing occurrence of resistance and impeded treatment of stromal infections. Remarkably, interactions of herpesviruses with human mucosa, the locus of infection, remain poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms in stromal infection remain controversial.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA human model consisting of

  4. Transforming Gene from Human Stomach Cancers and a Noncancerous Portion of Stomach Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Sakamoto; Midori Mori; Masanori Taira; Teruhiko Yoshida; Saeko Matsukawa; Kenji Shimizu; Mutsuo Sekiguchi; Masaaki Terada; Takashi Sugimura

    1986-01-01

    DNAs from 21 human stomach cancers, 16 metastatic stomach cancers to lymph nodes, and 21 apparently noncancerous specimens of stomach mucosae from a total of 26 patients with stomach cancer were tested for their ability to induce neoplastic transformation of NIH 3T3 cells on transfection by the calcium phosphate precipitation technique. Three samples of DNA were shown to have transforming

  5. Diffusion Studies of Nanometer Polymersomes Across Tissue Engineered Human Oral Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Hearnden; Hannah Lomas; Sheila MacNeil; Martin Thornhill; Craig Murdoch; Andrew Lewis; Jeppe Madsen; Adam Blanazs; Steve Armes; Giuseppe Battaglia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  To measure the diffusion of nanometer polymersomes through tissue engineered human oral mucosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  \\u000a In vitro models of full thickness tissue engineered oral mucosa (TEOM) were used to assess the penetration properties of two chemically\\u000a different polymersomes comprising two of block copolymers, PMPC-PDPA and PEO-PDPA. These copolymers self-assemble into membrane-enclosed\\u000a vesicular structures. Polymersomes were conjugated with fluorescent rhodamine in order

  6. Effect of dexamethasone and ACC on bacteria-induced mucin expression in human airway mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria can stimulate mucin production, but excessive mucus supports bacterial infection and consequently leads to airway obstruction. Therefore, the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and the antioxidant acetyl-cysteine (ACC) on bacteria-induced mucus expression was investigated. Explanted human airway mucosa and mucoepidermoid cells (Calu-3) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PAM3 (a synthetic lipoprotein). DEX or ACC were added to either LPS- or PAM3-stimulated airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells. Mucin mRNA expression (MUC5AC) and total mucus glycoconjugates (mucin protein) were quantified using real-time PCR and periodic acid Schiff staining. LPS and PAM3 significantly increased mucin expression in airway mucosa and Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). DEX alone had no significant effect on mucin expression in airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells (P > 0.05). In contrast, DEX significantly reduced LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression in explanted mucosal tissue and mucin expression in Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). In explanted human airway mucosa ACC alone significantly increased mucin expression (P < 0.05). In contrast, ACC significantly decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression (P < 0.05). In Calu-3 cells ACC alone had no significant effect on mucin expression (P > 0.05). ACC decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression, but this effect was not significant (P > 0.05). These data suggest that DEX can effectively reduce bacteria-induced mucin expression in the airways. ACC alone may increase mucin expression in noninfected mucosa, but it decreased bacteria-induced mucin expression. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether the effect of DEX or ACC is clinically relevant. PMID:17600317

  7. Epithelial Na + channel and ion transport in human nasal polyp and paranasal sinus mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Yasuda; Naomi Niisato; Hiroaki Miyazaki; Yoshinobu Iwasaki; Takemitsu Hama; Kenji Dejima; Yasuo Hisa; Yoshinori Marunaka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to characterize the ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption in human upper airway epithelia, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus. To perform the purpose, we obtained epithelial cells from human nasal polyp (NP) and paranasal sinus mucosa (PSM) by endoscopic surgery. We measured the short-circuit current (Isc) sensitive to benzamil (a specific ENaC blocker). The benzamil-sensitive Isc

  8. Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

    2014-10-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NF?B signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NF?B signaling in epithelial cells through I?B? phosphorylation, NF?Bp65 nuclear translocation, and TNF? secretion. In addition, NF?B activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.89. PMID:25269707

  9. Classification of normal and malignant human gastric mucosa tissue with confocal Raman microspectroscopy and wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaogai; Shen, Aiguo; Jiang, Tao; Ai, Yong; Hu, Jiming

    2008-02-01

    Thirty-two samples from the human gastric mucosa tissue, including 13 normal and 19 malignant tissue samples were measured by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The low signal-to-background ratio spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues were obtained by this technique without any sample preparation. Raman spectral interferences include a broad featureless sloping background due to fluorescence and noise. They mask most Raman spectral feature and lead to problems with precision and quantitation of the original spectral information. A preprocessed algorithm based on wavelet analysis was used to reduce noise and eliminate background/baseline of Raman spectra. Comparing preprocessed spectra of malignant gastric mucosa tissues with those of counterpart normal ones, there were obvious spectral changes, including intensity increase at ˜1156 cm -1 and intensity decrease at ˜1587 cm -1. The quantitative criterion based upon the intensity ratio of the ˜1156 and ˜1587 cm -1 was extracted for classification of the normal and malignant gastric mucosa tissue samples. This could result in a new diagnostic method, which would assist the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  10. Ex vivo produced human conjunctiva and oral mucosa equivalents grown in a serum-free culture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiko Yoshizawa; Stephen E Feinberg; Cynthia L Marcelo; Victor M Elner

    2004-01-01

    PurposeWe sought to develop full-thickness ex vivo produced human conjunctiva and oral mucosa equivalents using a serum-free culture system without a feeder layer and to compare conjunctiva and oral mucosa equivalents to assess their suitability as graft materials for eyelid reconstruction.

  11. An engineered 3D human airway mucosa model based on an SIS scaffold.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Maria; Gross, Roy; Walles, Heike; Gangnus, Rainer; Schütze, Karin; Walles, Thorsten

    2014-08-01

    To investigate interrelations of human obligate airway pathogens, such as Bordetella pertussis, and their hosts test systems with high in vitro/in vivo correlation are of urgent need. Using a tissue engineering approach, we generated a 3D test system of the airway mucosa with human tracheobronchial epithelial cells (hTEC) and fibroblasts seeded on a clinically implemented biological scaffold. To investigate if hTEC display tumour-specific characteristics we analysed Raman spectra of hTEC and the adenocarcinoma cell line Calu-3. To establish optimal conditions for infection studies, we treated human native airway mucosa segments with B. pertussis. Samples were processed for morphologic analysis. Whereas our test system consisting of differentiated epithelial cells and migrating fibroblasts shows high in vitro/in vivo correlation, hTEC seeded on the scaffold as monocultures did not resemble the in vivo situation. Differences in Raman spectra of hTEC and Calu-3 were identified in distinct wave number ranges between 720 and 1662 cm(-1) indicating that hTEC do not display tumour-specific characteristics. Infection of native tissue with B. pertussis led to cytoplasmic vacuoles, damaged mitochondria and destroyed epithelial cells. Our test system is suitable for infection studies with human obligate airway pathogens by mimicking the physiological microenvironment of the human airway mucosa. PMID:24912816

  12. Effects of Nonpathogenic Bacteria on Cytokine Secretion by Human Intestinal Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Borruel; Francesc Casellas; María Antolín; Marta Llopis; Monica Carol; Eloy Espíin; Javier Naval; Francisco Guarner; Juan R. Malagelada

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The human intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, and the mucosa is the interface between the immune system and the luminal environment. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether host–bacteria interactions influence mucosal cytokine production.METHODS:Macroscopically normal colonic specimens were obtained at surgery from eight patients with neoplasm, and inflamed ileal specimens were obtained from two patients with Crohn's

  13. Human JC polyomavirus in normal colorectal mucosa, hyperplastic polyps, sporadic adenomas, and adenocarcinomas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Tatiana Rasteiro; Gaspar, Rita; Figueiredo, Pedro; Mendonça, Cristina; Lazo, Pedro A; Almeida, Luís

    2013-12-01

    John Cunningham virus (JCV) infects chronically human populations worldwide and probably might confer a higher risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The prevalence of JCV DNA has been determined in normal colon mucosa and compared it with different degrees of colorectal lesions, as well as viral presence in the urine of the individuals in the study. JCV DNA was detected by a nested-PCR approach targeting the JCV small-t antigen in 100 healthy controls, and 100 patients undergoing biopsy for diagnosis of colorectal disorders. JCV DNA was detected in 40% of normal mucosa from controls and patients. JCV DNA presence in urine was also similar in controls and patients (37-41% range). JCV DNA detection in normal mucosa and urine reflects the infected population in Portugal. However, in cases with colorectal tumor lesions, JCV DNA was detected in 90% cases, independently of histological type or grade, and this increase was significantly higher with respect to its normal surrounding mucosa. This higher detection of JCV DNA in tumor lesions with respect to its own normal mucosa suggested that a selection for virus containing cells has occurred at some early stage in tumor initiation or progression. JCV may have a specific tropism for colon epithelial cells with some inherent predisposition that makes them more prone to oncogenic transformation, with selection of infected cells. Several p53 polymorphisms in intron 2, common to both groups, were more frequently detected in colorectal pathology cases. A novel p53 mutation in the 3' untranslated region (exon 11) was identified in 10 patients. PMID:24009184

  14. Human Papillomavirus in the Lesions of the Oral Mucosa According to Topography

    PubMed Central

    Mravak-Stipeti?, Marinka; Sabol, Ivan; Kranj?i?, Josip; Kneževi?, Marjana; Grce, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) types and oral lesions has been shown in many studies. Considering the significance that HPV has in the development of malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa, the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in different oral lesions. In addition, we wanted to elucidate whether the HPV infection is associated predominantly with either the lesion or a particular anatomic site of the oral cavity. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 246 subjects with different oral lesions, and 73 subjects with apparently healthy oral mucosa (controls). The oral lesions were classified according to their surface morphology and clinical diagnosis. The epithelial cells were collected with a cytobrush from different topographic sites in the oral cavity of the oral lesions and controls. The presence of HPV DNA was evaluated by consensus and type-specific primer-directed polymerase chain reaction. The HPV positivity was detected in 17.7% of oral lesions, significantly more than in apparently healthy mucosa (6.8%), with a higher presence in benign proliferative mucosal lesions (18.6%). High-risk HPV types were predominantly found in potentially malignant oral disorders (HPV16 in 4.3% and HPV31 in 3.4%), while benign proliferative lesions as well as healthy oral mucosa contained mainly undetermined HPV type (13.6 and 6.8%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance The distribution of positive HPV findings on the oral mucosa seems to be more associated with a particular anatomical site than the diagnosis itself. Samples taken from the vermilion border, labial commissures, and hard palate were most often HPV positive. Thus, topography plays a role in HPV prevalence findings in oral lesions. Because of the higher prevalence of the high-risk HPV types in potentially malignant oral disorders, these lesions need to be continuously controlled and treated. PMID:23922786

  15. Profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Verbeurgt, Christophe; Wilkin, Françoise; Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Françoise; Dumont, Jacques E; Chatelain, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the expressed olfactory receptors gene set. PMID:24800820

  16. Profiling of Olfactory Receptor Gene Expression in Whole Human Olfactory Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Françoise; Dumont, Jacques E.; Chatelain, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the expressed olfactory receptors gene set. PMID:24800820

  17. In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, R. V.; Gladkova, N. D.; Shakhova, N. M.; Snopova, L. B.; Shakhov, A. V.; Kuznetzova, I. A.; Denisenko, A. N.; Pochinko, V. V.; Chumakov, Yu P.; Streltzova, O. S.

    1997-12-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography for in vivo studies of human mucosa in respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT (EOCT) system has been created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation to investigated tissue. We have studied mucous membranes of esophagus, larynx, stomach, urinary bladder, uterine cervix and body as typical localization for carcinomatous processes. Images of tumor tissues versus healthy tissues have been recorded and analyzed. Violations of well-defined stratified healthy mucosa structure in cancered tissue are distinctly seen by EOCT, thus making this technique promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  18. Endoscopic OCT for in-vivo imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Snopova, Ludmila; Denisenko, Arkady; Almasov, Valentin

    1998-01-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography for in vivo studies of human mucosa in gastrointestinal and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT system has ben created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation to investigated tissue. We have studied mucous membranes of esophagus, stomach and uterine cervix as typical localization for carcinomatous processes. Images of tumor tissues versus healthy tissues have been recorded and analyzed. Violations of well-defined stratified healthy mucosa structure in cancerous tissue is distinctly seen by EOCT, thus making this technique promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  19. Binding and Transfer of Human Immunodeficiency Virus by DC-SIGN+ Cells in Human Rectal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Kevin B.; Elliott, Julie; Nassanian, Hoorig; Song, Carol; Soilleux, Elizabeth; McGowan, Ian; Anton, Peter A.; Lee, Benhur

    2005-01-01

    The role of DC-SIGN on human rectal mucosal dendritic cells is unknown. Using highly purified human rectal mucosal DC-SIGN+ cells and an ultrasensitive real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay to quantify virus binding, we found that HLA-DR+/DC-SIGN+ cells can bind and transfer more virus than the HLA-DR+/DC-SIGN? cells. Greater than 90% of the virus bound to total mucosal mononuclear cells (MMCs) was accounted for by the DC-SIGN+ cells, which comprise only 1 to 5% of total MMCs. Significantly, anti-DC-SIGN antibodies blocked 90% of the virus binding when more-physiologic amounts of virus inoculum were used. DC-SIGN expression in the rectal mucosa was significantly correlated with the interleukin-10 (IL-10)/IL-12 ratio (r = 0.58, P < 0.002; n = 26) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Ex vivo and in vitro data implicate the role of IL-10 in upregulating DC-SIGN expression and downregulating expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86. Dendritic cells derived from monocytes (MDDCs) in the presence of IL-10 render the MDDCs less responsive to maturation stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor alpha, and migration to the CCR7 ligand macrophage inflammatory protein 3?. Thus, an increased IL-10 environment could render DC-SIGN+ cells less immunostimulatory and migratory, thereby dampening an effective immune response. DC-SIGN and the IL-10/IL-12 axis may play significant roles in the mucosal transmission and pathogenesis of HIV type 1. PMID:15827191

  20. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyang Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Joon Pio [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: lsw@amc.seoul.kr; Sohn, Jung Sook [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Department of Radiology, Iksan General Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung-Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Rock [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  1. JC virus DNA is present in the mucosa of the human colon and in colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Laghi, Luigi; Randolph, Ann E.; Chauhan, D. P.; Marra, Giancarlo; Major, Eugene O.; Neel, James V.; Boland, C. Richard

    1999-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a polyoma virus that commonly infects humans. We have found T antigen DNA sequences of JCV in the mucosa of normal human colons, colorectal cancers, colorectal cancer xenografts raised in nude mice, and in the human colon cancer cell line SW480. A larger number of viral copies is present in cancer cells than in non-neoplastic colon cells, and sequence microheterogeneity occurs within individual colonic mucosal specimens. The improved yield of detection after treatment with topoisomerase I suggests that the viral DNA is negatively supercoiled in the human tissues. These results indicate that JCV DNA can be found in colonic tissues, which raises the possibility that this virus may play a role in the chromosomal instability observed in colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:10377441

  2. Geno- and cytotoxicity of salinomycin in human nasal mucosa and peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Scherzad, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Schramm, Carolin; Froelich, Katrin; Ginzkey, Christian; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    Salinomycin is usually applied in stock breading but has also been described as a promising agent against cancer stem cells (CSC). However, knowledge about the toxicity of this ionophor substance is incomplete. The aim of this study was to investigate cyto- and genotoxic effects of salinomycin in human non-malignant cells. Primary human nasal mucosa cells (monolayer and mini organ cultures) and peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 individuals were used to study the cytotoxic effects of salinomycin (0.1-175?M) by annexin-propidiumiodide- and MTT-test. The comet assay was performed to evaluate DNA damage. Additionally, the secretion of interleukin-8 was analyzed by ELISA. Flow cytometry and MTT assay revealed significant cytotoxic effects in nasal mucosa cells and lymphocytes at low salinomycin concentrations of 10-20?M. No genotoxic effects could be observed. IL-8 secretion was elevated at 5?M. Salinomycin-induced cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects were seen at concentrations relevant for anti-cancer treatment. Concurrent to the evaluation of salinomycin application in experimental oncology, adverse effects in non-malignant cells need to be monitored and reduced as much as possible. Further studies are also warranted to evaluate the toxic effects in a variety of human cell systems, e.g., liver, kidney and muscle cells. PMID:25769976

  3. Differential diagnosis of human bladder mucosa pathologies in vivo with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kiseleva, Elena; Kirillin, Mikhail; Feldchtein, Felix; Vitkin, Alex; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Zagaynova, Elena; Streltzova, Olga; Shakhov, Boris; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Gladkova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative image analysis and parameter extraction using a specific implementation of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides differential diagnosis of mucosal pathologies in in-vivo human bladders. We introduce a cross-polarization (CP) OCT image metric called Integral Depolarization Factor (IDF) to enable automatic diagnosis of bladder conditions (assessment the functional state of collagen fibers). IDF-based diagnostic accuracy of identification of the severe fibrosis of normal bladder mucosa is 79%; recurrence of carcinoma on the post-operative scar is 97%; and differentiation between neoplasia and acute inflammation is 75%. The promising potential of CP OCT combined with image analysis in human urology is thus demonstrated in vivo.

  4. Histamine and Chondroitin Sulfate E Proteoglycan Released by Cultured Human Colonic Mucosa: Indication for Possible Presence of E Mast Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rami Eliakim; Leon Gilead; Moshe Ligumsky; Elimelech Okon; Daniel Rachmilewitz; Ehud Razin

    1986-01-01

    An association between the release of histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan (PG) was demonstrated in human colonic mucosa (HCM). Colonic biopsy samples incorporated [35S]sulfate (2.7 × 106 ± 188 × 103 cpm\\/mg of wet tissue; mean ± SEM, n = 5) into PG, which was partially released into the culture medium during the incubation period. Ascending thin-layer chromatography of

  5. T Lymphocyte Density and Distribution in Human Colorectal Mucosa, and Inefficiency of Current Cell Isolation Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Preza, Gloria Cuevas; Yang, Otto O.; Elliott, Julie; Anton, Peter A.; Ochoa, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal tissues are critical immune effector sites containing complex populations of leukocytes in a tissue microenvironment that remains incompletely understood. We identify and quantify in human distal colorectal tissue absolute mucosal CD3+ lymphocytes, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, by direct visualization using immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and an automated counting protocol (r2=0.90). Sigmoid and rectal mucosal tissues are both densely packed with T lymphocytes in the mucosal compartment. Both compartments had similar densities of CD3+ T lymphocytes with 37,400 ± 2,801 cells/mm3 and 33,700 ± 4,324 cell/mm3, respectively. Sigmoid mucosa contained 57% CD3+CD4+ and 40% CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes which calculates to 21,300 ± 1,476/mm3 and 15,000 ± 275/mm3 T lymphocytes, respectively. Rectal mucosa had 57% CD3+CD4+ and 42% CD3+CD8+ or 21,577 ± 332, and 17,090 ± 1,206 cells/mm3, respectively. By comparison, sigmoid mucosal biopsies subjected to conventional collagenase digestion, mononuclear cell (MMC) isolation and staining for flow cytometry yielded 4,549 ± 381/mm3 and 2,708 ± 245/mm3 CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. These data suggest only ~20.7% recovery compared to IHC results for these markers. Further studies will determine if this reflects a selective bias in only CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells or can be generalized to all flow-analyzed cells from mucosal tissues for phenotyping and functional testing. PMID:25856343

  6. Hyperspectral hybrid method classification for detecting altered mucosa of the human larynx

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the field of earth observation, hyperspectral detector systems allow precise target detections of surface components from remote sensing platforms. This enables specific land covers to be identified without the need to physically travel to the areas examined. In the medical field, efforts are underway to develop optical technologies that detect altering tissue surfaces without the necessity to perform an excisional biopsy. With the establishment of expedient classification procedures, hyperspectral imaging may provide a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows determination of pathological tissue with high reliability. In this study, we examined the performance of a hyperspectral hybrid method classification for the automatic detection of altered mucosa of the human larynx. Materials and methods Hyperspectral Imaging was performed in vivo and 30 bands from 390 to 680?nm for 5 cases of laryngeal disorders (2x hemorrhagic polyp, 3x leukoplakia) were obtained. Image stacks were processed with unsupervised clustering (linear spectral unmixing), spectral signatures were extracted from unlabeled cluster maps and subsequently applied as end-members for supervised classification (spectral angle mapper) of further medical cases with identical diagnosis. Results Linear spectral unmixing clearly highlighted altered mucosa as single spectral clusters in all cases. Matching classes were identified, and extracted spectral signatures could readily be applied for supervised classifications. Automatic target detection performed well, as the considered classes showed notable correspondence with pathological tissue locations. Conclusions Using hyperspectral classification procedures derived from remote sensing applications for diagnostic purposes can create concrete benefits for the medical field. The approach shows that it would be rewarding to collect spectral signatures from histologically different lesions of laryngeal disorders in order to build up a spectral library and to prospectively allow non-invasive optical biopsies. PMID:22720905

  7. Duodenal Chemosensing and Mucosal Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    The duodenal mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including acid, CO2, bile acids and nutrients. Mucosal chemical sensors are necessary to exert physiological responses such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility. We propose a mucosal chemosensing system by which luminal chemicals are sensed via mucosal acid sensors and G-protein-coupled receptors. Luminal acid/CO2 sensing consists of ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases, epithelial ion transporters, and acid sensors expressed on the afferent nerves in the duodenum. Furthermore, a luminal L-glutamate signal is mediated via mucosal L-glutamate receptors, including metabotropic glutamate receptors and taste receptor 1 family heterodimers, with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase, whereas luminal Ca2+ is differently sensed via the calcium-sensing receptor in the duodenum. Recent studies also show the involvement of enteroendocrine G-protein-coupled receptors in bile acid and fatty acid sensing in the duodenum. These luminal chemosensors help activate mucosal defense mechanisms in or- der to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiological responses. Stimulation of luminal chemosensing in the duodenal mucosa may prevent mucosal injury, affect nutrient metabolism, and modulate sensory nerve activity. PMID:21389725

  8. Human cytomegalovirus induced pseudotumor of upper gastrointestinal tract mucosa: Effects of long-term chronic disease?

    PubMed

    Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Barresi, Valeria; Bertani, Angela; Maccio, Livia; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus-induced lesions resembling malignancies have been described in the gastrointestinal tract and include ulcerated or exophytic large masses. The aim of this study was to review the cases registered in the databases of two academic hospitals and formulate a hypothesis concerning the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for cytomegalovirus-induced pseudotumor development. All the diagnoses of human cytomegalovirus infections of the upper gastrointestinal tract recorded from 1991 to 2013 were reviewed. Cases of mucosal alterations misdiagnosed endoscopically as malignancies were selected. Large ulcers occurring in the stomach (three cases) and an irregular exophytic mass at the gastro-jejunal anastomosis were misdiagnosed endoscopically as malignancies (4 cases out of 53). Histologically, all lesions reflected hyperplastic mucosal changes with a prevalence of epithelial and stroma infected cells, without signs of cell atypia. The hypothesis presented is that the development of human cytomegalovirus-induced pseudotumors may be the morphological expression of chronic mucosa damage underlying long-term infection. J. Med. Virol. 87:1041-1045, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25776966

  9. Epithelial Na+ channel and ion transport in human nasal polyp and paranasal sinus mucosa.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Makoto; Niisato, Naomi; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hama, Takemitsu; Dejima, Kenji; Hisa, Yasuo; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2007-10-26

    The purpose of the present study is to characterize the ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption in human upper airway epithelia, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus. To perform the purpose, we obtained epithelial cells from human nasal polyp (NP) and paranasal sinus mucosa (PSM) by endoscopic surgery. We measured the short-circuit current (I(sc)) sensitive to benzamil (a specific ENaC blocker). The benzamil-sensitive I(sc) (Na+ absorption) in NP was larger than that in PSM. The mRNA expression of three subunits of ENaC was as follows: alpha>beta>gamma in both tissue, NP and MS. The mRNA expression of gamma subunit of ENaC in NP was larger than that in PSM, but no difference of mRNA expression of alpha or beta ENaC subunit between NP and PSM was detected. We found correlation of the Na+ absorption to mRNA expression of gamma ENaC in NP and PSM. Forskolin diminished the Na+ absorption associated with an increase in Cl- secretion. These observations suggest that: (1) human NP absorbs more ENaC-mediated Na+ than PSM, (2) expression of gamma ENaC in plays a key role in the ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption in NP and PSM, and (3) cAMP diminishes the ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption by stimulating Cl- secretion (diminution of driving force for Na+ absorption) in NP and PSM. PMID:17765200

  10. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in human nasal mucosa: characterization, autoradiographic localization, and function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Okayama, M; Mullol, J; Baraniuk, J N; Hausfeld, J N; Feldman, B; Merida, M; Shelhamer, J H; Kaliner, M A

    1993-02-01

    Muscarinic receptors play important roles in the regulation of glandular secretion and vasomotor tone in human nasal mucosa. M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes were pharmacologically characterized in human inferior turbinates by receptor-binding assays using [3H](-)quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB, identifies total muscarinic receptors) and [3H]-pirenzepine (PZ). Receptors were localized by autoradiography, and their function examined in vitro by assaying mucus secretion from cultured nasal mucosal explants. In competition assays, PZ was employed as a selective muscarinic antagonist for M1 receptors, gallamine and AF-DX 116 for M2 receptors, and 4-DAMP for M3 receptors. These ligands are selective at low nanomolar concentrations, but can interact with other muscarinic receptors at higher concentrations. It is not known if they can interact with putative M4 and M5 muscarinic receptor subtypes. Using [3H](-)QNB, total muscarinic receptor binding was 688.4 +/- 49.6 fmol/mg protein (Bmax), with a Kd of 1.47 +/- 0.13 nM. [3H]-PZ bound to 45% of the total QNB binding sites. In competition experiments, 4-DAMP displaced [3H](-)QNB with the lowest IC50, followed by PZ and AF-DX 116. Autoradiograms demonstrated that [3H](-)QNB binding was completely displaced by 4-DAMP, partially displaced by PZ, but not displaced by gallamine or AF-DX 116, and suggested that M1 and M3 subtypes coexist in submucosal glands. The localization of M1 receptors on submucosal glands was confirmed by direct labeling with [3H]-PZ. [3H]-PZ also labeled vessels, but with a low silver grain density. Autoradiographic [3H]-QNB binding was displaced by 4-DAMP and atropine, but not by PZ, gallamine, or AF-DX 116. In studies of mucus secretion in vitro, 4-DAMP significantly inhibited methacholine-induced secretion. Although less effective, PZ also had significant inhibitory effects. Neither gallamine nor AF-DX 116 had any inhibitory effect. M1 receptors (PZ binding sites) may regulate glandular secretion while M3 receptors (4-DAMP binding sites) may regulate glandular secretion and vasomotor tone in human nasal mucosa. PMID:8427708

  11. Anti-Leu-19 Is a Marker for Nervous Tissue in the Mucosa of the Human Rectum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Driessen; J. Creemers; K. Geboes

    1995-01-01

    Despite numerous investigations on the enteric nervous system, the knowledge about the mucosal innervation of the human rectum and colon is very shallow and mainly based on ultrastructural studies. We performed an enzyme (NADH-Ach) and immunohistochemical (NF, synaptophysin, anti-Leu-19) study on cryostat sections of the human rectal mucosa in order to study the possible additional characteristics of the mucosal innervation

  12. Duodenal stents for malignant duodenal strictures.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S. D.; McKelvey, S. T. D.; Moorehead, R. J.; Spence, R. A. J.; Tham, T. C. K.

    2002-01-01

    Duodenal obstruction may be caused by inoperable malignant disease. Symptoms of nausea and vomiting have been traditionally palliated by surgery. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of the endoscopic placement of metal self expanding duodenal stents for the palliation of malignant duodenal obstruction. Four patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction are described. One patient had a history of oesophagectomy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma and presented with further dysphagia. At endoscopy the recurrent oesophageal tumour and an adenocarcinoma involving the pylorus were both stented. In the other three patients there was a previous history of colonic carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma respectively. All four patients were successfully stented with good palliation of their symptoms. Duodenal Wallstents are a useful alternative to surgery in patients with inoperable malignant duodenal obstruction or those who are unfit for surgery. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:12137161

  13. Effect of ibudilast on ciliary activity of human paranasal sinus mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ganbo, T; Hisamatsu, K; Mizukoshi, A; Inoue, H; Kikushima, K; Kou, J; Kozuka, Y; Murakami, Y

    1995-08-01

    The effect of ibudilast (CAS 50847-11-5, 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine, KC-404), an anti-asthmatic drug, on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of human paranasal sinus mucosa was examined in vitro. Ciliary activation was observed after a 10-min exposure to 4.6 x 10(-6) mol/l ibudilast. Ibudilast dose-dependently increase CBF at the concentrations ranging from 4.6 x 10(-7) mol/l to 4.6 x 10(-5) mol/l. Propranolol inhibited ciliary activity induced by ibudilast; however, neither indometacin nor verapamil affected the activation of ibudilast on CBF. Platelet activating factor (PAF) and Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) are chemical mediators inducing mucosal dysfunction and damage. Ibudilast prevented ciliary inhibition induced by PAF and LTD4. These findings indicated that ibudilast activates CBF and inhibits the effect of PAF and LTD4 on ciliated cells, and consequently improves the pathogenesis of allergic disorders such as the inhibited mucociliary transport system and airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:7575753

  14. Evidence on secretion of epidermal growth factor by the esophageal mucosa in humans.

    PubMed

    Sarosiek, J; Hetzel, D P; Yu, Z; Piascik, R; Li, L; Rourk, R M; McCallum, R W

    1993-07-01

    Luminal release of esophageal epidermal growth factor (EGF) into the perfusing solutions (saline, HCl, and HCl/pepsin), aspirated with the newly developed esophageal perfusion catheter, was measured in 20 healthy volunteers (12 male, 8 female; mean age 40 yr; range 30-56 yr). A potential salivary contamination was excluded by a complete seal (with two balloons) of perfused esophageal segment and by a simultaneous, carefully monitored, collection of saliva. The concentration of EGF in each of 16 fully recovered 2-min perfusion samples was measured by RIA kit (Amersham, IL). The concentration of EGF in recovered NaCl perfusate varied between (mean +/- SEM) 1.78 +/- 0.19 and 2.14 +/- 0.14 ng/ml, whereas output varied between 9.25 +/- 0.98 and 11.14 +/- 0.82 ng/min. During perfusion with HCl, both the concentration of EGF within the esophageal perfusate and its secretion declined significantly to a value of 0.68 +/- 0.17 ng/ml (p < 0.0001) and 3.56 +/- 0.90 ng/min (p < 0.0001), respectively. Introduction of pepsin into an acidic perfusion solution (0.5 mg/ml of HCl) resulted in a significant increase in EGF concentration (1.99 +/- 0.36 ng/ml; p < 0.001) and output (10.24 +/- 1.84; p < 0.01), compared with EGF values recorded during perfusion with HCl. EGF output, calculated from a sealed 7.5-cm segment of the esophagus, was 10.39 +/- 0.89 ng/min, and was maintained at a steady state throughout an entire saline perfusion procedure. We present evidence that human esophageal mucosa has an enormous EGF secretory potential. The rapid esophageal EGF secretory response to intraluminal challenge with aggressive factors implies its role in the maintenance of the mucosal integrity. PMID:8317410

  15. Histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan released by cultured human colonic mucosa: indication for possible presence of E mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eliakim, R.; Gilead, L.; Ligumsky, M; Okon, E.; Rachmilewitz, D.; Razin, E.

    1986-01-01

    An association between the release of histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan (PG) was demonstrates in human colonic mucosa (HCM). Colonic biopsy samples incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into PG, which was partially released into the culture medium during the incubation period. Ascending thin-layer chromatography of the released /sup 35/S-labeled PG after its digestion by chondroitin ABC lyase (chondroitinase, EC 4.2.2.4) followed by autoradiography yielded three products that migrated in the position of monosulfated disaccharides of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate and N-acetylgalactosoamine 6-sulfate and of an oversulfated disaccharide possessing N-acetylgalatosamine 4,6-disulfate. Cultured colonic mucosa released 23.6 +/- 3.7ng of histamine per mg of wet tissue without any special trigger. Comparison by linear regression analysis of the release of histamine and chondroitin (/sup 35/S)sulfate E PG revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.7. Histological examination of the colonic biopsies revealed the presence of many mast cells in various degrees of degranulation in the mucosa and submucosa. The above correlation, the observation that most of the mast cells showed various degrees of degranulation, and the lack of heparin synthesis as opposed to the synthesis and immunological release of chondroitin sulfate E strongly suggest that the E mast cell exists in the human colon.

  16. Distinct afferent innervation patterns within the human proximal and distal esophageal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Woodland, Philip; Aktar, Rubina; Mthunzi, Engelbert; Lee, Chung; Peiris, Madusha; Preston, Sean L.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the mucosal phenotype of the proximal human esophagus. There is evidence to suggest that the proximal esophagus is more sensitive to chemical and mechanical stimulation compared with the distal. This may have physiological relevance (e.g., in prevention of aspiration of gastroesophageal refluxate), but also pathological relevance (e.g., in reflux perception or dysphagia). Reasons for this increased sensitivity are unclear but may include impairment in mucosal barrier integrity or changes in sensory innervation. We assessed mucosal barrier integrity and afferent nerve distribution in the proximal and distal esophagus of healthy human volunteers. In 10 healthy volunteers baseline proximal and distal esophageal impedance was measured in vivo. Esophageal mucosal biopsies from the distal and proximal esophagus were taken, and baseline transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured in Ussing chambers. Biopsies were examined immunohistochemically for presence and location of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers. In a further four healthy volunteers we investigated for colocalization of CGRP and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunoreactivity in nerve fibers. Baseline impedance was higher in the proximal than in the distal esophagus [2,936 ? (SD578) vs. 2,229 ? (SD821); P = 0.03], however, baseline TER was not significantly different between them. Mucosal CGRP-immunoreactive nerves were found in the epithelium of both proximal and distal esophagus, but were located more superficially in the proximal mucosa compared with the distal [11.5 (SD7) vs. 21.7 (SD5) cell layers from lumen, P = 0.002] 19% of proximal, and 10% of distal mucosal PGP-immunoreactive fibers colocalized with CGRP. PGP-immunoreactive fibers were also significantly closer to the luminal surface in the proximal compared with the distal esophagus (P < 0.001). We conclude that mucosal barrier integrity is similar in proximal and distal esophagus, but proximal mucosal afferent nerves are in a more superficial location. The enhanced sensitivity to reflux-evoked symptoms of the proximal esophagus most likely has an anatomical basis. PMID:25573174

  17. Reduced expression of aquaporins in human intestinal mucosa in early stage inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Ricanek, Petr; Lunde, Lisa K; Frye, Stephan A; Støen, Mari; Nygård, Ståle; Morth, Jens P; Rydning, Andreas; Vatn, Morten H; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Tønjum, Tone

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between aquaporin (AQP) water channel expression and the pathological features of early untreated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans. Methods Patients suspected to have IBD on the basis of predefined symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or blood in stool for more than 10 days, were examined at the local hospital. Colonoscopy with biopsies was performed and blood samples were taken. Patients who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for IBD and who displayed no evidence of infection or other pathology in the gut were included as symptomatic non-IBD controls. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in biopsies from the distal ileum and colon by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of selected AQPs was assessed by confocal microscopy. Through multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences, the putative three-dimensional structures of AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 were modeled. Results AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 mRNAs were detected in all parts of the intestinal mucosa. Notably, AQP1 and AQP3 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum of patients with Crohn’s disease, and AQP7 and AQP8 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum and the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed localization of AQP3, 7, and 8 at the mucosal epithelium, whereas the expression of AQP1 was mainly confined to the endothelial cells and erythrocytes. The reduction in the level of AQP3, 7, and 8 mRNA was confirmed by immunofluorescence, which also indicated a reduction of apical immunolabeling for AQP8 in the colonic surface epithelium and crypts of the IBD samples. This could indicate loss of epithelial polarity in IBD, leading to disrupted barrier function. Conclusion AQPs 1 and 8 and the aquaglyceroporins AQPs 3 and 7 are the AQPs predominantly expressed in the lower intestinal tract of humans. Their expression is significantly reduced in patients with IBD, and they are differentially expressed in specific bowel segments in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The data present a link between gut inflammation and water/solute homeostasis, suggesting that AQPs may play a significant role in IBD pathophysiology. PMID:25624769

  18. Disease-Dependent Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to the Human Intestinal Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur C. Ouwehand; Seppo Salminen; Peter J. Roberts; Jari Ovaska; Eeva Salminen

    2003-01-01

    Their adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered one of the main reasons for the beneficial health effects of specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, the influence of disease on the mucosal adhesion is largely unknown. Adhesion of selected LAB to resected colonic tissue and mucus was determined in patients with three major intestinal diseases (i.e., diverticulitis, rectal carcinoma, and

  19. Response of Human and Rat Small Intestinal Mucosa to Oral Administration of Saccharomyces boulardii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN-PAUL BUTS; PAUL BERNASCONI; MARIE-PAULE Van CRAYNEST; PAUL MALDAGUE; ROGER De MEYER

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the response of the small intestinal mucosa to Saccharomyces boulardii (S.b.), a yeast widely used in some countries as an adjuvant drug with oral antimicrobial therapy, seven healthy adult volunteers were treated with high doses of lyophilized S.b. (250 mg four times per day) for 2 wk. A peroral jejunal suction biopsy was performed on days 0 and

  20. A Comparative Study of Clinicopathological Features between Chronic Cholecystitis Patients with and without Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gallbladder Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-dong; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Wei; Quan, Zhi-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori has been isolated from 10%–20% of human chronic cholecystitis specimens but the characteristics of “Helicobacter pylori positive cholecystitis” remains unclear. This study aims to compare the clinicopathological features between chronic cholecystitis patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa. Methods Three hundred and twenty-six chronic cholecystitis patients were divided into two groups according to whether Helicobacter pylori could be detected by culture, staining or PCR for Helicobacter 16s rRNA gene in gallbladder mucosa. Positive samples were sequenced for Helicobacter pylori-specific identification. Clinical parameters as well as pathological characteristics including some premalignant lesions and the expression levels of iNOS and ROS in gallbladder were compared between the two groups. Results Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa was detected in 20.55% of cholecystitis patients. These patients had a higher prevalence of acid regurgitation symptoms (p?=?0.001), more histories of chronic gastritis (p?=?0.005), gastric ulcer (p?=?0.042), duodenal ulcer (p?=?0.026) and higher presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach as compared to patients without Helicobacter pylori infection in the gallbladder mucosa. Helicobacter pylori 16s rRNA in gallbladder and gastric-duodenal mucosa from the same individual patient had identical sequences. Also, higher incidences of adenomyomatosis (p?=?0.012), metaplasia (p?=?0.022) and higher enhanced expressions of iNOS and ROS were detected in Helicobacter pylori infected gallbladder mucosa (p<0.05). Conclusions Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori existed in stomach. Helicobacter pylori is also correlated with gallbladder premalignant lesions including metaplasia and adenomyomatosis. The potential mechanism might be related with higher ROS/RNS production but needs further investigation. PMID:23936177

  1. Evidence against T-cell development in the adult human intestinal mucosa based upon lack of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase expression.

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, M E; Frantz, M E; Canning, C; Ritz, J; Blumberg, R S; Balk, S P

    1996-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that a subset of murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIEL), particularly those which express the CD8 alpha alpha homodimer, mature extrathymically. This study confirms that a small fraction of adult human iIEL also express the CD8 alpha alpha homodimer and demonstrates that most of these cells in the small intestine are T cells using the alpha beta T-cell receptor (TCR). Whether these cells or other subsets of adult human iIEL mature extrathymically in the intestine was assessed by measuring the expression of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT), an enzyme expressed exclusively by immature lymphocytes. Very low levels of TdT message could be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in some iIEL samples. The level of TdT expression was assayed by competitive PCR amplification and compared with thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes. These measurements indicated that the number of immature T cells expressing TdT in the intestinal epithelium was less than one cell per 10(7) lymphocytes. This demonstrates that there are few if any TdT expressing immature T cells in the adult human intestinal mucosa and indicates, therefore, that T-cell development in the intestinal mucosa does not contribute significantly to the T-cell repertoire of the adult human intestine. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8778025

  2. Chronic Aspirin Use Suppresses CDH1 Methylation in Human Gastric Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomomitsu Tahara; Tomoyuki Shibata; Masakatsu Nakamura; Hiromi Yamashita; Daisuke Yoshioka; Masaaki Okubo; Naoko Maruyama; Toshiaki Kamano; Yoshio Kamiya; Hiroshi Fujita; Mitsuo Nagasaka; Masami Iwata; Kazuya Takahama; Makoto Watanabe; Ichiro Hirata; Tomiyasu Arisawa

    2010-01-01

    There have been reports showing a protective role of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against\\u000a gastrointestinal cancers. E-cadherin (CDH1) is an adhesion molecule involved in tumour invasion\\/metastasis. Silencing of CDH1\\u000a by promoter CpG island methylation was shown in gastric cancer, precancerous lesion, and Helicobacter pylori-infected chronic gastritis. We investigated the methylation status of CDH1 in noncancerous gastric mucosa

  3. Human Intestinal Lumen and Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Zongxin; Tong, Xiaojuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested the involvement of gut microbiota in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We utilized pyrosequencing based analysis of 16S rRNA genes to determine the overall structure of microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls; we investigated microbiota of the intestinal lumen, the cancerous tissue and matched noncancerous normal tissue. Moreover, we investigated the mucosa-adherent microbial composition using rectal swab samples because the structure of the tissue-adherent bacterial community is potentially altered following bowel cleansing. Our findings indicated that the microbial structure of the intestinal lumen and cancerous tissue differed significantly. Phylotypes that enhance energy harvest from diets or perform metabolic exchange with the host were more abundant in the lumen. There were more abundant Firmicutes and less abundant Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in lumen. The overall microbial structures of cancerous tissue and noncancerous tissue were similar; howerer the tumor microbiota exhibited lower diversity. The structures of the intestinal lumen microbiota and mucosa-adherent microbiota were different in CRC patients compared to matched microbiota in healthy individuals. Lactobacillales was enriched in cancerous tissue, whereas Faecalibacterium was reduced. In the mucosa-adherent microbiota, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, and Blautia were reduced in CRC patients, whereas Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Peptostreptococcus, and Mogibacterium were enriched. In the lumen, predominant phylotypes related to metabolic disorders or metabolic exchange with the host, Erysipelotrichaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae were increased in cancer patients. Coupled with previous reports, these results suggest that the intestinal microbiota is associated with CRC risk and that intestinal lumen microflora potentially influence CRC risk via cometabolism or metabolic exchange with the host. However, mucosa-associated microbiota potentially affects CRC risk primarily through direct interaction with the host. PMID:22761885

  4. Saccharomyces boulardii protease inhibits the effects of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B in human colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Castagliuolo, I; Riegler, M F; Valenick, L; LaMont, J T; Pothoulakis, C

    1999-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a nonpathogenic yeast used in the treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea and colitis. We have reported that S. boulardii inhibits C. difficile toxin A enteritis in rats by releasing a 54-kDa protease which digests the toxin A molecule and its brush border membrane (BBM) receptor (I. Castagliuolo, J. T. LaMont, S. T. Nikulasson, and C. Pothoulakis, Infect. Immun. 64:5225-5232, 1996). The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of S. boulardii protease in preventing C. difficile toxin A enteritis in rat ileum and determine whether it protects human colonic mucosa from C. difficile toxins. A polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against purified S. boulardii serine protease inhibited by 73% the proteolytic activity present in S. boulardii conditioned medium in vitro. The anti-protease immunoglobulin G (IgG) prevented the action of S. boulardii on toxin A-induced intestinal secretion and mucosal permeability to [3H]mannitol in rat ileal loops, while control rabbit IgG had no effect. The anti-protease IgG also prevented the effects of S. boulardii protease on digestion of toxins A and B and on binding of [3H]toxin A and [3H]toxin B to purified human colonic BBM. Purified S. boulardii protease reversed toxin A- and toxin B-induced inhibition of protein synthesis in human colonic (HT-29) cells. Furthermore, toxin A- and B-induced drops in transepithelial resistance in human colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers were reversed by 60 and 68%, respectively, by preexposing the toxins to S. boulardii protease. We conclude that the protective effects of S. boulardii on C. difficile-induced inflammatory diarrhea in humans are due, at least in part, to proteolytic digestion of toxin A and B molecules by a secreted protease. PMID:9864230

  5. CD4 + T cells with specific reactivity against astrovirus isolated from normal human small intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Øyvind Molberg; Ellen M. Nilsen; Ludvig M. Sollid; Helge Scott; Per Brandtzaeg; Erik Thorsby; Knut E. A. Lundin

    1998-01-01

    Background & Aims: The gut is the largest immunologic organ in the human body, but little is known about the antigen specificity of mucosal T cells. This study sought to determine whether T cells resident in the duodenal mucosa could recognize astrovirus, a common and clinically important gastroenteritis virus. Serum antibodies against astrovirus are prevalent, indicating frequent viral exposure and

  6. Development and Characterization of a Tissue-engineered Human Oral Mucosa Equivalent Produced in a Serum-free Culture System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Izumi; H. Terashi; C. L. Marcelo; S. E. Feinberg

    2000-01-01

    A problem maxillofacial surgeons face is a lack of sufficient autogenous oral mucosa for reconstruction of the oral cavity. Split-thickness or oral mucosa grafts require more than one surgical procedure and can result in donor site morbidity. Skin has disadvantages of adnexal structures and a different keratinization pattern than oral mucosa. In this study, we successfully assembled, ex vivo, a

  7. Sources of variability in estimating ornithine decarboxylase activity and polyamine contents in human colorectal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hixson, L J; Emerson, S S; Shassetz, L R; Gerner, E W

    1994-06-01

    The activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first enzyme in polyamine synthesis, is elevated during epithelial carcinogenesis. Since this enzyme is a target for colon and other cancer chemoprevention strategies, we sought to identify sources of variability affecting the measurement of tissue ODC activities and polyamine contents. Multiple colorectal biopsies were obtained from 39 patients undergoing colonoscopy. Biopsy size affected polyamine but not ODC values. Spermidine (spd):spermine (spm) ratios varied less than the contents of the individual amines. Bowel preparation methods did not affect any of the measurements. ODC activities and spd:spm ratios did not vary with bowel location. Lab assay methods contributed to sources of error. Variability was greatest for polyamine content measurements but was reduced when polyamine contents were analyzed as spd:spm ratios. Intrapatient variability of these parameters was as great or greater than interpatient variability. When measured in apparently unaffected colorectal mucosa, none of these parameters were significantly correlated with prior polyp history, number of prevalent polyps found at current colonoscopy, or polyp size. Thus, neither ODC activity nor polyamine contents of normal mucosa appear to be discriminatory markers of colorectal carcinogenesis. However, spd:spm ratios, which show the least variability among measures of polyamine contents, should be a good marker of the consequence of polyamine synthesis inhibition in chemoprevention trials. PMID:8061580

  8. Astrocyte-Like Cells Derived From Human Oral Mucosa Stem Cells Provide Neuroprotection In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Javier; Arie, Ina; Ben-Zur, Tali; Dadon-Nachum, Michal; Pour, Sammy; Araidy, Shareef; Offen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Human oral mucosa stem cells (hOMSC) are a recently described neural crest-derived stem cell population. Therapeutic quantities of potent hOMSC can be generated from small biopsies obtained by minimally invasive procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of hOMSC to differentiate into astrocyte-like cells and provide peripheral neuroprotection. We induced hOMSC differentiation into cells showing an astrocyte-like morphology that expressed characteristic astrocyte markers as glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100?, and the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 and secreted neurotrophic factors (NTF) such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and insulin-like growth factor 1. Conditioned medium of the induced cells rescued motor neurons from hypoxia or oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective effect mediated by soluble factors. Given the neuronal support (NS) ability of the cells, the differentiated cells were termed hOMSC-NS. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve injury and transplanted with hOMSC-NS showed improved motor function after transplantation. At the graft site we found the transplanted cells, increased levels of NTF, and a significant preservation of functional neuromuscular junctions, as evidenced by colocalization of ?-bungarotoxin and synaptophysin. Our findings show for the first time that hOMSC-NS generated from oral mucosa exhibit neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo and point to their future therapeutic use in neural disorders. PMID:24477074

  9. Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel

    PubMed Central

    Langlands, S J; Hopkins, M J; Coleman, N; Cummings, J H

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: The mucosa associated flora of the large intestine is important in determining mucosal function although what controls its composition is unknown. This study has determined the effect of the prebiotic carbohydrates oligofructose and inulin on the mucosal flora. Methods: An in vitro chemostat model of both planktonic and surface associated bacteria was used followed by an intervention study in 29 subjects undergoing colonoscopy. Subjects: Fourteen subjects, recruited from colonoscopy waiting lists, supplemented their diet for two weeks with a mix of 7.5 g of oligofructose and 7.5 g inulin. Fifteen subjects were recruited at the time of colonoscopy and given no supplement. Multiple endoscopic biopsies were taken from the caecum, transverse and descending colon, and rectum. The mucosal flora was characterised by culture and to species level by cellular fatty acid profiles. Cell proliferation was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for minichromosome maintenance protein 2, Ki67, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results: In vitro prebiotics increased surface counts of bifidobacteria from 6.6 to 7.3 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per slide (p<0.0006) with no significant changes in planktonic bacteria. In the feeding study, prebiotics increased mucosal bifidobacteria (log CFU/g mucosa (SEM)) in both the proximal (control 5.3 (0.4) v prebiotic 6.3 (0.3)) (p?=?0.059) and distal (control 5.2 (0.3) v prebiotic 6.4 (0.3)) colon (p?=?0.01). Lactobacilli were also increased (3.0 (0.1) v 3.7 (0.2) (p?=?0.02) in the proximal and 3.1 (0.1) v 3.6 (0.2) (p?=?0.04) in the distal colon, respectively). There were significantly more eubacteria in fed subjects but no changes in total anaerobes clostridia, bacteroides, or coliforms, nor in proliferation indices. Conclusion: Prebiotic carbohydrates can change the composition of the mucosa associated flora significantly. PMID:15479681

  10. Duodenal exclusion for management of lateral duodenal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Eckhauser, F E; Strodel, W E; Knol, J A; Guice, K S

    1988-03-01

    The first clinical application of pyloric occlusion with gastrojejunostomy (duodenal exclusion) for management of lateral duodenal fistulas was reported by Berg in 1907. More recently Berne et al. applied this procedure to treat patients with complex pancreaticoduodenal trauma and modified it to include antrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction and tube duodenostomy. Over time the indications for duodenal exclusion have gradually been expanded to include management of actual or anticipated duodenal fistulas arising from operative injury or as a complication of inflammatory or neoplastic diseases. Our recent success using duodenal exclusion and/or diverticularization to manage one patient with duodenal trauma and two patients with nontraumatic forms of duodenal injury resulting in lateral duodenal fistulas caused us to reevaluate the efficacy of this procedure and forms the basis for this report. PMID:3348552

  11. Human oral mucosa tissue-engineered constructs monitored by Raman fiber-optic probe.

    PubMed

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Kim, Roderick Y; Matthews, Robert V; Marcelo, Cynthia L; Feinberg, Stephen E; Morris, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    In maxillofacial and oral surgery, there is a need for the development of tissue-engineered constructs. They are used for reconstructions due to trauma, dental implants, congenital defects, or oral cancer. A noninvasive monitoring of the fabrication of tissue-engineered constructs at the production and implantation stages done in real time is extremely important for predicting the success of tissue-engineered grafts. We demonstrated a Raman spectroscopic probe system, its design and application, for real-time ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent (EVPOME) constructs noninvasive monitoring. We performed in vivo studies to find Raman spectroscopic indicators for postimplanted EVPOME failure and determined that Raman spectra of EVPOMEs preexposed to thermal stress during manufacturing procedures displayed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, giving a Raman metric to distinguish between healthy and compromised postimplanted constructs. This study is the step toward our ultimate goal to develop a stand-alone system, to be used in a clinical setting, where the data collection and analysis are conducted on the basis of these spectroscopic indicators with minimal user intervention. PMID:24826804

  12. Tissue-Engineered Constructs of Human Oral Mucosa Examined by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kainkaryam, Raghu; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Izumi, Kenji; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    A noninvasive quality monitoring of tissue-engineered constructs is a required component of any successful tissue-engineering technique. During a 2-week production period, ex vivo produced oral mucosa-equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs) may encounter adverse culturing conditions that might compromise their quality and render them ineffective. We demonstrate the application of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to in vitro monitoring of EVPOMEs during their manufacturing process, with the ultimate goal of applying this technology in situ to monitor the grafted EVPOMEs. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for less-than optimal EVPOMEs that are stressed by higher temperature and exposure to higher than normal concentration of calcium ions. Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal and calcium stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We compared these results to histology and glucose consumption measurements, demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy is more sensitive and specific to changes in proteins' secondary structure not visible by H&E histology. We also exposed the EVPOMEs to rapamycin, a cell growth inhibitor and cell proliferation capacity preserver, and distinguished between EVPOMEs pretreated with 2?nM rapamycin and controls, using the ratio of the Amide III envelope to the phenylalanine band as an indicator. PMID:22992065

  13. Effect of prostaglandin E2 on eicosanoid release by human bronchial biopsy specimens from normal and inflamed mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, D.; Lindenthal, U.; Wagner, M.; Bölcskei, P. L.; Baenkler, H. W.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and peptidoleukotrienes (pLT) are known to be biologically highly active lipid mediators, especially in human lung epithelium. PGE2 is thought to have mostly bronchoprotective effects, whereas pLT and TXA2 are bronchoconstrictive. This study was undertaken to assess the release and interaction of eicosanoids in human bronchial biopsy specimens of normal and inflamed mucosa. METHODS: Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from 16 patients, seven controls without signs of inflammation and nine patients with severe inflammatory processes in the epithelium. The release of pLT, TXA2 (measured as TXB2), and PGE2 was investigated using a "functional in vitro test" and the addition of several stimuli. RESULTS: Specimens incubated with arachidonic acid released higher amounts of pLT, TXB2, and PGE2 than unstimulated specimens. Preincubation with PGE2 revealed significant inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced release of pLT and TXB2 (> 50%). The inhibitory effect was higher in normal than in inflamed epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous PGE2 has inhibitory effects on the release of pLT and TXB2 in human bronchial biopsy specimens. This finding could explain the bronchoprotective effect of inhaled PGE2 in normal subjects and asthmatic subjects as direct eicosanoid interactions. It also supports the concept of PGE2 as a bronchoprotective endogenous substance. The complex effects of PGE2 as a modulating mediator in inflammation may be worth investigating. PMID:8984703

  14. Recombinant human interleukin 10 suppresses gliadin dependent T cell activation in ex vivo cultured coeliac intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Salvati, V M; Mazzarella, G; Gianfrani, C; Levings, M K; Stefanile, R; De Giulio, B; Iaquinto, G; Giardullo, N; Auricchio, S; Roncarolo, M G; Troncone, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: Enteropathy in coeliac disease (CD) is sustained by a gliadin specific Th1 response. Interleukin (IL)-10 can downregulate Th1 immune responses. Aim: We investigated the ability of recombinant human (rh) IL-10 to suppress gliadin induced Th1 response. Patients and methods: IL-10 RNA transcripts were analysed by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in duodenal biopsies from untreated and treated CD patients, non-coeliac enteropathies (NCE), and controls. CD biopsies were cultured with a peptic-tryptic digest of gliadin with or without rhIL-10. The proportion of CD80+ and CD25+ cells in the lamina propria, epithelial expression of Fas, intraepithelial infiltration of CD3+ cells, as well as cytokine synthesis (interferon ? (IFN-?) and IL-2) were measured. Short term T cell lines (TCLs) obtained from treated CD biopsies cultured with gliadin with or without rhIL-10 were analysed by ELISPOT for gliadin specific production of IFN-?. Results: In untreated CD and NCE, IL-10 RNA transcripts were significantly upregulated. In ex vivo organ cultures, rhIL-10 downregulated gliadin induced cytokine synthesis, inhibited intraepithelial migration of CD3+ cells, and reduced the proportion of lamina propria CD25+ and CD80+ cells whereas it did not interfere with epithelial Fas expression. In short term TCLs, rhIL-10 abrogated the IFN-? response to gliadin. Conclusions: rhIL-10 suppresses gliadin specific T cell activation. It may interfere with the antigen presenting capacity of lamina propria mononuclear cells as it reduces the expression of CD80. Interestingly, rhIL-10 also induces a long term hyporesponsiveness of gliadin specific mucosal T cells. These results offer new perspectives for therapeutic strategies in coeliac patients based on immune modulation by IL-10. PMID:15591503

  15. Analysis of Lewis Fucosyltransferase Genes From the Human Gastric Mucosa of Lewis-Positive and Negative Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiro Koda; Hiroshi Kimura; Eisuke Mekada

    The expression of Lewis fucosyltransferase (FT) mRNA was examined in gastric mucosa from two Lewis-positive (Le( + )) and two Lewis-negative (Le( - )) individuals. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that levels of mRNA were similar in both Le( + ) and Le( - ) gastric mucosa. We isolated the protein-coding region of the Lewis FT cDNA from Le( + )

  16. Helicobacter pylori downregulates expression of human ?-defensin 1 in the gastric mucosa in a type IV secretion-dependent fashion

    PubMed Central

    Patel, SR; Smith, K; Letley, DP; Cook, KW; Memon, AA; Ingram, RJM; Staples, E; Backert, S; Zaitoun, AM; Atherton, JC; Robinson, K

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori establishes a chronic lifelong infection in the human gastric mucosa, which may lead to peptic ulcer disease or gastric adenocarcinoma. The human beta-defensins (h?Ds) are antimicrobial peptides, h?D1 being constitutively expressed in the human stomach. We hypothesized that H.?pylori may persist, in part, by downregulating gastric h?D1 expression. We measured h?D1 and h?D2 expression in vivo in relation to the presence, density and severity of H.?pylori infection, investigated differential effects of H.?pylori virulence factors, and studied underlying signalling mechanisms in vitro. Significantly lower h?D1 and higher h?D2 mRNA and protein concentrations were present in gastric biopsies from infected patients. Those patients with higher-level bacterial colonization and inflammation had significantly lower h?D1 expression, but there were no differences in h?D2. H.?pylori infection of human gastric epithelial cell lines also downregulated h?D1. Using wild-type strains and isogenic mutants, we showed that a functionalcag pathogenicity island-encoded type IV secretion system induced this downregulation. Treatment with chemical inhibitors or siRNA revealed that H.?pylori usurped NF-?B signalling to modulate h?D1 expression. These data indicate that H.?pylori downregulates h?D1 expression via NF-?B signalling, and suggest that this may promote bacterial survival and persistence in the gastric niche. PMID:23870035

  17. Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

    2012-01-01

    Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

  18. Infection of the oral mucosa with defined types of human papillomaviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E.-M. Villiers; C. Neumann; J.-Y. Le; H. Weidauer; H. Hausen

    1986-01-01

    Biopsies from 9 different oral papillomatous proliferations were analysed for human papilloma viral (HPV) sequences of types 1 to 19 and 21 to 26 by Southern blot analysis with 32p-labelled cellular DNA. HPV sequences were detected in 7 out of 9 biopsies obtained from individual patients. Of three cases with the clinical diagnosis focal hyperplasia Heck, two contained HPV-6 related

  19. In Situ Distribution of HIV-Binding CCR5 and C-Type Lectin Receptors in the Human Endocervical Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Hirbod, Taha; Kaldensjö, Tove; Broliden, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The endocervical mucosa is believed to be a primary site of HIV transmission. However, to date there is little known about the distribution of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 and the HIV-binding C-type lectin receptors, including Langerin, dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and mannose receptor (MR) at this site. We therefore characterized the expression of these molecules in the endocervix of HIV seronegative women by computerized image analysis. Endocervical tissue biopsies were collected from women (n?=?6) undergoing hysterectomy. All study individuals were diagnosed with benign and non-inflammatory diseases. CCR5+ CD4+ CD3+ T cells were found within or adjacent to the endocervical epithelium. The C-type lectin Langerin was expressed by intraepithelial CD1a+ CD4+ and CD11c+ CD4+ Langerhans cells, whereas DC-SIGN+ MR+ CD11c myeloid dendritic cells and MR+ CD68+ macrophages were localized in the submucosa of the endocervix. The previously defined immune effector cells including CD8+, CD56+, CD19+ and IgD+ cells were also found in the submucosa as well as occasional CD123+ BDCA-2+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Understanding the spatial distribution of potential HIV target cells and immune effector cells in relation to the endocervical canal forms a basis for deciphering the routes of HIV transmission events in humans as well as designing HIV-inhibiting compounds. PMID:21984929

  20. Development of a Tissue-Engineered Human Oral Mucosa: From the Bench to the Bed Side

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Izumi; Junhui Song; Stephen E. Feinberg

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to make the reader aware of the complexity and steps that are necessary to make a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved laboratory produced cell-based device, for use in clinical trials for reconstructive surgery. Most tissue-engineered cell-based devices are considered as ‘human somatic cell therapy’ and fall under the auspices of the Center of

  1. Relationship between tenascin and ?-smooth muscle actin expression in the developing human small intestinal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Beaulieu; Sophie Jutras; Josée Durand; Pierre H. Vachon; Nathalie Perreault

    1993-01-01

    The expression of tenascin (Tn) and a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) was analyzed in the developing and adult human small intestine by means of double immunofluorescent staining with specific antibodies. By 7 weeks of gestation, the gut anlage has a simple tubular shape and is formed of a stratified undifferentiated epithelium surrounded by a poorly organized mesenchyme. Both Tn and a-SMA

  2. [Surgical treatment of duodenal injuries].

