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1

Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

1983-01-01

2

Glycosaminoglycans from Ateroid ® and bovine duodenal mucosa and pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Glycosaminoglycans (GG) were isolated from commercial Ateroid® and compared with those from bovine duodenal mucosa and pancreas. The major GG in Ateroid® is heparin. Heparan sulfate (HS) and dermatan sulfate were also found. HS, chondroitin sulfates, and heparin were isolated from duodenal mucosa after papain digestion, but a residue, non-digestible, was mostly heparin. Pancreas contains very little GG, and

Parakkat Seethanathan; Edward Dalferes; B. S. Bhandaru Radhakrishnamurthy; Ronald Victor; Gerald S. Berenson

1975-01-01

3

Luminal chemosensing in the duodenal mucosa.  

PubMed

The upper gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including gastric acid, CO? and nutrients. Mucosal chemical sensors are necessary to exert physiological responses such as secretion, digestion, absorption and motility. We propose the mucosal chemosensing system by which luminal chemicals are sensed to trigger mucosal defence mechanisms via mucosal acid sensors and taste receptors. Luminal acid/CO? is sensed via ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases and ion transporters in the epithelial cells and via acid sensors on the afferent nerves in the duodenum and the oesophagus. Gastric acid sensing is differentially mediated via endocrine cell acid sensors and afferent nerves. Furthermore, a luminal l-glutamate signal is mediated via epithelial l-glutamate receptors, including metabotropic glutamate receptors and taste receptor 1 family heterodimers, with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase, whereas luminal Ca²(+) is differently sensed via the calcium-sensing receptor in the duodenum. These luminal chemosensors help to activate mucosal defence mechanisms in order to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiological responses of the upper GI tract. Stimulation of luminal chemosensing in the upper GI mucosa may prevent mucosal injury, affect nutrient metabolism and modulate sensory nerve activity. PMID:20518751

Akiba, Y; Kaunitz, J D

2011-01-01

4

Effect of the hexapeptide dalargin on ornithine decarboxylase activity in the duodenal mucosa of rats with experimental duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

The authors study the effect of dalargin on ornithine decarboxylase in homogenates of the duodenal ulcer from rats with experimental duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine. Activity of the enzyme was expressed in pmoles /sup 14/CO/sub 2//mg protein/h. Protein was determined by Lowry's method. The findings indicate that stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase and the antiulcerative effect of dalargin may be due to direct interaction of the peptide with cells of the intestinal mucosa and with enterocytes.

Yarygin, K.N.; Shitin, A.G.; Polonskii, V.M.; Vinogradov, V.A.

1987-08-01

5

Effect of cysteamine on redox-sensitive thiol-containing proteins in the duodenal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrated that Egr-1 is upregulated in the rat duodenal mucosa during cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration and that antisense egr-1 oligonucleotide aggravates the duodenal ulcers. This study was aimed to determine the effects of cysteamine on redox-sensitive Egr-1 transcriptional activity and on other thiol-containing proteins such as redox factor-1 (Ref-1) and thioredoxin (Trx). Here we demonstrate for

Tetyana Khomenko; Xiaoming Deng; Martin R Jadus; Sandor Szabo

2003-01-01

6

Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

1987-12-21

7

Growth of crypt cell nodules in duodenal mucosa in man during organ culture in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture of peroral biopsy specimens from duodenal mucosa in vitro for 22 hours using a basic culture medium resulted in the formation of crypt cell nodules. The addition of collagen and serotonin to the culture medium increased the occurrence of the nodules and, invariably, their size. The nodules were situated on the pericryptal basement membrane and contained cells that resembled

D N Challacombe; E E Wheeler

1985-01-01

8

Cellular bicarbonate protects rat duodenal mucosa from acid-induced injury  

PubMed Central

Secretion of bicarbonate from epithelial cells is considered to be the primary mechanism by which the duodenal mucosa is protected from acid-related injury. Against this view is the finding that patients with cystic fibrosis, who have impaired duodenal bicarbonate secretion, are paradoxically protected from developing duodenal ulcers. Therefore, we hypothesized that epithelial cell intracellular pH regulation, rather than secreted extracellular bicarbonate, was the principal means by which duodenal epithelial cells are protected from acidification and injury. Using a novel in vivo microscopic method, we have measured bicarbonate secretion and epithelial cell intracellular pH (pHi), and we have followed cell injury in the presence of the anion transport inhibitor DIDS and the Cl– channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). DIDS and NPPB abolished the increase of duodenal bicarbonate secretion following luminal acid perfusion. DIDS decreased basal pHi, whereas NPPB increased pHi; DIDS further decreased pHi during acid challenge and abolished the pHi overshoot over baseline observed after acid challenge, whereas NPPB attenuated the fall of pHi and exaggerated the overshoot. Finally, acid-induced epithelial injury was enhanced by DIDS and decreased by NPPB. The results support the role of intracellular bicarbonate in the protection of duodenal epithelial cells from luminal gastric acid.

Akiba, Yasutada; Furukawa, Osamu; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Nastaskin, Igor; Sassani, Pejvak; Dukkipatis, Ramanath; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

2001-01-01

9

Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission.

Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

10

Calcium-binding protein in the duodenal mucosa of uremic patients and normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium-binding protein in the duodenal mucosa of uremic patients and normal subjects. In the present study we measured the content and determined the localization of a calcium-binding protein (CaBP) in the intestinal biopsy specimen often patients with severe renal insufficiency and in eight healthy individuals. In each patient a biopsy specimen of the iliac crest was obtained for evaluation of

Peter Piazolo; Jürgen Hotz; Klaus Helmke; Hans-Eduard Franz; Mark Schleyer

1975-01-01

11

SOX9 Is Highly Expressed in Nonampullary Duodenal Adenoma and Adenocarcinoma in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims SOX9 is a marker for stem cells in the intestine, and overexpression of SOX9 is found in gastric and colon cancer; however, the expression of SOX9 in nonampullary duodenal adenoma and adenocarcinoma has not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to investigate SOX9 expression in nonampullary duodenal adenoma and adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry. Methods We evaluated SOX9 expression in 43 clinical samples (nonampullary duodenal adenoma in 22 lesions and nonampullary duodenal adenocarcinoma in 21 lesions) resected under endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection. Results SOX9 was expressed in part of the base of the normal duodenal mucosa surrounding adenomas and adenocarcinomas. In contrast, SOX9-positive cells were found in more than half of the crypts from the bottom part of the crypt in all of the 43 samples. Moreover, in 15 adenoma samples (68.2%) and 19 carcinoma samples (90.5%), SOX9 was expressed in more than three-quarters of the crypts from the bottom part of the crypt. Conclusions SOX9 is overexpressed in nonampullary duodenal adenoma and adenocarcinoma in humans.

Sakamoto, Hirotsugu; Miura, Yoshimasa; Sashikawa, Miho; Yamamoto, Hironori; Sugano, Kentaro

2013-01-01

12

The pattern of involvement of the gastric mucosa in lymphocytic gastritis is predictive of the presence of duodenal pathology.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether the pattern of involvement of the gastric mucosa in lymphocytic gastritis is predictive of the presence or absence of duodenal pathology. METHODS: 50 cases (M:F, 26:24; median age 57 years) diagnosed as lymphocytic gastritis between 1986 and 1998 with concurrent duodenal (D2) biopsies were identified from a computer search of the pathology records and validated by counting gastric intraepithelial lymphocytes. Gastric and duodenal intraepithelial lymphocyte counts were performed on haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and anti-CD3 stained sections. D2 biopsies were assessed for villous atrophy and chronic inflammatory cell infiltration by subjective grading, and gastritis was classified and graded according to the updated Sydney system. A case was designated corpus predominant when the corpus chronic inflammation grade exceeded that of the antrum. If it was less, then the case was antrum predominant, and if they were equal it was diffuse (pan-) gastritis. The ratio between the corpus and antral intraepithelial lymphocyte count in individual patients was calculated. RESULTS: Of 50 cases of lymphocytic gastritis, 21 were classified as corpus predominant. With one exception (a case of mild villous atrophy), all were accompanied by normal duodenal morphology. Cases with a corpus predominant gastritis had median duodenal intraepithelial lymphocyte counts of 19 (H&E) and 14.1 (CD3), whereas 29 subjects with an antrum predominant or diffuse gastritis had median counts of 39.9 (H&E) and 37.9 (CD3). Fifteen of these 29 cases (52%) showed villous atrophy; all were graded as moderate or severe. Patients with any degree of villous atrophy had a mean corpus/antrum intraepithelial lymphocyte ratio (H&E) of 0.59 (representing antral predominance), while those with normal duodenal morphology had a ratio of 2.39 (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of involvement of gastric mucosa in lymphocytic gastritis is closely related to the associated duodenal pathology. Those with the corpus predominant form are unlikely to have duodenal pathology, while those with an antral predominant or diffuse form should have distal duodenal biopsies taken to exclude villous atrophy. Images

Hayat, M; Arora, D S; Wyatt, J I; O'Mahony, S; Dixon, M F

1999-01-01

13

Identification and measurement of molecular variants of cholecystokinin in duodenal mucosa and plasma. Diminished concentrations in patients with celiac disease.  

PubMed Central

The amount and type of cholecystokinin (CCK) in duodenal extracts and plasma of celiac patients and normal subjects was studied by radioimmunoassay and gel filtration. In both groups there were similar patterns of molecular forms in extracts of duodenal biopsies, but concentrations in celiac disease were significantly depressed. In boiling water extracts of duodenal mucosa from both groups a factor with the properties of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin predominated, but there were also significant amounts of a larger molecular weight form. In acid extracts of mucosa a factor with the properties of the 33 or 39 residue form was identified in amounts that were approximately 25% those of CCK8; there were also similar amounts of an acid-soluble form that had an apparent molecular weight higher than CCK39. Plasma immunoreactive cholecystokinin was studied after concentration by immunoaffinity adsorption and fractionation by gel filtration. In normal subjects fasting CCK-like immunoreactivity was less than 0.8 pmol/liter, and after a light breakfast increased to 2.0 +/- 0.7 (range 1.0 to 4.8) pmol/liter; CCK8-like activity accounted for all the increased immunoreactivity. In five of six celiac patients the concentrations of both fasting and postprandial CCK-like immunoreactivity in plasma were undetectable (less than 0.8 pmol/liter). We conclude that diminished production and release of CCK could account for the impaired pancreatic and gall bladder responses to intraluminal stimuli in celiac disease.

Calam, J; Ellis, A; Dockray, G J

1982-01-01

14

Different types of peroxisomes in human duodenal epithelium.  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles containing enzyme sequences for beta oxidation of fatty acids, synthesis of bile acids, and ether phospholipids. In the inherited peroxisomal diseases one or more enzymes are deficient in hepatic, renal, and fibroblast peroxisomes. We have examined peroxisomes by light and electron microscopy in 29 duodenal biopsy specimens (21 with normal mucosa) after staining for catalase activity, a marker enzyme. Peroxisomes were most numerous in the apices of the nucleus and at the villus base. Two types were distinguished: rounded to oval forms with a median lesser diameter of 0.23-0.31 microns, and tubular, vermiform organelles 0.1 microns thick and up to 3 microns long. Both types coexist in most patients. Tilting of sections and examination of semithin sections at 120 kV did not show connections between individual organelles. By morphometry, volume density was at least 0.45-0.62% of cellular volume, compared to 1.05% in human liver. In contrast, in four out of five individuals surface density of the peroxisomal membrane was 1.4-2.3 times higher than in control livers; this is expected to favour the exchange of metabolites. We suggest that intestinal peroxisomes contribute substantially to the breakdown of very long chain fatty acids. Images Figures 1 and 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figures 5 and 6 Figure 7

Roels, F; Espeel, M; Pauwels, M; De Craemer, D; Egberts, H J; van der Spek, P

1991-01-01

15

Diagnostic value of endoscopic and endoscopic ultrasound characteristics of duodenal submucosal tumour-like heterotopic gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have reported that duodenal heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) has been observed in 8.9% of patients who undergo esophagogastroduodenoscopy. However, there are few reports concerning the endoscopic and endoscopic ultrasound characteristics of submucosal tumour-like HGM in the duodenum. METHODS: Endoscopic, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and histological findings were analyzed in six patients with submucosal tumour-like HGM, which were confirmed by pathological examination of biopsy or endoscopic polypectomy specimens. RESULTS: Endoscopically, the lesions appeared as a solitary, sessile submucosal tumour-like mass with a depression at the top. In four of six patients, small granular structures were found in the depressed area of the mass. On EUS, all masses demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern, among which four patients presented anechoic areas while two patients showed no anechoic areas. All lesions were localized within the mucosa and submucosa on EUS. Histologically, they consisted of gastric glands and some dilated glands, and were covered with normal duodenal epithelium. In four of six lesions, the tumours were composed of gastric-type foveolar epithelium showing papillary growth, fundic glands and pyloric glands, while the others consisted of gastric-type foveolar epithelium and pyloric glands. CONCLUSION: A heterogeneous pattern on EUS and small granular structures on esophagogastroduodenoscopy represent valuable diagnostic features of submucosal tumour-like HGM.

Eguchi, Koichi; Aoyagi, Kunihiko; Nimura, Satoshi; Sakisaka, Shotaro

2011-01-01

16

A Case of Duodenal Anisakiasis with Duodenal Ulcer  

PubMed Central

Humans can be incidentally parasitized by third-stage larvae of Anisakis species following the ingestion of raw or undercooked seafood. Acute gastric anisakiasis is one of the most frequently encountered complaints in Korea. However, duodenal anisakiasis with duodenal ulcer had not been reported in Korea, despite the habit of eating raw fish. In this case, a 47-year-old man was hospitalized because of sharp epigastric pain and repeated vomiting after eating raw fish 3 days previously. On admission, esophagogastroduodenoscopic examination revealed an active duodenal bulb ulcer. At 5 mm away from the ulcer margin, a whitish linear worm was found with half of its body penetrating the duodenal mucosa. Herein, we report this case of duodenal anisakiasis accompanied by duodenal ulcer.

Hwang, David; Park, Seong Il; Pack, Seung Chul; Lee, Ki Sang; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kang, Hoon; Park, Chan Woong

2012-01-01

17

A case of duodenal anisakiasis with duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed

Humans can be incidentally parasitized by third-stage larvae of Anisakis species following the ingestion of raw or undercooked seafood. Acute gastric anisakiasis is one of the most frequently encountered complaints in Korea. However, duodenal anisakiasis with duodenal ulcer had not been reported in Korea, despite the habit of eating raw fish. In this case, a 47-year-old man was hospitalized because of sharp epigastric pain and repeated vomiting after eating raw fish 3 days previously. On admission, esophagogastroduodenoscopic examination revealed an active duodenal bulb ulcer. At 5 mm away from the ulcer margin, a whitish linear worm was found with half of its body penetrating the duodenal mucosa. Herein, we report this case of duodenal anisakiasis accompanied by duodenal ulcer. PMID:22570821

Hwang, David; Park, Seong Il; Pack, Seung Chul; Lee, Ki Sang; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kang, Hoon; Park, Chan Woong; Lee, Soong

2012-04-26

18

Duodenase, a new serine protease of unusual specificity from bovine duodenal mucosa. Purification and properties.  

PubMed

In this paper, data are presented on purification and properties of a new serine endopeptidase (duodenase) isolated from bovine duodenum mucosa. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity by combinations of ammonium sulphate fractionation, carboxymethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography, and affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B with Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor as a ligand. Some physicochemical properties of this protease have been investigated. The molecular mass of the purified duodenase was determined to be 29 +/- 0.5 kDa by SDS/PAGE and G-2000 SW column chromatography. The enzyme molecule is a single chain and the native enzyme is a monomeric protein. Its isoelectric point was estimated to be 10 +/- 0.2. Duodenase has two forms (I and II) which possess similar properties but differ in their amino acid composition. The new protease is a glycoprotein and contains approximately 3.5% sugars. The enzyme displays trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities and hydrolyzes the amide bonds of substrates having Lys, Arg, Tyr, Phe and Leu residues at the P1 position. Duodenase is most active at pH 7.9-8.2. Duodenase was irreversibly inhibited by diisopropylphosphofluoridate and phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride, indicative of an active-site serine in this protease. alpha-N-Tosyl-L-lysine chloromethane and alpha-N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethane, which react with an active His, caused marked inhibition of trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities of duodenase. The enzyme activity was strongly suppressed by trypsin inhibitors from different sources (soybeans, bovine lungs and Lima beans). Chicken egg white ovomucoid had no effect on the duodenase activity. The N-terminal sequence of the native duodenase (24 amino acid residues) shows high similarity with those of human and murine cytotoxic T-lymphocyte granzymes, human leukocyte cathepsin G and rat mast cell chymases. The biological role of duodenase is discussed. PMID:7867648

Zamolodchikova, T S; Vorotyntseva, T I; Antonov, V K

1995-02-01

19

Early ultrastructural changes in rat duodenal mucosa associated with cysteamine-induced ulcer  

SciTech Connect

The early morphologic sequelae induced by the duodenal ulcerogen, cysteamine, have been studied in rats by transmission electron microscopy. Cysteamine was administered per os at 70 mg/100 g body wt to groups of female rats sacrificed at 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 20, and 24 hr after chemical treatment, and duodenal tissue sampled from the antimesenteric side of the proximal duodenum, where ulcers develop, was studied. Emphasis was placed on early times as our previous scanning electron microscopic data had demonstrated enhanced in situ cellular necrosis and surface cavitation at 2-4 hr after cysteamine treatment. Results indicated intracellular changes as early as 30 min after treatment and prior to damage of the columnar cell microvilli or epithelial tight junctions. A staging of observed cellular degenerative changes suggested early apical endoplasmic reticular swelling and loss of cytoplasmic ground substance, followed later by moderate internal disruption of mitochondria. Through these stages the cell surface microvilli remained morphologically normal. Subsequently, microvilli degenerated and mitochondrial fine structure became severely disrupted and cell contents were expelled. Deeper villous changes such as separation of columnar cells from the lamina propria and alterations of selected elements within the lamina propria were observed. These data suggest that intracellular cytotoxic reactions at the villous tips occur early and may precede the influence of intraluminal damaging factors induced by cysteamine.

Pfeiffer, C.J.; Pfeiffer, D.C.; Szabo, S.

1987-02-01

20

Diamine oxidase activity in gastric and duodenal mucosa of man and other mammals with special reference to the pyloric junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the gastric mucosa of human subjects and of various mammals methylation was accepted as the main pathway of histamine catabolism. However, augmentation of gastric acid secretion by aminoguanidine, the strong inhibitor of diamine oxidase, indicated an influence of diamine oxidase activity on this secretory process. Therefore a careful reinvestigation of the occurrence of diamine oxidase activity was started from

J. Kusche; W. Lorenz; C.-D. Stahlknecht; A. Friedrich; A. Schmidt; K. Boo; G. Reichert

1978-01-01

21

Bovine Milk Inhibits Proteolytic Degradation of Epidermal Growth Factor in Human Gastric and Duodenal Lumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

R. K. Rao, R. D. Baker and S. S. Baker. Bovine milk inhibits proteolytic degradation of epidermal growth factor in human gastric and duodenal lumen. Peptides 19(3) 495–504, 1998.—Degradation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in human gastric and duodenal lumen was analyzed by incubating 125I-labeled or unlabeled human recombinant EGF with human gastric or duodenal luminal fluids in vitro. Degradation

R. K Rao; R. D Baker; S. S Baker

1998-01-01

22

Irritative properties of two clinical potassium chloride formulations on duodenal mucosa of the cat and esophageal mucosa of the opossum.  

PubMed

The local gastrointestinal irritating properties of microencapsulated KCl (M-E), a new and unique form of KCl (8 meq potassium per capsule), were compared with a wax-matrix (W-M) KCl formulation (8 meq potassium per tablet). Normal saline in 0-size gelatin capsules was used as the control substance. The comparisons were made in two animal models that simulate the condition of partial obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. These models are the duodenum of the cat and the esophagus of the opossum, each with a surgically created partial obstruction. The tissues were exposed to two capsules or tablets of KCl or saline for 4 hr, and the extent of tissue injury assessed by using a rating scale. The irritation caused by M-E was significantly (P less than 0.05) less than that caused by W-M in both the cat and the opossum, and it was not significantly (P greater than 0.05) different from the injury caused by saline in either model. The relative lack of irritation by M-E is probably explained by the fact that there was a significantly (P less than 0.05) greater dispersion of KCl from the M-E capsule than from the W-M tablet. PMID:6723482

Alphin, R S; O'Dell, S W; Sancilio, L F; Ward, J W

1984-06-01

23

Human duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. Evidence for basal secretion and stimulation by hydrochloric acid and a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue.  

PubMed

The factors responsible for prevention of duodenal mucosal injury are not known. This series of experiments was performed to determine whether the human duodenum secretes bicarbonate that could prevent mucosal damage. To isolate a 4-cm segment of proximal (i.e., the duodenal bulb) or distal duodenum free of contamination from either gastric or pancreaticobiliary secretion, or both, methods were developed using occlusive balloons. The test segment was perfused with NaCl (2 ml/min, 37 degrees C) containing [14C]PEG as a nonabsorbable marker, and bicarbonate output was quantitated. Mean (+/- SE) basal proximal duodenal bicarbonate output was 143 +/- 17 mumol/cm X h. A 5-min infusion of 25, 50, and 100 mM HCl directly into the isolated proximal duodenal test segment increased bicarbonate output to 167 +/- 29, 199 +/- 19, and 278 +/- 49 mumol/cm X h, respectively, during the hour after acidification. Distal duodenal acidification (25, 50, and 100 mM) also increased bicarbonate output from the isolated proximal duodenal test segment. A synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue, misoprostol (1.67-13.3 micrograms/min), infused directly into proximal or distal test segments significantly stimulated bicarbonate outbreak; peak responses were 644 +/- 35 mumol/cm X h and 171 +/- 20 mumol/cm X h (p less than 0.001), respectively. Thus, in humans, the proximal and distal duodenal mucosa secretes bicarbonate at rest; direct acidification of the proximal duodenum stimulates bicarbonate output; acidification of the distal duodenum beyond the isolated test segment also increased proximal duodenal bicarbonate output; and a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue stimulated both proximal and distal bicarbonate output; however, distal duodenal bicarbonate output was significantly less, indicating a proximal-to-distal gradient in bicarbonate secretion. PMID:3087810

Isenberg, J I; Hogan, D L; Koss, M A; Selling, J A

1986-08-01

24

Gelatin sponge-supported histoculture of human nasal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Considerable progress has recently been made in the understanding of airway inflammation by cell culture assays and in vivo\\u000a provocation studies. Inasmuch as ethical considerations limit experimental work in humans, physiologically relevant in vitro\\u000a models are required to better understand cellular and molecular tissue interactions in human nasal mucosa. Here we describe\\u000a a human nasal mucosa culture model utilizing a

Katrin Schierhorn; Tilo Brunnée; Ralf Paus; Klaus-Detlev Schultz; Jochen Niehus; Parwis Agha-Mir-Salim; Gert Kunkel

1995-01-01

25

Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. Results One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine.

Troost, Freddy J; van Baarlen, Peter; Lindsey, Patrick; Kodde, Andrea; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert-Jan M

2008-01-01

26

Endoscopic assessment of the effects of dipyrone (metamizol) in comparison to paracetamol and placebo on the gastric and duodenal mucosa of healthy adult volunteers.  

PubMed

The potentially damaging gastric and duodenal effects of dipyrone, a nonnarcotic analgesic agent, were evaluated in three phases in comparison to placebo and paracetamol. Three groups of 12 healthy adult volunteers were treated in a double-blind study, according to a cross-over, randomization sequence, using the double-dummy technique, for two 15-day periods, with dipyrone 3 g/day and placebo (group I), dipyrone 1.5 g/day and placebo (group II), and dipyrone 1.5 g/day and paracetamol 1.5 g/day (group III). An esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed at the beginning and end of each treatment period. In the first treatment group, grade-3 and 4 mucosal lesions were found after dipyrone administration (3 g/day) in 3 of 12 (25%) subjects (multiple antral erosions, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, 1 case each), whereas grade-2 mucosal lesions (antral erosions) were detected in 1 of 12 cases (8%) after the corresponding placebo treatment. The difference between the two treatments, however, was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Only in the gastric ulcer case were subjective symptoms reported (feeling of hunger). At the 1.5-g/day dose (groups II and III), dipyrone produced no gastroduodenal lesions, the endoscopic results showing no appreciable difference between dipyrone and either placebo (p = 0.54) or paracetamol (p = 0.99). No subjective symptoms were reported in any of these subjects. Dipyrone, administered for 2 weeks, has effects on the gastric and duodenal mucosa comparable to those of paracetamol and placebo, though noticeable damage is detectable at a dosage of 3 g/day. PMID:8739093

Bianchi Porro, G; Ardizzone, S; Petrillo, M; Caruso, I; Montrone, F

1996-01-01

27

Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

2011-01-01

28

Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was

T. T. Y. Wang; C. J. Chandler; C. H. Halsted

1986-01-01

29

Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

2011-01-01

30

Bovine milk inhibits proteolytic degradation of epidermal growth factor in human gastric and duodenal lumen.  

PubMed

Degradation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in human gastric and duodenal lumen was analyzed by incubating 125I-labeled or unlabeled human recombinant EGF with human gastric or duodenal luminal fluids in vitro. Degradation of EGF was assessed by measuring the generation of acid soluble radioactivity or by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Incubation with gastric luminal fluids resulted in a time- and dose-dependent degradation of labeled and unlabeled EGF at pH 2.5 but not at pH 7.5. Duodenal luminal fluids, on the other hand, degraded EGF at pH 7.5 but not at pH 2.5. The rate of degradation of unlabeled EGF in gastric luminal fluids was nearly 12-fold higher than the rate of degradation of labeled EGF, whereas only a slight difference in rates of degradation of labeled and unlabeled EGF was observed in duodenal luminal fluids. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis detected three major degradation products that eluted with retention time of 17.5 min, 20.0 min, and 22.5 min that was associated with a reduction of intact EGF (retention time 23.5 min). Defatted and decaseinated supernatant of bovine milk effectively inhibited the degradation of EGF in both gastric and duodenal luminal fluids. Dietary derived protease inhibitors, such as soya bean trypsin inhibitor, lima bean trypsin inhibitor, egg white protease inhibitor, and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor prevented EGF degradation in duodenal luminal fluids but failed to inhibit EGF degradation in gastric luminal fluids. These results suggest that bovine milk may contain specific inhibitors that protect EGF from proteolytic degradation in human gastric lumen. PMID:9533637

Rao, R K; Baker, R D; Baker, S S

1998-01-01

31

High-yield production, purification and characterization of functional human duodenal cytochrome b in an Escherichia coli system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human duodenal cytochrome b (Dcytb) is a transmembrane hemoprotein found in the duodenal brush border membrane and in erythrocytes. Dcytb has been linked to uptake of dietary iron and to ascorbate recycling in erythrocytes. Detailed biophysical and biochemical characterization of Dcytb has been limited by difficulties in expressing sufficient amounts of functional recombinant protein in yeast and insect cell systems.

Wen Liu; Gang Wu; Ah-Lim Tsai; Richard J. Kulmacz

2011-01-01

32

Acid-induced increase in electrical conductance of guinea pig duodenal mucosa in vitro. Temporary protection by combined effects of bicarbonate and prostaglandin E2.  

PubMed

Electrical conductance as a sensitive indicator of acid damage has been investigated in guinea pig duodenal mucosa using Ussing-chamber techniques. Reductions of luminal pH from 7.4 to 3.0, 2.3, or 2.0 caused concentration-dependent, progressive increases in conductance, accompanied (pH 2.0) by a continuous increase in hydrogen permeation as determined by pH-stat titration. Increases in conductance and hydrogen flux were related to base-line conductance, with higher values conditioning for a sooner onset and/or more marked elevation. Conductance increases were prevented by timely back titration. Recently, it has been shown that serosal HCO3 reduces conductance by actions dependent on prostaglandins and serosal Na and sensitive to loop diuretics. Here, serosal HCO3 delayed the onset of acid-induced conductance increase by approximately 8 minutes, an effect reduced by omission of serosal Na and during exposure to serosal furosemide (10(-3) mol/L). In the presence of serosal indomethacin (10(-4) mol/L) and HCO3, prostaglandin E2 (10(-6) mol/L serosal bath) delayed the conductance increase. Because HCO3 secretion is negligible in this model, these results indicate effects of HCO3/prostaglandin E2 beyond mere buffering of invading hydrogen. These results are consistent with intracellular actions that tighten the paracellular pathway against acid and thus provide temporary protection from acid injury. In agreement with this view, HCO3 also limited conductance increases after luminal alkalinization by a furosemide-sensitive action. PMID:1993487

Macherey, H J; Petersen, K U

1991-03-01

33

Bacteroides fragilis toxin 2 damages human colonic mucosa in vitro  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Strains of Bacteroides fragilis producing a 20 kDa protein toxin (B fragilis toxin (BFT) or fragilysin) are associated with diarrhoea in animals and humans. Although in vitro results indicate that BFT damages intestinal epithelial cells in culture, the effects of BFT on native human colon are not known. ?AIMS—To examine the electrophysiological and morphological effects of purified BFT-2 on human colonic mucosa in vitro. ?METHODS—For resistance (R) measurements, colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers was exposed to luminal or serosal BFT-2 (1.25-10 nM) and after four hours morphological damage was measured on haematoxylin and eosin stained sections using morphometry. F actin distribution was assessed using confocal microscopy. ?RESULTS—Serosal BFT-2 for four hours was four-, two-, seven-, and threefold more potent than luminal BFT-2 in decreasing resistance, increasing epithelial 3H-mannitol permeability, and damaging crypt and surface colonocytes, respectively (p<0.05). Confocal microscopy showed reduced colonocyte F actin staining intensity after exposure to BFT-2. ?CONCLUSIONS—BFT-2 increases human colonic permeability and damages human colonic epithelial cells in vitro. These effects may be important in the development of diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation caused by B fragilis in vivo. ?? Keywords: B fragilis toxin; toxin mediated colonocyte damage; actin filaments; transepithelial resistance; morphometry

Riegler, M; Lotz, M; Sears, C; Pothoulakis, C; Castagliuolo, I; Wang, C; Sedivy, R; Sogukoglu, T; Cosentini, E; Bischof, G; Feil, W; Teleky, B; Hamilton, G; LaMont, J; Wenzl, E

1999-01-01

34

Somatostatin binding in normal and malignant human gastrointestinal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Somatostatin is a regulatory peptide implicated in the control of cellular proliferation in epithelial tissues and this regulation may occur directly via membrane bound receptor activation. The aim of this study was to investigate somatostatin binding in human gastrointestinal cancer and normal mucosa. Plasma membranes were prepared from specimens of tumour and normal mucosa from 51 patients undergoing surgical resection for malignancy (28 gastric, 23 colorectal). Using a competitive displacement assay, specific 125I-tyrosine-11-somatostatin-14 binding to plasma membranes was assessed and and characterised in terms of receptor affinity (Kd) and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) as determined by Scatchard analysis. Specific low affinity (Kd = 166 nM), high capacity (Bmax = 1.2 pmol mg-1 protein) somatostatin binding was demonstrated in 22 of the gastric cancers and 17 of the colorectal cancers (Kd = 140 nM, Bmax = 1.8 pmol mg-1 protein). Similar affinity and binding capacity was demonstrable in normal mucosal samples. High affinity receptors for somatostatin were expressed by one gastric carcinoma (Kd = 0.9 nM; Bmax = 0.23 pmol mg-1 protein). Thus, low affinity, high capacity binding is a common feature of gastrointestinal tumours and normal mucosa, and high affinity receptors may occasionally be demonstrated. The functional significance of these low affinity binding sites requires elucidation to determine whether long-acting somatostatin analogues may have therapeutic benefit in gastrointestinal malignancy.

Miller, G. V.; Farmery, S. M.; Woodhouse, L. F.; Primrose, J. N.

1992-01-01

35

Butyrate-Induced Transcriptional Changes in Human Colonic Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background Fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon results in the production of short chain fatty acids (mainly propionate, butyrate and acetate). Butyrate modulates a wide range of processes, but its mechanism of action is mostly unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of butyrate on the transcriptional regulation of human colonic mucosa in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Five hundred genes were found to be differentially expressed after a two week daily butyrate administration with enemas. Pathway analysis showed that the butyrate intervention mainly resulted in an increased transcriptional regulation of the pathways representing fatty acid oxidation, electron transport chain and oxidative stress. In addition, several genes associated with epithelial integrity and apoptosis, were found to be differentially expressed after the butyrate intervention. Conclusions/Significance Colonic administration of butyrate in concentrations that can be achieved by consumption of a high-fiber diet enhances the maintenance of colonic homeostasis in healthy subjects, by regulating fatty acid metabolism, electron transport and oxidative stress pathways on the transcriptional level and provide for the first time, detailed molecular insight in the transcriptional response of gut mucosa to butyrate.

Vanhoutvin, Steven A. L. W.; Troost, Freddy J.; Hamer, Henrike M.; Lindsey, Patrick J.; Koek, Ger H.; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.; Kodde, Andrea; Venema, Koen; Brummer, Robert J. M.

2009-01-01

36

Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confocal Raman microspectroscopy was used to characterize gastric carcinoma cell in both cultured cells and human gastric mucosa tissues. Based on the spectra of single cultured cell, gastric carcinoma cells were screened out in the malignant gastric mucosa successfully and the positive ratio is about 58.06%. The high SNR (signal-to-noise) spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues and cells were obtained

A. G. Shen; Y. Ye; J. W. Zhang; X. H. Wang; J. M. Hu; W. Xie; J. Shen

2005-01-01

37

Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in intact and ulcerated human gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes angiogenesis and healing of gastric ulcers in rats, and bFGF expression is up regulated in such ulcers. However, little is known about expression of bFGF in human gastric mucosa.Aims—To investigate bFGF expression in intact human gastric mucosa and gastric ulcers and to determine whether low bFGF content or altered binding by mucosa is associated

M A Hull; J L Brough; D G Powe; G I Carter; D Jenkins; C J Hawkey

1998-01-01

38

Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was purified 30-fold. The enzyme had a MW of 75,000 by gel filtration, was optimally active at pH 4.5, and had an isoelectric point at pH 8.0. In contrast to brush border PPH, intracellular PPH was unstable at increasing temperatures, was unaffected by dialysis against chelating agents and showed no requirement for Zn/sup 2 +/. Using PteGlu/sub 2/(/sup 14/C)Glu as substrate, they demonstrated a K/sub m/ of 1.2 ..mu..M and increasing affinity for folates with longer glutamate chains. Intracellular PPH required the complete folic acid (PteGlu) moiety and a ..gamma..-glutamyl linkage for activity. Using ion exchange chromatography and an HPLC method to determine the hydrolytic products of the reaction, they found intracellular PPH could cleave both internal and terminal ..gamma..-glutamyl linkages, with PteGlu as an end product. After subcellular fractionation of the mucosa, PPH was found in the lysosomes. In summary, the distinct characteristics of brush border and intracellular PPH suggest that the two hydrolases serve different roles in folate metabolism.