    PubMed

    Sukhodolia, A I; Petrushenko, V V; Kozak, I O; Chubar, I V; Sukhodolia, S A

    2014-01-01

    In was analyzed diagnostics and treatment results of 32 victims with duodenal injuries. The authors used 3% hydrogen peroxide solution for duodenal rupture diagnosis. Suggested surgical technique includes intestine intersection where it was broken and anastomosis with a loop of small intestine by using of Roux's method. Also it was done duodenal passage temporary shutdown by using of catgut purse-string suture on pyloric part of stomach. PMID:25146537

  3. Alternative types of duodenal ulcer induced in mice by partial X irradiation of the thorax

    SciTech Connect

    Michalowski, A.; Uehara, S.; Yin, W.B.; Burgin, J.; Silvester, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The present study extends our earlier observations on gastrointestinal pathology in thorax-irradiated female CFLP mice. It shows that exposure of the lower mediastinum to single doses of 14-30 Gy X rays results in the formation of the proximal duodenal ulcer accompanied frequently by erosion of the antral gastric mucosa. X irradiation of the lateral thoracic fields is responsible for single ulcers in the proximity of duodenal papilla, often associated with a circumscribed area of degeneration of the fundic mucosa of the stomach. In view of the small amount of radiation received by the subdiaphragmatic parts of the alimentary tract, these gastro-duodenal lesions represent abscopal effects of thoracic irradiation.

  4. Alternative types of duodenal ulcer induced in mice by partial x irradiation of the thorax

    SciTech Connect

    Michalowski, A.; Uehara, S.; Yin, W.B.; Burgin, J.; Silvester, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The present study extends our earlier observations on gastrointestinal pathology in thorax-irradiated female CFLP mice. It shows that exposure of the lower mediastinum to single doses of 14 to 30 Gy x rays results in the formation of the proximal duodenal ulcer accompanied frequently by erosion of the antral gastric mucosa. X irradiation of the lateral thoracic fields is responsible for single ulcers in the proximity of duodenal papilla, often associated with a circumscribed area of degeneration of the fundic mucosa of the stomach. In view of the small amount of radiation received by the subdiaphragmatic parts of the alimentary tract, these gastro-duodenal lesions represent abscopal effects of thoracic irradiation.

  5. Depicting the inner and outer nose: the representation of the nose and the nasal mucosa on the human primary somatosensory cortex (SI).

    PubMed

    Gastl, Mareike; Brünner, Yvonne F; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    The nose is important not only for breathing, filtering air, and perceiving olfactory stimuli. Although the face and hands have been mapped, the representation of the internal and external surface of the nose on the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is still poorly understood. To fill this gap functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize the nose and the nasal mucosa in the Brodman areas (BAs) 3b, 1, and 2 of the human postcentral gyrus (PG). Tactile stimulation during fMRI was applied via a customized pneumatically driven device to six stimulation sites: the alar wing of the nose, the lateral nasal mucosa, and the hand (serving as a reference area) on the left and right side of the body. Individual representations could be discriminated for the left and right hand, for the left nasal mucosa and left alar wing of the nose in BA 3b and BA 1 by comparing mean activation maxima and Euclidean distances. Right-sided nasal conditions and conditions in BA 2 could further be separated by different Euclidean distances. Regarding the alar wing of the nose, the results concurred with the classic sensory homunculus proposed by Penfield and colleagues. The nasal mucosa was not only determined an individual and bilateral representation, its position on the somatosensory cortex is also situated closer to the caudal end of the PG compared to that of the alar wing of the nose and the hand. As SI is commonly activated during the perception of odors, these findings underscore the importance of the knowledge of the representation of the nasal mucosa on the primary somatosensory cortex, especially for interpretation of results of functional imaging studies about the sense of smell. PMID:24659451

  6. Measurement of in vivo proliferation in human colorectal mucosa using bromodeoxyuridine.

    PubMed Central

    Potten, C S; Kellett, M; Roberts, S A; Rew, D A; Wilson, G D

    1992-01-01

    In vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) labelling of the human large bowel was performed and a detailed histochemical localisation of label in sections of crypts was undertaken using a monoclonal antibody to BrdUrd containing DNA. Flow cytometric studies on extracted nuclei were also performed (data presented elsewhere). The average crypt in the human large bowel (excluding the rectum) was 82 cells in height and 41 cells in circumference, with a total of about 2000 cells (assuming a topographical correction factor of 0.6). Ten per cent of the cells were replicating their DNA--that is, were in the S phase of the cell cycle--and 0.4% were in mitosis. The median position for the labelling index versus cell position frequency plot is at the 20th cell position--at a quarter of the crypt height. The lower and upper limits of the cell proliferation are given by the 5th and 95th percentiles at cell positions 4 and 43 respectively. The peak labelling index is about 30% and it occurs at cell position 15. The labelling index at the crypt base, the probable stem cell zone, is about 14%, suggesting that these cells have a longer cell cycle. Taking a value of 8.6 hours for the duration of the S phase (deduced from the flow cytometric data) and assuming a growth fraction of 1.0 for the mid-crypt, these data provide an estimate of about 30 hours for the cell cycle time. The rectal crypts are about the same size but contain about 30% fewer S phase cells. The data also yielded a per cent BrdUrd labelled mitosis curve. Images Figure 1 PMID:1740282

  7. Duodenal mucosal protection by bicarbonate secretion and its mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Pawlik, T; Sliwowski, Z; Ochma?ski, W; Hahn, E G

    2004-07-01

    Proximal portion of duodenum is exposed to intermittent pulses of gastric H(+) discharged by the stomach. This review summarizes the mechanisms of duodenal mucosal integrity, mainly the role of mucus-alkaline secretion and the mucous barrier protecting surface epithelium against gastric H(+). The mucous barrier protects the leaky duodenal epithelium against each pulse of gastric H(+), which penetrates this barrier and diffuses into duodenocytes, but fails to damage them due to; a) an enhanced expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), with release of protective prostaglandins (PG) and of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) with, however, production of NO, stimulating duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion and b) the release of several neurotransmitters also stimulating HCO(3)(-) secretion such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), acetylcholine, melatonin, leptin and ghrelin released by enteric nerves and mucosal cells. At the apical duodenocyte membrane at least two HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-) anion exchangers operate in response to luminal H(+) to provide adequate extrusion of HCO(3)(-) into duodenal lumen. In the basolateral portion of duodenocyte membrane, both non-electrogenic (NBC) and electrogenic (NBC(n)) Na(+) HCO(3)(-) cotransporters are activated by the exposure to duodenal acidification, causing inward movement of HCO(3)(-) from extracellular fluid to duodenocytes. There are also at least three Na(+)/H(+) (NHE1-3) amiloride-sensitive exchangers, eliminating H(+)which diffused into these cells. The Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and gastric metaplasia in the duodenum with bacterium inoculating metaplastic mucosa and inhibiting HCO(3)(-) secretion by its endogenous inhibitor, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), may result in duodenal ulcerogenesis. PMID:15608357

  8. A Novel Duodenal Iron-Regulated Transporter, IREG1, Implicated in the Basolateral Transfer of Iron to the Circulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew T McKie; Paola Marciani; Andreas Rolfs; Karen Brennan; Kristina Wehr; Dalna Barrow; Silvia Miret; Adrian Bomford; Timothy J Peters; Farzin Farzaneh; Matthias A Hediger; Matthias W Hentze; Robert J Simpson

    2000-01-01

    Iron absorption by the duodenal mucosa is initiated by uptake of ferrous Fe(II) iron across the brush border membrane and culminates in transfer of the metal across the basolateral membrane to the portal vein circulation by an unknown mechanism. We describe here the isolation and characterization of a novel cDNA (Ireg1) encoding a duodenal protein that is localized to the

  9. From cysteamine to MPTP: structure-activity studies with duodenal ulcerogens

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Cho, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteamine is the first chemical identified that induces acute and chronic duodenal ulcers in rodents. Structure-activity studies with cysteamine, propionitrile and their derivatives, as well as with analogues of toluene, revealed numerous alkyl and aryl duodenal ulcerogens. Among these, one of the most interesting from an etiologic and pathogenetic point of view is the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP, which shows structural similarities with toluene. The chemically-induced duodenal ulcers are similar and localized on the anterior and posterior wall of the duodenal bulb. Both cysteamine and MPTP affect endogenous dopamine; MPTP is especially potent in depleting central dopamine and inducing lesions in the substantia nigra. MPTP given in high doses induces Parkinson's disease-like syndrome and gastric ulcers. Cysteamine and propionitrile also cause dyskinesia in large and multiple doses. The motility disorders and duodenal ulcers are abolished by dopamine agonists. Cysteamine and MPTP have been known to increase and decrease gastric acid secretion, respectively. However, both compounds induced duodenal dysmotility, decreased bicarbonate production, and reduced its delivery from distal to proximal duodenum. These factors decrease acid neutralization in the duodenal bulb and contribute to duodenal ulceration. Thus, studies with animal models may reveal endogenous mediators and specific receptors which might be involved in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. Specific structure-activity studies in toxicology may lead to new insights in the pathogenesis and pharmacology of a poorly understood human disorder such as duodenal ulceration. 39 references.

  10. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-sheng; Chou, David; Liu, Yan; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C.; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A.; Tang, Moon-shong

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS. PMID:24939871

  11. High degree of duodenal inflammation in Nigerians with functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Nwokediuko, Sylvester Chuks; Ijoma, Uchenna N; Obienu, Olive; Anigbo, Gideon E; Okafor, Okechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a heterogeneous disorder associated with diverse pathophysiological mechanisms, including immune activation and low-grade mucosal inflammation. Genetic factors, physiological functions, and environmental factors may determine the relative importance of various pathophysiological mechanisms. This study was designed to determine the histological alterations in the duodenal mucosa of Nigerian patients with FD. Methods Consecutive patients with dyspepsia seen over a 27-month period in two gastrointestinal endoscopy facilities in Enugu, South-East Nigeria were further evaluated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal mucosal biopsies if no lesion was found in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Patients with heartburn and/or regurgitation who did not have any dyspeptic symptoms and did not have any lesion in the upper gastrointestinal tract on endoscopy were presumed to have non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and they served as controls. The control subjects also had duodenal biopsies. The histopathological findings in the cases and controls were compared. Results There were 68 patients with FD and 52 patients with NERD. The total inflammatory score was 242 in FD and 66 in NERD (Mann-Whitney U =1168, P=0.0011). Similarly, the scores for chronic inflammation, gastric metaplasia, neutrophilic activity, eosinophilic infiltration, and Helicobacter pylori were significantly higher in FD than NERD. Conclusion Functional dyspepsia is associated with a high degree of inflammation in the duodenal mucosa. This may reflect the high prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in a tropical environment such as Nigeria. These findings may have therapeutic potential that further studies might elucidate. PMID:24403840

  12. Cement-related particles interact with proinflammatory IL-8 chemokine from human primary oropharyngeal mucosa cells and human epithelial lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Mario; Gräbsch, Carolin; Gminski, Richard; Ollmann, Ariane I H; Borm, Paul; Dietz, Andreas; Herbarth, Olf; Wichmann, Gunnar

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that respirable exposure to emitted cement particulate matter is associated with adverse health risk for human. The underlying mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. To examine the effect of cement, nine blinded cement-related particulates (<10 ?m) were assessed with regard to their induction of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in human primary epithelial cells (pEC) from oropharyngeal mucosa as well as from nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma (non-SCLC) cells A549. It was demonstrated that the cement specimens did not act cytotoxic as assessed by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The basal and IL-1?-induced IL-8 expression was suppressed, in contrast to an unchanged IL-6. At the transcript level the basal and induced IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression was not influenced by cement dust. To discover the mechanism by which cement influenced the IL-8 expression the following experiments were performed. Submerse exposure experiments have shown that the release of IL-8 was suppressed by cement dust. Furthermore, the incubation of IL-8 with cement-related specimens under cell-free condition led to a loss of immunoreactive IL-8. An immunological masking of IL-8 by free soluble components of respiratory epithelial cells was excluded. Thus, the decrease of IL-8 protein content after cement exposure seems to be a result of the adsorption of IL-8 protein to cement particles and the inhibition of IL-8 release. In conclusion, due to absent cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of cement-related specimens in both human pEC and A549 cell models it remains open how cement exposure may lead to the respiratory adverse effects in humans. PMID:20803486

  13. Endoscopic duodenal "windsock" diverticulotomy.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Tyler; Chand, Bipan; Winans, Charles

    2013-04-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Her symptoms were severe, and she required total parenteral nutrition for nutrition support. Both CT and barium upper GI series demonstrated a large "windsock" diverticulum that obstructed the duodenal lumen. The patient was referred to undergo a surgical diverticulectomy. After a multidisciplinary discussion, a less invasive endoscopic diverticulotomy was recommended, and the patient agreed. The linked video demonstrates the endoscopic findings and therapeutic technique. Upper endoscopy showed the diverticulum arising from the proximal duodenum. The scope could not traverse the true lumen due to compression by the diverticulum. A guidewire was passed to delineate the true lumen. At that point, the diverticulum spontaneously inverted into a proximal position. The tip of the diverticulum was then clipped to the duodenal wall to increase exposure and to allow a more controlled incision. Clips were placed on the vascular pedicle of the diverticulum to prevent bleeding. An incremental incision was performed using a needle-knife to divide the diverticulum completely. Mild bleeding occurred twice and was managed with clips. A complete diverticulotomy was accomplished, allowing easy passage of the endoscope. The patient had an uneventful postprocedural recovery and was discharged the same day with instructions for dietary advancement. After 2 months, the patient reported complete symptom resolution. She was eating well, had gained weight, and had discontinued total parenteral nutrition. A repeat endoscopy confirmed a patent lumen and no recurrence of the diverticulum. This case demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of endoscopic diverticulotomy performed from a proximally inverted position. This "top-down" approach provided very good exposure for the incision and easy treatment of bleeding complications. PMID:23076458

  14. Histological changes in small bowel mucosa induced by gliadin sensitive T lymphocytes can be blocked by anti-interferon gamma antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R T Przemioslo; K E Lundin; L M Sollid; J Nelufer; P J Ciclitira

    1995-01-01

    The isolation of gliadin specific HLA-DQ2 restricted T lymphocyte clones from the intestinal mucosa of patients with coeliac disease supports a role for cell mediated immunity in the pathogenesis of this condition. Whether supernatants from immune activated T cell clones could produce histological damage to duodenal mucosa in vitro was studied. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 18 patients without coeliac

  15. CCL20/CCR6-mediated migration of regulatory T cells to the Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Katherine W; Letley, Darren P; Ingram, Richard J M; Staples, Emily; Skjoldmose, Helle; Atherton, John C; Robinson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulceration is less likely to occur in patients with a strong gastric anti-inflammatory regulatory T cell (Treg) response. Migration of Tregs into the gastric mucosa is therefore important. Objective To identify the homing receptors involved in directing Tregs to the gastric mucosa, and investigate how H pylori stimulates the relevant chemokine responses. Design Gastric biopsy samples and peripheral blood were donated by 84 H pylori-infected and 46 uninfected patients. Luminex assays quantified gastric biopsy chemokine concentrations. Flow cytometry was used to characterise homing receptors on CD4+CD25hi Tregs. H pylori wild-type and isogenic mutants were used to investigate the signalling mechanisms behind CCL20 and IL-8 induction in gastric epithelial cell lines. Transwell assays were used to quantify Treg migration towards chemokines in vitro. Results CCL20, CXCL1-3 and IL-8 concentrations were significantly increased in gastric biopsy samples from H pylori-infected patients. CCR6 (CCL20 receptor), CXCR1 and CXCR2 (IL-8 and CXCL1-3 receptors) were expressed by a higher proportion of peripheral blood Tregs in infected patients. Most gastric Tregs expressed these receptors. H pylori induced CCL20 production by gastric epithelial cells via cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-dependent NF-?B signalling. Foxp3+, but not Foxp3?, CD4 cells from infected mice migrated towards recombinant CCL20 in vitro. Conclusions As well as increasing Treg numbers, H pylori infection induces a change in their characteristics. Expression of CCR6, CXCR1 and CXCR2 probably enables their migration towards CCL20 and IL-8 in the infected gastric mucosa. Such qualitative changes may also explain how H pylori protects against some extragastric inflammatory disorders. PMID:24436142

  16. Duodenal carcinoma from a duodenal diverticulum mimicking pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Masashi; Izumi, Sadanobu; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Tokumo, Masaki; Sakurai, Jun; Mano, Shohey

    2012-01-01

    An 81-year-old man was found to have a pancreatic head tumor on abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed during a follow-up visit for sigmoid colon cancer. The tumor had a diameter of 35mm on the CT scan and was diagnosed as pancreatic head carcinoma T3N0M0. The patient was treated with pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had grown within a hollow structure, was contiguous with a duodenal diverticulum, and had partially invaded the pancreas. Immunohistochemistry results were as follows:CK7 negative, CK20 positive, CD10 negative, CDX2 positive, MUC1 negative, MUC2 positive, MUC5AC negative, and MUC6 negative. The tumor was diagnosed as duodenal carcinoma from the duodenal diverticulum. Preoperative imaging showed that the tumor was located in the head of the pancreas and was compressing the common bile duct, thus making it appear like pancreatic cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of a case of duodenal carcinoma from a duodenal diverticulum mimicking pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:23093061

  17. Relative importance of pancreatic, hepatic, and mucosal bicarbonate in duodenal neutralization of acid in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, M A; Svendsen, P; Ladegaard, L; Cantor, P; Olsen, O; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B

    1992-05-01

    Pancreatic and hepatic bicarbonate secretion and the disappearance rate of acid during duodenal acidification were measured simultaneously in anaesthetized pigs. Perfusion of the duodenum with HCl resulted in an increase in both hepatic and pancreatic bicarbonate secretion. During all acid loads hepatic bicarbonate secretion was significantly greater than pancreatic secretion. Furthermore, the disappearance rate of acid in the duodenum during diversion of both bile and pancreatic juice was significantly greater than the amount of acid which could be neutralized by the concomitant pancreatic bicarbonate secretion. Diversion of pancreatic juice from the duodenum did not affect the disappearance rate of acid at any acid load, whereas diversion of bile caused a significant decrease. Thus, in the anaesthetized pig the liver and the duodenal mucosa are of greater importance than the pancreas for the neutralization of acid in the duodenum. It is suggested that the importance of the pancreatic contribution to duodenal neutralization should be reevaluated in other species, including man. PMID:1529266

  18. Imaging of duodenal diverticula and their complications.

    PubMed

    Bittle, Michelle M; Gunn, Martin L; Gross, Joel A; Rohrmann, Charles A

    2012-01-01

    Duodenal diverticula are common and are often incidentally found during routine imaging. Complications can occur but few require surgical intervention. We present a review of duodenal diverticula and their complications. PMID:22085659

  19. Gastrokine 1 Expression in the Human Gastric Mucosa Is Closely Associated with the Degree of Gastritis and DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Suk; Seo, Ho Suk; Song, Kyo Young; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Olga; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Gastrokine 1 plays an important role in gastric mucosal defense. Additionally, the Gastrokine 1-miR-185-DNMT1 axis has been shown to suppress gastric carcinogenesis through regulation of epigenetic alteration. Here, we investigated the effects of Gastrokine 1 on DNA methylation and gastritis. Materials and Methods Expression of Gastrokine 1, DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc proteins, and the presence of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein were determined in 55 non-neoplastic gastric mucosal tissue samples by western blot analysis. The CpG island methylation phenotype was also examined using six markers (p16, hMLH1, CDH1, MINT1, MINT2 and MINT31) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Histological gastritis was assessed according to the updated Sydney classification system. Results Reduced Gastrokine 1 expression was found in 20 of the 55 (36.4%) gastric mucosal tissue samples and was closely associated with miR-185 expression. The Gastrokine 1 expression level was inversely correlated with that of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc, and closely associated with the degree of gastritis. The H. pylori CagA protein was detected in 26 of the 55 (47.3%) gastric mucosal tissues and was positively associated with the expression of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc. In addition, 30 (54.5%) and 23 (41.9%) of the gastric mucosal tissues could be classified as CpG island methylation phenotype-low and CpG island methylation phenotype-high, respectively. Reduced expression of Gastrokine 1 and miR-185, and increased expression of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc were detected in the CpG island methylation phenotype-high gastric mucosa. Conclusions Gastrokine 1 has a crucial role in gastric inflammation and DNA methylation in gastric mucosa. PMID:24511419

  20. Foveolar gastric metaplasia of the duodenum: a frequent, so far neglected type of duodenal polyp.

    PubMed

    Sarbia, M; Sauer, G; Karimi, D; Berndt, R

    2014-04-01

    Foveolar gastric metaplasia of the duodenum (FGM) is considered as imperfect mucosal healing in the context of H. pylori gastritis and intake of NSAIDs or ASS.? Typical endoscopic findings are redness of the mucosa, erosion/ulcer and loss of mucosal folds. During diagnostic histological examinations we observed a frequent so far not described association of FGM with endoscopically observed duodenal polyps. The archives of two institutes of pathology with high gastroenterological workload (approximately 100?000 patients per year) were investigated for an association between "duodenal polyp" and "foveolar gastric metaplasia". In Institute 1, of 481 duodenal polyps 41?% were classified as FGM, 9?% as adenoma and 2?% as heterotopic gastric mucosa. In 48?% no histological correlate was present. In Institute 2, 217 cases of FGM were diagnosed. Of these, in 69 cases the endoscopic finding was "polyp" (32?%). In the other cases, the endoscopic findings were mucosal defect (18?%), redness/inflammation (16?%), suspicion for gastric heterotopia (5?%) and scar (3?%). In 26?% of cases no pathologic endoscopic finding was reported. Both groups of patients with FGM showed a similar distribution of age ranges (24?-?83 years and 16?-?88 years), median age (62 years and 61 years, respectively) and a dominance of male sex (both 1.5:1). In conclusion, foveolar gastric metaplasia is a frequent, so far neglected correlate of endoscopically detected duodenal polyps. PMID:24718939

  1. Acute Pancreatitis Due to a Duodenal Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Pyeon, Sung Ik; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Ban Seok; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Oh, Kong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal ulcers and acute pancreatitis are two of the most commonly encountered gastrointestinal diseases among the general population. However, duodenal ulcer-induced pancreatitis is very rarely reported worldwide. This report elaborates on a distinct medical treatment that contributes to partial or complete treatment of acute pancreatitis induced by a duodenal ulcer scar. PMID:25505728

  2. [Functional and morphological status of the gastric mucosa mast cells on the administration of dimedrol and suprastin].

    PubMed

    Uspenski?, V M; Zeleny?, V A; Grinevich, V B; Fokina, A A

    1983-01-01

    Histochemical and morphometric analysis of mast cells of the gastric and duodenal mucosa of rats given dyphenhydramine and suprastin for a long period of time (up to 45 days) revealed an increase in their functional activity that manifested in the enhancement of the processes of neoformation and maturation of juvenile mast cells and in the increased break down of mature cellular forms. PMID:6130970

  3. Management of the intermediate severity duodenal injury.

    PubMed

    Kashuk, J L; Moore, E E; Cogbill, T H

    1982-10-01

    The management of intermediate severity duodenal injuries remains a controversial issue. This report details our experience with 34 patients who underwent operations for duodenal trauma in the past 3 years. Seventy-two percent had penetrating injuries. Seven patients (28%) were managed with by duodenorrhaphy and Penrose drainage, nine (36%) with duodenal diversion (pyloric exclusion with gastrojejunostomy), two (8%) with resection and anastomosis, and one (4%) with pancreaticoduodenectomy. A comparison with a previous report from our institution. in 1978 discloses (1) more severe injuries in the current series, (2) more frequent use of duodenal diversion with a corresponding decreased use of tube decompression, (3) increased nutritional support, and (4) fewer complications. Based on this experience we advocate the use of duodenal diversion and needle catheter jejunostomy for intermediate severity duodenal wounds. PMID:7123496

  4. Management of complicated duodenal diverticula.

    PubMed

    Oukachbi, N; Brouzes, S

    2013-06-01

    The duodenum is the second most common location of intestinal diverticula after the colon. Duodenal diverticulum (DD) is usually located in the second portion of the duodenum (D2), close to the papilla. Most duodenal diverticula are extraluminal and acquired rather than congenital; more rare is the congenital, intraluminal diverticulum. DD is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, but can become symptomatic in 1% to 5% of cases when complicated by gastroduodenal, biliary and/or pancreatic obstruction, by perforation or by hemorrhage. Endoscopic treatment is the most common first-line treatment for biliopancreatic complications caused by juxtapapillary diverticula and also for bleeding. Conservative treatment of perforated DD based on fasting and broad-spectrum antibiotics may be offered in some selected cases when diagnosis is made early in stable patients, or in elderly patients with comorbidities who are poor operative candidates. Surgical treatment is currently reserved for failure of endoscopic or conservative treatment. The main postoperative complication of diverticulectomy is duodenal leak or fistula, which carries up to a 30% mortality rate. PMID:23810155

  5. Somatostatin depletion by cysteamine: mechanism and implication for duodenal ulceration

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Reichlin, S.

    1985-06-01

    Cysteamine (CSH) and its close derivatives deplete immunoreactive somatostatin (SS) in rat organs. The effect of CSH is dose and time dependent and reversible. Structural requirements of the analogs are the presence of either -SH or -NH2 on a two- or three-carbon alkyl molecule; both radicals together increase, whereas insertion of carboxyl abolishes potency. The duodenal ulcerogenic potency of CSH derivatives is correlated significantly with their SS-depleting activity in the gastric mucosa. The mechanism of this action of CSH is poorly understood, but it is not caused by increased release, enhanced degradation of the peptide, or selective necrosis of SS cells. It is likely that in the intracellular environment CSH causes a conformational change in the peptide that affects the antigenic and functional properties of SS.

  6. Abdominal compartment syndrome from bleeding duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Groth, Shawn S; Leon, Jorge A; Mohr, William J

    2012-04-01

    Duodenal diverticuli are acquired false diverticuli of unknown etiology. Although mostly asymptomatic, they can occasionally cause upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rarely with massive bleeding. In this report, we present (to the best of our knowledge) the first reported case of duodenal diverticular bleeding, causing abdominal compartment syndrome. Albeit a rare event, duodenal diverticular bleeding should be included in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As with our case, a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients is crucial. PMID:22787350

  7. Duodenal prostaglandin synthesis and acid load in health and in duodenal ulcer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlquist, D.A.; Dozois, R.R.; Zinsmeister, A.R.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    We sought to test the hypothesis that duodenal ulcer disease results from an imbalance between duodenal acid load, an injurious force, and mucosal prostaglandin generation, a protective factor. Ten patients with duodenal ulcer and 8 healthy controls were studied. The duodenal acid load after an amino acid soup was quantified by a double-marker technique. Mucosal biopsy specimens were taken endoscopically from the duodenal bulb before and after the test meal. Prostaglandin synthesis activity was measured by incubating biopsy homogenates in excess (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid. Although mean duodenal acid load was higher in duodenal ulcer, ranges overlapped. Neither the qualitative nor quantitative profile of mucosal prostaglandin synthesis activities differed significantly between test groups. Prostaglandin synthesis activities, however, tended to increase post cibum in controls, but change little or decrease in duodenal ulcer. Only by comparing the responses with a meal of both parameters together (duodenal acid load and the change in prostaglandin synthesis activities) was there complete or nearly complete separation of duodenal ulcer from controls. Greatest discrimination was observed with prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF1 alpha). We conclude that in health, mucosal prostaglandin generation in the duodenum is induced post cibum in relation to duodenal acid load; this may be a physiologic example of adaptive cytoprotection. In duodenal ulcer there may be a defect in such a mechanism.

  8. Gas mediators involved in modulating duodenal HCO3(-) secretion.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Aihara, E; Kimura, M; Dogishi, K; Hara, T; Hayashi, S

    2012-01-01

    The secretion of HCO3(-) in the duodenum is increased by mucosal acidification, and this process is modulated by gas mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon monoxide (CO), in addition to prostaglandins (PGs). The secretion is increased by NOR3 (NO donor), NaHS (H2S donor), and CORM-2 (CO donor). The HCO3(-) responses to NOR3 and CORM-2 are attenuated by indomethacin, while that to NaHS is mitigated by indomethacin and L-NAME as well as sensory deafferentation. NOR3 and CORM-2 increase mucosal PGE2 production, while H2S increases mucosal PGE2 content and luminal NO release. The HCO3(-) response to mucosal acidification is attenuated by indomethacin, propargylglycine, and SnPP, each inhibiting PG, H2S and CO production, respectively. The acid-induced duodenal damage is worsened when either PG, H2S or CO is lacking. These findings suggest that 1) NO, H2S, and CO, generated endogenously or exogenously, stimulate HCO3(-) secretion in the duodenum; 2) the stimulatory action of NO and CO is mediated, at least partly, by endogenous PGs, while that of H2S is mediated by PGs and NO as well as sensory neurons; 3) these gas mediators are involved in the local regulation of acid-induced HCO3(-) secretion, in addition to endogenous PGs; 4) the acid-induced duodenal damage is worsened by agents inhibiting the endogenous production of NO, H2S or CO. It is assumed that these gas mediators play a role in maintaining the integrity of the duodenal mucosa by modulating the secretion of HCO3(-). PMID:22300075

  9. Endoscopic management of a primary duodenal carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Albin; Singh, Jaspreet; Siddiqui, Ghulam; Prasad, Apsara; Rashid, Sadat; Vardaros, Magdalene; Garg, Vikas; Rizvon, Kaleem; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Mustacchia, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoids are rare, slow-growing tumors originating from a variety of different neuroendocrine cell types. They are identified histologically by their affinity for silver salts and by positive reactions to neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation of anemia. Upper endoscopy showed a duodenal bulb mass around 1 cm in size. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry staining were consistent with the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor. Further imaging and endoscopic studies showed no other synchronous carcinoid lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) revealed a 1 cm lesion confined to the mucosa and no local lymphadenopathy. Successful endoscopic mucosal resection of the mass was performed. Follow-up surveillance 6 months later with EUS and Octreoscan revealed no new lesions suggestive of recurrence. No consensus guidelines exist for the endoscopic management of duodenal carcinoid tumors. However, endoscopic resection is safe and preferred for tumors measuring 1 cm or less with no evidence of invasion of the muscularis layer. PMID:22679400

  10. Lymphocyte-filled villi: Comparison with other lymphoid aggregations in the mucosa of the human small intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahin Moghaddami; Adrian Cummins; Graham Mayrhofer

    1998-01-01

    Background & Aims: Solitary lymphoid structures that may be sites of primary extrathymic T-cell differentiation have been described recently in murine (cryptopatches) and rat (lymphocyte-filled villi) small intestine. This study tests the hypothesis that similar structures occur in human small intestine. Methods: Normal small intestine was obtained during surgery. Fixed tissue was examined histologically, and frozen sections were examined by

  11. Expression of c-myb Protooncogene and Other Cell Cycle-related Genes in Normal and Neoplastic Human Colonie Mucosa1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Torelli; Donatella Venturelli; Corrado Zanni; Luigi Moretti; Bruno Calabretta; Umberto Torelli

    1987-01-01

    The expression of c-myb, c-myc, histone H3, and ornithine decarbox- ylase genes was examined by Northern blot analysis in the normal and neoplastic mucosa of ten subjects affected by colon cancer. The mRN'A levels of c-myb protooncogene were detected at low levels in all normal samples but were increased in the neoplastic mucosa of six cases in comparison to the

  12. [Periodontal status in children with various morphological forms of chronic gastritis and duodenitis].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, E G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the condition of the periodontal tissues in 80 children with various morphological forms of gastritis and duodenitis. The examination included determination of oral hygiene and periodontal status by the simplified Green-Vermillion index, Silness-Low index, papillary-marginal-alveolar index, gingival Muhlemann-Cowell bleeding index, Schiller-Pisarev iodine index. In children with chronic gastritis and duodenitis high incidence of chronic catarrhal gingivitis (85.0%) was revealed. At the same time it was pointed out that inflammation in the periodontal tissues correlated with changes in the gastroduodenal mucosa. In 65.4% of children with superficial gastritis and duodenitis, chronic catarrhal gingivitis (localized in 38.5% of cases, generalized in 26.9%) was observed. In 94.4% of all children with diffuse and erosive gastritis and duodenitis, chronic generalized catarrhal gingivitis was observed, and low oral hygiene level was revealed. The severity and duration of the underlying disease aggravated clinical manifestations of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children with lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24576968

  13. Is gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Holt; Robert C. Heading; Thomas V. Taylor; John A. Forrest; Peter Tothill

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the

  14. Morphological and histochemical observations on the duodenal glands of eight wild ungulate species native to North America.

    PubMed

    Krause, W J

    1981-10-01

    The duodenal glands of the species examined (Alces alces, Ovis canadensis, Cervus canadensis, Oreamnos americanus, Bison bison, Antilocapra americana, Odocoileus virginianas, Odocoileus heminous) are confined primarily to the submucosa of the small intestine. In one species, the moose, a significant population of secretory tubules also is observed in the mucosa. The ducts of the duodenal glands pierce the overlying muscularis mucosae to empty most often independently into the intestinal lumen. Those of the bison, unlike the other species examined, drain into intestinal glands. The duodenal glands consist primarily of a simple columnar epithelium, the cells of which contain basally positioned round or oval nuclei. The lumina of scattered duodenal glands in the pronghorn and to some extent those of the moose, white-tailed deer, and mule deer may be extremely dilated, and the surrounding epithelium thin and attenuated. Component cells of the duodenal glands of all the species examined show remarkably similar ultrastructural features. They exhibit scattered profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum, dilated cisternae of which contain an electron-dense, amorphous material. Numerous well-developed Golgi complexes occupy the supranuclear region together with transport vesicles and forming secretory granules. Electron-dense, membrane-bound secretory granules generally are concentrated in the apical cytoplasm immediately subjacent to the cell membrane. The apical cell membrane exhibits short, scattered microvilli; and the basal cell membrane is smooth without apparent specialization. Histochemically, the duodenal glands of most species examined in this study consist of a heterogeneous population. The majority of the glands of the moose, elk, mountain goat, bison, pronghorn, and white-tailed deer elaborate a neutral mucin, whereas scattered individual glands, tubules or cells also produce acid mucins. Cells near the terminations of the ducts of the bighorn sheep are the only elements to produce acid mucins in the duodenal glands of this species. The duodenal glands of the bison are unusual in that only the peripheral portions of individual glands produce acid mucins. The remainder of the glands elaborate neutral mucins. Morphological differences between the two regions were not observed. The duodenal glands of the mule deer secrete both acid and neutral mucins. The structural and histochemical observations appear unrelated to the diet of individual species. PMID:6171158

  15. Bioactive annonaceous acetogenins from Rollinia mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shi, G; MacDougal, J M; McLaughlin, J L

    1997-06-01

    Two new bioactive Annonaceous acetogenins, rollitacin (1) and rollinacin (2), along with one known acetogenin, javoricin, were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rollinia mucosa. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited selective inhibitory effects among six human solid tumour cell lines. The structural elucidations of 1 and 2 were achieved by various spectroscopic analyses and chemical derivatizations. PMID:9195761

  16. Adenocarcinoma of the Minor Duodenal Papilla: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Takami, Kazuhiro; Moriya, Takuya; Kamiga, Takahiro; Abe, Tomoya; Miseki, Tetsuya; Oku, Takatomi; Aoki, Yasutaka; Tominaga, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    An 81-year-old male was found to have a duodenal tumor by screening upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The tumor was located in the minor duodenal papilla. Pathological examination of the biopsy specimen revealed adenocarcinoma, and endoscopic ultrasound showed an elevated hypoechoic mass in the minor duodenal papilla. The preoperative diagnosis was therefore considered to be either adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla or duodenal cancer. We performed a subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen showed the tumor cells to be primarily located in the submucosa of the minor duodenal papilla, with slight invasion into the pancreatic parenchyma through the accessory pancreatic duct. We therefore diagnosed a primary adenocarcima of the minor duodenal papilla. Adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla is considered to be a rare disease, but it may be underestimated because of the difficulty in distinguishing advanced adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla from primary duodenal cancer and cancer of the pancreatic head. PMID:21552440

  17. Congenital duodenal obstruction associated with Down's syndrome presenting with hematemesis

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Mandhan, Parkash; Elkadhi, Abdelrahman; Ali, Mansour J.; Latif, Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Congenital duodenal obstruction is usually characterized by onset of early vomiting due to high bowel obstruction. Presentation of congenital duodenal obstruction with acute gastrointestinal bleeding is very uncommon. We present an unusual case of congenital intrinsic duodenal obstruction associated with the Down's syndrome presenting with hematemesis secondary to duodenitis. This is a rare presentation of congenital duodenal obstruction associated with Down's syndrome in addition to seven cases previously reported in the English literature. PMID:24968438

  18. [Psychological factors in duodenal ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bauer, B; Bergmann, M

    1981-01-01

    With the aid of a clinical questionnaire and the I-N-R-personality test of Eysenck (as modified by Böttcher), we examined 127 male patients with clinically and radiologically proven ulcer compared to 145 age-matched persons without gastric affections. The features extraversion, neuroticism (emotional lability) and rigidity were determined and the question of an association with symptoms, age at onset of disease as well as occupational and familial factors statistically analyzed. With high significance, duodenal ulcer patients are more often emotionally labile and psychically more rigid. In the event the disease manifests under the age of 30, in ulcer patients introversion too is pronounced with highly significant frequency. Those patients complaining of conflicts with collaborators, lack of sleep, occupational overexertion, noise, draught at work place, present, compared to others without these complaints, a frequently emotional lability with high significance. PMID:7341221

  19. Prevalence, Genotype Distribution and Persistence of Human Papillomavirus in Oral Mucosa of Women: A Six-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Rautava, Jaana; Willberg, Jaana; Louvanto, Karolina; Wideman, Lilli; Syrjänen, Kari; Grénman, Seija; Syrjänen, Stina

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been linked to a subset of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. However, little is known on the natural history of oral HPV infections. We designed the prospective Finnish HPV Family Study to assess the dynamics of HPV infections in parents and their infants. This study reports HPV genotype distribution and virus persistence in oral mucosa of the mothers. Materials and Methods Totally, 324 pregnant women were enrolled at the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and followed-up for 6 years. Oral scrapings taken with a brush were collected and HPV-genotyping was performed with nested PCR and Multimetrix® test (Progen, Heidelberg, Germany). The predictors of persistent oral HPV species 7/9 infections were analyzed using generalized estimating equation models. Results The point prevalence of oral HPV varied from 15% to 24% during the 6-year follow-up. Altogether, 18 HPV genotypes were identified either as single or multiple-type oral infections. HPV16 was the most prevalent type at 9.7%–18.4%, followed by HPV18, HPV6, and multiple infections. Altogether, 74 women had persistent oral HPV infection determined as at least two consecutive samples positive with the same HPV genotype. HPV16 and HPV6 were the two most frequent types to persist (76% and 9%) for a mean of 18.6 and 20.2 months, respectively, followed by multiple infections (8%) for 18.3 months. An increased risk for persistent oral HPV infection with species 7/9 was associated with being seropositive for low-risk (LR)-HPV-types at baseline, whereas the use of oral contraceptives and a second pregnancy during follow-up were protective. Clinical oral lesions were detected in 17% of these women, one-third of whom had persistent oral HPV-infections. Conclusion HPV16 and HPV6 were the most common genotypes in oral HPV-infections and were also most likely to persist. Use of oral contraceptives and a second pregnancy protected against oral HPV persistence. PMID:22952591

  20. Duodenal Obstruction in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda F. Fried; Paul M. Palevsky; James R. Johnston

    1998-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease in a common inherited disorder accounting for 8–10% of cases of end-stage renal disease. The enlarged kidneys often produce pain and hematuria but rarely obstruction of surrounding organs. We report a case of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease producing symptomatic duodenal obstruction and malnutrition. Duodenal obstruction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with

  1. Duodenal microbiota composition and mucosal homeostasis in pediatric celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine which is triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed (HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive) individuals. Only a fraction of HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive individuals develop CD indicating that other factors have a role in the disorder. Several studies have addressed intestinal microbiota aberrancies in pediatric CD, but the results are inconsistent. Previously, we demonstrated that pediatric CD patients have lower duodenal expression of TLR2 and higher expression of TLR9 as compared to healthy controls (HC) indicating that microbiota may have a role in CD. Methods We used bacterial phylogenetic microarray to comprehensively profile the microbiota in duodenal biopsies of CD (n?=?10) and HC (n?=?9) children. The expression of selected mucosa-associated genes was assessed by qRT-PCR in CD and HC children and in treated CD adults (T-CD, n?=?6) on gluten free diet. Results The overall composition, diversity and the estimated microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) content of microbiota were comparable between CD and HC, but a sub-population profile comprising eight genus-like bacterial groups was found to differ significantly between HC and CD. In HC, increased TLR2 expression was positively correlated with the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1. In CD and T-CD, the expression of IL-10, IFN-g and CXCR6 were higher as co5mpared to HC. Conclusions The results suggest that microbiota and altered expression of mucosal receptors have a role in CD. In CD subjects, the increased expression of IL-10 and IFN-g may have partly resulted from the increased TLR9 expression and signaling. PMID:23844808

  2. Duodenal-Mucosal Bacteria Associated with Celiac Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

  3. Future directions of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Satohiro; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic therapies for lesions of the duodenum are technically more difficult than those for lesions of the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract due to the anatomical features of the duodenum, and the incidence rate of complications such as perforation and bleeding is also higher. These aforementioned trends were especially noticeable for the case of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The indication for ESD of duodenal tumors should be determined by assessment of the histopathology, macroscopic morphology, and diameter of the tumors. The three types of candidate lesions for endoscopic therapy are adenoma, carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors. For applying endoscopic therapies to duodenal lesions, accurate preoperative histopathological diagnosis is necessary. The most important technical issue in duodenal ESD is the submucosal dissection process. In duodenal ESD, a short needle-type knife is suitable for the mucosal incision and submucosal dissection processes, and the Small-caliber-tip Transparent hood is an important tool. After endoscopic therapies, the wound should be closed by clipping in order to prevent complications such as secondary hemorrhage and delayed perforation. At present, the criteria for selection between ESD and EMR vary among institutions. The indications for ESD should be carefully considered. Duodenal ESD should have limitations, such as the need for its being performed by experts with abundant experience in performing the procedure.

  4. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  5. Gliadin induced changes in the expression of MHC-class II antigens by human small intestinal epithelium. Organ culture studies with coeliac disease mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Fais, S; Maiuri, L; Pallone, F; De Vincenzi, M; De Ritis, G; Troncone, R; Auricchio, S

    1992-01-01

    Jejunal biopsies from 16 treated coeliac disease patients and from nine controls were cultured with and without a peptic-tryptic digest of gliadin. Cultures with a peptic-tryptic digest of maize prolamins were also undertaken. Frozen sections of baseline and cultured mucosa were stained by immunofluorescence with an anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody. Before culture the villous epithelium from both controls and treated coeliac disease expressed DR molecules while the crypt epithelium did not. When biopsies from treated coeliac disease were cultured with gliadin the expression of DR was enhanced in the crypt epithelium in eight of 14 cultures and in 11 of 14 was reduced or absent on the villous epithelium. No change was observed in control cultures. We conclude that gliadin is capable of inducing HLA-DR on the crypt epithelium of in vitro cultured coeliac disease mucosa, providing indirect evidence that gliadin may activate cell mediated immune mechanisms within the small bowel mucosa. This model could prove useful in identifying the immunogenic sequence(s) of gliadins and related prolamins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1582589

  6. Marked decrease in serum pepsinogen II levels resulting from endoscopic resection of a large duodenal tumor.

    PubMed

    Yada, Tomoyuki; Ito, Koichi; Suzuki, Keigo; Okubo, Koki; Aoki, Yoichiro; Akazawa, Naoki; Koizuka, Hitohiko; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Uemura, Naomi

    2014-12-01

    Studies have indicated that serum pepsinogen (PG) levels are not only markers for chronic atrophic gastritis but also predictive risk factors for gastric cancer. However, serum PG levels can change because of pathological conditions other than gastritis. We report the first case in which abnormally high serum PG II levels (168.8 ng/mL) led to the discovery of a large tumor covering a wide area in the duodenum, and after resection of the tumor, the serum PG II levels markedly decreased. Because endoscopic and histopathological examinations showed no indications of atrophic changes, inflammation of the gastric mucosa, or Helicobacter pylori infection, the serum PG II levels eventually returned to normal (10.1 ng/mL). The preoperative abnormally high PG II levels were probably caused by the large duodenal tumor that prevented PG II (which is produced by the duodenal Brunner's glands) from being secreted into the lumen, a condition that increased the amount transferred to the bloodstream. No previous reports have investigated serum PG II levels before and after resection of a large duodenal tumor. We believe this case provides valuable insight regarding the dynamics of PG II in the body and has important diagnostic implications. PMID:25376543

  7. Gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Dermot; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Jensen, Robert T

    2012-12-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are increasing in frequency and have a varied spectrum with regard to histology, clinicopathologic background, stage, and prognosis. They are usually discovered incidentally, are for the most part benign and are associated with hypergastrinaemia (secondary either to chronic atrophic gastritis or rarely Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; types 1 and 2, respectively) or more rarely sporadic type 3. Applications of recent staging and grading systems - namely using Ki-67 proliferative indices - (from ENETS and WHO 2010) can be particularly helpful in further categorising these tumours. The natural history of Type 1 gastric carcinoids is generally (>95%) favourable and simple surveillance is usually recommended for small (<1 cm) T1 tumours, with local (endoscopic or surgical) resection for larger lesions. Other potential therapies such as somatostatin analogues and gastrin receptor antagonists may offer newer therapeutic possibilities. Rarely, gastric NENs have a malignant course and this is usually confined to Type 2 and especially Type 3 tumours; the latter mimic the biological course of gastric adenocarcinoma and require radical oncological therapies. Most duodenal NENs, apart from gastrinomas (that are not dealt with here) are sporadic and non functional. They are also increasing in frequency probably due to incidental discovery at endoscopy or imaging for other reasons and this may account for their overall good prognosis. Peri-ampullary and ampullary NENs may have a more aggressive outcome and should be carefully appraised and treated (often with surgical resection). PMID:23582915

  8. Complete duodenogastric reflux: A scintigraphic sign of significant duodenal pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Hanner, J.S. (Shands Hospital, Gainesville, FL (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Complete reflux of duodenal contents into the stomach with persistent retention on hepatobiliary scintigraphy or radionuclide gastrointestinal bleeding studies is a relatively rare occurrence. Two cases of complete duodenogastric reflux are reported: one case in a patient with a perforated duodenal diverticulum and the other in a patient with an inflamed, bleeding duodenal ulcer. The finding of complete duodenogastric reflux and persistent retention in the stomach should instigate a thorough evaluation for significant duodenal pathology.

  9. Iatrogenic perforation of perivaterian duodenal diverticulum: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The author reports a case of iatrogenic perforation of a duodenal diverticulum, an extremely rare occurrence, during percutaneous radiologic extraction of a retained common-bile-duct stone. Perforation was related to the perivaterian location of the duodenal diverticulum. Because an inflammatory reaction was present, tube duodenostomy was chosen over excision, closure and drainage to prevent the complication of lateral duodenal fistula and sepsis. Whenever iatrogenic duodenal perforation is suspected, prompt radiologic documentation and early surgical consultation should be sought. PMID:8697327

  10. Comparative duodenal, jejunal and ileal responses to luminal saline load.

    PubMed

    Chikh-Issa, A R; Charpin, G; Dumas, C; Nicol, P; Pansu, D; Descroix-Vagne, M

    1993-01-01

    Intestinal ionic exchanges were studied in rat duodenal, jejunal and ileal ligated loops in response to different luminal saline loads: NaCl concentration varied from 150-0 mM, solutions being made isoosmotic with mannitol. The contact delay was 60 min. An exponential relationship was found between water, Na and Cl movements and the initial saline concentration. Maximal absorption was obtained with 150 mM NaCl, and was significantly higher in the duodenum than in the jejunum and ileum. The NaCl concentration for which water, Na, and Cl movements were null was approximately 70 mM NaCl in the duodenum and jejunum, 41 mM for Na and 18 mM for Cl in the ileum. The water efflux induced by the 0-mM NaCl test solution was maximal in the duodenum (1.5 +/- 0.2 ml/h) and decreased in the jejunum (0.8 +/- 0.1 ml/h) and ileum (0.3 +/- 0.1 ml/h) as did sodium, chloride and non-chloride anion efflux. These data support the functional heterogeneity of the small intestine regulating the water and ion exchange in response to luminal saline load, the main difference being connected with the efflux capacity of the mucosa, decreasing from the duodenum to the jejunum and ileum. PMID:8363739

  11. Duodenal diverticula: potential complications and common imaging pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, T C; Hartman, M; Heller, M; Klepchick, P; Ilkhanipour, K

    2014-10-01

    A duodenal diverticulum is a commonly encountered entity in gastrointestinal radiology with a wide variety of appearances. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy and embryology of the duodenum, discuss the differences between a true versus intraluminal duodenal diverticulum, and to highlight the normal appearance, potential complications, and imaging pitfalls of duodenal diverticula. PMID:25110301

  12. [Mucinous gastric adenocarcinoma and duodenal somato-statinoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Biffoni, M; Macrina, N; Napoli, A; Amabile, M I; Cavallo Marincola, B; Anzidei, M; Catalano, C; Maturo, A; Pasta, V

    2008-01-01

    The Authors present a rare association of gastric adenocarcinoma and somatostatin-producing duodenal carcinoid. The pre-operative abdominal CT scan revealed the gastric lesions and a duodenal polypoid lesion, giving an important indication to perform a subtotal gastrectomy and a duodenal resection. The definitive diagnosis was possible with histological examination. PMID:18834564

  13. Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in a Cow

    PubMed Central

    Fatimah, I.; Butler, D. G.; Physick-Sheard, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    A case report of perforated duodenal ulcer in a ten year old Holstein cow is presented. On three occasions, sudden anorexia and rapidly progressing abdominal fluid distension were associated with metabolic alkalosis, hypochloremia and hypokalemia. Rumen fluid at the time of the second episode was acidic and contained an excessive amount of chloride ion. An abdominal mass dorsal to the abomasum involving the pylorus and several loops of small bowel was identified but not corrected at surgery. Necropsy confirmed a 1.5 cm diameter duodenal ulcer 6 cm distal to the pylorus. PMID:17422146

  14. Coexistence of symptomatic iron-deficiency anemia and duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia due to giardiasis: case report.

    PubMed

    Kasirga, Erhun; Gülen, Hüseyin; Sim?ek, Ay?e; Ayhan, Semin; Yilmaz, Ozge; Ellidokuz, Ender

    2009-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia due to iron malabsorption and duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) has been described in children with Giardia intestinalis infection. Also, symptomatic iron-deficiency anemia is rarely encountered in male adolescents. A 14-year-old boy underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for investigation of symptomatic iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin 5.8 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume 65.3 fL, serum ferritin < 1.5 ng/mL). He had a sufficient diet for iron and recurrent bouts of diarrhea without melena. At upper endoscopy, duodenal mucosa was diffusely nodular. Histopathologic evaluation of biopsy samples from the duodenum revealed infection with Giardia intestinalis. His anemia improved with metronidazole and iron treatment. PMID:19206009

  15. Ursodeoxycholic acid counteracts celecoxib in reduction of duodenal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: a multicentre, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to prophylactic colectomy, mortality in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has changed, with duodenal cancer currently being the main cause of death. Although celecoxib reduces duodenal polyp density in patients with FAP, its long-term use may increase the risk of cardiovascular events and alternatives need to be explored. Preclinical studies suggest that the combination of celecoxib with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a potentially effective strategy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of celecoxib and UDCA co-treatment on duodenal adenomatosis in patients with FAP. Methods Patients with FAP received celecoxib (400 mg twice daily) and UDCA (1000-2000 mg daily, ~20-30 mg/kg/day, n=19) or celecoxib and placebo (n=18) orally for 6 months. Primary outcome was drug efficacy, assessed by comparing duodenal polyp density at pre- and post-intervention by blinded review of endoscopic recordings. As secondary outcomes, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COX-2 levels in normal duodenal mucosa were assessed by immunohistochemistry or real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results In intention-to-treat analysis, deceased polyp density was observed after celecoxib/placebo treatment (p=0.029), whereas increased polyp density was observed after celecoxib/UDCA treatment (p=0.014). The difference in change in duodenal polyp density was statistically significant between the groups (p=0.011). No changes in secondary outcomes were observed. Thirty patients (81%) reported one or more adverse events, 16 patients (84%, Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE) grade 1–3) treated with celecoxib/UDCA and 14 patients (78%, CTCAE grade 1–2) treated with celecoxib/placebo. Nine patients (24%) discontinued intervention prematurely, 5 patients (26%) treated with celecoxib/UDCA and 4 patients (22%) treated with celecoxib/placebo. Conclusions Celecoxib reduces duodenal polyp density in patients with FAP, and unexpectedly, high dose UDCA co-treatment counteracts this effect. The benefit of long term use of celecoxib for duodenal cancer prevention needs to be weighed against the (risk of) adverse events. Trial registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT00808743 PMID:23919274

  16. Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hun; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Nam, Sung Min; Lee, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Il Ho; Park, Jin Young; Im, Yun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Il Young; Han, Sok Won

    2012-10-14

    Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely. PMID:23082068

  17. AUTOMATIVE QUANTIFICATION OF RAT DUODENAL RHYTHMIC CONTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pacemaker activity of longitudinal muscle, as reflected by in vitro rhythmic contractions of the adult male rat's duodenum, has been examined in terms of intercontraction intervals that were collected using a microprocessor-based system. For each duodenal segment studied, 512...

  18. [A decrease in the activity of the nucleolar organizers of the gastric and duodenal mucosal cells in peptic ulcer patients].

    PubMed

    Sorin, V F; Morozov, V P; Mamaev, N N; Kudrevatykh, I P; Shchetinin, V N

    1990-01-01

    Silver plating of nucleoli was used to study the activity of nucleolar organizers (NO) in the cells of one-layer prismatic epithelium of the gastric and duodenal mucosae. The activity of NO was established to be lowered in patients suffering from ulcer disease and in patients with compression stenosis of the celiac trunk, which may point to the impairment of protein synthetic processes in the cells. Factor of ischemia as the most probable cause of the enumerated changes is under discussion. PMID:1692425

  19. [Unique duodenal hamartomatous polyp--case report].

    PubMed

    Alecu, L; Tulin, A; Ursut, Beatrice; Ursut, B; Oproiu, A; Obrocea, F

    2012-01-01

    Duodenal tumors are very rare tumors, with the lower incidence among the tumors of the small bowel, whose frequence is less than 5 % of all digestive tumors. In most of the cases these tumors remain asymptomatic, sometimes the entire life. When they become symptomatic, their first manifestation is the loss of digested blood (melena), secondary anemia and obstructive symptomatology. Early diagnosis of these tumors is difficult because of the unsystematic symptomatology and becomes easy when the complications appear. In most of the cases the diagnosis is establish by the superior digestive endoscopy, followed by barium contrast studies, CT and ultrasound. We present a case of duodenal hamartomatous polip, unique, at the level of D3, in a female patient 66 years old, addressing to our service for superior digestive hemorrhage exteriorizated by melena, secondary anemia and physical asthenia; we operated the patient procedeeing a polypectomy by a duodenotomy. PMID:22712356

  20. A Complex Growth Factor in Duodenal Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. ACKERMAN

    A commercial preparation of dry duodenal tissue was hydrolyzed and fractionated to determine whether this material contained thyroid hormones. Five fractions, capable of reinstating growth of growth-arrested, sulfaguanidine-fed rats, were obtained. All were stable to acid hydrolysis and insoluble in 0.1 N HC1. They differed from each other with respect to their solubility in benzene, acetone and methanol, and their

  1. [Esophageal, gastric and duodenal motility in patients with cholelithiasis].

    PubMed

    Polous, Iu M; Borshch, I V; Shidlovski?, V A

    1989-10-01

    Disturbed motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract presenting with phasic derangement (the absence of all motor phases or peristaltic duodenal contraction, abnormal duration of phases) has been found out in all cholelithiasis patients examined. The findings should in no way be viewed as isolated chronic duodenal insufficiency. Impairment of esophageal, gastric and duodenal motility needs identification and correction in combined treatment, rehabilitation and prevention of cholelithiasis. PMID:2615319

  2. The Role of Polymerase Chain Reaction of High-Risk Human Papilloma Virus in the Screening of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in the Anal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Males Having Sex with Males

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Rivero-Rodriguez, Mar; Gil-Anguita, Concepción; Esquivias, Javier; López-Castro, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Taboada, Jessica; de Hierro, Mercedes López; López-Ruiz, Miguel A.; Martínez, R. Javier; Llaño, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the advantages of cytology and PCR of high-risk human papilloma virus (PCR HR-HPV) infection in biopsy-derived diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL = AIN2/AIN3) in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). Methods This is a single-centered study conducted between May 2010 and May 2014 in patients (n = 201, mean age 37 years) recruited from our outpatient clinic. Samples of anal canal mucosa were taken into liquid medium for PCR HPV analysis and for cytology. Anoscopy was performed for histology evaluation. Results Anoscopy showed 33.8% were normal, 47.8% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), and 18.4% HSIL; 80.2% had HR-HPV. PCR of HR-HPV had greater sensitivity than did cytology (88.8% vs. 75.7%) in HSIL screening, with similar positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 20.3 vs. 22.9 and 89.7 vs. 88.1, respectively. Combining both tests increased the sensitivity and NPV of HSIL diagnosis to 100%. Correlation of cytology vs. histology was, generally, very low and PCR of HR-HPV vs. histology was non-existent (<0.2) or low (<0.4). Area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve analysis of cytology and PCR HR-HPV for the diagnosis of HSIL was poor (<0.6). Multivariate regression analysis showed protective factors against HSIL were: viral suppression (OR: 0.312; 95%CI: 0.099-0.984), and/or syphilis infection (OR: 0.193; 95%CI: 0.045-0.827). HSIL risk was associated with HPV-68 genotype (OR: 20.1; 95%CI: 2.04-197.82). Conclusions When cytology and PCR HR-HPV findings are normal, the diagnosis of pre-malignant HSIL can be reliably ruled-out in HIV-positive patients. HPV suppression with treatment protects against the appearance of HSIL. PMID:25849412

  3. Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa light chain restriction.

    PubMed

    Munday, William R; Kapur, Lucy Harn; Xu, Mina; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-16

    Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules which are likely the result of disturbed secretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate within the plasma cell. Russell body collections have been identified within the stomach, known as Russell body gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenum are referred to as Russell body duodenitis, which is rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reports are associated with Helicobacter pylori. However, the etiology of Russell body duodenitis remains unclear. Here we report the first case of Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin light chain restriction in a background of peptic duodenitis. PMID:25610537

  4. Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa light chain restriction

    PubMed Central

    Munday, William R; Kapur, Lucy Harn; Xu, Mina; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules which are likely the result of disturbed secretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate within the plasma cell. Russell body collections have been identified within the stomach, known as Russell body gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenum are referred to as Russell body duodenitis, which is rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reports are associated with Helicobacter pylori. However, the etiology of Russell body duodenitis remains unclear. Here we report the first case of Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin light chain restriction in a background of peptic duodenitis. PMID:25610537

  5. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in man. Stimulation by acid and inhibition by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine.

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, L; Flemström, G

    1989-01-01

    A multi-channel small diameter tube was used to study the secretion of bicarbonate by 3 cm long segments of the proximal duodenum isolated between balloons. The tube had an outer diameter of 5.3 mm and two central and four smaller, peripheral channels. Measurements of infused phenol red, 14C-PEG and vitamin B12 and of trypsin activity were performed to rule out contamination of the perfusate by gastric and pancreatic secretions. Basal secretion of bicarbonate by the duodenal mucosa in healthy subjects varied between 135 and 220 mumol/cm of intestine per hour. Perfusion of the lumen with acid (100 mM HCl for five minutes) increased the secretion to greater than 400 mumol/cm/h and the alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine (150 micrograms iv) decreased the HCO3- secretion by 70 mumol/cm/h. Clonidine simultaneously reduced the mean arterial blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline concentration, but did not affect the plasma glucose or adrenaline concentration. Duodenal bicarbonate secretion is important in the protection of this mucosa against acid discharged from the stomach. Increased sympathetic activity may, by inhibiting the bicarbonate secretion, decrease the protection in proximal duodenum in man and facilitate ulceration. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2558985

  6. Parallel expression of macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) in duodenal and skin lesions of patients with dermatitis herpetiformis

    PubMed Central

    Salmela, M; Pender, S; Reunala, T; MacDonald, T; Saarialho-Kere, U

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a specific dermatological manifestation of coeliac disease and 80% of DH patients have gluten sensitive enteropathy manifested by crypt hyperplasia and villous atrophy. Matrix degradation mediated by collagenase 1 (MMP-1) and stromelysin 1 (MMP-3) has previously been implicated in the pathobiology of coeliac intestine and cutaneous DH blisters.?AIMS—To study expression of stromelysin 2, metalloelastase, collagenase 3, and matrilysin in the intestine and skin of DH patients.?METHODS—In situ hybridisation using 35S labelled cRNA probes was performed on duodenal biopsies of 15 DH patients, three samples each of control duodenal or jejunal mucosa, fetal ileal explants, lesional DH skin, and 19 serial biopsies of experimental DH blisters. Immunostaining was used to examine type IV collagen, macrophages (CD68), and 92 kDa gelatinase (MMP-9) in the specimens.?RESULTS—Metalloelastase (MMP-12) was abundantly expressed by subepithelial macrophages in both coeliac intestine and spontaneous and induced DH rash. It was also upregulated in the experimental model of coeliac disease (staphylococcal endotoxin B stimulated fetal explants). The only other MMP detected was MMP-9 which did not colocalise with MMP-12.?CONCLUSIONS—Upregulation of metalloelastase is associated with T cell mediated immune responses both in the intestine and skin. In addition to modulating macrophage migration, it may contribute to degradation of proteoglycans or basement membrane components in the subepithelial mucosa.???Keywords: coeliac disease; metalloproteinase; dermatitis herpetiformis PMID:11247893

  7. Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep C. PONCET, M. IVAN M of duodenal digesta flow were made in sheep implanted with an electromagnetic flowmeter probe on the ascending to frequent oscillation of the digesta. It was concluded that accurate quantitative electromagnetic

  8. Duodenal bulb tumour of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Sobo?, Marcin; Szylberg, Tadeusz; Rudzi?ski, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Their development typically depends on mutations in the Kit or PDGFRA gene. We have diagnosed and treated a duodenal bulb GIST in a 63-year-old woman. The confirmation of the diagnosis was made on the basis of a histological test after radical resection of the tumour. Making the right diagnosis is crucial for patients, since complex surgical and pharmacological approaches are effective even in the advanced stages of the disease. Nevertheless, radical surgical treatment is still the primary choice for patients with GIST. PMID:25653733

  9. Cephalic Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Bleeding Duodenal Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Ruben; Dominguez, Eva; Barrena, S.; Martinez, Leopoldo; Prieto, Gerardo; Burgos, Emilio; Tovar, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction?Treatment of recurrent severe gastrointestinal bleeding due to arteriovenous malformations may require complex resections. In some particular locations, extensive surgery is the only way out, as shown in this report. Case Report?A 2.5-year-old child suffered repeated episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding since the first month of life. After an extensive diagnostic workout, the diagnosis of duodenal arteriovenous malformation was established. Cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy with pyloric preservation was performed and no further episodes of bleeding occurred in the ensuing 2 years. Conclusion?Bleeding malformations located in the pancreaticoduodenal area can be effectively treated in children by pylorus-preserving cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:25755960

  10. Comparative clinical wettability of teeth and intraoral mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PER-OLOF J. Glantz; Robert E. Baier; Rolf Attstrom; Anne E. Meyer; Hermann Gucinski

    1991-01-01

    The observed reduced adhesiveness of human intraoral mucosa, as compared with adjacent teeth, was determined for 14 healthy humans to correlate with differing measured intraoral contact angles for a variety of otherwise non-interacting test liquids on these two equally water-wettable surfaces under clinical conditions. Measurements were made on the front maxillary tooth surfaces and the-inner lower lip mucosal surfaces of

  11. Duodenal iron proteins in idiopathic hemochromatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, P; Skikne, B S; Covell, A M; Flowers, C; Cooke, A; Lynch, S R; Cook, J D

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the relationship between iron absorption and the concentration of duodenal iron proteins in normal subjects and patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis (IH). Biopsies were obtained endoscopically from the duodenum in 17 normal subjects, 3 of whom were mildly iron deficient, and 7 patients with untreated IH. The absorption of both heme and nonheme iron was increased in IH despite a 20-fold elevation in serum ferritin. Immunoassays using MAb were used to measure transferrin, H-rich ferritin, and L-rich ferritin in mucosal samples. Mucosal transferrin concentrations in normal subjects did not correlate with either iron status or iron absorption, indicating that mucosal transferrin plays no physiological role in iron absorption. Mucosal transferrin was significantly lower in IH, presumably because of a decrease in mucosal transferrin receptors. Mucosal H and L ferritin concentrations were directly related to body iron stores and inversely related to iron absorption in normal subjects. In IH, mucosal H and L ferritin failed to increase in parallel with the serum ferritin, but were appropriate for the level of iron absorption. The relationship of mucosal H/L ferritin in IH did not differ from that observed in normal subjects. Our findings indicate that the major abnormality in duodenal iron proteins in IH is a parallel decrease in the concentration of H- and L-rich ferritin. It is not evident whether this is the result or the cause of the absorptive abnormality. PMID:2910911

  12. Histopathology of the minor duodenal papilla.

    PubMed

    Suda, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    The minor duodenal papilla, which is the orifice of the accessory, or dorsal, pancreatic duct/Santorini duct, mostly accompanied by pancreatic tissue, is situated about 2 cm ventroproximal to the major duodenal papilla. The patency of the terminal accessory pancreatic duct (APD) is recognized in about half or more of cases, and is related to the degree of fibrosis. The APD is lined with simple columnar epithelium and encircled by a smooth muscle layer. It is still controversial whether or not these muscle tissues comprise a sphincter muscle. Pancreatic tissue was found in about 80% of cases in the minor papilla. Among these cases, pancreatic tissue was continuous and/or closely related to the proper pancreas in about 40% of cases, and might have the same exocrine and endocrine morphologies/functions, suggesting that it is a portion of the dorsal pancreas and not an ectopic one. Endocrine cell micronests are frequently found in the ductal wall/surrounding area of the terminal APD, and predominantly consist of somatostatin- and/or pancreatic-polypeptide-containing cells. In cases of pancreas divisum, inadequate pancreatic juice drainage from the minor papilla might occur, resulting in dorsal pancreatitis. In the minor papilla, all ductal tumors may occur, such as an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and invasive ductal carcinoma, but carcinoid tumors are rare. PMID:20551659

  13. Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: The mechanisms and clinical implications

    E-print Network

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael

    2014-01-01

    68] , deficiency of the anti-aging transmembrane protein,injury susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa anti-apoptosisaging humans has increased expression of PTEN; and, reduced expression of survivin, anti-

  14. A human homologue to the yeast omnipotent suppressor 45 maps 100 kb centromeric to HLA-A

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvel, B.; Dorval, I.; Fergelot, P. [CNRS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes (France)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Idipathic hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive inherited disorder of iron metabolism. The molecular defect is unknown. However, the gene responsible for the disease (HFE) has been localized on the short arm of chromosome 6. It is closely linked to the HLA class I genes and possibly within a 350 kilobase (kb) region around the HLA-A locus. In order to identify candidate genes for hemochromatosis, we applied a cDNA selection technique to isolate transcribed sequences encoded on yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC). At first, we screened a cDNA library derived from normal human duodenal mucosa with the YAC B30 H3. This YAC contains a 320 kb DNA insert including the HLA-A gene and spanning 150 kb of the 350 kb zone where the hemochromatosis gene is in linkage disequilibrium with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Preparation of the cDNA library of duodenal mucosa in Lambda Zap II phage and library screening with YAC B30 were carried out as previously described. In this way, we isolated seven non-HLA-A cDNAs corresponding to seven new genomic sequences. These potential genes were named hemochromatosis candidate gene (HCG) and numbered I to VII. The survey of all these cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences is in progress. In this work, we are especially interested in one of the seven non-HLA class I cDNA clones, named clone 58. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Adhesion of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to pediatric intestinal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, S; Candy, D C; Phillips, A D

    1996-01-01

    Organ cultures of small- and large-intestinal mucosa from children were used to examine the interactions of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) with human intestine. Mucosae from patients aged between 3 and 190 months were cultured with five EAEC strains isolated from infants with diarrhea in the United Kingdom and with two well-described prototype EAEC strains, 17-2 and 221. The prototype strains adhered to jejunal, ileal, and colonic mucosae. The wild-type strains also adhered to this tissue but showed a variable pattern of adhesion: two adhered to all intestinal levels, one adhered to jejunum and ileum, one adhered to ileum only, and one adhered to ileum and colon. Adherence was in an aggregative or stacked-brick pattern, resembling that seen on HEp-2 cells. Electron microscopy of infected small intestinal mucosa revealed bacteria in association with a thick mucus layer above an intact enterocyte brush border, which contained extruded cell fragments. This mucus layer was not present on controls. EAEC adherence to colonic mucosa was associated with cytotoxic effects including microvillous vesiculation (but without evidence of an attaching/effacing lesion), enlarged crypt openings, the presence of intercrypt crevices, and increased epithelial cell extrusion. These results demonstrate that in vitro organ culture of intestinal mucosa from children can be used to investigate EAEC pathogenesis in childhood directly. EAEC strains appear able to colonize many regions of the gastrointestinal tract, without overt changes to small intestinal mucosa but with cytotoxic effects on colonic mucosa. PMID:8890236

  16. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  17. Thyroid Storm Precipitated by Duodenal Ulcer Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Natsuda, Shoko; Nakashima, Yomi; Horie, Ichiro; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male) complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome.

  18. Integrating-Sphere Measurements for Determining Optical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, A. M.; Cardona, J. C.; Garzón, I.; Oliveira, A. C.; Ghinea, R.; Alaminos, M.; Pérez, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    Surgical procedures carried out in the oral and maxillofacial region can result in large tissue defects. Accounting for the shortage of oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues, different models of an organotypic substitute of the oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering have recently been proposed. In this work, the propagation of light radiation through artificial human oral mucosa substitutes based on fibrin-agarose scaffolds (fibrin, fibrin-0.1% agarose, fibrin-0.2%agarose) is investigated, and their optical properties are determined using the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method based on integrating-sphere measurements. Similar values for the absorption and scattering coefficients between the fibrin and fibrin-0.1% agarose bioengineered tissues and the native oral mucosa were found. These results suggest the adequacy of these biomaterials for potential clinical use in human oral mucosa applications. These optical properties represent useful references and data for applications requiring the knowledge of the light transport through this type of tissues, applications used in clinical practice. It also provides a new method of information analysis for the quality control of the development of the artificial nanostructured oral mucosa substitutes and its comparison with native oral mucosa tissues.

  19. Laparoscopic diverticulectomy for massive hemorrhage in a duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Dan, Dilip; Bascombe, Nigel; Maharaj, Ravi; Hariharan, Seetharaman; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhagic duodenal diverticula are rare and are treated by endoscopy or open diverticulectomy, especially when there is a massive hemorrhage. We report what we believe to be the first instance of urgent laparoscopic diverticulectomy of a large, inflamed duodenal diverticulum with massive hemorrhage. An elderly patient had a screening colonoscopy and additional upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of vague upper gastrointestinal symptoms; however, both were reported to be normal. She subsequently developed massive hematemesis. Clinical examination revealed a tender right upper quadrant mass and imaging confirmed a large duodenal diverticulum with surrounding inflammatory changes. Urgent laparoscopic diverticulectomy was performed with an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Laparoscopic diverticulectomy should be considered in managing hemorrhagic duodenal diverticula. PMID:22318077

  20. Duodenal perforation in an infant with rotavirus gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Stabell, Niklas; Klingenberg, Claus; Rushfeldt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We describe for the first time a case of an infant with rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by a duodenal perforation. Awareness of the perforation risk may prevent severe or lethal outcomes in this common infection among infants and children. PMID:23592811

  1. The Management of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography-Related Duodenal Perforation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Uneventful duodenal perforation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an uncommon but occasionally fatal complication. ERCP-related perforations may occur during sphincterotomy and improper manipulation of the equipment and scope. Traditionally, duodenal perforation has been treated with early surgical repair. Recently, nonoperative early endoscopic management techniques including clips or fibrin glue have been reported. In the present paper we review the literature pertaining to the treatment of perforations. PMID:25133122

  2. Neonatal duodenal obstruction with emphasis on cases with Down's syndrome

    E-print Network

    1986-01-01

    In the past 31 years, 47 cases of duodenal obstruction were admitted to the Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children. Thirty-sLx per cent of these had Down's syndrome. The crude mortality was 48 % but this figure was reduced to 33 % in the last five years of the study. The combination of duodenal obstruction, Down's syndrome and any other abnormality carried an 89 % risk of mortality.

  3. Pharmacological Retention of Oral Mucosa Progenitor\\/Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Izumi; K. Inoki; Y. Fujimori; C. L. Marcelo; S. E. Feinberg

    2009-01-01

    Oral mucosa progenitor\\/stem cells reside as a small-sized cell population that eventually differentiates concurrently with an increase in cell size. Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to an increase in cell size. We hypothesized that rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, will maintain primary human oral keratinocytes as a small-sized, undifferentiated cell population capable of retaining their

  4. Severe duodenal injuries. Treatment with pyloric exclusion and gastrojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Martin, T D; Feliciano, D V; Mattox, K L; Jordan, G L

    1983-05-01

    During a 12-year period, 313 patients with duodenal injuries were treated. Primary repair, pyloric exclusion, and gastrojejunostomy were used in 128 patients (41%) with severe duodenal and pancreaticoduodenal injuries, to reduce "duodenal" morbidity and mortality. The duodenal fistula rate was 2.2% overall, and 5.5% in the patients undergoing exclusion. Only two deaths were due to fistulas. Forty-two patients underwent upper gastrointestinal tract examinations after operation. In patients examined 21 days or more after operation, 94% had a patent pylorus. Marginal ulceration was infrequent (four patients), as were complications associated with the procedure (3%). Pyloric exclusion with gastrojejunostomy is a quick and simple procedure that allows return of pyloric patency and is associated with a low incidence of duodenal fistulas. When fistulas do develop, they are usually easily controlled and are associated with a low mortality. We believe pyloric exclusion with gastrojejunostomy to be the procedure of choice in patients with severe duodenal and pancreaticoduodenal trauma. PMID:6838368

  5. Spiral bacteria in the human stomach: the gastric helicobacters.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, A.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, Helicobacter pylori has become recognized as one of the most common human pathogens, colonizing the gastric mucosa of almost all persons exposed to poor hygienic conditions from childhood. It also is often found, albeit with a lower frequency, in groups of high socioeconomic status. H. pylori causes chronic active gastritis and is a major factor in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcers and, to a lesser extent, gastric ulcers. In addition, the presence of this bacterium is now recognized as a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. Nevertheless, most infections appear without clinical consequences. In this second decade of intensive research, it is important to understand why H. pylori is sometimes a dangerous pathogen, and to determine how it can be eradicated in those at highest risk for severe disease. PMID:8903168

  6. Laser treatment of oral mucosa tattoo.

    PubMed

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

    2011-12-01

    The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

  7. Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

    2011-01-01

    The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

  8. Endoscopic Diagnosis of Duodenal Stenosis in a 5-Month-Old Male Infant

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Maribeth R.; Acra, Sari A.; Chung, Dai H.

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal stenosis and duodenal atresia are well-known gastrointestinal anomalies in patients with Down syndrome. Although duodenal atresia presents early and classically with vomiting in the immediate neonatal period, the presentation of duodenal stenosis can be significantly more subtle and the diagnosis delayed. Here, we describe the case of a 5-month-old male infant with Down syndrome and delayed presentation of high-grade duodenal stenosis diagnosed endoscopically. Pediatric gastroenterologists should include duodenal stenosis in the differential diagnosis of older infants and children with vomiting and should be familiar with the endoscopic appearance of this lesion. PMID:25505725

  9. Duodenal gastrinomas, duodenotomy, and duodenal exploration in the surgical management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman W. Thompson; Janice Pasieka; Atsushi Fukuuchi

    1993-01-01

    Studies have shown that the duodenum is a more common site (30–40%) of primary gastrinomas than previously reported. These tumors are often occult to conventional exploration, and their detection requires duodenotomy and meticulous evaluation of the mucosa by eversion and direct palpation. Furthermore, tumors as small as 1 to 2 mm may be associated with lymph node metastases. Seven patients

  10. Diagnosis and management of duodenal injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Shilyansky, J; Pearl, R H; Kreller, M; Sena, L M; Babyn, P S

    1997-06-01

    Traumatic duodenal perforations in children pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. To identify specific diagnostic criteria and define an optimal therapeutic protocol, we reviewed all duodenal injuries treated at our institution in the past 10 years. There were 14 hematomas and 13 perforations. The diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography (CT), ultrasound scan (US), upper gastrointestinal contrast studies (UGI), or at laparotomy. The clinical findings and CT findings of the two groups were compared. Children with suspected duodenal hematomas were treated expectantly, and children with duodenal perforations were treated surgically. Twenty-five associated injuries (10 pancreatic) occurred in 19 children. Children with perforations had higher injury severity scores (ISS) (25 v 9), but the two groups could not be differentiated based on presenting signs, symptoms, or laboratory findings. CT findings of retroperitoneal air or contrast were seen in 9 of 9 perforations and in 0 of 10 hematomas. CT findings of intraabdominal or retroperitoneal fluid, mesenteric enhancement, and thickened duodenal wall did not differentiate the two groups. Duodenojejunostomy was performed in one patient, and primary repair was performed in 11 children who had perforation. In five children, duodenostomy tube drainage with feeding jejunostomy or gastrojejunostomy were added. Complications occurred in three of four children in the first 5 years of the study and in two of nine children in the last 5 years. The decreased morbidity rate correlated with reduced time to definitive therapy (28 v 7.8 hours). Duodenal fistulae resulted in three of seven children treated without duodenostomy tube drainage and zero of five treated with drainage. Enteral feeds resumed faster (average, 12 v 27 days) if repair of perforation was combined with feeding jejunostomy or pyloric exclusion and gastrojejunostomy. Children with duodenal hematoma resumed eating an average of 16 days after injury. Only one child required surgery for persistent obstruction. The findings of retroperitoneal air and contrast extravasation on CT accurately distinguish duodenal perforation from hematoma. Conservative management of hematoma is safe and effective. Primary repair of perforation with duodenal drainage results in fewer postoperative complications, and gastrojejunostomy or feeding jejunostomy shorten the time to resumption of feeds. PMID:9200092

  11. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jung Suk, E-mail: oj-cumc@daum.net; Lee, Hae Giu, E-mail: hgleehfh@catholic.ac.kr; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil [Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai [Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Ohm, Joon Young [Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

  12. Surface studies of duodenal lesions induced by thoracic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, K.E.; Ellis, S.; Michalowski, A.

    1986-01-01

    Acute duodenal ulcers are produced in mice as a remote (abscopal) effect of irradiation to the lower mediastinum. Such lesions have been examined with scanning electron microscopy at 5, 8 and 28 days after irradiation with 18 Gy of X-rays. All the ulcers occur within the first 1 cm long segment of the duodenum which is endowed with Brunner's glands. The single lesions vary in size, shape and position. The damaged area often includes much of the duodenal circumference and is distinguished by conical or rudimentary villi, or even by the complete absence of villi. In contrast, around the periphery of the ulcer the villi are mostly vertical. Although the floor of these lesions appears to be covered with a continuous epithelial layer, during the first 4 weeks after irradiation the severity of the focal duodenal damage seems to increase gradually with time. The lesions have been compared with specimens from unirradiated mice and also with samples taken 3 days after partial thoracic irradiation when little damage is seen. The pattern of fully developed duodenal lesions differs greatly from that seen after direct irradiation where damage has not included localised ulceration in the samples of jejunum so far examined. The lesions induced by partial thoracic irradiation may be related to radiation injury to vascular or autonomic nerve targets in the lower mediastinum. Such injury could result in malfunction of the pyloric sphincter or could alter the secretion by Brunner's glands and thus lead to duodenal ulceration.

  13. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  14. Relationship between LINE-1 hypomethylation and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric mucosae.

    PubMed

    Kosumi, Keisuke; Baba, Yoshifumi; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Harada, Kazuto; Miyake, Keisuke; Izumi, Daisuke; Tokunaga, Ryuma; Murata, Asuka; Eto, Kojiro; Sugihara, Hidetaka; Shigaki, Hironobu; Iwagami, Shiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro; Baba, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The DNA methylation alterations occurring in human cancers have two types: global DNA hypomethylation and site-specific CpG island promoter hypermethylation. Recently, to assess global DNA methylation, long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons, constituting a substantial portion of the human genome, attracts much attention. The aim of the current study was to clarify the significance of LINE-1 methylation level for epigenetic field defects and the relationships among LINE-1 methylation level in gastric mucosae, clinical and pathological features, including infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacterium implicated in gastric cancer. By bisulfite-PCR pyrosequencing, we quantified the LINE-1 methylation levels in noncancerous gastric mucosae and cancer tissues from 87 gastric cancer patients, in gastric mucosae from 17 autopsied individuals without gastric cancers and in 20 gastric fresh frozen samples from non-gastric cancer patients. LINE-1 methylation in the noncancerous gastric mucosae of gastric cancer patients was significantly higher than in cancer tissues (P = 0.0006), but significantly lower than in the gastric mucosae of the autopsied individuals (P = 0.026), suggesting the formation of epigenetic field defect in noncancerous gastric mucosae. Moreover, LINE-1 hypomethylation of noncancerous gastric mucosae in gastric cancer patients significantly correlated with H. pylori infection (P = 0.037). We prospectively confirmed the similar result in 20 non-gastric cancer patients (P = 0.010). LINE-1 hypomethylation of gastric mucosae significantly correlated with H. pylori infection, supporting the potential of LINE-1 methylation level as a surrogate marker of epigenetic field defects for gastric cancer cancerization, particularly induced by H. pylori. PMID:25782871

  15. Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective effects of proglumide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, M.; Parmar, N.S.; Ageel, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Proglumide has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect the gastroduodenal mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, cysteamine and the cytodestructing agents: 80% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and 30 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in 0.35 M HCl in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that proglumide has both prophylactic and curative effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rats and reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, mucosal damaging agents and that of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The intensity of gastric lesions induced by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and reserpine was also reduced significantly by proglumide. Cimetidine, which was used as a standard antiulcer drug for comparison, also produced a similar protective effect in most of the models used by us. It was found to have a more potent antisecretory effect but failed to protect the rats against the gastric mucosal damage induced by hyperthermic restraint stress and 0.2 M NaOH. Our findings suggest that proglumide exerts these antiulcer effects by its antisecretory, gastric mucosal resistance increasing and cytoprotective activities. Further studies are required to find out its exact mechanism of action and therapeutic usefulness.

  16. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-08-28

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence, a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities. PMID:25170399

  17. Serum gastrin and the family environment in duodenal ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Wolcott, D L; Wellisch, D K; Robertson, C R; Arthur, R J

    1981-12-01

    The study investigated the relationships between specific demographic, psychosocial, and physiological variables and the severity of duodenal ulcer disease in a population of patients with proved duodenal ulcer. Intercorrelations between psychosocial and physiological variables were also studied. The study design was cross sectional and retrospectively assessed life change units and DUD severity during the previous 6 months in 39 male ulcer clinic outpatients. Anxiety, depression, life change units, the family environment, ABO blood type, secretor status, serum pepsinogen, and serum fasting gastrin were evaluated. A DUD severity score was calculated from self-reported ulcer pain symptoms and ulcer complications. Gastrin levels correlated significantly with three Family Environment Scale (FES) subscales, including: (a) independence, (b) achievement orientation, and (c) expressiveness. Duodenal ulcer disease severity scores correlated with Zung SDS scores, but not with state or trait anxiety, life change units, or the FES. PMID:6976585

  18. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence, a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities. PMID:25170399

  19. Diagnosis and management of duodenal adenocarcinomas: a comprehensive review for the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chong Hyun; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Shinagare, Atul B; Kim, Kyung Won; Rosenthal, Michael H; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Baheti, Akshay D

    2014-11-27

    Duodenal adenocarcinomas are the most common duodenal tumors, and represent 15-25% of small bowel carcinomas. Their management differs from other small bowel tumors, with imaging playing a very important role. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the diagnosis and management of duodenal adenocarcinomas, emphasizing the role of the radiologist in the same. PMID:25427987

  20. Effect of antisecretory agents and vagotomy on healing of chronic cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, S.S.; Raaberg, L.; Therkelsen, K.; Skov Olsen, P.; Kirkegaard, P.

    1986-07-01

    Penetrated cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats have a very prolonged course of healing. In this study, it was investigated how much the healing of these ulcers is accelerated by some treatments. The treatments included omeprazole, cimetidine, and truncal vagotomy. In addition, the effect of omeprazole and cimetidine on gastric acid secretion was investigated in chronic gastric fistula rats. After 25 days of treatment, significantly more rats in the treated groups had healed ulcers than in the control group. There was little further improvement up to 100 days of treatment, and the difference between treated and untreated groups decreased. The morphology of healing ulcers in treated and untreated rats was also compared. In controls, there was a simultaneous regeneration of mucosa and the submucosal Brunner's glands from the edges of the ulcer, the slow proliferation rate of the latter probably being decisive for the prolonged healing. In the treated rats, the mucosa first regenerated with formation of crypts and low villi and subsequently, the Brunner's glands were formed by proliferation from the bottom of the crypts.

  1. Duodenal adenocarcinoma presenting as a mass with aneurismal dilatation.

    PubMed

    Mama, Nadia; Ben Slama, Aïda; Arifa, Nadia; Kadri, Khaled; Sriha, Badreddine; Ksiaa, Mehdi; Jemni, Hela; Tlili-Graiess, Kalthoum

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal adenocarcinoma is frequent. Aneurysmal dilatation of the small bowel is reported to be a lymphoma characteristic imaging finding. A 57-year-old male was found to have a duodenal adenocarcinoma with aneurismal dilatation on imaging which is an exceptional feature. On laparotomy, the wall thickening of the dilated duodenum extended to the first jejunal loop, with multiple mesenteric lymph nodes and ascites. Segmental palliative resection with gastro-entero-anastomosis was done. Histopathology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with neuro-endocrine differentiation foci. Wide areas of necrosis and vascular emboli were responsible for the radiological feature of the dilated duodenum with wall thickening. PMID:24411203

  2. Effect of glyprolines PGP, GP, and PG on homeostasis of gastric mucosa in rats with experimental ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Falalyeyeva, T M; Samonina, G E; Beregovaya, T V; Andreeva, L A; Dvorshchenko, E A

    2010-11-01

    The decrease in the severity of erosions and ulcer lesions after preventive treatment with PGP or PG correlated with a decrease in the content of lipid peroxidation products to a control level. Activities of SOD and catalase also returned to control values. GP produced the weakest effect on pro- and antioxidant state of the gastric mucosa. We concluded that the pronounced preventive effect of PGP and PG on the development of ethanol-induced erosions and ulcer lesions is largely determined by their antioxidant properties. Glyprolines can be considered as a promising means for prevention and treatment of stomach and duodenal ulcers. PMID:21165422

  3. Evaluation of Microbial Load in Oropharyngeal Mucosa from Tannery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Arévalo, Diana C.; Castellanos-Arévalo, Andrea P.; Camarena-Pozos, David A.; Colli-Mull, Juan G.; Maldonado-Vega, María

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal skin provides an ideal medium for the propagation of microorganisms and it is used like raw material in the tannery and footware industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the microbial load in oropharyngeal mucosa of tannery employees. Methods The health risk was estimated based on the identification of microorganisms found in the oropharyngeal mucosa samples. The study was conducted in a tanners group and a control group. Samples were taken from oropharyngeal mucosa and inoculated on plates with selective medium. In the samples, bacteria were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and the yeasts through a presumptive method. In addition, the sensitivity of these microorganisms to antibiotics/antifungals was evaluated. Results The identified bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, of which some species are considered as pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms; these bacteria were not present in the control group. Forty-two percent of bacteria identified in the tanners group are correlated with respiratory diseases. Yeasts were also identified, including the following species: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Candida krusei. Regarding the sensitivity test of bacteria identified in the tanners group, 90% showed sensitivity to piperacillin/tazobactam, 87% showed sensitivity to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 74% showed sensitivity to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 58% showed sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion Several of the bacteria and yeast identified in the oropharyngeal mucosa of tanners have been correlated with infections in humans and have already been reported as airborne microorganisms in this working environment, representing a health risk for workers.

  4. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an ?-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with ?-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  5. Increased density of tolerogenic dendritic cells in the small bowel mucosa of celiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Vorobjova, Tamara; Uibo, Oivi; Heilman, Kaire; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the densities of dendritic cells (DCs) and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their interrelations in the small bowel mucosa in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Seventy-four patients (45 female, 29 male, mean age 11.1 ± 6.8 years) who underwent small bowel biopsy were studied. CD without T1D was diagnosed in 18 patients, and CD with T1D was diagnosed in 15 patients. Normal small bowel mucosa was found in two T1D patients. Thirty-nine patients (mean age 12.8 ± 4.9 years) with other diagnoses (functional dyspepsia, duodenal ulcer, erosive gastritis, etc.) formed the control group. All CD patients had partial or subtotal villous atrophy according to the Marsh classification: Marsh grade IIIa in 9, grade IIIb in 21 and grade IIIc in 3 cases. Thirty-nine patients without CD and 2 with T1D had normal small bowel mucosa (Marsh grade 0). The densities of CD11c+, IDO+, CD103+, Langerin (CD207+) DCs and FOXP3+ Tregs were investigated by immunohistochemistry (on paraffin-embedded specimens) and immunofluorescence (on cryostat sections) methods using a combination of mono- and double-staining. Sixty-six serum samples were tested for IgA-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) using a fully automated EliA™ Celikey® IgA assay (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Freiburg, Germany). RESULTS: The density of CD11c+ DCs was significantly increased in CD patients compared with patients with normal mucosa (21.67 ± 2.49 vs 13.58 ± 1.51, P = 0.007). The numbers of FOXP3+ cells were significantly higher in CD patients (10.66 ± 1.50 vs 1.92 ± 0.37, P = 0.0002) and in patients with CD and coexisting T1D (8.11 ± 1.64 vs 1.92 ± 0.37, P = 0.002) compared with patients with normal mucosa. The density of FOXP3+ cells significantly correlated with the histological grade of atrophic changes in the small bowel mucosa according to the March classification (r = 0.62; P < 0.0001) and with levels of IgA antibody (r = 0.55; P < 0.0001). The densities of IDO+ DCs were significantly higher in CD patients (21.6 ± 2.67 vs 6.26 ± 0.84, P = 0.00003) and in patients with CD and coexisting T1D (19.08 ± 3.61 vs 6.26 ± 0.84, P = 0.004) compared with patients with normal mucosa. A significant correlation was identified between the densities of IDO+ DCs and FOXP3+ T cells (r = 0.76; P = 0.0001). The mean values of CD103+ DCs were significantly higher in CD patients (10.66 ± 1.53 vs 6.34 ± 0.61, P = 0.01) and in patients with CD and associated T1D (11.13 ± 0.72 vs 6.34 ± 0.61, P = 0.00002) compared with subjects with normal small bowel mucosa. The mean value of Langerin+ DCs was higher in CD patients compared with persons with normal mucosa (7.4 ± 0.92 vs 5.64 ± 0.46, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The participation of diverse DC subsets in the pathological processes of CD and the possible involvement of tolerogenic DCs in Tregs development to maintain intestinal immunological tolerance in CD patients are revealed. PMID:25593459

  6. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.

    PubMed

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Álvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

    2014-08-18

    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. PMID:24813111

  7. DUODENAL CYTOCHROME B: A NOVEL FERRIREDUCTASE IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytically active iron in the lung causes oxidative stress and promotes microbial growth that can be limited by intracellular sequestration of iron within ferritin. Because cellular iron uptake requires membrane ferrireductase activity that in the gut can be provided by duoden...

  8. [Duodenal duplication revealed by acute pancreatitis: endoscopic treatment].

    PubMed

    Le Baleur, Yann; Dhalluin-Venier, Valérie; Thirot-Bidault, Anne; Rangheard, Anne-Sophie; Boytchev, Isabelle; Choury, André-Daniel; Fritsch, Jacques; Pelletier, Gilles; Buffet, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a 17 year old man who presented with several episodes of acute pancreatitis due to a duodenal duplication. This was successfully treated by an incision by sphincterotome during interventional duodenoscopy. The patient is symptom free without recurrence 20 months after endoscopic treatment. PMID:17925766

  9. Duodenal cryptococcus infection in an AIDS patient: retrospective clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiamin; Wang, Ningfang; Hong, Qunying; Bai, Chunxue; Hu, Bijie; Tan, Yunshan

    2015-03-01

    Cryptococcal infection primarily affects the lung or the central nervous system and rare cases have been reported involving the gastrointestinal tract. However, among patients with HIV/AIDS, the gastrointestinal involvement is increasing. According to the PubMed search results, there were seven cases reported involving duodenal cryptococcosis combined with AIDS in five reports. Here, we report the case of a patient found to have AIDS combined with duodenal, pulmonary, and subsequent neurological cryptococcal infection simultaneously. The duodenal cryptococcosis was diagnosed on the basis of PET/computed tomography, which showed intense captation of glucose metabolism in duodenum (maximum standardized uptake value 16.53); a positive serum cryptococcal latex agglutination test; and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy-guided duodenal biopsy that confirmed Cryptococcus neoformans yeast. The patient's HIV screen test was positive. Because of refusal of lumbar puncture and the difficulty of performing transbronchial lung biopsy, the pulmonary and neurological involvements were the only clinical diagnoses. This case indicates that when cryptococcosis exists in a rare location, AIDS should be considered and when cryptococcosis occurs in the HIV-infected patient, disseminated disease is more common. PMID:25629567

  10. Review article Estimation of the duodenal flow of microbial nitrogen

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Estimation of the duodenal flow of microbial nitrogen in ruminants based kilogram of dry matter (DM) intake, which is the yield of microbial protein (YMP). The estimation was based,isapoorindicationfortheduodenalflowofmicrobialN(g·kg­1 DMintake)inruminants fed diets with forages only. rumen / microbial nitrogen / legumes / grasses

  11. Duodenal Perforation with an Unusual Presentation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Parray, Fazl Q.; Showkat, Hakim Irfan; Lone, Yasir A.; Bhat, Naseer A.

    2011-01-01

    A young female presented with classical complaints suggestive of peptic ulcer disease leading to signs of peritonitis. The said patient after being subjected to baseline workup was subjected to laparotomy which proved to be a surgical surprise. A live ascaris lumbricoides worm was seen pouting out of a duodenal perforation. PMID:22567473

  12. Duodenal perforation caused by an inferior vena cava filter.

    PubMed

    Bae, Mi Ju; Chung, Sung Woon; Lee, Chung Won; Kim, Sangpil; Song, Seunghwan

    2012-02-01

    The inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is known as an effective and safe method for preventing fatal pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with deep vein thrombosis. Usually, the remaining IVC filters are asymptomatic and do not cause clinical problems. We report a case of duodenal perforation caused by a remaining IVC filter. PMID:22363914

  13. Duodenal Adenocarcinoma: Clinicopathologic Analysis and Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Poultsides, George A.; Huang, Lyen C.; Cameron, John L.; Tuli, Richard; Lan, Leslie; Hruban, Ralph H.; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Herman, Joseph M.; Edil, Barish H.; Ahuja, Nita; Choti, Michael A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Schulick, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare cancer usually studied as a group with periampullary or small bowel adenocarcinoma; therefore, its natural history is poorly understood. Methods Patients with duodenal adenocarcinoma were identified from a single-institution pancreaticoduodenectomy database. Patients with adenocarcinoma arising from the ampulla of Vater were excluded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify clinicopathologic variables associated with survival and recurrence after resection. Results From 1984 to 2006, a total of 122 patients with duodenal adenocarcinoma underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Overall survival after resection was 48% at 5 years and 41% at 10 years. Five-year survival decreased as the number of lymph nodes involved by metastasis increased from 0 to 1–3 to ?4 (68%, 58%, 17%, respectively, P < 0.01) and as the lymph node ratio increased from 0 to >0–0.2 to >0.2–0.4 to >0.4 (68%, 57%, 14%, 14%, respectively, P < 0.01). Lymph node metastasis was the only independent predictor of decreased survival in multivariate analysis. Recurrence after resection was predominantly distant (81%). Adjuvant chemoradiation did not decrease local recurrence or prolong overall survival; however, patients who received chemoradiation more commonly had nodal metastasis (P = 0.03). Conclusions The prognostic significance of both the absolute number and ratio of involved lymph nodes emphasizes the need for adequate lymphadenectomy to accurately stage duodenal adenocarcinoma. The mostly distant pattern of recurrence underscores the need for the development of effective systemic therapies. PMID:22167476

  14. Adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Arichika; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Mizutani, Satoshi; Ishii, Hideaki; Watanabe, Masanori; Bou, Hideki; Yoshino, Masanori; Komine, Osamu; Uchida, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of adenocarcinoma of the minor papilla of the duodenum treated with transduodenal minor papillectomy. A 64-year-old woman was treated for an asymptomatic duodenal tumor detected on gastroduodenoscopy. Endoscopy showed a 15-mm sessile mass in the descending duodenum proximal to the major papilla. The major papilla was a villous 24-mm-diameter polypoid tumor. Histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen showed tubular adenoma with moderate epithelial atypia. Transduodenal major and minor papillectomies were performed. The orifice of the duct of Santorini and the pancreatic duct were re-approximated to the duodenal wall to prevent acute pancreatitis caused by scarring and stenosis of the duct orifice. Histological findings were consistent with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma limited to the minor duodenal papilla, without infiltration of the duodenal wall submucosa, and confirmed complete resection. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and has remained asymptomatic, without evidence of tumor recurrence or stenosis of the pancreatic duct orifice, for 4 years. PMID:23657071

  15. Duodenal Toxicity After Fractionated Chemoradiation for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Beddar, Sam; Briere, Tina; Pham, Mary; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H., E-mail: ccrane@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Improving local control is critical to improving survival and quality of life for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, previous attempts at radiation dose escalation have been limited by duodenal toxicity. In order to guide future studies, we analyzed the clinical and dosimetric factors associated with duodenal toxicity in patients undergoing fractionated chemoradiation for LAPC. Methods and Materials: Medical records and treatment plans of 106 patients with LAPC who were treated with chemoradiation between July 2005 and June 2010 at our institution were reviewed. All patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy. Seventy-eight patients were treated with conventional radiation to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions; 28 patients received dose-escalated radiation therapy (range, 57.5-75.4 Gy in 28-39 fractions). Treatment-related toxicity was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess prognostic influence of clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results: Twenty patients had treatment-related duodenal toxicity events, such as duodenal inflammation, ulceration, and bleeding. Four patients had grade 1 events, 8 had grade 2, 6 had grade 3, 1 had grade 4, and 1 had grade 5. On univariate analysis, a toxicity grade ?2 was associated with tumor location, low platelet count, an absolute volume (cm{sup 3}) receiving a dose of at least 55 Gy (V{sub 55} {sub Gy} > 1 cm{sup 3}), and a maximum point dose >60 Gy. Of these factors, only V{sub 55} {sub Gy} ?1 cm{sup 3} was associated with duodenal toxicity on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 6.7; range, 2.0-18.8; P=.002). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a duodenal V{sub 55} {sub Gy} >1 cm{sup 3} is an important dosimetric predictor of grade 2 or greater duodenal toxicity and establishes it as a dosimetric constraint when treating patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer with concurrent chemoradiation.