Wang, T.T.Y.; Chandler, C.J.; Halsted, C.H.

1986-03-01

39

Influence of environmental temperature on in vivo energy expenditure in vitro ouabain-sensitive respiration in duodenal mucosa and liver in rats fed different levels of dietary fiber or protein.  

PubMed

Seventy two Wistar rats were used in two repeat studies to investigate the effect of environmental temperature (18 degrees C or 28 degrees C) and increasing levels of dietary fibre (low, 68 g/kg DM; medium 110 g/kg DM; high, 157 g/kg DM) or protein (low, 91 g/kg DM; medium, 171 g/kg DM; high, 262 g/kg DM) on digestive tract, visceral organ size, energy metabolism, and respiration attributable to Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in duodenal mucosa and liver. Total and ouabain-sensitive (a measure of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity) O2 consumption in vitro of tissues were measured polarographically using a Clark-style YSI biological O2 monitor. Whole body heat production (in vivo) was measured using open-circuit respiration chambers. The weight of the visceral organs was higher in rats housed at 18 degrees C than at 28 degrees C. The empty weight of the small intestine, caecum, and colon increased as the level of dietary fibre increased (P 0.05). Heat production as a proportion of metabolizable energy was higher (P < 0.05) at 18 degrees C than at 28 degrees C in the first experiment but this difference was significant in the second experiment. Rats fed the low protein diet had significantly higher (P > 0.05) heat production than those fed medium or high protein diets. Compared to 28 degrees C, environmental temperature of 18 degrees C caused an increased total and ouabain-sensitive O2 consumption in duodenal mucosa. There was no significant effect of environmental temperature on total and ouabain-sensitive O2 consumption in the liver. However, ouabain-sensitive O2 consumption in liver was significantly higher (P 0.05) when rats were fed a low protein diet compared to the medium or high protein diet. Total and ouabain-sensitive O2 consumption increased in duodenal mucosa of rats fed low level of dietary fibre compared to the medium or high dietary fibre diets. The in vitro results corresponded with the whole animal energy expenditure and O2 consumption in vivo. PMID:9467216

Jørgensen, H; Zhao, X Q

1997-12-01

40

Duodenal Acid Clearance in Humans: Observations Made with Intraluminal Impedance Recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenal acid clearance appears to be involved not only in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease but also in functional dyspepsia. Duodenal contractile activity can help to maintain neutral pH in the duodenum by mixing acid with bicarbonate or by aborally transporting the acid load. Intraluminal impedance recording, allowing the detection of nonacid liquid boluses, can be carried out concomitantly

Guillaume Savoye; Jac Oors; ANDR ´ E SMOUT

2005-01-01

41

Gene expression in human small intestinal mucosa in vivo is mediated by iron-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Iron-induced oxidative stress in the small intestine may alter gene expression in the intestinal mucosa. The present study aimed to determine which genes are mediated by an iron-induced oxidative challenge in the human small intestine. Eight healthy volunteers [22 yr(SD2)] were tested on two separate occasions in a randomized crossover design. After duodenal tissue sampling by gastroduodenoscopy, a perfusion catheter was inserted orogastrically to perfuse a 40-cm segment of the proximal small intestine with saline and, subsequently, with either 80 or 400 mg of iron as ferrous gluconate. After the intestinal perfusion, a second duodenal tissue sample was obtained. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, in intestinal fluid samples increased significantly and dose dependently at 30 min after the start of perfusion with 80 or 400 mg of iron, respectively (P < 0.001). During the perfusion with 400 mg of iron, the increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was accompanied by a significant, momentary rise in trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, an indicator of total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). The expression of 89 gene reporters was significantly altered by both iron interventions. Functional mapping showed that both iron dosages mediated six distinct processes. Three of those processes involved G-protein receptor coupled pathways. The other processes were associated with cell cycle, complement activation, and calcium channels. Iron administration in the small intestine induced dose-dependent lipid peroxidation and a momentary antioxidant response in the lumen, mediated the expression of at least 89 individual gene reporters, and affected at least six biological processes. PMID:16464976

Troost, Freddy J; Brummer, Robert-Jan M; Haenen, Guido R M M; Bast, Aalt; van Haaften, Rachel I; Evelo, Chris T; Saris, Wim H M

2006-02-07

42

Intraoral grafting of tissue-engineered human oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of a tissue-engineered human ex vivo-produced oral mucosa equivalent (EVPOME) in intraoral grafting procedures. The secondary objective was to assess the efficacy of the grafted EVPOME in producing a keratinized mucosal surface epithelium. Materials and Methods: Five patients who met the inclusion criteria of having one mucogingival defect or a lack of keratinized gingiva on a nonmolar tooth, along with radiographic evidence of sufficient interdental bone height, were recruited as subjects to increase the width of keratinized gingiva at the defect site. A punch biopsy specimen of the hard palate was taken to acquire oral keratinocytes, which were expanded, seeded, and cultured on an acellular dermal matrix for fabrication of an EVPOME. EVPOME grafts were applied directly over an intact periosteal bed and secured in place. At baseline (biopsy specimen retrieval) and at 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postsurgery, Plaque Index and Gingival Index were recorded for each subject. In addition, probing depths, keratinized gingival width, and keratinized gingival thickness were recorded at baseline, 30, 90, and 180 days. Results: No complications or adverse reactions to EVPOME were observed in any subjects during the study. The mean gain in keratinized gingival width was 3 mm (range, 3 to 4 mm). The mean gain in keratinized gingival thickness was 1 mm (range, 1 to 2 mm). No significant changes in probing depths were observed. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it can be concluded that EVPOME is safe for intraoral use and has the ability to augment keratinized tissue around teeth. Future clinical trials are needed to further explore this potential. PMID:24066347

Izumi, Kenji; Neiva, Rodrigo F; Feinberg, Stephen E

43

Permeation and Pathways of Human Calcitonin (hCT) Across Excised Bovine Nasal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lang, S., B. Rothen-Rutishauser, J.-C. Perriard, M. C. Schmidt and H. P. Merkle. Permeation and pathways of human calcitonin (hCT) across excised bovine nasal mucosa. Peptides 19(3) 599–607, 1998.—In vitro permeation of human calcitonin (hCT), salmon calcitonin (sCT), and the somatostatin analog octreotide (SMS) through excised bovine nasal mucosa was studied applying donor\\/receiver experiments and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Permeabilities

Steffen Lang; Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser; Jean-Claude Perriard; M. Christiane Schmidt; Hans P Merkle

1998-01-01

44

FINE STRUCTURE OF MERKEL CELL IN HUMAN ORAL MUCOSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merkel cells identical to those described in the skin were found in the gingival mucosa and in the vermilion border of the lip. They were often clustered in rete ridges but also found individually in the basal layer. Unmyelinated axons (neurites) of presumably a sensory afferent nerve surrounded the basal half of these cells within the epithelium. Occasional desmosomes connected

Ken Hashimoto

1972-01-01

45

Human gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mediates sustained CREB phosphorylation and transactivation in HuTu 80 duodenal cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The G protein-coupled human gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (hGRP-R) is frequently found aberrantly expressed in human cancers of the colon, stomach, and lung, and its ligand-specific activation has been implicated in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we demonstrated hGRP-R activation stimulated sustained cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and transactivation in duodenal cancer cells through a protein kinase C

Xiangping Qu; Dongmei Xiao; H. Christian Weber

2002-01-01

46

In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical studies on human skin indicated that in vivo multi-harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) can achieve sub-micron resolution for histopathological analysis with a high penetration depth and leave no energy or photodamages in the interacted tissues. It is thus highly desired to apply HGM for in vivo mucosa histopathological diagnosis. In this paper, the first in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa by using epi-HGM is demonstrated. We modified an upright microscope to rotate the angle of objective for in vivo observation. Our clinical study reveals the capability of HGM to in vivo image cell distributions in human oral mucosa, including epithelium and lamina propria with a high penetration depth greater than 280 ?m and a high spatial resolution better than 500 nm. We also found that the third-harmonic-generation (THG) contrast on nucleus depends strongly on its thicknesses, in agreement with a numerical simulation. Besides, 4% acetic acid was found to be able to enhance the THG contrast of nucleus in oral mucosa, while such enhancement was found to decay due to the metabolic clearance of the contrast enhancer by the oral mucosa. Our clinical study indicated that, the combined epi-THG and epi-second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising imaging tool for in vivo noninvasive optical virtual biopsy and disease diagnosis in human mucosa.

Tsai, Ming-Rung; Chen, Szu-Yu; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Lou, Pei-Jen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

2011-01-01

47

The color of human gingiva and mucosa: visual measurement and description of distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

No soft tissue shade guide is available for matching the color of denture resins to human intraoral soft tissues. To determine\\u000a the color of both the gingiva and the alveolar mucosa, intraoral soft tissue colors of 150 men and women were assessed under\\u000a standardized lighting conditions. Colors of the papilla, attached gingiva, and alveolar mucosa in the central incisor region

Guido Heydecke; Stefan Schnitzer; Jens C. Türp

2005-01-01

48

Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in intact and ulcerated human gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background—Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes angiogenesis and healing of gastric ulcers in rats, and bFGF expression is up regulated in such ulcers. However, little is known about expression of bFGF in human gastric mucosa. ?Aims—To investigate bFGF expression in intact human gastric mucosa and gastric ulcers and to determine whether low bFGF content or altered binding by mucosa is associated with ulceration. ?Subjects—Endoscopy outpatients, gastrectomy patients, and organ donors. ?Methods—bFGF was isolated by heparin affinity chromatography and characterised by western blotting and endothelial cell bioassay. bFGF was measured by immunoassay and its distribution defined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation. Binding of bFGF by heparan sulphate proteoglycans was investigated by sodium chloride and heparin extraction. ?Results—Bioactive bFGF (19 kDa) was detected in normal mucosa but bFGF mRNA was not found. bFGF expression was up regulated in granulation tissue endothelial cells, mononuclear cells, and epithelial cells at the ulcer rim. Gastric ulcer patients had constitutively low bFGF concentrations in intact antral mucosa which were not explained by changes in binding to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. ?Conclusions—bFGF expression is up regulated in human gastric ulcers. Low intact mucosal bFGF content is associated with gastric ulceration. ?? Keywords: basic fibroblast growth factor; gastric mucosa; heparan sulphate proteoglycan; peptic ulceration

Hull, M; Brough, J; Powe, D; Carter, G; Jenkins, D; Hawkey, C

1998-01-01

49

Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection in human oral mucosa in culture.  

PubMed

To examine the sensitivity of human oral mucosa to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infection, human gingival mucosa explants were infected with either HSV-1 or HSV-2 in vitro and the expression of virus specific antigen was examined by the immunofluorescent antibody technique. HSV-2 antigen was found in the basement membrane, basal cell layer and lower prickle cell layer. This finding was consistent with the HSV-1 infection. Electron microscopic study revealed the presence of nucleocapsids and enveloped virus particles in the basal cells of HSV-2-infected organ cultures. These findings indicate that human gingival mucosa is sensitive to infection with HSV-2, as well as HSV-1, and that the virus may replicate in the undifferentiated epithelial cells of mucosal epithelium. PMID:1849992

Yura, Y; Iga, H; Kondo, Y; Harada, K; Yanagawa, T; Yoshida, H; Sato, M

1991-02-01

50

Evaluation of a new method for routine in vitro cultivation of Giardia lamblia from human duodenal fluid.  

PubMed Central

Although a method for in vitro cultivation of Giardia lamblia was described as early as 1927, only a few clinical isolates were cultured in vitro due to the complexity of the techniques. We developed a method which allows for the routine isolation of Giardia trophozoites from human duodenal fluid and maintenance of the organisms in axenic culture. This study evaluates the method in 198 patients. Seventeen strains of Giardia were isolated and cultivated axenically. The method was more sensitive than the microscopic examination of aspirated fluid and examination of an impression of mucosal biopsy. Five patients, however, excreted cysts in the stool, although no trophozoites could be demonstrated in the duodenal fluid. G. lamblia were cultivated from one patient who did not excrete cysts. The method will enable the collection of G. lamblia strains from clinical material in large numbers and can offer an important advance in epidemiological, biochemical, immunological, and therapeutic investigations of giardiasis.

Gordts, B; Hemelhof, W; Van Tilborgh, K; Retore, P; Cadranel, S; Butzler, J P

1985-01-01

51

Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Recombinant Human Pancreatic Duodenal Homeobox-1 Protein in Pichia Pastoris  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic duodenal hemeodomain protein-1 (PDX1) is essential for the development of the embryonic pancreas and plays a key role in pancreatic ?-cell differentiation, maturation, regenration, and maintenance of normal pancreatic ?-cell insulin-producing function. Purified recombinant PDX1 (rPDX1) may be a useful tool for many research and clinical applications, however, using the E. coli expression system has several drawbacks for producing quality PDX1 protein. To explore the yeast expression system for generating rPDX1 protein, the cDNA coding for the full length human PDX1 gene was cloned into the secreting expression organism Pichia pastoris. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis of culture medium from methanol-induced expression yeast clones demonstrated that the rPDX1 was secreted into the culture medium, had a molecular weight by SDS-PAGE of 50 kDa, and was glycosylated. The predicted size of the mature unmodified PDX1 polypeptide is 31 kDa, suggesting that eukaryotic post-translational modifications are the result of the increased molecular weight. The recombinant protein was purified to greater than 95% purity using a combined ammonium sulfate precipitation with heparin-agarose chromatography. Finally, 120 ?g of the protein was obtained in high purity from 1 L of the culture supernatant. Bioactivity of the rPDX1 was confirmed by the ability to penetrate cell membranes and activation of an insulin-luciferase reporter gene. Our results suggest that the P. pastoris expression system can be used to produce a fully functional human rPDX1 for both research and clinical application.

Li, Shi-Wu; Sun, Yuping; Donelan, William; Tang, Dongqi; Yu, Hongfang; Scian, Joanna; Yang, Li-Jun

2012-01-01

52

In vitro adherence of type 1-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli to human ureteral mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infections adhered in vitro to the epithelial cell surface of an excised human ureter. The bacteria also adhered to a mucous coating and to Formalin-fixed human ureteral mucosa. D-Mannose strongly inhibited such adherence. The bacteria in their nonfimbriated phase lacked the ability to adhere. We concluded that type 1 fimbriae play a role, at least in part, in upper urinary tract infections in humans. Images

Fujita, K; Yamamoto, T; Yokota, T; Kitagawa, R

1989-01-01

53

Urocortin and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor expression in the human colonic mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urocortin is a newly identified member of the CRF neuropeptide family. Urocortin has been found to bind with high affinity to CRF receptors. The present study investigated urocortin and CRF receptor expression in human colonic mucosa. Non-pathologic sections of adult colorectal tissues were obtained from patients with colorectal cancer at surgery. Urocortin expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and messenger (m)

Yasunari Muramatsu; Kouhei Fukushima; Kazumi Iino; Kazuhito Totsune; Kazuhiro Takahashi; Takashi Suzuki; Gen Hirasawa; Junji Takeyama; Mitsuko Ito; Masato Nose; Atsushi Tashiro; Michio Hongo; Yutaka Oki; Hiroshi Nagura; Hironobu Sasano

2000-01-01

54

Innervation of the Human Vaginal Mucosa as Revealed by PGP 9.5 Immunohistochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain a description of the innervation of the vaginal wall we employed an antiserum against the general neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, on normal human vaginal mucosa. Specimens were taken from the anterior and posterior fornices, from the anterior vaginal wall at the bladder neck level and from the introitus vaginae region, and then processed for

M. Hilliges; C. Falconer; G. Ekman-Ordeberg; O. Johansson

1995-01-01

55

Diffusion Studies of Nanometer Polymersomes Across Tissue Engineered Human Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To measure the diffusion of nanometer polymersomes through tissue engineered human oral mucosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  \\u000a In vitro models of full thickness tissue engineered oral mucosa (TEOM) were used to assess the penetration properties of two chemically\\u000a different polymersomes comprising two of block copolymers, PMPC-PDPA and PEO-PDPA. These copolymers self-assemble into membrane-enclosed\\u000a vesicular structures. Polymersomes were conjugated with fluorescent rhodamine in order

Vanessa Hearnden; Hannah Lomas; Sheila MacNeil; Martin Thornhill; Craig Murdoch; Andrew Lewis; Jeppe Madsen; Adam Blanazs; Steve Armes; Giuseppe Battaglia

2009-01-01

56

The start of a programme for measuring diamine oxidase activity in biopsy specimens of human rectal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human subjects, apart from in the kidney, diamine oxidase occurs mainly in the gut. Therefore this enzyme can be used as an indicator of intestinal integrity.In biopsies of rectal mucosa the diamine oxidase activity was assayed in 55 patients, 41 having a histologically normal mucosa and 14 being diseased. The determinations of the enzymic activity were supervised by statistical

R. Hesterberg; J. Kusche; C.-D. Stahlknecht; K.-D. Feussner

1981-01-01

57

Evidence for acid-induced loss of Cdx2 expression in duodenal gastric metaplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric metaplasia in the duodenum (GMD) is characterized by transdifferentiation of intestinal epithelial cells into gastric foveolar cells within the duodenal mucosa. GMD is often associated with duodenal ulceration. Higher duodenal acidity due to increased gastric acid output into the duodenum has been implicated in the development of GMD. Intestinal development and homeostasis are controlled by the homeobox transcription factor

Gerhard Faller; Arno Dimmler; Tilman Rau; Simone Spaderna; Falk Hlubek; Andreas Jung; Thomas Kirchner; Thomas Brabletz

2004-01-01

58

Bombesin receptors in a human duodenal tumor cell line: binding properties and function.  

PubMed

The bombesin family of peptides elicit numerous biological responses in the gut, including stimulation of cell proliferation, and have been implicated as growth factors in a variety of gastrointestinal tumors. Even though these peptides and their receptors are distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, there are few cell lines available as model systems to study bombesin action in gastrointestinal cells. In this study, we have characterized functional bombesin receptors in a human duodenal cancer cell line, HuTu-80. The binding of [125I-Tyr4]bombesin to intact cells at 4 degrees C reached equilibrium by 6 h. Scatchard analysis of [125I-Tyr4]bombesin binding showed that HuTu-80 cells contained a single class of high affinity binding sites (5900 +/- 1960/cell; Kd = 80 +/- 20 pM). [125I-Tyr4]bombesin binding was inhibited by bombesin receptor agonists and antagonists with the following order of potencies: gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) = GRP-(14-27) = bombesin > [DPhe6]bombesin(6-13)ethylamide > [Leu13 psi-(CH2NH)Leu14]bombesin > neuromedin B. Photoaffinity cross-linking studies, in which N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide was used to covalently couple [125I]GRP(14-27) to cells at 4 degrees C, resulted in the specific labeling of a broad band with an apparent molecular mass of 66,000 daltons. Consistent with the presence of high affinity receptors, bombesin increased the formation of inositol phosphates in HuTu-80 cells in a dose-dependent manner (concentration eliciting half-maximal effect, 290 +/- 70 pM). However, under conditions where both insulin and serum increased [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, 10 nM bombesin had no effect either alone or in the presence of insulin. Bombesin also had no effect on colony formation by HuTu-80 cells in soft agar. Furthermore, the bombesin receptor antagonist, [Leu13 psi(CH2NH)Leu14]bombesin, did not inhibit [3H]thymidine incorporation or clonal growth either in the absence or in the presence of serum. Together, these results show that HuTu-80 cells contain high affinity bombesin receptors of the GRP subtype. These receptors are functionally coupled to second messenger production but do not stimulate cell proliferation. PMID:8306345

Williams, B Y; Schonbrunn, A

1994-02-01

59

Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 in normal, inflamed, and ulcerated human gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Constitutive cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 is believed to mediate prostaglandin dependent gastric protection. However, gastric mucosa contains cells capable of expressing inducible COX-2. We therefore investigated COX-1 and COX-2 expression, localisation, and activity in normal and abnormal human gastric mucosa.?METHODS—COX-1 and COX-2 distribution was investigated by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry and by western blot analysis, and their contribution to prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthesis using selective enzyme inhibitors.?RESULTS—There was strong parietal cell COX-1 and COX-2 immunoreactivity in all sections and isolated cells, with macrophage and myofibroblast reactivity in some sections. Immunostaining was specifically abolished by antigen absorption. Western blot analysis confirmed COX-1 and 2 expression. COX-1 and COX-2 immunostaining was increased in Helicobacter pylori gastritis, particularly the mid glandular zone and lamina propria inflammatory cells. This was associated with increased ex vivo PGE2 synthesis (62.4 (13.5) pg/mg v 36.3 (15.5) pg/mg in uninflamed mucosa; p=0.017) which was significantly inhibited by COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibition. Increased COX-2 immunostaining in macrophages, endothelial cells, and myofibroblasts (with reduced epithelial expression) was seen at the rim of ulcers.?CONCLUSION—COX-2, as well as COX-1, is expressed by normal human gastric mucosa and is increased at the rim of ulcers. Although both are increased with H pylori, COX-1 contributes more than COX-2 to gastric PGE2 production.???Keywords: stomach; gastric mucosa; cyclooxygenases; Helicobacter pylori; ulceration; prostaglandins

Jackson, L; Wu, K; Mahida, Y; Jenkins, D; Hawkey, C

2000-01-01

60

Characterization and partial purification of a ferrireductase from human duodenal microvillus membranes.  

PubMed

Reduction of ferric iron in the presence of HuTu 80 cells or duodenal microvillus membranes (MVMs) was investigated. With both systems, NADH-dependent reduction of Fe3+/NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) was demonstrated, using the ferrous iron chelator ferrozine. Uptake of Fe3+ from Fe3+/NTA by HuTu 80 cells was strongly inhibited by addition of ferrozine, indicating that Fe2+ is the substrate for the iron uptake system. With isolated plasma membranes it is shown that the reductase activity is sensitive to trypsin and incubation at 65 degrees C. The reductase activity could be extracted from the plasma membrane and partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and isoelectric focusing. From the purification and inhibition characteristics we conclude that reduction of ferric iron on the surface of duodenal plasma membranes is catalysed by a membrane protein. PMID:7639688

Riedel, H D; Remus, A J; Fitscher, B A; Stremmel, W

1995-08-01

61

Characterization and partial purification of a ferrireductase from human duodenal microvillus membranes.  

PubMed Central

Reduction of ferric iron in the presence of HuTu 80 cells or duodenal microvillus membranes (MVMs) was investigated. With both systems, NADH-dependent reduction of Fe3+/NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) was demonstrated, using the ferrous iron chelator ferrozine. Uptake of Fe3+ from Fe3+/NTA by HuTu 80 cells was strongly inhibited by addition of ferrozine, indicating that Fe2+ is the substrate for the iron uptake system. With isolated plasma membranes it is shown that the reductase activity is sensitive to trypsin and incubation at 65 degrees C. The reductase activity could be extracted from the plasma membrane and partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and isoelectric focusing. From the purification and inhibition characteristics we conclude that reduction of ferric iron on the surface of duodenal plasma membranes is catalysed by a membrane protein.

Riedel, H D; Remus, A J; Fitscher, B A; Stremmel, W

1995-01-01

62

Phthalates demonstrate genotoxicity on human mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract.  

PubMed

Various phthalate compounds are used as softeners and plasticizers in a wide range of plastic materials. There has been a growing concern regarding a possible health hazard to humans. The mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract is the organ of first contact for the majority of xenobiotics, such as phthalates, entering the body. Still, there is a lack of information concerning possible carcinogenicity of phthalates in the upper aerodigestive tract. This motivated us to investigate their genotoxic effects on human epithelia: human mucosal cells derived from biopsies harvested during surgery of the oropharynx and the inferior nasal turbinate, respectively. The alkaline version of the microgel electrophoresis assay was used to detect single-strand breaks in the DNA following incubation with dibutylphthalate (DBP) and diisobutylphthalate (DiBP). DNA damage was induced by both DBP and DiBP in oropharyngeal and nasal mucosa, though the effect of DiBP was more pronounced than that of DBP. Nasal mucosa proved to be more sensitive than oropharyngeal epithelia. The results demonstrate genotoxic effects of phthalates on human mucosal cells of the upper aerodigestive tract, in contrast to earlier findings in animal models. PMID:10692222

Kleinsasser, N H; Kastenbauer, E R; Weissacher, H; Muenzenrieder, R K; Harréus, U A

2000-01-01

63

Human gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mediates sustained CREB phosphorylation and transactivation in HuTu 80 duodenal cancer cells.  

PubMed

The G protein-coupled human gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (hGRP-R) is frequently found aberrantly expressed in human cancers of the colon, stomach, and lung, and its ligand-specific activation has been implicated in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we demonstrated hGRP-R activation stimulated sustained cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and transactivation in duodenal cancer cells through a protein kinase C and partially p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. In contrast, intracellular calcium, ERK1/2, protein kinase A, and PI3 kinase were not involved. This novel signaling mechanism might be of importance for regulation of CREB-dependent gene expression in human cancer expressing functional hGRP-R. PMID:12220644

Qu, Xiangping; Xiao, Dongmei; Weber, H Christian

2002-09-11

64

Identification of connexins in human oral mucosa and therapeutic effect of irsogladine maleate on aphthous stomatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We identified connexins 26 and 32 in human oral mucosa. The presence of the connexins indicates the presence of gap junctions\\u000a in this tissue. However, immunofluorescence study found no significant differences in the expression of the connexins between\\u000a patients with aphthons stomatitis and controls. Irsogladine maleate, which reinforces gap junctional intercellular communication\\u000a in vitro, was effective for the treatment

Ayumi Hara; Toshiya Murata; Ryuichiro Uemura; Toshiyuki Miura; Kazuto Fukui; Hidehiko Matsukawa; Kazuhiro Kasiwagi; Takashi Ito; Masahiro Yoshioka; Toshifumi Hibi

1999-01-01

65

In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography for in vivo studies of human mucosa in respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT (EOCT) system has been created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation

Alexander M. Sergeev; V. M. Gelikonov; G. V. Gelikonov; Felix I. Feldchtein; R. V. Kuranov; N. D. Gladkova; N. M. Shakhova; L. B. Snopova; A. V. Shakhov; I. A. Kuznetzova; A. N. Denisenko; V. V. Pochinko; Yu P. Chumakov; O. S. Streltzova

1997-01-01

66

CD90+ Stromal Cells are Non-Professional Innate Immune Effectors of the Human Colonic Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Immune responses at the intestinal mucosa must allow for host protection whilst simultaneously avoiding inappropriate inflammation. Although much work has focused on the innate immune functionality of hematopoietic immune cells, non-hematopoietic cell populations – including epithelial and stromal cells – are now recognized as playing a key role in innate defense at this site. In this study we examined the innate immune capacity of primary human intestinal stromal cells (iSCs). CD90+ iSCs isolated from human colonic mucosa expressed a wide array of innate immune receptors and functionally responded to stimulation with bacterial ligands. iSCs also sensed infection with live Salmonella typhimurium, rapidly expressing IL-1 family cytokines via a RIPK2/p38MAPK-dependent signaling process. In addition to responding to innate immune triggers, primary iSCs exhibited a capacity for bacterial uptake, phagocytosis, and antigen processing, although to a lesser extent than professional APCs. Thus CD90+ iSCs represent an abundant population of “non-professional” innate immune effector cells of the human colonic mucosa and likely play an important adjunctive role in host defense and immune regulation at this site.

Owens, Benjamin M. J.; Steevels, Tessa A. M.; Dudek, Michael; Walcott, David; Sun, Mei-Yi; Mayer, Alice; Allan, Philip; Simmons, Alison

2013-01-01

67

Human JC polyomavirus in normal colorectal mucosa, hyperplastic polyps, sporadic adenomas, and adenocarcinomas in Portugal.  

PubMed

John Cunningham virus (JCV) infects chronically human populations worldwide and probably might confer a higher risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The prevalence of JCV DNA has been determined in normal colon mucosa and compared it with different degrees of colorectal lesions, as well as viral presence in the urine of the individuals in the study. JCV DNA was detected by a nested-PCR approach targeting the JCV small-t antigen in 100 healthy controls, and 100 patients undergoing biopsy for diagnosis of colorectal disorders. JCV DNA was detected in 40% of normal mucosa from controls and patients. JCV DNA presence in urine was also similar in controls and patients (37-41% range). JCV DNA detection in normal mucosa and urine reflects the infected population in Portugal. However, in cases with colorectal tumor lesions, JCV DNA was detected in 90% cases, independently of histological type or grade, and this increase was significantly higher with respect to its normal surrounding mucosa. This higher detection of JCV DNA in tumor lesions with respect to its own normal mucosa suggested that a selection for virus containing cells has occurred at some early stage in tumor initiation or progression. JCV may have a specific tropism for colon epithelial cells with some inherent predisposition that makes them more prone to oncogenic transformation, with selection of infected cells. Several p53 polymorphisms in intron 2, common to both groups, were more frequently detected in colorectal pathology cases. A novel p53 mutation in the 3' untranslated region (exon 11) was identified in 10 patients. J. Med. Virol. 85:2119-2127, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24009184

Coelho, Tatiana Rasteiro; Gaspar, Rita; Figueiredo, Pedro; Mendonça, Cristina; Lazo, Pedro A; Almeida, Luís

2013-09-05

68

Endoscopic OCT for in-vivo imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography for in vivo studies of human mucosa in gastrointestinal and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT system has ben created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation to investigated tissue. We have studied mucous membranes of esophagus, stomach and uterine cervix as typical localization for carcinomatous processes. Images of tumor tissues versus healthy tissues have been recorded and analyzed. Violations of well-defined stratified healthy mucosa structure in cancerous tissue is distinctly seen by EOCT, thus making this technique promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhova, Natalia; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Snopova, Ludmila; Denisenko, Arkady; Almasov, Valentin

1998-01-01

69

Identification of connexins in human oral mucosa and therapeutic effect of irsogladine maleate on aphthous stomatitis.  

PubMed

We identified connexins 26 and 32 in human oral mucosa. The presence of the connexins indicates the presence of gap junctions in this tissue. However, immunofluorescence study found no significant differences in the expression of the connexins between patients with aphthons stomatitis and controls. Irsogladine maleate, which reinforces gap junctional intercellular communication in vitro, was effective for the treatment of transient and relapsing aphthous stomatitis, as well as symptomatic and drug-induced aphthous stomatitis. It was also useful for prevention of episodes of relapsing aphthous stomatitis, with daily administration preverting recurrence of stomatitis for more than 4 years one patient. These findings suggest that irsogladine maleate accelerates the wound healing process in oral mucosa by reinforcing gap junctional intercellular communication among oral mucosal cells; and that it is useful for the treatment and prevention of aphthous stomatitis. PMID:10204603

Hara, A; Murata, T; Uemura, R; Miura, T; Fukui, K; Matsukawa, H; Kasiwagi, K; Ito, T; Yoshioka, M; Hibi, T

1999-02-01

70

Abundance and diversity of mucosa-associated hydrogenotrophic microbes in the healthy human colon  

PubMed Central

Hydrogenotrophic microbiota have a significant impact on colonic health; however, little is known about their diversity and ecology in situ. Here, molecular-based methods and multivariate analyses were used to examine the abundance and diversity of mucosa-associated hydrogenotrophic microbes in 90 biopsies collected from right colon, left colon and rectum of 25 healthy subjects. Functional genes of all three hydrogenotrophic groups were detected in at least one colonic region of all subjects. Methanogenic archaea (MA) constituted approximately one half of the hydrogenotrophic microbiota in each colonic region. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were more abundant than acetogens in right colon, while acetogens were more abundant than SRB in left colon and rectum. MA genotypes exhibited low diversity, whereas SRB genotypes were diverse and generally similar across the three regions within subject but significantly variable among subjects. Multivariate cluster analysis defined subject-specific patterns for the diversity of SRB genotypes; however, neither subject- nor region-specific clusters were observed for the abundance of hydrogenotrophic functional genes. Sequence analyses of functional gene clones revealed that mucosa-associated SRB were phylogenetically related to Desulfovibrio piger, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bilophila wadsworthia; whereas MA were related to Methanobrevibacter spp., Mb. smithii and the order Methanomicrobiales. Together these data demonstrate for the first time that the human colonic mucosa is persistently colonized by all three groups of hydrogenotrophic microbes, which exhibit segmental and interindividual variation in abundance and diversity.

Nava, Gerardo M; Carbonero, Franck; Croix, Jennifer A; Greenberg, Eugene; Gaskins, H Rex

2012-01-01

71

Molecular cross-talk between Helicobacter pylori and human gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has co-evolved with humans to be transmitted from person to person and to colonize the stomach persistently. A well-choreographed equilibrium between the bacterial effectors and host responses permits microbial persistence and health of the host, but confers a risk for serious diseases including gastric cancer. During its long coexistence with humans, H. pylori has developed complex strategies to limit the degree and extent of gastric mucosal damage and inflammation, as well as immune effector activity. The present editorial thus aims to introduce and comment on major advances in the rapidly developing area of H. pylori/human gastric mucosa interaction (and its pathological sequelae), which is the result of millennia of co-evolution of, and thus of reciprocal knowledge between, the pathogen and its human host.

Ricci, Vittorio; Romano, Marco; Boquet, Patrice

2011-01-01

72

Y(4) receptors mediate the inhibitory responses of pancreatic polypeptide in human and mouse colon mucosa.  