  16. Identification of a Selective Inhibitor of Murine Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (ML260) by Concurrent Ultra-High Throughput Screening against Human and Mouse Isozymes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brock; Ganji, Santhi; Zou, Jiwen; Pass, Ian; Narisawa, Sonoko; Iano, Flávia Godoy; Rosenstein, Craig; Cheltsov, Anton; Rascon, Justin; Hedrick, Michael; Gasior, Carlton; Forster, Anita; Shi, Shenghua; Dahl, Russell; Vasile, Stefan; Su, Ying; Sergienko, Eduard; Chung, Thomas D.Y.; Kaunitz, Jonathan; Hoylaerts, Marc F.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Millán, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes are present in a wide range of species from bacteria to man and are capable of dephosphorylation and transphosphorylation of a wide spectrum of substrates in vitro. In humans, four AP isozymes have been identified—one tissue-nonspecific (TNAP) and three tissue-specific—named according to the tissue of their predominant expression: intestinal (IAP), placental (PLAP) and germ cell (GCAP) APs. Modulation of activity of the different AP isozymes may have therapeutic implications in distinct diseases and cellular processes. For instance, changes in the level of IAP activity can affect gut mucosa tolerance to microbial invasion due to the ability of IAP to detoxify bacterial endotoxins, alter the absorption of fatty acids and affect ectopurinergic regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion. To identify isozyme selective modulators of the human and mouse IAPs, we developed a series of murine duodenal IAP (Akp3-encoded dIAP isozyme), human IAP (hIAP), PLAP, and TNAP assays. High throughput screening and subsequent SAR efforts generated a potent inhibitor of dIAP, ML260, with specificity for the Akp3-, compared to the Akp5- and Akp6-encoded mouse isozymes. PMID:24412070

  17. Major duodenal injuries in children: diagnosis, operative management, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, W J; Brandt, M L; Harberg, F J

    1986-07-01

    The diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of ten children less than 13 years old operated on for major duodenal injuries is reviewed. Three had gun shot wounds with perforation and seven had blunt trauma resulting in duodenal disruption. Of those with blunt trauma, three had massive injuries requiring immediate operation, and four had what appeared to be lesser injuries. The symptoms of those children with lesser injuries were initially vague and delayed in onset, resulting in a delay of 24 hours to 7 days from time of injury to admission. At the time of admission, all four had tenderness localized to the right lower quadrant and an unclear preoperative diagnosis. Eight had associated injuries, most commonly to the pancreas. The single death occurred within 48 hours of injury and was the result of an associated head injury. The surviving nine patients left the hospital between the 11th and 22nd postoperative day doing well. One patient with a transected pancreas and extensive duodenal injury underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy with a Whipple type reconstruction. Two patients with an extensive blowout injury to the duodenum and one with a crush injury to the pancreas underwent a pyloric exclusion and gastrojejunostomy. These patients did well with no fistula formation. The remaining seven children underwent debridement and primary closure of the duodenal injury. Four developed fistulae; however, two were pancreatic, one was jejunal, and only one was duodenal. All drained less than 250 mL per 24 hours and all except the jejunal fistula were closed by the 17th postoperative day. All were supported nutritionally either intravenously or more recently with a jejunal catheter placed at operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3525803

  18. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  19. [Acute duodenal obstruction due to incomplete duodenal diaphragm and foreign bodies in a two-year old child (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Jiménez, J I; Gualda Cantón, J; Sánchez, E B

    1977-03-01

    A case of congenital incomplete duodenal diaphragm associated to foreign bodies, in a 28 months child with Down's syndrom is reported. This case had an acute beginning of the symptoms and a severe clinical picture. We discuss the clinical features diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. PMID:145197

  20. Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells: A Novel Cell Source for Oral Mucosa and Skin Epithelia Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Garzón, Ingrid; Miyake, Juliano; González-Andrades, Miguel; Carmona, Ramón; Carda, Carmen; Sánchez-Quevedo, María del Carmen; Campos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal stem cells such as human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (HWJSCs) are excellent candidates for tissue engineering because of their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. However, their differentiation potential into epithelial cells at in vitro and in vivo levels has not yet been reported. In this work we have studied the capability of HWJSCs to differentiate in vitro and in vivo to oral mucosa and skin epithelial cells using a bioactive three-dimensional model that mimics the native epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. To achieve this, primary cell cultures of HWJSCs, oral mucosa, and skin fibroblasts were obtained in order to generate a three-dimensional heterotypical model of artificial oral mucosa and skin based on fibrin-agarose biomaterials. Our results showed that the cells were unable to fully differentiate to epithelial cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo grafting of the bioactive three-dimensional models demonstrated that HWJSCs were able to stratify and to express typical markers of epithelial differentiation, such as cytokeratins 1, 4, 8, and 13, plakoglobin, filaggrin, and involucrin, showing specific surface patterns. Electron microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of epithelial cell-like layers and well-formed cell-cell junctions. These results suggest that HWJSCs have the potential to differentiate to oral mucosa and skin epithelial cells in vivo and could be an appropriate novel cell source for the development of human oral mucosa and skin in tissue engineering protocols. PMID:23817131

  1. Human intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 expression is associated with fat intake and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Auinger, Annegret; Helwig, Ulf; Rubin, Diana; Herrmann, Julia; Jahreis, Gerhard; Pfeuffer, Maria; de Vrese, Michael; Foelsch, Ulrich Robert; Schreiber, Stefan; Doering, Frank; Schrezenmeir, Juergen

    2010-08-01

    The intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) is involved in lipid metabolism whereby variations in the promoter (haplotypes A/B) and exon 2 (Ala54Thr) are associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To elucidate which factors determine FABP2 expression in human mucosa, we investigated the association between fat intake, genotypes, biochemical variables, and FABP2 expression. FABP2 gene expression was assessed in duodenal specimens from 100 participants who answered a FFQ and who were genotyped and characterized for traits of metabolic syndrome and further biochemical data. Homozygotes for haplotype A tended to have lower fat intake than B-allele carriers (P = 0.066). Searching for an explanation, we evaluated the orexigenic glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in a subset from the Metabolic Intervention Cohort Kiel. AA homozygotes had lower postprandial GIP concentrations than BB homozygotes. Duodenal FABP2 expression was correlated with (n-3) fatty acid (FA) intake in AA homozygotes (r = 0.49; P = 0.021). It was higher in AA homozygotes than in B-allele carriers after adjustment for (n-3) FA intake (P = 0.049) and was negatively correlated with serum FFA (r = -0.41; P < 0.01). Our data indicate that FABP2 expression depends on (n-3) FA intake and FABP2 genotypes. FABP2 might be involved in regulating food intake and intestinal FA utilization. PMID:20534879

  2. Breast Cancer-Associated pS2 Protein: Synthesis and Secretion by Normal Stomach Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Rio; J. P. Bellocq; J. Y. Daniel; C. Tomasetto; R. Lathe; M. P. Chenard; A. Batzenschlager; P. Chambon

    1988-01-01

    The human pS2 gene is specifically expressed under estrogen transcriptional control in a subclass of estrogen receptor-containing human breast cancer cells. The pS2 gene encodes an 84-amino acid protein that is secreted after signal peptide cleavage. The distribution of pS2 protein in normal human tissues was studied with antibodies to pS2; pS2 was specifically expressed and secreted by mucosa cells

  3. Lignans from leaves of Rollinia mucosa.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; Alvarez, Ana Laura; López-Rubalcava, Carolina; Rocha, Luisa; Heinze, Gerardo; Moreno, Julia; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    A new furofuranic lignan named (+)-epimembrine together with known (+)-epieudesmine and (+)-epimagnoline were isolated from leaves of R. mucosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data. Palmitone and a mixture of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol were also isolated. PMID:11926539

  4. Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Papazian; A Braillon; J L Dupas; F Sevenet; J P Capron

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100

  5. New spiral bacterium in gastric mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C A McNulty; J C Dent; A Curry; J S Uff; G A Ford; M W Gear; S P Wilkinson

    1989-01-01

    A new spiral bacterium, distinct from Campylobacter pylori, was found in the gastric mucosa of six patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. All patients had chronic active type B gastritis and four had oesophagitis. Culture and microscopy for C pylori infection was negative. These unculturable spiral organisms were probably an incidental finding in patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but it is

  6. L-Glutamate Supplementation Improves Small Intestinal Architecture and Enhances the Expressions of Jejunal Mucosa Amino Acid Receptors and Transporters in Weaning Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng; Zhang, Bolin; Yu, Changning; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Hui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2014-01-01

    L-Glutamate is a major oxidative fuel for the small intestine. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of L-glutamate on the intestinal architecture and signaling of amino acids in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary L-glutamate supplementation on the intestinal architecture and expressions of jejunal mucosa amino acid receptors and transporters in weaning piglets. A total of 120 weaning piglets aged 35±1 days with an average body weight at 8.91±0.45 kg were randomly allocated to two treatments with six replicates of ten piglets each, fed with diets containing 1.21% alanine, or 2% L-glutamate. L-Glutamate supplementation increased the activity of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) in the jejunal mucosa. Also, the mRNA expression level of jejunal mucosa glutamine synthetase (GS) was increased by L-glutamate supplementation. The height of villi in duodenal and jejunal segments, and the relative mRNA expression of occludin and zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) in jejunal mucosa were increased by dietary L-glutamate supplementation. L-Glutamate supplementation increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and threonine. L-Glutamate supplementation also increased the relative mRNA expression of the jejunal mucosa Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR), metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4), and neutral amino acid transporter B0-like (SLC1A5) in the jejunal mucosa. These findings suggest that dietary addition of 2% L-glutamate improves the intestinal integrity and influences the expression of amino acid receptors and transporters in the jejunum of weaning, which is beneficial for the improvement of jejunal nutrients for digestion and absorption. PMID:25368996

  7. Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: The mechanisms and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    This review updates the current views on aging gastric mucosa and the mechanisms of its increased susceptibility to injury. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that gastric mucosa of aging individuals-“aging gastropathy”-has prominent structural and functional abnormalities vs young gastric mucosa. Some of these abnormalities include a partial atrophy of gastric glands, impaired mucosal defense (reduced bicarbonate and prostaglandin generation, decreased sensory innervation), increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), impaired healing of injury and reduced therapeutic efficacy of ulcer-healing drugs. Detailed analysis of the above changes indicates that the following events occur in aging gastric mucosa: reduced mucosal blood flow and impaired oxygen delivery cause hypoxia, which leads to activation of the early growth response-1 (egr-1) transcription factor. Activation of egr-1, in turn, upregulates the dual specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) resulting in activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 and reduced expression of the anti-apoptosis protein, survivin. The imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptosis mediators results in increased apoptosis and increased susceptibility to injury. This paradigm has human relevance since increased expression of PTEN and reduced expression of survivin were demonstrated in gastric mucosa of aging individuals. Other potential mechanisms operating in aging gastric mucosa include reduced telomerase activity, increase in replicative cellular senescence, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and importin-?-a nuclear transport protein essential for transport of transcription factors to nucleus. Aging gastropathy is an important and clinically relevant issue because of: (1) an aging world population due to prolonged life span; (2) older patients have much greater risk of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastrointestinal complications (e.g., NSAIDs-induced gastric injury) than younger patients; and (3) increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury can be potentially reduced or reversed pharmacologically. PMID:24782600

  8. In Situ Characterization of Inflammatory Responses in the Rectal Mucosae of Patients with Shigellosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DILARA ISLAM; BELA VERESS; PRADIP KUMAR BARDHAN; ALF A. LINDBERG; ANDBIRGER CHRISTENSSON

    1997-01-01

    Shigella species cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa leading to colonic epithelial cell destruction and inflammation. For further analysis of local gut inflammation, morphological changes and the potential involvement of mediators in regulatory mechanisms of cell activation and cell proliferation were studied immunohistochemically in rectal mucosal biopsies taken from patients during the acute

  9. Intraoral grafting of an ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent: a preliminary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Izumi; S. E Feinberg; A Iida; M Yoshizawa

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of an ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent (EVPOME) for intraoral grafting procedures. Autogenous keratinocytes were harvested from a punch biopsy 4 weeks prior to surgery, placed in a serum-free culture system and seeded onto a human cadaveric dermal equivalent, AlloDerm®. Thirty patients with either a premalignant

  10. Role of anaerobic bacteria in the metabolic welfare of the colonic mucosa in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W E Roediger

    1980-01-01

    Suspensions of isolated epithelial cells (colonocytes) from the human colon were used to assess utilisation of respiratory fuels which are normally available to the colonic mucosa in vivo. Cells were prepared from operative specimens of the ascending colon (seven) and descending colon (seven). The fuels that were used were the short chain fatty acid n-butyrate, produced only by anaerobic bacteria

  11. Adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla and its precursor lesions: a clinical and pathologic study.

    PubMed

    Shia, Jinru; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Olgac, Semra; Cobanov, Brando; Adsay, Volkan; Klimstra, David S

    2014-04-01

    The minor duodenal papilla drains the accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini and lies proximal to the ampulla of Vater. Adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions arising in the minor papilla are rare. Literature data thus far are limited to a few individual case reports, and the condition is consequently poorly defined. Our study cases were composed of carcinomas fulfilling all of the following criteria: location at 1.5 to 2.5 cm proximal to the major papilla; presence of associated submucosal pancreatobiliary-type ducts with periductal glands or acinar tissue; a predominant submucosal location of the tumor; and lack of an intestinal-type adenoma in the adjacent duodenal mucosa. Tumors were studied morphologically, immunohistochemically, and clinically. Nine cases fulfilling the inclusion criteria were identified. There were 5 men and 4 women with an age range of 50 to 76 years (median, 72 y). The tumor size ranged from 1.2 to 4.4 cm (median, 3 cm). The carcinomas were of colloid type (3 tumors), pancreatobiliary type (4), or nonmucinous intestinal type (2). Five cases were associated with an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)-like precursor lesion within the residual structures of the minor papilla in the duodenal submucosa. Immunohistochemically, the intestinal-type and mucinous-type tumors tended to be positive for CK20, CDX2, MUC2, and B72.3, and pancreatobiliary-type tumors tended to be positive for CK7, MUC1, B72.3, and CA125. Loss of DPC4 (Smad4) expression was found in the pancreatobiliary-type carcinomas only. Two tumors showed loss of DNA mismatch-repair protein expression, one losing MLH1 and PMS2 and the other losing MSH6. Both patients were older than 60 years, and neither had germline mutation testing. Follow-up information was available for 6 patients (median follow-up time, 67.5 mo): 3 of the 6 patients died of disease at 60, 75, and 85 months after surgery, respectively, and all 3 patients had an intestinal-type carcinoma (1 colloid and 2 nonmucinous). The patient whose tumor was MSH6 deficient was alive without evidence of disease 51 months after surgery. In conclusion, adenocarcinomas of the minor papilla are rare tumors occurring predominantly in the sixth to seventh decade. Some of them arise from IPMN-like precursors in the residual submucosal minor papilla tissue. Morphologically, immunohistochemically, and clinically they are similar to ampullary or IPMN-associated pancreatic carcinomas and can exhibit either an intestinal, colloid, or pancreaticobiliary phenotype. DNA mismatch-repair deficiency may occur. A careful gross and histologic examination is essential to accurately recognize the site of origin of minor papilla carcinomas. PMID:24625417

  12. Perforated duodenal diverticulae: importance for the surgeon and gastroenterologist.

    PubMed

    Haboubi, Danya; Thapar, Ankur; Bhan, Chetan; Oshowo, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 78-year-old woman who was admitted for an elective left hemicolectomy for diverticular disease. Two days following the elective procedure, bilious fluid was noted in her pelvic drain. The patient returned to theatre, where a perforated duodenal diverticulum was excised and the defect primarily repaired. The patient then developed a low output enterocutaneous fistula which was treated conservatively with nasojejunal feeding and resolved spontaneously. PMID:25270157

  13. Spontaneous Duodenal Perforation as a Complication of Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forouzan, Arash; Saidi, Hossein; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Khavanin, Ali; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is generally known as a systemic vasculitis that often concerns doctors due to its serious cardiac complications; however, other visceral organs may get involved as well. Surgical manifestations of the intestinal tract in Kawasaki disease are rare. In this report, we describe the case of a 2.5-year-old boy with typical Kawasaki disease who presented with GI bleeding and surgical abdomen. The diagnosis of duodenal perforation was confirmed.

  14. Ulcerative duodenitis with luminal constriction in two horses.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, J J; Ford, T; Palmer, J E

    1990-05-15

    Proximal enteritis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs of disease in 2 Standard-bred yearlings from the same farm. Large volumes of fluid were repeatedly obtained during gastric decompression. The horses did not respond to treatment with IV administered fluids, antimicrobial agents, cimetidine, and metoclopramide. Postmortem findings confirmed severe focal chronic active duodenitis with stricture formation. An etiologic agent was not identified. PMID:2347756

  15. [Factors effecting recurrence of duodenal ulcers after highly selective vagotomy].

    PubMed

    Fibak, J; Onyszkiewicz, A J; S?owi?ski, K; Burchardt, W; Kolasi?ski, J

    Recurrence of duodenal ulcer was diagnosed in 15 patients who underwent highly selective vagotomy before 6-13 years, i.e. in 12.2%. Factors possibly contributing to such a recurrence were analysed. Patients with ulcer recurrence were: 1) non-qualified workers, 2) tobacco smokers, 3) heavy drinkers, 4) users of ulcerogenic medicines, and 5) were involved into conflict situations. PMID:1669456

  16. Glycophenotypic Alterations Induced by Pteridium aquilinum in Mice Gastric Mucosa: Synergistic Effect with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Joana; Magalhães, Ana; Carvalho, Ana S.; Hernandez, Gilberto E.; Papp, Suzanne L.; Head, Steven R.; Michel, Valérie; David, Leonor; Gärtner, Fátima; Touati, Eliette; Reis, Celso A.

    2012-01-01

    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewisx. These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process. PMID:22719879

  17. Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Tyler J.; Kresak, Jesse L.; Gonzalo, David H.; Sarosi, George A.; Behrns, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gangliocytic paraganglioma is a rare tumor that is most commonly located in the duodenum. At presentation, it may be confused with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), but distinguishing between these tumors is critical because the natural history and treatment of these two tumors differs markedly. Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma typically exhibits benign behavior with occasional regional lymph node metastasis and no reports of tumor associated deaths. Recurrence after resection is rare. Presentation of case A 50 year-old male presented with melena and hemoglobin concentration of 4.6 g/dl. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated a submucosal mass in the third portion of the duodenum with no active bleeding. CT scan identified no regional lymphadenopathy or distant metastasis. The tumor was resected through a longitudinal duodenotomy with negative margins. Discussion Endoscopic resection of duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma appears to be safe and effective when tumor may be removed in its entirety by this method. If the tumor is not suspended by a stalk or there is suspicion for regional lymph node disease then surgical management is preferred. Radiation oncologists at high volume centers have endorsed utilization of adjuvant radiotherapy to the postsurgical bed in cases involving lymph node metastasis. Utilization of chemotherapy for management of this disease has not been reported. Conclusion Localized duodenal gangliocytic paragangliomas are best managed by resection with negative margins. In cases in which the tumor is resected with negative margins, it appears to be safe to embark on a course of surveillance and forego adjuvant therapy. PMID:25600615

  18. Splenosis mimicking an extramural duodenal mass: A case report

    PubMed Central

    DENG, YILEI; JIN, YANWEN; LI, FUYU; ZHOU, YONG

    2014-01-01

    Splenosis is a common disease, patients with splenosis are generally asymptomatic and therapy is not indicated. Splenosis is frequently observed in the abdomen and pelvic cavity and may mimic malignancy on imaging, often leading to unnecessary surgical intervention. The current study presents the case of a 55-year-old female patient, with a rare case of duodenal splenosis, who underwent unnecessary laparotomy due to a misdiagnosis of a malignant duodenal stromal tumor. Although splenosis was confirmed by intraoperative tissue biopsy, this mass was resected due to the lack of information with regard to this condition, an increased suspicion of progressive growth of the mass and chronic duodenal compression. The aim of this report is to raise the awareness of this entity in patients post-splenectomy, to avoid unnecessary surgery, particularly with an increased prevalence of patients with previous splenic trauma due to road traffic accidents. Therefore, the possibility of abdominal splenosis must be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with abdominal mass as the main clinical manifestation, where there is a history of splenic trauma or splenectomy and no other systemic symptoms. In the future noninvasive nuclear scintigraphy may serve as a suitable diagnostic approach for splenosis, thereby avoiding unnecessary laparotomies. PMID:25364471

  19. Splenosis mimicking an extramural duodenal mass: A case report.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yilei; Jin, Yanwen; Li, Fuyu; Zhou, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Splenosis is a common disease, patients with splenosis are generally asymptomatic and therapy is not indicated. Splenosis is frequently observed in the abdomen and pelvic cavity and may mimic malignancy on imaging, often leading to unnecessary surgical intervention. The current study presents the case of a 55-year-old female patient, with a rare case of duodenal splenosis, who underwent unnecessary laparotomy due to a misdiagnosis of a malignant duodenal stromal tumor. Although splenosis was confirmed by intraoperative tissue biopsy, this mass was resected due to the lack of information with regard to this condition, an increased suspicion of progressive growth of the mass and chronic duodenal compression. The aim of this report is to raise the awareness of this entity in patients post-splenectomy, to avoid unnecessary surgery, particularly with an increased prevalence of patients with previous splenic trauma due to road traffic accidents. Therefore, the possibility of abdominal splenosis must be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with abdominal mass as the main clinical manifestation, where there is a history of splenic trauma or splenectomy and no other systemic symptoms. In the future noninvasive nuclear scintigraphy may serve as a suitable diagnostic approach for splenosis, thereby avoiding unnecessary laparotomies. PMID:25364471

  20. Treatment for superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kakushima, Naomi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Because of the low prevalence of non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (NADETs), standardized clinical management of sporadic superficial NADETs, including diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, has not yet been established. Retrospective studies have revealed certain endoscopic findings suggestive of malignancy. Duodenal adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and mucosal cancer are candidates for local resection by endoscopic or minimally invasive surgery. The use of endoscopic treatment including endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), for the treatment for superficial NADETs is increasing. EMR requires multiple sessions to achieve complete remission and repetitive endoscopy is needed after resection. ESD provides an excellent complete resection rate, however it remains a challenging method, considering the high risk of intraoperative or delayed perforation. Minimally invasive surgery such as wedge resection and pancreas-sparing duodenectomy are beneficial for superficial NADETs that are technically difficult to remove by endoscopic treatment. Pancreaticoduodenectomy remains a standard surgical procedure for treatment of duodenal cancer with submucosal invasion, which presents a risk of lymph node metastasis. Endoscopic or surgical treatment outcomes of superficial NADETs without submucosal invasion are satisfactory. Establishing an endoscopic diagnostic tool to differentiate superficial NADETs between adenoma and cancer as well as between mucosal and submucosal cancer is required to select the most appropriate treatment. PMID:25253950

  1. Groove pancreatitis and pancreatic heterotopia in the minor duodenal papilla.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Denis; Vibert, Eric; Yzet, Thierry; Geslin, Guillaume; Bartoli, Eric; Manaouil, David; Delcenserie, Richard; Brevet, Marie; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2005-05-01

    Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of segmental chronic pancreatitis that involves the anatomic space between the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, and the common bile duct. We report 2 cases of groove pancreatitis with pancreatic heterotopia in the minor papilla. Patients were a 44-year-old woman and a 47-year-old man. Both had a past history of alcohol consumption and presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and weight loss caused by duodenal stenosis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed thickening of the duodenal wall and enlargement of the pancreatic head in both patients. In 1 patient, ultrasound endoscopy showed a dilated duct in the head of the pancreas. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed to rule out pancreatic adenocarcinoma and because of the severity of the symptoms. In both cases, gross and microscopic examinations showed fibrous scar of the groove area. The Santorini duct was dilated and contained protein plugs in both patients, with abscesses in 1 of them. In both cases, there were microscopic foci of heterotopic pancreas with mild fibrosis in the wall of the minor papilla. Groove pancreatitis is often diagnosed in middle-aged alcoholic men presenting with clinical symptoms caused by duodenal stenosis. The pathogenesis of this rare entity could be because of disturbance of the pancreatic secretion through the minor papilla. Pancreatitis in heterotopic pancreas located in the minor papilla and chronic consumption of alcohol seem to be important pathogenic factors. PMID:15841034

  2. Silymarin attenuates mycophenolate mofetil-induced duodenal disorders in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malekinejad, Hassan; Sheikhzadeh, Sanaz; Hobbenaghi, Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The protective effect of silymarin (SMN) on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)–induced duodenal disorders was investigated. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Wistar rats were assigned to seven groups including control and test groups. The control animals received saline and the test animals were treated with MMF (30 mg/kg, orally) and saline, MMF and SMN (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, orally), MMF and Celecoxib (CLX, 50 mg/kg, orally), and MMF and SMN plus CLX for 14 consecutive days. The antioxidant status and myeloperoxidase activity were determined and the histopathological examinations on duodenal section also were performed. Results: Biochemical analyses revealed that SMN and CLX individually and in combination therapy could reduce the MMF-increased nitric oxide (NO) content, myeloperoxidase (MPA) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, while the MMF-reduced level of total thiol molecules (TTM) was increased significantly (p<0.05) by given compounds. Concurrent administration of SMN and CLX resulted in a synergistic effect on the reduction of MDA level and MPO activity. SMN and CLX were able to improve the MMF-induced histopathological damages including the villus atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the MMF-induced duodenal disorders may attribute to the elevated NO and MDA levels and myeloperoxidase activity that resulted in pathological injuries. Moreover, the biochemical alterations and histopathological injuries due to MMF administration were reduced by SMN alone or in combination with CLX indicating its protective effect. PMID:25050315

  3. Perforated duodenal diverticulum: Surgical treatment and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Costa Simões, Vitor; Santos, Bruno; Magalhães, Sara; Faria, Gil; Sousa Silva, Donzília; Davide, José

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Duodenum is the second most frequent location for a diverticulum in the digestive tract. Complications are rare and perforation was only reported in less than 200 cases. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 79-year-old female was admitted to Emergency Department with abdominal pain and vomiting for the last 24 h. A CT scan was performed and moderated extra-luminal air was identified. During surgery a fourth portion perforated duodenal diverticulum was diagnosed and duodenal resection was performed. DISCUSSION First reported in 1710, the incidence of duodenal diverticula can be as high as 22%. Nevertheless complications are extremely rare and include haemorrhage, inflammation, compression of surrounding organs, neoplastic progression, cholestasis and perforation. As perforations are often retroperitoneal, symptoms are nonspecific and rarely include peritoneal irritation, making clinical diagnose a challenge. CT scan will usually present extra-luminal retroperitoneal air and mesenteric fat stranding, providing clues for the diagnosis. Although non-operative treatment has been reported in selected patients, standard treatment is surgery and alternatives are diverse including diverticulectomy or duodenopancreatectomy. CONCLUSION Perforated diverticula of the fourth portion of the duodenum are extremely rare and current evidence still supports surgery as the primary treatment modality. PMID:25016082

  4. Recurrent duodenal diverticulitis after surgical resection of the diverticulum: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Razdan, Rishi; Oatis, Kristi; Specht, Neil

    2011-09-01

    Duodenal diverticulitis has been considered a rare entity. The diagnosis with computed tomography has become a fast and noninvasive means of detection and guide to management. Cases of surgically resected duodenal diverticula reforming and reinfecting are rarer yet, often presenting with similar symptoms. Duodenal diverticulitis can present with a wide range of symptoms mimicking anything from gastritis to acute abdomen, or as in the case of our patient, as mid abdominal pain with newly developed liver abscess. According to the literature, duodenal diverticula are incidentally discovered at a rate of 5% to 10% in living adults and in up to 22% at autopsy. PMID:21980677

  5. The therapeutic strategy for autoimmune pancreatitis is subject to the endoscopic features of the duodenal papilla.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kensuke; Nakajima, Atushi

    2010-11-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) often presents with a swollen duodenal papilla, however, the clinical significance of the duodenal papilla in AIP has not been fully elucidated. Data have shown swollen duodenal papillae shaped like a pear and/or with a submucosal tumor having IgG4-bearing plasma cells. Immunohistopathology has potentially verified duodenal papillitis associated with AIP. FOXP3-positive lymphocytes are also recognized in AIP. AIP has shown spontaneous remission and relapse irrelevance to corticosteroid therapy. The results of a multivariate analysis revealed the absence of a swollen duodenal papilla as the only significant independent factor predictive of spontaneous remission in AIP cases. In addition, the results of another multivariate analysis revealed the presence of a swollen duodenal papilla and the presence of extrapancreatic lesions as the significant independent factors predictive of relapse in these cases. Results suggest that the lack of a swollen duodenal papilla is a predictive factor for spontaneous remission, and thus negates the need to administer corticosteroids in those AIP patients. In contrast, a swollen duodenal papilla and the presence of extrapancreatic lesions are risk factors for relapse, and those AIP patients are candidates for maintenance corticosteroid therapy to reduce relapse. Therefore, the therapeutic strategy such as the indication for corticosteroid administration is subject to the endoscopic features of the duodenal papilla. PMID:21180617

  6. Buccal mucosa urethroplasty for adult urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, W. Britt; Santucci, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Urethral strictures are difficult to manage. Some treatment modalities for urethral strictures are fraught with high patient morbidity and stricture recurrence rates; however, an extremely useful tool in the armamentarium of the Reconstructive Urologist is buccal mucosal urethroplasty. We like buccal mucosa grafts because of its excellent short and long-term results, low post-operative complication rate, and relative ease of use. We utilize it for most our bulbar urethral stricture repairs and some pendulous urethral stricture repairs, usually in conjunction with a first-stage Johanson repair. In this report, we discuss multiple surgical techniques for repair of urethral stricture disease. Diagnosis, evaluation of candidacy, surgical techniques, post-operative care, and complications are included. The goal is to raise awareness of buccal mucosa grafting for the management urethral stricture disease. PMID:22022061

  7. New annonaceous acetogenins from Rollinia mucosa.

    PubMed

    Liaw, C C; Chang, F R; Chen, Y Y; Chiu, H F; Wu, M J; Wu, Y C

    1999-12-01

    Four new compounds, a mixture of 20,23-cis-2,4-trans-bullatalicinone (1) and 20,23-cis-2,4-cis-bullatalicinone (2), rollimusin (3), and rolliacocin (4), along with eight known acetogenins, were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the unripe fruits of Rollinia mucosa. The structures and stereochemistry of 1-4 were determined on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. PMID:10654411

  8. Staged buccal mucosa urethroplasty in reoperative hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, R. B.; Neelagund, S. E.; Guntaka, Ajay; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Siddayya C.; Jali, Sujata M.; Vernekar, Ritesh; Hiremath, Murigendra B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Repeated attempts at surgical repair of serious complications involving either the partial or complete breakdown of the hypospadias repair are less likely to succeed because the penis is densely scarred, or significantly shortened, and the skin over the penis is immobile and hypovascular. Buccal mucosa (BM) has become the preferred material for reconstruction, whenever a child with skin-deficient hypospadias needs reoperation. We report the results of our surgical experience with staged reoperation using BM, in the repair of hypospadias in children with complications after multiple failed repairs. Materials and Methods: Children needing reoperation for hypospadias underwent a staged repair using buccal mucosa. The complications were noted. Results: Twenty-one children aged 3 – 16 years underwent this staged repair during the period May 2000 – April 2010. Two of these 21 children had a failed first stage. One child developed a urethro-cutaneous fistula following the second stage, which was corrected in an additional stage. Conclusions: The use of the buccal mucosa graft for urethral reconstruction in a child with hypospadias, needing a reoperation, is a successful method, with a low incidence of complications. PMID:21814309

  9. Evaluation of Transplanted Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa Equivalents in Severe Combined Immunodeficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Izumi; Stephen E. Feinberg; Hiroto Terashi; Cynthia L. Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal stage of development at which transplant hu- man ex vivo-produced oral mucosa equivalents (EVPOMEs) in vivo. EVPOMEs were generated in a serum-free culture system, without the use of an irradiated xenogeneic feeder layer, by seeding human oral keratinocytes onto a human cadaveric dermal equivalent, AlloDerm. EVPOMEs were cultured for 4

  10. Unusual presentation of duodenal plasmablastic lymphoma in an immunocompetent patient: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chun; Liu, Ting; Lou, Shifeng; Liu, Weiping; Shen, Kai; Xiang, Bing

    2014-12-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare and recently described entity of large B-cell lymphoma. It predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and exhibits a highly aggressive clinical behavior without effective treatment. Recently, sporadic cases describing PBL in extraoral locations of HIV-negative patients have been reported; frequently in patients with underlying immunosuppressive states. To develop the understanding of PBL, the current study reports the unusual presentation of duodenal PBL and reviews the pathogenesis, immunohistochemical features, clinical and differential diagnoses, as well as the treatment of PBL as described in previous studies. The case of a 75-year-old female with duodenal PBL without definite immunosuppression is presented in the current report. The tumor was composed of large B-cell-like cells, and was positive for cluster of differentiation 138 and melanoma ubiquitous mutated-1, with ~80% of the tumor cells positive for Ki-67. The features of the tumor were as follows: Extraoral location, HIV-negative, immunoglobulin M ?-type M protein expression, light chain restriction (monoclonal) and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA-negative, which are considered to be unusual for PBL. These unusual features complicate the differentiation of PBL from other plasma cell diseases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report a case of duodenal PBL in an immunocompetent patient. To date, the standard treatment of PBL remains elusive, however, the most commonly administered chemotherapy treatments are CHOP [intravenous cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m(2), day 1), intravenous doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2), day 1), intravenous vincristine (1.4 mg/m(2), day 1) and prednisone (100 mg, days 1-50)]-like regimens. The patient was administered two cycles of CHOP chemotherapy for 56 days, however, ultimately succumbed as a result of disease progression. Therefore, PBL represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. PBL must be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors in daily practice, even in immunocompetent patients. Furthermore, CHOP does not appear to be an optimal treatment regimen and more intensive regimens are required. PMID:25364423

  11. Broad MICA/B Expression in the Small Bowel Mucosa: A Link between Cellular Stress and Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Yessica L.; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Chopita, Nestor; Fuertes, Mercedes; Zwirner, Norberto W.; Chirdo, Fernando G.

    2013-01-01

    The MICA/B genes (MHC class I chain related genes A and B) encode for non conventional class I HLA molecules which have no role in antigen presentation. MICA/B are up-regulated by different stress conditions such as heat-shock, oxidative stress, neoplasic transformation and viral infection. Particularly, MICA/B are expressed in enterocytes where they can mediate enterocyte apoptosis when recognised by the activating NKG2D receptor present on intraepithelial lymphocytes. This mechanism was suggested to play a major pathogenic role in active celiac disease (CD). Due to the importance of MICA/B in CD pathogenesis we studied their expression in duodenal tissue from CD patients. By immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we established that MICA/B was mainly intracellularly located in enterocytes. In addition, we identified MICA/B+ T cells in both the intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments. We also found MICA/B+ B cells, plasma cells and some macrophages in the lamina propria. The pattern of MICA/B staining in mucosal tissue in severe enteropathy was similar to that found in in vitro models of cellular stress. In such models, MICA/B were located in stress granules that are associated to the oxidative and ER stress response observed in active CD enteropathy. Our results suggest that expression of MICA/B in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients is linked to disregulation of mucosa homeostasis in which the stress response plays an active role. PMID:24058482

  12. Reevaluation of duodenal endoscopic markers in the diagnosis of celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Bardella; Giorgio Minoli; Franco Radaelli; Maurizio Quatrini; Paolo A. Bianchi; Dario Conte

    2000-01-01

    Background: Loss or reduction of duodenal folds, scalloping of Kerkring folds and a micronodular or mosaic duodenal mucosal pattern have been described in celiac disease (CD), endoscopic findings that are considered reliable in the diagnosis of this disorder. However, most data have been obtained in patients with suspected or certain disease. We assessed the accuracy of the above markers in

  13. Adjuvant antibiotic therapy in duodenal ulcers treated with colloidal bismuth subcitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T ORiordan; E Mathai; E Tobin; D McKenna; C Keane; E Sweeney; C OMorain

    1990-01-01

    Persistence of Helicobacter pylori after duodenal ulcer healing is associated with high rates of ulcer relapse. We compared colloidal bismuth subcitrate alone with CBS combined with one of four antibiotic regimens in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. Endoscopy and antral biopsies were performed before treatment and four weeks afterwards. Biopsy specimens were examined for histological evidence of gastritis and by

  14. De-Nol stimulates gastric and duodenal alkaline secretion through prostaglandin dependent mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S J Konturek; J Bilski; N Kwiecien; W Obtuløwicz; B Kopp; J Oleksy

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of colloidal bismuth subcitrate De-Nol on gastric HCO3- secretion in 24 healthy subjects and on gastric and duodenal HCO3- secretion in dogs with gastric and duodenal fistulae. Alkaline secretion was measured after pretreatment with ranitidine to abolish the H+ secretion using a constant perfusion aspiration system and back titration of the perfusates

  15. Supraduodenal Branch of the Left Hepatic Artery: A Rare Cause of Bleeding Duodenal Ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Baljendra S., E-mail: bkapoor@uabmc.ed [University of Alabama at Birmingham NHB H623, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Berscheid, Bruce [St. Paul's Hospital, Interventional Radiology (Canada); Saddekni, Souheil [University of Alabama at Birmingham NHB H623, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2009-07-15

    This is a case report describing a rare cause of massive duodenal ulcer hemorrhage resulting from the erosion of the supraduodenal branch of the left hepatic artery. This arterial branch is not a well known variation and is rarely recognized as a source of duodenal bleeding.

  16. Adaptive changes of duodenal iron transport proteins in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Barisani, Donatella; Parafioriti, Antonina; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Zoller, Heinz; Conte, Dario; Armiraglio, Elisabetta; Trovato, Cristina; Koch, Robert O; Weiss, Günter

    2004-05-19

    Iron deficiency is a manifestation of celiac disease (CD) usually attributed to a decreased absorptive surface, although no data on the regulation of iron transport under these conditions are currently available. Our aim was to evaluate divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), duodenal cytochrome b (Dcytb), ferroportin 1 (FP1), hephaestin, and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) expression, as well as iron regulatory protein (IRP) activity in duodenal biopsies from control, anemic, and CD patients. We studied 10 subjects with dyspepsia, 6 with iron-deficiency anemia, and 25 with CD. mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR, protein expression by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry, and IRP activity by gel shift assay. Our results showed that DMT1, FP1, hephaestin, and TfR1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in CD patients with reduced body iron stores compared with controls, similar to what was observed in anemic patients. Protein expression paralleled the mRNAs changes. DMT1 protein expression was localized in differentiated enterocytes at the villi tips in controls, whereas with iron deficiency it was observed throughout the villi. FP1 expression was localized on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes and increased with low iron stores. TfR1 was localized in the crypts in controls but also in the villi with iron deficiency. These changes were paralleled by IRP activity, which increased in all iron-deficient subjects. We conclude that duodenal DMT1, FP1, hephaestin, and TfR1 expression and IRP activity, thus the iron absorption capacity, are upregulated in CD patients as a consequence of iron deficiency, whereas the increased enterocyte proliferation observed in CD has no effect on iron uptake regulation. PMID:15054143

  17. Influence of duodenal infusions of EPA and DHA on the lipidic milk secretion of the dairy goat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of duodenal infusions of EPA and DHA on the lipidic milk secretion of the dairy goat C and milk lipidic secretion. Seven lactating goats equipped with duodenal cannulae have followed 3 periods, P2, the goats were duodenally perfused, twice a day after milking with an emulsion providing 4 g

  18. Surgical Excision of Duodenal/Pancreatic Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Eduardo; Hassani, Ali; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Shi, Dongping; Pontes, J. Edson; Weaver, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a potential to metastasize to almost any site and this may occur many years following nephrectomy. We present six cases with uncommon sites of metastasis: four patients presented with distal pancreatic metastasis and two with duodenal/head of the pancreas metastasis. Time to metastatic disease varied from 1 to 19?years following renal surgery. For patients are alive and two succumbed to their disease. Long-term survival can be achieved with aggressive surgical excision of disease. PMID:25177547

  19. Duodenal perforation: unusual complication of gastrostomy tube replacement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Min, Sa-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2014-06-01

    Feeding gastrostomy is widely used for children with feeding impairment. The replacement of gastrostomy tube is known as an easy and safe procedure. However, various complications associated with replacement of gastrostomy tube were reported, including fistula disruption and colo-cutaneous fistula. For replacement of gastrostomy tube in small children with small stomach, special cautions are needed. Here, we report a rare case of duodenal perforation as an acute complication after the replacement of gastrostomy tube for a 33-month-old girl. PMID:25061587

  20. Intramural duodenal hematoma after submucosal injection of epinephrine for a bleeding ulcer: case report and review

    PubMed Central

    DIBRA, A.; KËLLIÇI, S.; ÇELIKU, E.; DRAÇINI, Xh.; MATURO, A.; ÇELIKU, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of intramural duodenal hematoma as a complication of endoscopic therapy for a bleeding duodenal ulcer in an adult patient with no evidence of other pathologies. A 18-year-old man was admitted in emergency room with gastrointestinal bleeding manifested by melena. Previous medical history revealed that he had endoscopic sclerotherapy for bleeding duodenal ulcer 5 months before. Endoscopy revealed a Forrest 2a ulcer in the duodenal bulb and sclerotherapy was performed by injecting 10 ml of 0.2% epinephrine and 20 ml of NaCl 0.9% solution. Upper occlusion’s signs appeared 36 hours after the procedure. The hematoma, that was identified by endoscopy and confirmed by MRI and CT scan of the abdomen, caused transient duodenal obstruction. Combined conservative management with nasogastric tube and total parenteral nutrition resulted in reduction of obstructive symptoms within 4 weeks. PMID:25827667

  1. Why is the coexistence of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer rare? Examination of factors related to both gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideyuki Ubukata; Hiroyuki Nagata; Teruhiko KasugaTakafumi Tabuchi; Satoru Konishi; Teruhiko Kasuga; Takafumi Tabuchi

    2011-01-01

    The coexistence of gastric cancer with duodenal ulcer has been found empirically to be rare, but why it is rare is difficult\\u000a to explain satisfactorily. To elucidate this question, we carried out a literature review of the subject. The frequency with\\u000a which the two diseases coexist is 0.1–1.7%, and the main factor associated with both gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer

  2. Palliation of Malignant Biliary and Duodenal Obstruction with Combined Metallic Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Akinci, Devrim, E-mail: akincid@hotmail.com; Akhan, Okan; Ozkan, Fuat; Ciftci, Turkmen; Ozkan, Orhan S.; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ozmen, Mustafa N. [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2007-11-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction with combined metallic stenting under fluoroscopy guidance. Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 9 patients (6 men and 3 women) who underwent biliary and duodenal stenting was performed. The mean age of patients was 61 years (range: 42-80 years). The causes of obstruction were pancreatic carcinoma in 7 patients, cholangiocellular carcinoma in one, and duodenal carcinoma in the other. Biliary and duodenal stents were placed simultaneously in 4 patients. In other 5 patients dudodenal stents were placed after biliary stenting when the duodenal obstruction symptoms have developed. In two patients duodenal stents were advanced via transgastric approach. Results. Technical success rate was 100 %. After percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting bilirubin levels decreased to normal levels in 6 patients and in remaining 3 patients mean reduction of 71% in bilirubin levels was achieved. Tumoral ingrowth occurred in one patient and percutaneous biliary restenting was performed 90 days after the initial procedure. Of the 9 patients, 6 patients were able to tolerate solid diet, whereas 2 patients could tolerate liquid diet and one patient did not show any improvement. Mean survival periods were 111 and 73 days after biliary and duodenal stenting, respectively. Conclusion. Combined biliary and duodenal stent placement which can be performed under fluoroscopic guidance without assistance of endoscopy is feasible and an effective method of palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstructions. If transoral and endoscopic approaches fail, percutaneous gastrostomy route allows duodenal stenting.

  3. Patient-specific finite element analysis of viscoelastic masticatory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress and strain inside of the oral mucosa in partially-edentulous patients. The patient-specific finite element models of the mucosa and the bone were constructed using the CT images and in-vivo surface measurement during a continuous load. The mean initial shear modulus of 8.3 × 10(-5) (GPa) and the mean relaxation time of 503 (s) were determined as the viscoelastic properties of the mucosa. The increase of the highest maximum compressive strain during the continuous loading was observed in all the patients, however; the intensity of strain was not in accordance with the thickness of the mucosa. It is suggested that the variations of the morphology and the initial modulus of the mucosa should be considered in the mathematical approaches to detect the mechanical responses of the oral mucosa. PMID:23580171

  4. Loss of lrig1 leads to expansion of brunner glands followed by duodenal adenomas with gastric metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Shi, Chanjuan; Lu, Yuanyuan; Poulin, Emily J; Franklin, Jeffery L; Coffey, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a pan-ErbB negative regulator and intestinal stem cell marker down-regulated in many malignancies. We previously reported that 14 of 16 Lrig1-CreERT2/CreERT2 (Lrig1(-/-)) mice developed duodenal adenomas, providing the first in vivo evidence that Lrig1 acts as a tumor suppressor. We extended this study to a larger cohort and found that 49 of 54 Lrig1(-/-) mice develop duodenal adenomas beginning at 3 months. Most adenomas were histologically low grade and overlaid expanded Brunner glands. There was morphologic and biochemical blurring of the boundary between the epithelium and Brunner glands with glandular coexpression of ErbB2, which is normally restricted to the epithelium, and the Brunner gland marker Mucin6. Some adenomas were high grade with reduced Brunner glands. At age 4 to 5 weeks, before adenoma formation, we observed enhanced proliferation in Brunner glands and, at 2 months, an increase in the size of the Brunner gland compartment. Elevated expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) ligands amphiregulin and ?-cellulin, as well as Egfr and phosphorylated Egfr, was detected in adenomas compared with adjacent normal tissue. These adenomas expressed the gastric-specific genes gastrokine1 and mucin5ac, indicating gastric metaplasia. Moreover, we found that a subset of human duodenal tumors exhibited features of LRIG1(-/-) adenomas, including loss of LRIG1, gastric metaplasia (MUCIN5AC and MUCIN6), and increased amphiregulin and Egfr activity. PMID:25794708

  5. Gastric and Duodenal Stents: Follow-Up and Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto Pabon, Isabel Teresa; Paul Diaz, Laura [Vascular and Interventional Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Ctra de Toledo km. 12500, E-28905 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz de Adana, Juan Carlos; Lopez Herrero, Julio [Digestive Surgery Department, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Ctra de Toledo km. 12500, E-28905 Getafe, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of self-expanding metallic stents in treating inoperable gastric and duodenal stenoses during follow-up and to evaluate the complications encountered.Methods: A total of 31 patients suffering from gastroduodenal obstruction (29 malignant, 2 benign) were treated with a self-expanding metallic stent (Wallstent). In 24 cases insertion was by the peroral route, in seven cases via gastrostomy.Results: All the strictures were successfully negotiated under fluoroscopic guidance without having to resort to endoscopy. A total of 27 patients (87%) were able to resume a regular diet, a soft diet, or a liquid diet orally. Complications included one case of stent malpositioning, one case of leakage of ascitic fluid through the gastrostomy orifice, one case of perforation and fistula to the biliary tree, and two cases of hematemesis. In two patients (6%) additional stents were implanted to improve patency. In all patients follow-up was maintained until death. Recurrence of symptoms immediately before death occurred in seven cases (23%). Mean survival time of patients was 13.3 weeks (SE {+-} 4.6).Conclusions: The deployment of gastroduodenal stents resulted in good palliation of inoperable gastric and duodenal stenoses. Certain technical aspects, e.g., adaptation of stents to bowel morphology, is critical to proper stent function and avoidance of complications.

  6. Involvement of glutamate-cystine/glutamate transporter system in aspirin-induced acute gastric mucosa injury.

    PubMed

    Du, Jie; Li, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Wang; Yang, Yong-Mei; Wu, Yue-Han; Li, Wen-Qun; Peng, Jun; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2014-07-18

    Large-dose or long-term use of aspirin tends to cause gastric mucosa injury, which is recognized as the major side effect of aspirin. It has been demonstrated that glutamate exerts a protective effect on stomach, and the level of glutamate is critically controlled by cystine/glutamate transporter (Xc(-)). In the present study, we investigated the role of glutamate-cystine/glutamate transporter system in aspirin-induced acute gastric mucosa injury in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that in human gastric epithelial cells, aspirin incubation increased the activity of LDH and the number of apoptotic cells, meanwhile down-regulated the mRNA expression of Xc(-) accompanied with decreased glutamate release. Similar results were seen in a rat model. In addition, exogenous l-glutamate attenuated the gastric mucosa injury and cell damage induced by aspirin both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that acute gastric mucosa injury induced by aspirin is related to reduction of glutamate-cystine/glutamate transporter system activity. PMID:24866234

  7. Primary Closure without Diversion in Management of Operative Blunt Duodenal Trauma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Katherine; Wright, Tiffany; Skinner, Sean; Iocono, Joseph A.; Draus, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Operative blunt duodenal trauma is rare in pediatric patients. Management is controversial with some recommending pyloric exclusion for complex cases. We hypothesized that primary closure without diversion may be safe even in complex (Grade II-III) injuries. Methods. A retrospective review of the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Center database for the years 2003–2011 was performed to identify operative blunt duodenal trauma at our Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center. Inclusion criteria included ages <14 years and duodenal injury requiring operative intervention. Duodenal hematomas not requiring intervention and other small bowel injuries were excluded. Results. A total of 3,283 hospital records were reviewed. Forty patients with operative hollow viscous injuries and seven with operative duodenal injuries were identified. The mean Injury Severity Score was 10.4, with injuries ranging from Grades I–IV and involving all duodenal segments. All injuries were closed primarily with drain placement and assessed for leakage via fluoroscopy between postoperative days 4 and 6. The average length of stay was 11 days; average time to full feeds was 7 days. No complications were encountered. Conclusion. Blunt abdominal trauma is an uncommon mechanism of pediatric duodenal injuries. Primary repair with drain placement is safe even in more complex injuries. PMID:23213560

  8. Rollinecins A and B: two new bioactive annonaceous acetogenins from Rollinia mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shi, G; Ye, Q; He, K; McLaughlin, J L; MacDougal, J M

    1996-05-01

    Two new mono-THF ring acetogenins, rollinecins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the partitioned ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Rollinia mucosa (Annonaceae) by activity-directed fractionation. 1 and 2 are epimeric at the C-14 carbinol stereocenter. Their absolute stereochemical structures were solved by preparing their respective per-Mosher ester derivatives. 1 and 2 showed equivalent and selective in vitro activities against several human solid tumor cell lines. PMID:8778247

  9. Effect of Dirithromycin on Haemophilus influenzae Infection of the Respiratory Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREW RUTMAN; RUTH DOWLING; PETER WILLS; CHARLES FELDMAN; PETER J. COLE; ROBERT WILSON

    1998-01-01

    Macrolides have properties other than their antibiotic action which may benefit patients with airway infec- tions. We have investigated the effect of dirithromycin (0.125 to 8.0 mg\\/ml) on the interaction of Haemophilus influenzae with respiratory mucosa in vitro using human nasal epithelium, adenoid tissue, and bovine trachea. Dirithromycin did not affect the ciliary beat frequency of the nasal epithelium or

  10. Duodenal epithelial transport in functional dyspepsia: Role of serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; D’Amato, Mauro; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Laurent, Agneta; Knuhtsen, Svend; Bindslev, Niels; Hansen, Mark Berner; Schmidt, Peter Thelin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate functional duodenal abnormalities in functional dyspepsia (FD) and the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in mucosal ion transport and signalling. METHODS: Duodenal mucosal biopsies were obtained from 15 patients with FD and 18 healthy controls. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the number of 5-HT-containing cells and real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of 5-HT receptors 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, 3E, 4 and 7, as well as expression of the serotonin re-uptake transporter (SERT) gene SLC6A4 and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Biopsies were mounted in Ussing chambers for evaluation of basal and 5-HT-stimulated short-circuit current (SCC). RESULTS: Conductance was lower in FD [42.4 ± 4.7 mS/cm2 (n = 15) vs 62.5 ± 4.5 mS/cm2 (n = 18), P = 0.005]. 5-HT induced a dose dependent rise in SCC in both FD (n = 8) and controls (n = 9), the rise was lower in FD (P < 0.001). Mean number of 5-HT stained cells per high power field was the same [34.4 ± 8.4 in FD (n = 15) and 30.4 ± 3.7 in controls (n = 18), P = 0.647]. The following genes were highly expressed: 5-HT receptor HTR3E, HTR4, HTR7, SERT gene (SLC6A4) and TPH1. Differences in expression levels were observed for HTR3E (higher expression in FD, P = 0.008), HTR7 (lower expression in FD, P = 0.027), SLC6A4 (higher expression in FD, P = 0.033) and TPH1 (lower expression in FD, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Duodenal ion transport in response to exogenous 5-HT is abnormal in FD patients and associated with high expression of the HTR3E receptor and the serotonin transporter. PMID:23755368

  11. Severe diffuse duodenitis successfully treated with intravenous tacrolimus after colectomy for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keiko; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Minemura, Shoko; Oyamada, Arata; Kanogawa, Naoya; Saito, Masaya; Yoshihama, Sayuri; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Arai, Makoto; Tohma, Takayuki; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    We encountered a rare case of severe diffuse duodenitis associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). A 23-year-old man underwent total proctocolectomy with ileal J-pouch anal anastomosis for UC. He suffered from severe abdominal pain, fever and bloody diarrhea for six months after the surgery. Upper double-balloon enteroscopy disclosed severe diffuse duodenitis, of which the findings were endoscopically and histologically similar to those of colonic lesions of UC. Although the administration of prednisolone was ineffective, treatment with intravenous tacrolimus markedly improved the clinical findings. This is the first report of the successful treatment of severe UC-associated diffuse duodenitis with intravenous tacrolimus. PMID:25366006

  12. Immunological and morphogenic basis of gastric mucosa atrophy and metaplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Faller; Thomas Kirchner

    2005-01-01

    Chronic gastritis with gastric mucosa atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia are alterations with an increased risk for the development of gastric neoplasias. Immunological studies in autoimmune gastritis, in atrophic Helicobacter pylori gastritis and in studies with transgenic mice point to a central role of the parietal cell in the development of gastric mucosa atrophy. Destruction of gastric epithelial

  13. Substance-P-containing nerve fibers in the nasal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Uddman; L. Malm; F. Sundler

    1983-01-01

    Nerve fibers displaying SP immunoreactivity were detected in the nasal mucosa of several mammals. The fibers were seen around small blood vessels, seromucous glands, and beneath and sometimes within the surface epithelium. In the pterygopalatine ganglion and the trigeminal ganglion, known to innervate the nasal mucosa, SP-positive nerve cell bodies were seen. Sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or bilateral cervical

  14. Aloin delivery on buccal mucosa: ex vivo studies and design of a new locoregional dosing system.

    PubMed

    De Caro, Viviana; Scaturro, Anna Lisa; Di Prima, Giulia; Avellone, Giuseppe; Sutera, Flavia Maria; Di Fede, Olga; Campisi, Giuseppina; Giannola, Libero Italo

    2014-10-14

    Abstract Context: Chemoprevention of potential malignant disorders or cancerous lesions that affect oral mucosae requires extended duration of treatment. Locoregional delivery of natural products could represent a promising strategy for this purpose. Objective: To investigate the aptitude of aloin to permeate through, or accumulate in, the buccal mucosa and to develop a new prolonged oro-mucosal drug delivery system. Materials and methods: Permeation/accumulation of aloin from Curacao Aloe (containing 50% barbaloin) was evaluated ex vivo, using porcine buccal mucosa as the most useful model to simulate human epithelium. Oro-mucosal matrix tablets were prepared by dispersing aloin (10% w/w) in Eudragit® RS 100 as, biocompatible, low permeable, pH-independent, and non-swelling polymer. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug-polymer compatibility, weight variation, drug uniformity content, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, and drug release. Results: Aloin has low tendency to cross buccal mucosa, permeation is marginal, and high drug amounts remain entrapped into the epithelium. Matrix tablets characteristics were in agreement with pharmacopoeial requirements. Drug release showed highly reproducible Higuchian profile. Delivery through matrix tablets promoted drug accumulation in the mucosal tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Following application of matrix tablets on porcine buccal mucosa, the amount of discharged drug recovered in the tissue should be sufficient to produce the desired effects, providing therapeutic drug levels directly at the site of action. Aloin-loaded tablets are valid candidates for prevention/treatment of potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer and could potentially lead to clinically relevant drug delivery system as coadjuvant of conventional chemotherapy/radiation therapy. PMID:25311426

  15. Aberrant gene expression in mucosa adjacent to tumor reveals a molecular crosstalk in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A colorectal tumor is not an isolated entity growing in a restricted location of the body. The patient’s gut environment constitutes the framework where the tumor evolves and this relationship promotes and includes a complex and tight correlation of the tumor with inflammation, blood vessels formation, nutrition, and gut microbiome composition. The tumor influence in the environment could both promote an anti-tumor or a pro-tumor response. Methods A set of 98 paired adjacent mucosa and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 50 colon mucosa from healthy donors (246 samples in total) were included in this work. RNA extracted from each sample was hybridized in Affymetrix chips Human Genome U219. Functional relationships between genes were inferred by means of systems biology using both transcriptional regulation networks (ARACNe algorithm) and protein-protein interaction networks (BIANA software). Results Here we report a transcriptomic analysis revealing a number of genes activated in adjacent mucosa from CRC patients, not activated in mucosa from healthy donors. A functional analysis of these genes suggested that this active reaction of the adjacent mucosa was related to the presence of the tumor. Transcriptional and protein-interaction networks were used to further elucidate this response of normal gut in front of the tumor, revealing a crosstalk between proteins secreted by the tumor and receptors activated in the adjacent colon tissue; and vice versa. Remarkably, Slit family of proteins activated ROBO receptors in tumor whereas tumor-secreted proteins transduced a cellular signal finally activating AP-1 in adjacent tissue. Conclusions The systems-level approach provides new insights into the micro-ecology of colorectal tumorogenesis. Disrupting this intricate molecular network of cell-cell communication and pro-inflammatory microenvironment could be a therapeutic target in CRC patients. PMID:24597571

  16. Effect of free thymol on differential gene expression in gastric mucosa of the young pig.

    PubMed

    Colombo, M; Priori, D; Gandolfi, G; Boatto, G; Nieddu, M; Bosi, P; Trevisi, P

    2014-05-01

    Thymol is the most common molecule in thyme and has been proposed as an oral alternative to antibiotics in the feed of pigs and broilers. The knowledge of the in vivo physiological effects of thymol on tissues is limited, particularly its impact on the gastric mucosa, where it is primarily absorbed when it is orally supplied. In this study, thymol (TH, 50 mg/ kg BW) or a placebo (CO) was introduced directly into the stomach of 8 weaned pigs that were slaughtered 12 h later and sampled for gastric oxyntic and pyloric mucosa. The analysis of whole transcript expression was performed using Affymetrix© Porcine Gene 1.1 ST array strips. Affymetrix Transcripts IDs were associated with 13 406 human gene names based on Sus scrofa Ensemble. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was performed, comparing TH and CO pigs. For each gene set, the normalized enrichment score (NES) was defined as significant when the false discovery rate % was <25 and the P-value of NES was <0.05. In response to TH, 72 and 19 gene sets were significantly enriched in the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa, respectively. Several gene sets involved in mitosis and its regulation ranked near the top, primarily in the oxyntic mucosa; the gene set DIGESTION ranked first and ninth in the pyloric and oxyntic mucosa, respectively. Within this group, somatostatin (SST), SST receptors, peptide transporter 1 (SLC15A1) and calpain 9 (gastrointestinal tract-specific calpain) were the most strongly upregulated genes. Thymol reduced the enrichment of 120 and 59 gene sets in the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa, respectively. Several gene sets related to ion transport and channeling and aqueous pores across membranes, including short transient receptor potential (TRP) channel 4, potassium voltage-gated channel members 1 and 2, and ryanodine receptors 2 and 3, were less enriched. The downregulation of these genes sensitive to thymol in vitro could depend on the thymol dose and contact with the gastric tissues that causes an adaptive response with their reduced activation. Conversely, the activation of the TRPA1 gene (ranked 1072 and 128 among all the genes in the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa, respectively) indicates the involvement of another TRP-regulating cellular calcium storage. In conclusion, the stimulation of gastric proliferative activity and the control of digestive activity by thymol can influence positively gastric maturation and function in the weaned pigs. These properties should be considered in addition to thymol's antimicrobial properties when supplementation of this molecule in feed is evaluated. PMID:24548668

  17. DUODENAL INTRAEPITHELIAL LYMPHOCYTES OF CHILDREN WITH COW MILK ALLERGY PREFERENTIALLY BIND THE GLYCAN-BINDING PROTEIN GALECTIN-3

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, N.; Guzman, L.; Cueto Rua, E.; Drut, R.; Ahmed, H.; Vasta, G.R.; Toscano, M.A.; Rabinovich, G.A.; Docena, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A breakdown in intestinal homeostasis results in inflammatory bowel diseases including coeliac disease and allergy. Galectins, evolutionarily conserved ?-galactoside-binding proteins, can modulate immune-epithelial cell interactions by influencing immune cell fate and cytokine secretion. In this study we investigated the ‘glycosylation signature’ as well as the regulated expression of galectin-1 and -3 in human duodenal samples of allergic and non-allergic children. Whereas galectin-1 was predominantly localized in the epithelial compartment (epithelial cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes) and the underlying lamina propria (T cells, macrophages and plasma cells), galectin-3 was mainly expressed by crypt epithelial cells and macrophages in the lamina propria. Remarkably, expression of these galectins was not significantly altered in allergic versus non-allergic patients. Investigation of the glycophenotype of the duodenal inflammatory microenvironment revealed substantial ?2–6-linked sialic acid bound to galactose in lamina propria plasma cells, macrophages and intraepithelial lymphocytes and significant levels of asialo core 1 O-glycans in CD68+ macrophages and enterocytes. Galectin-1 preferentially bound to neutrophils, plasma cells and enterocytes, while galectin-3 binding sites were mainly distributed on macrophages and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Notably, galectin-3, but not galectin-1 binding, was substantially increased in intraepithelial gut lymphocytes of allergic patients compared to non-allergic subjects, suggesting a potential role of galectin-3-glycan interactions in shaping epithelial-immune cell connections during allergic inflammatory processes. PMID:19309568

  18. Experience with 53 portal-duodenal drained solitary pancreas transplants.

    PubMed

    Perosa, Marcelo; Noujaim, Huda; Ianhez, Luiz E; Oliveira, Rodrigo A; Mota, Leonardo T; Branez, Juan R; Paredes, Marcio M; Giacaglia, Luciano; Genzini, Tercio

    2014-02-01

    Systemic-enteric drainage is currently the most common technique for pancreas transplantation (PT). A novel alternative technique, portal-duodenal drainage (PDD), has potential physiological benefits and provides improved monitoring of the pancreatic graft. The current study describes 53 solitary PT procedures (43 pancreas after kidney and 10 pancreas transplant alone) using the PDD technique over the last three yr. This method resulted in one-yr patient survival at 96% and 83% graft survival. There were five cases (9.4%) of thrombosis, in which transplantectomy and two-layer closure of the native duodenum were performed. No fistulas were observed. Here, we demonstrate that the PDD technique in PT was as safe and effective as current techniques in clinical use. PMID:24382212

  19. Duodenal nutrient exclusion improves metabolic syndrome and stimulates villus hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Habegger, Kirk M; Al-Massadi, Omar; Heppner, Kristy M; Myronovych, Andriy; Holland, Jenna; Berger, Jose; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanging; Lehti, Maarit; Ottaway, Nickki; Amburgy, Sarah; Raver, Christine; Müller, Timo D; Pfluger, Paul T; Kohli, Rohit; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Seeley, Randy J; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Surgical interventions that prevent nutrient exposure to the duodenum are among the most successful treatments for obesity and diabetes. However, these interventions are highly invasive, irreversible and often carry significant risk. The duodenal-endoluminal sleeve (DES) is a flexible tube that acts as a barrier to nutrient-tissue interaction along the duodenum. We implanted this device in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats to gain greater understanding of duodenal nutrient exclusion on glucose homeostasis. Design ZDF rats were randomised to four groups: Naive, sham ad libitum, sham pair-fed, and DES implanted. Food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition were measured for 28 days postoperatively. Glucose, lipid and bile acid metabolism were evaluated, as well as histological assessment of the upper intestine. Results DES implantation induced a sustained decrease in BW throughout the study that was matched by pair-fed sham animals. Decreased BW resulted from loss of fat, but not lean mass. DES rats were also found to be more glucose tolerant than either ad libitum-fed or pair-fed sham controls, suggesting fat mass independent metabolic benefits. DES also reduced circulating triglyceride and glycerol levels while increasing circulating bile acids. Interestingly, DES stimulated a considerable increase in villus length throughout the upper intestine, which may contribute to metabolic improvements. Conclusions Our preclinical results validate DES as a promising therapeutic approach to diabetes and obesity, which offers reversibility, low risk, low invasiveness and triple benefits including fat mass loss, glucose and lipid metabolism improvement which mechanistically may involve increased villus growth in the upper gut. PMID:24107591

  20. Gastric outlet obstruction due to duodenal bezoar: A case report?

    PubMed Central

    Guner, Ali; Kahraman, Izzettin; Aktas, Adem; Kece, Can; Reis, Erhan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a clinical syndrome characterized by abdominal pain and postprandial vomiting. Causes of GOO include both benign and malignant disease. Bezoars, concretions of undigested or partially digested material in the gastrointestinal tract, are a rare entity and GOO due to duodenal bezoar is an uncommon presentation. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department acutely with a 3-day history of epigastric pain, weakness and postprandial nonbilious vomiting. Initially, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) was performed to evaluate the cause of the GOO. A solid impacted bezoar was detected in the first portion of the duodenum with complete obstruction of the pyloric canal. In spite of multiple attempts for fragmentation using different devices, the extraction attempts failed. We administered acetylcysteine and cola per os. Abdominal computerized tomography was obtained and showed a solid mass in the duodenum. UGE was performed once more however, the mass was not suitable for fragmentation and removal. Thus, surgical treatment was decided. The bezoar was extracted via gastrotomy. The postoperative period was uneventful. DISCUSSION Even if a duodenal bezoar is small, because of its location it may cause GOO with abruptly clinical features. The diagnostic approach is similar to the other causes of the GOO. However, therapeutic options differ for each patient. CONCLUSION We should remember all the therapeutic and diagnostic options for a patient with upper gastrointestinal bezoars who present at the hospital whether or not there is a predisposing risk factor. PMID:22889707

  1. Effects of tea from Turnera ulmifolia L. on mouse gastric mucosa support the Turneraceae as a new source of antiulcerogenic drugs.

    PubMed

    Gracioso, Juliano de Souza; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2002-04-01

    Turnera ulmifolia is a plant belonging to the family Turneraceae, popularly known in Brazil as chanana. This species is distributed from Guyana to southern Brazil where it is considered a weed. The plant occurs in tropical rain forest, fields, and gardens. Chanana tea is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric dysfunction including gastric and duodenal ulcers. In this study, the ability of a lyophilized infusion, as an aqueous fraction (AqF) of the aerial parts of T. ulmifolia, was investigated for its ability to prevent ulceration of the gastric and duodenal mucosa was examined in mice and rats, respectively. The AqF significantly reduced the formation of lesions associated with HCl/ethanol administration by 39% and 46%, respectively, at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. The AqF also significantly reduced the incidence of gastric lesions induced by a combination of indomethacin and bethanechol by 58% and 72% at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. In stress-induced gastric ulcer, the inhibition by the AqF was 48%, 57%, and 58% at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively (p<0.05). A pyloric ligature experiment showed that the highest dose of the AqF significantly affected the gastric juice parameters by increasing the pH from 2.5 (control) to 5.3 and decreasing the acid output from 11.3 (control) to 3.7 mEq/ml/4 h. The AqF had no significant effect on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Preliminary phytochemical screening confirmed that flavonoids were the major constituents of the AqF of T. ulmifolia. These results indicate that this extract has a significant antiulcerogenic effect, as popularly believed. PMID:11995930

  2. Mucous secretion in rat colonic mucosa during carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine. A morphological and histochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Filipe, M. I.

    1975-01-01

    Our previous studies, in specimens of large intestine resected for carcinoma, have shown abnormal patterns of mucous secretion in areas of apparently "normal" mucosa, where goblet cells produce mainly sialomucins as compared with the true normal colonic mucosa in which sulphomucins predominate. In the present work, large bowel cancer was induced in rats by the administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-2HCl (DMH). We attempted to study the sequential histological and secretory abnormalities which developed in the colonic epithelium during carcinogenesis, and to correlate these changes with those described above in the human. The microscopical and histological lesions observed in the colonic mucosa of DMH treated rats confirmed the findings of other authors and resembled the human colorectal cancer. The earliest changes detected were small foci of hyperplasia accompanied from the 6th week onwards by several foci of dysplasia. Carcinoma in situ appeared at the 15th week and finally invasive carcinoma developed from the 19th week onwards. Changes in the type of mucous secretion, with predominance of sialomucins, were observed in the majority of the areas showing mild to moderate dysplasia whilst the surrounding normal epithelium produced suphated material. Mucous depletion was a common feature in areas of severe dysplasia and carcinoma. These findings correlated well with the similar variations in the mucin composition observed in human colonic mucosa in carcinoma and further supported our previous hypothesis that mucin changes characterized by an increase in sialomucins might reflect early malignant transformation. If this hypothesis proved to be correct, the use of a simple method for the identification of mucins in large bowel biopsies would be of great help in detecting early malignancy. Images Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 p67-a Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:1174451

  3. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and gastric mucosa: is there a relation with gastric ulceration?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasileios A Pagkalos; Joanna Moschandreas; Michael Kiriakakis; Maria Roussomoustakaki; Anthony Kafatos; Elias Kouroumalis

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both in vitro and epidemiological studies indicate that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may play a protective role against peptic ulcer in humans. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition is thought to reflect dietary fatty acid intake. The aim of the present study is to investigate adipose and gastric mucosa fatty acid levels in relation to gastric ulceration status. METHODS: Fifty

  4. Intraluminal duodenal diverticula: collective review with report of a laparoscopic excision.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Alan Kurt; Meighan, Dennis M; Meinke, Mary E; Mirza, Nadia; Parris, Tchaiko M; Meinke, Richard K

    2013-02-01

    A comprehensive review of intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) is presented, along with a report of a completely laparoscopic excision of this duodenal abnormality as well as a report of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrating the classic fluoroscopic "wind sock sign" pathognomonic appearance of IDD. IDD may easily be missed unless one specifically considers this entity in patients presenting with symptoms of foregut disease. Patients with IDD typically present in the fourth decade of life with duration of symptoms less than 5 years that typically include pain, nausea and vomiting, pancreatitis, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis usually requires imaging studies and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Laparoscopic excision is recommended because of superior visualization of significant intestinal anatomic abnormalities, the need for accurate ampullary localization, and the ability to facilitate complete diverticular excision while maintaining biliary and pancreatic ductal integrity. Review of surgical literature suggests that IDD results from congenital duodenal developmental abnormalities matured by long-term duodenal peristalsis. PMID:23256586

  5. Modeling data for pancreatitis in presence of a duodenal diverticula using logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, S.; Prodanova, K.; Mlachkova, D.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of a periampullary duodenal diverticulum (PDD) is often observed during upper digestive tract barium meal studies and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A few papers reported that the diverticulum had something to do with the incidence of pancreatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate if the presence of duodenal diverticula predisposes to the development of a pancreatic disease. A total 3966 patients who had undergone ERCP were studied retrospectively. They were divided into 2 groups-with and without PDD. Patients with a duodenal diverticula had a higher rate of acute pancreatitis. The duodenal diverticula is a risk factor for acute idiopathic pancreatitis. A multiple logistic regression to obtain adjusted estimate of odds and to identify if a PDD is a predictor of acute or chronic pancreatitis was performed. The software package STATISTICA 10.0 was used for analyzing the real data.

  6. [Post-traumatic intramural duodenal hematoma as a cause of high ileus in a child].

    PubMed

    Soudek, K; Husek, J; Randa, V; Dan?k, J

    1989-04-01

    The authors describe the case of an intramural duodenal haematoma caused a high ileus after a seven-day post-traumatic interval. The authors recommend surgical revision, in particular in children because the mechanism of injury is the same in intramural haematoma and in duodenal perforation. Only thus it is possible to prevena a fatal course, while the operation is easy and healing after drainage of the haematoma is rapid. PMID:2749389

  7. Simple diversion by duodenojejunostomy for a retroperitoneal perforation of the second portion of the duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Shigeru; Takashina, Motoi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Tomita, Rhyouichi; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We herein describe that a Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy is a simple and secure procedure for perforated diverticulum in the second portion of the duodenum. The surgical technique for perforated duodenal diverticulum can be adaptable when it is difficult to achieve closure of the perforated site easily. Patients who undergo the operation may be able to eat meals, even if duodenal fistula occurs in the postoperative course. PMID:25216433

  8. Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya, E-mail: ksj@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Isoda, Hiroyoshi [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Taura, Kojiro [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Surgery (Japan); Arizono, Shigeki; Shimada, Kotaro; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40{sup o}C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

  9. Geographic differences in the distribution of intestinal metaplasia in duodenal ulcer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hala M. T. El-Zimaity; Oscar Gutierrez; Jong G. Kim; Taiji Akamatsu; Inanc E. Gurer; Ahmed E. Simjee; David Y. Graham

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:A strong correlation exists between atrophic gastritis and the intestinal type of gastric carcinoma. Duodenal ulcer disease characteristically has an antral predominant gastritis and a lower risk for gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and distribution of intestinal metaplasia in duodenal ulcer in countries differing in gastric cancer incidence.METHODS:Topographically mapped gastric biopsy specimens (median

  10. Molecular Genotyping of Anisakis Larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and Endoscopic Evidence for Preferential Penetration of Normal over Atrophic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Toshio; Akao, Nobuaki; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Ohta, Nobuo; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Yamauchi, Kenji; Hirai, Mitsuru; Shiratori, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Naito, Mikio; Saitoh, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shibata, Nobumitsu; Shimo, Masamune; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. Methods In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis) were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Results Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s.) (99%), and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p?=?0.005). Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–31.8). Conclusions In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae. PMID:24586583

  11. Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptors on plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, R.; Nomura, H.; Iwakawa, S.; Okumura, K. (Kyoto Univ. Hospital (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The binding of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), beta-urogastrone, to plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa was studied to characterize gastric EGF receptors. The binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF was temperature dependent, reversible, and saturable. A single class of binding sites for EGF with a dissociation constant of 0.42 nM and maximal binding capacity of 42 fmol/mg protein was suggested. There was little change in the binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF upon addition of peptide hormones (secretin, insulin), antiulcer drugs (cimetidine), or an ulcer-inducing reagent (aspirin). Cross-linking of ({sup 125}I)hEGF to gastric plasma membranes with the use of disuccinimidyl suberate resulted in the labeling of a protein of 150 kDa. These results indicate the presence of EGF receptors on plasma membranes of rat gastric mucosa.

  12. Laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery for duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G1: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Tsushimi, Takaaki; Mori, Hirohito; Harada, Takasuke; Nagase, Takashi; Iked, Yoshitaka; Ohnishi, Hiromo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We report a case of duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G1 resected by laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) technique. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 58-year-old woman underwent esophagastroduodenoscopy, revealing an 8-mm, gently rising tumor distal to the pylorus, on the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonography suggested the tumor might invade the submucosal layer. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as a G1 duodenal NET, by biopsy. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was attempted, but was unsuccessful because of the difficulty of endoscopically performing an inversion operation in the narrow working space. The case was further complicated by the patient's duodenal ulcer scar. We performed a full-thickness local excision using laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery. The tumor was confirmed and endoscopically marked along the resection line. After full-thickness excision, using endoscopy and laparoscopy, interrupted full-thickness closure was performed laparoscopically. DISCUSSION Endoscopic treatment is generally recommended for G1 NETs <10 mm in diameter and extending only to the submucosal layer. However, some cases are difficult to resect endoscopically because the wall of duodenum is thinner than that of stomach, and endoscope maneuverability is limited within the narrow working space. LECS is appropriate for early duodenal G1 NETs because they are less invasive and resection of the lesion area is possible. CONCLUSION We demonstrated that LECS is a safe and feasible procedure for duodenal G1 NETs in the anterior wall of the first portion of the duodenum. PMID:25460463

  13. Duodenal Wedge Resection for Large Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour Presenting with Life-Threatening Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alexander; Jeffery, John; Dias, Laura; Nazir, Sarfraz

    2013-01-01

    Background. Duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are an uncommon malignancy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We present a case of life-threatening haemorrhage caused by a large ulcerating duodenal GIST arising from the third part of the duodenum managed by a limited duodenal wedge resection. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old patient presented with acute life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. After oesophagogastroduodenoscopy failed to demonstrate the source of bleeding, a 5?cm ulcerating exophytic mass originating from the third part of the duodenum was identified at laparotomy. A successful limited wedge resection of the tumour mass was performed. Histopathology subsequently confirmed a duodenal GIST. The patient remained well at 12-month followup with no evidence of local recurrence or metastatic spread. Conclusion. Duodenal GISTs can present with life-threatening upper GI haemorrhage. In the context of acute haemorrhage, even relatively large duodenal GISTs can be treated by limited wedge resection. This is a preferable alternative to duodenopancreatectomy with lower morbidity and mortality but comparable oncological outcome. PMID:23634309

  14. Effect of tyrosine administration on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T.; Szabo, S.

    1987-03-01

    Duodenal ulcers were produced by administering cysteamine to rats. Pretreatment with the catecholamine precursor, L-tyrosine (40 mg/100 g i.p. for 5 days), decreased the intensity of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Equimolar doses of tyrosine methyl ester (51.2 mg/100 g i.p. or s.c.) were equally effective in reducing ulcer intensity. Other amino acids (i.e., alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, lysine, tryptophan and valine) did not prevent experimental duodenal ulcers. Coadministration of other large neutral amino acids (e.g., leucine and valine) that compete with tyrosine for uptake into the brain did not inhibit the effect of tyrosine on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Gastric, duodenal and brain dopamine concentrations were increased 1 hr after the injection of tyrosine methyl ester (25.6 mg/100 g s.c.). These results suggest that the effect of tyrosine on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine may be mediated by changes in gastrointestinal dopamine metabolism.

  15. Histological Changes in the Gastric Mucosa of Magnesium Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Artizzu, Maria; Messier, B.

    1971-01-01

    The gastric mucosa of Sprague-Dawley male rats was studied histologically following a magnesium-deficient diet fed for 4, 8, 16, 30, 45 or 60 days. Control animals were given either the same diet supplemented with magnesium sulphate or Purina Laboratory Chow. Magnesium deficient animals showed the following prominent changes: vasodilatation, fewer surface mucous cells, as well as a diminution of theintracellular and the extracellular mucus, and structural disorganization of the upper third of the mucosa. No changes were noted in the controls. A possible interrelation of magnesium deficiency, histamine production and gastric mucosa is proposed. ImagesFigs. 5-7Figs. 1-4 PMID:5547657

  16. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Due to Duodenal Erosion by a Biliary Wallstent

    SciTech Connect

    Roebuck, Derek J.; Stanley, Philip [Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Katz, Michael D. [Department of Radiology, University of Southern California, 1500 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Parry, Robert L. [Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Haight, Michael A. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States)

    1998-01-15

    A self-expanding metallic stent (Wallstent) was used to relieve obstruction of the common bile duct in a young male with a desmoplastic small cell tumor of the abdomen. Two months after insertion and following a course of chemotherapy the lower end of the stent eroded the mucosa of the second part of the duodenum causing severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage which necessitated laparotomy and trimming of the stent. This complication may have been due to shrinking of the tumor as well as thrombocytopenia following chemotherapy.

  17. Pathological and clinical significance of increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in small bowel mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fuju; Mahadeva, Ula; Deere, Harriet

    2005-06-01

    Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) belong to a unique T-cell population interspersed between epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine. It is becoming increasingly recognised that an increased number of IELs with a normal villous architecture is within the wide spectrum of histological abnormalities observed in coeliac disease. An increased number of IELs is the earliest pathological change following gluten challenge and a high IEL count may be the only sign of gluten sensitivity. Therefore, the finding of a raised IEL count with normal villous architecture is of sufficient clinical importance to be reported in routine small bowel biopsies. However, it is evident that not all small intestinal biopsy specimens showing increased IELs are explained by gluten sensitivity. Increased IELs in small bowel mucosa have also been associated with autoimmune disorders, tropical sprue, food protein intolerance, Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, peptic duodenitis, parasitic and viral infections, as well as the development of intestinal lymphoma. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen of the small bowel remains the diagnostic gold standard for coeliac disease. There will be an ever increasing demand for histological confirmation of gluten sensitivity in patients in whom the classic microscopic appearance of flattened villi may not have fully developed. The more widespread recognition by histopathologists of the pattern of injury manifested by increased numbers of IELs in intestinal biopsy specimens will certainly help in early diagnosis of coeliac disease, lessen diagnostic confusion and influence the modern practice of gastrointestinal tract medicine. This review discusses some of the recent developments in clinical pathology pertaining to increased IELs in small bowel mucosal biopsies. PMID:15996156

  18. Augmentation by eosinophils of gelatinase activity in the airway mucosa: comparative effects as a putative mediator of epithelial injury.

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, C. A.; Arthur, M. J.; Robinson, C.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have studied the release of gelatin-degrading enzymes from isolated sheets of bronchial mucosa in the presence and absence of eosinophils. 2. Isolated sheets of bovine bronchial mucosa released gelatin-degrading activity in similar amounts from both the apical and basolateral aspects of the tissue. Gelatinolytic activity could not be increased by treatment of the mucosal sheets with calcium ionophore, A23187. 3. The activity of the released gelatinases could be inhibited by chelation of divalent cations or by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, BB-94 and BB-250. However, inhibitors of serine proteinases, or of cysteine proteinases were without effect. In zymography, major bands of gelatin-degrading activity consistent with gelatinases A and B were identified. 4. Addition of guinea-pig eosinophils to the basolateral aspect of bronchial mucosa for 60 min resulted in an increase in the gelatinolytic activity of the conditioned medium, irrespective of whether the eosinophils were stimulated with ionophore A23187 or not. However, only ionophore-stimulated eosinophils reacted to produce sufficient tissue damage to increase the transepithelial flux of serum albumin. 5. Purified eosinophils were a poor source of gelatinolytic activity, indicating that when interacting with the bronchial mucosa their effect is to increase the apparent release and/or activation of gelatinases derived from the airway mucosa. 6. After organomercurial activation, recombinant human progelatinase A increased the permeability of the bronchial mucosa to mannitol. However, the activity of enzyme and duration of exposure required to do this were greater than the amounts of gelatinase activity detected during eosinophil-mediated injury. Sheets of airway mucosa were also resistant to injury evoked by high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide or plasmin. 7. Collectively, these results suggest that if gelatinases are involved in eosinophil-mediated injury and repair of the bronchial mucosa, they require other mediators to act in concert to bring about outright epithelial cell detachment. This does not preclude the possibility that gelatinases are crucial in rendering the airway mucosa hyperfragile. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8646412

  19. Mast cell density in cardio-esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, Fatemeh E; Asefi, Hoda; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Pourpak, Zahra; Amini, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    Mast cells are related to certain gastrointestinal complaints. Mast cell density has not been studied in cardio-esophageal region to the best of our knowledge. In this study we wanted to obtain an estimate of mast cell density in this region and compare it with mast cell density in antrum. From April 2007 till March 2010, we chose children (<14 years old) who underwent upper endoscopy and from whom the taken biopsy was stated to be from lower third of esophagus, but in microscopic examination either cardio- esophageal mucosa or only cardiac mucosa was seen. Mast cells were counted by Giemsa stain at ×1000 magnification in 10 fields. 71 children (<14 years old) were included in this study of which, 63.4% (n=45) were female and 36.6% (n=26) were male. The mean age of patients was 7.20±4.21 years (range: 0.2 -14 years). The most common clinical manifestations were recurrent abdominal pain (64.8%) and vomiting (23.9%) followed by symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disorder, poor weight gain, hematemesis and dysphagia. The mean mast cell density in the cardiac mucosa was 33.41±32.75 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-155), which was two times of that in antral mucosa. We found a significant but weak positive correlation at the 0.05 level between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum. Higher mast cell counts were seen in cardiac mucosa in this study. Significant positive correlation between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum could hint to a single underlying etiology for the inflammatory process in gastro- esophageal junction and gastric mucosa. PMID:25148804

  20. Mechanisms of lipid loss from the small intestinal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Waldram

    1975-01-01

    Many water-soluble compounds have been shown to pass from the small intestinal mucosa into the lumen. In this work, the loss of lipids from the mucosa was investigated by perfusion experiments in rats, using 0-15M NaCl or buffer solutions over range of pH, with or without the addition of 5-7 or 11-4mM taurocholic acid. Perfusates were extracted for the estimation

  1. Juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula risk development and recurrence of biliary stone.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kang Suk; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Chul; Kim, In Hee; Lee, Seung-Ok

    2012-07-01

    We assessed whether the presence of juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula (JPDD) risks biliary stone disease and recurrence. In total, 695 patients who underwent ERCP were divided into two groups: biliary stone disease (group I, n = 523) and non-stone biliary diseases (group II, n = 172). Additionally, for a control group (group III), 80 age-matched healthy subjects underwent side-view duodenoscopy. In group I, rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis, cannulation failure, and disease recurrence in two-year follow up were compared according to the presence of JPDD. In results, the incidence of JPDD in group I (42.4%) was significantly higher than in group II (16.3%) and III (18.8%). The frequencies of JPDD were increased with age in all groups, and reached statistical significance in group I. In group I, rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis were significantly higher in patients with JPDD (18.5%) compared to JPDD negative (12.6%). The cannulation failure rate was also higher in patients with JPDD (9.9%) compared to JPDD negative (5.3%). Recurrence rate was higher in patients with JPDD (25.3%) compared to JPDD negative (9.2%). In conclusion, JPDD develops with aging and risks biliary stone formation. JPDD also seems to be associated with post-ERCP pancreatitis, cannulation failure and biliary stone recurrence. PMID:22787373

  2. Effect of sucralfate on gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.M.; Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may have accelerated gastric emptying (GE) suggesting that there is an increase in unbuffered gastric acid reaching the duodenum contributing to DU disease. Aluminum-containing antacids were shown to delay GE. The authors' aim was to investigate whether another aluminum-containing compound, Sucralfate, affects GE in normal and DU patients. Nine normal volunteers and 10 patients with documented DU disease were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of chicken liver Tc-99m-S-C mixed with beef stew and eaten with 4 oz. of water labelled with 100..mu..Ci of III-in-DTPA. On two separate days, subjects received 1 gram of Sucralfate (190 mg of aluminum per gram) or placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. GE of liquids and solids in normal subjects was not significantly changed by Sucralfate. Sucralfate in the DU patients significantly slowed liquid emptying in the initial 40 min and solid food throughout the study compared to placebo (p<0.05). This paper summarizes that; GE of solids but not liquids is accelerated in DU patients compared to normal subjects; and sucralfate delays GE of both liquid and solid components of a meal in DU patients but has no effect on GE in normals. The authors conclude that a slowing of gastric emptying possibly mediated by aluminum ions, may be one mechanism by which Sucralfate enhances healing and decreases recurrence of DU.

  3. Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were not identified in sinus mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Pandak, Nenad; Paji?-Penavi?, Ivana; Židovec-Lepej, Snježana; Planini?, Ana; Trošelj-Vuki?, Biserka; Peri?, Ljiljana

    2014-06-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a symptomatic inflammation of the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses lasting for at least 12 weeks. Atypical bacteria Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are important causes of human respiratory tract infection. Also, they were identified in bronchial respiratory epithelium of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma. Having in mind the unified airway concept, it is also possible that these bacteria can cause persistent infection of sinus mucosa in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Sixty consecutive patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who underwent the functional endoscopic sinus surgery due to medical therapy failure were included in the study. During the operation, sinuses were irrigated with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution and this lavage was immediately aspirated. Aspirates were used for the detection of C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae DNA using real-time PCR. C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae DNA were not detected in samples analysed. Atypical bacteria C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae did not cause persistent infection of sinus mucosa in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:24096817

  4. Cellular distribution of NKCC2 in the gastric mucosa and its response to short-term osmotic shock.

    PubMed

    Ji, T; Liu, S; Zheng, L F; Wang, Q; Dou, Z F; Zhang, Y; Zhu, J X

    2012-04-01

    The Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter-2 (NKCC2) has long been recognized as a "kidney-specific" transporter and is important in salt reabsorption. NKCC2 has been found in the gastric mucosa; however, its cellular distribution and function remain obscure. The present study characterized the distribution pattern of NKCC2 in mammalian gastric mucosa and investigated its response to osmotic challenge. Reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunofluorescence were used to determine NKCC2 expression and localization. The effect of osmotic shock on NKCC2 expression was studied in isolated gastric mucosa with variable osmolarity treatment. Results from all of the above studies were compared with those of NKCC1. Our data indicated that NKCC1 and NKCC2 were expressed in the gastric mucosa of rat, mouse and human. The mRNA transcripts and proteins for NKCC1 and NKCC2 were broadly expressed in the rat gastric mucosa. In rat and mouse, NKCC1 was largely confined to the lower part of the oxyntic and pyloric gland areas, whereas NKCC2 extended throughout the gastric glands. NKCC1 immunoreactivity was strongly expressed in the parietal and chief cells but was weaker in the mucous cells. NKCC2 was abundantly located in the parietal and mucous cells but faintly distributed in the chief cells. Hypertonic treatment increased the protein level of NKCC1 and caused evident membrane translocation. In contrast, NKCC2 was significantly downregulated and no obvious membrane translocation was observed. Thus, NKCC2 displayed a more ubiquitous distribution in the gastric mucosa and might work coordinately with NKCC1 to maintain cell volume homeostasis under hypertonic conditions. PMID:22388656

  5. Attenuated TLRs in middle ear mucosa contributes to susceptibility of chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Si, Yu; Zhang, Zhi Gang; Chen, Sui Jun; Zheng, Yi Qing; Chen, Yu Bin; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Huaili; Feng, Lian Qiang; Huang, Xi

    2014-08-01

    The variability in the recovery of otitis media (OM) is not well understood. Recent data have shown a critical role for toll-like receptors (TLRs) in inflammatory responses to bacteria. It remains unclear whether TLRs-mediated mucosal immunity plays a role in the OM recovery. The etiology, pathological profile, expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9 and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in human middle-ear mucosae sampled from three subject groups: non-OM group, chronic otitis-media (COM) group, and chronic suppurative otitis-media (CSOM) group. Of the 72 ears, 86.11% CSOM patients were positive for bacteria. The cellular makeup of the middle ear mucosa differs among the three groups. Mucosae from the CSOM group presented chronic inflammation or suppurative inflammation in the rudimentary stroma, mainly with infiltration of monocytes and macrophages. The mRNA and protein levels of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 exhibited no difference between the non-OM and COM groups but were significantly lower in the CSOM group. Conversely, there was no significant difference in the TLR9 level among the three groups. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1?, IFN-?, IL-6 were up-regulated in the CSOM group. This study provides evidence that the variability in clinical otitis media recovery might be associated with the variability in the expression of mucosal TLRs. Reduced TLR levels in the middle-ear mucosa might cause weak host response to bacteria, persistent inflammation and susceptibility to CSOM. PMID:24882571

  6. Biochemical changes in the jejunal mucosa of dogs with a naturally occurring enteropathy associated with bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Batt, R M; Carter, M W; Peters, T J

    1984-08-01

    The subcellular biochemical features of a naturally occurring enteropathy in the dog associated with bacterial overgrowth have been examined. Affected animals comprised a group of 10 German Shepherd dogs with raised serum folate and reduced vitamin B12 concentrations, mild steatorrhoea, reduced xylose absorption, and normal exocrine pancreatic function. Culture of duodenal juice showed bacterial overgrowth with mixed flora, most frequently including enterococci and Escherichia coli. Examination of peroral jejunal biopsies revealed predominantly minimal histological but distinct biochemical abnormalities in the mucosa. The specific activity of alkaline phosphatase was decreased, isopycnic density gradient centrifugation showing a marked loss particularly of the brush border component of enzyme activity. In contrast, gamma-glutamyl transferase activity was enhanced in brush border fragments of slightly increased modal density, but there were no changes in the activities of the carbohydrases, zinc-resistant alpha-glucosidase, maltase, sucrase, and lactase or of the peptidase, leucyl-2-naphthylamidase. Activities of lysosomal enzymes were increased and there was evidence for enhanced lysosomal fragility and mitochondrial disruption. The activities and density gradient distributions of marker enzymes for basal-lateral membranes, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes were essentially unaltered. These findings show that bacterial colonisation of the proximal small intestine may be associated with specific alterations in microvillus membrane proteins and provide biochemical evidence for intracellular damage to the enterocytes. PMID:6745719

  7. Milk feeding and xylazine treatment induce increased antroduodenal motility in young cattle with opposite effects on duodenal digesta flow rate.

    PubMed

    Merritt, A M; Ruckebusch, Y

    1988-01-01

    Antroduodenal myoelectrical activity and duodenal digesta flow rate in young cattle were assessed by implanted nichrome wire electrodes and reentrant duodenal cannulation with interposed flow-meter. In addition, a small glass electrode was inserted through a duodenal cannula to continuously measure the pH of duodenal contents. When eating only hay ad libitum, the duodenal myoelectrical activity showed the usual migrating myoelectrical complex (MMC) pattern. Duodenal contents pH rose sharply at the end of a period of repetitive spike activity (RSA), or phase III, from pH less than 2 to greater than 5 and remained high through most of the subsequent period of no spike activity (NSA), or phase I, during which there was no antral spiking and no flow of duodenal contents. Feeding milk (pH 6.5) caused a marked increase in antroduodenal spike activity and intraduodenal flow rate, with a concomitant rapid rise in duodenal contents pH from 1.8 +/- 0.3 (SEM) to 5.0 +/- 0.2 which then slowly declined over the next few hours. Within 5 min after the administration of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist xylazine (25 and 50 micrograms/kg intramuscular), there was a significant increase (P less than 0.05) in antroduodenal spike frequency and a concomitant marked drop in intraduodenal flow rate with a sustained low pH of intraduodenal contents. The results suggest that: (1) continuous measurement of proximal duodenal pH adds a useful dimension to documenting relationships between antroduodenal myoelectrical activity and duodenal digesta flow rate; and (2) increased spike activity in the antroduodenal region does not necessarily indicate an increased duodenal flow rate is occurring. PMID:3338358

  8. De-Nol stimulates gastric and duodenal alkaline secretion through prostaglandin dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Bilski, J; Kwiecien, N; Obtuløwicz, W; Kopp, B; Oleksy, J

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of colloidal bismuth subcitrate De-Nol on gastric HCO3- secretion in 24 healthy subjects and on gastric and duodenal HCO3- secretion in dogs with gastric and duodenal fistulae. Alkaline secretion was measured after pretreatment with ranitidine to abolish the H+ secretion using a constant perfusion aspiration system and back titration of the perfusates to the original pH 6.0. Luminal release of PGE2 was also measured in the gastric and duodenal perfusates. Addition of De-Nol in gradually increasing concentrations resulted in step wise increments in gastric HCO3- secretion in man and in dogs reaching, respectively, about 80% and 55% of the maximal HCO3- response to 16, 16dimethyl-PGE2 (dmPGE2). The duodenal HCO3- response to De-Nol in dogs reached 72% of the dmPGE2 maximum. These effects were accompanied by a significant increase in luminal release of PGE2. Pretreatment with atropine reduced basal and in part De-Nol induced alkaline secretion, whereas pirenzepine did not affect this secretion in man and dogs. Aspirin (in man) and indomethacin (in dogs) reduced the release of PGE2 by about 80% and suppressed almost completely the gastric and duodenal HCO3- response to De-Nol in these species. This study provides evidence that De-Nol stimulates gastroduodenal alkaline secretion through a prostaglandin dependent mechanism. PMID:3480844

  9. Pyloric exclusion in the treatment of severe duodenal injuries: results from the National Trauma Data Bank.

    PubMed

    DuBose, Joseph J; Inaba, Kenji; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Shiflett, Anthony; Putty, Bradley; Green, D J; Plurad, David; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2008-10-01

    Pyloric exclusion (PEX) has traditionally been used in the management of complicated duodenal injuries to temporarily protect the duodenal repair and prevent septic abdominal complications. We used the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (v 5.0) to evaluate adult patients with severe duodenal injuries [American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Grade > or = 3] undergoing primary repair only or repair with PEX within 24 hours of admission. Propensity scoring was used to adjust for relevant confounding factors during outcomes comparison. Among 147 patients with severe duodenal injuries, 28 (19.0%) underwent PEX [15.9% (11/69) Grade III vs 34.0% (17/50) Grade IV-V]. Despite similar demographics, PEX was associated with a longer mean hospital stay (32.2 vs 22.2 days, P = 0.003) and was not associated with a mortality benefit. There was a trend toward increased development of septic abdominal complications (intra-abdominal abscess, wound infection, or dehiscence) with PEX that was not statistically significant. After multivariable analysis using propensity score, no statistically significant differences in mortality or occurrence of septic abdominal complications was noted between those patients undergoing primary repair only or PEX. The use of PEX in patients with severe duodenal injuries may contribute to longer hospital stay and confers no survival or outcome benefit. PMID:18942615

  10. Computer simulation of flow and mixing at the duodenal stump after gastric resection

    PubMed Central

    Filipovic, Nenad; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Isailovic, Velibor; Matovic, Zoran; Rosic, Mirko; Kojic, Milos

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the flow and mixing at the duodenal stump after gastric resection, a computer simulation was implemented. METHODS: Using the finite element method, two different Billroth II procedure cases (A and B) were modeled. Case A was defined with a shorter and almost straight duodenal section, while case B has a much longer and curved duodenal section. Velocity, pressure and food concentration distribution were determined and the numerical results were compared with experimental observations. RESULTS: The pressure distribution obtained by numerical simulation was in the range of the recorded experimental results. Case A had a more favorable pressure distribution in comparison with case B. However, case B had better performance in terms of food transport because of more continual food distribution, as well as better emptying of the duodenal section. CONCLUSION: This study offers insight into the transport process within the duodenal stump section after surgical intervention, which can be useful for future patient-specific predictions of a surgical outcome. PMID:19399932

  11. Toxic Rhinitis-Induced Changes of Human Nasal Mucosa Innervation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Groneberg; Werner Heppt; Annette Cryer; Anke Wussow; Christian Peiser; Martina Zweng; Q. Thai Dinh; Christian Witt; Axel Fischer

    2003-01-01

    Irritative toxic rhinitis is a nasal disorder induced by chemical compounds like ozone, formaldehyde, nickel, chrome, solvents and tobacco smoke. These noxious stimuli may have effects on the nasal innervation leading to a cascade of neuro-immune interactions and an augmentation of the symptoms. Here we examined changes in the neuropeptide content of mucosal parasympathetic, sympathetic and sensory nerves of patients

  12. Graft Duodenal Perforation due to Internal Hernia after Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation: Report of a Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Fumimoto; Masahiro Tanemura; Yoshihiko Hoshida; Toshirou Nishida; Yoshiki Sawa; Toshinori Ito

    2008-01-01

    Although complications including graft thrombosis, graft pancreatitis, and rejection have been well documented after pancreas transplantation, the occurrence of graft duodenal perforation is uncommon. In this article, we report a case of graft duodenal perforation due to internal hernia after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK). A patient with type I diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy had undergone SPK from a cadaveric

  13. Association of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt with Embolization in the Treatment of Bleeding Duodenal Varix Refractory to Sclerotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulio Illuminati; Allaoua Smail; Daniel Azoulay; Denis Castaing; Henri Bismuth

    2000-01-01

    Background: Bleeding from duodenal varices are often severe (mortality as high as 40%), and more difficult to sclerose than esophageal varices. We report a patient with a bleeding duodenal varix, refractory to sclerotherapy, successfully treated by the association of portosystemic shunt placement and varix embolization, via the same transjugular intrahepatic route. Methods: A 40-year-old Black male underwent emergency TIPS and

  14. Long-term recording and computer analysis of simultaneous gastric and duodenal pH under normal conditions in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R F McCloy; J H Baron; J C Vickery

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed to make simultaneous digital recordings of gastric and duodenal pH. An intraluminal miniature glass electrode assembly has been maintained in a stable position in the duodenal bulb and stomach in 34 out of 41 studies. The pH data can be logged by a transportable system at up to one second intervals for periods of 24

  15. A Case of Acute Ischemic Duodenal Ulcer Associated with Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection After Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang, E-mail: jsh@snubh.org; Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hyub [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    We report a case of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)-related acute ischemic duodenal ulcer that developed in association with dissection of the superior mesenteric artery. We conclude that the acute duodenal ulcer was developed by ischemia related to superior mesenteric artery dissection during TACE. TACE should be conducted carefully with continuous observation of abdominal arteries.

  16. Successful endoscopic therapy of postoperative duodenal fistula by lipiodol injection: a new therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Ozdil, Burhan; Yamak, Yusuf Ziya; Kece, Can; Cebi, Kibar

    2011-05-01

    Postoperative upper gastrointestinal fistulas or anastomotic leaks with peritonitis are rare but serious clinical conditions. Due to severe fluid and electrolyte imbalance and risk of development of sepsis implementation of efficient and timely management is crucial. Various endoscopic interventions have been performed to date for postoperative upper gastrointestinal fistulas. We herein describe a new therapeutical approach involving lipiodol injection, which we performed to treat a patient who had unsuccessfully undergone surgery for a posttraumatic duodenal fistula. The fistula was then successfully managed by endoscopic lipiodol injection. We present this case due to its interesting nature of a postsurgical duodenal fistula without evident fistula tract, and a successful therapy by a new approach, lipiodol injection. We conclude that this new method offers an option for patients with high operation risk or for those with failed surgery, and this new method may decrease morbidity, mortality and the time required for the closure of duodenal fistulas. PMID:20929423

  17. The use of pyloric exclusion in the management of severe duodenal injuries.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, G D; Frazier, O H; Graham, D Y; Mattox, K L; Petmecky, F F; Jordan, G L

    1977-12-01

    Repair of severe duodenal injuries often constitutes a technical challenge, and a variety of special technics have been described. For the past seven years we have utilized temporary pyloric exclusion and gastrojejunostomy to produce "diverticulization" of the duodenum. This procedure was utilized in seventy-five patients selected from 175 consecutive patients presenting with duodenal trauma. The mortality was 19 per cent and the rate of fistula formation was 5 per cent in this series and 14 per cent and 2 per cent, respectively, in the overall series. Follow-up studies of gastric physiology and functional anatomy show no evidence of alteration of these parameters. We thus believe that patients presenting with severe duodenal trauma and often multiple devastating associated organ injuries can be adequately treated with this procedure with a significant decrease in mortality and with marked improvement of postoperative morbidity. PMID:596547

  18. An unusual case of duodenal perforation caused by a lollipop stick: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Ae; Lee, Du Hyeon; Hong, Hyoung Ju; Park, Chang Hwan; Park, Seon Young; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2014-03-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies often pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully; however, complications such as perforation do occur. Most cases of perforation are caused by thin, pointed objects such as needles, toothpicks, or fish and chicken bones. Herein, we report an unusual case of duodenal perforation caused by a lollipop stick with blunt ends. A 23-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department complaining of epigastric and right upper quadrant pain for the last 2 days. Abdominal computed tomography scans confirmed the presence of a foreign body in the duodenum, with signs of duodenal perforation and inflammation. The patient was not aware of ingesting the foreign body. Endoscopy revealed the presence of a lollipop stick in the duodenum, which was removed with forceps. The duodenal perforation was successfully managed by using hemoclips and a detachable snare. PMID:24765603

  19. Predicting Chemically Induced Duodenal Ulcer and Adrenal Necrosis with Classification Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampaolo, Casimiro; Gray, Andrew T.; Olshen, Richard A.; Szabo, Sandor

    1991-07-01

    Binary tree-structured statistical classification algorithms and properties of 56 model alkyl nucleophiles were brought to bear on two problems of experimental pharmacology and toxicology. Each rat of a learning sample of 745 was administered one compound and autopsied to determine the presence of duodenal ulcer or adrenal hemorrhagic necrosis. The cited statistical classification schemes were then applied to these outcomes and 67 features of the compounds to ascertain those characteristics that are associated with biologic activity. For predicting duodenal ulceration, dipole moment, melting point, and solubility in octanol are particularly important, while for predicting adrenal necrosis, important features include the number of sulfhydryl groups and double bonds. These methods may constitute inexpensive but powerful ways to screen untested compounds for possible organ-specific toxicity. Mechanisms for the etiology and pathogenesis of the duodenal and adrenal lesions are suggested, as are additional avenues for drug design.

  20. Unduly extensive uncinate process of pancreas in conjunction with pancreatico-duodenal fold

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mona; Pakhiddey, Rohini; Thakur, Avinash; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh K.; Rath, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical variations of pancreatic head and uncinate process are rarely encountered in clinical practice. These variations are primarily attributed to the complex development of the pancreas. An unduly enlarged uncinate process of the pancreas overlapping the third part of duodenum was discovered during dissection. This malformation of the pancreatic uncinate process was considered to be due to excessive fusion between the ventral and dorsal buds during embryonic development. On further dissection, an avascular pancreatico-duodenal fold guarding the pancreatico-duodenal recess was observed. The enlarged uncinate process can cause compression of neurovascular structures and also cause compression of adjoining viscera. The pancreatico-duodenal recess becomes a potential site for internal herniation. This case is of particular interest to the gastroenterologists and surgeons performing surgical resections. Precise knowledge of embryogenesis of such pancreatic anomalies is necessary for understanding and thus treating many diseases of the pancreas. PMID:25806126

  1. Andreas Vecsei, Thomas Fuhrmann, Michael Liedlgruber, Leonhard Brunauer, Hannes Payer and Andreas Uhl, "Automated classification of duodenal imagery in celiac disease using evolved

    E-print Network

    Uhl, Andreas

    Uhl, "Automated classification of duodenal imagery in celiac disease using evolved Fourier feature.cmpb.2009.02.017 #12;Automated classification of duodenal imagery in Celiac disease using evolved Fourier. These are applied to duodenal imagery for diagnosis of celiac disease. Features are extracted from the Fourier

  2. Effect of diet on amino-acid profile of duodenal digesta in the goat H Archimde D Sauvant M Dorlans JC Robert2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of diet on amino-acid profile of duodenal digesta in the goat H Archimède D Sauvant M Paris; 2 Rhbne Poulenc Nutrition Animale, 03600 Commentry, France Amino-acid profiles (AAP) of duodenal% (Met), and 90% (Val) of the variations in the relative proportions of the amino acids in the duodenal

  3. Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Joey M.; Bentley, Julie L.; Malik, Bilal H.; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue. PMID:25426310

  4. Characterization of isolates of Acanthamoeba from the nasal mucosa and cutaneous lesions of dogs.

    PubMed

    Carlesso, A M; Mentz, M B; da Machado, M L S; Carvalho, A; Nunes, T E T; Maschio, V J; Rott, M B

    2014-06-01

    Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and can cause encephalomyelitis in animals and humans. The factors that contribute to Acanthamoeba infections include parasite biology, genetic diversity, environmental spread, and host susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to characterize isolates of Acanthamoeba from the nasal mucosa and cutaneous lesions of dogs in order to access the occurence and pathogenicity of these organisms in this animal group. We studied 13 isolates of Acanthamoeba confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. They were sequenced, the genotype was determined, and their potential of pathogenicity was evaluated. PMID:24496873

  5. Bacteremia due to imipenem-resistant Roseomonas mucosa in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Michon, Anne-Laure; Saumet, Laure; Bourdier, Alice; Haouy, Stéphanie; Sirvent, Nicolas; Marchandin, Hélène

    2014-04-01

    Roseomonas are described as opportunistic pathogens rarely involved in human infections. Their identification requires molecular methods and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern varies according to the species. We report the first case of bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in a child with leukemia and reviewed pediatric cases of Roseomonas infection, for which undoubted strain identification was available. Favorable outcome was observed despite resistance to numerous ?-lactams that may account for delayed effective treatment, suggesting the low virulence of Roseomonas in children. Here, the strain also displayed unusual resistance to imipenem, highlighting the possible acquisition of additional resistance by this pathogen. PMID:23669726

  6. Differential expression of microRNAs in preneoplastic gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Link, Alexander; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Langner, Cosima; Varbanova, Mariya; Bornschein, Jan; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial H.pylori-triggered dynamic process that goes through a cascade of preneoplastic conditions. The expression of miRNAs in the stomach with regard to preneoplastic precursor conditions and H.pylori infection has not been investigated systematically. In this prospective proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the miRNA expression in gastric antrum and corpus mucosa from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG), atrophic gastritis (AG), and GC compared to controls. Gastric normal mucosa shows a unique expression pattern for miR-21, miR-155 and miR-223, which is specific for different regions. In correlation with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, we observed a gradual increase in miR-155 and miR-223 both in corpus and antrum and miR-21 only in the antrum mucosa. Using miRNA expression we calculated a score that allowed us to discriminate patients with AG from subjects with normal mucosa with high diagnostic accuracy in testing and validation cohorts reproducibly. In summary, the expression pattern of miRNAs in the gastric mucosa is gradually increased with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, suggesting miRNAs as potential biomarkers for preneoplastic precursor conditions. However, differences of miRNA expression between the gastric antrum and the corpus need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25652892

  7. Differential expression of microRNAs in preneoplastic gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Link, Alexander; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Langner, Cosima; Varbanova, Mariya; Bornschein, Jan; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial H.pylori-triggered dynamic process that goes through a cascade of preneoplastic conditions. The expression of miRNAs in the stomach with regard to preneoplastic precursor conditions and H.pylori infection has not been investigated systematically. In this prospective proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the miRNA expression in gastric antrum and corpus mucosa from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG), atrophic gastritis (AG), and GC compared to controls. Gastric normal mucosa shows a unique expression pattern for miR-21, miR-155 and miR-223, which is specific for different regions. In correlation with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, we observed a gradual increase in miR-155 and miR-223 both in corpus and antrum and miR-21 only in the antrum mucosa. Using miRNA expression we calculated a score that allowed us to discriminate patients with AG from subjects with normal mucosa with high diagnostic accuracy in testing and validation cohorts reproducibly. In summary, the expression pattern of miRNAs in the gastric mucosa is gradually increased with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, suggesting miRNAs as potential biomarkers for preneoplastic precursor conditions. However, differences of miRNA expression between the gastric antrum and the corpus need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25652892

  8. Cleft palate cells can regenerate a palatal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Lamme, E N; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Krapels, I P C; Bian, Z; Marres, H; Spauwen, P H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

    2008-08-01

    Cleft palate repair leaves full-thickness mucosal defects on the palate. Healing might be improved by implantation of a mucosal substitute. However, the genetic and phenotypic deviations of cleft palate cells may hamper tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to construct mucosal substitutes from cleft palate cells, and to compare these with substitutes from normal palatal cells, and with native palatal mucosa. Biopsies from the palatal mucosa of eight children with cleft palate and eight age-matched control individuals were taken. Three biopsies of both groups were processed for (immuno)histochemistry; 5 were used to culture mucosal substitutes. Histology showed that the substitutes from cleft-palate and non-cleft-palate cells were comparable, but the number of cell layers was less than in native palatal mucosa. All epithelial layers in native palatal mucosa and mucosal substitutes expressed the cytokeratins 5, 10, and 16, and the proliferation marker Ki67. Heparan sulphate and decorin were present in the basal membrane and the underlying connective tissue, respectively. We conclude that mucosal cells from children with cleft palate can regenerate an oral mucosa in vitro. PMID:18650554

  9. Prolonged duodenal acid perfusion and dyspeptic symptom occurrence in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    di Stefano, M; Vos, R; Vanuytsel, T; Janssens, J; Tack, J

    2009-07-01

    The pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD) is unknown and several mechanisms associated with specific symptom patterns have been recently proposed. Increased duodenal acid exposure has been supposed to be associated with nausea, but recently an increase of severity of several dyspeptic symptoms was noted in a subset of dyspeptic patients. As its pathogenetic role is still unclear, we evaluated an involvement of duodenal acid exposure in symptom generation by inducing a hyperacidity status of the duodenum. Twelve young adult healthy volunteers in a randomized, double-blind protocol, underwent duodenal acid (0.2 N, 5 mL min(-1)) or saline perfusion, antropyloroduodenal manometry and duodenal pH monitoring both during fasting and postprandially. Every 15 min, severity of discomfort, fullness, bloating, belching, nausea, heartburn, epigastric burning, satiety and pain were evaluated by visual analogue scale. During acid perfusion, symptom scores for discomfort, bloating, nausea, epigastric burning were significantly higher (P < 0.01) compared to saline. Postprandial antral motility index was lower (2.96 +/- 1.8 vs 3.62 +/- 1.8, P = 0.01) and jejunal motility index higher (4.87 +/- 1.0 vs 4.37 +/- 1.4, P = 0.01) during acid perfusion. Occurrence and duration of phases III of the migrating motor complex showed no difference. Duodenal acid perfusion causes a sensitization to dyspeptic symptoms and induces antral hypomotility and jejunal hypercontractility. Through these mechanisms, increased duodenal acid exposure may play a role in the pathophysiology of FD symptoms. PMID:19236580

  10. [The treatment of chronic duodenal ulcer with accompanying Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Petsch, B; Kabala, A; Paw?owski, W

    1998-08-01

    Three hundred seventy four patients with duodenal ulcers and Helicobacter pylori infections were given a four-week treatment of bismuth or ranitidin. In all patients two-week antibiotic therapy were given. Endoscopies with urease tests and histologic examinations were performed before initiation and four weeks after cessation of therapy. Four-week therapy with ranitidini and two-week therapy with amoxicillin and metronidasole is highly effective (89.6%) in duodenal ulcer healing and symptom improvement comparison to bismuth and antibiotic therapy. PMID:10101457

  11. Diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in infants: Tc-99m DISIDA in duodenal juice

    SciTech Connect

    Jaw, T.S.; Wu, C.C.; Ho, Y.H.; Huang, B.L.; Lu, C.C.

    1984-03-01

    Technetium-99m di-isopropylphenylcarbamoylmethylimidodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy, together with measurements of radioactivity in duodenal juice, was used to evaluate 23 infants with prolonged obstructive jaundice. Four patients proved to have biliary atresia. The remainder had neonatal hepatitis. There was distinct differentiation of biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis when the time-activity curves were analyzed. In neonatal hepatitis the radioactivity in duodenal juice is obviously higher, peaking above 1500 cpm/100 ..mu..l per mCi dose. In biliary atresia the pattern is flattened, with maximal activity below 500 cpm/100 ..mu..l per mCi dose.