PubMed

The antisecretory effects of several Y agonists, including pancreatic polypeptide (PP), indicate the presence of Y(1), Y(2), and Y(4) receptors in mouse and human (h) colon mucosae. Here, we used preparations from human and from wild-type (WT), Y(4), and Y(1) receptor knockout ((-/-)) mice, alongside Y(4) receptor-transfected cells to define the relative functional contribution of the Y(4) receptor. First, rat (r) PP antisecretory responses were lost in murine Y(4)(-/-) preparations, but hPP and Pro(34) peptide YY (PYY) costimulated Y(4) and Y(1) receptors in WT mucosa. The Y(1) antagonist/Y(4) agonist GR231118 [(Ile,Glu,Pro,Dpr,Tyr,Arg,Leu,Arg,Try-NH(2))-2-cyclic(2,4'),(2',4)-diamide] elicited small Y(4)-mediated antisecretory responses in human tissues pretreated with the Y(1) antagonist, BIBO3304 [(R)-N-[[4-(aminocarbonylaminomethyl)-phenyl]methyl]-N(2)-(diphenylacetyl)-argininamide trifluoroacetate)], and attenuated Y(4)-mediated hPP responses in mouse and human mucosa. GR231118 and rPP were also antisecretory in hY(4)-transfected epithelial monolayers but were partial agonists compared with hPP at this receptor. In Y(4)-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, Y(4) ligands displaced [(125)I]hPP binding with orders of affinity (pK(i)) at human (hPP = rPP > GR231118 > Pro(34)PYY = PYY) and mouse (rPP = hPP > GR231118 > Pro(34)PYY > PYY) Y(4) receptors. GR231118- and rPP-stimulated guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding through hY(4) receptors with significantly lower efficacy than hPP. GR231118 marginally increased basal but abolished further PP-induced hY(4) internalization to recycling (transferrin-labeled) pathways in HEK293 cells. Taken together, these findings show that Y(4) receptors play a definitive role in attenuating colonic anion transport and may be useful targets for novel antidiarrheal agents due to their limited peripheral expression. PMID:16807358

Tough, Iain R; Holliday, Nicholas D; Cox, Helen M

2006-06-28

73

Human Pancreatic Secretory Trypsin Inhibitor Stabilizes Intestinal Mucosa against Noxious Agents  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) is a serine protease inhibitor, expressed in gut mucosa, whose function is unclear. We, therefore, examined the effects of PSTI on gut stability and repair. Transgenic mice overexpressing human PSTI within the jejunum (FABPi?1178 to +28 hPSTI construct) showed no change in baseline morphology or morphometry but reduced indomethacin-induced injury in overexpressing hPSTI region by 42% (P < 0.01). Systemic recombinant hPSTI did not affect baseline morphology or morphometry but truncated injurious effects in prevention and recovery rat models of dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced colitis. In vitro studies showed PSTI stimulated cell migration but not proliferation of human colonic carcinoma HT29 or immortalized mouse colonic YAMC cells. PSTI also induced changes in vectorial ion transport (short-circuit current) when added to basolateral but not apical surfaces of polarized monolayers of Colony-29 cells. Restitution and vectorial ion transport effects of PSTI were dependent on the presence of a functioning epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor because cells with a disrupted (EGFR?/? immortalized cells) or neutralized (EGFR blocking antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitor) receptor prevented these effects. PSTI also reduced the cytokine release of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells. We conclude that administration of PSTI may provide a novel method of stabilizing intestinal mucosa against noxious agents and stimulating repair after injury.

Marchbank, Tania; Mahmood, Asif; Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Domin, Jan; Butler, Matt; Goodlad, Robert A.; Elia, George; Cox, Helen M.; van Heel, David A.; Ghosh, Subrata; Playford, Raymond J.

2007-01-01

74

New experimental models for the in vitro reconstitution of human bladder mucosa.  

PubMed

This study describes two experimental models for the in vitro reconstitution of the human bladder mucosa (neo-bladder): human urothelial stabilized cell lines were cultured on three-dimensional matrices, collagen or platelet-fibrin gels, containing murine fibroblast 3T3-J2 cells. Low-density seeding (2x10(4) cells/ml) of both normal (TCA-48) and neoplastic cell lines (TCA-47) on collagen matrix gave rise to isolated papillar colonies, while high-density seeding (3.75x10(6) cells/ml) led to the formation of wide pluristratified epithelial sheets, resembling the normal transitional epithelium. In contrast, high-density seeding (5x10(5) cells/ml) on platelet-fibrin matrix did not allow the formation of epithelial sheets: only isolated voluminous colonies of normal TCA-48 cells, and sparse and small colonies of neoplastic TCA-47 could be observed. Growth assays and cytotoxicity reduction tests showed that the growth inhibitory effect of platelet-fibrin gel on urothelial cells was probably due to the aspecific activation of the complement contained in the plasmatic fraction, whose precipitation forms fibrin-glue. Collectively, these findings allow us to draw the following conclusions: i) neobladders obtained by culturing urothelial cells on collagen matrix reproduce normal bladder mucosa and could be utilized in pharmacological studies; and ii) platelet-fibrin gels, that specifically inhibit neoplastic urothelial cell growth, could be used as scaffolds in surgical bladder reconstitution. PMID:15289887

De Angeli, Sergio; Del Pup, Laura; Fandella, Andrea; Di Liddo, Rosa; Anselmo, Giuseppe; Macchi, Carlo; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo; Nussdorfer, Gastone G

2004-09-01

75

Coinfection with Influenza B Virus Does Not Affect Association of Neisseria meningitidis with Human Nasopharyngeal Mucosa in Organ Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an epidemiological association between influenza virus infection and meningococcal disease. Pro- posed mechanisms are the destruction of the normal epithelial barrier function of the upper respiratory tract by influenza virus or the expression of human or viral surface-exposed proteins that enhance bacterial adher- ence and\\/or invasion. To test these hypotheses, human nasopharyngeal mucosa specimens from a total of

ROBERT C. READ; LINDA GOODWIN; M. ANDREW PARSONS; PAUL SILCOCKS; EDWARD B. KACZMARSKI; ANDREW PARKER; THOMAS J. BALDWIN

1999-01-01

76

Detection of amino acids in human nasal mucosa using microdialysis technique: increased glutamate in allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Amino acids, the smaller basic biochemical units of neuropeptides, have not been evaluated in the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to measure the concentration of neurotransmitting amino acids of the central nervous system, glutamate, aspartate, serine, taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid; a conditionally essential amino acids), and GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid; an amino acid produced in the brain), in nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients and normal controls using a microdialysis technique. A microdialysis probe appropriate for use on human nasal mucosa was developed using Cuprophan hollow fiber. Glutamate concentration in allergy group was significantly higher (p = 0.004) than in control group, while the concentrations of the other four amino acids showed no significant difference between the two groups. Our findings and review of the literature suggest that glutamate is one of the most potent neurotransmitters associated with the parasympathetic nerve in the nasal cavity, and that the microdialysis technique is useful in studying the pharmacokinetics in situ and local organ chemistry of the nasal cavity. PMID:16572741

Lee, Hyun-Sun; Goh, Eui-kyung; Wang, Soo-Geun; Chon, Kyong-Myong; Kim, Hae-Kyu; Roh, Hwan-Jung

2005-12-01

77

Intrinsic chemosensory signal recorded from the human nasal mucosa in patients with smell loss.  

PubMed

Physiological investigation of olfactory receptor function in hyposmic or anosmic patients is rare. Pioneers examined the electro-olfactogram in patients with olfactory disturbance. Although the electro-olfactogram is an established method to record olfactory responses from human olfactory epithelium, the response is only measured at specific sites of the olfactory mucosa. In contrast to that the response of the olfactory epithelium to chemosensory stimuli can be studied in a specific nasal area by means of intrinsic optical signal recording. Five functionally anosmic patients were included in the present study. In all patients, responses could be obtained following trigeminal stimulation with CO2. In some patients, responses could be obtained after olfactory stimulation with H2S and PEA. The present data show that in the studied patients trigeminal function seems to be preserved, while it appears that in some patients olfactory function is preserved to a certain degree. PMID:23053385

Ishimaru, Tadashi; Krone, Franziska; Scheibe, Mandy; Gudziol, Volker; Negoias, Simona; Hummel, Thomas

2012-10-05

78

A case of a duodenal duplication cyst presenting as melena  

PubMed Central

Duodenal duplication cysts are benign rare congenital anomalies reported mainly in the pediatric population, but seldom in adults. Symptoms depend on the type and location and can present as abdominal pain, distension, dysphagia or dyspepsia. They have been reported to be responsible for duodenal obstruction, pancreatitis and, in rare cases, gastrointestinal bleeding. We present a case of a duodenal duplication cyst in a 43-year-old man presenting as melena. Initial gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding focus. However, the patient began passing melena after 3 d, with an acute decrease in hemoglobin levels. Subsequent studies revealed a duplication cyst in the second portion of the duodenum which was surgically resected. Histology revealed a duodenal duplication cyst consisting of intestinal mucosa. There was no further bleeding and the patient recovered completely. In rare cases, duodenal duplication cysts might cause gastrointestinal bleeding and should be included in the differential diagnosis.

Ko, Seung Yeon; Ko, Sun Hye; Ha, Sungeun; Kim, Mi Sung; Shin, Hyang Mi; Baeg, Myong Ki

2013-01-01

79

Density of dendritic cells in the human tracheal mucosa is age dependent and site specific  

PubMed Central

Background The mucosal immune system undergoes extensive changes in early childhood in response to environmental stimuli. Dendritic cells (DC) play a major role in the development of the immune system. However, few data exist on the influence of continuous environmental stimulation on the distribution and phenotype of human airway DC. Methods Human tissue samples are mostly paraffin embedded which limits the use of several antibodies, and respiratory tissue for cryopreservation is difficult to obtain. Human frozen post mortem tracheal tissue was therefore used for this study. Only samples with epithelial adherence to the basement membrane were included (n?=?34). Immunohistochemical staining and sequential overlay immunofluorescence were performed with DC?SIGN and a panel of leucocyte markers co?expressed by DC. Results DC detected in the human tracheal mucosa using DC?SIGN correlated with the expression of HLA?DR, co?stimulatory and adhesion molecules. Higher cell densities were found at the ventral tracheal site of patients older than 1?year than in infants in the first year of life. Conclusion The increasing population of mucosal DC with age could reflect immunological maturation.

Tschernig, T; de Vries, V C; Debertin, A S; Braun, A; Walles, T; Traub, F; Pabst, R

2006-01-01

80

Histamine and Chondroitin Sulfate E Proteoglycan Released by Cultured Human Colonic Mucosa: Indication for Possible Presence of E Mast Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between the release of histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan (PG) was demonstrated in human colonic mucosa (HCM). Colonic biopsy samples incorporated [35S]sulfate (2.7 × 106 ± 188 × 103 cpm\\/mg of wet tissue; mean ± SEM, n = 5) into PG, which was partially released into the culture medium during the incubation period. Ascending thin-layer chromatography of

Rami Eliakim; Leon Gilead; Moshe Ligumsky; Elimelech Okon; Daniel Rachmilewitz; Ehud Razin

1986-01-01

81

Effects of duodenogastric reflux on gastrin cells, somatostatin cells and serotonin cells in human antral gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenogastric reflux (DGR) has been found to give rise to a hypochlorhydria secondary to alkaline reflux. We investigated whether there is a link between DGR and the gastrin, somatostatin, and serotonin cell numbers and the granular content of gastrin, somatostatin, and serotonin in endocrine cells in human antral mucosa. We investigated 38 selected Helicobacter pylori-negative patients with visual primary excessive

Maria Tzaneva

2004-01-01

82

Hyperspectral hybrid method classification for detecting altered mucosa of the human larynx  

PubMed Central

Background In the field of earth observation, hyperspectral detector systems allow precise target detections of surface components from remote sensing platforms. This enables specific land covers to be identified without the need to physically travel to the areas examined. In the medical field, efforts are underway to develop optical technologies that detect altering tissue surfaces without the necessity to perform an excisional biopsy. With the establishment of expedient classification procedures, hyperspectral imaging may provide a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows determination of pathological tissue with high reliability. In this study, we examined the performance of a hyperspectral hybrid method classification for the automatic detection of altered mucosa of the human larynx. Materials and methods Hyperspectral Imaging was performed in vivo and 30 bands from 390 to 680?nm for 5 cases of laryngeal disorders (2x hemorrhagic polyp, 3x leukoplakia) were obtained. Image stacks were processed with unsupervised clustering (linear spectral unmixing), spectral signatures were extracted from unlabeled cluster maps and subsequently applied as end-members for supervised classification (spectral angle mapper) of further medical cases with identical diagnosis. Results Linear spectral unmixing clearly highlighted altered mucosa as single spectral clusters in all cases. Matching classes were identified, and extracted spectral signatures could readily be applied for supervised classifications. Automatic target detection performed well, as the considered classes showed notable correspondence with pathological tissue locations. Conclusions Using hyperspectral classification procedures derived from remote sensing applications for diagnostic purposes can create concrete benefits for the medical field. The approach shows that it would be rewarding to collect spectral signatures from histologically different lesions of laryngeal disorders in order to build up a spectral library and to prospectively allow non-invasive optical biopsies.

2012-01-01

83

Simultaneous primary gastric and duodenal MALT lymphoma presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal tract, particularly the stomach, is the most common site of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). Many studies describe primary MALT lymphoma arising from the gastric mucosa, especially in association with Helicobacter pylori infection. On the contrary, primary MALT duodenal lymphoma is a very rare neoplasm. We report a case of a patient with gastrointestinal bleeding in whom primary gastric and duodenal MALT lymphoma were occurred simultaneously. PMID:23007819

Zippi, M; Pica, R; Scialpi, R; Paoluzi, P; Occhigrossi, G

2012-07-01

84

Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor-? in normal and diseased human gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roles for transforming growth factor—? (TGF?) in the stomach include cell migration and proliferation, inhibition of acid secretion, and cytoprotection. The authors have previously shown increased TGF? expression in rat gastric mucosa in response to acute gastric injury. They also have shown that TGF? immunoreactivity is increased in the gastric mucosa of four patients with Ménétrier's disease. To further characterize

Raymond F Bluth; Herschel A Carpenter; Mark R Pittelkow; David L Page; Robert J Coffey

1995-01-01

85

Distribution of dominant T cell receptor beta chains in human intestinal mucosa  

PubMed Central

The majority of human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs) are CD8+ T cells that use the T cell receptor (TCR)-alpha/beta. Previous studies have shown that iIELs isolated from segments of small intestine or colon contain one or several dominant alpha/beta T cell clones. It is not known whether these clones expand only locally in response to a particular antigen or whether they are widely distributed throughout the intestine. To address this question, iIELs were purified from near the proximal and distal margins in a series of intestinal resections for noninflammatory diseases. TCR-beta expression was then assessed by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, analysis of N-region length, and DNA sequencing. The previously described oligoclonal expansion of iIELs was confirmed in each sample. Identical dominant clones were identified in the proximal and distal samples from most cases, including samples taken from sites as distant as the transverse and sigmoid colon or rectum. Distinct clones were found in only one case with samples from the terminal ileum and transverse colon. These results demonstrate that a relatively small number of widely dispersed T cell clones comprise the majority of cells in the human intestinal mucosa.

1994-01-01

86

Novel detection of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 autoantibodies (PAA) in human sera using luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) assay.  

PubMed

We have previously identified pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) autoantibodies (PAA) in sera from both non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and human type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients. A suitable non-radioactive, sensitive and specific assay is needed for large-scale testing to determine the clinical utility of PAA. Here we reported a liquid-phase luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) assay by generating a renilla luciferase (Rluc)-Pdx1 fusion protein as a sensitive non-radioactive antigen from mammalian cells combined with immunoprecipitation to detect PAA in human sera. Sera from healthy donors and the University of Florida Pathology Laboratories, Endocrine Autoantibody Laboratory were used to validate the LIPS assay for PAA. Antigenic specificity to Pdx1 was confirmed by using a Rluc-only control compared to Rluc-Pdx1 fusion antigen and by competition assays using purified recombinant Pdx1 protein. We then used the LIPS assay to assess the prevalence of triple autoantibodies (GADA, IA-2A, and IA-2?A), and PAA in non-T1D control sera, recent onset (RO)-T1D sera (mean duration of T1D = 9.5 weeks), and long standing (LS)-T1D sera. Compared to clinical radioimmunoprecipitation assays (RIPA), the LIPS assay showed comparable sensitivity and specificity for detection of GADA and IA-2A. PAA were detectable in human serum samples and higher in triple-positive T1D autoantibodies (21% PAA positive in triple positive sera and 4% PAA positive in triple negative sera). Interestingly, PAA were found to be highest in the non-T1D population, suggesting that PAA might have a clinical utility in screening high-risk population susceptible for developing T1D. In conclusion, we have developed a liquid-phase, non-radioactive, sensitive and specific LIPS assay to detect PAA in human sera, providing a useful tool for evaluating the clinical relevance of PAA. PMID:23696946

Donelan, William; Wang, Hai; Li, Shi-Wu; Pittman, David; Li, Yi; Han, Shuhong; Sun, Yu; Carter, Christopher; Atkinson, Mark; Reeves, Westley; Winter, William E; Yang, Li-Jun

2013-05-15

87

Nutritional factors and gender influence age-related DNA methylation in the human rectal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGI) occurs in many genes expressed in colonic epithelial cells, and may contribute to the dysregulation of signalling pathways associated with carcinogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the relative importance of age, nutritional exposures and other environmental factors in the development of CGI methylation. Rectal biopsies were obtained from 185 individuals (84 male, 101 female) shown to be free of colorectal disease, and for whom measurements of age, body size, nutritional status and blood cell counts were available. We used quantitative DNA methylation analysis combined with multivariate modelling to investigate the relationships between nutritional, anthropometric and metabolic factors and the CGI methylation of 11 genes, together with LINE-1 as an index of global DNA methylation. Age was a consistent predictor of CGI methylation for 9/11 genes but significant positive associations with folate status and negative associations with vitamin D and selenium status were also identified for several genes. There was evidence for positive associations with blood monocyte levels and anthropometric factors for some genes. In general, CGI methylation was higher in males than in females and differential effects of age and other factors on methylation in males and females were identified. In conclusion, levels of age-related CGI methylation in the healthy human rectal mucosa are influenced by gender, the availability of folate, vitamin D and selenium, and perhaps by factors related to systemic inflammation.

Tapp, Henri S; Commane, Daniel M; Bradburn, D Michael; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Mathers, John C; Johnson, Ian T; Belshaw, Nigel J

2013-01-01

88

Effect of ibudilast on ciliary activity of human paranasal sinus mucosa in vitro.  

PubMed

The effect of ibudilast (CAS 50847-11-5, 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine, KC-404), an anti-asthmatic drug, on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of human paranasal sinus mucosa was examined in vitro. Ciliary activation was observed after a 10-min exposure to 4.6 x 10(-6) mol/l ibudilast. Ibudilast dose-dependently increase CBF at the concentrations ranging from 4.6 x 10(-7) mol/l to 4.6 x 10(-5) mol/l. Propranolol inhibited ciliary activity induced by ibudilast; however, neither indometacin nor verapamil affected the activation of ibudilast on CBF. Platelet activating factor (PAF) and Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) are chemical mediators inducing mucosal dysfunction and damage. Ibudilast prevented ciliary inhibition induced by PAF and LTD4. These findings indicated that ibudilast activates CBF and inhibits the effect of PAF and LTD4 on ciliated cells, and consequently improves the pathogenesis of allergic disorders such as the inhibited mucociliary transport system and airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:7575753

Ganbo, T; Hisamatsu, K; Mizukoshi, A; Inoue, H; Kikushima, K; Kou, J; Kozuka, Y; Murakami, Y

1995-08-01

89

Coculture of mesenchymal stem cells and respiratory epithelial cells to engineer a human composite respiratory mucosa.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe a novel in vitro reconstitution system for tracheal epithelium that could be useful for investigating the cellular and molecular interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this system, a Transwell insert was used as a basement membrane on which adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the lower side whereas normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were cultured on the opposite upper side. Under air-liquid interface conditions, the epithelial cells maintained their capacity to progressively differentiate and form a functional epithelium, leading to the differentiation of mucin-producing cells between days 14 and 21. Analysis of apical secretions showed that mucin production increased over time, with peak secretion on day 21 for NHBE cells alone, whereas mucin secretion by NHBE cells cocultured with MSCs remained constant between days 18 and day 25. This in vitro model of respiratory epithelium, which exhibited morphologic, histologic, and functional features of a tracheal mucosa, could help to understand interactions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells and mechanisms involved in mucus production, inflammation, and airway repair. It might also play an important role in the design of an composite prosthesis for tracheal replacement. PMID:15588402

Le Visage, Catherine; Dunham, Brian; Flint, Paul; Leong, Kam W

90

Nutritional factors and gender influence age-related DNA methylation in the human rectal mucosa.  

PubMed

Aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGI) occurs in many genes expressed in colonic epithelial cells, and may contribute to the dysregulation of signalling pathways associated with carcinogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the relative importance of age, nutritional exposures and other environmental factors in the development of CGI methylation. Rectal biopsies were obtained from 185 individuals (84 male, 101 female) shown to be free of colorectal disease, and for whom measurements of age, body size, nutritional status and blood cell counts were available. We used quantitative DNA methylation analysis combined with multivariate modelling to investigate the relationships between nutritional, anthropometric and metabolic factors and the CGI methylation of 11 genes, together with LINE-1 as an index of global DNA methylation. Age was a consistent predictor of CGI methylation for 9/11 genes but significant positive associations with folate status and negative associations with vitamin D and selenium status were also identified for several genes. There was evidence for positive associations with blood monocyte levels and anthropometric factors for some genes. In general, CGI methylation was higher in males than in females and differential effects of age and other factors on methylation in males and females were identified. In conclusion, levels of age-related CGI methylation in the healthy human rectal mucosa are influenced by gender, the availability of folate, vitamin D and selenium, and perhaps by factors related to systemic inflammation. PMID:23157586

Tapp, Henri S; Commane, Daniel M; Bradburn, D Michael; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Mathers, John C; Johnson, Ian T; Belshaw, Nigel J

2012-12-06

91

The ex vivo response of human intestinal mucosa to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection  

PubMed Central

Summary In vitro organ culture (IVOC) represents a gold standard model to study enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) infection of human intestinal mucosa. However, the optimal examination of the bacterial - host cell interaction requires a directional epithelial exposure, without serosal or cut surface stimulation. A polarised IVOC system (pIVOC) was developed in order to overcome such limitations: apical EPEC infection produced negligible bacterial leakage via biopsy edges, resulted in enhanced colonisation compared to standard IVOC, and showed evidence of bacterial detachment, as in natural rabbit EPEC infections. Examination of mucosal innate immune responses in pIVOC showed both interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased after apical EPEC infection. Increased IL-8 levels mainly depended on flagellin expression as fliC-negative EPEC did not elicit a significant IL-8 response despite increased mucosal colonisation compared to wild type EPEC. In addition, apical application of purified flagella significantly increased IL-8 protein levels over non-infected controls. Immunofluorescence staining of EPEC-infected small intestinal biopsies revealed apical and basolateral distribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 on epithelium suggesting that EPEC can trigger mucosal IL-8 responses by apical flagellin/TLR5 interaction ex vivo and does not require access to the basolateral membrane as postulated in cell culture models.

Schuller, Stephanie; Lucas, Mark; Kaper, James B.; Giron, Jorge A.; Phillips, Alan D.

2009-01-01

92

Expression of NPY Y1 and CGRP1 receptors in human nasal mucosa: implications in allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Numerous nerve fibers containing neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) have been found in the human nasal mucosa by means of immunocytochemistry. We detected NPY Y1 and CGRP1 receptors at the same location using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The possibility of local release in connection with specific target receptors suggests a role for endogenous NPY and CGRP in the regulation of vascular tone, glandular secretion, and epithelial functions. PMID:10526852

Uddman, R; Cantera, L; Cardell, L O; Edvinnsson, L

1999-10-01

93

Endocrinology of duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several gastrointestinal peptides with proven or suggested endocrine or paracrine functions influence gastric acid secretion, gastrointestinal motility, and mucosal blood flow. Increased or decreased release of such factors could participate in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease by inducing increased gastric acid concentration in the duodenal bulb. To date, increased stimulation of parietal cells by gastrin has been demonstrated only

W. Creutzfeldt; R. Arnold

1979-01-01

94

Betaine reduces the irritating effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on human oral mucosa in vivo.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate whether betaine has a protective effect during exposure of the human oral mucosa in vivo to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or cocoamidopropylbetaine (CAPB) as measured with a multifrequency electrical impedance spectrometer (EI). Both detergents were used at the concentration of 2.0% w/v with and without 4.0% w/v betaine in distilled water in 20 volunteers, and 0.5% and 1.0% w/v SLS combined with 4.0% w/v betaine in 5 volunteers. EI measurements were taken before application of the test solutions, after their removal, and every 15 min up to 45 min. Both 0.5% and 1% SLS solutions showed a significant reduction in 3 of the 4 indices, indicating mucosal irritation after the 15-min exposure (P < 0.05), whereas 2% SLS did so in all 4 indices (P < 0.001). Betaine had no effect on the detergent-induced decline with either the 2% or the 0.5% SLS solutions. However, when combined with the 1% SLS solution, betaine significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mucosal irritation by abolishing decreases in indices MIX (magnitude index) and IMIX (imaginary part index) and lowering it for PIX (phase index). The 2% CAPB solution showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all 4 indices after the 15-min exposure, but the effect was significantly weaker than that of 2% SLS (P < 0.05). Betaine did not reduce the irritating effect of 2% CAPB. These findings can be used in the development of less irritating products for oral health care. PMID:12418722

Rantanen, Irma; Nicander, Ingrid; Jutila, Kirsti; Ollmar, Stig; Tenovuo, Jorma; Söderling, Eva

2002-10-01

95

Permeation and pathways of human calcitonin (hCT) across excised bovine nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

In vitro permeation of human calcitonin (hCT), salmon calcitonin (sCT), and the somatostatin analog octreotide (SMS) through excised bovine nasal mucosa was studied applying donor/receiver experiments and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Permeabilities of gonadorelin, buserelin, Hoe013, and of thymopoietin fragments TP5 and TP4 were also included. Apparent permeability coefficients (Peff) ranged between 4 x 10(-5) (SMS) and 1.7 x 10(-5) cm s(-1) (TP4). Such Peff are typical for leaky-type airway epithelia. The order of permeabilities was: SMS > hCT, sCT > buserelin, Hoe013 > TP5 > TP4, LHRH. The relatively high permeability of hCT and sCT contrasted to their high molecular weight. At 37 degrees C, the permeability of hCT from mucosal to serosal (m-to-s) was found two-fold higher (p < 0.05) than from serosal to mucosal (s-to-m). Controls using 3H-mannitol showed equal permeabilities in both directions. At 4 degrees C, permeation of hCT was reduced but equal in both directions (m-to-s and s-to-m). As evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, uptake studies with FITC-18-hCT revealed intracellular fluorescence in the epithelial cells, at 10 min/10 microM exposure in the form of fluorescent vesicles. By combination of these findings, an endocytotic pathway is suggested to contribute to the transport of hCT through nasal epithelium. PMID:9533651

Lang, S; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Perriard, J C; Schmidt, M C; Merkle, H P

1998-01-01

96

Binding and Transfer of Human Immunodeficiency Virus by DC-SIGN+ Cells in Human Rectal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of DC-SIGN on human rectal mucosal dendritic cells is unknown. Using highly purified human rectal mucosal DC-SIGN cells and an ultrasensitive real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay to quantify virus binding, we found that HLA-DR\\/DC-SIGN cells can bind and transfer more virus than the HLA- DR\\/DC-SIGN cells. Greater than 90% of the virus bound to total mucosal mononuclear cells (MMCs)

Kevin B. Gurney; Julie Elliott; Hoorig Nassanian; Carol Song; Elizabeth Soilleux; Ian McGowan; Peter A. Anton; Benhur Lee

2005-01-01

97

Performance of full-pupil line-scanning reflectance confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa in vivo  

PubMed Central

Point-scanning reflectance confocal microscopes continue to be successfully translated for detection of skin cancer. Line-scanning, with the use of a single scanner and a linear-array detector, offers a potentially smaller, simpler and lower cost alternative approach, to accelerate widespread dissemination into the clinic. However, translation will require an understanding of imaging performance deep within scattering and aberrating human tissues. We report the results of an investigation of the performance of a full-pupil line-scanning reflectance confocal microscope in human skin and oral mucosa, in terms of resolution, optical sectioning, contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, imaging and the effect of speckle noise.

Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

2011-01-01

98

A Comparative Study of Clinicopathological Features between Chronic Cholecystitis Patients with and without Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gallbladder Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori has been isolated from 10%–20% of human chronic cholecystitis specimens but the characteristics of “Helicobacter pylori positive cholecystitis” remains unclear. This study aims to compare the clinicopathological features between chronic cholecystitis patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa. Methods Three hundred and twenty-six chronic cholecystitis patients were divided into two groups according to whether Helicobacter pylori could be detected by culture, staining or PCR for Helicobacter 16s rRNA gene in gallbladder mucosa. Positive samples were sequenced for Helicobacter pylori-specific identification. Clinical parameters as well as pathological characteristics including some premalignant lesions and the expression levels of iNOS and ROS in gallbladder were compared between the two groups. Results Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa was detected in 20.55% of cholecystitis patients. These patients had a higher prevalence of acid regurgitation symptoms (p?=?0.001), more histories of chronic gastritis (p?=?0.005), gastric ulcer (p?=?0.042), duodenal ulcer (p?=?0.026) and higher presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach as compared to patients without Helicobacter pylori infection in the gallbladder mucosa. Helicobacter pylori 16s rRNA in gallbladder and gastric-duodenal mucosa from the same individual patient had identical sequences. Also, higher incidences of adenomyomatosis (p?=?0.012), metaplasia (p?=?0.022) and higher enhanced expressions of iNOS and ROS were detected in Helicobacter pylori infected gallbladder mucosa (p<0.05). Conclusions Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori existed in stomach. Helicobacter pylori is also correlated with gallbladder premalignant lesions including metaplasia and adenomyomatosis. The potential mechanism might be related with higher ROS/RNS production but needs further investigation.

Wang, Jian-dong; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Wei; Quan, Zhi-wei

2013-01-01

99

Profiling CpG island field methylation in both morphologically normal and neoplastic human colonic mucosa  

PubMed Central

Aberrant CpG island (CGI) methylation occurs early in colorectal neoplasia. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR profiling applied to biopsies was used to quantify low levels of CGI methylation of 18 genes in the morphologically normal colonic mucosa of neoplasia-free subjects, adenomatous polyp patients, cancer patients and their tumours. Multivariate statistical analyses distinguished tumour from mucosa with a sensitivity of 78.9% and a specificity of 100% (P=3 × 10?7). In morphologically normal mucosa, age-dependent CGI methylation was observed for APC, AXIN2, DKK1, HPP1, N33, p16, SFRP1, SFRP2 and SFRP4 genes, and significant differences in CGI methylation levels were detected between groups. Multinomial logistic regression models based on the CGI methylation profiles from normal mucosa correctly identified 78.9% of cancer patients and 87.9% of non-cancer (neoplasia-free+polyp) patients (P=4.93 × 10?7) using APC, HPP1, p16, SFRP4, WIF1 and ESR1 methylation as the most informative variables. Similarly, CGI methylation of SFRP4, SFRP5 and WIF1 correctly identified 61.5% of polyp patients and 78.9% of neoplasia-free subjects (P=0.0167). The apparently normal mucosal field of patients presenting with neoplasia has evidently undergone significant epigenetic modification. Methylation of the genes selected by the models may play a role in the earliest stages of the development of colorectal neoplasia.

Belshaw, N J; Elliott, G O; Foxall, R J; Dainty, J R; Pal, N; Coupe, A; Garg, D; Bradburn, D M; Mathers, J C; Johnson, I T

2008-01-01

100

Profiling CpG island field methylation in both morphologically normal and neoplastic human colonic mucosa.  

PubMed

Aberrant CpG island (CGI) methylation occurs early in colorectal neoplasia. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR profiling applied to biopsies was used to quantify low levels of CGI methylation of 18 genes in the morphologically normal colonic mucosa of neoplasia-free subjects, adenomatous polyp patients, cancer patients and their tumours. Multivariate statistical analyses distinguished tumour from mucosa with a sensitivity of 78.9% and a specificity of 100% (P=3 x 10(-7)). In morphologically normal mucosa, age-dependent CGI methylation was observed for APC, AXIN2, DKK1, HPP1, N33, p16, SFRP1, SFRP2 and SFRP4 genes, and significant differences in CGI methylation levels were detected between groups. Multinomial logistic regression models based on the CGI methylation profiles from normal mucosa correctly identified 78.9% of cancer patients and 87.9% of non-cancer (neoplasia-free+polyp) patients (P=4.93 x 10(-7)) using APC, HPP1, p16, SFRP4, WIF1 and ESR1 methylation as the most informative variables. Similarly, CGI methylation of SFRP4, SFRP5 and WIF1 correctly identified 61.5% of polyp patients and 78.9% of neoplasia-free subjects (P=0.0167). The apparently normal mucosal field of patients presenting with neoplasia has evidently undergone significant epigenetic modification. Methylation of the genes selected by the models may play a role in the earliest stages of the development of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:18542073

Belshaw, N J; Elliott, G O; Foxall, R J; Dainty, J R; Pal, N; Coupe, A; Garg, D; Bradburn, D M; Mathers, J C; Johnson, I T

2008-06-10

101

Disease-Dependent Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to the Human Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Their adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered one of the main reasons for the beneficial health effects of specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, the influence of disease on the mucosal adhesion is largely unknown. Adhesion of selected LAB to resected colonic tissue and mucus was determined in patients with three major intestinal diseases (i.e., diverticulitis, rectal carcinoma, and

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Seppo Salminen; Peter J. Roberts; Jari Ovaska; Eeva Salminen

2003-01-01

102

Long-term effects of orthodontic magnets on human buccal mucosa--a clinical, histological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

The aim of this intra-individual study was to examine human buccal mucosa clinically, histologically and immunohistochemically after 9 months' exposure to orthodontic magnets. In each of eight subjects (17.8-42.4 years), a magnet and a demagnetized equivalent of parylene coated neodymium-iron-boron was bonded alternately on the left and right side, to the buccal surface of maxillary premolars. The buccal mucosa was clinically examined and photographed, and three punch biopsies (6 mm diameter) of the buccal mucosa were taken from each subject at the site of contact with the magnet (test), in contact with the demagnetized magnet (control), and also at a site on the control side without contact with the demagnetized magnet (normal). The biopsies were snap-frozen for histological and immunohistochemical investigation, using antibodies to PD7 (lymphocyte 'naive T'), UCHL 1 ('memory T'), HLADR, ELAM-1 and ICAM-1. Clinically, the buccal mucosa showed normal features before and after the experimental period. In four of the eight subjects, the epithelium was 1.4-2.3 times thicker in the control and test tissues than in normal tissues. The difference between controls and tests was negligible, and there were no signs of increased keratinization or other surface abnormalities. Compared with normal sites, all control and test sites showed slightly increased ELAM-1/ ICAM-1 vascular staining, accompanied in three subjects by small infiltrates of PD7/UCHL 1-positive lymphocytic cells and in all subjects by focal keratinocyte HLADR-staining. The minor tissue reactions found in test and control tissues were interpreted to be a result of microtrauma (contact irritation) and not caused by the static magnetic field per se, since there was no difference between test and control tissues. PMID:9699399

Bondemark, L; Kurol, J; Larsson, A

1998-06-01

103

Sulphation of the heterocyclic amine 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline in the human liver and intestinal mucosa: interindividual variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulphation rate of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) was measured in the human liver and in the intestinal mucosa\\u000a isolated from the transverse colon, ileum and duodenum. The rate (mean??SD) of hepatic TIQ sulphation was 500??174?pmol\\/min\\u000a per mg in women (n=61) and 591??201 in men (n=39; P=0.0087), varying over one order of magnitude in men and women. The sulphation rate of testosterone

G. M. Pacifici; C. D'alessandro; A. Gucci; L. Giuliani

1997-01-01

104

In vitro synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol in human gallbladder mucosa.  

PubMed

Triglyceride and sterol synthesis was investigated in vitro in the gallbladder mucosa from control subjects and patients with acalculous cholesterolosis. The incorporation rate of 14C-acetate was 1.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/g/h into cholesterol (sum of squalene, methyl sterols, and cholesterol) and 5.7 +/- 0.8 nmol/g/h into triglycerides. The rates were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.667). The conversion of 3H-mevalonate into cholesterol (49 +/- 10 nmol/g/h) and triglycerides (4.7 +/- 1.2 nmol/g/h) indicated a high activity in the postmevalonate cholesterol synthesis and an active shunt pathway of mevalonate metabolism. The synthesis rates of cholesterol, triglycerides, and sterol esters were closely interrelated, were unaltered in cholesterolosis, and were not correlated with the serum, biliary, and mucosal lipid concentrations. Thus, despite marked lipid accumulation the lipid synthesis proceeds effectively in the gallbladder mucosa with cholesterolosis. PMID:7134860

Tilvis, R S; Aro, J; Strandberg, T E; Lempinen, M; Miettinen, T A

1982-04-01

105

CONCANAVALIN A AND RICINUS COMMUNIS RECEPTOR SITES IN NORMAL HUMAN ORAL MUCOSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescein conjugates of concanavalin A (Con-A) and Ricinus communis fraction 120 (RCA120) were shown to bind to the cell surfaces of basal and spinous cell layers in oral buccal mucosa. Palatal epithelium showed distinct binding to basal and spinous cells; cell membranes in the granular layer occasionally bound Con-A and always RCA120. The ultrastructural localization of Con-A binding sites on

Erik Dabelsteen; Ole Fejerskov; Ove Norén; Ian C. Mackenzie

1978-01-01

106

Human Intestinal Lumen and Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Patients with Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have suggested the involvement of gut microbiota in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We utilized pyrosequencing based analysis of 16S rRNA genes to determine the overall structure of microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls; we investigated microbiota of the intestinal lumen, the cancerous tissue and matched noncancerous normal tissue. Moreover, we investigated the mucosa-adherent microbial composition using rectal swab samples because the structure of the tissue-adherent bacterial community is potentially altered following bowel cleansing. Our findings indicated that the microbial structure of the intestinal lumen and cancerous tissue differed significantly. Phylotypes that enhance energy harvest from diets or perform metabolic exchange with the host were more abundant in the lumen. There were more abundant Firmicutes and less abundant Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in lumen. The overall microbial structures of cancerous tissue and noncancerous tissue were similar; howerer the tumor microbiota exhibited lower diversity. The structures of the intestinal lumen microbiota and mucosa-adherent microbiota were different in CRC patients compared to matched microbiota in healthy individuals. Lactobacillales was enriched in cancerous tissue, whereas Faecalibacterium was reduced. In the mucosa-adherent microbiota, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, and Blautia were reduced in CRC patients, whereas Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Peptostreptococcus, and Mogibacterium were enriched. In the lumen, predominant phylotypes related to metabolic disorders or metabolic exchange with the host, Erysipelotrichaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae were increased in cancer patients. Coupled with previous reports, these results suggest that the intestinal microbiota is associated with CRC risk and that intestinal lumen microflora potentially influence CRC risk via cometabolism or metabolic exchange with the host. However, mucosa-associated microbiota potentially affects CRC risk primarily through direct interaction with the host.

Ling, Zongxin; Tong, Xiaojuan; Xiang, Charlie

2012-01-01

107

EP4 receptors mediate prostaglandin E2, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta-induced ion secretion in human and mouse colon mucosa.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is an inflammatory mediator implicated in several gastrointestinal pathologies that cause diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of the four different EP receptors (EP(1-4)) to PGE(2)-induced anion secretion in human and mouse colon mucosa. Electrogenic anion secretion (short-circuit current; I(sc)) was measured across colonic mucosae or T84 monolayers placed in Ussing chambers in response to EP receptor agonists and antagonists. PGE(2) and PGE(1)-alcohol increased I(sc) in human colon mucosa, T84 epithelia and mouse colon mucosa, and these responses were inhibited by the EP(4) receptor antagonist, GW627368X alone. In addition, the EP(2) agonist, butaprost increased I(sc) in all three preparations and these responses were inhibited by the non-selective EP(1,2,3) receptor antagonist, AH6809 but not by GW627368X. Conversely, responses mediated by EP(1) and EP(3) receptors were not observed in human colon or T84 monolayers. However, in mouse colon mucosa the EP(3)-preferring agonist, sulprostone reduced I(sc), indicative of G(i?)-signalling. Taken together these results indicate that PGE(2)-induced ion secretion is mediated predominantly by G(s)-coupled EP(4) receptors and also by EP(2) receptors in human mucosa. Furthermore, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and interleukin 1beta (IL1?) increased I(sc) and these responses were also inhibited by the EP(4) receptor antagonist in human colon mucosa. This study establishes the EP receptor pharmacology present in human epithelial preparations, and suggests that EP(4) receptors may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of secretory diarrhoea where PGE(2) is implicated in the aetiology. PMID:22732652

Fairbrother, Sian E; Smith, Julia E; Borman, Richard A; Cox, Helen M

2012-06-23

108

Development and Characterization of a Tissue-engineered Human Oral Mucosa Equivalent Produced in a Serum-free Culture System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem maxillofacial surgeons face is a lack of sufficient autogenous oral mucosa for reconstruction of the oral cavity. Split-thickness or oral mucosa grafts require more than one surgical procedure and can result in donor site morbidity. Skin has disadvantages of adnexal structures and a different keratinization pattern than oral mucosa. In this study, we successfully assembled, ex vivo, a

K. Izumi; H. Terashi; C. L. Marcelo; S. E. Feinberg

2000-01-01

109

Different reactions of human nasal and Eustachian tube mucosa after hyperbaric oxygen exposure: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Impairment of Eustachian tube function has been observed after hyperbaric oxygen treatment as well as after diving on oxygen used as breathing gas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of hyperbaric oxygen exposure on Eustachian tube ventilatory function and airflow characteristics of the nose. Six police task force divers performing two consecutive dives within a regular training schedule on oxygen were examined. Middle ear impedance, and nasal airflow velocities before and after diving as well as on the morning after the dive day were measured. Middle ear impedance decreased overnight in comparison to pre-dive values (P = 0.027) as well as compared to the value after the first dive (P = 0.032). Rhinoflowmetry did not reveal any changes of nasal airflow velocities related to the dives. Furthermore, no association between middle ear impedance and nasal airflow velocities was found. An impairment of Eustachian tube ventilatory function was obtained after hyperbaric oxygen exposure during dives employing oxygen as breathing gas. This impairment, however, was not associated with altered airflow characteristics of divers' noses. Thus, it seems unlikely that hyperbaric oxygen exerts an effect on the nasal mucosa similar to that on the Eustachian tube mucosa. PMID:22829159

Mutzbauer, Till S; Neubauer, Birger; Tetzlaff, Kay

2012-07-25

110

Bombesin family receptor and ligand gene expression in human colorectal cancer and normal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Bombesin-like peptides and their receptors are widely distributed throughout the gut and are potential mitogens for a number of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. We have analysed the expression of bombesin-like peptides and their receptor subtypes in normal and neoplastic colorectal tissue. Expression was analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using receptor and ligand subtype-specific primers and then expression localized by in situ hybridization (ISH) with riboprobes synthesized by in vitro transcription of cloned PCR products. Colorectal cancer tissue and matched normal mucosa from 23 patients were studied. Two of these patients had synchronous adenomatous polyps and two had synchronous hepatic metastases which were also studied. An additional two patients with adenomatous polyps were studied along with matched normal mucosa. Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor and ligand expression was present in all samples but with overall greater expression in the tumour samples. Neuromedin B (NMB) receptor expression was not detectable. NMB ligand was detected in all but one mucosal sample with overall overexpression in the tumour samples. Bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) receptor expression was not detectable. These data support the possibility that GRP may be an autocrine growth factor in colorectal cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

Chave, H S; Gough, A C; Palmer, K; Preston, S R; Primrose, J N

1999-01-01

111

Sulphation of the heterocyclic amine 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline in the human liver and intestinal mucosa: interindividual variability.  

PubMed

The sulphation rate of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) was measured in the human liver and in the intestinal mucosa isolated from the transverse colon, ileum and duodenum. The rate (mean +/- SD) of hepatic TIQ sulphation was 500 +/- 174 pmol/min per mg in women (n = 61) and 591 +/- 201 in men (n = 39; P = 0.0087), varying over one order of magnitude in men and women. The sulphation rate of testosterone showed the same sex-dependent pattern and was correlated (r = 0.6055; P < 0.001) with that of TIQ. The frequency distribution of TIQ sulphation rate in human liver was bimodal: 70% of the population fell into the low-activity subgroup and the remaining 30% feel into the high-activity subgroup. In the colon (n = 56), the rate of TIQ sulphation was 30.4 +/- 15.6 pmol/min per mg and the values were similar in men and women (29.8 and 30.9 pmol/min per mg, respectively) but, varied over one order of magnitude and correlated (r = 0.7231; P < 0.001) with that of 4-nitrophenol. The rate of TIQ sulphation changed along the human bowel and mean (+/-SD) estimates for duodenum, ileum and transverse colon were 444 +/- 25, 182 +/- 87 and 30.4 +/- 15.6 pmol/ min per mg, respectively. The present results are consistent with the view that the heterocyclic amine TIQ is sulphated in the human liver and intestinal mucosa. TIQ-sulphotransferase activity varies among subjects and is mostly associated with the liver and duodenum. PMID:9248624

Pacifici, G M; D'alessandro, C; Gucci, A; Giuliani, L

1997-01-01

112

Effects of Solanum malacoxylon on duodenal calcium binding protein in the diabetic rat.  

PubMed

Duodenal calcium absorption and calcium binding protein (CaBP) are depressed in uncontrolled experimental (alloxan and streptozotocin) diabeties in the rat. Administration of an aqueous extract of the South American plant Solanum malacoxylon to diabetic rats restores duodenal calcium absorption to control levels. Since CaBP is thought to play a role in intestinal calcium transport, we isolated CaBP from duodenal mucosa of control, diabetic, and S. malacoxylon-treated diabetic rats. CaBP, whose concentration is about half normal in mucosal extracts from diabetic rats by treatment of diabetics with Smalacoxylon extracts. Hence these studies provide a further correlation between duodenal calcium absorption and levels of duodenal CaBP. In addition, a new purification procedure is described which produces a 17-fold increase in purity of CaBP above that attainable by our previously reported method. PMID:138586

Schneider, L E; Schedl, H P

1977-04-01

113

GP41-specific Antibody Blocks Cell-free HIV-1 Transcytosis through Human Rectal Mucosa and Model Colonic Epithelium#  

PubMed Central

Monostratified epithelial cells translocate HIV-1 from the apical to the basolateral surface via vesicular transcytosis. Since acutely transmitted HIV-1 is almost exclusively CCR5-tropic and human intestinal epithelial cells preferentially transcytose CCR5-tropic virus, we established epithelial monolayers using polarized HT-29 cells transduced to express CCR5, and an explant system using normal human rectal mucosa, to characterize biological parameters of epithelial cell transcytosis of HIV-1 and assess antiviral antibody blockade of transcytosis. The amount of cell-free HIV-1 transcytosed through the epithelial monolayer increased linearly in relation to the amount of virus applied to the apical surface, indicating transcytosis efficiency was constant (r2 = 0.9846, P<0.0001). The efficiency of HIV-1 transcytosis ranged between 0.05% and 1.21%, depending on the virus strain, producer cell type and gp120 V1-V3 loop signature. Inoculation of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies to the immunodominant region (7B2) or the conserved membrane proximal external region (2F5) of gp41 or to cardiolipin (IS4) onto the apical surface of epithelial monolayers prior to inoculation of virus significantly reduced HIV-1 transcytosis. 2F5 was the most potent of these IgG1 mAbs. Dimeric IgA (dIgA) and monomeric IgA (mIgA), but not polymeric IgM, 2F5 antibodies also blocked HIV-1 transcytosis across the epithelium and, importantly, across explanted normal human rectal mucosa, with mIgA substantially more potent than dIgA in effecting transcytosis blockade. These findings underscore the potential role of transcytosis blockade in the prevention of HIV-1 transmission across columnar epithelium such as that of the rectum.

Shen, Ruizhong; Drelichman, Ernesto R.; Bimczok, Diane; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C.; Tudor, Daniela; Bomsel, Morgane; Smythies, Lesley E.; Smith, Phillip D.

2013-01-01

114

Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans  

SciTech Connect

During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa.

Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F. (Meyerstein Institute of Radiotherapy, Middlesex Hospital, London (England))

1991-04-01

115

Medium-term culture of normal human oral mucosa: a novel three-dimensional model to study the effectiveness of drugs administration.  

PubMed

Tissue-engineered oral mucosal equivalents have been developed for in vitro studies for a few years now. However, the usefulness of currently available models is still limited by many factors, mainly the lack of a physiological extracellular matrix (ECM) and the use of cell populations that do not reflect the properly differentiated cytotypes of the mucosa of the oral cavity. For this reason, we have developed a novel three-dimensional culture model reflecting the normal architecture of the human oral mucosa, with the main aim of creating a better in vitro model where to test cellular responses to drugs administration. This novel 3D cell culture model (3D outgrowth) was set up using an artificial extracellular matrix (Matrigel™ ), allowing the interactions required for proper differentiation of the various citotypes which form the mucosal layer. Biopsies of human oral mucosa, in fragments of about 0.5 mm3, were placed onto 6.5mm Transwells, covered with Matrigel™ and grown in a specific culture medium. A gradual formation of an architectural structure similar to that of the in vivo oral mucosa was observed. Transmission electron and confocal microscopy were employed to characterize the newly developed model: the cell components (keratinocytes and fibroblasts) differentiated properly within the outgrowth and reconstituted, in vitro, the physiological structure of the human oral mucosa, including a stratified non-keratinized squamous layer composed of four different layers, a proper basal membrane and a lamina propria where fibroblasts produce ECM. Moreover, keratinocytes expressed CK5, CK13, CK19 and E-cadherin, whereas fibroblasts expressed collagen type I and IV, laminin and fibronectin. 3D outgrowths could be considered a valid alternative to animal models, and provide useful information for researchers interested in studying the responses of the human oral mucosa to locally delivered drugs or other exogenous treatments. PMID:22632390

Bucchieri, Fabio; Fucarino, Alberto; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Marciano, Vito; Paderni, Carlo; De Caro, Viviana; Siragusa, Maria Gabriella; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Holgate, Stephen T; Davies, Donna E; Farina, Felicia; Zummo, Giovanni; Kudo, Yasusei; Giannola, Italo Libero; Campisi, Giuseppina

2012-01-01

116

Giant duodenal ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant duodenal ulcers (GDU) have been associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality unless early operative intervention is undertaken. There are few published reports of successful medical management of GDU. Therefore, we reviewed 14 consecutive patients with GDU at our institution. Excluding the following cases: Two patients who had elective surgery, two patients who died from unrelated causes,

Richard Jaszewski; Steven A. Crane; Arturo A. Cid

1983-01-01

117

Comparative study of gene expression by cDNA microarray in human colorectal cancer tissues and normal mucosa.  

PubMed

The causative molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) need to be better characterized. The purpose of our study was to better understand the genetic mechanism of oncogenesis for human colorectal cancer and to identify new potential tumor markers of use in clinical practice. We used cDNA microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of colorectal biopsies from 25 CRC patients and 13 normal mucosa from adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Findings were validated by real-time PCR; in addition, western blotting and immunochemistry analysis were carried out as further confirmation of differential expression at a protein level. Comparing cancerous tissues with normal colonic mucosa we identified 584 known genes differentially expressed to a significant degree (p<0.001). Many of the transcripts that were more abundant in tumors than in non-neoplastic tissues appear to reflect important events for colon carcinogenesis. For example, a significant number of these genes serve as apoptotic inhibitors (e.g. BFAR, BIRC1, BIRC6). Furthermore, we observed the simultaneous up-regulation of HLA-E and the down-regulation of beta2-microglobulin; these genes strongly support a potential tumor escape strategy from immune surveillance in colon cancer tissues. Our study provides new gene candidates in the pathogenesis of human CRC disease. From our results we hypothesize that CRC cells escape immune surveillance through a specific gene expression alteration; moreover, over-expression of several survival genes seems to confer a more anti-apoptotic phenotype. These genes are involved in pathways not previously implicated in CRC pathogenesis and they may provide new targets for therapy. PMID:16773188

Bianchini, Michele; Levy, Estrella; Zucchini, Cinzia; Pinski, Victor; Macagno, Carlos; De Sanctis, Paola; Valvassori, Luisa; Carinci, Paolo; Mordoh, José

2006-07-01

118

Distribution of immunoglobulin producing cells is different in normal human appendix and colon mucosa.  

PubMed Central

The densities of IgG-, IgA-, IgM- and IgD-producing immunocytes were determined by paired immunofluorescence staining and morphometric analysis in the lamina propria of normal appendix specimens. Normal colon specimens were used as reference material, mostly paired from individual subjects. The density (median of cells/mm2 lamina propria area) of IgA immunocytes tended to be slightly higher in the appendix than in the colon (1259 vs 962) and the same held true for IgM cells (71 vs 55). Conversely, the overall density of IgG immunocytes was much higher in the appendix than in the colon (95 vs 38). A striking feature was the fact that almost 50% of all immunocytes were of the IgG isotype adjacent to lymphoid follicles. It seemed justified to conclude, therefore, that the abundance of such follicles explains the overall enrichment of IgG-producing cells in normal appendix mucosa. These immunocytes most likely represent follicle derived B cells that have reached terminal maturation locally, whereas precursors generated from less mature memory clones probably emigrate and home ubiquitously to distant sites of the gut lamina propria where they develop into IgA-producing immunocytes. Images Fig. 4

Bjerke, K; Brandtzaeg, P; Rognum, T O

1986-01-01

119

Raman fiberoptic probe for monitoring human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In oral and maxillofacial surgery, there is a need for tissue engineered constructs for dental implants, reconstructions due to trauma, oral cancer or congenital defects. A non-invasive quality monitoring of the fabrication of tissue engineered constructs during their production and implantation is a required component of any successful tissue engineering technique. We demonstrate the design and application of a Raman spectroscopic probe for rapid and noninvasive monitoring of Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs). We conducted in vivo studies to identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs (already developed in vitro), and found that Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. This is the first step towards the ultimate goal to design a stand-alone system, which will be usable in a clinical setting, as the data processing and analysis will be performed with minimal user intervention, based on already established and tested Raman spectroscopic indicators for EVPOMEs.

Khmaladze, Alexander; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Okagbare, Paul; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Morris, Michael D.

2013-02-01

120

Glycoconjugate expression in normal, metaplastic, and neoplastic human upper gastrointestinal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Glycoconjugate structure in upper gastrointestinal epithelium was studied using five lectins to determine the relationship between aberrant differentiation and glycoconjugate expression. Specimens of normal esophagus, stomach, and duodenum were examined and compared with specimens of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus (Barrett's esophagus) and specimens of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and stomach. Specific terminal glycoconjugate structures were found for the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Minor differences were found between the antral and fundic gland mucosae, reflecting their respective cell populations. In biopsies of Barrett's esophagus, gastric-type columnar metaplasia expressed glycoconjugates indistinguishable from those in the normal stomach. In specialized-type columnar metaplasia, a more restricted expression of glycoconjugates was seen resembling the normal duodenum. The presence of low grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus associated with adenocarcinoma had no impact on glycoconjugate expression. However, a distinctive difference in glycosylation was seen in high grade dysplasia of the columnar-lined esophagus and in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and stomach. Barrett's esophagus is a morphological mosaic in which the glycoconjugate expression resembles that seen in the normal stomach and duodenum. However, in high grade dysplasia and carcinoma, variable deletion of glycoconjugate expression can be found. Images

Shimamoto, C; Weinstein, W M; Boland, C R

1987-01-01

121

Patterns of blood supply to the gastric mucosa. A comparative study revealing an end-artery model.  

PubMed Central

The form of the gastric arterial supply to the mucosa has been studied in dog, swine, ferret, cat, guinea-pig, rabbit and rhesus monkey. In all these species, the bore of vessels in the submucous plexus diminished from body to pylorus, though this was most marked in the guinea-pig and rabbit. The plexus was also continuous across the pylorus with duodenal vessels. Thus the well known poverty of vascularity in distal parts of the human stomach is shared by other species and is unlikely to be a contributory factor to the initiation of peptic ulcer, a disease limited to man. In dog, swine, ferret and cat, as in man, the primary (largest) and secondary (smaller) components of the plexus lay entirely in the submucosa. In the cat, there was a secondary plexus of much smaller vessels deep to the muscularis mucosae. In the guinea-pig, rat, rabbit and monkey, both plexuses were mostly embedded within the muscularis mucosae. As a result, mucosal arteries had two modes of origin: (a) the first, in which they did not pass through the muscularis mucosae as exemplified in the cat, and (b) the second, where they did pass through muscularis mucosae as exemplified by the dog, ferret and swine; in other species, they passed through part of the muscularis mucosae. Areas of mucosa supplied by a single mucosal artery were measured, and ranged widely from the smallest in the cat to the largest in the dog. These features do not seem to have been reported previously, and may be associated with as yet undiscovered functional mechanisms of the muscularis mucosae. Mucosal arteries of extramural origin were found to occur occasionally in the guinea-pig and rabbit, and hence these may provide an experimental model of the pattern existing in man. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12

Piasecki, C; Wyatt, C

1986-01-01

122

In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

2006-03-01

123

Cellular aspects of alcohol-induced injury and prostaglandin protection of the human gastric mucosa. Focus on the mucosal microvessels.  

PubMed

In healthy volunteers, we studied the cellular target sites of alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury and prostaglandin-induced protection with special emphasis on the mucosal microvascular ultrastructure. Subjects received pretreatment with saline or 16,16-dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 1 micrograms/kg b.w. and 15 min later 40 ml of 60% alcohol were sprayed on the gastric mucosa through an endoscope. Mucosal biopsies were obtained at 15 and 30 min after alcohol administration for assessment of injury by light and transmission electron microscopy. Alcohol administration to saline-pretreated subjects produced severe damage to gastric mucosal microvascular endothelium. Injury consisted of rupture of the microvessels with formation of intramucosal hemorrhages, platelet aggregation and fibrin deposition, and on occasion total necrosis of the microvessels. In contrast, in the prostaglandin-pretreated group, alcohol-induced damage to the mucosal microvessels and hemorrhages were greatly reduced at both 15 and 30 min after alcohol administration. In separate group of subjects, we investigated the effect of prostaglandin alone (without alcohol) on the gastric mucosal microvessel ultrastructure. We found that prostaglandin produced prominent ultrastructural changes in the capillaries, which may be the basis for its protective action. This study demonstrated that the human gastric mucosal microvasculature is an important target site of alcohol injury and prostaglandin protection. The direct effect of prostaglandin on endothelial ultrastructure may render it more resistant to alcohol injury. While protection of the endothelial cell lining of the mucosal microvasculature represents an example of a broader phenomenon of protective action of prostaglandin on various cells, the crucial strategic role of the microvasculature makes preservation (protection) of its integrity of special importance for the gastric mucosa. PMID:3183341

Tarnawski, A; Stachura, J; Hollander, D; Sarfeh, I J; Bogdal, J

1988-01-01

124

Neuropeptide Y, Y1, Y2 and Y4 receptors mediate Y agonist responses in isolated human colon mucosa  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to provide a pharmacological characterization of the Y receptor types responsible for neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) effects upon electrogenic ion transport in isolated human colonic mucosa.Preparations of descending colon were voltage-clamped at 0?mV in Ussing chambers and changes in short-circuit current (Isc) continuously recorded. Basolateral PYY, NPY, human PP (hPP), PYY(3?–?36), [Leu31, Pro34]PYY (Pro34PYY) and [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY (Pro34NPY) all reduced basal Isc in untreated colon. Of all the Y agonists tested PYY(3?–?36) responses were most sensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX) pretreatment, indicating that Y2-receptors are located on intrinsic neurones as well as epithelia in this tissue.The EC50 values for Pro34PYY, PYY(3?–?36) and hPP were 9.7?nM (4.0?–?23.5), 11.4?nM (7.6?–?17.0) and 14.5?nM (10.2?–?20.5) and response curves exhibited similar efficacies. The novel Y5 agonist [Ala31, Aib32]-NPY had no effect at 100?nM.Y1 receptor antagonists, BIBP3226 and BIBO3304 both increased basal Isc levels per se and inhibited subsequent PYY and Pro34PYY but not hPP or PYY(3?–?36) responses. The Y2 antagonist, BIIE0246 also raised basal Isc levels and attenuated subsequent PYY(3?–?36) but not Pro34PYY or hPP responses.We conclude that Y1 and Y2 receptor-mediated inhibitory tone exists in human colon mucosa. PYY and NPY exert their effects via both Y1 and Y2 receptors, but the insensitivity of hPP responses to either Y1 or Y2 antagonism, or to TTX, indicates that Y4 receptors are involved and that they are predominantly post-junctional in human colon.

Cox, Helen M; Tough, Iain R

2002-01-01

125

Giant duodenal ulcer  

PubMed Central

Twenty-five cases of benign giant duodenal ulcer have been studied. In every case a barium meal examination showed an ulcer crater with a radiographic diameter of at least 2 centimetres. Abdominal pain was the commonest symptom but less than half of the patients had had pain characteristic of chronic peptic ulcer. Haemorrhage from the ulcer occurred in a large majority of them. The radiological appearances are described, and it has been shown that the giant ulcer may be missed through being mistaken for the duodenal cap or else misdiagnosed. It appears that the death rate in this condition has been falling but it is still high. The management of patients with giant ulcers is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6

Lumsden, K.; MacLarnon, J. C.; Dawson, J.

1970-01-01

126

In vitro colonization ability of human colon mucosa by exogenous Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

We have tested five Lactobacillus strains for their in vitro colonization ability in a human colon epithelium culture model. Positive colonization occurred in different degrees in the presence of four Lactobacillus strains. We have found that L. casei GG and L. acidophilus NCFB 1748 induce an intermediate colonization. These two strains, largely investigated by others, have been reported to be beneficial to humans. The use of human intestinal tissue in our study partially reconstitutes the complex architectural specificity of human epithelium with the mucus layer and more closely simulates the in vivo situation. PMID:7557321

Sarem-Damerdji, L; Sarem, F; Marchal, L; Nicolas, J P

1995-09-01

127

Wound healing in oral mucosa results in reduced scar formation as compared with skin: evidence from the red Duroc pig model and humans.  

PubMed

Scar formation is a common, unwanted result of wound healing in skin, but the mechanisms that regulate it are still largely unknown. Interestingly, wound healing in the oral mucosa proceeds faster than in skin and clinical observations have suggested that mucosal wounds rarely scar. To test this concept, we created identical experimental wounds in the oral mucosa and skin in red Duroc pigs and compared wound healing and scar development over time. We also compared the pig oral mucosal wound healing to similar experimental wounds created in human subjects. The findings showed significantly reduced scar formation at both clinical and histological level in the pig oral mucosa as compared with skin 49 days after wounding. Additionally, the skin scars contained a significantly increased number of type I procollagen immunopositive cells and an increased fibronectin content, while the oral mucosal wounds demonstrated a prolonged accumulation of tenascin-C. Furthermore, the pig oral mucosal wounds showed similar molecular composition and clinical and histological scar scores to human oral mucosal wounds. Thus, the reduced scar formation in the pig oral mucosa provides a model to study the biological processes that regulate scarless wound healing to find novel approaches to prevent scar formation in skin. PMID:19769724

Wong, Joyce W; Gallant-Behm, Corrie; Wiebe, Colin; Mak, Karen; Hart, David A; Larjava, Hannu; Häkkinen, Lari

128

Keratin polypeptides distribution in normal and diseased human epidermis and oral mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune sera against total keratin and keratin polypeptide subunits were induced in guinea pigs, using the different bands of SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fibrous proteins of stratum corneum, derived from normal human epidermis.

Thomas Löning; Marie-Jeanne Staquet; Jean Thivolet; Gerhard Seifert

1980-01-01

129

Alternative types of duodenal ulcer induced in mice by partial x irradiation of the thorax  

SciTech Connect

The present study extends our earlier observations on gastrointestinal pathology in thorax-irradiated female CFLP mice. It shows that exposure of the lower mediastinum to single doses of 14 to 30 Gy x rays results in the formation of the proximal duodenal ulcer accompanied frequently by erosion of the antral gastric mucosa. X irradiation of the lateral thoracic fields is responsible for single ulcers in the proximity of duodenal papilla, often associated with a circumscribed area of degeneration of the fundic mucosa of the stomach. In view of the small amount of radiation received by the subdiaphragmatic parts of the alimentary tract, these gastro-duodenal lesions represent abscopal effects of thoracic irradiation.

Michalowski, A.; Uehara, S.; Yin, W.B.; Burgin, J.; Silvester, J.A.

1983-07-01

130

Lymphocytes in the human gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori have a T helper cell 1 phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Studies have shown that gastric T cells are increased during Helicobacter pylori infection. The purpose of this study was to characterize the human gastric T-cell responses in the presence or absence of H. pylori. Methods: T-cell surface antigens were examined by immunohistochemistry or after isolation for evaluation of surface antigens and cytoplasmic cytokines using flow cytometry. Results:

Kathleen B. Bamford; Xuejun Fan; Sheila E. Crowe; James F. Leary; William K. Gourley; Gurinder K. Luthra; Edward G. Brooks; David Y. Graham; Victor E. Reyes; Peter B. Ernst

1998-01-01

131

Comparison of divided and full pupil configurations for line-scanning confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal point-scanning microscopy has been showing promise in the detection, diagnosing and mapping of skin lesions in clinical settings. The noninvasive technique allows provides optical sectioning and cellular resolution for in vivo diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma and pre-operative and intra-operative mapping of margins. The imaging has also enabled more accurate "guided" biopsies while minimizing the otherwise large number of "blind" biopsies. Despite these translational advances, however, point-scanning technology remains relatively complex and expensive. Line-scanning technology may offer an alternative approach to accelerate translation to the clinic. Line-scanning, using fewer optical components, inexpensive linear-array detectors and custom electronics, may enable smaller, simpler and lower-cost confocal microscopes. A line is formed using a cylindrical lens and scanned through the back focal plane of the objective with a galvanometric scanner. A linear CCD is used for detection. Two pupil configurations were compared for performance in imaging human tissue. In the full-pupil configuration, illumination and detection is made through the full objective pupil. In the divided pupil approach, half the pupil is illuminated and the other half is used for detection. The divided pupil configuration loses spatial and axial resolution due to a diminished NA, but the sectioning capability and rejection of background is improved. Imaging in skin and oral mucosa illustrate the performance of the two configurations.

Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Glazowski, Chris; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

2012-02-01

132

Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains downregulate proinflammatory genes in an ex vivo system of cultured human colonic mucosa.  

PubMed

Significant health benefits have been demonstrated for certain probiotic strains through intervention studies; however, there is a shortage of experimental evidence relative to the mechanisms of action. Here, noninvasive experimental procedure based on a colon organ culture system has been used that, in contrast to most experimental in vitro models reported, can preserve natural immunohistochemical features of the human mucosa. This system has been used to test whether commensal lactobacilli (Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and L. plantarum 299v (A(-))) were able to hinder inflammation-like signals induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin (IO). Whole genome microarrays have been applied to analyze expression differences, from which mRNA markers could be inferred to monitor the effect of putative probiotic strains under such conditions. Regarding the gene expression, PMA/IO treatment induced not only interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma (IFN-?), as expected, but also other relevant genes related to immune response and inflammation, such as IL-17A, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) 9 and CXCL11. The ex vivo culturing did not modify the pattern of expression of those genes or others related to inflammation. Interestingly, this study demonstrated that lactobacilli downregulated those genes and triggered a global change of the transcriptional profile that indicated a clear homeostasis restoring effect and a decrease in signals produced by activated T cells. PMID:22669626

Bäuerl, Christine; Llopis, Marta; Antolín, María; Monedero, Vicente; Mata, Manuel; Zúñiga, Manuel; Guarner, Francisco; Pérez Martínez, Gaspar

2012-06-06

133

Effect of Dexamethasone and ACC on Bacterial Induced Mucin Expression in Human Airway Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-negative bacteria can stimulate mucin production, but exces- sive mucus supports bacterial infection and consequently leads to airway obstruction. Therefore, the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and the antioxidant acetyl-cysteine (ACC) on bacteria-induced mucus expression was investigated. Explanted human airway mu- cosa and mucoepidermoid cells (Calu-3) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PAM3 (a synthetic lipoprotein). DEX or ACCwereaddedtoeitherLPS-orPAM3-stimulatedairwaymucosaor Calu-3 cells.

Hans-Peter Hauber; Torsten Goldmann; Ekkehard Vollmer; Barbara Wollenberg

2007-01-01

134

[Congenital duodenal obstruction -- Part I].  

PubMed

Congenital duodenal obstruction is a cause of 40% of congenital intestinal obstructions in newborns. In the first part of this study authors describe the etiology, types of this anomaly, clinical symptoms, diagnostic investigation, surgical treatment and problems in postoperative management in the newborns suffering from congenital duodenal obstruction. PMID:15858246

Sawicka, Ewa; Boczar, Maria; Michalak, Jerzy; P?oska-Urbanek, Barbara

135

Obstructive Jaundice Caused by Clonorchiasis-associated Duodenal Papillitis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We describe an unusual presentation of Clonorchis sinensis infection with obstructive jaundice due to duodenal papillitis which was relieved dramatically by endoscopic sphincterotomy. A 26-yr-old male presented with complaints of fatigue, weight loss and painless jaundice. The history was significant for frequent ingestion of raw freshwater fish. The patient underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for evaluation of obstructive jaundice. The duodenal papilla was markedly edematous with a bulging configuration and hyperemic changes at the orifice. Cholangiography revealed mild bile duct dilatation and irregular wall changes with multiple indentations. However, there were no biliary stricture or stones noted as the cause of obstructive jaundice. We performed an endoscopic sphincterotomy for effective bile drainage through the duodenal papilla. After the sphincterotomy, the patient's jaundice was dramatically improved. Pathology of the duodenal papilla showed eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Parasitic eggs, consistent with the diagnosis of C. sinensis, were found in the bile sample.

Lim, Jun Uk; Shin, Hyun Phil; Cha, Jae Myung; Lee, Joung Il; Lim, Sung Jig

2011-01-01

136

Release of Satiety Hormones in Response to Specific Dietary Proteins Is Different between Human and Murine Small Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: High protein diets are the most effective to stimulate cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) release; however, which proteins are the most potent is not known. Here, the effects of specific dietary proteins on intestinal CCK and GLP-1 release were examined. Methods: Duodenal biopsies of 10 healthy male subjects and 10 male rats were taken and placed in

Maartje C. P. Geraedts; Freddy J. Troost; Rik Tinnemans; Johan D. Söderholm; Robert-Jan Brummer; Wim H. M. Saris

2010-01-01

137

Antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W attenuates Candida albicans virulence by modulating its effects on Toll-like receptor, human ?-defensin, and cytokine expression by engineered human oral mucosa.  