  12. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjay Balwant; Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Joshi, Pankaj Mangalkumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue. PMID:24497698

  13. Glanuloplasty with Oral Mucosa Graft following Total Glans Penis Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Appiah, Kwaku; Amoah, George; Azorliade, Roland; Gyasi-Sarpong, Kofi; Aboah, Ken; Nyamekye, Baah; Maison, Patrick; Twumasi-Frimpong, Benjamin; Opoku Antwi, Issac; Yenli, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    This is a report on the technique of neoglans reconstruction in a patient with amputated glans penis following guillotine neonatal circumcision. A 4?cm long and 2?cm wide lower lip oral mucosa graft was harvested and used to graft the distal 2?cm of the corporal bodies after 2?cm of the distal penile skin had been excised. One edge of the lower lip oral mucosa graft was anastomosed to the urethral margins distally and proximally to the skin. At six months of followup, patient had both satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes. PMID:25184073

  14. Oral focal mucinosis of palatal mucosa: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Vipin; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to the overproduction of hyaluronic acid by a fibroblast, at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue, primarily affecting the mucosa overlying the bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, as the diagnosis is solely based on the histopathological features. This article reports of a 32-year-old female having the rare disease of oral focal mucinosis, involving the posterior palatal mucosa, and discusses its clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23230367

  15. Breast Cancer-Associated pS2 Protein: Synthesis and Secretion by Normal Stomach Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, M. C.; Bellocq, J. P.; Daniel, J. Y.; Tomasetto, C.; Lathe, R.; Chenard, M. P.; Batzenschlager, A.; Chambon, P.

    1988-08-01

    The human pS2 gene is specifically expressed under estrogen transcriptional control in a subclass of estrogen receptor-containing human breast cancer cells. The pS2 gene encodes an 84-amino acid protein that is secreted after signal peptide cleavage. The distribution of pS2 protein in normal human tissues was studied with antibodies to pS2; pS2 was specifically expressed and secreted by mucosa cells of the normal stomach antrum and body of both female and male individuals. Moreover, no estrogen receptor could be detected in these cells, indicating that pS2 gene expression is estrogen-independent in the stomach. The function of the pS2 protein in the gastrointestinal tract is unknown. However, the pS2 protein is similar in sequence to a porcine pancreatic protein that has been shown to inhibit gastrointestinal motility and gastric secretion.

  16. In vivo adaptation and persistence of Neisseria meningitidis within the nasopharyngeal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Johswich, Kay O; McCaw, Shannon E; Islam, Epshita; Sintsova, Anna; Gu, Angel; Shively, John E; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) asymptomatically colonizes the human nasopharynx, yet can initiate rapidly-progressing sepsis and meningitis in rare instances. Understanding the meningococcal lifestyle within the nasopharyngeal mucosa, a phase of infection that is prerequisite for disease, has been hampered by the lack of animal models. Herein, we compare mice expressing the four different human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) that can bind the neisserial Opa protein adhesins, and find that expression of human CEACAM1 is necessary and sufficient to establish intranasal colonization. During infection, in vivo selection for phase variants expressing CEACAM1-specific Opa proteins occurs, allowing mucosal attachment and entry into the subepithelial space. Consistent with an essential role for Opa proteins in this process, Opa-deficient meningococci were unable to colonize the CEACAM1-humanized mice. While simple Opa-mediated attachment triggered an innate response regardless of meningococcal viability within the inoculum, persistence of viable Opa-expressing bacteria within the CEACAM1-humanized mice was required for a protective memory response to be achieved. Parenteral immunization with a capsule-based conjugate vaccine led to the accumulation of protective levels of Nme-specific IgG within the nasal mucus, yet the sterilizing immunity afforded by natural colonization was instead conferred by Nme-specific IgA without detectable IgG. Considered together, this study establishes that the availability of CEACAM1 helps define the exquisite host specificity of this human-restricted pathogen, displays a striking example of in vivo selection for the expression of desirable Opa variants, and provides a novel model in which to consider meningococcal infection and immunity within the nasopharyngeal mucosa. PMID:23935487

  17. Effect of dopamine-related drugs on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine or propionitrile: prevention and aggravation may not be mediated by gastrointestinal secretory changes in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, G.; Brown, A.; Szabo, S.

    1987-03-01

    Dose- and time-response studies have been performed with dopamine agonists and antagonists using the cysteamine and propionitrile duodenal ulcer models in the rat. The experiments demonstrate that the chemically induced duodenal ulcer is prevented by bromocriptine, lergotrile and reduced by apomorphine or L-dopa. Aggravation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was seen especially after (-)-butaclamol, (-)-sulpiride, haloperidol and, less effectively, after other dopaminergic antagonists. The duodenal antiulcerogenic action of dopamine agonists was more prominent after chronic administration than after a single dose, whereas the opposite was found concerning the proulcerogenic effect of dopamine antagonists. In the chronic gastric fistula rat, both the antiulcerogens bromocriptine or lergotrile and the proulcerogens haloperidol, pimozide or (-)-N-(2-chlorethyl)-norapomorphine decreased the cysteamine- or propionitrile-induced gastric secretion. No correlation was apparent between the influence of these drugs on duodenal ulcer development and gastric and duodenal (pancreatic/biliary) secretions. In the chronic duodenal fistula rat, decreased acid content was measured in the proximal duodenum after haloperidol, and diminished duodenal pepsin exposure was recorded after bromocriptine. Furthermore, the aggravation by dopamine antagonists of experimental duodenal ulcer probably involves a peripheral component. The site of dopamine receptors and physiologic effects which modulate experimental duodenal ulcer remain to be identified, but their elucidation may prove to be an important element in the pathogenesis and treatment of duodenal ulcer.

  18. Atypical presentation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor masquerading as a large duodenal cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ameet; Jakhmola, C.K.; Chauhan, Shivraj Singh; Singh, Apoorv

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are solid tumors. A duodenal GIST masquerading as a cystic lesion has never been reported. We report a large duodenal cyst that finally turned out to be a GIST and was managed without a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Presentation of case A 55 year old lady presented with painful lump in epigastrium. A CT scan revealed a large exophytic cystic lesion from the duodenum with a small solid component. An endoscopy showed a polypoid lesion in the second part of the duodenum adjacent to what looked like a diverticulum. A sleeve duodenal resection, duodeno-duodenostomy and pyloric exclusion was done. The histopathology was duodenal GIST. Discussion This case posed diagnostic difficulty as it was thought to be either a duplication cyst or a diverticulum of duodenum. The odd point was the small solid component in it. We considered the possibility of a malignancy arising in these settings, which is has been occasionally reported. To our surprise, it turned out to be a GIST. An extensive literature search yielded only four reports that have reported cystic GISTS, all arising from the stomach or pancreas where they have been mistaken for pseudocysts or even a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas. This is the first report of a cystic GIST arising from the duodenum. Conclusion GISTS can present as a predominantly cystic lesion and needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the duodenum. Local resection is an attractive option in select cases and avoids a PD. PMID:25768277

  19. Malignant Gastric and Duodenal Stenosis: Palliation by Peroral Implantation of a Self-Expanding Metallic Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Isabel T. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Ctra. de Toledo, Km. 12.5, E-28905 Getafe, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the use of self-expanding metallic stents in patients with inoperable malignant antrum-pylorus-duodenal obstruction. Methods: Six patients underwent implantation of a Wallstent self-expanding metallic endoprosthesis (20 mm in five patients and 16 mm in one). In five patients a catheter (Berenstein) was introduced perorally into the stomach. A guidewire (Terumo) was introduced through the catheter and advanced through the antrum-pylorus-duodenal stenosis. The guidewire was removed and a 260-cm-long, 0.035'' superstiff guide (Amplatz) was introduced. After the catheter was removed the stent assembly was introduced. In the last patient the stent was implanted through a percutaneous gastrostomy. Results: Treatment of inoperable gastric outlet obstruction caused by tumor compression is difficult and unsatisfactory. Peroral implantation of self-expanding metallic stents resulted in successful palliative therapy of antrum-pylorus-duodenal stenosis in six patients in whom surgery was not possible because of advanced disease and poor general condition. On average, patients were able to eat during 41 days. One patient is tolerating oral intake at 3 months. Conclusion: Implantation of stents resulted in palliative relief of malignant antrum-pylorus-duodenal obstructions.

  20. Pyloric exclusion in the management of complicated duodenal and pancreatic disease.

    PubMed

    Cogbill, T H; Moore, E E; Newman, M M; Halgrimson, C G

    1984-05-01

    Pyloric exclusion with gastrojejunostomy has been shown to be an effective adjuvant in the treatment of severe duodenal and pancreatic trauma. The authors have successfully applied this technique to the treatment of two patients with complicated pancreatic pseudocysts drained by cyst duodenostomy. A third patient with malignant duodenocolic fistula was palliated with this modality but eventually succumbed to his advanced disease. PMID:6721288

  1. The incidence of duodenal and gastric ulcers in a large health maintenance organization.

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, J H; Honda, G D; Frankl, H

    1985-01-01

    We report the incidence of peptic ulcers (duodenal, pyloric canal, gastric, and combined) verified by radiologic, endoscopic, or surgical evidence in a large Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) in Los Angeles, California. For members age 15 and above, the peptic ulcer incidence rate was 0.86 per 1,000 person-years (p-y) (males 1.10, females 0.63). The male to female sex ratio was 1.7. Two hundred twenty-two duodenal, 17 pyloric canal, 89 gastric, and 21 combined first-time diagnosed ulcer cases were located. For duodenal and pyloric canal ulcer, the incidence rate for members age 15 and above was 0.58 per 1,000 p-y (males 0.76, females 0.40). For gastric ulcer, the incidence rate for members age 15 and above was 0.21 per 1,000 p-y (males 0.23, females 0.18). The combined ulcer rate was 0.05 per 1,000 p-y (males 0.07, females 0.02). Gastric ulcer rates were two times higher in 1980 than in 1977. Peptic ulcer age-specific incidence rates increased with age. Incidence rates were much lower than those reported in previous studies, but the gastric to duodenal ulcer ratio and the age and sex relation to ulcer incidence were similar to those previously reported. PMID:4003625

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection and abnormalities of acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emad M. El-Omar; Ian D. Penman; Joy E. S. Ardill; Ravi S. Chittajallu; Catherine Howie; Kenneth E. L. McColl

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: The mechanism by which Helicobacter pylori predisposes to duodenal ulcers (DUs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the infection on acid secretion. Methods: Acid output was examined basally and in response to gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and gastrin in healthy volunteers with and without H. pylori infection and in patients with

  3. Curing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer may provoke reflux esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Labenz; AL Blum; E Bayerdorffer; A Meining; M Stolte; G Borsch

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have shown previously that cure of Helicobacter pylori infection leads to the disappearance of acid-neutralizing substances. Also, patients with ulcer after cure may gain weight. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cure of the infection increases the risk of reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Patients with duodenal ulcer without reflux esophagitis at the time of

  4. Automated classification of duodenal imagery in celiac disease using evolved Fourier feature vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Vécsei; Thomas Fuhrmann; Michael Liedlgruber; Leonhard Brunauer; Hannes Payer; Andreas Uhl

    2009-01-01

    Feature extraction techniques based on selection of highly discriminant Fourier filters have been developed for an automated classification of magnifying endoscope images with respect to pit patterns of colon lesions. These are applied to duodenal imagery for diagnosis of celiac disease. Features are extracted from the Fourier domain by selecting the most discriminant features using an evolutionary algorithm. Subsequent classification

  5. Rapid Accumulation of CD14+CD11c+ Dendritic Cells in Gut Mucosa of Celiac Disease after in vivo Gluten Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Beitnes, Ann-Christin Røberg; Ráki, Melinda; Brottveit, Margit; Lundin, Knut Erik Aslaksen

    2012-01-01

    Background Of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) expressing HLA-DQ molecules in the celiac disease (CD) lesion, CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) co-expressing the monocyte marker CD14 are increased, whereas other DC subsets (CD1c+ or CD103+) and CD163+CD11c? macrophages are all decreased. It is unclear whether these changes result from chronic inflammation or whether they represent early events in the gluten response. We have addressed this in a model of in vivo gluten challenge. Methods Treated HLA-DQ2+ CD patients (n?=?12) and HLA-DQ2+ gluten-sensitive control subjects (n?=?12) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) were orally challenged with gluten for three days. Duodenal biopsies obtained before and after gluten challenge were subjected to immunohistochemistry. Single cell digests of duodenal biopsies from healthy controls (n?=?4), treated CD (n?=?3) and untreated CD (n?=?3) patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results In treated CD patients, the gluten challenge increased the density of CD14+CD11c+ DCs, whereas the density of CD103+CD11c+ DCs and CD163+CD11c? macrophages decreased, and the density of CD1c+CD11c+ DCs remained unchanged. Most CD14+CD11c+ DCs co-expressed CCR2. The density of neutrophils also increased in the challenged mucosa, but in most patients no architectural changes or increase of CD3+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) were found. In control tissue no significant changes were observed. Conclusions Rapid accumulation of CD14+CD11c+ DCs is specific to CD and precedes changes in mucosal architecture, indicating that this DC subset may be directly involved in the immunopathology of the disease. The expression of CCR2 and CD14 on the accumulating CD11c+ DCs indicates that these cells are newly recruited monocytes. PMID:22438948

  6. Effects of beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol on nasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Mygind, N.

    1977-01-01

    Rhinoscopic examination and histological studies of the nasal mucosa in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis treated with beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol provided no evidence that this form of treatment, given for one year, produced any harmful effects, such as atrophic rhinitis. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:588407

  7. Intestinal Metaplasia —The Effect of Acid on the Gastric Mucosa and Gastric Carcinogenesis—

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This review concerns stem cells and their relation to intestinal metaplasia. When gastric regions of mice, Mongolian gerbils or several strains of rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy of X-rays given in two fractions, intestinal metaplasia was only induced in rats. In addition, it was greatly influenced by rat strain and sex. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive metaplastic foci were increased by administration of ranitidine (H2 receptor antagonist), crude stomach antigens or subtotal resection of the fundus and decreased by cysteamine (gastric acid secretion stimulator), histamine or removal of the submandibular glands. Recent studies have shown that Cdx2 transgenic mice with gastric achlorhydria develop intestinal metaplasia and that in men and animals, Helicobacter pylori (H. pyrlori) infection can cause intestinal metaplasias that are reversible on eradication. Our results combined with findings for H. pylori infection or eradication and transgenic mice suggest that an elevation in the pH of the gastric juice due to disappearance of parietal cells is one of the principal factors for development of reversible intestinal metaplasia. When different organs were transplanted into the stomach or duodenum, they were found to transdifferentiate into gastric or duodenal mucosae, respectively. Organ-specific stem cells in normal non-liver tissues (heart, kidney, brain and skin) also differentiate into hepatocytes when transplanted into an injured liver. Therefore, stem cells have a multipotential ability, transdifferentiating into different organs when transplanted into different environments. Finally, intestinal metaplasia has been found to possibly increase sensitivity to the induction of tumors by colon carcinogens of the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), azoxymethane (AOM) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4.5-b]pyridine (PhIP) type. This carcinogenic process, however, may be relatively minor compared with the main gastric carcinogenesis process induced by N-methy1-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MMNG) or N-methylnitrosourea (MNU), which is not affected by the presence of intestinal metaplasia. The protocol used in these experiments may provide a new approach to help distinguish between developmental events associated with intestinal metaplasia and gastric tumors. PMID:22272022

  8. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:24833849

  9. Identification of Perforators in Patients with Duodenal Varices by Endoscopic Ultrasound—A Case Series [with video

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Malay; Mohan, Pazhanivel; Rameshbabu, Chittapuram S.; Jayanthi, Venkataraman

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Duodenal varices (DV) are ectopic varices which can cause massive gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis of DV may be difficult; sometimes they can be hidden behind duodenal folds. The aim of the study was to evaluate DV by endoscopic ultrasound. Methods Endoscopic ultrasound was done in patients detected or suspected to be having DV. The para duodenal varices were identified and subsequently hemodynamic evaluation of DV was done. Results Endoscopic ultrasound identified perforators in seven cases of DV. Conclusion The endoscopic ultrasound can help in detection of DV underlying thickened folds. It can also help in hemodynamic evaluation of DV.

  10. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea, E-mail: gerbino@biologia.uniba.i [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Curci, Silvana [VA Boston Healthcare System and the Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury MA 02132 (United States); Colella, Matilde [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  11. The buccal mucosa as a route for TiO2 nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Teubl, Birgit Johanna; Leitinger, Gerd; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity, although part of the aero-digestive tract, is still neglected in terms of risk assessment with respect to nanoparticle uptake. If nanoparticles enter the oral cavity, either via oral products or inhaled materials, it is not clear whether they rapidly interact with the mucosae or are swallowed. In this study, interactions of three distinct titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles (i.e. NM 100, NM 101 and NM 105) with oral tissues are presented. Physicochemical properties were addressed in relevant media, and particle penetration was investigated with an ex vivo model using porcine mucosa. To avoid modification of the particle surfaces via labeling, multiphoton microscopy was introduced as an accurate method to detect TiO2 particles within the tissue. The spatiotemporal aspects of nanoparticle uptake, as well as the intracellular localization in human epithelial cells, were studied and potential toxic effects were evaluated. Although TiO2 particles formed large aggregates once dispersed in media, 10-50% remained in the nanoscale range, rapidly interacting with the mucus layer and infecting the epithelium. However, differences in the penetration depth were observed depending on the particle characteristics. NM 100 and NM 105 were found in both the upper part and the lower part of the buccal mucosa, while NM 101 (smallest particle sizes) only penetrated the upper parts. Transport studies revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles were found in vesicles, as well as freely distributed in the cytoplasm. Cell viability/integrity was not affected negatively; however, NM 105 triggered the production of reactive oxygen species. These data clearly suggest that the oral cavity should be considered in further risk assessment studies. PMID:24873758

  12. Alu and Sat? hypomethylation in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeichi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Niwa, Tohru; Ando, Takayuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Maekita, Takao; Nakazawa, Kazuyuki; Tatematsu, Masae; Ichinose, Masao; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Global hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation are supposed to be hallmarks of cancer cells. During gastric carcinogenesis, in which Helicobacter pylori infection is causally involved, aberrant hypermethylation is already present in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosae. In contrast, little is known about global hypomethylation, which can be caused by hypomethylation of individual repetitive elements and other sequences. We, therefore, investigated hypomethylation of individual repetitive elements and the global 5-methylcytosine content in four groups of gastric mucosal samples that represented the time course of H. pylori infection and gastric carcinogenesis [gastric mucosae of H. pylori-negative healthy volunteers (G1, n = 34), H. pylori-positive healthy volunteers (G2, n = 42), H. pylori-positive gastric cancer patients (G3, n = 34) and H. pylori-negative gastric cancer patients (G4, n = 20)] and 52 primary gastric cancers. Major variants of Alu, LINE1 and Sat? were identified, and their methylation levels were quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Compared with G1, the Alu methylation level was decreased in G2, G3, G4 and cancers (89.2-97.1% of that in G1, p < 0.05). The Sat? methylation level was decreased in G2 (91.6%, p < 0.05) and G3 (94.3%, p = 0.08) but not in G4 and cancers. The LINE1 methylation level was decreased only in cancers. The 5-methylcytosine content was at similar levels in G2, G3 and G4 and highly variable in cancers. These results showed that Alu and Sat? hypomethylation is induced in gastric mucosae by H. pylori infection during gastric carcinogenesis, possibly in different target cells, and that global hypomethylation is not always present in human gastric cancers. PMID:20602342

  13. Heavy metals in normal mucosa and nasal polyp tissues from Tunisian patients.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Chakroun, Amine; Hammami, Boutheina; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing evidence that bacteria, fungi, allergens, and superantigens play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of nasal polyps (NP), the exact cause of polyposis is still unknown. The etiology of NP is considered multifactorial. Until now, there is no information on the presence of heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) or of their role, in the pathogenesis of NP disease. In this study, concentrations of these four metals in tissue of NP were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The Ni, Cr, and As levels in NP tissues were 2.1-, 3.2-, and 8.0-fold higher than those of normal mucosa (p?20 PY) are significantly higher than those of non-smokers (p?=?0.006, 0.002, and < 0.001, respectively). The highest As concentrations among patients lived at polluted areas (1-25 and > 25 years) were observed in both nasal mucosa and NP tissues. The Ni and As in both nasal mucosa and NP tissues of patients occupationally exposed were significantly higher than non-exposed group. Cr and As levels were found to be associated with NP stage classification (p?human NP tissues and the risk of NP disease. Tissue metal levels have increased due to smoking, environmental, and occupational exposure. Therefore, heavy metal exposure may increase the risk of NP in the Tunisian population. The considerable risk in the category of highest cumulative exposure argues for an association between heavy metals exposure and nasal polyposis risk. Future investigations with larger samples should better elucidate this association. PMID:25081002

  14. DORSAL ONLAY GRAFT URETHROPLASTY USING PENILE SKIN OR BUCCAL MUCOSA IN ADULT BULBOURETHRAL STRICTURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUIDO BARBAGLI; ENZO PALMINTERI; MICHELANGELO RIZZO

    1998-01-01

    PurposePreputial skin graft is used routinely for urethral reconstruction in patients with stricture disease. Alternative donor sites include extrapenile skin, bladder mucosa and buccal mucosa. Recently buccal mucosa graft has been suggested when local epithelial tissue is not available. We describe our experience with 37 patients undergoing 1-stage correction of bulbar urethral stricture using a penile skin (31) or buccal

  15. Evaluation of Selected Cytokine Gene Expression in Colonic Mucosa from Dogs with Idiopathic Lymphocytic-plasmacytic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Yu; OHTA, Hiroshi; YOKOYAMA, Nozomu; LIM, Sue Yee; OSUGA, Tatsuyuki; MORISHITA, Keitaro; NAKAMURA, Kensuke; YAMASAKI, Masahiro; TAKIGUCHI, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis (LPC) is a common form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affecting the canine large intestine. Cytokines are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, to date, few studies have investigated cytokine mRNA expression in dogs with LPC. In this study, we investigated mRNA transcription levels of T helper cell cytokines, such as IFN-?, IL-4, IL-17 and IL-10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, IL-8, IL-12 and IL-23, in colonic mucosa from LPC dogs by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. No significant differences were detected in cytokine mRNA expressions between dogs with LPC and controls, except for IL-23p19. Dogs with LPC failed to express a predominant cytokine profile in inflamed colonic mucosa as opposed to human IBD. PMID:24976586

  16. Value of MRCP using oral Gd-DTPA as negative contrast materials in diagnosis of atypical juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingshan Gong; Hong Zhao; Te Liu; Rennan Ling; Jianmin Xu

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using oral diluted gadolinium (Gd)-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) as negative contrast materials in diagnosis of juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum with atypical imaging features.

  17. A salvage procedure for an accidentally twisted small bowel in orthotopic duodenal reconstruction after pylorus-preserving partial pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Käser, S A; Glauser, P M; Dätwiler, S; Maurer, C A

    2011-10-01

    A case of pylorus-preserving Whipple procedure with an accidentally clockwise 360° rotated small bowel limb in orthotopic duodenal reconstruction is presented. A simple salvage procedure is proposed. PMID:21544872

  18. Translational potential of olfactory mucosa for the study of neuropsychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    Borgmann-Winter, K; Willard, S L; Sinclair, D; Mirza, N; Turetsky, B; Berretta, S; Hahn, C-G

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory mucosa (OM) is a unique source of regenerative neural tissue that is readily obtainable from living human subjects and thus affords opportunities for the study of psychiatric illnesses. OM tissues can be used, either as ex vivo OM tissue or in vitro OM-derived neural cells, to explore parameters that have been difficult to assess in the brain of living individuals with psychiatric illness. As OM tissues are distinct from brain tissues, an understanding of the neurobiology of the OM is needed to relate findings in these tissues to those of the brain as well as to design and interpret ex vivo or in vitro OM studies. To that end, we discuss the molecular, cellular and functional characteristics of cell types within the olfactory mucosa, describe the organization of the OM and highlight its role in the olfactory neurocircuitry. In addition, we discuss various approaches to in vitro culture of OM-derived cells and their characterization, focusing on the extent to which they reflect the in vivo neurobiology of the OM. Finally, we review studies of ex vivo OM tissues and in vitro OM-derived cells from individuals with psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. In particular, we discuss the concordance of this work with postmortem brain studies and highlight possible future approaches, which may offer distinct strengths in comparison to in vitro paradigms based on genomic reprogramming.

  19. Thymosin beta 4 expression in normal skin, colon mucosa and in tumor infiltrating mast cells.

    PubMed

    Nemolato, S; Cabras, T; Fanari, M U; Cau, F; Fraschini, M; Manconi, B; Messana, I; Castagnola, M; Faa, G

    2010-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are metachromatic cells that originate from multipotential hemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Two distinct populations of MCs have been characterized: mucosal MCs are tryptase-positive while mast cells in skin contain tryptase and chymase. We now show that a sub-population of MCs is highly immunoreactive for thymosin beta4, as revealed by immunohistochemical analyses of normal skin, normal colon mucosa and salivary gland tumors. Four consecutive serial sections from each case were immunostained for thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4), chymase, tryptase and stained for toluidine blue. In skin biopsies, MCs showed a comparable immunoreactivity for Tbeta4, chymase and tryptase. In normal colon mucosa the vast majority of mucosal MCs expressed a strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for tryptase and for Tbeta4, in the absence of chymase reactivity. A robust expression of Tbeta4 was detected in tumor-infiltrating and peritumoral mast cells in salivary gland tumors and breast ductal infiltrating carcinomas. Tumor-infiltrating MCs also showed a strong immunoreactivity for chymase and tryptase. In this paper, we first demonstrate that normal dermal and mucosal mast cells exhibit strong expression of thymosin beta4, which could be considered a new marker for the identification of mast cells in skin biopsies as well as in human tumors. The possible relationship between the degree of Tbeta4 expression in tumor-infiltrating mast cells and tumor behaviour warrants further consideration in future investigations. PMID:20353910

  20. Translational potential of olfactory mucosa for the study of neuropsychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Borgmann-Winter, K; Willard, S L; Sinclair, D; Mirza, N; Turetsky, B; Berretta, S; Hahn, C-G

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory mucosa (OM) is a unique source of regenerative neural tissue that is readily obtainable from living human subjects and thus affords opportunities for the study of psychiatric illnesses. OM tissues can be used, either as ex vivo OM tissue or in vitro OM-derived neural cells, to explore parameters that have been difficult to assess in the brain of living individuals with psychiatric illness. As OM tissues are distinct from brain tissues, an understanding of the neurobiology of the OM is needed to relate findings in these tissues to those of the brain as well as to design and interpret ex vivo or in vitro OM studies. To that end, we discuss the molecular, cellular and functional characteristics of cell types within the olfactory mucosa, describe the organization of the OM and highlight its role in the olfactory neurocircuitry. In addition, we discuss various approaches to in vitro culture of OM-derived cells and their characterization, focusing on the extent to which they reflect the in vivo neurobiology of the OM. Finally, we review studies of ex vivo OM tissues and in vitro OM-derived cells from individuals with psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. In particular, we discuss the concordance of this work with postmortem brain studies and highlight possible future approaches, which may offer distinct strengths in comparison to in vitro paradigms based on genomic reprogramming. PMID:25781226

  1. Metabolism of model organic pollutants in canine respiratory tract mucosa slices

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Gerde, P.; Chen, S.T.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-11-01

    The high incidence of human bronchial tumors has been correlated with the high fractional deposition of inhaled particles in the bronchi. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are frequently bound to airborne particles due to their low vapor pressures. It is thought that tumorigenicity may result from the release and subsequent bioactivation of these particle-associated organic compounds in the respiratory tract. Previous studies at ITRI examined the clearance of organic toxicants from various regions of the canine respiratory tract. Their results indicated that, while clearance of a highly lipophilic PAH such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from the thin alveolar epithelium took only a few minutes, clearance through the thicker epithelium of the conducting airways took hours. Slower, diffusion-limited clearance results in higher concentrations of lipophilic compounds in the epithelium of the bronchi. Hence, the ability of these tissues to metabolize organic compounds to water-soluble metabolites or reactive intermediates may be extremely important in their clearance from the respiratory tract and the potential susceptibility of this region of the respiratory tract to cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of bronchial mucosa to metabolize a model organic pulmonary carcinogen, BaP, to reactive and nonreactive metabolites and to evaluate the diffusion of the parent compound and metabolites through the bronchial mucosa.

  2. Cytokeratin 8 and 18 tissue expression in gallbladder mucosa of patients with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Aldona; Malkowski, Wojciech; Seraszek, Agnieszka; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Szmeja, Jacek; Rogacki, Karol; Kaczmarek, El?bieta; Zabel, Maciej

    2011-12-01

    Cytokeratins (CKs) 8 and 18 are normally expressed in simple epithelia. This unique pair of CKs is believed to be involved in hepatic diseases and many human cancers. Little is known about the role of tissue expression of both CKs in patients with cholelithiasis (CH). The aim of the study was to analyse tissue expression of CK8 and 18 in the specimens of gallbladder mucosa in 35 young (up to 25 years of age) and 20 older patients (approximately 50 years of age) with CH. An immunocytochemical ABC method and the spatial visualization technique were conducted. Our study demonstrated significantly lower amounts of both CKs in young patients, as compared to older patients. The higher cellular expression of CK8 in older patients was linked to acute clinical course vs. chronic ones. Tissue expression of neither CK correlated with inflammatory activity (grading) of the gallbladder mucosa. A positive correlation between reciprocal expressions of the two CKs may confirm a cytoprotective role of the two proteins in both groups of patients with symptomatic CH. Significantly higher expression of CK18 than that of CK8 in younger patients suggests a different role of CK8 and 18 in lithogenesis in this group. PMID:22246910

  3. A controlled trial of glycopyrronium and l-hyoscyamine in the long-term treatment of duodenal ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Kaye; J. Rhodes; Peter Beck; Peter M. Sweetnam; G. T. Davies; K. T. Evans

    1970-01-01

    A controlled single-blind trial has been carried out to determine the value of long-term anticholinergic therapy in duodenal ulcer. Of 106 male patients with symptomatic and radiologically proven duodenal ulcer admitted to the trial, 91 completed the study. Patients were divided randomly into three groups. They received either glycopyrronium, or 1-hyoscyamine in a sustained-release form, or inert tablets for one

  4. The ultrastructure of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, M W

    1978-01-01

    Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was examined by electron microscopy after maintenance in a chemically defined medium in organ culture for periods up to 24 days. Throughout the culture period there was little overall change in the explants. Apart from limited disturbances of the basal lamina complex early in the culture period, and the presence of occasional degenerating keratinocytes after 18 days in vitro, the epithelium displayed an ultrastructure comparable with that at the time of explantation. The connective tissue showed greater changes, but despite considerable cell death a viable cell population apparently capable of both phagocytosis and synthesis of extracellular material was maintained. It is concluded that this organ culture system is a valid model for experimental investigations into the behaviour of oral mucosa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:744746

  5. The permeability of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, M W; Squier, C A

    1979-01-01

    The intercellular permeability barrier of neonatal rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture for periods up to 24 days was studied ultrastructurally using the tracers horseradish peroxidase and lanthanum nitrate. At all time intervals examined the limit of penetration of the tracers corresponded to the level at which the membrane-coating granules were being discharged. However, in the cultured mucosa, extrusion of granules occurred closer to the granular cell-keratin junction after 6 and 12 days in vitro than at other time intervals. This probably is a reflexion of the higher rate of tissue turnover at these times. It is concluded that a permeability barrier comparable with that described in vivo is produced by the epithelium during maintenance inorgan culture and is further evidence of the functional integrity of the tissue in vitro. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:422477

  6. Laryngeal lymphoma derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Horny, H P; Ferlito, A; Carbone, A

    1996-07-01

    Extranodal lymphomas account for as many as 40% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and most arise in the gastrointestinal tract, but other mucosal organs may be involved, especially the upper aerodigestive tract. Low-grade B-cell lymphomas arising in the gastrointestinal tract and other mucosae have been found to recapitulate the structure and cytologic features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Histologically low-grade MALT lymphomas are characterized by centrocyte-like B-cells with a phenotype similar to that of so-called marginal zone B-cells. Tumors evolving from MALT are generally rare among lymphomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, but a few cases of laryngeal lymphomas derived from MALT have been reported. Primary MALT lymphoma of the larynx should always be considered in tumors with histopathologic features of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, or so-called pseudolymphoma. PMID:8678438

  7. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustin Avilés; María Jesús Nambo; Natividad Neri; Alejandra Talavera; Sergio Cleto

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) remains undefined. We began a controlled\\u000a clinical trial to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of the most common therapies. Two hundred and forty-one patients with gastric\\u000a low-grade MALT lymphoma in early stage (IE and IIE) were randomized to surgery (80 cases), radiotherapy (78 cases), and chemotherapy\\u000a (83 cases). With a

  8. Antiplatelet activity of N-methoxycarbonyl aporphines from Rollinia mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, R Y; Chang, F R; Chen, C Y; Teng, C M; Yen, H F; Wu, Y C

    2001-06-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the stems of Rollinia mucosa led to the isolation of new N-methoxycarbonyl aporphine alkaloids, romucosine A (1), romucosine B (2), romucosine C (3), and romucosine D (4), along with the known alkaloid, N-methoxylcarbonyl-nornuciferine (5). Alkaloids 1 and 4 exhibited significant inhibition of collagen, arachidonic acid, and platelet activating factor-induced platelet aggregation, and alkaloid 3 also showed an inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid induced platelet aggregation. PMID:11393523

  9. [Changes in the oral mucosa in the aging patient].

    PubMed

    Maeglin, B

    1977-09-01

    The most frequently observed diseases of the oral mucosa in ageing patients are: leucoplacic changes, lichen ruber planus, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigoid and the Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome. However, there are other affections which are described in their characteristic symptomatology: --whitish changes--changes by pigments--aphtous or aphtoid changes--bullous and erosive changes--tongue burning and glossodynia--tumorous and exulcerative changes. The different diagnostic aspects are particularly explained. PMID:333576

  10. Skin and oral mucosa equivalents: construction and performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Bian, Z; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

    2010-02-01

    The skin and the oral mucosa act as a barrier against the external environment. Loss of this barrier function causes dehydration and a high risk of infection. For the treatment of extensive skin wounds such as in severe burns, autologous skin for transplantation is often not available in sufficient amounts. Reconstructions in the oral cavity, as required after tumor resections or cleft palate repair, are often complicated by similar problems. In the last two decades, the field of tissue engineering has provided new solutions to these problems. Techniques have been developed for the culture of epithelial grafts, dermal substitutes, and the combination of these two to a 'functional' skin or mucosa equivalent. The present review focuses on developments in the field of tissue engineering of skin and oral mucosa. The performance of different types of engineered grafts in animal models and clinical studies is discussed. Recent developments such as the use of epithelial stem cells, and gene therapy with transduced skin grafts are also discussed. PMID:20078790

  11. Idiopathic microscopic colitis of rhesus macaques: quantitative assessment of colonic mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshir, Amir; Oslund, Karen L.; Ventimiglia, Frank; Yee, JoAnn; Lerche, Nicholas W.; Hyde, Dallas M.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among juvenile rhesus macaques. While lesions may be absent at colonoscopy, the histopathologic evaluation of the biopsy specimens is consistent with human macroscopic colitis (MC). In this study, we developed an isotropic uniform random sampling method to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic changes and applied it on proximal ascending colon in monkeys. Colonic tissue and peripheral blood specimens were collected from six MC and six control juvenile macaques at necropsy. Uniform random samples were collected from the colon using punch biopsy tools. The volume of epithelium and lamina propria were estimated in thick (25 µm) sections using point probes and normalized to the area of muscularis mucosae. Our data suggests a significant increase of the Vs of the lamina propria (1.9 fold, p=0.02) and epithelium (1.4 fold, p=0.05) in subjects with MC. The average colonic surface mucosa area in the MC monkeys increased 1.4 fold over the controls (p=0.02). The volume of the proximal colon in animals with MC showed a 2.4 fold increase over the non-diarrhea control monkeys (p=0.0001). Cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels in peripheral blood were found to be correlated with the volume estimate of the lamina propria and epithelium. We found that ICD in macaques has features which simulates human MC and can be used as a spontaneous animal model for human MC. Furthermore, this developed sampling method can be used for unbiased evaluation of therapeutics in clinical trials of this animal model. PMID:23775860

  12. Endoscopic treatment of intraluminal duodenal ("windsock") diverticulum: varying techniques from five cases.

    PubMed

    Law, R; Topazian, M; Baron, T H

    2012-12-01

    The optimal endoscopic approach to intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) has not been established. We report on our experience of endoscopic resection of symptomatic IDD in five patients (three men, two women; mean age 37 years) who were treated between August 2004 and April 2012.?Four patients underwent endoscopic diverticulectomy using a standard polypectomy snare. Following diverticulectomy, the remaining duodenal septum was incised using a needle-knife in two patients. The fifth patient underwent endoscopic diverticulotomy using a needle-knife. In four cases the IDD was resected and reviewed histologically and demonstrated substantial vascularity. All patients developed clinically significant, post-procedural bleeding, which was managed endoscopically. Endoscopic management of symptomatic IDD can be achieved using various approaches. Post-procedural bleeding appears to be a common adverse event, but this complication can be managed endoscopically. PMID:23188665

  13. Neurofibromatosis 1 presenting with multiple duodenal GISTS associated with a somatostatin-producing D cell neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Serio, Giovanni; Zampatti, Clementina; Ballabio, Andrea; Ricci, Riccardo; Martini, Maurizio; Zurleni, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    The co-existence of a duodenal somatostatin-producing D cell neoplasm and multiple duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) in a 61-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 is reported. Histologically, the D cell neoplasm showed a glandular pattern with psammoma bodies and was metastatic to regional lymph nodes and liver at the time of surgery. Tumour cells were monomorph and showed intense and diffuse immunoreactivity for somatostatin, focal positivity for calcitonin, while were negative for other gastroenteropancreatic hormones including insulin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide, serotonin and gastrin. Four submucosal and subserosal GISTs, ranging from 5 to 15 mm in diameter, were composed of uniform spindle-shaped cells lacking mitoses and contained numerous skeinoid fibres. The tumours were positive for CD117, DOG1, vimentin and CD34 and did not have KIT or PDGFRA mutations. The clinical and pathological importance of this unusual association is discussed. PMID:23564025

  14. Down syndrome: Molecular mapping of the congenital heart disease and duodenal stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Korenburg, J.R. (University of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Bradley, C.; Disteche, C.M. (University of Washington, Seattle (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of congenital heart and gut disease and mental retardation. DS individuals also have characteristic facies, hands, and dermatoglyphics, in addition to abnormalities of the immune system, and increased risk of leukemia, and an Alzheimer-like dementia. Although their molecular basis is unknown, recent work on patients with DS and partial duplications of chromosome 21 has suggested small chromosomal regions located in band q22 that are likely to contain the genes for some of these features. The authors now extend these analyses to define molecular markers for the congenital heart disease, the duodenal stenosis, and an 'overlap' region for the facial and some of the skeletal features. They report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis of two patients. These studies provide the molecular basis for the construction of a DS phenotypic map and focus the search for genes responsible for the physical features, congenital heart disease, and duodenal stenosis of DS.

  15. Structure-activity relations between alkyl nucleophilic chemicals causing duodenal ulcer and adrenocortical necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Reynolds, E.S.; Unger, S.H.

    1982-10-01

    Structure-activity relationships were qualitatively and quantitatively examined for 56 chemicals (e.g., derivatives of propionitrile, acrylonitrile and cysteamine) which caused duodenal ulcer and/or adrenocortical necrosis in rats. For the first time the duodenal ulcerogenic property of numerous chemicals has been studied in a rational and predictive manner. Ulcerogenic activity was most intense in the carbonitriles attached to two or three carbon backbones and diminished by shortening, lengthening, branching, unsaturating, halogenating or hydroxylating the carbon chains. Different modes of action are implied. Adrenocorticolytic potency was associated with unsaturation of the carbon chain and substitution of the nitrile by thiol or amine radicals. An action of these chemicals on the central nervous system has been suggested.

  16. Delayed duodenal obstruction after intramural hematoma in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tezcaner, Tugan; Ekici, Yahya; K?rnap, Mahir; Kural, Feride; Moray, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal stem cell disorder of hematopoietic cells. Gastrointestinal complications of PNH are rare and mostly related with intravascular thrombosis or intramural hematoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a case of a man with PNH complicated by intramural duodenal hematoma initially treated with supportive care. Three months after his first admission; he was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. He had undergone to surgery because of duodenal obstruction was treated with duodenojejunal by-pass surgery. DISCUSSION Patients were healed from gastrointestinal complications could suffer from gastrointestinal strictures, which cause wide spread symptoms ranging from chronic abdominal pain and anorexia to intestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION We report a rare intestinal obstruction case caused by stricture at the level of ligamentum Treitz with PNH. The possibility simply has to be borne in mind that strictures can be occurring at hematoma, ischemia or inflammation site of gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25123648

  17. An enucleated duodenal gastrinoma with multiple type 1 endocrine neoplasia located by selective arterial calcium injection.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hirokazu; Kuroki, Michio; Nakano, Eriko; Hiramoto, Keiichiro; Matsumura, Yoshifumi; Miura, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yoshifumi; Hirakawa, Hidetoshi; Matsuda, Mikio

    2011-01-01

    We report a duodenal gastrinoma in a 50-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with tarry stools. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple ulcers in the duodenal bulb and a submucosal tumor in the descending duodenum. His serum gastrin level was 1400pg/ml. We suspected Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and performed selective arterial calcium injection to locate the gastrinoma. Increase in the hepatic venous gastrin level was seen only in the gastroduodenal artery area. We diagnosed a gastrinoma located in the pancreaticoduodenal area. Genetic examination showed a single-base deletion in the MEN-1 gene. At operation, the tumor was found in the submucosal layer of the descending duodenum and was extirpated. He is alive without recurrence 3 years after surgery. PMID:21212598

  18. [Surgical treatment of chronic duodenal ulcer complicated by extravasal compression of the celiac trunk].

    PubMed

    Gervaziev, V B; Lubianski?, V G

    1993-07-01

    The work analyses the results of examination and operative treatment of 69 patients with chronic duodenal ulcer and concurrent extravasal compression of the celiac trunk. The clinical signs characteristic of this combination are distinguished and it is shown that these patients have low indices of maximal acid production with a high frequency of duodenal reflux. Decrease of the hepatic and gastric blood flow was also found. It is suggested that such patients should be treated by combination of selective proximal vagotomy and decompression of the celiac trunk which is accomplished by exposure of the aorta over the celiac trunk and retrograde division of the median diaphragmatic ligament. The late-term results of the operation were analysed for follow-up periods of up to 10 years. Poor results were recorded in 6.2% of cases. PMID:8271737

  19. Gastric emptying of combined liquid-solid meals in healed duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; McIntyre, B.; Alazraki, N.

    1985-12-01

    The gastric emptying rates of combined liquid and solid radioisotopically labeled meals in 47 healed duodenal ulcer subjects and 17 healthy control subjects are compared. No significant differences were found between the groups in emptying slopes and the emptying half-times or in the percent retention values at any of the counting intervals for either the liquid or solid meals. These results are compatible with the observation that the rapid gastric emptying in many patients with duodenal ulcer is associated with the disease and that healing results in a return to normal gastric emptying rates. However, since gastric emptying rates during active ulceration were not determined in our patients, a more definitive interpretation awaits a study comparing emptying rates obtained during and after healing of active ulceration in the same patient.

  20. Recurrent pancreatitis due to an intraluminal duodenal diverticulum: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Pumberger, Wolfgang; Maier-Hiebl, Beate; Kargl, Simon

    2012-06-01

    We report the investigation and treatment of a 14-year-old girl in whom a detailed assessment of recurrent episodes of pancreatitis revealed a large intraluminal 'windsock'-like duodenal diverticulum. As the diverticulum was closely attached to the papilla of Vater, it was resected by a transduodenal approach. This report focuses on the significance of rare congenital anomalies of the duodenum (e.g., duplication cyst, intraluminal diverticulum) during the diagnostic workup of recurrent pancreatitis in children. PMID:22270334

  1. Duodenal Microflora in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Neonates and Relation to Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Christine M.; Wood, Christopher M.; Hawkey, Peter M.; Puntis, John W. L.

    2000-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in the neonatal period. Small-bowel overgrowth with aerobic gram-negative bacteria has previously been implicated in the development of NEC. This prospective study performed quantitative bacteriology on 422 duodenal aspirates collected from 122 very-low-birth-weight (<1,500-g) newborns, at the time of routine changing of nasogastric tubes. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were typed by repetitive extragenic, palindromic PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One or more samples from 50% of these infants yielded gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Enterobacter spp., with counts up to 108 CFU/g. The proportion of samples with gram-negative bacteria increased with postnatal age, while the percentage of sterile samples declined. Molecular typing revealed marked temporal clustering of indistinguishable strains. All infants had been fed prior to isolation of gram-negative organisms. Antibiotic use had no obvious effect on colonization with Enterobacteriaceae. There were 15 episodes of suspected NEC (stage I) and 8 confirmed cases of NEC (2 stage II and 6 stage III) during the study period. Duodenal aspirates were collected prior to clinical onset in 13 episodes of NEC. Seven of these yielded Enterobacteriaceae, of which five strains were also isolated from infants without NEC. Very-low-birth-weight infants have high levels of duodenal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, with evidence of considerable cross-colonization with indistinguishable strains. There was no association between duodenal colonization with particular strains of Enterobacteriaceae and development of NEC. PMID:11101593

  2. Duodenal pH in cystic fibrosis and its relationship to fat malabsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Robinson; A. L. Smith; P. D. Sly

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between duodenal pH levels and supplemental pancreatic enzyme function in cystic fibrosis, 18 children with this condition had pH recordings performed from the second and fourth part of the duodenum. Compared to age-matched controls, patients with cystic fibrosis had significantly longer periods below a pH of 4.0 in the postprandial period and significantly less time above

  3. Pancreatic-polypeptide cell hyperplasia associated with pancreatic or duodenal gastrinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenia Marta Martella; Gabriella Ferraro; Cinzia Azzoni; Massimo Marignani; Cesare Bordi

    1997-01-01

    An immunohistochemical investigation of pancreatic-polypeptide (PP) cells in the PP-rich region of the pancreas, of ventral embryological origin, was performed in three female patients affected by or previously operated on for functioning duodenal or pancreatic gastrinomas not associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome. A pronounced PP-cell hyperplasia showing histological patterns of endocrine cell dysplasia and focal adenomatosis as defined by

  4. The Absence of Thyroid Hormones in a Growth Factor of Duodenal Powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. ACKERMAN

    Three fractions prepared from the acid-insoluble residue after acid hydrolysis of duodenal powder were effective in reinstating growth of growth-arrested, sulfaguanidine-fed rats. One fraction was studied more extensively than the others to determine whether the growth response to this fraction was due to thyroxine or tri- iodothyronine. The stability of this fraction to acid hydrolysis, its insolubility in acid, its

  5. Induction of oesophageal and forestomach carcinomas in rats by reflux of duodenal contents.

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, K.; Segawa, M.; Takano, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Sahara, H.; Yagi, M.; Miyazaki, I.; Hattori, T.

    1994-01-01

    A study was designed to determine whether oesophageal carcinomas can be induced through reflux of duodenal contents. Male Wistar rats weighing 230-250 g were divided into three groups according to the surgical procedure performed: (1) the duodenal contents were directed into the forestomach through a stoma (duodeno-forestomach reflux); (2) the duodenal contents were regurgitated into the forestomach through the glandular stomach (duodeno-glandular-forestomach reflux); and (3) a sham operation was performed as a control. Animals were fed standard CRF-1 solid food and tap water that was not exposed to carcinogens and were sacrificed 50 weeks post-operatively. While no neoplasia was observed in any of the 32 control rats, 4/11 (36%) with duodeno-forestomach reflux and 3/18 (17%) animals with duodeno-glandular-forestomach reflux developed carcinomas in the lower oesophagus and forestomach. The incidence in each group was significantly higher than in the controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively). Six of the seven lesions consisted of squamous cell carcinomas, and one was a mucinous adenocarcinoma. Oesophageal columnar epithelial metaplasia was observed in two (18%) of the animals with duodeno-forestomach reflux. Carcinomas were always surrounded by chronic inflammatory changes, including regenerative thickening, basal cell hyperplasia and dysplasia. Additional well-differentiated adenocarcinomas were observed in the prepyloric antrum of 6/18 (33%) animals with duodeno-glandular-forestomach reflux. These findings indicate that chronic reflux of duodenal contents may cause oesophageal carcinoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8054264

  6. Early Results of Laparoscopic Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch: A Case Series of 40 Consecutive Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine J. Ren; Emma Patterson; Michel Gagner

    2000-01-01

    Background: Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) is an operation which provides one of the greatest maintained\\u000a weight losses of any bariatric procedure.We looked at the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic BPD-DS for morbid obesity. Methods:\\u000a A 150-200 ml sleeve gastrectomy was created and anastomosed to the distal 250 cm of divided ileum. The median length of the\\u000a common channel

  7. Emergency transcatheter arterial embolization for patients with acute massive duodenal ulcer hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Li; Cheng, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Li-Zhen; He, Zhong-Hui; Ding, Kun-Hong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of emergency transcatheter arterial embolization (ETAE) for patients with acute massive duodenal ulcer hemorrhage. METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive patients with acute massive bleeding of duodenal ulcer were admitted to our hospital from 2006 to 2011. Superselective angiography of the celiac and gastroduodenal arteries was performed to find out the bleeding sites before ETAE, then, embolotherapy was done with gelatin sponge particles or microstrips via a 5 French angiographic catheter or 3 French microcatheter. After ETAE, further superior mesenteric arteriography was undertaken in case collateral circulation supplied areas of the duodenal ulcer. Technical and clinical success rates were analyzed. Changes in the mucous membrane were observed using endoscopy following ETAE. RESULTS: Angiography showed active bleeding with extravasation of contrast medium in seven cases with a 24% positive rate of celiac artery bleeding, and in 19 cases with a 65.5% rate of gastroduodenal artery bleeding. There were no angiographic signs of bleeding in three patients who underwent endoscopy prior to ETAE. Twenty-six patients achieved immediate hemostasis and technical success rate reached 90%. No hemostasis was observed in 27 patients within 30 d after ETAE and clinical success rate was 93%. Recurrent hemorrhage occurred in two patients who drank a lot of wine who were treated by a second embolotherapy in the same way. Five patients underwent transient ischem with light abdominal pain under xiphoid, spontaneous restoration without special treatment. No mucous necrosis happened to 29 cases for ischem of gastroduodenal arteries embolized. CONCLUSION: ETAE is an effective and safe measure to control acute massive bleeding of duodenal ulcer. PMID:23002347

  8. Effect of vitamin D3 on duodenal absorptive cell plasma membranes: freeze fracture replication study.

    PubMed

    Jande, S S

    1976-01-01

    Vitamin D3 induced changes in the number of 5.8 nm sized randomly scattered particles on the EF faces of plasma membranes of chick duodenal absorptive cells. Their number increased as compared to those in rachitic animals. Also vitamin D3 seemed to alter the nature of the zonula occludens. These changes appear to be related to increased active absorption and passive diffusion of calcium respectively under vitamin D3 influence. PMID:201433

  9. Gastric acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer treated for one year with anticholinergic drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Kaye; Peter Beck; John Rhodes; Peter M. Sweetnam

    1969-01-01

    Ninety patients with duodenal ulcer, divided randomly into three groups, were treated continuously for one year with either glycopyrronium, 1-hyoscyamine (as a sustained-release preparation) or inert tablets. Dosage with active tablets was so adjusted that the patient experienced definite but tolerable side-effects. Basal and maximal gastric acid secretion were measured immediately before and one week after cessation of treatment. There

  10. Effect of omeprazole on duodenal ulcer-associated antral gastritis and Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Hui; S. K. Lam; J. Ho; C. L. Lai; A. S. F. Lok; M. M. T. Ng; W. Y. Lau; F. J. Branicki

    1991-01-01

    This study set out to investigate the effects of omeprazole or ranitidine on the progression of antral gastritis andHelicobacter pylori in patients with active duodenal ulcer. A double-blind, double-dummy trial was performed in 270 patients, 241 of whom were studied histologically for the presence ofH. pylori. Patients were randomized to receive omeprazole, 10 mg every morning, omeprazole, 20 mg every

  11. Duodenal control of gastric emptying in the milk-fed calf.

    PubMed

    Bell, F R; Mostaghni, K

    1975-02-01

    1. It has been ascertained experimentally that an open duodenal cannula does not cause any marked variation in emptying of the abomasum when compared to the rate of emptying of the normal viscus or when the cannulae are closed. 2. Duodenal re-entrant cannulae provide a preparation whereby it is possible to infuse the duodenum via the distal cannula and to collect simultaneously the effluent fluid of the abomasum from the proximal arm of the cannula (Fig. 1). 3. With this preparation the duodenal infusate is not contaminated by the gastric effluent and thus the duodenal stimulus can be restricted to the single non-varying effect of the infusate. 4. In the milk-fed calf using this preparation the following facts have been established. (a) On infusion into the duodenum, hypotonic and isotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate increase abomasal emptying; bicarbonate being the more effective stimulus. (b) Potassium chloride, calcium chloride, glucose and hydrochloric acid inhibit gastric emptying when infused into the duodenum. (c) Ammonium chloride, urea, lactose and acetic acid have little effect. (d) Hypertonic solutions of all substances tested were inhibitory to gastric emptying when infused into the duodenum. 5. It has been demonstrated unequivocally that it is the effect of the infusate in the duodenum which controls gastric emptying for when the stomach is isolated from the duodenum, gastric emptying can be manipulated from the duodenum whatever the stomach contents may be. 6. Our results bring firm experimental confirmation of the views discussed by Hunt & Knox (1968) that gastric outflow is regulated by mechanisms initiated from receptors situated in the duodenum. PMID:1142171

  12. Comparison between uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placement in malignant duodenal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Won; Jeong, Ji Bong; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Ahn, Dong Won; Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Su Hwan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical outcomes of uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placements in patients with malignant duodenal obstruction. METHODS: A total of 67 patients were retrospectively enrolled from January 2003 to June 2013. All patients had symptomatic obstruction characterized by nausea, vomiting, reduced oral intake, and weight loss. The exclusion criteria included asymptomatic duodenal obstruction, perforation or peritonitis, concomitant small bowel obstruction, or duodenal obstruction caused by benign strictures. The technical and clinical success rate, complication rate, and stent patency were compared according to the placement of uncovered (n = 38) or covered (n = 29) stents. RESULTS: The technical and clinical success rates did not differ between the uncovered and covered stent groups (100% vs 96.6% and 89.5% vs 82.8%). There were no differences in the overall complication rates between the uncovered and covered stent groups (31.6% vs 41.4%). However, stent migration occurred more frequently with covered than uncovered stents [20.7% (6/29) vs 0% (0/38), P < 0.05]. Moreover, the overall cumulative median duration of stent patency was longer in uncovered than in covered stents [251 d (95%CI: 149.8 d-352.2 d) vs 139 d (95%CI: 45.5 d-232.5 d), P < 0.05 by log-rank test] The overall cumulative median survival period was not different between the uncovered stent (70 d) and covered stent groups (60 d). CONCLUSION: Uncovered stents may be preferable in malignant duodenal obstruction because of their greater resistance to stent migration and longer stent patency than covered stents. PMID:25663777