PubMed

We investigated the toxicity of synthetic antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W on normal human gingival epithelial cell cultures, its effect on Candida albicans adhesion and growth, and the activation of epithelial cell innate immunity. Our results indicate that KSL-W had no toxic effect on cell adhesion or growth, suggesting its safe use with human cells. Pre-treating C. albicans with KSL-W attenuated the yeast's virulence as demonstrated by its reduced adhesion and growth on engineered human oral mucosa epithelium and the subsequent decreased expression of some innate defense molecules by targeted epithelial cells. Indeed, the expression of Toll-like receptors and human ?-defensins was reduced in tissues infected with KSL-W-treated Candida. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1? and IL-6) by the epithelial cells was also regulated by KSL-W in a manner similar to that of antifungal molecule amphotericin B. These findings therefore show that KSL-W is safe for use with human cells and is able to attenuate Candida virulence by modulating its effects on host innate immunity. This study proposes the potential application of KSL-W peptide as an alternative antifungal agent. PMID:21291939

Semlali, A; Leung, K P; Curt, S; Rouabhia, M

2011-02-02

138

On the Relationship between Sialomucin and Sulfomucin Expression and Hydrogenotrophic Microbes in the Human Colonic Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The colonic mucus layer is comprised primarily of acidomucins, which provide viscous properties and can be broadly classified into sialomucins or sulfomucins based on the presence of terminating sialic acid or sulfate groups. Differences in acidomucin chemotypes have been observed in diseases such as colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, and variation in sialo- and sulfomucin content may influence microbial colonization. For example, sulfate derived from sulfomucin degradation may promote the colonization of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which through sulfate respiration generate the genotoxic gas hydrogen sulfide. Here, paired biopsies from right colon, left colon, and rectum of 20 subjects undergoing routine screening colonoscopies were collected to enable parallel histochemical and microbiological studies. Goblet cell sialo- and sulfomucins in each biopsy were distinguished histochemically and quantified. Quantitative PCR and multivariate analyses were used to examine the abundance of hydrogenotrophic microbial groups and SRB genera relative to acidomucin profiles. Regional variation was observed in sialomucins and sulfomucins with the greatest abundance of each found in the rectum. Mucin composition did not appear to influence the abundance of SRB or other hydrogenotrophic microbiota but correlated with the composition of different SRB genera. A higher sulfomucin proportion correlated with higher quantities of Desulfobacter, Desulfobulbus and Desulfotomaculum, relative to the predominant Desulfovibrio genus. Thus, acidomucin composition may influence bacterial sulfate respiration in the human colon, which may in turn impact mucosal homeostasis. These results stress the need to consider mucus characteristics in the context of studies of the microbiome that target intestinal diseases.

Croix, Jennifer A.; Carbonero, Franck; Nava, Gerardo M.; Russell, Mark; Greenberg, Eugene; Gaskins, H. Rex

2011-01-01

139

Vitamin D and its metabolites inhibit cell proliferation in human rectal mucosa and a colon cancer cell line.  

PubMed Central

Like calcium, vitamin D may protect against colorectal neoplasia as it reduces epithelial cell proliferation and induces differentiation. Although its therapeutic use is limited by its effects on calcium metabolism, analogues such as calcipotriol produce little hypercalcaemia. Stathmokinetic and immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the effect of 1,25 (OH)2 D3 and its analogues on cell proliferation in human rectal mucosa and a colon cancer cell line. Paired sigmoidoscopic biopsy specimens were obtained from 17 control patients and five patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Explants were established in organ culture, with or without the addition of vitamin D. Proliferation was assessed using (1) metaphase arrest to determine the crypt cell production rate (CCPR) and (2) Ki-67 monoclonal antibody directed against an antigen present in proliferating cells. 1,25 (OH)2 D3 in concentrations of 1 microM-100 pM (10(-6)-10(-10) M) reduced the CCPR (cells/crypt/hour) from 4.74 to 2.15-2.67 (p < 0.001), and the Ki-67 labelling index from 7.28-3.74 (p < 0.01). Likewise, vitamin D2, 10 nM (10(-8) M) reduced the CCPR from 4.74-2.74 (p < 0.05) and calcipotriol from 4.86-2.38 (p < 0.05). In familial adenomatous polyposis patients 1,25 (OH)2 D3 100 pM (10(-10) M) halved the CCPR from 8.75-4.22. Calcipotriol (10(-5) M to 10(-9) M) produced a clearcut dose response inhibition of HT-29 cell growth. Thus, vitamin D and its metabolites inhibit proliferation in normal and premalignant rectal epithelium and suppress growth in a colorectal cancer cell line.

Thomas, M G; Tebbutt, S; Williamson, R C

1992-01-01

140

Effects of duodenogastric reflux on gastrin cells, somatostatin cells and serotonin cells in human antral gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Duodenogastric reflux (DGR) has been found to give rise to a hypochlorhydria secondary to alkaline reflux. We investigated whether there is a link between DGR and the gastrin, somatostatin, and serotonin cell numbers and the granular content of gastrin, somatostatin, and serotonin in endocrine cells in human antral mucosa. We investigated 38 selected Helicobacter pylori-negative patients with visual primary excessive DGR in upper endoscopy and symptoms of epigastric pain and bile vomiting. Ten control patients were included in this study. None of the patients had peptic ulcer or had received any medication. Antrum (10 biopsies from five different zones: the lesser and major curvature, the anterior and posterior wall, and the pylorus) and corpus (two biopsies from major curvature about 10 cm below the cardia) biopsy specimens were collected for routine histology, as well as for light and electron immunohistochemistry. In patients without atrophy or intestinal metaplasia and in patients with mild atrophy or mild intestinal metaplasia, the number of gastrin and somatostatin cells was not different from that in controls. In moderate atrophy or moderate intestinal metaplasia, however, the number of gastrin and somatostatin cells decreased. Serotonin cell number was significantly higher in all patients with DGR as compared with controls. The mean somatostatin granular content was increased (3.6+/-0.2 vs. 3.2+/-0.1). In addition, lysosomes with engulfed somatostatin granules were found. The mean serotonin granular content was decreased (2.3+/-0.3 vs. 2.9+/-0.3), while the mean gastrin granular content remained unchanged (2.5+/-0.3 vs. 2.4+/-0.2). Ultrastructurally, the granules in serotonin-positive cells corresponded to the gastric variant or to the intestinal variant of serotonin cells. The endocrine cells were found to have few granules positive for serotonin. It is concluded that DGR inhibits somatostatin granular release, but stimulates both serotonin granular release and serotonin cell growth. PMID:15310146

Tzaneva, Maria

2004-01-01

141

An approach to duodenal biopsies  

PubMed Central

The introduction of endoscopy of the upper digestive tract as a routine diagnostic procedure has increased the number of duodenal biopsy specimens. Consequently, the pathologist is often asked to evaluate them. In this review, a practical approach to the evaluation of a duodenal biopsy specimen is discussed. An overview of the handling of specimens is given and the normal histology and commonly encountered diseases are discussed. Finally, a description of commonly seen infections is provided, together with an algorithmic approach for diagnosis.

Serra, S; Jani, P A

2006-01-01

142

Effect of oral ibuprofen on formation of prostaglandins E and F by human gallbladder muscle and mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomized double-blind trial, the effect of ibuprofen on the pain produced by gallbladder disease and on gallbladder mucosa and muscle wall tissue PGE and PGF production was evaluated to determine if the pain of cholecystitis and prostaglandin formation were altered by administration of a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor. To ascertain potential differences in extracellular and intracellular prostaglandin production rates,

D. L. Kaminski; Y. Desphande; L. Thomas; J. Qualy; W. Blank

1985-01-01

143

The Surface Area of the Adult Human Mouth and Thickness of the Salivary Film Covering the Teeth and Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface area of the mouth was measured to calculate the average thickness of the salivary film which separates the opposing layers of the oral mucosa and which also overlies the dental plaque.The subjects were 10 adults of each sex, all of whom had essentially a full complement of teeth. Impressions were taken of the upper and lower jaws, the

L. M. C. Collins; C. Dawes

1987-01-01

144

A computer model of oxygen dynamics in human colon mucosa: Implications in normal physiology and early tumor development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the geometry of the colon mucosa, we built a model to compute the oxygen supply, the oxygen diffusion across the interstitial matrix, and the oxygen consumption by cryptal and stromal cells. By using an iterative algorithm, we have been able to solve a set of discretized (time and space) oxygen balance equations and determine the three-dimensional distribution of

Daniel V. Guebel; Néstor V. Torres

2008-01-01

145

Pathologic observations of the duodenum in 615 consecutive duodenal specimens: I. benign lesions.  

PubMed

The author investigated histopathology of 615 consecutive duodenal specimens in our pathology laboratory. Computer search of the duodenal lesions was performed. Review of histological slides was done, when appropriate. The duodenal specimens were composed of 567 benign lesions and 48 malignant lesions. The 567 benign lesions were composed of chronic non-specific duodenitis in 334 cases (60.0%), duodenal ulcer in 101 cases (17,8%), heterotopic gastric mucosa in 81 cases (14.3%), hyperplastic polyp in 16 cases (2.8%), Brunner's gland hyperplasia in 14 cases (2.5%), Brunner's gland adenoma in 8 cases (1.4%), lymphoid polyp in 5 cases (0.8%), tubular adenoma in 4 cases (0.7%), lymphangioma in 2 cases (0.4%), endocrine nests in 1 case (0.2%), and amyloidosis in 1 case (0.2%). The chronic non-specific duodenitis was characterized by edema and lymphocytic infiltration. The duodenal ulcer was characterized by exudate, necrosis, granulation tissue and regenerative epithelium. The heterotopic gastric mucosa consisted of two types: one was composed of only foveolar epithelium (n=21) and another foveolar epithelium and fundic glands (n=60). Hyperplastic polyp was characterized by proliferation of gastric foveolar-like epithelium. The Brunner's gland hyperplasia was characterized by hyperplastic proliferation of the gland. The Brunner gland adenoma was characterized by neoplastic proliferation of the gland. The lymphoid polyp was characterized by large lymph follicles with large germinal centers. The tubular adenoma was characterized by adenomatous proliferation of intestinal epithelium, similar to colon adenoma. The lymphangioma was characterized by submucosal cavernous proliferation of lymphatics. The endocrine cell nests were characterized by non-neoplasmic proliferation of neuroendocrine cells. The amyloidosis was characterized by deposition of amorphous materials positive with Congo-red stain. PMID:22295146

Terada, Tadashi

2012-01-01

146

Mucosa-Associated Bacteria in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract Are Uniformly Distributed along the Colon and Differ from the Community Recovered from Feces  

PubMed Central

The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a complex community of bacterial cells in the mucosa, lumen, and feces. Since most attention has been focused on bacteria present in feces, knowledge about the mucosa-associated bacterial communities in different parts of the colon is limited. In this study, the bacterial communities in feces and biopsy samples from the ascending, transverse, and descending colons of 10 individuals were analyzed by using a 16S rRNA approach. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that 105 to 106 bacteria were present in the biopsy samples. To visualize the diversity of the predominant and the Lactobacillus group community, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed. DGGE analysis and similarity index comparisons demonstrated that the predominant mucosa-associated bacterial community was host specific and uniformly distributed along the colon but significantly different from the fecal community (P < 0.01). The Lactobacillus group-specific profiles were less complex than the profiles reflecting the predominant community. For 6 of the 10 individuals the community of Lactobacillus-like bacteria in the biopsy samples was similar to that in the feces. Amplicons having 99% sequence similarity to the 16S ribosomal DNA of Lactobacillus gasseri were detected in the biopsy samples of nine individuals. No significant differences were observed between healthy and diseased individuals. The observed host-specific DGGE profiles of the mucosa-associated bacterial community in the colon support the hypothesis that host-related factors are involved in the determination of the GI tract microbial community.

Zoetendal, Erwin G.; von Wright, Atte; Vilpponen-Salmela, Terttu; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Akkermans, Antoon D. L.; de Vos, Willem M.

2002-01-01

147

Short-fragment PCR assay for highly sensitive broad-spectrum detection of human papillomaviruses in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and normal mucosa: clinico-pathological evaluation  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of HPV infection in laryngeal cancer specimens, normal mucosa obtained from the surgical margin and laryngeal nodules using a novel high sensitive and specific SPF10 HPV DNA test, PCR/DEIA method and INNO-LiPA genotyping assay. The correlation between HPV presence and clinico-pathological features was analyzed. Tissue samples were collected from 93 primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), 49 specimens of normal mucosa and from 22 specimens of laryngeal nodules serving as control group. HPV DNA was amplified by the short PCR fragment (SPF10) primer set using HPV DNA enzyme immunoassay (DNA/DEIA) method and INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping assay. Human papillomavirus was detected in 33 (35.5%) of the 93 samples from LSCC, in 4 (8.2%) of 49 samples of the normal mucosa and it was not detected in any of the sample from the control group. Twenty-eight of 33 (81.8%) were positive for HPV-16, 6 of 33 (18.2%) were positive for HPV-18 and 5 of 33 (15.1%) were positive for HPV-33. Multiple infection was found in 5 of 33 (15.1%); 3 samples were positive for HPV-16 and HPV-33, 2 samples for HPV-16 and HPV-18. There was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of HPV in LSCC tumors and in control group samples and between the presence of HPV in the tumors and normal mucosa from the free surgical margin. The presence of HPV infection in 35.5% of the cases suggests a possible role in the etiology of laryngeal cancer and supports the role of high-risk types of HPV (16, 18 and 33) in LSCC. HPV infection is not likely to influence survival rates as an independent prognostic factor in patients with laryngeal cancer.

Polz-Dacewicz, Malgorzata; Szymanski, Marcin; Polz, Dorota

2008-01-01

148

Duodenal enteroglucagonoma revealed by differential comparison of serum and tissue glucagon reactivity with Siemens' Double Glucagon Antibody and DakoCytomation's Polyclonal Rabbit Anti-Human Glucagon: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction This case report demonstrates that the differential immunohistochemical reactivities of Siemens' Double Antibody Glucagon compared to DakoCytomation's Polyclonal Rabbit Anti-Human Glucagon allow for pathologic distinction of enteral versus pancreatic glucagonoma. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a duodenal enteroglucagonoma following presentation with obstructive jaundice. He had a low serum glucagon level using Siemens' Double Antibody Glucagon, a clinical syndrome consistent with glucagon hypersecretion. A periampullary mass biopsy proved to be a neuroendocrine tumor, with positive immunohistochemical reactivity to DakoCytomation's Polyclonal Rabbit Anti-Human Glucagon. Conclusions Differential comparison of the immunohistochemical reactivities of Siemens' Double Antibody Glucagon and DakoCytomation's Polyclonal Rabbit Anti-Human Glucagon discerns enteroglucagon from pancreatic glucagon.

2010-01-01

149

Peripheral melatonin mediates neural stimulation of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion  

PubMed Central

Melatonin is released from intestinal enterochromaffin cells and from the pineal gland, but its role in gastrointestinal function is largely unknown. Our aim was to study the involvement of intestinal and central nervous melatonin in the neurohumoral control of the duodenal mucosa-protective bicarbonate secretion. Working in anesthetized rats, we cannulated a 12-mm segment of duodenum with an intact blood supply and titrated the local bicarbonate secretion with pH-stat. Melatonin and receptor ligands were supplied to the duodenum by close intra-arterial infusion. Even at low doses, melatonin and the full agonist 2-iodo-N-butanoyl-5-methoxytryptamine increased duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Responses were inhibited by the predominantly MT2-selective antagonist luzindole but not by prazosin, acting at MT3 receptors. Also, luzindole almost abolished the marked rise in secretion induced by intracerebroventricular infusion of the adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. This response was also abolished by sublaryngeal ligation of all nerves around the carotid arteries. However, it was insensitive to truncal vagotomy alone or sympathectomy alone and was unaffected by removal of either the pineal gland or pituitary gland. Thus, melatonin stimulates duodenal bicarbonate secretion via action at enterocyte MT2-receptors and mediates neural stimulation of the secretion.

Sjoblom, Markus; Jedstedt, Gunilla; Flemstrom, Gunnar

2001-01-01

150

Traumatic duodenal rupture in a soccer player  

PubMed Central

Traumatic duodenal rupture resulting from blunt trauma during soccer is an extremely rare occurrence. A case report of this unusual condition is presented together with a review of the literature. Key Words: soccer; football; duodenal rupture; trauma

Houshian, S.

2000-01-01

151

Prevalence of lymphoid follicles and aggregates in Helicobacter pylori gastritis in antral and body mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--To evaluate the prevalence of lymphoid follicles and aggregates in the antral and body mucosa in Helicobacter pylori gastritis and to assess if there were correlations with ulcers in the duodenum, pylorus, or stomach, and with chronic antral erosions. METHODS--Patients (n = 2692) with histologically confirmed H pylori antral gastritis were investigated. These comprised five groups: those with duodenal ulcers;

S Eidt; M Stolte

1993-01-01

152

Tuberculous Duodenal Stenosis: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Duodenal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity. The authors report and emphasize the lack of special clinical, radiological and endoscopic signs of duodenal tuberculosis. The diagnosis is affirmed, at laparotomy, out of the findings of peritoneal granulations or histology of lymphatic nodes. We report our experience of two cases of duodenal tuberculosis presenting with proximal intestinal obstruction and review the available literature.

Benzekri, O.; Mouhadi, S. El; Chourak, M.; Boussetta, S.; Absi, M. El; Echarab, M.; Elouanani, M.; Amraoui, M.; Errougani, A.; El Alami, F.H.; Chkoff, R.

2008-01-01

153

Tuberculous duodenal stenosis: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Duodenal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity. The authors report and emphasize the lack of special clinical, radiological and endoscopic signs of duodenal tuberculosis. The diagnosis is affirmed, at laparotomy, out of the findings of peritoneal granulations or histology of lymphatic nodes. We report our experience of two cases of duodenal tuberculosis presenting with proximal intestinal obstruction and review the available literature. PMID:21897797

Benzekri, O; Mouhadi, S El; Chourak, M; Boussetta, S; Absi, M El; Echarab, M; Elouanani, M; Amraoui, M; Errougani, A; El Alami, F H; Chkoff, R

2008-11-15

154

Duodenal adenomatosis in familial adenomatous polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence of duodenal carcinoma is much higher in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) than in the background population, and duodenal adenomatosis is found in most polyposis patients.Aims: To describe the long term natural history of duodenal adenomatosis in FAP and evaluate if cancer prophylactic surveillance of the duodenum is indicated.Methods: A prospective five nation study was carried out in

S Bu?low; J Bjo?rk; I J Christensen; O Fausa; H Ja?rvinen; F Moesgaard; H F A Vasen

2004-01-01

155

Genotype-Specific Incidence and Clearance of Human Papillomavirus in Oral Mucosa of Women: A Six-Year Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Background There are no previous longitudinal studies on genotype-specific natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in oral mucosa of women. Methods In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 329 pregnant women were enrolled and followed up. HPV-genotyping of oral scrapings was performed with nested PCR and Multimetrix® test (Progen, Heidelberg, Germany). Incidence and clearance times and rates for each HPV-genotype identified in oral mucosa were determined. Predictors for incident and cleared HPV infections for species 7/9 genotypes were analyzed using Poisson regression model. Results Altogether, 115 baseline HPV-negative women acquired incident oral HPV infection, and 79 women cleared their infection. HPV16 and multiple HPVs most frequently caused incident infections (65% and 12%) in 13.3 and 17.1 months respectively, followed by HPV58, HPV18 and HPV6 (close to 5% each) in 11–24 months. HPV58, HPV18 and HPV66 were the most common to clear. HPV6 and HPV11 had the shortest clearance times, 4.6 months and 2.5 months, and the highest clearance rates, 225.5/1000 wmr and 400/1000 wmr, respectively. The protective factors for incident oral HPV-species 7/9 infections were 1) new pregnancy during follow-up and 2) having the same sexual partner during FU. Increased clearance was related with older age and a history of atopic reactions, whereas previous sexually transmitted disease and new pregnancy were associated with decreased clearance. Conclusions HPV16 was the most frequent genotype to cause an incident oral HPV-infection. Low risk HPV genotypes cleared from oral mucosa more quickly than high risk HPV genotypes. Pregnancy affected the outcome of oral HPV infection.

Louvanto, Karolina; Rautava, Jaana; Willberg, Jaana; Wideman, Lilli; Syrjanen, Kari; Grenman, Seija; Syrjanen, Stina

2013-01-01

156

Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.  

PubMed

The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly. PMID:22588197

Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

2012-05-16

157

[Case of intrapancreatic duodenal diverticulum].  

PubMed

A case of intrapancreatic duodenal diverticulum is presented and the possibility of pancreatitis is considered. A digital manoeuvre is described for the non-invasive location of a large diverticulum in case where Kocher's manoeuvre is insufficient. The usefulness of surgery as a mean of preventing what may prove dramatic complications is recognised. PMID:112507

Pamich, G; Governa, A

1979-05-31

158

Extrinsic duodenal obstruction and halitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two siblings with extrinsic duodenal obstruction caused by congenital peritoneal bands are reported. Attention is drawn to the unusual physical sign of halitosis as a presenting feature. It is suggested that this physical sign may be an indication for barium studies.

B. M. Stephenson; B. I. Rees

1990-01-01

159

GM-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression and cytokine production in human duodenal fibroblasts stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha.  

PubMed Central

The role of mucosal fibroblasts in intestinal inflammatory reactions is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that fibroblasts grown from histologically normal human duodenal biopsy tissues expressed mRNA genes for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or IL-1 alpha. The increased mRNA expression of GM-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to IL-1 alpha and LPS stimulation was time- and dose-dependent. In contrast, IL-10 was weakly expressed when fibroblasts were stimulated with LPS, IL-1 alpha or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), but the expression was enhanced in the presence of cycloheximide combined with optimal concentrations of LPS, IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha was a more potent stimulator than LPS for GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 expression, but not for IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. Increased GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression was associated with the production of cytokine proteins in culture supernatant, but IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta remained undetectable. Dexamethasone suppressed both gene expression and protein production of GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-8 when fibroblasts were exposed to IL-1 alpha. TNF-alpha stimulated the release of GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-8 and, combined with IL-1 alpha, cytokine production was enhanced synergistically. Finally, both LPS and IL-1 alpha up-regulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression. These findings implicate duodenal fibroblasts in the initiation and/or regulation of intestinal inflammation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5

Pang, G; Couch, L; Batey, R; Clancy, R; Cripps, A

1994-01-01

160

A Controlled Challenge Study on Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in House Dust and the Immune Response in Human Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have yet addressed the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in house dust on human nasal mucosa. Objectives We investigated the effects of house dust containing DEHP on nasal mucosa of healthy and house dust mite (HDM)–allergic subjects in a short-term exposure setting. Methods We challenged 16 healthy and 16 HDM-allergic subjects for 3 hr with house dust at a concentration of 300 ?g/m3 containing either low (0.41 mg/g) or high (2.09 mg/g) levels of DEHP. Exposure to filtered air served as control. After exposure, we measured proteins and performed a DNA microarray analysis. Results Nasal exposure to house dust with low or high DEHP had no effect on symptom scores. Healthy subjects had almost no response to inhaled dust, but HDM-allergic subjects showed varied responses: DEHPlow house dust increased eosinophil cationic protein, granulocyte-colony–stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-6, whereas DEHPhigh house dust decreased G-CSF and IL-6. Furthermore, in healthy subjects, DEHP concentration resulted in 10 differentially expressed genes, whereas 16 genes were differentially expressed in HDM-allergic subjects, among them anti-Müllerian hormone, which was significantly up-regulated after exposure to DEHPhigh house dust compared with exposure to DEHPlow house dust, and fibroblast growth factor 9, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-?1, which were down-regulated. Conclusions Short-term exposure to house dust with high concentrations of DEHP has attenuating effects on human nasal immune response in HDM-allergic subjects, concerning both gene expression and cytokines.

Deutschle, Tom; Reiter, Rudolf; Butte, Werner; Heinzow, Birger; Keck, Tilman; Riechelmann, Herbert

2008-01-01

161

Distribution of cytochrome P450 2C, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5 in human colon mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the fact that the alimentary tract is part of the body's first line of defense against orally ingested xenobiotica, little is known about the distribution and expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human colon. Therefore, expression and protein levels of four representative CYPs (CYP2C(8), CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5) were determined in human colon mucosa biopsies obtained from ascending, descending and sigmoid colon. Methods Expression of CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 mRNA in colon mucosa was determined by RT-PCR. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot methods. Results Extensive interindividual variability was found for the expression of most of the genes. However, expression of CYP2C mRNA levels were significantly higher in the ascending colon than in the sigmoid colon. In contrast, mRNA levels of CYP2E1 and CYP3A5 were significantly lower in the ascending colon in comparison to the descending and sigmoid colon. In sigmoid colon protein levels of CYP2C8 were significantly higher by ~73% than in the descending colon. In contrast, protein concentration of CYP2E1 was significantly lower by ~81% in the sigmoid colon in comparison to the descending colon. Conclusion The current data suggest that the expression of CYP2C, CYP2E1, and CYP3A5 varies in different parts of the colon.

Bergheim, Ina; Bode, Christiane; Parlesak, Alexandr

2005-01-01

162

Tissue structure, and IL-1beta, IL-8, and TNF-alpha secretions after contact by engineered human oral mucosa with dentifrices.  

PubMed

The use of dentifrice is part of an oral prophylaxis that aims at keeping bacteria in check within the dental plaque. When introduced into the oral cavity, dentifrice also comes in close contact with the oral epithelium. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of dentifrices on tissue structure and pro-inflammatory mediator release by epithelial cells. For this purpose, tri-dimensional engineered human oral mucosa (EHOM) was produced using normal human palatal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. EHOMs were either treated with Aquafresh(R) or Crest(R) for 1, 4, 8, and 24 h, or untreated, then used for cell viability assessment and structural analyses. Cultured supernatants were used to evaluate cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) secretion, and metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 activities. The present in vitro study using engineered oral mucosa confirms that dentifrices (Aquafresh and Crest) contribute to tissue desquamation. The desquamation was substantial at 24 h of contact but was limited to the upper layers of the treated tissues. Cell death in these tissues was not increased, suggesting that the dentifrice had accelerated desquamation of the layers containing differentiated cells. Measurement of cytokines revealed that dentifrices up-regulated IL-1beta while down-regulating IL-8 and TNF-alpha secretion, thus indicating an impaired cascade of inflammatory responses. These dentifrices may also impair normal repair mechanisms as suggested by an up-regulation of gelatinase activities. In conclusion, this study suggested that, via cytokines, dentifrice contributes to the modulation of the inflammatory (pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory responses) process. PMID:12472997

Mostefaoui, Yakout; Claveau, Isabelle; Ross, Geneviève; Rouabhia, Mahmoud

2002-11-01

163

[Surgical treatment of duodenal fistulae].  

PubMed

The experience of surgical treatment of 10 patients with external intestinal fistulae was analyzed. The plot of the operation was to exlude the duodenum from the digestion by performing the retrocolic gastroenteroanastomosis after Roux or on the ultrashort loop. Early operation prevent septic complications and electrolyte disbalance. Duodenal fistulae, developed on the background of pancreonecrosis or after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography, necessitate the external choledochial drainage. PMID:22678537

Zakharash, M P; Bekmuradov, A R; Zakharash, Iu M; Stetsenko, A P; Tarasiuk, T V; Moroz, V V

2012-01-01

164

Induction of human papillomavirus oncogene-specific CD8 T-cell effector responses in the genital mucosa of vaccinated mice.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer, the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide, results from infection with a subset of human papillomaviruses (HPV), HPV-16 being the most prevalent type. The available prophylactic vaccines are an effective strategy to prevent this cancer in the long term. However, they only target 70-80% of all cervical cancers and cannot control existing HPV infections and associated lesions. Therapeutic vaccines are thus necessary for women who cannot benefit from prophylactic vaccination. Induction of protective immune responses in the genital mucosa (GM) may be crucial for efficacy of HPV therapeutic vaccines. We report here that mice that received a single subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccination of an adjuvanted long synthetic HPV16 E7(1-98) polypeptide showed induction of 100% tumor protection against s.c. TC-1 tumors and that tumor regression was mainly provided by CD8 T cells. In vivo cytotoxic assay revealed high E7-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes activity in spleen and in genital draining lymph nodes (LN), and E7-specific CD8 T cells could be detected in GM by tetramer staining. More importantly, high-avidity E7-specific INF-gamma secreting CD8 T cells were induced not only in blood, spleen and LN but also in GM of vaccinated mice, thus providing evidence that a parenteral vaccination may be sufficient to provide regression of genital tumors. In addition, there was no correlation between the responses measured in blood with those measured in GM, highlighting the necessity and relevance to determine the immune responses in the mucosa where HPV-tumors reside. PMID:19816937

Decrausaz, Loane; Revaz, Véronique; Bobst, Martine; Corthésy, Blaise; Romero, Pedro; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

2010-05-15

165

Somatostatin depletion by cysteamine: mechanism and implication for duodenal ulceration  

SciTech Connect

Cysteamine (CSH) and its close derivatives deplete immunoreactive somatostatin (SS) in rat organs. The effect of CSH is dose and time dependent and reversible. Structural requirements of the analogs are the presence of either -SH or -NH2 on a two- or three-carbon alkyl molecule; both radicals together increase, whereas insertion of carboxyl abolishes potency. The duodenal ulcerogenic potency of CSH derivatives is correlated significantly with their SS-depleting activity in the gastric mucosa. The mechanism of this action of CSH is poorly understood, but it is not caused by increased release, enhanced degradation of the peptide, or selective necrosis of SS cells. It is likely that in the intracellular environment CSH causes a conformational change in the peptide that affects the antigenic and functional properties of SS.

Szabo, S.; Reichlin, S.

1985-06-01

166

Bio-physical characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosa of celiac patients: comparison with control subjects and effect of gluten free diet-  

PubMed Central

Background Intestinal mucosa is leaky in celiac disease (CD), and this alteration may involve changes in hydrophobicity of the mucus surface barrier in addition to alteration of the epithelial barrier. The aims of our study were i) to compare duodenal hydrophobicity as an index of mucus barrier integrity in CD patients studied before (n = 38) and during gluten- free diet (GFD, n = 68), and in control subjects (n = 90), and ii) to check for regional differences of hydrophobicity in the gastro-intestinal tract. Methods Hydrophobicity was assessed by measurement of contact angle (CA) (Rame Hart 100/10 goniometer) generated by a drop of water placed on intestinal mucosal biopsies. Results CA (mean ± SD) of distal duodenum was significantly lower in CD patients (56° ± 10°)) than in control subjects (69° ± 9°, p < 0.0001), and persisted abnormal in patients studied during gluten free diet (56° ± 9°; p < 0.005). CA was significantly higher (62° ± 9°) in histologically normal duodenal biopsies than in biopsies with Marsh 1-2 (58° ± 10°; p < 0.02) and Marsh 3 lesions (57° ± 10°; p < 0.02) in pooled results of all patients and controls studied. The order of hydrofobicity along the gastrointestinal tract in control subjects follows the pattern: gastric antrum > corpus > rectum > duodenum > oesophagus > ileum. Conclusions We conclude that the hydrophobicity of duodenal mucous layer is reduced in CD patients, and that the resulting decreased capacity to repel luminal contents may contribute to the increased intestinal permeability of CD. This alteration mirrors the severity of the mucosal lesions and is not completely reverted by gluten-free diet. Intestinal hydrophobicity exhibits regional differences in the human intestinal tract.

2011-01-01

167

Relative Transmissibility of an R5 Clade C Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Across Different Mucosae in Macaques Parallels the Relative Risks of Sexual HIV-1 Transmission Via Different Routes  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, ~90% of all HIV transmissions occur mucosally; almost all involve R5 strains. Risks of sexual HIV acquisition are highest for rectal, followed by vaginal and then oral exposures. Methods Mucosal lacerations may affect the rank-order of susceptibility to HIV but cannot be assessed in humans. We measured relative virus transmissibility across intact mucosae in macaques using a single stock of SHIV-1157ipd3N4, a simian-human immunodeficiency virus encoding a primary R5 HIV clade C env (SHIV-C). Results The penetrability of rhesus macaque mucosae differed significantly, with rectal challenge requiring the least virus, followed by the vaginal and then oral routes. These findings imply that intrinsic mucosal properties are responsible for the differential mucosal permeability. The latter paralleled the rank-order reported for humans, with relative risk estimates within the range of epidemiologic human studies. To test whether inflammation facilitates virus transmission – as predicted from human studies – we established a macaque model of localized buccal inflammation. Systemic infection occurred across inflamed, but not normal buccal mucosa. Conclusion Our primate data recapitulate virus transmission risks observed in humans, thus establishing R5 SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in macaques as a robust model system to study cofactors involved in human mucosal HIV transmission and its prevention.

Chenine, Agnes L.; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Kramer, Victor G.; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Rasmussen, Robert A.; Lee, Sandra J.; Santosuosso, Michael; Poznansky, Mark C.; Velu, Vijayakumar; Amara, Rama R.; Souder, Chris; Anderson, Daniel C.; Villinger, Francois; Else, James G.; Novembre, Francis J.; Strobert, Elizabeth; O'Neil, Shawn P.; Secor, W. Evan; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

2010-01-01

168

Dietary phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) regulates the activity of intestinal mucosa phytase.  

PubMed

The role of dietary phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) in the regulation of intestinal mucosa phytase was investigated in chicks. Seven-day-old chicks were grouped by weight into six blocks of three cages with six birds per cage. Three purified diets [a chemically defined casein diet, a chemically defined casein diet plus sodium phytate (20 g/kg diet) and a chemically defined casein diet plus sodium phytate (20 g/kg diet) and microbial phytase (1000 units/kg diet)] were randomly assigned to cages within each block. Chicks were fed experimental diets from 8 to 22 days of age then killed, and duodenal mucosa and left tibia removed. Phytase activity in duodenal mucosa, growth performance and bone ash content were determined. Addition of phytate to the chemically defined casein diet reduced (p < 0.05) the V(max) of the duodenal brush border phytase, but the K(m) of the enzyme was not affected. Addition of phytate also reduced (p < 0.05) weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and percentage ash. Addition of microbial phytase fully restored the feed efficiency (p < 0.05), but V(max) and body weight gain were only partially restored (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it would seem that dietary phytates non-competitively inhibit intestinal mucosa phytase. PMID:18700851

Onyango, E M; Adeola, O

2008-08-12

169

Ultrastructure and fluorescence histochemistry of endocrine (APUD-type) cells in tracheal mucosa of human and various animal species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes distinctive cells with ultrastructural and histochemical features of APUD-type endocrine cells within the tracheal epithelium of human fetuses, newborns and children as well as different animal species. These cells referred to as Kultschitzky cells (K cells) were found to be argyrophilic, but not argentaffin, and are considered analogous to the same type of cells in lung and

E. Cutz; W. Chan; V. Wong; P. E. Conen

1975-01-01

170

[Gastric and duodenal mucosal function in peptic ulcer patients exposed to endoscopic laser therapy and sanatorium-health resort factors].  

PubMed

A comparative study of gastric and duodenal bulb mucosa has been performed in 138 patients with ulcer before and after treatment. The patients were treated with either He-Ne laser or copper steam laser alone vs combination of laser therapy with spa treatment. The most favourable was the complex including green spectrum laser in combination with administration of Shira Lake mineral water and electrophoresis of this water. PMID:9173566

Petrakova, V S; Kritskaia, N G; Fil'chenko, E I

1997-01-01

171

Human papillomavirus type 13 and focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa: DNA hybridization on paraffin-embedded specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

16 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) were studied for the presence of human papillomavirus DNA by means of nucleic acid hybridization. Hybridization was carried out in situ with biotin-labelled probes of HPV 1, 6, 11, 13, 16, and 18 DNA under stringent and non-stringent conditions. Under non-stringent conditions, 6 of 16 cases (38%) hybridized to a mixture of

Rolf-Peter Henke; Karin Milde-Langosch; Thomas Liining; Hanna Strømme Koppang

1987-01-01

172

Interleukin8 expression in Helicobacter pylori infected, normal, and neoplastic gastroduodenal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--To investigate the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in Helicobacter pylori infected normal and neoplastic gastroduodenal mucosa, and in established gastric cancer cell lines. METHODS--Immunofluorescence techniques were used to localise IL-8 in cryosections of gastric (n = 25) and duodenal (n = 17) endoscopic biopsy specimens an in resected gastric tumour tissue samples from 16 patients. Two gastric cancer cell lines

J E Crabtree; J I Wyatt; L K Trejdosiewicz; P Peichl; P H Nichols; N Ramsay; J N Primrose; I J Lindley

1994-01-01

173

Annular pancreas associated with duodenal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly. Coexisting malignancy has been reported only in a few cases. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case in the English literature of duodenal adenocarcinoma in a patient with AP. In a 55-year old woman with duodenal outlet stenosis magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed an aberrant pancreatic duct encircling the duodenum. Duodenojejunostomy was performed. Eight weeks later she presented with painless jaundice. Duodenopancreatectomy revealed a duodenal adenocarcinoma, surrounded by an incomplete AP. Thus, co-existent malignancy with AP can be present without obstructive jaundice and without being visible through preoperative diagnostics.

Bronnimann, Enrico; Potthast, Silke; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Oertli, Daniel; Heizmann, Oleg

2010-01-01

174

[Complex prevention of suture incompetence of the duodenal stump in penetrating duodenal ulcers].  

PubMed

Data on 323 patients operated upon for penetrating duodenal ulcers (resection of the stomach) are presented. New procedures are described which elevate hermeticity of the duodenal stump as well as prophylactic measures against incompetence of sutures of the duodenum stump. Six patients had incompetent sutures of the duodenum stump which was of limited character and was completed by the formation of a duodenal fistula. Lethality from this complication was not noted. PMID:2665306

Godlevski?, A I

1989-03-01

175

Duodenal gastrinoma with multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumors secondary to chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (HP) has been associated with neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach and duodenum. Gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell tumors and duodenal gastrinomas have also been associated with HP gastritis in separate series but have not been reported together. With other possible causes excluded, we present a patient with HP-associated atrophy of the oxyntic mucosa that ultimately resulted in stimulation and reactive hyperplasia of gastrin-producing cells in both the antrum and proximal duodenum, the latter progressing to formation of a gastrin-producing cell nodule (gastrinoma). Both of these sources of gastrin resulted in ECL hyperplasia in the atrophied oxyntic mucosa with progression to microcarcinoids and well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, along with hypertrophy of residual proximal gastric parietal cells. As atrophy tends to spread from the antrum proximally, residual oxyntic mucosa was still infected with HP and offers 1 explanation for the apparent paradox of atrophic gastritis with ECL hyperplasia and neoplasia in the distal oxyntic mucosa, with proximal oxyntic mucosa showing mild hypertrophic changes in a background of typical HP gastritis. PMID:22588069

Grin, Andrea; Kim, Young-In; Mustard, Robert; Streutker, Catherine J; Riddell, Robert H

2012-06-01

176

Laparoscopic duodenoduodenostomy for duodenal atresia.  

PubMed

A 3,220-g newborn baby with trisomy 21 presented with duodenal atresia. No other congenital malformations were diagnosed. Informed consent for a laparoscopic approach was obtained. The child was placed in a supine, head-up position slightly rotated to the left at the end of a shortened operating table. The surgeon stood at the bottom end with the cameraperson to his left and the scrub nurse to his right. The screen was at the right upper end. Open insertion of a cannula for a 5-mm 30 degrees telescope through the inferior umbilical fold was performed. A carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum with a pressure of 8 mmHg and a flow of 2l/min was established. Two 3.3-mm working cannulas were inserted; one in the left hypogastrium and one pararectally on the right at the umbilical level. Two more such cannulas were inserted; one under the xyphoid for a liver elevator and one in the right hypogastrium for a sucker. Mobilization of the dilated upper and collapsed lower duodenum was easy. After transverse enterotomy of the upper duodenum and longitudinal enterotomy of the distal duodenum, a diamond-shaped anastomosis with interrupted 5 zero Vicryl sutures were performed. The absence of air in the bowel beyond the atresia increased the working space and greatly facilitated the procedure. The technique proved to be easy, and the child did very well. Laparoscopic bowel anastomosis in newborn babies had not been described previously. Recently, a diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy for duodenal atresia was performed. The technique proved to be simple and is described in detail. The child did very well. PMID:12200660

Bax, N M; Ure, B M; van der Zee, D C; van Tuijl, I

2000-12-21

177

Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

2012-02-01

178

Appearance of specific antibody-bearing cells in human bronchial mucosa after local immunization with bacterial vaccine.  

PubMed Central

The immune response to local in vivo inhalation of a lysed bacteria vaccine was assessed in surgical specimens of main-stem bronchi from patients who had undergone pneumectomy for cancer. The patient population included 22 subjects; 11 of these received the aerosol vaccine twice a day for 10 days prior to surgery, while the remaining 11 patients were used as controls and were not immunized. The submucous glands of immunized subjects showed significantly more cells than did those of the controls, i.e., 62 +/- 8 versus 37 +/- 7, respectively (P less than 0.05). The following five antigens were chosen for study by fluorescence assay: Streptococcus pneumoniae types II and III, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus sp. strain D19, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An immunization-dependent correlation was found between immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin A-bearing cells, and specific antibody-bearing cells on the one hand and three of the five antigens (S. pneumoniae types II and III and Streptococcus sp. strain D19) on the other hand. This is the first time that a relationship has been established between bacterial immunization of the lower respiratory tract and local immunoglobulin production in humans. Images

Latil, F; Vervloet, D; Casanova, P; Garbe, L; Fuentes, P; Wierzbicki, N; Charpin, J

1986-01-01

179

Dopamine D1 receptors mediate dopamine-induced duodenal epithelial ion transport in rats.  

PubMed

Dopamine (DA) is synthesized in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and performs important regulatory effects on the duodenal mucosa. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study investigated the effect of DA on the duodenal epithelial ion transport in rats by means of short-circuit current (ISC), real-time pH titration, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that basolateral, but not apical, application of DA induced a concentration-dependent ISC downward deflection with an apparent IC50 of 5.34 ?mol/L. Basolateral application of dopaminergic receptor D1 (D1) antagonist, SCH-23390, inhibited DA-induced change in ISC (?ISC) in a dose-dependent manner. D1 agonist, SKF38393, mimicked the effect of DA on the ISC. The clear immunoreactivity of D1 subtype D5 (D1b) was at the both apical and basolatoral sides of Brunner's glands and intestinal crypts. Basolateral pretreatment with adenylate cyclase inhibitor, MDL12330A, significantly inhibited DA- and forskolin-induced ?ISC. DA and SKF38393 increased the level of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from 1.55 ± 0.11 to 2.07 ± 0.11 and 5.91 ± 0.25 pmol/L·mg(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the serosal DA-induced ?ISC was remarkably inhibited by apical administration of K(+) channel blockers, Ba(2+) and tetraethylammonium, but not by Cl(-) channel blockers. Serosal DA and D1 agonist did not affect duodenal HCO3(-) secretion. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that serosal DA is able to promote rat duodenal epithelial K(+) secretion, not HCO3(-) secretion through D1-mediated and cAMP-dependent pathway. The study provides a new insight in the modulation of DA on the ion transport of duodenal epithelia in rats. PMID:23276732

Feng, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yun; Li, Li-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Li-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Fan, Rui-Fang; Song, Jin; Hong, Feng; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jin-Xia

2012-12-29

180

[Duodenal somatostatinomas associated with von Recklinghausen disease].  

PubMed

A case of von Recklinghausen's disease with double somatostatin producing neuroendocrine tumour of the ampulla and duodenum is reported. A search of the world's literature revealed 28 patients with immunohistologically proven duodenal somatostatinoma associated with type I neurofibromatosis. These tumours are seldom associated with a recognizable "somatostatin syndrome", but often present with obstructive jaundice, duodenal obstruction, weight loss or gastrointestinal bleeding. Histologically, psammoma bodies are frequently encountered in the glandular lumina of duodenal somatostatinomas (66%), whereas their presence in other neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract is very rare. Metastatization is rare (27%) and mainly confined to lymph nodes (88%). In the world literature duodenal somatostatinoma is associated with von Recklinghausen's disease in 50%. PMID:9888169

Blaser, A; Vajda, P; Rosset, P

1998-12-12

181

Protection against duodenal ulceration by somatostatins.  

PubMed

The purpose of our investigation was to study the effect of two somatostatin analogs (SMS 201-995 and 008) on duodenal ulcer disease induced by cysteamine in rats. Male Wistar rats were given cysteamine (28 mg/100 g body wt.) by rubber stomach tube three times in a single day. All animals of the test group were injected subcutaneously either with SMS 201-995 in different doses or with 008. On the 3rd day stomach, duodenum, and adrenal glands were macroscopically examined for lesions (duodenal ulceration, gastrointestinal bleeding, adrenal hemorrhage). Our results showed a dose-dependent effect of SMS 201-995 on the mortality, incidence, and intensity of cysteamine-induced duodenal lesions in rats. The incidence and the intensity of gastrointestinal bleeding and adrenal hemorrhage were also dose-dependently reduced by SMS 201-995. There was no definite effect of 008 on the mortality, incidence, or intensity of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration. PMID:2882057

Palitzsch, K D; Schuler, H; Schwedes, U; Usadel, K H

1986-01-01

182

Review of Duodenal and Gastric Ulcer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Duodenal and gastric ulcer are chronic often recurring conditions that in the past were grouped together as peptic ulcer. Many diverse environmental and genetic factors, which create an imbalance between secretion of acid and pepsin by by the stomach and ...

F. C. Garland E. D. Gorham

1985-01-01

183

[Chronic intermittent duodenal obstruction in childhood].  

PubMed

Chronic intermittent duodenal obstruction caused by stenosis of the distal duodenum is a rare disease. Tight fixation of the ligament of Treitz, compression due to mesenteric lymphomatas or abnormal attachment of the mesocolon can cause intermittent impairment of intestinal passage. It will be necessary to differentiate this against genuine arterio-mesenteric duodenal obstruction as well as nerve motility disorders. History in the appropriate cases reports on postprandial episodes of regurgitation, sensation of fullness, nausea, vomiting and paroxysmal upper abdominal colicky pain. Radiograms always reveal gastroptosis and a varying degree of duodenal obstruction, usually with retroperistalsis. The passage is markedly delayed, with an impairment sometimes at the site of the duodenojejunal flexure. Therapy is always surgical. 8 own cases were cured by leftsided duodenal mobilisation according to Clairmont with additional caudad positioning and fixation of the duodenojejunal flexure. PMID:2291339

Brandesky, G; Messner, H

1990-12-01

184

Traumatic duodenal rupture in a soccer player.  

PubMed

Traumatic duodenal rupture resulting from blunt trauma during soccer is an extremely rare occurrence. A case report of this unusual condition is presented together with a review of the literature. PMID:10854026

Houshian, S

2000-06-01

185

Abnormalities in the duodenal transit and motility in duodenal ulcer patients: studies with a new isotopic technique.  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities of duodenal motility have been described in patients with duodenal ulcer and in experimental ulcers in rats and it has been postulated that they could be pathogenic in peptic ulcer disease. We have investigated with an isotopic technique whether duodenal bulb clearance or duodenal transit are abnormal in duodenal ulcer. Six patients with inactive and six with active duodenal ulcers, all men, and six healthy male controls were studied. Motility of the duodenum was simultaneously monitored. A bolus of 99mTcDTPA was injected into the duodenum while water or acid were perfused on different occasions. Duodenal bulb clearance and transit to the ligament of Treitz were calculated. Duodenal transit in duodenal ulcer patients 108.8 (23) sec was faster than in controls, 194.9 (5.1) sec (p less than 0.05) during the quiescent period of the motility cycle. The frequency of duodenal bulb contractions during acid perfusion was higher in duodenal ulcer patients 1.7 (0.4) cont/min, than in controls 0.8 (0.1) cont/min (p less than 0.05). No other significant differences were observed between ulcer patients and controls. These data suggest that patients with duodenal ulcers do not have major abnormalities of duodenal bulb clearance, nor of duodenal transit and that duodenal motility does not play a primary role in the pathogenesis of the ulcer. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Quon, M G; Mena, I; Valenzuela, J E

1989-01-01

186

Multifunctional Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Gag-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Responses in Rectal Mucosa and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells during Chronic HIV Type 1 Infection?  

PubMed Central

The intestinal tract is a lymphocyte-rich site that undergoes severe depletion of memory CD4+ T cells within days of simian immunodeficiency virus or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. An ensuing influx of virus-specific CD8+ T cells, which persist throughout the chronic phase of infection, has also been documented in the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known of the functionality of these effector cells or their relationship to the disease course. In this study, we measured CD8+ T-cell responses to HIV-1 peptides in paired rectal and blood samples from chronically infected patients. In both blood and rectum, there was an immunodominant CD8+ T-cell response to HIV Gag compared to Pol and Env (P < 0.01). In contrast, cytomegalovirus pp65 peptides elicited gamma interferon (IFN-?) secretion strongly in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but weakly in rectal CD8+ T cells (P = 0.015). Upon stimulation with HIV peptides, CD8+ T cells from both sites were capable of mounting complex responses including degranulation (CD107 expression) and IFN-? and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production. In rectal tissue, CD107 release was frequently coupled with production of IFN-? or TNF-?. In patients not on antiretroviral therapy, the magnitude of Gag-specific responses, as a percentage of CD8+ T cells, was greater in the rectal mucosa than in PBMC (P = 0.054); however, the breakdown of responding cells into specific functional categories was similar in both sites. These findings demonstrate that rectal CD8+ T cells are capable of robust and varied HIV-1-specific responses and therefore likely play an active role in eliminating infected cells during chronic infection.

Critchfield, J. William; Lemongello, Donna; Walker, Digna H.; Garcia, Juan C.; Asmuth, David M.; Pollard, Richard B.; Shacklett, Barbara L.

2007-01-01

187

Comparing the genotoxic sensitivities of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mucosa cells of the upper aerodigestive tract using the Comet assay.  

PubMed

Carcinogenesis in the upper aerodigestive tract is influenced by multiple factors. Besides tobacco and alcohol consumption, specific pollutants such as phthalates, nitrosamines, and polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates may be important in tumor initiation. Genetic factors related to mutagen sensitivity and DNA repair capacity also play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mucosal epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract, the target for volatile and liquid xenobiotics, are equally sensitive to genotoxic agents. The Comet assay was used to detect for DNA damage induced by genotoxic agents in mucosal epithelial cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes of 60 volunteers. Mucosa was harvested from larynx, oropharynx, and inferior nasal turbinates. Xenobiotics investigated were dibutylphthalate (DBP), diisobutylphthalate (DiBP), N'-nitrosodiethylamine (NDELA), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and N'-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). DBP, DiBP, B[a]P, NDELA and MNNG induced a significant increase in DNA migration in both cell populations. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were more sensitive than mucosal cells to DBP and DiBP, but not to NDELA and B[a]P. The correlation, in terms of DNA migration, between lymphocytes and mucosal cells among volunteers was relatively poor. Based on the poor correlation in response between the two cell types, the sensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes to genotoxic agents appears to be a poor predictor of sensitivity in the target cells of the upper aerodigestive tract. Further attention should be focused on intra-individual mutagen sensitivities and inter-individual genetic differences as regards susceptibility to upper aerodigestive tract cancer. PMID:10771268

Kleinsasser, N H; Wallner, B C; Kastenbauer, E R; Muenzenrieder, R K; Harréus, U A

2000-04-13

188

[A study on maximal permissible drug concentration for transnasal medication from the viewpoint of ciliary activity of the cultured human paranasal mucosa].  

PubMed

Aerosol therapy has been widely used for upper and lower airway diseases. However, maximal permissible concentrations of drugs have not yet been clarified. The purpose of this study was to find the maximal drug concentration for transnasal medication that does not inhibit ciliary activity or tissue. Human paranasal sinus mucosa taken at surgery was cut into small pieces. These were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium under the conditions of 5% CO2 and 100% relative humidity at 37 degrees C. Histopathologic damage was observed under a microscope at 400 x magnification. The rate of ciliary beating was measured by a photoelectric method with a cadmium sulphite photometer. In order to compare the findings with those of repeated clinical nebulizer therapy, drug application once a day for 3 days and combined use with steroids were examined for 30 min, considering maximal retention time of the drugs in the nasal cavity as an aerosol therapy. The maximal permissible concentrations of several drugs in single use obtained by these experiments were as follows: acetylcysteine 4.4%, tyloxapol 0.03%, sodium cromoglycate 4%, Broncasma Berna 2 times, prednisolone 1%, dexamethasone 0.2%, betamethasone 0.4%, kanamycin 20%, gentamicine 1%, amikasine 4%, dibekasin 4%, astromysin 4%, fosfomycin 3%, clindamycin 3%, ampicillin 10%, cefazolin 5%, and lidocaine 0.01%. When antibiotics and ateroids were used at the same time, the ciliary activity and the tissue were damaged more strongly than with single use. Therefore, the maximal concentration of some drugs has to be reduced. For example, the maximal concentration of prednisolone, 1%, was reduced to 0.2%, and that of kanamycin, 20%, was changed to 10%. PMID:7861299

Tsubokawa, T; Saito, H

1994-12-01

189

Duodenal ulcer disease: a fresh appraisal.  

PubMed

There have been remarkable recent advances in knowledge about duodenal ulcer, a disease which may be spontaneously disappearing. Multiple physiologic defects have been found including increased numbers of parietal cells and their increased sensitivity to gastrin, excessive gastrin release after food intake, decreased inhibition of gastrin release by low antral pH, more rapid gastric emptying, and, possibly, impaired duodenal mucosal resistance to acid. Antacid and diet therapies have been subjected to scientific scrutiny and their respective roles in the therapy of the duodenal ulcer are now better defined. New drugs have been developed which strongly inhibit gastric acid secretion in man--the recently marketed histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, as well as chemically modified prostaglandins. Clinical trials have shown cimetidine to be effective in healing duodenal ulcers and free of significant side effects with short-term usage. Its role in the prevention of ulcer recurrence is presently being evaluated. A new operation for duodenal ulcer has been introduced which shows great promise following pilot studies and some randomized trials. Only the parietal cell containing portion of the stomach is denervated. Basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion are markedly inhibited while gastric motility is unimpaired. This operation thus eliminates the need for a drainage procedure or distal antral resection and decreases the incidence and severity of undesirable side effects associated with earlier operations for duodenal ulcer. PMID:645191

Halloran, L G; Nisman, R M; Vlahcevic, Z R

1978-04-01

190

Duodenal-mucosal bacteria associated with celiac disease in children.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor; Sanz, Yolanda

2013-07-08

191

Case report: duodenal stromal tumor.  

PubMed

Tumors of the small intestine are rare lesions, but they should be kept in mind as possible causes of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. A 78 year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after meal and weight loss for three months was admitted to our clinic. On physical examination, there was only epigastric tenderness. No mass was palpated. She was anemic and total protein and albumin levels were low. Other laboratory tests were normal. A 9.0 x 7.5 cm heterogeneous mass was detected on the abdominal computerized tomography scan. Endoscopy confirmed a polypoid and vegetative mass in the second part of the duodenum. Histopathological diagnosis of endoscopic biopsy was gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. On the 11th postoperative day, relaparotomy was performed due to biliary leakage from the subhepatic drain. Biliary leakage was from the choledochojejunostomy. Choledochojejunostomy and pancreaticojejunostomy were revised. She was discharged on the postoperative 25th day. Histopathological examination of the resection specimen revealed duodenal stromal tumor. Although stromal tumors are relatively rare in the duodenum, in the case of upper gastrointestinal obstruction and anemia, this type of tumors should be considered in differential diagnosis. PMID:15832594

Akkus, M A; Kismet, K; Erel, S; Adibelli, M A; Pulat, H

192

Irritative properties of two clinical potassium chloride formulations on duodenal mucosa of the cat and esophageal mucosa of the opossum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local gastrointestinal irritating properties of microencapsulated KCl (M-E), a new and unique form of KCl (8 meq potassium per capsule), were compared with a wax-matrix (W-M) KCl formulation (8 meq potassium per tablet). Normal saline in 0-size gelatin capsules was used as the control substance. The comparisons were made in two animal models that simulate the condition of partial

R. S. Alphin; Stephen W. O'Dell; L. F. Sancilio; J. W. Ward

1984-01-01

193

Endourologic Management of Duodenal Calculi in Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenal stones formed during pancreas-kidney transplantation are usually associated with nonabsorbable sutures or staples. We report on the delayed formation of a struvite duodenal stone not attributed to foreign material, managed successfully with intracorporeal electrohydraulic lithotripsy.

Koon H. Rha; Ioannis M. Varkarakis; Albert M. Ong; Peter A. Pinto; Ernesto P. Molmenti; Thomas W. Jarrett

2005-01-01

194

Respective hydrolysis and esterification of esterified and free plant stanols occur rapidly in human intestine after their duodenal infusion in triacyl- or diacylglycerol.  

PubMed

Esterification of dietary phytosterols and glycerols may affect intestinal absorption of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols. We infused plant stanol esters in triacylglycerol (TAG) (F1) and diacylglycerol (DG) (F2) oils, and free plant stanols in F1 and F2 (F3) to the duodenum of healthy human subjects and sampled the contents from the proximal jejunum (PJ). Free and ester sterols were analysed from the infusates, and intestinal contents before and after ultracentrifuge separation of oil, micelle and sediment phases. During the 60-cm intestinal passage, over 40% of plant stanol esters were hydrolysed (P < 0.05) but around 30% of the infused free plant stanols (P < 0.05) and up to 40% of cholesterol (P < 0.05) were esterified in PJ after infusions. TAG in F1 favoured accumulation of plant stanol esters in the oil phase of the PJ aspirates as compared with respective values of F2 and F3 (P < 0.05 for both). About one third of free plant stanols of F3 had been esterified (P < 0.05) and 17% precipitated mainly in free form in the PJ aspirates (P < 0.05 compared with F1 and F2). In conclusion, DG- and TAG-oils had no profound superiority over each other as intestinal carriers regarding hydrolysis/esterification of administered plant stanol esters and cholesterol and their partition in oil, micellar and sediment phases in the PJ. The unesterified plant stanols experienced partial esterification and sedimentation during their intestinal passage, which might influence their biochemical properties in that segment of the gut where cholesterol is absorbed. PMID:17551763

Nissinen, Markku J; Vuoristo, Matti; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A

2007-06-06

195

Case Study of the Distribution of Mucosa-Associated Bifidobacterium Species, Lactobacillus Species, and Other Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of mucosa-associated bacteria, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and closely related lactic acid bacteria, in biopsy samples from the ascending, transverse, and descending parts of the colon from four individuals was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bifidobacterial genus-spe- cific, Lactobacillus group-specific, and universal bacterial primers were used in a nested PCR approach to amplify a fragment of the

D. S. Nielsen; P. L. Moller; V. Rosenfeldt; A. Paerregaard; K. F. Michaelsen; M. Jakobsen

2003-01-01

196

Duodenal tuberculosis presenting as acute ulcer perforation.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis (TB) is rare, but its incidence is increasing in industrialized countries because of the growing numbers of individuals at risk for TB. Herein, we report the exceptional case of a young, HIV-negative, African refugee who presented with acute perforation of an isolated duodenal tuberculous ulcer. Clinical patterns of duodenal TB are discussed. The difficulty of obtaining a diagnosis on the basis of clinical features, endoscopy, and imaging is emphasized, as well as the importance of obtaining a biopsy specimen and its limitations. PMID:9772074

Berney, T; Badaoui, E; Tötsch, M; Mentha, G; Morel, P

1998-10-01

197

Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in a Cow  

PubMed Central

A case report of perforated duodenal ulcer in a ten year old Holstein cow is presented. On three occasions, sudden anorexia and rapidly progressing abdominal fluid distension were associated with metabolic alkalosis, hypochloremia and hypokalemia. Rumen fluid at the time of the second episode was acidic and contained an excessive amount of chloride ion. An abdominal mass dorsal to the abomasum involving the pylorus and several loops of small bowel was identified but not corrected at surgery. Necropsy confirmed a 1.5 cm diameter duodenal ulcer 6 cm distal to the pylorus.

Fatimah, I.; Butler, D. G.; Physick-Sheard, P. W.

1982-01-01

198

[Study of genetic markers of duodenal ulcer].  

PubMed

The results of determination of various hereditary predisposition markers in peptic ulcer are given: in the population, in patients with duodenal ulcer and in their siblings (risk group). Of importance for revealing subjects with hereditary predisposition to duodenal ulcer are the clinico-genealogical analysis, determination of the blood group, especially in simultaneous determination of a "secretory status" ("status of non-secretion" of the ABH blood system agglutinogen in the saliva), increase in the mass of parietal cells and, to some extent, of the distinguishing features of dermatoglyphics (in combination with the above markers). Determination of taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide is non-informative. PMID:2770215

Tsimmerman, Ia S; Onosova, E A; Tsimmerman, I Ia

1989-05-01

199

Duodenal biopsy for diagnosis of renal involvement in amyloidosis.  

PubMed

Amyloidosis results from extracellular deposition of a fibrillary protein in various organs, and renal biopsy is the best, but a complicated tool for diagnosis. Therefore, alternative biopsy sites have been proposed with varying degrees of sensitivity. We aimed to find the most appropriate biopsy site in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in whom renal biopsy is contraindicated or unavailable. 42 patients (29 male; mean age 46 ± 16 y) with CKD in whom amyloidosis was suspected as the underlying etiology on clinical grounds, but renal biopsy was not available (Group I), and 36 patients (25 male; mean age 40 ± 16 y) with CKD in whom renal biopsy revealed AA-amyloidosis (Group II) were investigated. Upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) endoscopies were performed and multiple biopsies from gingiva, esophagus, antrum, duodenum and rectum were obtained. In Group I, no amyloidosis was detected in gingival and GIT biopsies among 13 patients. In the remaining 29 patients AA-amyloidosis was detected in various sites with the following frequencies: duodenum 100%, rectum 83%, antrum 79%, esophagus 44% and gingiva 29%. In Group II, frequency of amyloid deposition was 97% in duodenum, 76% each in antrum and rectum, 59% in esophagus and 32% in gingival mucosa. In conclusion, duodenal biopsy is sensitive for diagnosing amyloidosis in CKD patients, and highly correlates with renal amyloidosis. PMID:22257541

Yilmaz, Murvet; Unsal, Abdulkadir; Sokmen, Mehmet; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Alkim, Canan; Kabukcuoglu, Fevziye; Ozagari, Aysim

2012-02-01

200

Esophageal barrier function and tight junction expression in healthy subjects and patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: functionality of esophageal mucosa exposed to bile salt and trypsin in vitro.  

PubMed

Abstract Background and aims. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with impaired epithelial barrier function. However, the influence of acid and/or bile acids on human esophageal epithelial barrier function and the tight junction (TJ) proteins has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the study is to investigate the esophageal barrier function and TJ expression in healthy subjects and patients with GERD. The functionality of esophageal mucosa exposed to bile salt deoxycholic acid (DCA) and trypsin has been studied in vitro. Material and methods. Endoscopic biopsies from healthy controls and patients with GERD-related symptom with endoscopic erosive signs, as well as esophageal mucosa taken from patients undergoing esophagectomy were evaluated in Ussing chambers and by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results. The esophageal epithelium from GERD patients had lower electrical resistance and higher epithelial currents than controls. Claudin-1 and -4 were significantly decreased in GERD patients. The bile salt DCA in the low concentration of 1.5 mM and trypsin increased the resistance and claudin-1 expression, while the higher concentration of 2.5 mM DCA and trypsin decreased the resistance and the claudin-3, -4 and E-cadherin expressions. Conclusion. In addition to acidic reflux, duodenal reflux components, such as bile salts and trypsin, have the potential to disrupt the esophageal barrier function, partly by modulating the TJ proteins. However, the expression of TJ is dependent on both the refluxed material as well as the concentration of the bile salt. PMID:24047393

Björkman, Eleonora Victoria Charlotta; Edebo, Anders; Oltean, Mihai; Casselbrant, Anna

2013-10-01

201

Smoking and male gender rather than CagA protein are associated with increased risk for duodenal ulcer in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of antibody to CagA antigen, as well as other major H. pylori antigens by Western blot in H. pylori-infected subjects with endoscopically normal mucosa (N = 54) and duodenal ulcer (N = 51). The role of the host and environmental factors was also evaluated. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibodies against the major H. pylori antigens between the two groups. A high prevalence of antibody to CagA was detected in patients with normal mucosa (93%) and duodenal ulcer (86%). Multivariate analysis shows that male gender (odds ratio = 4.94, 95% CI = 1.39-17.77, P = 0.014) and smoking (odds ratio = 8.89, 95% CI = 2.17-36.48, P = 0.002) were associated with duodenal ulcer disease. This study suggests that smoking and male gender rather than CagA protein are associated with increased risk for duodenal ulcer in H. pylori-infected patients in Taiwan. PMID:10548360

Chen, T S; Chang, F Y; Lee, S D

1999-10-01

202

PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

1990-04-01

203

Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar.  

PubMed

Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely. PMID:23082068

Kim, Ji Hun; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Nam, Sung Min; Lee, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Il Ho; Park, Jin Young; Im, Yun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Il Young; Han, Sok Won

2012-10-14

204

Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar  

PubMed Central

Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely.

Kim, Ji Hun; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Nam, Sung Min; Lee, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Il Ho; Park, Jin Young; Im, Yun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Il Young; Han, Sok Won

2012-01-01

205

Disruption of the ECM33 Gene in Candida albicans Prevents Biofilm Formation, Engineered Human Oral Mucosa Tissue Damage and Gingival Cell Necrosis/Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

In this study we demonstrated that ?Caecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida.

Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

2012-01-01

206

Fundic balloon distension stimulates antral and duodenal motility in man.  

PubMed

Distension of the intestine triggers the peristaltic reflex, which consists of orad contraction and aborad relaxation. Whether a similar response occurs in the human stomach is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the antral and duodenal motor response(s) to mechanical distension of the proximal stomach. In six healthy volunteers, a large compliant balloon was placed in the proximal stomach. Alongside this a water-perfused manometry probe with six sensors was placed to measure the antral and duodenal motility. Pressure activity was assessed before and during balloon distension. In five of six subjects, balloon distension triggered a salvo of antral pressure waves within 3-5 min, some of which propagated into the duodenum. The amplitude of waves was higher (P < 0.05) at the antrum than at the duodenum. The area under the curve of pressure waves was higher (P < 0.05) at the antrum than at the duodenum. In conclusion, distension of the proximal stomach, at or below the threshold for perception, evokes phasic motor activity in the antrum and duodenum. Thus, the gastric response to distension differs from that observed during the intestinal peristaltic reflex. PMID:12018896

Rao, Satish S C; Vemuri, Sreevani; Harris, Brenton; Schulze, Konrad

2002-05-01

207

Basophils infiltrate human gastric mucosa at sites of Helicobacter pylori infection, and exhibit chemotaxis in response to H. pylori-derived peptide Hp(2-20).  

PubMed

Basophils, which are normally confined to the circulation, can migrate to sites of allergic inflammation. Using the specific mAb, BB1, we detected basophil infiltration of the gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori-infected patients affected by moderate and severe gastritis. Basophils were not found in H. pylori-free individuals or in subjects with mild gastritis. The H. pylori-derived peptide, Hp(2-20), was a potent basophil chemoattractant in vitro, whereas the control peptide, Hp1, was ineffective. Basophils from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers expressed mRNA for the formyl peptide receptors, N-formyl-peptide receptor (FPR), FPR-like (FPRL)1, and FPRL2. Preincubation of basophils with FMLP or Hp(2-20) caused complete desensitization to a subsequent challenge with homologous stimulus. Incubation of basophils with a low concentration of FMLP, which binds with high affinity to FPR, but not to FPRL1 or FPRL2, did not affect the chemotactic response to Hp(2-20). In contrast, a high concentration of FMLP, which binds to FPRL1 and FPRL2, reduced the chemotactic response to Hp(2-20). The FPR antagonist, cyclosporin H, prevented chemotaxis induced by FMLP, but not by Hp(2-20). Hp(2-20) could be responsible, at least in part, for basophil infiltration of the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients presumably through the interaction with FPRL1 and FPRL2. PMID:15187157

de Paulis, Amato; Prevete, Nella; Fiorentino, Isabella; Walls, Andrew F; Curto, Monica; Petraroli, Angelica; Castaldo, Vincenza; Ceppa, Paola; Fiocca, Roberto; Marone, Gianni

2004-06-15

208

CFTR inhibition augments NHE3 activity during luminal high CO2 exposure in rat duodenal mucosa.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that the function of duodenocyte apical membrane acid-base transporters are essential for H(+) absorption from the lumen. We thus examined the effect of inhibition of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-3 (NHE3), cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), or apical anion exchangers on transmucosal CO(2) diffusion and HCO(3)(-) secretion in rat duodenum. Duodena were perfused with a pH 6.4 high CO(2) solution or pH 2.2 low CO(2) solution with the NHE3 inhibitor, S3226, the anion transport inhibitor, DIDS, or pretreatment with the potent CFTR inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172, with simultaneous measurements of luminal and portal venous (PV) pH and carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]). Luminal high CO(2) solution increased CO(2) absorption and HCO(3)(-) secretion, accompanied by PV acidification and PV Pco(2) increase. During CO(2) challenge, CFTR(inh)-172 induced HCO(3)(-) absorption, while inhibiting PV acidification. S3226 reversed CFTR(inh)-associated HCO(3)(-) absorption. Luminal pH 2.2 challenge increased H(+) and CO(2) absorption and acidified the PV, inhibited by CFTR(inh)-172 and DIDS, but not by S3226. CFTR inhibition and DIDS reversed HCO(3)(-) secretion to absorption and inhibited PV acidification during CO(2) challenge, suggesting that HCO(3)(-) secretion helps facilitate CO(2)/H(+) absorption. Furthermore, CFTR inhibition prevented CO(2)-induced cellular acidification reversed by S3226. Reversal of increased HCO(3)(-) loss by NHE3 inhibition and reduced intracellular acidification during CFTR inhibition is consistent with activation or unmasking of NHE3 activity by CFTR inhibition, increasing cell surface H(+) available to neutralize luminal HCO(3)(-) with consequent CO(2) absorption. NHE3, by secreting H(+) into the luminal microclimate, facilitates net transmucosal HCO(3)(-) absorption with a mechanism similar to proximal tubular HCO(3)(-) absorption. PMID:18420826

Mizumori, Misa; Choi, Yuri; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

2008-04-17

209

[The effectiveness of SCENAR therapy in complex treatment of duodenal ulcer, and the mechanisms of its action].  