  13. Histologic Characteristics and Mucin Immunohistochemistry of Cystic Fibrosis Sinus Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofang; Amorn, Melissa M.; Aujla, Pawandeep K.; Rice, Shannon; Mimms, Remy; Watson, Alan M.; Peters-Hall, Jennifer R.; Rose, Mary C.; Peña, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the histologic characteristics of paranasal sinus mucosa of a disease control population and children with chronic rhinosinusitis and cystic fibrosis (CRS/CF) (1) to determine whether goblet cell (GC) hyperplasia and/or submucosal gland (SMG) hyperplasia occur in pediatric CRS/CF and (2) to compare expression and localization ofMUC5ACand MUC5B mucins in the sinus mucosa of both cohorts. Design Histologic and morphometric analyses of paranasal sinus mucosa were used to quantify the number of GCs and mucin-expressing cells. Digital imaging was used to evaluate the SMG area. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify the cellular localization of MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins, and confocal microscopy was used to determine whether MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins were expressed in the same secretory cells. Setting Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC. Participants Twenty-one children with CRS/CF who underwent endoscopic sinus surgical procedures and 18 children who underwent craniofacial resection or neurosurgical procedures for abnormalities other than sinusitis. Results A statistically significant increased area (4.4-fold) of SMGs was detected in the sinus mucosa of patients with CRS/CF compared with the controls (P = .02). Neither GC hyperplasia nor increased expression of MUC5AC was observed in the CRS/CF group. MUC5AC was expressed only in a subpopulation of GCs in both cohorts, and MUC5B was expressed in a subpopulation of GCs as well as in SMGs. There was a positive trend toward increased glandular MUC5B expression in the CRS/CF cohort. Colocalization of MUC5AC and MUC5B expression was observed in a subset of GCs. Conclusions Significant SMG hyperplasia and a trend toward increased glandular MUC5B expression exist in children with CRS/CF. This suggests that SMG hyperplasia and glandular MUC5B mucin contribute to mucus overproduction in the sinus mucosa of this population. PMID:21502478

  14. Effect of ochratoxin A on the intestinal mucosa and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Solcan, Carmen; Pavel, Geta; Floristean, Viorel Cezar; Chiriac, Ioan Sorin Beschea; ?lencu, Bogdan Gabriel; Solcan, Gheorghe

    2015-03-01

    The immunotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the intestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and its cytotoxic action on the intestinal epithelium were studied in broiler chickens experimentally treated with the toxin. From the 7th day of life, 80 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups of 20 birds each. The three experimental groups (E1-3) were treated with OTA for 28 days (E1: 50 ?g/kg body weight [bw]/day; E2: 20 ?g/kg bw/day; E3: 1 ?g/kg bw/day) and the fourth group served as control. Histological examination of the intestinal mucosa and immunohistochemical staining for identification of CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocytes in the duodenum, jejunum and ileocaecal junction were performed, and CD4+/CD8+ and TCR1/TCR2 ratios were calculated. OTA toxicity resulted in decreased body weight gain, poorer feed conversion ratio, lower leukocyte and lymphocyte count, and altered intestinal mucosa architecture. After 14 days of exposure to OTA, immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium and the lamina propria. After 28 days of exposure, an increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ values in both the duodenum and jejunum of chickens in Groups E1 and E2 was observed, but the TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocyte counts showed a significant reduction. No significant changes were observed in Group E3. The results indicate that OTA induced a decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and was cytotoxic to the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, altering the intestinal barrier and increasing susceptibility to various associated diseases. PMID:25655413

  15. Efficacy of ilaprazole in the treatment of duodenal ulcers: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xi-Qing; Du, Jun-Feng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Guang; Yu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerance of ilaprazole compared with other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. METHODS: An electronic database search of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane controlled trials register, Web of Science, PubMed, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (updated to July 2013), and manual searches were conducted. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and tolerance of ilaprazole and other PPIs in the treatment of duodenal ulcers was performed. RESULTS: Five articles involving 1481 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed no difference in the 4-wk healing rate between ilaprazole and other PPIs [89.7% vs 87.0%; relative risk (RR) = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.98-1.06; Z = 1.00; P = 0.32]. The results did not change in the sensitivity analyses. The meta-analysis indicated that the adverse effect rate in the ilaprazole group was lower than that in the control group, but the difference was not significant (9.7% vs 13.0%; RR = 0.81; 95%CI: 0.60-1.07; Z = 1.47; P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Ilaprazole is a highly effective and safe PPI in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. Ilaprazole can be recommended as a therapy for acid-related disorders, especially in Asian populations. PMID:24803828

  16. Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter in a polyarteritis nodosa sufferer

    PubMed Central

    Dat, Anthony; McCann, Andrew; Quinn, John; Yeung, Shinn

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are currently used in the management of pulmonary embolism (PE) and lower limb venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite their widespread use, associated complications including duodenal perforation have been reported. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a unique case of duodenal perforation 2 years post IVC filter insertion in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa (steroid dependent) and thrombocytopenia secondary to chronic cyclophosphamide use. DISCUSSION IVC filters are commonly employed in the management of VTE. Associated complications have been reported including filter migration, fracture and adjacent organ perforation. There is growing consensus that temporary IVC filters should be retrieved as soon as possible with dedicated IVC filter registries to ensure patients are not lost to follow-up post insertion. CONCLUSION Duodenal perforation is a rare complication of IVC filter insertion. This case however illustrates the potentially catastrophic consequences of a relatively common endovascular procedure. Caution should be taken when considering the insertion of IVC filters in patients with longstanding vasculopathies who are on immunosuppressants. PMID:25437665

  17. Role of duodenal iron transporters and hepcidin in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Dostalikova-Cimburova, Marketa; Balusikova, Kamila; Kratka, Karolina; Chmelikova, Jitka; Hejda, Vaclav; Hnanicek, Jan; Neubauerova, Jitka; Vranova, Jana; Kovar, Jan; Horak, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) often display disturbed iron indices. Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, has been shown to be down-regulated by alcohol in cell lines and animal models. This down-regulation led to increased duodenal iron transport and absorption in animals. In this study, we investigated gene expression of duodenal iron transport molecules and hepcidin in three groups of patients with ALD (with anaemia, with iron overload and without iron overload) and controls. Expression of DMT1, FPN1, DCYTB, HEPH, HFE and TFR1 was measured in duodenal biopsies by using real-time PCR and Western blot. Serum hepcidin levels were measured by using ELISA. Serum hepcidin was decreased in patients with ALD. At the mRNA level, expressions of DMT1, FPN1 and TFR1 genes were significantly increased in ALD. This pattern was even more pronounced in the subgroups of patients without iron overload and with anaemia. Protein expression of FPN1 paralleled the increase at the mRNA level in the group of patients with ALD. Serum ferritin was negatively correlated with DMT1 mRNA. The down-regulation of hepcidin expression leading to up-regulation of iron transporters expression in the duodenum seems to explain iron metabolism disturbances in ALD. Alcohol consumption very probably causes suppression of hepcidin expression in patients with ALD. PMID:24894955

  18. Non-healing gastro-duodenal ulcer: A rare presentation of primary abdominal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Merali, Nabeel; Chandak, Pankaj; Doddi, Sudeendra; Sinha, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We present a case of primary gastrointestinal tuberculosis that has culminated in ulcer formation, in the absence of pulmonary involvement in an immunocompetent patient. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 28-year-old Asian male presented to casualty with a 1-week history of epigastric cramping abdominal pain and several episodes of non-bilious vomiting. The patient deteriorated clinically, becoming more cachectic and given his unexplained weight loss, an oesophageal-gastro-duodenal endoscopic imaging confirmed a duodenal ulcer. The biopsy of the non-healing ulcer was the hallmark of the disease, revealing evidence of granulomatous inflammation consistent with tuberculosis bacilli. DISCUSSION Gastrointestinal tuberculosis with ulceration is rare with respect to the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. This case proves to be unique, as our patient had experienced primary isolated gastric tuberculosis in the absence of pulmonary tuberculosis in a healthy individual. Immunohistochemical staining, histopathology and radiological investigations have demonstrated their importance in confirming abdominal tuberculosis and the extent of bowel involvement. CONCLUSION This case has illustrated the difficulties associated with a prompt diagnosis of an unusual case of primary duodenal tuberculosis from chronic peptic ulcer disease in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:25506841

  19. Duodenal ulcer penetration into the liver at the previous left hemihepatectomy site?

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hironori; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Shoji, Masatoshi; Nakanuma, Shin-ichi; Makino, Isamu; Oyama, Katsunobu; Inokuchi, Masafumi; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Tani, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Duodenal ulcer penetration into the liver is a rare, but serious complication. Its frequency was thought to have decreased owing to advances in therapies for peptic ulcers. However, we encountered a case in which the duodenal ulcer had penetrated into a previous hemihepatectomy site. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 69-year-old man with a history of left hemihepatectomy 20 months previously presented to the emergency room with sudden-onset abdominal pain and nausea. An upper gastrointestinal examination with a fiberscope revealed a giant ulcer in the duodenal bulb. In addition, a foreign body was detected at the ulcer floor and was strongly suspected of being a ligature from previous hemihepatectomy. DISCUSSION The presence of a gas-filled liver mass and bowel wall thickening with inflammatory changes are important imaging findings for prompt diagnosis of such a condition, but in this case, none of these were reported. Further, no definite abscess was found. Thus, the patient was treated conservatively with a proton pump inhibitor. CONCLUSION This case demonstrates the importance of using absorbable suture materials, adequate lavage in the postoperative peritoneal space and gastroduodenal mucosal protection postoperatively. PMID:24240081

  20. Surgical management of pancreatico-duodenal tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Akerström, Göran; Stålberg, Peter; Hellman, Per

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatico-duodenal tumors are the second most common endocrinopathy in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1, and have a pronounced effect on life expectancy as the principal cause of disease-related death. Previous discussions about surgical management have focused mainly on syndromes of hormone excess and, in particular, the management of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1-related Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Since hormonal syndromes tend to occur late and indicate the presence of metastases, screening with biochemical markers and endoscopic ultrasound is recommended for early detection of pancreatico-duodenal tumors, and with early surgery before metastases have developed. Surgery is recommended in patients with or without hormonal syndromes in the absence of disseminated liver metastases. The suggested operation includes distal 80% subtotal pancreatic resection together with enucleation of tumors in the head of the pancreas, and in cases with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, excision of duodenal gastrinomas together with clearance of regional lymph node metastases. This strategy, with early and aggressive surgery before metastases have developed, is believed to reduce the risks for tumor recurrence and malignant progression. PMID:22584725

  1. Nerve-mediated contractile and electrical activity of the guinea-pig choledocho-duodenal junction.

    PubMed

    Vongalis, F; Bywater, R A; Taylor, G S

    1989-12-30

    The intrinsic motor innervation of the guinea-pig choledocho-duodenal junction was investigated by recording the contractile and intracellular electrical activity of smooth muscle from different regions of this tissue. Electrical transmural nerve stimulation evoked phasic contractions in rings of muscle from the ampulla (0.45 s-1) and tonic contractions in rings of muscle from the choledochal sphincter. Intracellular microelectrode recordings from muscle strips from these two regions revealed that excitatory junction potentials (peak amplitude 7 mV) evoked by transmural nerve stimulation were more conspicuous in muscle strips from the choledochal sphincter, but inhibitory junction potentials (peak amplitude 13 mV) were of larger amplitude in muscle strips from the ampulla. Contractions and membrane depolarization evoked by transmural nerve stimulation were sensitive to 1.4 microM atropine and abolished by 3.1 microM tetrodotoxin. Histological studies on the choledocho-duodenal junction also revealed that the distribution of smooth muscle was non-uniform along the tissue. These results suggest that the two regions may have different functions in the motility of the choledocho-duodenal junction. PMID:2632634

  2. Adenocarcinoma of the third duodenal portion: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sista, Federico; Santis, Giuseppe De; Giuliani, Antonio; Cecilia, Emanuela Marina; Piccione, Federica; Lancione, Laura; Leardi, Sergio; Amicucci, Gianfranco

    2012-01-27

    We focus on the diagnostic and therapeutic problems of duodenal adenocarcinoma, reporting a case and reviewing the literature. A 65-year old man with adenocarcinoma in the third duodenal portion was successfully treated with a segmental resection of the third part of the duodenum, avoiding a duodeno-cephalo-pancreatectomy. This tumor is very rare and frequently affects the III and IV duodenal portion. A precocious diagnosis and the exact localization of this neoplasia are crucial factors in order to decide the surgical strategy. Given a non-specificity of symptoms, endoscopy with biopsy is the diagnostic gold standard. Duodeno-cephalo-pancreatectomy (DCP) and segmental resection of the duodenum (SRD) are the two surgical options, with overlapping morbidity (27% vs 18%) and post operative mortality (3% vs 1%). The average incidence of postoperative long-term survival is 100%, 73.3% and 31.6% of cases after 1, 3 and 5 years from surgery, respectively. Long-term survival is made worse by two factors: the presence of metastatic lymph nodes and tumor localization in the proximal duodenum. The two surgical options are radical: DCP should be used only for proximal localizations while SRD should be chosen for distal localizations. PMID:22347539

  3. Evaluation of Cervical Mucosa in Transmission Bottleneck during Acute HIV-1 Infection Using a Cervical Tissue-Based Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chengli; Ding, Ming; Ratner, Deena; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Chen, Yue; Gupta, Phalguni

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there are different strains of HIV-1 in a chronically infected individual, only one or limited virus strains are successfully transmitted to a new individual. The reason for this “transmission bottleneck” is as yet unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings A human cervical explant model was used to measure HIV-1 transmission efficiency of viral strains from chronic infections, and transmitter/founder variants. We also evaluated the genetic characteristics of HIV-1 variants in the inoculums compared to those transmitted across the cervical mucosa. Eight different HIV-1 isolates were used in this study, six chronic isolates and two transmitter/founder viruses. The transmission efficiency of the chronic and transmitter/founder virus isolates and the viral diversity of chronic isolates before and after viral transmission were assessed. The results indicate that transmitter/founder viruses did not display higher transmission efficiency than chronic HIV-1 isolates. Furthermore, no evidence for a difference in diversity was found between the inoculums and transmitted virus strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the sequences of variants in the inoculums and those present in transmitted virus intermingled irrespective of co-receptor usage. In addition, the inoculum and transmitted variants had a similar pairwise distance distribution. Conclusion There was no selection of a single or limited number of viral variants during HIV-1 transmission across the cervical mucosa in the organ culture model, indicating that the cervical mucosa alone may not produce the transmission bottleneck of HIV-1 infection observed in vivo. PMID:22412886

  4. Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1. 1. 1. 146)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, A.F.; Anderson, F.H.

    1983-10-01

    Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with /sup 3/H-cortisone and /sup 14/C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Patient-derived olfactory mucosa cells but not lung or skin fibroblasts mediate axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    García-Escudero, Vega; García-Gómez, Ana; Langa, Elena; Martín-Bermejo, María Jesús; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Moreno-Flores, María Teresa; Avila, Jesús; Lim, Filip

    2012-02-10

    Although human olfactory mucosa derived cells (OMC) have been used in animal models and clinical trials with CNS repair purposes, the exact identity of these cells in culture with respect to their tissue of origin is not fully understood and their neuroregenerative capacity in vitro has not yet been demonstrated. In this study we have compared human OMC with human ensheathing glia from olfactory bulb (OB) and human fibroblasts from skin and lung. Our results indicate that these different cultured cell types exhibit considerable overlap of antigenic markers such that it is presently not possible to distinguish them immunocytochemically. However, in rat retinal ganglion neuron coculture assays the axonal regenerative activity of OMC and OB ensheathing glia was dramatically higher than that exhibited by all fibroblast samples, confirming neuroregenerative activity as a unique property shared by cultured cells derived from the human olfactory system. PMID:22227621

  6. Enhanced Transferrin Receptor Expression by Proinflammatory Cytokines in Enterocytes as a Means for Local Delivery of Drugs to Inflamed Gut Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Efrat; Rubinstein, Abraham; Nissan, Aviram; Khazanov, Elena; Nadler Milbauer, Mirela; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Tirosh, Boaz

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is often associated with adverse effects related to drug distribution into non-diseased tissues, a situation which attracts a rational design of a targeted treatment confined to the inflamed mucosa. Upon activation of immune cells, transferrin receptor (TfR) expression increases at their surface. Because TfR is expressed in all cell types we hypothesized that its cell surface levels are regulated also in enterocytes. We, therefore, compared TfR expression in healthy and inflamed human colonic mucosa, as well as healthy and inflamed colonic mucosa of the DNBS-induced rat model. TfR expression was elevated in the colonic mucosa of IBD patients in both the basolateral and apical membranes of the enterocytes. Increased TfR expression was also observed in colonocytes of the induced colitis rats. To explore the underlying mechanism CaCo-2 cells were treated with various proinflammatory cytokines, which increased both TfR expression and transferrin cellular uptake in a mechanism that did not involve hyper proliferation. These findings were then exploited for the design of targetable carrier towards inflamed regions of the colon. Anti-TfR antibodies were conjugated to nano-liposomes. As expected, iron-starved Caco-2 cells internalized anti-TfR immunoliposomes better than controls. Ex vivo binding studies to inflamed mucosa showed that the anti-TfR immunoliposomes accumulated significantly better in the mucosa of DNBS-induced rats than the accumulation of non-specific immunoliposomes. It is concluded that targeting mucosal inflammation can be accomplished by nano-liposomes decorated with anti-TfR due to inflammation-dependent, apical, elevated expression of the receptor. PMID:21915296

  7. Isolation of new bioactive annonaceous acetogenins from Rollinia mucosa guided by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gu, Z M; Zhou, D; Lewis, N J; Wu, J; Shi, G; McLaughlin, J L

    1997-10-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) fractionation, monitored by liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS), led to the isolation of two new bioactive annonaceous acetogenins, rollidecin C (1) and rollidecin D (2), from the bioactive aqueous methanol fraction of the leaves of Rollinia mucosa (Annonaceae). The structures were confirmed by analyses of the 1H and 13C NMR data. In addition, a known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran (THF) acetogenin, desacetyluvaricin (3), was isolated from this plant for the first time utilizing the LC/ESI-MS monitoring approach. Compound 1 exhibited selective cytotoxicity toward the colon tumor cell line (HT-29), while 2 showed only borderline cytotoxicity in a panel of six human tumor cell lines. PMID:9370035

  8. Tryptamine derived amides and acetogenins from the seeds of Rollinia mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chávez, D; Acevedo, L A; Mata, R

    1999-08-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of a CHCl(3)-MeOH (1:1) extract prepared from the seeds of Rollinia mucosa led to the isolation of a mixture of eight novel tryptamine amides. Extensive HPLC allowed the isolation of the major component of the mixture, which was characterized as N-lignoceroyltryptamine (6) using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods. The minor amides were identified by GC-MS analysis as N-palmitoyltryptamine (1), N-stearoyltryptamine (2), N-arachidoyltryptamine (3), N-behenoyltryptamine (4), N-tricosanoyltryptamine (5), N-pentacosanoyltryptamine (7), and N-cerotoyltryptamine (8). Two lignans (pinoresinol dimethyl ether and magnolin) and six acetogenins [membranacin (9), desacetyluvaricin (10), rolliniastatin 1, bullatacin, squamocin, and motrilin] were also isolated. The cytotoxicity of membranacin (9) and desacetyluvaricin (10) against six human solid tumor cell lines was determined. The absolute configuration of the former is reported. PMID:10479316

  9. SIV Infection Induces Accumulation of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in the Gut Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, R. Keith; Evans, Tristan I.; Gillis, Jacqueline; Wong, Fay E.; Kang, Guobin; Li, Qingsheng; Johnson, R. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are depleted and dysfunctional during human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection, but little is known about pDCs in the gut—the primary site of virus replication. Here, we show that during SIV infection, pDCs were reduced 3-fold in the circulation and significantly upregulated the gut-homing marker ?4?7, but were increased 4-fold in rectal biopsies of infected compared to naive macaques. These data revise the understanding of pDC immunobiology during SIV infection, indicating that pDCs are not necessarily depleted, but instead may traffic to and accumulate in the gut mucosa. PMID:22711907

  10. A Dosimetric Model of Duodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James D.; Christman-Skieller, Claudia; Kim, Jeff; Dieterich, Sonja; Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Koong, Albert C., E-mail: akoong@stanford.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Dose escalation for pancreas cancer is limited by the tolerance of adjacent normal tissues, especially with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The duodenum is generally considered to be the organ at greatest risk. This study reports on the dosimetric determinants of duodenal toxicity with single-fraction SBRT. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma received 25 Gy in a single fraction. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) endpoints evaluated include V{sub 5} (volume of duodenum that received 5 Gy), V{sub 10}, V{sub 15}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 25}, and D{sub max} (maximum dose to 1 cm{sup 3}). Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was evaluated with a Lyman model. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Results: The median time to Grade 2-4 duodenal toxicity was 6.3 months (range, 1.6-11.8 months). The 6- and 12-month actuarial rates of toxicity were 11% and 29%, respectively. V{sub 10}-V{sub 25} and D{sub max} all correlated significantly with duodenal toxicity (p < 0.05). In particular, V{sub 15} {>=} 9.1 cm{sup 3} and V{sub 15} < 9.1 cm{sup 3} yielded duodenal toxicity rates of 52% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.002); V{sub 20} {>=} 3.3 cm{sup 3} and V{sub 20} < 3.3 cm{sup 3} gave toxicity rates of 52% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.002); and D{sub max} {>=} 23 Gy and D{sub max} < 23 Gy gave toxicity rates of 49% and 12%, respectively (p = 0.004). Lyman NTCP model optimization generated the coefficients m = 0.23, n = 0.12, and TD{sub 50} = 24.6 Gy. Only the Lyman NTCP model remained significant in multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Multiple DVH endpoints and a Lyman NTCP model are strongly predictive of duodenal toxicity after SBRT for pancreatic cancer. These dose constraints will be valuable in future abdominal SBRT studies.

  11. Cancer-Predicting Gene Expression Changes in Colonic Mucosa of Western Diet Fed Mlh1+/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dermadi Bebek, Denis; Valo, Satu; Reyhani, Nima; Ollila, Saara; Päivärinta, Essi; Peltomäki, Päivi; Mutanen, Marja; Nyström, Minna

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the Western world and interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including diet, are suggested to play a critical role in its etiology. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in the mouse to address gene expression and methylation changes arising in histologically normal colonic mucosa as putative cancer-predisposing events available for early detection. The expression of 94 growth-regulatory genes previously linked to human CRC was studied at two time points (5 weeks and 12 months of age) in the heterozygote Mlh1+/- mice, an animal model for human Lynch syndrome (LS), and wild type Mlh1+/+ littermates, fed by either Western-style (WD) or AIN-93G control diet. In mice fed with WD, proximal colon mucosa, the predominant site of cancer formation in LS, exhibited a significant expression decrease in tumor suppressor genes, Dkk1, Hoxd1, Slc5a8, and Socs1, the latter two only in the Mlh1+/- mice. Reduced mRNA expression was accompanied by increased promoter methylation of the respective genes. The strongest expression decrease (7.3 fold) together with a significant increase in its promoter methylation was seen in Dkk1, an antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inactivation of Dkk1 seems to predispose to neoplasias in the proximal colon. This and the fact that Mlh1 which showed only modest methylation was still expressed in both Mlh1+/- and Mlh1+/+ mice indicate that the expression decreases and the inactivation of Dkk1 in particular is a prominent early marker for colon oncogenesis. PMID:24204690

  12. Delayed duodenal stump blow-out following total gastrectomy for cancer: Heightened awareness for the continued presence of the surgical past in the present is the key to a successful duodenal stump disruption management. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, K.; Fortounis, K.; Kokarhidas, A.; Papavasiliou, C.; Nimer, A. Al; Stratilati, S.; Makridis, C.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Duodenal stump disruption remains one of the most dreadful postgastrectomy complications, posing an overwhelming therapeutic challenge. PRESENTATION OF CASE The present report describes the extremely rare occurrence of a delayed duodenal stump disruption following total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy for cancer, because of mechanical obstruction of the distal jejunum resulting in increased backpressure on afferent limp and duodenal stump. Surgical management included repair of distal jejunum obstruction, mobilization and re-stapling of the duodenum at the level of its intact second part and retrograde decompressing tube duodenostomy through the proximal jejunum. DISCUSSION Several strategies have been proposed for the successful management post-gastrectomy duodenal stump disruption however; its treatment planning is absolutely determined by the presence or not of generalized peritonitis and hemodynamic instability with hostile abdomen. In such scenario, urgent reoperation is mandatory and the damage control principle should govern the operative treatment. CONCLUSION Considering that scientific data about duodenal stump disruption have virtually disappeared from the current medical literature, this report by contradicting the anachronism of this complication aims to serve as a useful reminder for gastrointestinal surgeons to be familiar with the surgical techniques that provide the ability to properly manage this dreadful postoperative complication. PMID:25437683

  13. Progesterone induces mucosal immunity in a rodent model of human taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J C; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  14. Effect of freezing and type of mucosa on ex vivo drug permeability parameters.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    The porcine esophageal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies mainly due to its large surface area as well as its easier preparation. Therefore, this study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of two drugs (carmabazepine (CBZ) and triamcinolone acetonide (TAC)) with different permeabilities and physicochemical properties through buccal and esophageal mucosae using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were also evaluated by comparing them when fresh and frozen tissues were used. The barrier properties were not affected by the freezing process since the obtained parameters for both drugs were similar in frozen and fresh tissues (buccal and esophageal mucosae). However, an increase of CBZ retention was shown in frozen tissues. Fresh and frozen esophageal mucosae provided higher permeation of TAC than on buccal mucosae while the obtained permeability parameters for CBZ were similar on both mucosae. According to our results, porcine esophageal mucosa could be used as a substitute for buccal mucosa on ex vivo studies involving CBZ but not TAC. Frozen tissues could be used as substitute for fresh tissues in both cases. However, any substitution should be done with care and only if previous tests were performed, because the results could differ depending on the tested drug. PMID:21541829

  15. Multiple recurrent vesicles in oral mucosa suggestive of superficial mucocele: An unusual presentation of allergic stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Shirzad, Atena; Molania, Tahere; Seyedmajidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Superficial mucocele presents as small, clear vesicle on noninflamed mucosa. In this study, we report several vesicles on the bucal mucosa of a woman diagnosed as superficial mucocele. Case Presentation: A 48-year old woman presented with multiple vesicles on her labial mucosa, ventral surface of the tongue, floor of the mouth and palate. A mucosal biopsy was taken from the vesicle. Histopathologically, intraepithelial mucocele was diagnosed. The lesion was successfully treated with mouthwash betamethasone. There has been no recurrence for 18 months. Conclusion: In the present study, several mucoceles were seen in the oral mucosa. No similar case was reported previously. PMID:24294477

  16. Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  17. Probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa: Effects on cell proliferation and polyamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Orlando, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed neoplasms. In the last decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the relations between the intestinal microbiota and the onset of both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal neoplasms. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. The internationally accepted definition of probiotics is live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract following probiotic administration have been investigated in vitro and in animal models, as well as in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from different human gastrointestinal diseases. Although several evidences are available on the use of probiotics against the carcinogen Helicobacter pylori, little is still known about the potential cross-interactions among probiotics, the composition and quality of intestinal flora and the neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa. In this connection, a significant role in cell proliferation is played by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine). These small amines are required in both pre-neoplastic and neoplastic tissue to sustain the cell growth and the evidences here provided suggest that probiotics may act as antineoplastic agents in the stomach by affecting also the polyamine content and functions. This review will summarize data on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa and in particular on their ability in modulating cell proliferation, paying attention to the polyamine metabolism. PMID:25309063

  18. Acid, pepsin, and mucus secretion in patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer before and after colloidal bismuth subcitrate (De-Nol)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J H Baron; J Barr; J Batten; R Sidebotham; J Spencer

    1986-01-01

    Basal and pentagastrin stimulated gastric secretion was measured in seven patients with duodenal, and six with gastric ulcers before and after four weeks' treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (as De-Nol), one tablet four times a day. Each duodenal and all but one of the gastric ulcers healed. After De-Nol there were no significant changes in basal, or pentagastrin stimulated volume,

  19. Duodenal- jejunal bypass sleeve: a totally endoscopic device for the treatment of morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Gersin, Keith S; Keller, Jennifer E; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Simms, Connie S; Abraham, Delois D; Deal, Stephen E; Kuwada, Timothy S; Heniford, B Todd

    2007-12-01

    Morbid obesity affects over 15 million people in the United States. Nonsurgical management produces sustained weight loss in less than 5% of patients. Despite associated comorbidities, less than 1% of obese patients seek surgical intervention. Less invasive procedures have been developed with varying success. The Endobarrier( trade mark) (GI Dynamics(trade mark), Watertown, MA) duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve is a totally endoscopically delivered device designed to produce weight loss in the morbidly obese. We describe the first placement of a duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve in a patient in the United States. A blinded, randomized, prospective clinical trial was approved by the Food and Drug Administration to evaluate safety and efficacy of a novel device for weight loss in the obese. The first patient enrolled was a 36-year-old woman with body mass index of 45.2. After informed consent, endoscopic placement of the device under general anesthesia was performed using fluoroscopy to confirm positioning. The device was placed without complications. At conclusion of the 3-month study period, the device was removed endoscopically. Total weight lost by the patient was 9.09 kg. Described herein is the first deployment of the duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve in North America. The device is delivered in a totally endoscopic manner in morbidly obese patients. In our patient, total weight loss at 3 months was 9.09 kg. Continued follow-up and enrollment is ongoing to demonstrate patient safety and efficacy. Additional studies are being performed to elucidate mechanism of weight loss and future clinical applications of this device. PMID:18178916

  20. Isolated duodenal exclusion increases energy expenditure and improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Rodrigo; Carmody, Jill S.; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Davis, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in rodent models reduces food intake (FI), increases resting energy expenditure (EE), and improves glycemic control. We have shown that mimicking the duodenal component of RYGB by implantation of a 10-cm endoluminal sleeve device (ELS-10) induces weight loss and improves glycemic control in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. We sought to determine the mechanisms and structural requirements of these effects. We examined the effects of ELS-10 devices implanted in male DIO rats on body weight, food intake (FI), meal patterns, total and resting EE, and multiple parameters of glucose homeostasis, comparing them with sham-operated (SO) rats and with SO rats weight matched to the ELS-10-treated group. To determine the extent of duodenal exclusion required to influence metabolic outcomes, we compared the effects of implanting 10-, 4-, or 1-cm ELS devices. ELS-10 rats exhibited 13% higher total and 9% higher resting EE than SO controls. ELS-10 rats also exhibited enhanced postprandial GLP-1 secretion and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity out of proportion to the effects of weight loss alone. Implantation of 4- or 1-cm ELS devices had no effect on EE and limited effects on glucose homeostasis. Complete duodenal exclusion with ELS-10 induces weight loss by decreasing FI and increasing EE and improves glycemic control through weight loss-independent mechanisms. Thus signals originating in the proximal small intestine appear to exert a direct influence on the physiological regulation of EE and glucose homeostasis. Their selective manipulation could provide effective new therapies for obesity and diabetes that mimic the benefits of RYGB. PMID:22972837

  1. Quantitative evaluation of duodenal eosinophils and mast cells in adult patients with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaopei; Ge, Wenqing; Huang, Jian; Li, Gaiqin; Cong, Yanqun; Li, Fukang; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Zhiyan; Li, Yanqing; Yuan, Haipeng

    2015-04-01

    The role of duodenal eosinophils and mast cells (MCs) in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia (FD) remains poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the counts and degranulation of duodenal eosinophils and MCs in FD patients to explore the association between FD and both cell types. We recruited 141 FD patients and 39 healthy controls for this study. Biopsy specimens were collected from the duodenal bulb (D1) and the descending part (D2) of the duodenum of all participants. Eosinophil counts and degranulation, and MC counts and degranulation at both sites were quantitatively evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, major basic protein immunostaining, and toluidine blue staining, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was applied to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these parameters in identifying FD cases. We found that the eosinophil counts at D2 were considerably increased in FD patients compared with healthy controls, and that the proportion of cases with eosinophil degranulation at D2 was significantly higher in the FD group. In addition, FD patients showed significantly increased MC counts and degranulation both at D1 and D2, and receiver operating characteristic analysis further demonstrated that these parameters, in particular the degranulation of MCs, appear to be highly sensitive and specific for the identification of FD patients. Our findings suggest that the increased eosinophil counts and degranulation at D2, and the increased MC counts and degranulation at D1 and D2 may be the histologic markers of FD. MC degranulation at D1 and D2 appears to be highly sensitive and specific for FD identification. PMID:25735567

  2. Isoflurane-induced acidosis depresses basal and PGE(2)-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Sjöblom, Markus; Nylander, Olof

    2007-03-01

    When running in vivo experiments, it is imperative to keep arterial blood pressure and acid-base parameters within the normal physiological range. The aim of this investigation was to explore the consequences of anesthesia-induced acidosis on basal and PGE(2)-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Mice (strain C57bl/6J) were kept anesthetized by a spontaneous inhalation of isoflurane. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial acid-base balance, and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) were studied. Two intra-arterial fluid support strategies were used: a standard Ringer solution and an isotonic Na(2)CO(3) solution. Duodenal single perfusion was used, and DMBS was assessed by back titration of the effluent. PGE(2) was used to stimulate DMBS. In Ringer solution-infused mice, isoflurane-induced acidosis became worse with time. The blood pH was 7.15-7.21 and the base excess was about -8 mM at the end of experiments. The continuous infusion of Na(2)CO(3) solution completely compensated for the acidosis. The blood pH was 7.36-7.37 and base excess was about 1 mM at the end of the experiment. Basal and PGE(2)-stimulated DMBS were markedly greater in animals treated with Na(2)CO(3) solution than in those treated with Ringer solution. MAP was slightly higher after Na(2)CO(3) solution infusion than after Ringer solution infusion. We concluded that isoflurane-induced acidosis markedly depresses basal and PGE(2)-stimulated DMBS as well as the responsiveness to PGE(2), effects prevented by a continuous infusion of Na(2)CO(3). When performing in vivo experiments in isoflurane-anesthetized mice, it is recommended to supplement with a Na(2)CO(3) infusion to maintain a normal acid-base balance. PMID:17158257

  3. Life threatening bleeding from duodenal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ivanecz, Arpad; Sremec, Marko; ?erani?, Davorin; Potr?, Stojan; Skok, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare, but serious complication of gastric bypass surgery. The inaccessibility of the excluded stomach restrains postoperative examination and treatment of the gastric remnant and duodenum, and represents a major challenge, especially in the emergency setting. A 59-year-old patient with previous history of peptic ulcer disease had an upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a duodenal ulcer two years after having a gastric bypass procedure for morbid obesity. After negative upper endoscopy finding, he was urgently evaluated for gastrointestinal bleeding. At emergency laparotomy, the bleeding duodenal ulcer was identified by intraoperative endoscopy through gastrotomy. The patient recovered well after surgical hemostasis, excision of the duodenal ulcer and completion of the remnant gastrectomy. Every general practitioner, gastroenterologist and general surgeon should be aware of growing incidence of bariatric operations and coherently possible complications after such procedures, which modify patient’s anatomy and physiology. PMID:25512773

  4. Entering the duodenal diverticulum: a method for cannulation of the intradiverticular papilla.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Can; Shi, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Gu, Jun; Tao, Yi-Jing; Wang, Yu-Qin; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-28

    Successful cannulation of the common bile duct may be difficult in patients in whom the papilla is located entirely within a diverticulum. In this study, we report successful biliary cannulation in three patients following intubation of the distal tip of the duodenoscope into the duodenal diverticulum and locating the major papilla. No complications occurred during the operation or during the postoperative period. This method didn't need second incubation an endoscope and might lower the burden of patients. So this skill is useful to deal with the papilla hidden inside the large diverticulum because of its safety and convenience. PMID:23326150

  5. An Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct at the Duodenal Papilla

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawashima, Yohei; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masami; Izumi, Hideki; Furukawa, Daisuke; Yazawa, Naoki; Nakagori, Toshio; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Mine, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the disease concept of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) has been attracting attention as a biliary lesion that is morphologically similar to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), which is considered to be a counterpart of IPMN. However, there are few reports on IPNB, and a consensus regarding the features of this disease is thus lacking. We experienced an extremely rare case of IPNB occurring in the bile duct at the duodenal papilla, which is a tumor presentation that has not previously been reported. Herein, we report this interesting case and discuss the possible association between IPMN and IPNB. PMID:25126070

  6. Ultrasound, CT and FDG PET-CT of a Duodenal Granuloma in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    JEON, Sunghoon; KWON, Seong Young; CENA, Rohani; LEE, Ju-hwan; CHO, Kyoung-Oh; MIN, Jung-Joon; CHOI, Jihye

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 12-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier with intermittent vomiting was diagnosed with regional granulomatous enteritis through histopathological examination. On ultrasonography and computed tomography, a focal thickened duodenal wall showed a mass-like appearance with indistinct wall layers. Marked uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose was observed from the mass on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Regional granulomatous enteritis is a rare form of inflammatory bowel disease and may have imaging features similar to intestinal tumors. This is the first study describing the diagnostic imaging features of ultrasonography, computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography for regional granulomatous enteritis in a dog. PMID:24748419

  7. Co-existence of Sarcina Organisms and Helicobacter pylori Gastritis/Duodenitis in Pediatric Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Jennifer L.; Nayar, Suresh K.; Anders, Paige D.; D’Amico, Michael; Butnor, Kelly J.; Wilcox, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcina are gram-positive anaerobic bacteria found to be associated with delayed gastric emptying and gastric outlet obstruction. We describe two cases of Sarcina co-existing with Helicobacter pylori organisms in pediatric siblings presenting within four months of each other with pyloric obstruction secondary to severe gastritis/duodenitis. The co-existence of Sarcina and Helicobacter pylori has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. Its characteristic tetrad packeted morphology permits Sarcina to be readily identified on routine sections. Detection of these organisms in gastric biopsies should prompt consideration of gastric outlet obstruction and/or delayed gastric emptying as a possible etiologic factor. PMID:25664331

  8. A comparison of unrefined wheat and rice diets in the management of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-one chronic duodenal ulcer patients in a rice-eating area were put on to an unrefined wheat diet and twenty-one continued on their previous rice diet. After 5 years only 14% of the first group had had relapses compared with 81% of the second group. A similar 5-year relapse rate (80%) was obtained in a group of thirty patients from another area with a more varied rice diet. The author attributes this difference to the increased mastication required by the unrefined wheat diet, which is associated with an increase in saliva, lower stomach acidity and reduced bile output. PMID:625462

  9. Automated classification of duodenal imagery in celiac disease using evolved Fourier feature vectors.

    PubMed

    Vécsei, Andreas; Fuhrmann, Thomas; Liedlgruber, Michael; Brunauer, Leonhard; Payer, Hannes; Uhl, Andreas

    2009-08-01

    Feature extraction techniques based on selection of highly discriminant Fourier filters have been developed for an automated classification of magnifying endoscope images with respect to pit patterns of colon lesions. These are applied to duodenal imagery for diagnosis of celiac disease. Features are extracted from the Fourier domain by selecting the most discriminant features using an evolutionary algorithm. Subsequent classification is performed with various standard algorithms (KNN, SVM, Bayes classifier) and combination of several Fourier filters and classifiers which is called multiclassifier. The obtained results are promising, due to a high specificity for the detection of mucosal damage typical of untreated celiac disease. PMID:19356823

  10. Abdominal wall defect with large duodenal disruption treated by a free tissue flap with a help of temporary expandable metallic stent

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Kim, Eun Key; Lee, Sung Koo; Jung, Yooun Joong

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal wall defect with large duodenal disruption after penetrating abdominal injury is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a 64-year-old man who had abdominal wall defect with large duodenal disruption after penetrating abdominal injury. The patient presented with intra-abdominal exsanguinating bleeding, duodenal disruption, and multiple small bowel perforation. The rarity of this complex injury and its initial presentation as a posttraumatic large duodenal disruption with abdominal wall defect warrant its description. The present case indicates that combining a free tissue flap with a covered expandable metallic stent can effectively and successfully repair an abdominal wall defect that is associated with a large duodenal disruption. PMID:24266016

  11. Inhibitory effect of the selective serotonin 5-HT? receptor antagonist ramosetron on duodenal acidification-induced gastric hypersensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakata-Fukuda, Mari; Hirata, Takuya; Keto, Yoshihiro; Yamano, Mayumi; Yokoyama, Toshihide; Uchiyama, Yasuo

    2014-05-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD) are both functional gastrointestinal disorders and frequently co-occur in patients. While one cause of FD appears to be gastric hypersensitivity, whether the hypersensitivity is affected by IBS treatments remains unclear, given the lack of appropriate animal models for testing. Here, we established an experimental model of duodenal acidification-induced gastric hypersensitivity in conscious rats. The model involved duodenal acidification induced by the infusion of hydrochloric acid into the proximal duodenum, with the nociceptive response being determined as the change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during gastric distension via an indwelling latex balloon. Using our model we evaluated the effects of duodenal acidification, increased distension pressure, and orally administered therapeutic agents for IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D). Duodenal acidification enhanced the pressor response during gastric distension, and pretreatment with the opioid ?-receptor agonist fedotozine (10mg/kg, intra-arterial) inhibited the pressor response. Pressure levels of 15-60 mm Hg increased MAP in response to gastric distension. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ramosetron (30 ?g/kg) inhibited MAP increase induced by duodenal acidification, with no other IBS-D therapeutic agents showing any effect. In contrast, the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (1mg/kg) significantly enhanced the pressor response during gastric distension. These findings indicate that the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor plays a key role in duodenal acidification-induced gastric hypersensitivity in rats, suggesting that ramosetron may reduce FD symptoms by ameliorating sensitized gastric perception. PMID:24632457

  12. Applying Mosher's method to acetogenins bearing vicinal diols. The absolute configurations of muricatetrocin C and rollidecins A and B, new bioactive acetogenins from Rollinia mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shi, G; Gu, Z M; He, K; Wood, K V; Zeng, L; Ye, Q; MacDougal, J M; McLaughlin, J L

    1996-08-01

    Muricatetrocin C (1), rollidecin A (2), and rollidecin B (3), three new bioactive annonaceous acetogenins bearing vicinal diols, were isolated from the leaves of Rollinia mucosa (Annonaceae) using activity-directed fractionation. The total structural elucidations of 1-3, including the absolute stereochemistries of the vicinal diols, were achieved by analyzing their per-Mosher ester derivatives. All three compounds showed potent and selective inhibitory effects against several human cancer cell lines. PMID:8879549

  13. Duodenal disruption diagnosed 5 days after blunt trauma in a 2-year-old child: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Osuka, Akinori; Idoguchi, Koji; Muguruma, Takashi; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Blunt duodenal injury in children is uncommon and diagnosis is often delayed because of its retroperitoneal location. Both diagnosis and treatment are difficult. We report the case of a 2-year-old boy whose trauma injury was not reported for 5 days. His vital signs were stable, but he was vomiting bile-stained fluid and his stools were white. The third portion of the duodenum was completely disrupted, and was repaired by pyloric exclusion with duodenal and bile duct drainage. The child recovered uneventfully. We discuss the diagnostic strategies and therapeutic measures for this type of injury. PMID:17952532

  14. Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

  15. Fragility of the esophageal mucosa: A pathognomonic endoscopic sign of primary eosinophilic esophagitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Livio Rossi; Hans-Uwe Simon; Pius Heer; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Christoph Beglinger

    2003-01-01

    Background: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus, evokes recurrent dysphagia. Endoscopy is often unremarkable, and no consensus exists regarding management of resultant dysphagia. The response of a series of patients with primary eosinophilic esophagitis to dilation is reported together with a description of a possibly pathognomonic sign: fragile esophageal mucosa, for which the term “crêpe-paper” mucosa

  16. Effect of intermittent acid and pepsin exposure on burned esophageal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna H. Messner; J. Dale Browne; Kim R. Geisinger

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if gastroesophageal reflux affects the healing of esophageal mucosa damaged by alkaline substances.Materials and Methods: In a rabbit model, the effects of intermittent acid and pepsin exposure (thereby mimicking gastroesophageal reflux) on post-caustic-burn esophageal mucosa were examined. Exposures were group I (n = 9), sodium hydroxide exposure alone; group II (n = 9), daily acid and pepsin

  17. FattyAcid-stimulated Oxidationof Methylazoxymethanol by RatColonie Mucosa1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Craven; Martin Neidig; Frederick R. DeRubertis

    The present study examined fatty acid-initiated metabolism of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) to formaldehyde (HCHO) by the 10,000 x g soluble fraction of rat colonie mucosa, and the role of prostaglandin synthase and lipoxygenase activities in mediat ing this process. Incubation of MAM with soluble fractions of rat colonie mucosa, in the absence of arachidonate, resulted in significant HCHO production compared to

  18. Neoplastic transformation of the pelvic pouch mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Gullberg; D Stahlberg; L Liljeqvist; B Tribukait; FP Reinholt; B Veress; R Lofberg

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Some patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) receiving an ileal pelvic pouch with ileoanal anastomosis (IPAA) develop persistent severe villous atrophy in the pouch mucosa. To investigate if mucosal atrophy indicates a risk for subsequent neoplastic transformation of the ileal pouch mucosa, a follow-up study was undertaken. METHODS: Seven patients with UC and an IPAA in whom persistent

  19. Interrelationship between colonic muscularis mucosae activity and changes in transmucosal potential difference.

    PubMed

    Percy, W H; Brunz, J T; Burgers, R E; Fromm, T H; Merkwan, C L; van Dis, J

    2001-08-01

    This in vitro study investigated the relationship between rabbit colonic muscularis mucosae motor activity and changes in transmucosal potential difference. Spontaneous muscle contractions and potential difference oscillations occurred independently and were not neurally driven. ACh and histamine directly stimulated the muscularis mucosae, but their mucosal effects were largely indirect, suggesting that muscularis mucosae contractions promote epithelial secretion. 1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium iodide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide induced large potential difference changes but small muscularis mucosae contractions, demonstrating mucosal secretion without significant muscle activity. Lowered intraluminal pH directly stimulated the muscle, whereas a bile salt-lipid mixture evoked TTX- and atropine-sensitive increases in its contractile activity. Increased intraluminal pressure and hypertonic luminal perfusion did not elicit muscularis mucosae excitation. Thus under basal conditions muscle and mucosal activities are independent, but evoked muscularis mucosae contractions can stimulate epithelial secretion. In response to specific luminal stimuli, muscularis mucosae motor activity is increased via the activation of cholinergic nerves. These data suggest that muscularis mucosae and mucosal functions are physiologically linked and that their activities can be coordinated by multiple mechanisms. PMID:11447028

  20. Oral Diseases / Review Oral mucosa lesions in hypereosinophilic syndrome: an update

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : Hypereosinophilic syndrome and oral ulcers Keywords: hypereosinophilic syndrome, oral ulcers, myeloproliferative. Oral mucosa ulcerations can be early clinical signs in severe forms. They are discrete, round or oval, sometimes confluent ulcers or erosions, located on non-keratinized, unattached oral mucosa. In the last

  1. Sialylpentaosylceramide detected with anti-GM2 monoclonal antibody. Structural characterization and complementary expression with GM2 in gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Dohi, T; Ohta, S; Hanai, N; Yamaguchi, K; Oshima, M

    1990-05-15

    The ganglioside fraction of human gastric mucosa was analyzed with a newly established anti-GM2 monoclonal antibody KM531. Using this antibody, accumulation of GM2 was observed in all of four cases of gastric carcinoma. In all ganglioside fractions extracted from normal gastric mucosa obtained from eight cases of peptic ulcer GM2 itself was not detected, but three kinds of glycolipid showing slower mobility than GM2 on thin-layer plates were detected by immunostaining with KM531. These glycolipids were assigned as NGM-1, -2, and -3. They were completely lost in all carcinoma tissues and in non-cancerous gastric mucosa from two cases of gastric cancer, and they were also not detected in the ganglioside fraction of small or large intestine. Of these glycolipids, the major one, NGM-1, was isolated from the pooled ganglioside fraction of normal gastric mucosa obtained from cases of peptic ulcer. The structure was determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, negative ion fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and treatment with exoglycosidases and mild acid hydrolysis. The structure was GalNAc beta 1----4(NeuAc alpha 2----3) Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc beta 1----3 Gal beta 1----4Glc beta 1----1Cer, which has the same terminal sequence as GM2 but has internal neolacto series structure. This epitope was previously identified as Cad blood group antigen. The decrease of this glycolipid and the increase of GM2 was considered to be a cancer-associated change in gastric mucosa. PMID:2139874

  2. Epithelioid hemangioma (angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia) in the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anshul; Keluskar, Vaishali

    2012-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with an eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare benign entity whose etiology and pathogenesis is under debate. Clinically, it is characterised by cutaneous papules or nodules on the head and neck. Literature reveals very few cases of this entity in the oral mucosa. Here, we report a case of ALHE in a 25 year-old woman, who presented with a painless, 5mm x 5mm, sub mucosal erythematous nodule on left angle of mouth at lower lip. Histological examination of lip biopsy specimens revealed an increase in small vessels. The vascular walls consist of prominent endothelial cells with a histiocytoid appearance, which protruded into the lumen. Many eosinophils and lymphocytes were also seen around the vessels. The diagnosis of ALHE was made from the above findings. PMID:22945722

  3. Effect of dietary fat on the small intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Maxton, D G; Cynk, E U; Jenkins, A P; Thompson, R P

    1989-01-01

    The presence of food within the small intestinal lumen promotes mucosal cell proliferation. To define the trophic role of triglycerides, three groups of eight female Wistar rats were isocalorically fed for four weeks with either Vivonex, or Vivonex with 50% calorie substitution with an essential fatty acid mixture, or Vivonex with 50% calorie substitution with a saturated fatty acid mixture. Although Vivonex caused greater body weight gain, both essential fatty acids and saturated fatty acids increased small intestinal weight, mucosal weight, protein and DNA overall, and in each of three intestinal segments (proximal, middle and distal), compared with Vivonex. Mucosal indices were similar for essential fatty acids and saturated fatty acids. These results show that triglycerides, regardless of essential fatty acid content, are trophic to the rat small intestinal mucosa. PMID:2806993

  4. Neurosecretory effect of ouabain on isolated rabbit ileal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hubel, K.A.; Renquist, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Ouabain, when added to fluid bathing rabbit ileal mucosa mounted in a flux chamber, transiently increases short circuit current, implying a paradoxical secretory response. To determine the cause of this change, the authors studied unidirectional fluxes of /sup 36/Cl and /sup 23/Na and the effects of ion substitution, of reduced Ca concentration, verapamil, tetrodotoxin and atropine. Ouabain 0.1 mM, transiently increased the serosal to mucosal flux of Cl and Na, increased Isc and PD and reduced ion conductance. The Isc response to ouabain was diminished by reducing the bath fluid concentration of CL, of Ca, and by adding verapamil. Tetrodotoxin both delayed and reduced the maximal Isc response; atropine had no effect. They conclude that ouabain acts by releasing a neurotransmitter of unknown identity and by increasing the serosal to mucosal flux to Cl.

  5. Cell proliferation of pericryptal fibroblasts in the rat colon mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Maskens, A P; Rahier, J R; Meersseman, F P; Dujardin-Loits, R M; Haot, J G

    1979-01-01

    The turnover of pericryptal fibroblasts in the rat colon mucosa was analysed after in vivo incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Thirty-six rats were serially killed one hour to 21 days after intraperitoneal injection of the radionuclide. At one hour, the labelling index of pericryptal fibroblasts was only 2.44%; labelled fibroblasts were slightly predominant along the lower two-thirds of the crypts. Within 24 hours, most underwent at least one cell division. No migration was observed and a significant proportion of labelled fibroblasts was still present after three weeks. It is concluded that those fibroblasts constitute a slowly renewing cell population. The data failed to confirm the hypothesis of an 'en bloc' migration of fibroblasts in synchrony with the epithelial cells. Images Fig. 1 PMID:499917

  6. Gastric mucosa analysis using speckle patterns: a medical diagnosis alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade Eraso, Carlos Augusto; Patiño Velasco, Mario Milver; Vásquez Lopez, Jairo Alfonso; Tellez, Jaury Leon; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Rabal, Hector; Trivi, Marcelo

    2011-08-01

    Speckle techniques have been extensively employed in biomedical applications. It has been shown, that these non invasive optical techniques are useful to discriminate healthy tissues from those presenting some type of pathology. In this work we analyze speckle patterns from histological samples of gastric mucosa obtained by means of digestive endoscopies with three different histopathological confirmed diagnoses: atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia. We studied biopsies from 27 patients and formed groups following the corresponding speckle contrast features. Three different groups according to the speckle contrast were established: higher for intestinal metaplasia, intermediate for gastric dysplasia and low for gastric atrophy. The comparison with histopathology shows a high value of concordance between both tests, making this methodology emerges as a possible new classification system for qualitative and quantitative gastric biopsy using optical techniques.

  7. Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.