PubMed

A new technique of low-frequency modulated electric current therapy, SCENAR therapy, was used in treatment of 103 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU). The influence of SCENAR therapy on the main clinical and functional indices of a DU relapse was studied. It was shown that SCENAR therapy, which influences disturbed mechanisms of adaptive regulation and self-regulation, led to positive changes in most of the parameters under study. Addition of SCENAR therapy to the complex conventional pharmacotherapy fastened ulcer healing, increased the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication, and improved the condition of the gastroduodenal mucosa. PMID:16924799

Tsimmerman, Ia S; Kochurova, I A; Vladimirski?, E V

2006-01-01

210

Differential NF-?B pathways induction by Lactobacillus plantarum in the duodenum of healthy humans correlating with immune tolerance  

PubMed Central

How do we acquire immune tolerance against food microorganisms and commensal bacteria that constitute the intestinal microbiota? We investigated this by stimulating the immune system of adults with commensal Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria. We studied the in vivo human responses to L. plantarum in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study. Healthy adults ingested preparations of living and heat-killed L. plantarum bacteria. Biopsies were taken from the intestinal duodenal mucosa and altered expression profiles were analyzed using whole-genome microarrays and by biological pathway reconstructions. Expression profiles of human mucosa displayed striking differences in modulation of NF-?B-dependent pathways, notably after consumption of living L. plantarum bacteria in different growth phases. Our in vivo study identified mucosal gene expression patterns and cellular pathways that correlated with the establishment of immune tolerance in healthy adults.

van Baarlen, Peter; Troost, Freddy J.; van Hemert, Saskia; van der Meer, Cindy; de Vos, Willem M.; de Groot, Philip J.; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.; Brummer, Robert-Jan M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2009-01-01

211

[Duodenal perforation after blunt abdominal trauma].  

PubMed

Duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a woman who had a perforation of the duodenum after a supposed mild blunt abdominal trauma. Unremarkable at the initial presentation, the patient presented with acute abdominal pain and a retroperitoneal abscess five days after the initial trauma. The duodenal repair was performed with a Roux-Y anastomosis. Difficulties in diagnosis are very common, but the early recognition of the rupture is essential. The contrast-enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for diagnosis. Surgical management depends on the severity of the trauma and must be chosen on an individual basis. PMID:20020392

Schneider, R; Moebius, C; Thelen, A; Jonas, S

2009-12-17

212

Duodenal segment complications in vascularized pancreas transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bladder drainage by the duodenal segment (DS) technique is currently the preferred method of pancreas transplantation (PTX)\\u000a but is associated with unique complications. Over a 7-year period, 191 diabetic patients underwent 201 whole-organ PTXs with\\u000a bladder drainage using a 6 to 8 cm length of DS as an exocrine conduit. A retrospective chart review was performed to document\\u000a all DS

Robert J. Stratta; Rakesh Sindhi; Debra Sudan; John T. Jerius; Stanley J. Radio

1997-01-01

213

Clinical and ultrastructural studies in duodenal pseudomelanosis.  

PubMed Central

Nine patients with duodenal pseudomelanosis are described: seven had endstage renal failure while one other patient had undergone renal transplantation. Eight of the nine had been on oral iron supplements. The pigment stained positively with Perls' stain for iron in five patients, positively with the Masson-Fontana method normally used to identify melanin in one, and positively with both methods in three. Electron probe x-ray analysis of the pigment on samples from six patients showed iron to be present in all six, while sulphur was present in five. Varying sulphur content of the pigment in different patients could account for differences in histochemical characteristics. Iron was also shown in the duodenal biopsies of 34 of 48 uraemic patients on oral iron supplements, but was present in only 22 of 120 patients endoscoped for miscellaneous conditions (p less than 0.001). We postulate that the pigment of duodenal pseudomelanosis is derived from iron absorbed from the lumen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Kang, J Y; Wu, A Y; Chia, J L; Wee, A; Sutherland, I H; Hori, R

1987-01-01

214

Successful Treatment of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding by Endoscopic Clipping  

PubMed Central

Duodenal varix bleeding is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension but can cause severe and potentially fatal bleeding. However, the incidence is low and a good treatment method has not been well established yet. Duodenal variceal bleeding can be treated surgically or nonsurgically. We have successfully treated a patient with duodenal variceal bleeding secondary to liver cirrhosis using hemoclips to control the bleeding.

Park, Su Bin; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jang, Sung Pil; Lee, Jae Nam; Hwang, Jong Ho

2013-01-01

215

Effect of exogenous administration of transforming growth factor-beta and famotidine on the healing of duodenal ulcer under the impact of indomethacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs delay ulcer healing and cause refractory peptic ulcers in humans.Objective. To study the effects of growth factors on experimental duodenal ulcer healing in indomethacin-treated rats.Methods. Duodenal ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by the serosal application of 75% acetic acid for 10 s. Rats were then treated with indomethacin (2 mg\\/kg\\/day; s.c.), transforming growth factor

A Pérez-Aisa; F Sopeña; E Arceiz; J Ortego; R Sainz; A Lanas

2003-01-01

216

Duodenal pH in health and duodenal ulcer disease: effect of a meal, Coca-Cola, smoking, and cimetidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraluminal duodenal pH was recorded using a combined miniature electrode and logged digitally every 10 or 20 seconds for five hours (basal\\/meal\\/drink) in eight control subjects and 11 patients with duodenal ulcer (five on and off treatment with cimetidine). Over the whole test there were no significant differences in duodenal mean pH or log mean hydrogen ion activity (LMHa) between

R F McCloy; G R Greenberg; J H Baron

1984-01-01

217

Antro-pyloro-duodenal motor responses to gastric and duodenal nutrient in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Gastric emptying is frequently delayed in critical illness which compromises the success of nasogastric nutrition. The underlying motor dysfunctions are poorly defined. Aims: To characterise antro-pyloro-duodenal motility during fasting, and in response to gastric and duodenal nutrient, as well as to evaluate the relationship between gastric emptying and motility, in the critically ill. Subjects: Fifteen mechanically ventilated patients from a mixed intensive care unit; 10 healthy volunteers. Methods: Antro-pyloro-duodenal pressures were recorded during fasting, after intragastric administration (100 ml; 100 kcal), and during small intestinal infusion of liquid nutrient (6 hours; 1 kcal/min). Gastric emptying was measured using a 13C octanoate breath test. Results: In healthy subjects, neither gastric nor small intestinal nutrient affected antro-pyloro-duodenal pressures. In patients, duodenal nutrient infusion reduced antral activity compared with both fasting and healthy subjects (0.03 (0–2.47) waves/min v 0.14 (0–2.2) fasting (p?=?0.016); and v 0.33 (0–2.57)/min in healthy subjects (p?=?0.005)). Basal pyloric pressure and the frequency of phasic pyloric pressure waves were increased in patients during duodenal nutrient infusion (3.12 (1.06) mm Hg; 0.98 (0.13)/min) compared with healthy subjects (?0.44 (1.25) mm Hg; p<0.02 after 120 minutes; 0.29 (0.15)/min; p?=?0.0002) and with fasting (?0.06 (1.05) mm Hg; p<0.03 after 160 minutes; 0.49 (0.13)/min; (p?=?0.0001). Gastric emptying was delayed in patients (gastric emptying coefficient 2.99 (0.2) v 3.47 (0.1); p?=?0.015) and inversely related to the number of pyloric pressure waves (r?=??0.563, p?=?0.029). Conclusions: Stimulation of pyloric and suppression of antral pressures by duodenal nutrient are enhanced in the critically ill and related to decreased gastric emptying.

Chapman, M; Fraser, R; Vozzo, R; Bryant, L; Tam, W; Nguyen, N; Zacharakis, B; Butler, R; Davidson, G; Horowitz, M

2005-01-01

218

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the duodenum together with multiple intra-abdominal thromboses and hepatitis C virus infection: a case report  

PubMed Central

Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue MALT lymphoma is a low grade malignancy that arises most commonly from the gastric mucosa. Small intestinal involvement is very rare. The causative relationship between Helicobacter pylori and the gastric MALT lymphoma is a well known issue, but recently there are several data suggesting the role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the pathogenesis of lymphoma including MALT lymphoma. Herein we present a rare case of duodenal MALT lymphoma with multiple intra-abdominal thromboses together with HCV infection that was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction detecting HCV-RNA within the peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

2009-01-01

219

[A case report of ball valve syndrome caused by the gastrointestinal stromal tumor arising from the muscularis mucosae in gastric fornix].  

PubMed

An 83-year-old woman who was admitted to other hospital, was consulted us because of continuous tarry stool and abdominal fullness. On upper endoscopy, the submucosal tumor from greater curvature of gastric fornix invaginated into the duodenal bulbus, showing so-called "ball valve syndrome (BVS)". As the tumor incarcerted again on the following endoscoopy, she underwent laparoscopic partial gastrectomy. The submucosal tumor was diagnosed histologically as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising from the muscularis mucosae. This is the first report that GIST arising from the muscularis mucosae in gastric fornix showed a BVS. PMID:18772574

Ishikawa, Chisato; Watari, Jiro; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Konno, Yoko; Sato, Ryu; Moriichi, Kentaro; Okamoto, Kotaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Tokusashi, Yoshihiko; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Kohgo, Yutaka

2008-09-01

220

Management of Biliary and Duodenal Complications of Chronic Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biliary stricture and duodenal obstruction have been increasingly recognized as complications of chronic pancreatitis. The anatomical relationship of the distal common bile duct and the duodenum with the head of the pancreas is the main factor for their involvement in chronic pancreatitis. In hospitalized patients with pancreatitis, the incidence of biliary stricture and duodenal obstruction is reported to be about

Joseph D. Vijungco; Richard A. Prinz

2003-01-01

221

An unusual case of cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall (CDDW) is an infrequent disease characterized by a chronic inflammation of the aberrant pancreatic tissue in the duodenal wall. A 60-year-old woman was admitted with several months of upper right abdominal discomfort, vomiting after meals and a 15kg weight loss. The diagnosis of a CDDW was initially suspected in an abdominal US examination, which

Vjacheslav I. Egorov; Grigory G. Karmazanovsky; Alexandr I. Schegolev; Julia A. Stepanova; Nina I. Yashina; Elena N. Solodinina

2007-01-01

222

Outcomes After Gastric Bypass and Duodenal Switch Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... assigned by chance (“randomly assigned”) to undergo either gastric bypass surgery or duodenal switch surgery. Both procedures were done ... expect to see signi?cant weight loss with either gastric bypass or duodenal switch surgery. The decision about which procedure to use needs ...

223

Reflux of duodenal contents into the pancreatic duct of dogs.  

PubMed

Previously we demonstrated that postprandial duodenal pressure transiently exceeds pancreatic duct pressure in the dog. To determine whether this presure gradient causes reflux from the duodenum into the pancreatic duct, we provided each of five dogs with a permanent pancreatodochal catheter and three indwelling duodenal cutaneous catheters. 14C-PEG was infused through the proximal duodenal catheter; intraluminal pressures were monitored through the middle catheter at the level of the pancreatic duct orifice; and 15 cm abroad, duodenal contents were recovered from the third catheter. Fifteen-minute pooled samples were collected 1 hr preprandially and 2 hr postprandially from the pancreatic duct and duodenum and were analyzed for volume, lipase activity, and marker concentration. Reflux of duodenal contents occurred only in 10.8% of fasting periods but was observed in 38% of postprandial periods (p < 0.05). The total volume of duodenal content refluxed per 15 min approximated 0.1 ml and represented between 0.5% and 1% of total pancreatic volume flow and between 0.05% and 0.07% of total duodenal volume flow. Thus we have provided evidence that small amounts of duodenal contents may reflux into the pancreatic duct of dogs in our experimental model. This finding may be relevant to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:7419970

Hendricks, J C; DiMagno, E P; Go, V L; Dozois, R R

1980-11-01

224

Effect of fasting on rat duodenal and jejunal microvilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenal and jejunal ultrastructural morphology and total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were investigated in Wistar rats submitted to normal feeding, a 24 h fasting without or with access to sawdust or expanded polystyrene, and a 22 h fasting followed by a 2 h refeeding. Ultrastructural observation of duodenal and jejunal villous tips showed the occurrence of degenerating epithelial cells

M. J. MARTINS; C. HIPÓLITO-REIS; I. AZEVEDO

2001-01-01

225

Isolated duodenal rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenal rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is rare and it usually seen with other abdominal organ injuries. It represents approximately 2% to 20% of patients with blunt abdominal injury and often occurs after blows to the upper abdomen, or abdominal compression from high-riding seat belts. Two cases of blunt duodenal rupture successfully treated surgically, are presented with their preoperative diagnosis

Atilla Celik; Ediz Altinli; Ender Onur; Aziz Sumer; Neset Koksal

226

Endoscopic retrieval of a duodenal perforating teaspoon  

PubMed Central

Foreign objects ingestion occur commonly in pediatric patients. The majority of ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously the gastrointestinal tract and surgery is rarely required for extraction. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies larger than 10 cm has not yet been described. We present the case of a 16 years old bulimic girl that swallowed a 12 cm long teaspoon in order to provoke vomiting. The teaspoon perforated the duodenum. However, it was removed during gastroscopy and the site of perforation was closed endoscopically. This particular case shows the importance of endoscopy for retrieval of large foreign bodies, and the possibility to endoscopically close a perforated duodenal wall.

Boskoski, Ivo; Tringali, Andrea; Landi, Rosario; Familiari, Pietro; Contini, Anna Chiara Iolanda; Pintus, Claudio; Costamagna, Guido

2013-01-01

227

Bile Acid Concentrations in Serum and Duodenal Aspirates of Healthy Preterm Infants: Effects of Gestational and Postnatal Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 41 healthy human-milk-fed preterm infants the preprandial total bile acid (B A) concentrations in serum and duodenal juice were simultaneous measured during the first 60 days of life. The infants were subdivided into four groups according to their gestational age: 6 infants with a gestational age of 27 and 28 weeks, 7 infants with a gestational age of 29

G. Boehm; W. Braun; G. Moro; I. Minoli

1997-01-01

228

Endoscopic Treatments of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography-Related Duodenal Perforations  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic duodenal perforation associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a very uncommon complication that is often lethal. Perforations during ERCP are caused by endoscopic sphincterotomy, placement of biliary or duodenal stents, guidewire-related causes, and endoscopy itself. In particular, perforation of the medial or lateral duodenal wall usually requires prompt diagnosis and surgical management. Perforation can follow various clinical courses, and management depends on the cause of the perforation. Cases resulting from sphincterotomy or guidewire-induced perforation can be managed by conservative treatment and biliary diversion. The current standard treatment for perforation of the duodenal free wall is early surgical repair. However, several reports of primary endoscopic closure techniques using endoclip, endoloop, or newly developed endoscopic devices have recently been described, even for use in direct perforation of the duodenal wall.

Han, Joung-Ho; Park, Sang-Heum

2013-01-01

229

Autophagy is active in normal colon mucosa.  

PubMed

Recently, autophagy has been found to be strongly activated in colon cancer cells, but few studies have addressed the normal colon mucosa. The aim of this study was to characterize autophagy in normal human intestinal cells. We used the expression of LC3-II and BECN1 as well as SQSTM1 as markers of autophagy activity. Using the normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cell experimental model, we found that autophagy was much more active in undifferentiated cells than in differentiated cells. In the normal adult colonic mucosa, BECN1 was found in the proliferative epithelial cells of the lower part of the gland while SQSTM1 was predominantly found in the differentiated cells of the upper part of the gland and surface epithelium. Interestingly, the weak punctate pattern of SQSTM1 expression in the lower gland colocalized with BECN1-labeled autophagosomes. The usefulness of SQSTM1 as an active autophagy marker was confirmed in colon cancer specimens at the protein and transcript levels. In conclusion, our results show that autophagy is active in the colonic gland and is associated with the intestinal proliferative/undifferentiated and progenitor cell populations. PMID:22652752

Groulx, Jean-Francois; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Benoit, Yannick D; Bernatchez, Gérald; Carrier, Julie C; Basora, Nuria; Beaulieu, Jean-François

2012-06-01

230

Autophagy is active in normal colon mucosa  

PubMed Central

Recently, autophagy has been found to be strongly activated in colon cancer cells, but few studies have addressed the normal colon mucosa. The aim of this study was to characterize autophagy in normal human intestinal cells. We used the expression of LC3-II and BECN1 as well as SQSTM1 as markers of autophagy activity. Using the normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cell experimental model, we found that autophagy was much more active in undifferentiated cells than in differentiated cells. In the normal adult colonic mucosa, BECN1 was found in the proliferative epithelial cells of the lower part of the gland while SQSTM1 was predominantly found in the differentiated cells of the upper part of the gland and surface epithelium. Interestingly, the weak punctate pattern of SQSTM1 expression in the lower gland colocalized with BECN1-labeled autophagosomes. The usefulness of SQSTM1 as an active autophagy marker was confirmed in colon cancer specimens at the protein and transcript levels. In conclusion, our results show that autophagy is active in the colonic gland and is associated with the intestinal proliferative/undifferentiated and progenitor cell populations.

Groulx, Jean-Francois; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Benoit, Yannick D.; Bernatchez, Gerald; Carrier, Julie C.; Basora, Nuria; Beaulieu, Jean-Francois

2012-01-01

231

The role of gastric and duodenal pH in the cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat.  

PubMed

Many secretory studies reported an increase in gastric acid secretion by the duodenal ulcerogen cysteamine. A detailed analysis of these experiments, especially the results from rats with chronic gastric fistula suggest that direct stimulation of gastric acid secretion may not be the primary mechanism of the duodenal ulcerogenic action of cysteamine. We used a different approach and measured the pH at the site of ulceration in the proximal duodenum. A duodenal ulcerogenic dose of cysteamine did not change the pH at the anterior or posterior wall of the duodenum during 4 hr. In the same dose and by the same route of administration, cysteamine nevertheless induced duodenal ulcers in 24 hr. These experiments demonstrate that in addition to the effect on gastric acid secretion, other factors are needed to the effect on gastric acid secretion, other factors are needed to explain the early duodenal ulcerogenic action of cysteamine. PMID:2596314

Kusterer, K; Rohr, G; Herrmann, W; Piplack, C; Schwedes, U; Usadel, K H; Szabo, S

1989-01-01

232

Duodenal gastric heterotopia: further evidence of an association with fundic gland polyps.  

PubMed

Duodenal gastric heterotopia (DGH) is a common incidental finding at endoscopy, generally assumed to be congenital in origin. A recent study has suggested a possible association with gastric fundal gland polyps (FGPs). In this review of 37 patients with histologically confirmed DGH, the background to our present understanding of the DGH lesion is reviewed, the clinical and pathological associations of the condition in our cohort are identified, and the histological and immunohistochemical features of the DGH lesion are described. An association with the presence of FGPs is again demonstrated, whereas an inverse relationship with Helicobacter pylori is also shown. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrates that the fundic-type glands of DGH express the proton pump antigen (H(+)K(+)ATPase), whereas the overlying surface mucosa expresses the mucin profile of normal gastric-type mucosa (mucin-5AC positive, mucin-2 negative). DGH may represent a further component of the iatrogenic hypergastrinemia-related hypothesis for FGP development, although further study is required to confirm this. PMID:23063504

Conlon, Niamh; Logan, Elaine; Veerappan, Sundaram; McKiernan, Susan; O'Briain, Sean

2012-10-11

233

Origin of Cardiac Mucosa: Ontogenic Consideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and histology of the cardiac mucosa remains controversial. The classical concept that the cardiac mucosa is of\\u000a gastric origin has been challenged by those who advocate that the cardiac mucosa results from a metaplastic esophageal process.\\u000a Some regard cardiac mucosa as consisting solely of pure mucous glands, whereas others accept the presence of isolated parietal\\u000a cells within the

Hong Zhou; M. Alba Greco; Fredric Daum; Ellen Kahn

2001-01-01

234

Acute Duodenal Obstruction After Percutaneous Placement of Metallic Biliary Stents: Peroral Treatment with Enteral Stents  

SciTech Connect

Three patients with malignant biliary obstruction were treated with placement of metallic biliary stents. Two patients had known partial duodenal stenosis but had no symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction. The patients developed symptomatic duodenal obstruction early after biliary metallic stent placement. The symptomatic duodenal obstructions were successfully treated with peroral placement of duodenal stents, which obviated the need for surgical intervention.

Lopera, Jorge E. [Louisiana State University, 1542 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: jloper@lsuhsc.edu; Alvarez, Oscar A. [Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paul, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Department of Gastroenterology (Colombia); Perdigao, Joseph; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido [Louisiana State University, 1542 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, Department of Radiology (United States)

2003-09-15

235

Regulation of Duodenal Bicarbonate Secretion during Stress by Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and beta -endorphin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion is an important factor in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease. To examine the central nervous system regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion, an animal model was developed that allowed cerebroventricular and intravenous injections as well as collection of duodenal perfusates in awake, freely moving rats. The hypothalamic peptide corticotropinreleasing factor (CRF) and stress (physical restraint)

H. Jurgen Lenz

1989-01-01

236

Luminal L-glutamate enhances duodenal mucosal defense mechanisms via multiple glutamate receptors in rats.  

PubMed

Presence of taste receptor families in the gastrointestinal mucosa suggests a physiological basis for local and early detection of a meal. We hypothesized that luminal L-glutamate, which is the primary nutrient conferring fundamental umami or proteinaceous taste, influences mucosal defense mechanisms in rat duodenum. We perfused the duodenal mucosa of anesthetized rats with L-glutamate (0.1-10 mM). Intracellular pH (pH(i)) of the epithelial cells, blood flow, and mucus gel thickness (MGT) were simultaneously and continuously measured in vivo. Some rats were pretreated with indomethacin or capsaicin. Duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) was measured with flow-through pH and CO(2) electrodes. We tested the effects of agonists or antagonists for metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 or 4 or calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on defense factors. Luminal L-glutamate dose dependently increased pH(i) and MGT but had no effect on blood flow in the duodenum. L-glutamate (10 mM)-induced cellular alkalinization and mucus secretion were inhibited by pretreatment with indomethacin or capsaicin. L-glutamate effects on pH(i) and MGT were mimicked by mGluR4 agonists and inhibited by an mGluR4 antagonist. CaSR agonists acidified cells with increased MGT and DBS, unlike L-glutamate. Perfusion of L-glutamate with inosinate (inosine 5'-monophosphate, 0.1 mM) enhanced DBS only in combination, suggesting synergistic activation of the L-glutamate receptor, typical of taste receptor type 1. L-leucine or L-aspartate had similar effects on DBS without any effect on pH(i) and MGT. Preperfusion of L-glutamate prevented acid-induced cellular injury, suggesting that L-glutamate protects the mucosa by enhancing mucosal defenses. Luminal L-glutamate may activate multiple receptors and afferent nerves and locally enhance mucosal defenses to prevent subsequent injury attributable to acid exposure in the duodenum. PMID:19643955

Akiba, Yasutada; Watanabe, Chikako; Mizumori, Misa; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

2009-07-30

237

A case of duodenal intramural metastasis from gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Here, we report a case of duodenal intramural metastasis from gastric cancer, which is extremely rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 72-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of lack of appetite in 2010. An endoscopic evaluation detected a Borrmann type 2 tumor occupying the lesser curvature of the gastric body and antrum, and pyloric stenosis. The patient underwent total gastrectomy. In an examination of the resected specimen, a type 2 tumor was identified in the middle gastric body and antrum, and a submucosal tumor was detected in the duodenal bulb. A histopathological examination demonstrated that the gastric tumor was not contiguous with the duodenal submucosal tumor. A microscopic examination demonstrated that the gastric tumor was a moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and displayed lymphatic permeation. The duodenal submucosal tumor was also found to be an adenocarcinoma and was similar to the gastric tumor; therefore, we diagnosed the duodenal tumor as an intramural metastasis from gastric cancer. DISCUSSION The most common route of metastasis from gastric cancer involves hematogenous metastasis, lymph node metastasis, and peritoneal metastasis. Intramural metastasis from gastric cancer is rare and has been reported to be a variant of lymphogenic metastasis. The clinicopathological features of patients with duodenal intramural metastasis from gastric cancer are unclear because only one case of the condition has been reported. CONCLUSION Duodenal intramural metastasis from gastric cancer is an advanced form of cancer, and we suggest that it should be treated with surgical resection followed by adjuvant therapy.

Ito, Tomoaki; Sato, Koichi; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Sakurada, Mutsumi; Orita, Hajime; Kushida, Tomoyuki; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Wada, Ryo

2013-01-01

238

Symptomatic duodenal Crohn's disease: Is strictureplasty the right choice?  

PubMed

Primary duodenal localization of Crohn's disease (CD) is rare. Medical therapy can control symptoms, but surgery is required when progressive obstructive symptoms occur. Surgical options include bypass, resection, or strictureplasty, but it is still not clear which should be the treatment of choice. Reviewing the medical records of 1253 patients undergoing surgery for CD between January 1986 and December 2011 at the Digestive Surgery Unit of the Department of Clinical Physiopathology of the University of Florence, 10 patients (6 males and 4 females) underwent operations for duodenal CD. Four patients had only a duodenal localization, 6 patients had synchronous involvement of other intestinal tracts. Strictures were distributed in all the duodenal portions: in 7 patients there were single lesions, in 3 patients there were multiple lesions. Eight patients were treated with strictureplasty: 5 with the Heineke-Mikulicz technique, 2 with Jaboulay, and 1 with a pedunculated jejunal patch. Two patients were treated with resection: one with a B2 gastro-duodenal resection, and 1 with a duodenal-jejunal resection and an end to side duodeno-jejunal anastomosis. Follow up of the patients was from 2 to 18years. No recurrence of duodenal CD was observed in the 2 patients treated with resection, while 2 of the 8 patients treated with strictureplasty had a recurrence. In our experience, strictureplasty is indicated when less than 2 strictures are present in the 2nd or 3rd duodenal portion. In cases with multiple strictures localized in the 1st or the distal duodenal portion, resection is preferable. PMID:23165121

Tonelli, Francesco; Alemanno, Giovanni; Bellucci, Francesco; Focardi, Adriana; Sturiale, Alessandro; Giudici, Francesco

2012-11-17

239

Nasal toxicological investigations of Carbopol 971P formulation of apomorphine: effects on ciliary beat frequency of human nasal primary cell culture and in vivo on rabbit nasal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the nasal toxicity of a mucoadhesive Carbopol 971P formulation of apomorphine. Materials and methods: The effects of different concentrations of Carbopol 971P and apomorphine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were studied in suspension cultures of human nasal epithelial cells. The rabbit nasal mucosal tolerance of the formulation and its components were

Michael Ikechukwu Ugwoke; Remigius Uchenna Agu; Mark Jorissen; Patrick Augustijns; Raf Sciot; Norbert Verbeke; Renaat Kinget

2000-01-01

240

Comparing the genotoxic sensitivities of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mucosa cells of the upper aerodigestive tract using the Comet assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinogenesis in the upper aerodigestive tract is influenced by multiple factors. Besides tobacco and alcohol consumption, specific pollutants such as phthalates, nitrosamines, and polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates may be important in tumor initiation. Genetic factors related to mutagen sensitivity and DNA repair capacity also play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human peripheral blood lymphocytes and

Norbert H Kleinsasser; Barbara C Wallner; Ernst R Kastenbauer; Ruth K Muenzenrieder; Ulrich A Harréus

2000-01-01

241

Duodenal Bleeding from Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is relatively uncommon and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Duodenal metastasis is rare in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and early detection, especially in case of a solitary mass, helps in planning further therapy. We report a case of intractable upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic RCC to the duodenum. The patient presented with melena and anemia, 13 years after nephrectomy for RCC. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a submucosal mass was noted in the duodenum, biopsies of which revealed metastatic RCC. In conclusion, metastasis from RCC should be considered in nephrectomized patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and a complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination followed by biopsy, is suggested.

Rustagi, Tarun; Rangasamy, Priya; Versland, Mark

2011-01-01

242

Detection of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences in oral mucosa of HIV-infected patients by the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed Central

The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was analyzed in 21 oral biopsy specimens of HIV-infected patients using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Biopsies were categorized as hairy leukoplakia (HL) (n = 12), candidiasis (n = 3), oral warts (n = 2), and clinically normal epithelium (n = 4). For HPV detection a modified general primer-mediated PCR method (GP-PCR), which detects a broad spectrum of HPV genotypes at sub-picogram levels, was used. Human papillomavirus DNA was only found in two oral warts and was identified as HPV type 32. Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected in 16 biopsy specimens, including the 12 HLs, 2 cases of candidiasis, and 2 samples of normal epithelium. Epstein-Barr virus positivity in HL could be confirmed by Southern blot analysis and DNA in situ hybridization using biotinylated DNA probes (bio-DISH). Epstein-Barr virus bio-DISH was also positive in one sample of normal epithelium from a patient with HL. The results indicate that HL is strongly associated with EBV and not with any of the common HPV types that react with general HPV primers in the PCR. However the detection of EBV in normal oral epithelium by PCR and bio-DISH suggests that the presence of this virus is not exclusively related to HL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Snijders, P. J.; Schulten, E. A.; Mullink, H.; ten Kate, R. W.; Jiwa, M.; van der Waal, I.; Meijer, C. J.; Walboomers, J. M.

1990-01-01

243

Gene expression and gene therapy in experimental duodenal ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastroduodenal ulceration is still poorly understood and changes in gene expression may provide new mechanistic insights. Previously, we demonstrated that angiogenic growth factors are potent ulcer healing agents, and the synthesis of bFGF, PDGF and VEGF is enhanced early in duodenal ulcer healing. The initial molecular event in duodenal ulceration seems to be the organ-specific early release of ET-1 in

Sandor Szabo; Xiaoming Deng; Tetyana Khomenko; Masashi Yoshida; Martin R Jadus; Zsuzsa Sandor; Zoltan Gombos; Hiroko Matsumoto

2001-01-01

244

Relief of duodenal ulcer sysmptons by oral metiamide.  

PubMed Central

Thirty patients with symptoms of duodenal ulceration were treated for five to eight weeks in a double-blind trial with either metiamide 1 g daily by mouth or a placebo. In the 15 patients receiving metiamide there were significant reductions in nocturnal pain and antacid consumption. Daytime pain was diminished. The results suggest that histamine H2-receptor antagonists are likely to be useful in the medical management of the symptoms of duodenal ulceration.

Pounder, R E; Williams, J G; Milton-Thompson, G J; Misiewicz, J J

1975-01-01

245

Isolation of spontaneous and interferon inducible natural killer like cells from human colonic mucosa: lysis of lymphoid and autologous epithelial target cells.  

PubMed Central

Viable mononuclear and epithelial cells were dispersed from human colonic tissue by treatment with collagenase and ethylene diamino-tetra acetate (EDTA) and separated by centrifugal elutriation. Using a single cell cytotoxic assay, functional endogenous and interferon responsive mononuclear cytotoxic cells were detected. Compared to peripheral blood lymphocyte associated killer cells that had been exposed to similar treatment, these colonic killer cells demonstrated lower efficiency cytotoxicity of Molt-4 target cells. Furthermore, inefficient, but interferon responsive cytotoxic cells were present which bound and lysed freshly isolated autologous epithelial cells. The cytotoxicity of these colonic mononuclear natural killer (NK) like cells appeared specific in that cells bound but did not lyse NK resistant Raji cells, even after interferon activation.

Targan, S; Britvan, L; Kendal, R; Vimadalal, S; Soll, A

1983-01-01

246

A human homologue to the yeast omnipotent suppressor 45 maps 100 kb centromeric to HLA-A  

SciTech Connect

Idipathic hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive inherited disorder of iron metabolism. The molecular defect is unknown. However, the gene responsible for the disease (HFE) has been localized on the short arm of chromosome 6. It is closely linked to the HLA class I genes and possibly within a 350 kilobase (kb) region around the HLA-A locus. In order to identify candidate genes for hemochromatosis, we applied a cDNA selection technique to isolate transcribed sequences encoded on yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC). At first, we screened a cDNA library derived from normal human duodenal mucosa with the YAC B30 H3. This YAC contains a 320 kb DNA insert including the HLA-A gene and spanning 150 kb of the 350 kb zone where the hemochromatosis gene is in linkage disequilibrium with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Preparation of the cDNA library of duodenal mucosa in Lambda Zap II phage and library screening with YAC B30 were carried out as previously described. In this way, we isolated seven non-HLA-A cDNAs corresponding to seven new genomic sequences. These potential genes were named hemochromatosis candidate gene (HCG) and numbered I to VII. The survey of all these cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences is in progress. In this work, we are especially interested in one of the seven non-HLA class I cDNA clones, named clone 58. 12 refs., 2 figs.

Chauvel, B.; Dorval, I.; Fergelot, P. [CNRS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes (France)] [and others

1995-04-01

247

Extracellular matrix proteins and displacement of cultured fibroblasts from duodenal biopsies in celiac patients and controls  

PubMed Central

Background Celiac disease (CD) is mainly characterised by villous atrophy and mucosal architectural rearrangement. The fibroblasts (FBs) are the most abundant mesenchymal cell type in the intestinal mucosa and are responsible for both the architectural arrangement of the villi and the formation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This study aimed at the evaluation of both the intracellular distribution of different proteins involved in ECM and FBs characterisation, and the cellular displacement of primary FBs obtained from duodenal endoscopic biopsies of healthy subjects and celiac patients. Methods Primary healthy and celiac duodenal FBs were evaluated by means of immuno-fluorescence assay for collagen type I and IV, fibronectin, actin, alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (alpha-SMA), Fibroblast Surface Protein (FSP) and transglutaminase type 2 (TG2). The geometric indexes of the fluorescence signals were investigated by image analysis software (Image J, NIH). Both morphology and kinetic were evaluated during a 72 hours time course movie. TG2 medium activity was evaluated by means of ELISA. Results All the cells examined were immunopositive for FSP, alpha-SMA, actin, collagen I, collagen IV and TG2. CD cells showed a signet collagen-I and collagen-IV pattern, as compared to the controls being characterised by a spindle geometry. Moreover, the collagen signals in CD FBs showed a significantly higher circularity index (major orthogonal diameter ratio) than the controls (p?