    2004-06-30

    This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

  8. The maintenance of rat palatal mucosa in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, M W; Miles, A E

    1976-01-01

    Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was maintained under organ culture conditions in a chemically defined medium for periods up to 28 days. The histological state of the cultured palatal mucosa was compared with that of control tissue from growing animals of comparable age. The control tissues showed an increase in epithelial thickness, first noticeable at 17 days. Whilst the general structure of the tissues in organ culture was preserved for the duration of the experiment, some changes in epithelial behavior were evident. There was an increase in epithelial thickness up to 6 days, followed by a reduction in the nucleated cell layer of the epithelium to a thickness comparable with that at the start of the experiment. There was a loss of epithelial glycogen within the first day, with occasional reappearance of patchy and irregular deposits. Whereas the control of epithelial thickness appeared to be restored after 10 days in vitro, disturbances in the maturation of the keratinocytes, manifested as epithelial pearls and dyskeratotic cells, were evident at subsequent stages. Epiboly never occurred. The connective tissue component showed continued development, indicated by an increase in the thickness of collagen fibres. The overall palatal growth seen in vivo did not occur in organ culture. We suggest that the improved maintenance reported is partly the result of explanting tissues in such a way as to minimize trauma, and partly the result of incorporating serum albumin into the chemically defined medium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1010792

  9. Characteristics of the gastric mucosa in patients with intestinal metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Genta, Robert M; Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2015-05-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) occurs in response to different injuries, some of which involve increased risk for gastric cancer, whereas others may not. The background in which IM arises has not been systematically investigated. This study was designed to determine the relative prevalence of the histopathologic conditions of the gastric mucosa associated with IM in a large cohort. We extracted from a database patients who had undergone esophagogastroduodenoscopy with gastric biopsies between January 2008 and December 2013 in endoscopy centers throughout the United States. For each subject we recorded demographic, clinical, and histopathologic information. We stratified patients according to the presence of IM and compared the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, reactive gastropathy, minimal inflammatory and gastropathy changes, mucosal atrophy, gastric polyps, cancer, and lymphoma in the 2 groups. IM, present in 8.4% of the 810,821 unique patients, increased with age and was more common in male than in female individuals. Compared with other Americans, East Asian ancestry was associated with a 5-fold risk for IM. Helicobacter gastritis and its sequelae were present in 42.2% of patients with IM, and reactive gastropathy in 17.3%. In >50% of patients under the age of 30 and in 26% of older adults, foci of IM occurred in an almost normal gastric mucosa. Thus, approximately half of the patients with IM had no histopathologic evidence of current or previous Helicobacter gastritis, whereas almost one fifth had a background of reactive gastropathy. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the relative risk for gastric cancer in patients with IM associated and not with Helicobacter infection. PMID:25602799

  10. Duodenal villous atrophy: a cause of chronic diarrhea after solid-organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weclawiak, H; Ould-Mohamed, A; Bournet, B; Guilbeau-Frugier, C; Fortenfant, F; Muscari, F; Sallusto, F; Dambrin, C; Esposito, L; Guitard, J; Abbal, M; Rostaing, L; Kamar, N

    2011-03-01

    Persistent diarrhea is commonly observed after solid organ transplantation (SOT). A few cases of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-induced duodenal villous atrophy (DVA) have been previously reported in kidney-transplant patients with chronic diarrhea. Herein, we report on the incidence and characteristics of DVA in SOT patients with chronic diarrhea. One hundred thirty-two SOT patients with chronic diarrhea underwent an oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) and a duodenal biopsy after classical causes of diarrhea have been ruled out. DVA was diagnosed in 21 patients (15.9%). It was attributed to mycophenolic acid (MPA) therapy in 18 patients (85.7%) (MMF [n = 14] and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium [n = 4]). MPA withdrawal or dose reduction resulted in diarrhea cessation. The incidence of DVA was significantly higher in patients with chronic diarrhea receiving MPA compared to those who did not (24.6% vs. 5.1%, p = 0.003). DVA was attributed to a Giardia lamblia parasitic infection in two patients (9.5%) and the remaining case was attributed to azathioprine. In these three patients, diarrhea ceased after metronidazole therapy or azathioprine dose reduction. In conclusion, DVA is a frequent cause of chronic diarrhea in SOT recipients. MPA therapy is the most frequent cause of DVA. An OGD should be proposed to all transplant recipients who present with persistent diarrhea. PMID:21299830

  11. Persistent duodenal ulcers bleeding in postkidney transplant patient treated by infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Pittayanon, Rapat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease was admitted for a living-donor kidney transplantation. On post-transplantation day 6, she developed antibody-mediated rejection and was treated with plasmapheresis, rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulin. 1?week later, she developed severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding from multiple duodenal ulcers along the bulb and the third part of the duodenum. She underwent 11 sessions of endoscopic and interventional therapies comprised with the combination of various techniques including bipolar coaptation, hemoclipping, band ligation and angiogram with coil embolisation of duodenal branch of gastroduodenal artery. Histopathology showed neither any organism nor any feature of graft-versus-host disease. However, empiric treatments with intravenous proton pump inhibitor and broad-spectrum antibiotics/antifungal were given but failed to heal the ulcer, and bleeding recurred from the new developed ulcers. Finally, a single dose of intravenous infliximab was administered to stop bleeding. The patient responded dramatically with rapid ulcers healing and there was no recurrent bleeding during a 3-month follow-up. PMID:23616323

  12. Pyloric exclusion in the management of duodenal trauma: is concomitant gastrojejunostomy necessary?

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, E; Carrillo, E H; Sosa, J L; Hertz, J; Nir, I; Martin, L C

    1997-11-01

    Pyloric exclusion with gastrojejunostomy (PE-GJ) has been recommended in patients with severe injuries to the pancreatoduodenal complex. Recently, the management philosophy for pancreatoduodenal injuries has been that less treatment is probably the best treatment. But whether gastrojejunostomy (GJ) should be used routinely with pyloric exclusion (PE) remains controversial. A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent PE at a Level I trauma center during a 36-month period. Forty-five patients had duodenal injuries and 12 of these (27%) underwent PE for management of complex duodenal injuries. Gunshot wounds were the cause of the injuries in 10 of the 12 patients (83%). Eight patients (67%) underwent PE-GJ and had a mean hospital stay of 25 days. Four patients (33%) underwent PE alone and had a mean hospital stay of 29 days. All 12 patients had spontaneous opening of the PE, regardless of the technique used. One patient (12.5%) in the PE-GJ group developed marginal ulceration and significant hemorrhage, and one patient died in the PE-GJ group. The reported incidence of marginal ulceration in the PE-GJ group, the spontaneous opening of the pylorus, and the need to limit the extent of surgical repair to focus on all other associated lesions present in these patients, suggest that GJ should not be used routinely in patients undergoing PE for the management of severe pancreatoduodenal injuries. PMID:9358782

  13. Prevalence of celiac disease in adult patients with refractory functional dyspepsia: Value of routine duodenal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Giangreco, Emiliano; D’agate, Cinzia; Barbera, Carmelo; Puzzo, Lidia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Naso, Pietro; Bonanno, Giacomo; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Incarbone, Salvatore; Trama, Giuseppe; Russo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in adult patients referred to an open access gastroenterology clinic in the south of Italy and submitted to esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for evaluation of refractory functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty six consecutive dyspeptic patients (282 male, 444 female; mean age 39.6 years, range 18-75 years) with unexplained prolonged dyspepsia were prospectively enrolled. Duodenal biopsies were taken and processed by standard staining. Histological evaluation was carried out according to the Marsh-Oberhuber criteria. RESULTS: The endoscopic findings were: normal in 61.2%, peptic lesions in 20.5%, malignancies in 0.5%, miscellaneous in 16.7%. CD was endoscopically diagnosed in 8 patients (1.1%), histologically in 15 patients (2%). The endoscopic features alone showed a sensitivity of 34.8% and specificity of 100%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPP) of 97.9%. CONCLUSION: This prospective study showed that CD has a high prevalence (1:48) in adult dyspeptic patients and suggests the routine use of duodenal biopsy in this type of patient undergoing EGD. PMID:19058330

  14. Management of patients with combined tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and duodenal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Nabzdyk, Christoph S.; Chiu, Bill; Jackson, Carl-Christian; Chwals, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Patients with combined esophageal atresia (EA), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and duodenal atresia (DA) pose a rare management challenge. PRESENTATION OF CASE Three patients with combined esophageal atresia (EA), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and duodenal atresia safely underwent a staged approach inserting a gastrostomy tube and repairing the EA/TEF first followed by a duodenoduodenostomy within one week. None of the patients suffered significant pre- or post-operative complications and our follow-up data (between 12 and 24 months) suggest that all patients eventually outgrow their reflux and respiratory symptoms. DISCUSSION While some authors support repair of all defects in one surgery, we recommend a staged approach. A gastrostomy tube is placed first for gastric decompression before TEF ligation and EA repair can be safely undertaken. The repair of the DA can then be performed within 3–7 days under controlled circumstances. CONCLUSION A staged approach of inserting a gastrostomy tube and repairing the EA/TEF first followed by a duodenoduodenostomy within one week resulted in excellent outcomes. PMID:25460495

  15. Second-stage robot-assisted biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch after sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Fantola, G; Reibel, N; Germain, A; Ayav, A; Bresler, L; Brunaud, L

    2015-01-01

    Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) was initially described in 1979 and consisted of a distal gastrectomy with a 250-mL stomach pouch and a distal intestinal bypass with a 50 to 100-cm common channel resulting in malabsorption of dietary fat (Scopinaro et al. Br J Surg. 66(9):618-20, 1979). Later, several modifications (sleeve gastrectomy, pylorus preservation, and duodenal switch) were proposed to improve incidence of postoperative dumping syndrome, diarrhea, and anastomotic ulcerations (Lagacé et al. Obes Surg. 5(4):411-8, 1995). Gagner et al. developed a simplified and reproducible approach for laparoscopic BPD with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) after sleeve gastrectomy (Ren et al. Obes Surg. 10(6): 514-23, 2000). BPD-DS has been considered as one of the most difficult bariatric procedures for its surgical complexity and postoperative metabolic complications management. In this regard, the number of BPD-DS has remained extremely low (<4 %). We hypothesize that robotic approach could facilitate the feasibility of BPD-DS procedure. In this multimedia video (8 min), we present a step-by-step robotic BPD-DS. PMID:25392077

  16. Duodenal Ferroportin Is Up-Regulated in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuping; Lv, Jiajun; Dong, Xiangqian; Yang, Gang; Zhu, Yunzhen; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Zhigang; Yang, Jiefu

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver-related mortality. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is frequently associated with disturbances in iron homeostasis, with serum iron and hepatic iron stores being elevated. Accumulating evidence indicates that chronic HCV infection suppresses expression of hepatic hepcidin, a key mediator of iron homeostasis, leading to iron overload conditions. Since hepcidin mediates degradation of ferroportin, a basolateral transporter involved in the release of iron from cells, diminished hepcidin expression probably leads to up-regulation of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1) in patients with CHC. In this study, we determined the protein levels of duodenal Fpn1, and found that its expression was significantly up-regulated in patients with CHC. The expression of duodenal Fpn1 is negatively correlated with mRNA levels of hepcidin, and positively correlated with serum iron parameters. Although iron is a critical factor for growth of a variety of pathogenic bacteria, our results suggest that iron overload in blood does not increase the infection rate of bacteria in patients with CHC. PMID:25330009

  17. [Prospective study of 420 biopsies realised in patients with duodenal ulcer with positive Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Khayat, Olfa; Kilani, Afef; Chedly-Debbiche, Achraf; Zeddini, Abdelfattah; Gargouri, Dalila; Kharrat, Jamel; Souissi, Adnene; Ghorbel, Abdel Jabbar; Ben Ayed, Mohamed; Ben Khelifa, Habib

    2006-06-01

    It's a prospective study leaded between September 1997 and july 1999 (23 months ) in 75 patients with duodenal ulcer and positif for Helicobacter pylori. All patients had a first endoscopy with antral, fundic and duodenal biopsies, followed one month later by a second control fibroscopy with biopsies of the same sites. A total of 420 biopsies was realised. Chronic gastritis was evaluated according to sydney system. Patients was divided by randomisation in 4 groups. Every group was received a different therapeutic association. The results was conform to liberation concering activity 80%, intestinal metaplasia 12%. inflammation 100%. Atrophy was observed in 56% of cases, this percentage is variable in literature; chronic gastritis was predominant in antre relatively to fundus (p<0.005). After treatment, a significative fall of Helicobacter pylori and activity and atrophy was established, contrarity to intestinal metaplasia and chronic inflammation witch are persisted. The prevalence of follicular gastritis was 57%. The better rate of ulcer cicatrisation and Helicobacter pylori eradication was respectively of 79% and 66% in group 1 treated by omeprazol, amoxcillin, metronidazol by comparison with the others 3 groups (p<0.005). PMID:17042205

  18. White specks in the esophageal mucosa: an endoscopic manifestation of non-reflux eosinophilic esophagitis in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel R Lim; Sandeep K Gupta; Joseph M Croffie; Marian D Pfefferkorn; Jean P Molleston; Mark R Corkins; Mary M Davis; Philip P Faught; Steven J Steiner; Joseph F Fitzgerald

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundWhite specks in the esophageal mucosa have been observed in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between white specks in the esophageal mucosa and allergic (non-reflux) eosinophilic esophagitis.

  19. Enhanced production of interleukin 1-beta by mononuclear cells isolated from mucosa with active ulcerative colitis of Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y R Mahida; K Wu; D P Jewell

    1989-01-01

    IL1-beta production by mononuclear cells isolated from normal and active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa was studied. Significantly more IL1-beta was produced spontaneously by mononuclear cells from the inflamed mucosa compared with those from normal colonic mucosa (median 190 pg\\/ml (range 45-700) v 20 pg\\/ml (0-165)). Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide enhanced IL1-beta production by mononuclear cells from active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa

  20. Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein and on plasma calcium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein and on plasma calcium and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels in the growing pig Monique THOMASSET, A. POINTILLART Josas. Summary. In vitamin D-deficient pigs the amount of intestinal calcium-binding protein (Ca

  1. Improved symptom relief and duodenal ulcer healing with lansoprazole, a new proton pump inhibitor, compared with ranitidine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C J Hawkey; R G Long; K D Bardhan; K G Wormsley; K M Cochran; J Christian; I K Moules

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare duodenal ulcer healing, symptom relief, and safety of lansoprazole (a new proton pump inhibitor) given at doses of 30 mg and 60 mg, in the morning with ranitidine 300 mg at bedtime. Two hundred and eighty nine patients were enrolled over a 20 month period in a double blind randomised parallel group

  2. Dynamic mechanical properties of oral mucosa: Comparison with polymeric soft denture liners.

    PubMed

    Lacoste-Ferré, M-H; Demont, Ph; Dandurand, J; Dantras, E; Duran, D; Lacabanne, C

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the viscoelastic behaviour of oral mucosa and compare it with the dynamic mechanical properties of different soft liners. For this purpose, a sample of pig oral mucosa and six commercialized soft liner samples have been investigated. A comparison was also carried with the first suitable hard rubber for dental prosthetics: vulcanite. Creep recovery (CR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) have been used to determine the mechanical modulus of oral mucosa and soft liners respectively. The Poisson ratio is used to compare mucosa bulk modulus and soft liner shear modulus. The biomechanical concept of conventional complete dentures needs a good adjustment of dynamic mechanical impedance between the base and oral mucosa. The viscoelastic mechanical property of the oral mucosa as a referent biopolymer has been confirmed in vitro. The modulus value, adjusted for old patients in physiological conditions, is in the order of 3 MPa. This study underlines the plasticization effect of absorbed water on the mechanical properties of the underlying tissue. This study allows us to define some characteristics of the most adapted biomaterial according to the clinical exigency. The required biomaterial must display the following properties: compatibility and chemical resistance with biological environment perpetuated mechanical properties during physiological conditions and clinical use, good adjustment of dynamic mechanical impedance with supporting mucosa and easy sample processing. PMID:21316614

  3. Characterization of the motor inhibitory role of colonic mucosa under chemical stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cano, Francisco E; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J

    2014-04-01

    The main roles of the colonic mucosa are the absorption of water and electrolytes and the barrier function that preserves the integrity of the colonic wall. The mediators and mechanisms to accomplish these functions are under continuous investigation, but little attention has been paid to a possible control of colonic motility by the mucosa that would fine tune the relationship between absorption and motility. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of the mucosa in the control of induced colonic contractility. Young ICR-CD1 mice (3-5 mo old) were studied. Isometric tension transducers were used to record contractility in full-thickness (FT) and mucosa-free (MF) strips from proximal colon. Proximal FT strips showed lower KCl- and bethanechol-induced responses than MF strips. The difference was not due to mechanical artefacts since the contractile response of FT strips to electrical field stimulation was around 50% lower than in MF. The inhibitory effects of the mucosa on FT strips were mimicked by immersion of separate strips of mucosa in the organ bath but not by addition of mucosal extract, suggesting gaseous molecules as mediators of this effect. Incubation of MF strips with synthase inhibitors of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide abolished the inhibition caused by addition of the mucosal strip, indicating that mucosal gasotransmitters are the mediators of these effects. This suggests that the control of colonic motility exerted by the mucosa could fine tune the balance between transit and absorption. PMID:24525019

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection as a cause of gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer and nonulcer dyspepsia: a systematic overview.

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J; Sherman, P M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current evidence for a causal relation between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer and nonulcer dyspepsia. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search for articles published in English between January 1983 and December 1992 with the use of MeSH terms Helicobacter pylori, gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, dyspepsia and clinical trial; abstracts were excluded. Six journals and Current Contents were searched manually for pertinent articles published in that time frame. STUDY SELECTION: Original studies with at least 25 patients, case reports and reviews that examined the relation between H. pylori and the four gastrointestinal disorders; 350 articles were on gastritis, 122 on duodenal ulcer, 44 on gastric cancer and 96 on nonulcer dyspepsia. DATA EXTRACTION: The quality of the studies was rated independently on a four-point scale. The strength of the evidence was assessed using a six-point scale for each of the eight established guidelines for determining a causal relation. DATA SYNTHESIS: There was conclusive evidence of a causal relation between H. pylori infection and histologic gastritis. Koch's postulates for the identification of a microorganism as the causative agent of a disease were fulfilled for H. pylori as a causative agent of gastritis. There was strong evidence that H. pylori is the main cause of duodenal ulcers not induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but all of Koch's postulates were not fulfilled. There was moderate epidemiologic evidence of an association between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. There was a lack of convincing evidence of a causal association between H. pylori and nonulcer dyspepsia. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence supports a strong causal relation between H. pylori infection and gastritis and duodenal ulcer and a moderate relation between such infection and gastric cancer. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of H. pylori in these disorders. Thus far, there is no evidence of a causal relation between H. pylori and nonulcer dyspepsia. PMID:8287340

  5. A Prospective Study of Periodontal Disease and Risk of Gastric and Duodenal Ulcer in Male Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Matthew R; Khalili, Hamed; Huang, Edward S; Michaud, Dominique S; Izard, Jacques; Joshipura, Kaumudi J; Chan, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Periodontal disease has been associated with higher circulating levels of inflammatory markers and conditions associated with chronic inflammation, including vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Limited data exist on the relationship between periodontal disease and gastric and duodenal ulcer. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 49,120 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, aged 40–75 years at enrollment in 1986. Biennially, we assessed periodontal disease, tooth loss, and other risk factors for gastric and duodenal ulcer. We validated diagnoses of gastric and duodenal ulcer through medical record review. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling, adjusting for potential confounders, to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We documented 138 cases of gastric ulcer and 124 cases of duodenal ulcer with available information on Helicobacter pylori status over 24 years of follow-up. After adjustment for risk factors, including smoking and regular use of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, men with periodontal disease with bone loss had a multivariate HR of ulcer of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.24–2.12). Periodontal disease appeared to be associated with a similar risk of developing ulcers that were H. pylori negative (HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.26–2.43) than H. pylori positive (HR 1.40; 95% CI, 0.87-2.24), as well as ulcers in the stomach (HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.21–2.53) than ulcers in the duodenum (HR 1.47; 95% CI, 0.98–2.19). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of incident gastric and duodenal ulcer. This relationship may be mediated by alterations in the oral and gastrointestinal microbiome and/or systemic inflammatory factors. PMID:24522171

  6. Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer Show Same Phylogeographic Origin in the Andean Region in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Matsuo, Yuichi; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Tran, Trang Thu Huyen; Binh, Tran Thanh; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent report has shown that the phylogenetic origin of Helicobacter pylori based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was significantly associated with the severity of gastritis in Colombia. However, the potential relationship between phylogenetic origin and clinical outcomes was not examined in that study. If the phylogenetic origin rather than virulence factors were truly associated with clinical outcomes, identifying a population at high risk for gastric cancer in Colombia would be relatively straightforward. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic origins of strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients living in Bogota, Colombia. Methods We included 35 gastric cancer patients and 31 duodenal ulcer patients, which are considered the variant outcomes. The genotypes of cagA and vacA were determined by polymerase chain reaction. The genealogy of these Colombian strains was analyzed by MLST. Bacterial population structure was analyzed using STRUCTURE software. Results H. pylori strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients were scattered in the phylogenetic tree; thus, we did not detect any difference in phylogenetic distribution between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer strains in the hpEurope group in Colombia. Sixty-six strains, with one exception, were classified as hpEurope irrespective of the cagA and vacA genotypes, and type of disease. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that Colombian hpEurope strains have a phylogenetic connection to Spanish strains. Conclusions Our study showed that a phylogeographic origin determined by MLST was insufficient for distinguishing between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer risk among hpEurope strains in the Andean region in Colombia. Our analysis also suggests that hpEurope strains in Colombia were primarily introduced by Spanish immigrants. PMID:25121764

  7. The pathogenesis of duodenal gastric metaplasia: the role of local goblet cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Shaoul, R; Marcon, P; Okada, Y; Cutz, E; Forstner, G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Gastric metaplasia is frequently seen in biopsies of the duodenal cap, particularly when inflamed or ulcerated. In its initial manifestation small patches of gastric foveolar cells appear near the tip of a villus. These cells contain periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive neutral mucins in contrast with the alcian blue (AB) positive acidic mucins within duodenal goblet cells. Previous investigations have suggested that these PAS positive cells originate either in Brunner's gland ducts or at the base of duodenal crypts and migrate in distinct streams to the upper villus. To investigate the origin of gastric metaplasia in superficial patches, we used the PAS/AB stain to distinguish between neutral and acidic mucins and in addition specific antibodies to immunolocalise foveolar cell mucin MUC5AC, the foveolar cell secretory product, gastric trefoil factor (TFF1), the mature goblet cell mucin MUC2, and MUC2 core antigen.?RESULTS—Cells in focal patches of gastric metaplasia contained secretory granules of both gastric and goblet cell phenotypes. MUC5AC and TFF1 were present as expected in gastric foveolar cells but in addition, MUC2 core antigen, normally present only in the Golgi of intestinal goblet cells, was expressed in secretory granules. Goblet cells in the vicinity of metaplastic patches also expressed both gastric and intestinal antigens. MUC5AC/MUC2 containing goblet cells were most common near the villus tip but were also seen at the base of crypts. Where crypts and Brunner's gland ducts merged they were always seen on the crypt side of the junction. Goblet cells were the only cells to express gastric antigens in these areas. In advanced metaplastic lesions, dual phenotype goblet cells were less evident and fewer cells expressed intestinal mucin antigens.?CONCLUSIONS—We suggest that goblet cells that express both intestinal and gastric antigens may represent local precursors of gastric metaplasia undergoing a transition to foveolar-like cells of mixed phenotype at the site of early metaplastic patches. As metaplasia becomes more widespread, a more pure gastric phenotype emerges. This progression is likely to be controlled by local inflammatory signals.???Keywords: gastric metaplasia; goblet cells; mucin PMID:10764705

  8. Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiology of celiac disease (CD) is increasing. CD mainly presents in early childhood with small intestinal villous atrophy and signs of malabsorption. Compared to healthy individuals, CD patients seemed to be characterized by higher numbers of Gram-negative bacteria and lower numbers Gram-positive bacteria. Results This study aimed at investigating the microbiota and metabolome of 19 celiac disease children under gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease, T-CD) and 15 non-celiac children (HC). PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses by universal and group-specific primers were carried out in duodenal biopsies and faecal samples. Based on the number of PCR-DGGE bands, the diversity of Eubacteria was the higher in duodenal biopsies of T-CD than HC children. Bifidobacteria were only found in faecal samples. With a few exceptions, PCR-DGGE profiles of faecal samples for Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria differed between T-CD and HC. As shown by culture-dependent methods, the levels of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacteria were confirmed to be significantly higher (P = 0.028; P = 0.019; and P = 0.023, respectively) in fecal samples of HC than in T-CD children. On the contrary, cell counts (CFU/ml) of presumptive Bacteroides, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shighella and Klebsiella were significantly higher (P = 0.014) in T-CD compared to HC children. Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus plantarum were the species most diffusely identified. This latter species was also found in all duodenal biopsies of T-CD and HC children. Other bacterial species were identified only in T-CD or HC faecal samples. As shown by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis, the percentage of strains identified as lactobacilli significantly (P = 0.011) differed between T-CD (ca. 26.5%) and HC (ca. 34.6%) groups. The metabolome of T-CD and HC children was studied using faecal and urine samples which were analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry-solid-phase microextraction and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. As shown by Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Principal Coordinates, the levels of volatile organic compounds and free amino acids in faecal and/or urine samples were markedly affected by CD. Conclusion As shown by the parallel microbiology and metabolome approach, the gluten-free diet lasting at least two years did not completely restore the microbiota and, consequently, the metabolome of CD children. Some molecules (e.g., ethyl-acetate and octyl-acetate, some short chain fatty acids and free amino acids, and glutamine) seems to be metabolic signatures of CD. PMID:21970810

  9. Mechanistic Comparison between Gastric Bypass vs. Duodenal Switch with Sleeve Gastrectomy in Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Johannessen, Helene; Furnes, Marianne W.; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Johnsen, Gjermund; Mårvik, Ronald; Kulseng, Bård; Chen, Duan

    2013-01-01

    Background Both gastric bypass (GB) and duodenal switch with sleeve gastrectomy (DS) have been widely used as bariatric surgeries, and DS appears to be superior to GB. The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms leading to body weight loss by comparing these two procedures in experimental models of rats. Methods Animals were subjected to GB, DS or laparotomy (controls), and monitored by an open-circuit indirect calorimeter composed of comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system and adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Results Body weight loss was greater after DS than GB. Food intake was reduced after DS but not GB. Energy expenditure was increased after either GB or DS. Fecal energy content was increased after DS but not GB. Conclusion GB induced body weight loss by increasing energy expenditure, whereas DS induced greater body weight loss by reducing food intake, increasing energy expenditure and causing malabsorption in rat models. PMID:24039816

  10. Chronomics affirm extending scope of lead in phase of duodenal vs. pineal circadian melatonin rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Poeggeler, B.; Cornélissen, G.; Huether, G.; Hardeland, R.; Józsa, R.; Zeman, M.; Stebelova, K.; Oláh, A.; Bubenik, G.; Pan, W.; Otsuka, K.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Bakken, E. E.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    In Göttingen, Germany, circadian variations in melatonin had been determined time-macroscopically in pineal glands, blood plasma and duodenum of chicken and rats. When these data were meta-analyzed, they agreed with the results from an independent survey on tissues from rats collected in a laboratory in Pécs, Hungary. In the latter study, tissues were analyzed chemically in Bratislava, Slovakia, and numerically in Minneapolis, MN, USA, all by single- and multiple-component cosinor and parameter tests. In rats and chickens, these inferential statistical procedures clearly demonstrated a lead in phase of the 24-h cosine curves best fitting all of the duodenal vs. those best fitting all of the pineal melatonin values in each species in 2 geographic (geomagnetic) locations. The 24-h cosine curve of circulating melatonin was found to be in an intermediate phase position. Mechanisms of the phase differences and the contribution of gastrointestinal melatonin to circulating hormone concentrations are discussed. PMID:16275498

  11. Duodenal adenocarcinoma might be the cause of intractable nausea and vomiting in patient with coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Rajabalinia, Hassan; Dabiri, Reza; Shahbazi, Shahin; Ghobakhlou, Mehdi; Bahreiny, Rasoul; Molaei, Mahsa; Nejad, Mohammad Rostami

    2012-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder which leads to chronic inflammation of the gut. Untreated CD is associated with upper gastrointestinal malignancies, Small-bowel lymphoma and adenocarcinoma are recognized complications of untreated coeliac disease (CD). We report the case of a 43-year-old male suffering from CD who was treated with a gluten-free diet one year, presenting with complaints of intractable nausea and vomiting. After several studies, He underwent push enteroscopy, which identified one large mass lesion in the third part of duodenum. However, histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, a duodenal segment resection was performed. After surgery, the patient recovered well and left our hospital in good condition. Clinicians should take into small bowel adenocarcinoma is rare but associated with CD particularly in CD patients with worrying symptoms such as nausea and vomiting unresponsiveness to treatment and these patients should be screened for long term complications like malignancy. PMID:24834228

  12. Duodenal adenocarcinoma might be the cause of intractable nausea and vomiting in patient with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Rajabalinia, Hassan; Dabiri, Reza; Shahbazi, Shahin; Ghobakhlou, Mehdi; Bahreiny, Rasoul; Molaei, Mahsa; Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Fatemi, Seyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder which leads to chronic inflammation of the gut. Untreated CD is associated with upper gastrointestinal malignancies, Small-bowel lymphoma and adenocarcinoma are recognized complications of untreated coeliac disease (CD). We report the case of a 43-year-old male suffering from CD who was treated with a gluten-free diet one year, presenting with complaints of intractable nausea and vomiting. After several studies, He underwent push enteroscopy, which identified one large mass lesion in the third part of duodenum. However, histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, a duodenal segment resection was performed. After surgery, the patient recovered well and left our hospital in good condition. Clinicians should take into small bowel adenocarcinoma is rare but associated with CD particularly in CD patients with worrying symptoms such as nausea and vomiting unresponsiveness to treatment and these patients should be screened for long term complications like malignancy. PMID:24834228

  13. Endoscopic and interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy to control duodenal and periampullary carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Hugh; Fowler, Aiden L.

    1996-12-01

    Duodenal and periampullary cancer present with jaundice, bleeding and obstruction. Many patients are unsuitable for radical surgery. Endoscopic palliation of jaundice can be achieved using endoscopic sphincterotomy or stent insertion. However, the problems of bleeding and obstruction can be difficult to manage. Ten patients were treated using superficial Nd:YAG laser ablation and lower power interstitial laser therapy. After initial outpatient endoscopic therapy, treatment was repeated at 4 monthly intervals to prevent recurrent symptoms. Bleeding was controlled in all patients and only one patient developed obstructive symptoms between treatment sessions. This responded to further endoscopic laser therapy. The median survival was 21 months. Laser treated patients were compared with a historical series of 22 patients treated with endoscopic sphincterotomy or stent insertion. The complication rate was less in patients treated with the laser.

  14. Gastric emptying for solids in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after highly selective vagotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Mistiaen, W.; Van Hee, R.; Blockx, P.; Hubens, A. (Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium))

    1990-03-01

    In a series of 31 duodenal ulcer patients (23 males and 8 females), who underwent a highly selective vagotomy, gastric emptying characteristics of a solid meal, labeled with (99mTc)stannous colloid, were assessed before, two weeks and six months after operation. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy and x-ray; failure of treatment with H2 antagonists or antacids during 1-18 (mean 5) years was the direct indication for operative treatment. A temporary delay in gastric emptying is noted two weeks after operation (T1/2: 124 vs 57 min). After six months, gastric emptying time has practically normalized. It appears that this is the result of the preservation of the antropyloric vagal nerve supply. In these patients, a 10% recurrence rate is noted, comparable to the results in the literature. Highly selective vagotomy proves to be a safe and effective procedure with few side effects. It does not impair gastric motility.

  15. Large duodenal GIST with massive liver secondaries melting under Imatinib: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sankar, S; Subramanian, M; Arunkumar, T; Venu, N; Anand, K

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GIST) have become a well established entity and its taxonomy is no more ambiguous. Better understanding of the cell of origin and immunohistochmical markers have made this possible. Their treatment has been revolutionized with the advent of targeted molecular therapy, namely Imatinib mesylate. Herein we report a rare and interesting case of a thirty year old South Indian Lady with an extremely large Duodenal GIST with massive Liver secondaries. The phenomenon of metastatic GIST responding to Imatinib mesylate is not new. What is interesting in this case is the enormous tumor load at the time of presentation as exemplified by the cross sectional images. This kind of tumor response and patient survival deserves documentation. PMID:18826633

  16. Large duodenal GIST with massive liver secondaries melting under Imatinib: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, S; Subramanian, M; Arunkumar, T; Venu, N; Anand, K

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GIST) have become a well established entity and its taxonomy is no more ambiguous. Better understanding of the cell of origin and immunohistochmical markers have made this possible. Their treatment has been revolutionized with the advent of targeted molecular therapy, namely Imatinib mesylate. Herein we report a rare and interesting case of a thirty year old South Indian Lady with an extremely large Duodenal GIST with massive Liver secondaries. The phenomenon of metastatic GIST responding to Imatinib mesylate is not new. What is interesting in this case is the enormous tumor load at the time of presentation as exemplified by the cross sectional images. This kind of tumor response and patient survival deserves documentation PMID:18826633

  17. Nano-hydroxyapatite–thermally denatured small intestine sub-mucosa composites for entheses applications

    PubMed Central

    Perla, Venu; Webster, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present in vitro study was to estimate the adhesion strength of nanometer crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA)–small intestine sub-mucosa (SIS) composites on model implant surfaces. Techniques of thermal denaturation (60°C, 20 min) of SIS were used to enhance the adhesion strength of entheses materials to underlying implants. Specifically, results indicated that the adhesion strength of thermally denatured SIS was 2–3 times higher than that for normal unheated SIS. In addition, aqua-sonicated, hydrothermally treated nano-HA dispersions enhanced the adhesion strength of SIS on implant surfaces. Importantly, results of the present study demonstrated that human skeletal muscle cell (hSkMC) numbers were not affected by thermally denaturing SIS in nano-HA composite coatings; however, they increased on aqua-sonicated nano-HA/SIS composites compared with SIS alone. Interestingly, thermally denatured SIS that contained aqua-sonicated, hydrothermally treated nano-HA decreased human osteoblasts (hOBs) numbers compared with respective unheated composites; all other composites when thermally denatured did not influence hOB numbers. Results also showed that the number of hOBs increased on nano-HA/SIS composites compared with SIS composites alone. Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) numbers were not affected by the presence of nano-HA in SIS composites. For these reasons, the collective results of this in vitro study demonstrated a technique to increase the coating strength of entheses coatings on implant surfaces (using thermally denatured SIS and aqua-sonicated, hydrothermally prepared nano-HA) while, at the same time, supporting cell functions important for entheses regeneration. PMID:17717975

  18. Leptin secretion by white adipose tissue and gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Cammisotto, P G; Bendayan, M

    2007-02-01

    Leptin is a hormone that plays a central role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Originally discovered in mature white adipocytes, it was subsequently isolated from the gastric mucosa. This tissue contains a large number of epithelial endocrine and exocrine cells secreting leptin in the blood stream and in the gastric lumen, respectively. Light and electron microscopy have shown that adipocytes and gastric epithelial cells contain leptin along their rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi-granules secretory pathway. Both tissues synthesize a soluble form of the leptin receptor that is secreted bound to leptin in the blood and into the gastric juice. This soluble receptor protect leptin and enhances its half-life. Despite the similarities in the mechanisms of leptin secretion by adipocytes and gastric epithelial cells, they are in fact radically different. In gastric cells leptin follows a rapid regulated secretion pathway whereas adipocytes secrete leptin in a constitutive slow fashion. These differences can be explained by the specific roles play by leptin originating from these two different tissues. Gastric leptin is involved in the short-term regulation of digestion, including delay of gastric emptying, absorption of nutrients by the intestinal wall and secretion of gastric, intestinal and pancreatic hormones. On the other hand, leptin secreted by white adipocytes acts primarily on the hypothalamus for the long-term regulation of food intake. Therefore, the coordination of adipose and gastric leptins ensures the proper management of food processing and energy storage. PMID:17149693

  19. Feeding Regulates the Expression of Pancreatic Genes in Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Maria Rita; Yoshioka, Mayumi; St-Amand, Jonny

    2010-01-01

    The ineffective short-term control of feeding behavior compromises energy homeostasis and can lead to obesity. The gastrointestinal tract secretes several regulatory peptides. However, little is known about the stomach peptide contribution to the acute regulation of intake. In an attempt to identify new gastric signals, the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method was used for the transcription profiling of stomach mucosa in 7 groups of mice: fasting and sacrificed 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours after a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) ad libitum meal. In total, 35 genes were differentially modulated by LF and HF meals compared to fasting, including 15 mRNAs coding for digestive enzymes/secretory proteins, and 10 novel transcripts. Although the basic expression profile did not undergo substantial variations, both LF and HF meals influenced the transcription. This study represents the first global analysis of stomach transcriptome as induced by different nutritional stimuli. Further studies including the characterization of novel genes may help to identify new targets for the therapy and prevention of obesity. PMID:21234387

  20. Receptors for neurotransmitters in opossum oesophagus muscularis mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, E. E.; Jury, J.; Robotham, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    Muscularis mucosa of the distal oesophagus of the opossum contains nerves which release acetylcholine and substance P(SP)-like material on field stimulation. The release of SP-like material appeared to be inhibited by the presence of exogenous muscarinic agonists and potentiated by muscarinic antagonists. Analysis of the postjunctional receptors involved using carbachol, McNeil A-343 (McN A-343), atropine and pirenzepine suggested that the receptors were not typical M2-muscarinic receptors. The potency of agonists and antagonists were consistent with some receptor properties resembling M1-muscarinic receptors. Prejunctional receptors to opiates, adenosine, agonists at alpha 2-adrenoceptors and prostaglandins were not detected. Receptors for tachykinins were present on the muscle in this tissue, but did not resemble clearly either SP-E or SP-P type receptors. They appear to be undifferentiated since most tachykinins were of similar potency. These results suggest that not all postjunctional muscarinic receptors in intestinal smooth muscle are M2 in type. There may be a gradation of types between M1 and M2. PMID:2874860

  1. Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

  2. Defective Expression of Scavenger Receptors in Celiac Disease Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Cupi, Maria Laura; Sarra, Massimiliano; De Nitto, Daniela; Franzè, Eleonora; Marafini, Irene; Monteleone, Ivan; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Paoluzi, Omero Alessandro; Di Fusco, Davide; Gentileschi, Paolo; Ortenzi, Angela; Colantoni, Alfredo; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten sensitive enteropathy characterized by a marked infiltration of the mucosa with immune cells, over-production of inflammatory cytokines and epithelial cell damage. The factors/mechanisms that sustain and amplify the ongoing mucosal inflammation in CD are not however fully understood. Here, we have examined whether in CD there is a defective clearance of apoptotic cells/bodies, a phenomenon that helps promote tolerogenic signals thus liming pathogenic responses. Accumulation of apoptotic cells and bodies was more pronounced in the epithelial and lamina propria compartments of active CD patients as compared to inactive CD patients and normal controls. Expression of scavenger receptors, which are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells/bodies, namely thrombospondin (TSP)-1, CD36 and CD61, was significantly reduced in active CD as compared to inactive CD and normal mucosal samples. Consistently, lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) of active CD patients had diminished ability to phagocyte apoptotic cells. Interleukin (IL)-15, IL-21 and interferon-?, cytokines over-produced in active CD, inhibited the expression of TSP-1, CD36, and CD61 in normal intestinal LPMC. These results indicate that CD-related inflammation is marked by diminished clearance of apoptotic cells/bodies, thus suggesting a role for such a defect in the ongoing mucosal inflammation in this disorder. PMID:24971453

  3. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  4. Vibrio cholerae Represses Polysaccharide Synthesis To Promote Motility in Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuning; Liu, Shengyan; Sheng, Ying; Rueggeberg, Karl-Gustav; Wang, Hui; Li, Jie; Gu, Frank X; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao; Zhu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    The viscoelastic mucus layer of gastrointestinal tracts is a host defense barrier that a successful enteric pathogen, such as Vibrio cholerae, must circumvent. V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is able to penetrate the mucosa and colonize the epithelial surface of the small intestine. In this study, we found that mucin, the major component of mucus, promoted V. cholerae movement on semisolid medium and in liquid medium. A genome-wide screen revealed that Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) production was inversely correlated with mucin-enhanced motility. Mucin adhesion assays indicated that VPS bound to mucin. Moreover, we found that vps expression was reduced upon exposure to mucin. In an infant mouse colonization model, mutants that overexpressed VPS colonized less effectively than wild-type strains in more distal intestinal regions. These results suggest that V. cholerae is able to sense mucosal signals and modulate vps expression accordingly so as to promote fast motion in mucus, thus allowing for rapid spread throughout the intestines. PMID:25561707

  5. Management of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Neumeister, Peter; Troppan, Katharina; Raderer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type represent 7-8% of all B cell lymphomas and up to 50% of primary gastric lymphomas and can arise at any extranodal site. The most common manifestation is the stomach, which is almost invariably associated with a chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. The diagnosis is based on the histopathological evaluation of multiple gastric biopsies in accordance with the current WHO classification. The mainstay of therapy is H. pylori eradication, which must be delivered to all gastric MALT lymphoma patients, independent of stage. In patients who do not achieve lymphoma regression following antibiotic therapy, irradiation and/or systemic oncological therapies should be applied, depending on the stage of the disease. Radiotherapy might be the preferred option for localized stage. However, in the presence of disseminated or advanced disease, chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy with the anti-CD 20 antibody rituximab is the treatment of choice, but no standard chemotherapy has been defined so far. Gastric MALT lymphomas have a limited tendency to distant spreading and to histological transformation and thus MALT lymphoma usually has a favorable outcome, with an overall survival rate at 5 years of more than 85%. PMID:25531492

  6. [Intestinal mucosa injury during experimental endotoxin-induced shock].

    PubMed

    Vallet, B; Curtis, S E; Lund, N; Cain, S M

    1994-01-01

    To ascertain tissue oxygenation during conversion from hypo to hyperdynamic state with vascular volume expansion, venous outflow from a segment of ileum was isolated in anesthetized and pump-ventilated endotoxic dogs to measure gut oxygen uptake (VO2), lactate metabolism, intramucosal PCO2 and tissue PO2 (PtiO2). Tissue PO2 was measured by multipoint surface Mehrdraht Dortmund Oberfläche electrodes placed on mucosal and serosal surfaces of gut. Six dogs were infused with 2 mg.kg-1 E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in one hour followed by a two hour 0.5 mL.kg-1.min-1 dextran infusion. Two dogs were used as controls and received dextran infusion in order to assess time and hemodilution-dependent effects. LPS infusion resulted in an hypodynamic sepsis with supply limited VO2, increased arterial lactate and increased lactate output by gut. Resuscitation resulted in an hyperdynamic sepsis with improvement of whole-body VO2. In the gut, VO2 remained low and intramucosal PCO2 as well as lactate output remained high, despite increased flow. Gut PtiO2 results suggested blood flow maldistribution with tissue hypoxia in the mucosa despite increased total flow to the gut. Gut VO2, lactate flux, intramucosal PCO2, and tissue PO2 were consistent with regulatory responses that shut down mucosal perfusion and oxygenation in spite of increased blood flow to gut. PMID:7733517

  7. Receptors for neurotransmitters in opossum oesophagus muscularis mucosa.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Jury, J; Robotham, K H

    1986-07-01

    Muscularis mucosa of the distal oesophagus of the opossum contains nerves which release acetylcholine and substance P(SP)-like material on field stimulation. The release of SP-like material appeared to be inhibited by the presence of exogenous muscarinic agonists and potentiated by muscarinic antagonists. Analysis of the postjunctional receptors involved using carbachol, McNeil A-343 (McN A-343), atropine and pirenzepine suggested that the receptors were not typical M2-muscarinic receptors. The potency of agonists and antagonists were consistent with some receptor properties resembling M1-muscarinic receptors. Prejunctional receptors to opiates, adenosine, agonists at alpha 2-adrenoceptors and prostaglandins were not detected. Receptors for tachykinins were present on the muscle in this tissue, but did not resemble clearly either SP-E or SP-P type receptors. They appear to be undifferentiated since most tachykinins were of similar potency. These results suggest that not all postjunctional muscarinic receptors in intestinal smooth muscle are M2 in type. There may be a gradation of types between M1 and M2. PMID:2874860

  8. Increased counts and degranulation of duodenal mast cells and eosinophils in functional dyspepsia- a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shijun; Song, Yan; Zhang, Haishan; Li, Gaiqin; Li, Xiaopei; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    The above article published in Medicinski Glasnik online on 26 June 2014 by the Medical Association of Zenica-Doboj Canton (http://www.ljkzedo.com.ba/index.php/u-sljedecem-broju) and in Volume 11, Issue 2, pages 276-282, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Professor Selma Uzunovi?, and the Medical Association of Zenica-Doboj Canton. The reasons for this retraction are as follows: The work reported in the paper was about the role of duodenal eosinophils and mast cells in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. Most of the experiments were carried out by a former member of the authors' team named Yuan Haipeng, who has left the team for more than two years. A high proportion of data in the paper had been reported in the doctoral dissertation of Yuan Haipeng in 2012, and the paper was published without the knowledge or permission of Yuan. Besides the data previously reported in the doctoral dissertation of Yuan Haipeng, the authors calculated the other data in the paper before the submission. However, it has come to the authors' attention that they had made quite a few mistakes due to a loss of the original data, which was not described in details in the dissertation. REFERENCE Shijun Song, Yan Song, Haishan Zhang, Gaiqin Li, Xiaopei Li, Xiaohong Wang, Zhen Liu. Increased counts and degranulation of duodenal mast cells and eosinophils in functional dyspepsia- a clinical study. Med Glas (Zenica) 2014; 11(2):276-82. PMID:25669347

  9. Duodenal expression of iron transport molecules in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis or iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Dostalikova-Cimburova, Marketa; Kratka, Karolina; Balusikova, Kamila; Chmelikova, Jitka; Hejda, Vaclav; Hnanicek, Jan; Neubauerova, Jitka; Vranova, Jana; Kovar, Jan; Horak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Disturbances of iron metabolism are observed in chronic liver diseases. In the present study, we examined gene expression of duodenal iron transport molecules and hepcidin in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) (treated and untreated), involving various genotypes (genotypes which represent risk for HHC were examined), and in patients with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Gene expressions of DMT1, ferroportin, Dcytb, hephaestin, HFE and TFR1 were measured in duodenal biopsies using real-time PCR and Western blot. Serum hepcidin levels were measured using ELISA. DMT1, ferroportin and TFR1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in post-phlebotomized hemochromatics relative to controls. mRNAs of all tested molecules were significantly increased in patients with IDA compared to controls. The protein expression of ferroportin was increased in both groups of patients but not significantly. Spearman rank correlations showed that DMT1 versus ferroportin, Dcytb versus hephaestin and DMT1 versus TFR1 mRNAs were positively correlated regardless of the underlying cause, similarly to protein levels of ferroportin versus Dcytb and ferroportin versus hephaestin. Serum ferritin was negatively correlated with DMT1 mRNA in investigated groups of patients, except for HHC group. A decrease of serum hepcidin was observed in IDA patients, but this was not statistically significant. Our data showed that although untreated HHC patients do not have increased mRNA levels of iron transport molecules when compared to normal subjects, the expression is relatively increased in relation to body iron stores. On the other hand, post-phlebotomized HHC patients had increased DMT1 and ferroportin mRNA levels possibly due to stimulated erythropoiesis after phlebotomy. PMID:21973163

  10. A duodenal mucosal abnormality in the reduction of Fe(III) in patients with genetic haemochromatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Raja, K B; Pountney, D; Bomford, A; Przemioslo, R; Sherman, D; Simpson, R J; Williams, R; Peters, T J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Previous in vitro studies have shown that the uptake of Fe(III) by freshly isolated duodenal mucosal biopsy specimens is increased in patients with genetic haemochromatosis. Moreover, in the mouse it has recently been found that reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) is a prerequisite for iron uptake by the proximal intestine. AIMS/METHODS--This study used the in vitro technique to investigate the rates of reduction and uptake of 59Fe(III) by duodenal mucosal biopsy specimens obtained at endoscopy from treated and untreated patients with genetic haemochromatosis. RESULTS--The rate of reduction of iron in the medium was proportional to the incubation time and was not caused by the release of reducing factors from the tissue fragments. Ferrozine, a specific Fe(II) chelator and ferricyanide, a non-permeable oxidising agent, inhibited uptake of 59Fe showing that reduction of Fe(III) precedes uptake. The rates (all values given as pmol/mg/min) of reduction (152 (49) v 92 (23)) and uptake (8.3 (4.0) v 3.6 (1.3), mean (SD)), were significantly increased in biopsy specimens from the untreated group (n = 6) compared with those from 10 control subjects (p < 0.04). Furthermore, the reduction and uptake rates were still increased in five patients in whom iron stores were normal after venesection treatment. CONCLUSIONS--These results show that there is a persistent abnormality in the reduction and uptake of iron by the intestine in genetic haemochromatosis. PMID:8707126

  11. Repeated pancreatectomy for metachronous duodenal and pancreatic metastases of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hata, Tatsuo; Sakata, Naoaki; Aoki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kanno, Atsushi; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Unno, Michiaki

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman had undergone left nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma 13 years previously. Ten years later, a solitary metastatic tumor had been detected in the pancreatic tail and she had undergone subsequent resection of the pancreatic tail and spleen. Three years after surgery, she was admitted to our hospital for severe anemia resulting from gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 3-cm solid tumor at the oral side of the papilla of Vater. Histology of the bioptic duodenal tissue revealed inflammatory granulation without malignancy. Computed tomography showed a well-contrasted hypervascular tumor in the descending portion of the duodenum. We diagnosed the patient with metachronous duodenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma and performed a pancreaticoduodenectomy. An ulcerated polypoid mass was detected at the oral side of the papilla of Vater. Histology revealed clear cell carcinoma coated by granulation tissue across the surface of the tumor. Immunohistology demonstrated that the cells were positive for vimentin, CD10 and epithelial membrane antigen and negative for CK7. After a repeated pancreatectomy, the patient had no symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding and maintained good glucose tolerance without insulin therapy because the remnant pancreas functioned well. In conclusion, for the diagnosis of patients who have previously undergone nephrectomy and present with gastrointestinal bleeding, the possibility of metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract, including the duodenum, should be considered. With respect to surgical treatment, the pancreas should be minimally resected to maintain a free surgical margin during the first surgery taking into account further metachronous metastasis to the duodenum and pancreas. PMID:24403883

  12. Cell-mediated immunity to gliadin within the small-intestinal mucosa in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, A; MacDonald, T T; McClure, J P; Holden, R J

    1975-04-19

    In an attempt to demonstrate local cell-mediated immunity (C.M.I.) to gliadin in patients with coeliac disease, fragments of jejunal-biopsy specimens were cultured in the presence and absence of alpha-gliadin and the culture-medium was assayed for its capacity to inhibit migration of normal human peripheral-blood leucocytes (i.e., for a migration-inhibition factor [M.I.F.]). No M.I.F. activity was detected in the culture-medium when biopsy specimens from patients with coeliac disease or controls were cultured without added antigen. However, an M.I.F. was secreted into the culture-medium when biopsy specimens from patients with coeliac disease were cultured with alpha-gliadin. These findings suggest that there is a population of lymphocytes which are sensitised to gliadin in the intestinal mucosa of patients with untreated coeliac disease. They support the theory that a local C.M.I. reaction to gliadin may be the cause of villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia in coeliac disease. PMID:47539

  13. Identification of Helicobacter sp. in gastric mucosa from captive marmosets (Callithrix sp.; callitrichidae, primates).

    PubMed

    de Mello, Marcela Freire Vallim; Monteiro, Ana Beatriz Soares; Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho; Pissinatti, Alcides; Ferreira, Ana Maria Reis

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence of Helicobacter sp. in the gastric mucosa of captive marmosets (Callithrix sp.). Histologic specimens from the fundic, corpus, and antral gastric regions of six Callithrix jacchus, 12 C. kuhli, and 12 C. geoffroyi specimens were evaluated. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and the Warthin-Starry silver impregnation method, and immunostained with rabbit anti-H. pylori polyclonal antibody. Helicobacter-like organisms (HLOs) and coccoid forms were present in silver-stained sections from 29 stomachs, whereas immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests revealed bacterial aggregates in 15 stomachs. No statistical difference relative to the presence of Helicobacter sp. was found among the gastric regions or marmoset species. Gastric lesions were found in the groups of marmosets that had positive and negative IHC results, but no correlation between inflammation and Helicobacter sp. infection was established. These findings demonstrate that marmosets are susceptible to naturally-occurring Helicobacter sp. infection, and open the way to the development of comparative studies on Helicobacter sp. infection in humans. PMID:15940705

  14. Reevaluation of the mucosa-bone marrow axis in IgA nephropathy with animal models.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sato, Daisuke; Kajiyama, Tadahiro; Okazaki, Keiko; Hashimoto, Azusa; Kihara, Masao; Yamaji, Kenji; Satake, Kenji; Nakata, Junichiro; Aizawa, Masashi; Novak, Jan; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Impaired immune regulation along the 'mucosa-bone marrow axis' has been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Animal models have allowed us to study such changes in detail. Recently, we established several useful animal models, including IgAN-prone mice. Using these animal models, our group is approaching the underlying mechanisms by which bone marrow and mucosal cell interrelate and finally induce this disease. Accumulating evidence from these approaches suggests that there is dysregulation of innate and cellular immunity in IgAN resulting in changes in the mucosal immune system. These changes appear to be closely linked to disruption of mucosal tolerance, resulting in abnormal priming and dissemination of cells to sites such as the bone marrow where they are responsible for synthesis of nephritogenic IgA. Our clinical studies further support these ideas and indicate that the tonsils may be a major mucosal priming site in human IgAN. In addition, our findings also suggest clinical application of nephritogenic IgA (IgA1) as a biological marker and possible future treatment strategies that focus on manipulating the priming and dissemination of these memory cells in order to prevent the appearance of nephritogenic IgA (IgA1) in the systemic compartment. PMID:21865692

  15. HELICOBACTER-LIKE ORGANISMS IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) AND GREY FOXES (UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic examination of gastric mucosa of raccoons (Procyon lotor), porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and black bears (Ursus amaricanus) was done on archival tissue blocks for evidence of Helicobacter-like org...

  16. Endoscopic rendez-vous after damage control surgery in treatment of retroperitoneal abscess from perforated duodenal diverticulum: a techinal note and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The duodenum is the second seat of onset of diverticula after the colon. Duodenal diverticulosis is usually asymptomatic, but duodenal perforation with abscess may occur. Case presentation Woman, 83 years old, emergency hospitalised for generalized abdominal pain. On the abdominal tomography in the third portion of the duodenum a herniation and a concomitant full-thickness breach of the visceral wall was detected. The patient underwent emergency surgery. A surgical toilette of abscess was performed passing through the perforated diverticula and the Petzer’s tube drainage was placed in the duodenal lumen; the duodenostomic Petzer was endoscopically removed 4 months after the surgery. Discussion A review of medical literature was performed and our treatment has never been described. Conclusion For the treatment of perforated duodenal diverticula a sequential two-stage non resective approach is safe and feasible in selected cases. PMID:23866674

  17. Dosimetric Predictors of Duodenal Toxicity After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Treatment of the Para-aortic Nodes in Gynecologic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Sulman, Erik P.; Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rauch, Gaiane M. [Department of Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eifel, Patricia J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Klopp, Ann H., E-mail: aklopp@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of duodenal toxicity in patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for treatment of para-aortic nodes and to identify dosimetric parameters predictive of late duodenal toxicity. Methods and Materials: We identified 105 eligible patients with gynecologic malignancies who were treated with IMRT for gross metastatic disease in the para-aortic nodes from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009. Patients were treated to a nodal clinical target volume to 45 to 50.4 Gy with a boost to 60 to 66 Gy. The duodenum was contoured, and dosimetric data were exported for analysis. Duodenal toxicity was scored according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis and recursive partitioning analysis were used to determine associations between dosimetric variables and time to toxicity and to identify the optimal threshold that separated patients according to risk of toxicity. Results: Nine of the 105 patients experienced grade 2 to grade 5 duodenal toxicity, confirmed by endoscopy in all cases. The 3-year actuarial rate of any duodenal toxicity was 11.7%. A larger volume of the duodenum receiving 55 Gy (V55) was associated with higher rates of duodenal toxicity. The 3-year actuarial rates of duodenal toxicity with V55 above and below 15 cm{sup 3} were 48.6% and 7.4%, respectively (P<.01). In Cox univariate analysis of dosimetric variables, V55 was associated with duodenal toxicity (P=.029). In recursive partitioning analysis, V55 less than 13.94% segregated all patients with duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT can safely and effectively treat para-aortic nodal disease in gynecologic malignancies, provided that care is taken to limit the dose to the duodenum to reduce the risk of late duodenal toxicity. Limiting V55 to below 15 cm{sup 3} may reduce the risk of duodenal complications. In cases where the treatment cannot be delivered within these constraints, consideration should be given to other treatment approaches such as resection or initial chemotherapy.

  18. Effect of current direction and K + on polarization of the frog gastric mucosa proton pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaspar Carrasquer; Theodore P. Schilb; Zhaopo Geng; Warren S. Rehm; Manuel Schwartz

    1995-01-01

    When current was sent from serosa (S) to mucosa (M) across the frog stomach, there was a polarization (POL) of the open circuit potential (OCPD). POL was not affected by NaCl-free solutions, but was decreased by inhibitors of the H+ pump. In present experiments, current was sent to clamp the PD (VC) across the mucosa in steps of 20 mV

  19. Availability of arachidonic acid in major phospholipids of mucosa and the stomach wall of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigurdur Oli Olafsson; Sigmundur Gudbjarnason

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the availability of arachidonic acid in phosphatdidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine\\u000a (PE) of mucosa and the stomach wall of adult male Wistar rats fed a standard diet. There were significant differences in the\\u000a fatty acid composition of PC and PE between various parts of the stomach. The mucosa had the lowest level of

  20. Gene Expression Profiles of Colonic Mucosa in Healthy Young Adult and Senior Dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Yong Kil; Brittany M. Vester Boler; Carolyn J. Apanavicius; Lawrence B. Schook; Kelly S. Swanson; Jen-Tsan Ashley Chi

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundWe have previously reported the effects of age and diet on nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and large intestinal fermentation patterns in healthy young adult and senior dogs. However, a genome-wide molecular analysis of colonic mucosa as a function of age and diet has not yet been performed in dogs.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsColonic mucosa samples were collected from six senior (12-year old) and