2013-01-01

248

Oral Immunization with a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Vaccine Induces Specific Circulating Mucosa-Homing CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Humans  

PubMed Central

The kinetics and homing characteristics of T-cell responses in humans after mucosal immunizations have not been well characterized. Therefore, we have investigated the magnitude and duration of such responses as well as the homing receptor expression of antigen-specific peripheral blood T cells by using an oral model vaccine, i.e., the live, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine (Ty21a). Eight volunteers were each given three doses of the vaccine 2 days apart, and blood samples, from which CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were selected by the use of magnetic beads, were collected before vaccination and at regular intervals thereafter. To purify the potentially antigen-specific gut-homing T cells, CD45RA? integrin ?7+ cells were further sorted by flow cytometry. The sorted cells were then stimulated in vitro with the serovar Typhi vaccine strain, and the proliferation of cells and the cytokine production were measured. Following vaccination, there was a large increase in both the proliferation of and the gamma interferon (IFN-?) production by blood T cells stimulated with the vaccine strain. The responses were seen among both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, although the CD8+ cells produced the largest amounts of IFN-?. Peak responses were seen 7 to 14 days after the onset of vaccination. Furthermore, most of the IFN-? produced by both CD4+ and CD8+ cells emanated from cells with the potential to home to mucosal tissues, as the integrin ?7-expressing memory T cells produced around 10-fold more IFN-? than the remaining populations. In conclusion, we demonstrate that oral vaccination with a live oral bacterial vaccine induces antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells, almost all of which express the gut-homing integrin ?7.

Lundin, B. Samuel; Johansson, Camilla; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

2002-01-01

249

[Use of an herbal combination with laxative action on duodenal peptic ulcer and gastroduodenitis patients with a concomitant obstipation syndrome].  

PubMed

Thirty two patients were treated--19 with duodenal ulcer and 19 with gastroduodenitis, all of them with concomitant obstipation syndrome. The patients were treated with a combination of Symphitum officinalis and Calendula officinales form the main disease. The obstipation syndrome was treated with a combination of Rhamus frangula, Citrus aurantium, Carum carvi. The laxative herb combination was effective in 100 per cent of the patients--daily defecation in 90.6 per cent and every second day in 9.4 per cent of the patients was attained. No effect on gastric mucosa was established as well as on the clinical effect of the main disease and on the percentage of the ulcer niche healing. PMID:7336705

Matev, M; Chak?rski, I; Stefanov, G; Ko?chev, A; Angelov, I

1981-01-01

250

Surface studies of duodenal lesions induced by thoracic irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Acute duodenal ulcers are produced in mice as a remote (abscopal) effect of irradiation to the lower mediastinum. Such lesions have been examined with scanning electron microscopy at 5, 8 and 28 days after irradiation with 18 Gy of X-rays. All the ulcers occur within the first 1 cm long segment of the duodenum which is endowed with Brunner's glands. The single lesions vary in size, shape and position. The damaged area often includes much of the duodenal circumference and is distinguished by conical or rudimentary villi, or even by the complete absence of villi. In contrast, around the periphery of the ulcer the villi are mostly vertical. Although the floor of these lesions appears to be covered with a continuous epithelial layer, during the first 4 weeks after irradiation the severity of the focal duodenal damage seems to increase gradually with time. The lesions have been compared with specimens from unirradiated mice and also with samples taken 3 days after partial thoracic irradiation when little damage is seen. The pattern of fully developed duodenal lesions differs greatly from that seen after direct irradiation where damage has not included localised ulceration in the samples of jejunum so far examined. The lesions induced by partial thoracic irradiation may be related to radiation injury to vascular or autonomic nerve targets in the lower mediastinum. Such injury could result in malfunction of the pyloric sphincter or could alter the secretion by Brunner's glands and thus lead to duodenal ulceration.

Carr, K.E.; Ellis, S.; Michalowski, A.

1986-01-01

251

Dirithromycin Concentrations in Bronchial Mucosa and Secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since a high tissue penetration of dirithromycin (D) has been assessed in early studies, the aims of this study were to determine D concentrations in bronchial mucosa and secretions in patients suffering from an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB), to compare intra-individual bronchial mucosa and secretion concentrations and to relate bronchial concentrations of D and clinical efficacy. The main

Christophe Leroyer; Claudette Muller-Serieys; Jean-Jacques Quiot; Daniel Benhamou; Jean Clavier; Emilie Bergogne-Bérézin

1998-01-01

252

Determination of thickness of palatal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background: The palatal masticatory mucosa is widely used as a donor material in periodontal plastic surgery. The thickness of graft tissue is an important factor for the graft survival. The purpose of this study was to determine the thickness of palatal mucosa by a bone sounding technique. The association of age and gender with the thickness of palatal mucosa was also examined. Materials and Methods: Twenty four healthy subjects had participated in the study. The younger age group of 16-30 years consisted of 12 subjects of 7 females and 5 males, and the older age group of 31-54 years consisted of 12 subjects, of 5 females and 7 males. A bone sounding method using a periodontal probe was done to assess the thickness of palatal mucosa at 15 measurement sites defined according to the gingival margin and palatal line. Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the difference in mucosal thickness between both the groups. Results: The younger age group had thinner mucosa ranged from 2 to 3.1 mm in thickness than the older age group which ranged from 3.2 to 3.7 mm. In the same age group, females had thinner mucosa than males in the same age group. The mean thickness of palatal masticatory mucosa ranged from 2.5 to 3.7 mm. Conclusion: The younger subjects had thinner mucosa than older subjects. The canine and premolar areas appeared to be the most appropriate donor site for grafting procedures.

Kolliyavar, Bharati; Setty, Swati; Thakur, Srinath L.

2012-01-01

253

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

PubMed Central

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit.

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

254

Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cytoprotective factors in rats with duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cytoprotective factors in rats with duodenal ulcer. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation without ginkgo, sham operation with ginkgo, duodenal ulcer without ginkgo, and duodenal ulcer with ginkgo. Rats with duodenal ulcer were induced by 500 mL\\/L acetic acid. Rats with ginkgo were intravenously injected

Jane C.-J. Chao; Huei-Chen Hung; Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Chia-Lang Fang

2004-01-01

255

Duodenal varices successfully treated with cyanoacrylate injection therapy  

PubMed Central

Duodenal varices are a rare complication of portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis. Compared to oesophageal varices, they bleed less often but are also more difficult to diagnose and treat. There is no established treatment for bleeding duodenal varices and different treatment strategies have been employed with variable results. The authors present a case of 52-year-old male who was admitted with melaena. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed which identified bleeding varices in the second part of duodenum. The varices were injected with cyanoacrylate and the outcome was favourable. Subsequent endoscopies showed complete resolution of the varices. The authors conclude that cyanoacrylate injection is an effective first-line treatment for bleeding duodenal varices.

Malik, Ahsan; Junglee, Naushad; Khan, Anwar; Sutton, Jonathon; Gasem, Jaber; Ahmed, Waqar

2011-01-01

256

A Rare Cause of Acute Pancreatitis: Intramural Duodenal Hematoma  

PubMed Central

We describe an interesting case of intramural duodenal hematoma in an otherwise healthy male who presented to emergency room with gradually progressive abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. This condition was missed on initial evaluation and patient was discharged from emergency room with diagnosis of acute gastritis. After 3 days, patient came back to emergency room and abdominal imaging studies were conducted which showed that patient had intramural duodenal hematoma associated with gastric outlet obstruction and pancreatitis. Hematoma was the cause of acute pancreatitis as pancreatic enzymes levels were normal at the time of first presentation, but later as the hematoma grew in size, it caused compression of pancreas and subsequent elevation of pancreatic enzymes. We experienced a case of pancreatitis which was caused by intramural duodenal hematoma. This case was missed on initial evaluation. We suggest that physicians should be more vigilant about this condition.

Goyal, Hemant; Singla, Umesh; Agrawal, Roli R.

2012-01-01

257

[Morphologic changes of gastric mucosa in Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer disease and chronic gastritis].  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to value the histological method of detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa and to analyse the pathological changes of the Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with duodenal and gastric ulcer and with chronic gastritis. The studies population consisted of 150 patients, 76 F and 74 M. The samples were taken during gastroscopy from the prepyloric region and gastric body. After routine histological procedure they were stained HE and by Giemsa method for detection of H.pylori. The latter was identified in 56.6% of of the patients with duodenal ulcer, in 54.8% of those with gastric ulcer, in 17.6% of the patients after partial gastrectomy and in 46.9% of patients suffering from chronic gastritis. The increased density of H.pylori (third grade) was detected in the cases with clinical diagnosis of duodenal and gastric ulcer and erythematous endoscopic gastritis and was correlated with the histological picture of chronic active gastritis, which was characterized by diffuse mixed cellular exudation, lesion of the superficial epithelial, mucosal erosions and by foveolar hyperplasia. We suggest that this morphological picture corresponded to the active phase of Helicobacter infection. We conclude, that the histological method by Giemsas staining is effective especially in the acute phase of H.pylori infection and represents high diagnostic value and may be used in monitoring during the antibacterial (anti H.pylori) treatment. There is the correlation between massive density of H.pylori observed in gastric mucosa and chronic active gastritis. PMID:9139779

Raczy?ska, A; Jarczyk, G; Jarczyk, J; Jedrzjczyk, W

1996-09-01

258

Duodenal rupture secondary to blunt trauma from a football  

PubMed Central

Duodenal rupture secondary to blunt trauma is a relatively uncommon event and is usually a result of a road traffic accident. As the duodenum is a retroperitoneal organ, delays in diagnosis can occur, as the patient may present with vague abdominal symptoms and other non-specific signs. Computed tomographic scanning is therefore a useful tool in the diagnosis of this condition. We present a 19-year-old girl who was hit in the abdomen with a football and subsequently had a duodenal rupture.

Luther, Alison; Mann, Christopher; Hart, Colin; Khalil, Khalil

2013-01-01

259

[A case of groove pancreatitis associated with duodenal ulcer].  

PubMed

We describe a 69-year-old man with a history of multiple gastroduodenal ulcers, presenting with the onset of obstructive jaundice. Abdominal CT, MRI and EUS demonstrated a sheet-like mass in the pancreaticoduodenal groove. EUS-FNA did not reveal malignancy. Conservative treatment did not improve his clinical condition and repeated acute pancreatitis occurred during his treatment. Thus, pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathological findings showed a duodenal ulcer penetrating the pancreas and infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrosis in the pancreaticoduodenal groove. The spread of inflammation associated with the duodenal ulcer may have been one of the causes of groove pancreatitis. PMID:23303234

Iemoto, Takao; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Sanuki, Tsuyoshi; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Hayakumo, Takanobu; Shinzeki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ippei; Ku, Yonson; Kanzawa, Maki; Hara, Shigeo; Azuma, Takeshi

2013-01-01

260

Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective effects of proglumide in rats  

SciTech Connect

Proglumide has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect the gastroduodenal mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, cysteamine and the cytodestructing agents: 80% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and 30 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in 0.35 M HCl in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that proglumide has both prophylactic and curative effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rats and reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, mucosal damaging agents and that of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The intensity of gastric lesions induced by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and reserpine was also reduced significantly by proglumide. Cimetidine, which was used as a standard antiulcer drug for comparison, also produced a similar protective effect in most of the models used by us. It was found to have a more potent antisecretory effect but failed to protect the rats against the gastric mucosal damage induced by hyperthermic restraint stress and 0.2 M NaOH. Our findings suggest that proglumide exerts these antiulcer effects by its antisecretory, gastric mucosal resistance increasing and cytoprotective activities. Further studies are required to find out its exact mechanism of action and therapeutic usefulness.

Tariq, M.; Parmar, N.S.; Ageel, A.M.

1987-05-01

261

Cimetidine decreases indomethacin induced duodenal mucosal damage in patients with acute musculoskeletal disorders.  

PubMed Central

The effect of two doses of cimetidine, 400 mg at night and 400 mg bd, on the protection of indomethacin (50 mg tid) induced mucosal damage was evaluated in a double blind study in patients with acute musculoskeletal disorders. Endoscopic mucosal lesions were scored before and after five to seven days of treatment. One hundred and ninety one patients were endoscoped before the trial, 34 (17.8%) had greater than one erosion and were not recruited. Forty patients were excluded for non-compliance, or lost to follow up. At the second endoscopy, oesophageal, and fundic damage was negligible. Gastric and duodenal lesion score in patients treated with cimetidine 400 mg bd: 2.7 (0.5) (SE); n = 42) was significantly lower (p less than 0.0122) than in placebo treated patients: 6.1 (0.9) (n = 50) or in patients treated with cimetidine 400 mg at night 7.1 (0.8) (n = 21). Cimetidine 400 mg bd provided significant protection for the duodenum, but its protection of antral mucosa did not reach statistical significance. There was no correlation between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings.

Stalnikowicz, R; Pollak, D; Eliakim, A; Wengrower, D; Fich, A; Goldin, E; Ligumsky, M; Rachmilewitz, D

1988-01-01

262

Duodenal histoplasmosis presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in an AIDS patient.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis (GIH) is common in patients with disseminated disease but only rarely comes to clinical attention due to the lack of specific signs and symptoms. We report the unusual case of a 33-year-old Caucasian male with advanced AIDS who presented with upper GI bleeding from diffuse erosions throughout the duodenum. Biopsy of the lesions revealed small bowel mucosa with granulomatous inflammation and macrophages with small intracellular yeasts consistent with disseminated histoplasmosis. The patient demonstrated significant clinical improvement following a two-week course of liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of duodenal histoplasmosis leading to clinically significant bleeding, manifesting with worsening anemia and melanotic stools. Given our findings, we maintain that GIH should be considered on the differential diagnosis for GI bleeding in AIDS patients at risk, specifically those with advanced immunosuppression (i.e., CD4(+) cell counts <100?cells/mm(3)) who reside in endemic areas (Ohio or Mississippi river valleys) and/or have a prior history of histoplasmosis. For diagnostic evaluation, we recommend checking a urine Histoplasma quantitative antigen EIA as well as upper and/or lower endoscopy with biopsy. We recommend treatment with a two-week course of liposomal amphotericin B followed by indefinite itraconazole. PMID:23091745

Spinner, Michael A; Paulin, Heather N; Wester, C William

2012-10-03

263

Pellagra revealing a congenital duodenal diaphragm in an adult.  

PubMed

Pellagra is a nutritional disease caused by the deficiency of niacin. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by four "D's": diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and ultimately death. We describe a case of pellagra as the initial presentation of congenital duodenal diaphragm. PMID:23168227

Khouloud, Bouslama; Haykel, Bedioui; Ahmed, Saidani; Houcine, Maghrebi; Yacine, Ben Safta; Farah, Jokho; Zoubeir, Ben Safta

2012-11-15

264

Acid infusion enhances duodenal mechanosensitivity in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Duodenal acid has been suggested to be of importance for dyspeptic symptoms. We investigated the effects of acid on duodenal mechanosensitivity and antroduodenal motility in 10 healthy subjects before and during duodenal infusion of acid (0.1 N HCl) or water by using a combined barostat-manometry assembly. During acid infusion, increased sensitivity to balloon distension was seen, with reduced perception (P = 0.04) and discomfort thresholds (P = 0.06) and higher intensity of discomfort (P = 0.02) compared with water. Higher balloon volumes were seen during acid infusion, indicating decreased tone (P = 0.05). Large volume waves were more prevalent during acid than water infusion (P = 0.009). The acid infusion suppressed antral contractions (P = 0.04) and increased the number of contractions in the proximal duodenum (P = 0.02) compared with before the infusion. In conclusion, duodenal acid enhances mechanical sensitivity in the duodenum, affects gastroduodenal motor function, and might be of importance for dyspeptic symptoms. PMID:12686509

Simrén, Magnus; Vos, Rita; Janssens, Jozef; Tack, Jan

2003-04-09

265

DUODENAL CYTOCHROME B: A NOVEL FERRIREDUCTASE IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Catalytically active iron in the lung causes oxidative stress and promotes microbial growth that can be limited by intracellular sequestration of iron within ferritin. Because cellular iron uptake requires membrane ferrireductase activity that in the gut can be provided by duoden...

266

Long-term outcomes in patients with duodenal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Because of the rarity of duodenal adenocarcinoma, little is known regarding its natural history or prognostic factors for survival. We therefore evaluated surgical treatment, and prognostic factors for survival in patients with duodenal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who were diagnosed with duodenal adenocarcinoma at Asan Medical Center between December 1999 and December 2009. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients, 47 (61%) underwent surgery with curative intent and 29 (39%) underwent palliative operation. Of the former, 25 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), 19 underwent pylorus-preserving PD, 2 underwent segmental duodenectomy and 1 underwent transduodenal excision. The median survival of the 41 patients who achieved R0 resection was 25.1 months (range 4-134 months), with overall 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of 80.4%, 63.4% and 60.9%, respectively. Median survival was significantly longer in patients who underwent curative resection than in those who underwent palliative surgery (28.2 versus 6.6 months, P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that transfusion and lymph node metastasis were related to survival, and multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis was independently associated with survival (P = 0.036). Survival differences were observed between stages of the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. CONCLUSION: In the absence of distant metastasis, curative resection enhances the long-term survival of patients with duodenal adenocarcinoma. Lymph node metastasis is prognostic factor of overall survival. PMID:23656271

Lee, Sang Yeup; Lee, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Dae Wook; Kim, Song Cheol; Park, Kwang-Min; Lee, Young-Joo

2013-05-01

267

Effect of sucralfate on gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may have accelerated gastric emptying (GE) suggesting that there is an increase in unbuffered gastric acid reaching the duodenum contributing to DU disease. Aluminum-containing antacids were shown to delay GE. The authors' aim was to investigate whether another aluminum-containing compound, Sucralfate, affects GE in normal and DU patients. Nine normal volunteers and 10 patients with documented

J. M. Petersen; V. J. Caride; E. K. Prokop; F. Troncale; R. W. McCallum

1985-01-01

268

Plasma neurotransmitters and cortisol in duodenal ulcer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, free serotonin, platelet serotonin, and cortisol were measured in the plasma of duodenal ulcer patients and controls. All subjects received antacids, and these substances were also measured. During relapse, all patients showed raised noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, free serotonin, and cortisol values. In contrast, platelet serotonin showed very low values, which correlated negatively with all the

Fuad Lechin; Bertha van der Dijs; Isaìs Rada; Hector Jara; Alex E. Lechin; Alejandra Cabrera; Marcel E. Lechin; Vladimir Jimènez; Francisco Gòmez; Simòn Villa; Emilio Acosta; Luis Arocha

1990-01-01

269

Antacid maintenance therapy in the prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of antacid maintenance therapy in preventing duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse was investigated. Two hundred and fifty one asymptomatic patients with healed DU were stratified into smokers and non-smokers and randomised to receive for one year either placebo, or Maalox TC three tablets (81 mmol) at bedtime (hs), or Maalox TC three tablets in the morning plus three tablets

K D Bardhan; J O Hunter; J P Miller; A B Thomson; D Y Graham; R I Russell; S Sontag; C Hines; T Martin; L Gaussen

1988-01-01

270

Duodenal atresia in association with situs inversus abdominus.  

PubMed

We report a rare association of duodenal atresia with situs inversus abdominus in a newborn. The infantogram revealed "reverse double-bubble sign" without dextrocardia. The sonography and echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis of situs inversus abdominus with multiple cardiac anomalies. Laparotomy and a duodenoduodenostomy were carried out. PMID:22529552

Shankar, Raghu; Rao, Sadashiva P; Shetty, Kishan B

2012-04-01

271

Does Down syndrome affect the outcome of congenital duodenal obstruction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital duodenal obstruction (DO) has a well-known association with Down syndrome (DS) and other congenital malformations. Previously reported series on DO have not examined the influence of DS on associated congenital malformations and postoperative morbidity and mortality. We report on a retrospective study of all children born with DO over an 11-year period to investigate this. A total of 79

M. V. A. Singh; C. Richards; J. C. Bowen

2004-01-01

272

Mucosa associated lymphoma of the lung.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of mucosa associated lymphoma (pseudolymphoma) of the lung are described which highlight the varied clinical and radiological features of this rare pulmonary condition. Following chemotherapy with prednisolone and chlorambucil, both patients are disease free three years later. Images

Bolton-Maggs, P H; Colman, A; Dixon, G R; Myskow, M W; Williams, J G; Donnelly, R J; Hind, C R

1993-01-01

273

Vagal sensors in the rat duodenal mucosa: distribution and structure as revealed by in vivo DiI-tracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from functional studies point to the importance of chemoreceptive endings in the duodenum innervated by vagal afferents in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions such as gastric emptying and acid secretion, as well as in the process of satiation. In order to visualize the vagal sensory innervation of this gut segment, vagal afferents were selectively labeled in vivo by injecting

Hans-Rudolf Berthoud; Michael Kressel; Helen E. Raybould; Winfried L. Neuhuber

1995-01-01

274

Treating bilio-duodenal obstruction: Combining new endoscopic technique with 6 Fr stent introducer  

PubMed Central

Periampullary cancer may cause not only biliary but also duodenal obstructions. In patients with concomitant duodenal obstructions, endoscopic biliary stenting remains technically difficult and may often require percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. We describe a method of metal stent placement via a thin forward-viewing endoscope in patients with simultaneous biliary and duodenal obstruction. In two consecutive patients with biliary and duodenal obstruction due to pancreatic cancer, a new biliary metal stent mounted in a slim delivery catheter was placed via a thin forward viewing endoscope after passage across the duodenal stenosis without balloon dilation. In both patients, with our new placement technique, metallic stents were successfully placed in a short time without adverse events. After biliary stenting, one patient received curative resection and the other received duodenal stenting for palliation. Metallic stent placement with a forward-viewing thin endoscope is a beneficial technique, which can avoid percutaneous drainage in patients with bilio-duodenal obstructions due to periampullary cancer.

Maetani, Iruru; Nambu, Tomoko; Omuta, Shigefumi; Ukita, Takeo; Shigoka, Hiroaki

2010-01-01

275

[Acute duodenal obstruction due to incomplete duodenal diaphragm and foreign bodies in a two-year old child (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A case of congenital incomplete duodenal diaphragm associated to foreign bodies, in a 28 months child with Down's syndrom is reported. This case had an acute beginning of the symptoms and a severe clinical picture. We discuss the clinical features diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. PMID:145197

Ruiz Jiménez, J I; Gualda Cantón, J; Sánchez, E B

1977-03-01

276

CANULACIÓN DUODENAL E ILEAL PARA ESTUDIOS DE DIGESTIÓN EN CERDOS DUODENAL AND ILEAL CANNULATION FOR DIGESTION STUDIES IN PIGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality evaluation of protein sources for pigs includes the de- termination of amino acid digestibility as well as the secretion and activity of pancreatic proteases, which require to obtain duodenal and ileal digesta samples. In this report, a procedure for cannulat- ing growing pigs (35 kg average liveweight) at proximal duode- num and terminal ileum is described. The recovery

Miguel Cervantes-Ramírez; Víctor González-Vizcarra; Salvador Rodríguez-Rubí; Julio S. González-Monreal; Leopoldo Flores-Aguirre; Julián Carrillo

277

Early Rupture of an Ultralow Duodenal Stump after Extended Surgery for Gastric Cancer with Duodenal Invasion Managed by Tube Duodenostomy and Cholangiostomy  

PubMed Central

When dealing with gastric cancer with duodenal invasion, gastrectomy with distal resection of the duodenum is necessary to achieve negative distal margin. However, rupture of an ultralow duodenal stump necessitates advanced surgical skills and close postoperative observation. The present study reports a case of an early duodenal stump rupture after subtotal gastrectomy with resection of the whole first part of the duodenum, complete omentectomy, bursectomy, and D2+ lymphadenectomy performed for a pT3pN2pM1 (+ number 13 lymph nodes) adenocarcinoma of the antrum. Duodenal stump rupture was managed successfully by end tube duodenostomy, without omental patching, and tube cholangiostomy. Close assessment of clinical, physical, and radiological signs, output volume, and enzyme concentration of the tube duodenostomy, T-tube, and closed suction drain, which was placed near the tube duodenostomy site to drain the leak around the catheter, dictated postoperative management of the external duodenal fistula.

Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A.; Konstantinidou, Anna; Salpigktidis, Ilias I.; Katsaouni, Stavroula P.; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

2013-01-01

278

Controlled trial of hypnotherapy in relapse prevention of duodenal ulceration.  

PubMed

30 patients with rapidly relapsing duodenal ulceration were studied to assess the possible benefit of hypnotherapy in relapse prevention. After the ulcer had healed on treatment with ranitidine, the drug was continued for a further 10 weeks during which time patients received either hypnotherapy or no hypnotherapy. The two randomly selected groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption. Follow-up of both groups of patients was continued for 12 months after the cessation of ranitidine. After 1 year, 8 (53%) of the hypnotherapy patients and 15 (100%) of the control subjects had relapsed. The results of this study suggest that hypnotherapy may be a useful therapeutic adjunct for some patients with chronic recurrent duodenal ulceration. PMID:2897556

Colgan, S M; Faragher, E B; Whorwell, P J

1988-06-11

279

Expression of Cdx1 and Cdx2 mRNAs and relevance of this expression to differentiation in human gastrointestinal mucosa — with special emphasis on participation in intestinal metaplasia of the human stomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a \\u000a Background. The caudal-type homeobox genes, Cdx1 and Cdx2, are candidates for directing intestinal development, differentiation, and maintenance of the intestinal phenotype. The aims\\u000a of this study were: (1) to assess the normal tissue expression patterns of Cdx1 and Cdx2 in the human gastrointestinal tract and (2) to ascertain levels in intestinal metaplasia (IM) of the stomach associated with\\u000a gastritis.

Tsutomu Mizoshita; Ken-ichi Inada; Tetsuya Tsukamoto; Yasuhiro Kodera; Yoshitaka Yamamura; Takashi Hirai; Tomoyuki Kato; Takashi Joh; Makoto Itoh; Masae Tatematsu

2001-01-01

280

Autonomic and psychologic correlates in hypertension and duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiologic response patterns of 47 male duodenal-ulcer patients, 50 male hypertensive patients, and a control group\\u000a of 65 men were compared by recording skin resistance level and responses, finger pulse volume, and surface integrated electromyograms\\u000a during a series of verbal, acoustic, and color stimuli. Personality characteristics were examined on the basis of the Eysenck\\u000a Personality Inventory, the Lüscher Test, Juhász’

Maria S. Kopp; László Korányi

1982-01-01

281

Challenges in the management of pancreatic and duodenal injuries.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective analysis of 44 consecutive patients with pancreatic or duodenal injuries admitted to an urban trauma center over a 6-year period was undertaken. Thirty-three patients had pancreatic injuries, including eight with combined duodenal injuries. Eleven patients had duodenal injuries. The mean age was 28 years, and 93% of the patients were male. Penetrating abdominal trauma accounted for the majority of injuries. Class I pancreatic injuries were the most common (55%), followed by those with class III (21%) and class II (18%). The majority (55%) of pancreatic injuries were managed by drainage with or without suturing; distal pancreatectomy was used in 39% of patients. Duodenal injuries were managed by primary repair in 50% of cases and pyloric exclusion/diverticulization techniques were used in 20% of cases. The mean first 24 hours transfusion requirement was 6.8 packed red blood cells. Complications were common, occurring in 61% of patients surviving longer than 24 hours. Intraabdominal abscess developed in 31% of all patients, 42% of whom required relaparotomy. Pancreatic fistulas occurred in 16% of patients with pancreatic injuries. Six patients died, 83% within 8 hours of admission, all as a result of gunshot wounds. Increased mortality was seen in patients with higher blood transfusion requirements, higher penetrating abdominal trauma index, shotgun wounds, the need for pancreaticoduodenectomy, hypotension on admission, and the presence of an associated major vascular injury. We conclude that early operation and efficacious control of hemorrhage is of prime importance in decreasing the mortality rate associated with these injuries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Moncure, M.; Goins, W. A.

1993-01-01

282

Surgical Treatment of Complicated Duodenal Ulcers: Controlled Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Indications for surgery of duodenal ulcer (DU) have changed radically because of the efficacy of H2-antagonists, endoscopic procedures, and eradication of Helicobacter pylorus. The aim of this study was to analyze the current literature to determine if definitive surgery is still relevant for complicated\\u000a DU (bleeding, perforation, gastric outlet obstruction). Two studies have compared early to late surgery in

Bertrand Millat; Abe Fingerhut; Fredéric Borie

2000-01-01

283

"Ulcosilvanil"--an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase--associated with adrenergic beta-blockers in the treatment of duodenal ulcers.  

PubMed

Knowing the in vivo inhibitory effect of the beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists on gastric mucosa carbonic anhydrase and the high clinical efficacy of "Ulcosilvanil" in the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers, the authors combined propranolol with smaller doses of "Ulcosilvanil" in 925 active duodenal ulcer patients, divided into four groups. The first 236 patients were treated with small doses of "Ulcosilvanil" (20 mg/kg b.w./day active substance), the second group (of 258 cases) with high doses (35 mg/kg b.w./day) of "Ulcosilvanil", the third one (182 subjects) with propranolol only (60 mg/day) and the fourth group (349 patients) with small doses of "Ulcosilvanil" associated with 60 mg/day propranolol. Pain disappeared in all the cases of groups 1,2 and 4 after 3-6 days of treatment and in 40% of the third group. Basal acid output decreased, after 10 days of treatment, from 6.15 +/- 1.57 to 1.94 +/- 0.66 mEq/h in the first group (p less than 0.001), from 7.98 +/- 2.34 to 0.01 +/- 0.01 mEq/h in the second group (p less than 0.001), from 6.43 +/- 2.45 to 2.09 +/- 0.50 mEq/h in the third group (p less than 0.02) and from 6.76 +/- 2.80 to 0.011 +/- 0.01 mEq/h in the fourth group (p less than 0.001). Endoscopic healing was achieved, after 14 days of treatment, respectively in 78.5%, 92.4%, 51.6% and 88.41%; this percentages increased to 82.3%, 96.8%, 68.1% and 93.5% after 21 day of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3704506

Pu?ca?, I; Reznicek, A; Búzás, G; Mila?, D; Kovács, E; Sturzu, D; Per?a, F; Neme?-Brate?, R; V?lean, S

284

Perforated duodenal ulcer: a rare complication of deferasirox in children.  

PubMed

Duodenal ulcer perforation in pediatric age group is an uncommon entity; hence, it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in these patients. It is important for the emergency physician to consider perforated peptic ulcer in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or shock. We report a 6½-year-old male child with thalassemia major who presented to emergency room with an acute abdomen and shock, who was subsequently found to have a perforated duodenal ulcer, probably related to use of oral chelating agent, deferasirox. Although, gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain has been mentioned as infrequent adverse event in the scientific product information of deferasirox, in our current knowledge this is the first case report of perforated duodenal ulcer after oral deferasirox. The severity of this event justifies the reporting of this case. This patient had an atypical presentation in that there were no signs or symptoms of peptic ulcer disease before perforation and shock he was successfully managed with open surgery after initial resuscitation and stabilization of his general condition. PMID:23833377

Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vipul; El Kohly, Ashraf; Al Fadhli, Wasmi

285

Perforated duodenal ulcer: A rare complication of deferasirox in children  

PubMed Central

Duodenal ulcer perforation in pediatric age group is an uncommon entity; hence, it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in these patients. It is important for the emergency physician to consider perforated peptic ulcer in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or shock. We report a 6½-year-old male child with thalassemia major who presented to emergency room with an acute abdomen and shock, who was subsequently found to have a perforated duodenal ulcer, probably related to use of oral chelating agent, deferasirox. Although, gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain has been mentioned as infrequent adverse event in the scientific product information of deferasirox, in our current knowledge this is the first case report of perforated duodenal ulcer after oral deferasirox. The severity of this event justifies the reporting of this case. This patient had an atypical presentation in that there were no signs or symptoms of peptic ulcer disease before perforation and shock he was successfully managed with open surgery after initial resuscitation and stabilization of his general condition.

Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vipul; El Kohly, Ashraf; Al Fadhli, Wasmi

2013-01-01

286

In Vitro Model for Liposome-Mediated Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Gene Transfer in a Duodenal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Duodenal adenomas arise in more than 90 percent of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Management of severe duodenal disease remains difficult and controversial. This study investigates transfer of functional wild-type adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene under conditions of varying pH and bile concentrations into a somatic duodenal cancer cell line (HUTU-80) as a prelude to in vivo gene

Jack Lee; Rachel Hargest; Harpreet Wasan; Robin K. S. Phillips

2004-01-01

287

Duodenal cytochrome B and hephaestin expression in patients with iron deficiency and hemochromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: An increased duodenal expression of the iron transporters, divalent-metal-transporter-1, and ferroportin is observed in patients with iron deficiency or hereditary hemochromatosis. Two oxidoreductases, termed duodenal cytochrome b and hephaestin, are proposed to co-operate with divalent-metal-transporter-1 and FPN1, respectively, to transfer iron from the duodenal lumen to the circulation. Methods: In the present study, we investigated the mRNA

Heinz Zoller; Igor Theurl; Robert O. Koch; Andrew T. Mckie; Wolfgang Vogel; Gü Weiss

2003-01-01

288

Surveillance and treatment of periampullary and duodenal adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) have a cumulative lifetime risk of over 90% for developing duodenal adenomas,\\u000a which are the precursor lesions for duodenal adenocarcinoma. Consequently, these patients have a 5% to 10% lifetime risk of\\u000a periampullary or duodenal adenocarcinoma, making this the leading cause of cancer death in FAP patients who have had prophylactic\\u000a colectomies. The increased

J. Chad Johnson; James A. DiSario; William M. Grady

2004-01-01

289

Wharton's jelly stem cells: a novel cell source for oral mucosa and skin epithelia regeneration.  

PubMed

Perinatal stem cells such as human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (HWJSCs) are excellent candidates for tissue engineering because of their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. However, their differentiation potential into epithelial cells at in vitro and in vivo levels has not yet been reported. In this work we have studied the capability of HWJSCs to differentiate in vitro and in vivo to oral mucosa and skin epithelial cells using a bioactive three-dimensional model that mimics the native epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. To achieve this, primary cell cultures of HWJSCs, oral mucosa, and skin fibroblasts were obtained in order to generate a three-dimensional heterotypical model of artificial oral mucosa and skin based on fibrin-agarose biomaterials. Our results showed that the cells were unable to fully differentiate to epithelial cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo grafting of the bioactive three-dimensional models demonstrated that HWJSCs were able to stratify and to express typical markers of epithelial differentiation, such as cytokeratins 1, 4, 8, and 13, plakoglobin, filaggrin, and involucrin, showing specific surface patterns. Electron microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of epithelial cell-like layers and well-formed cell-cell junctions. These results suggest that HWJSCs have the potential to differentiate to oral mucosa and skin epithelial cells in vivo and could be an appropriate novel cell source for the development of human oral mucosa and skin in tissue engineering protocols. PMID:23817131

Garzón, Ingrid; Miyake, Juliano; González-Andrades, Miguel; Carmona, Ramón; Carda, Carmen; Sánchez-Quevedo, María del Carmen; Campos, Antonio; Alaminos, Miguel

2013-07-01

290

Clinical evaluation of twenty cases of heterotopic gastric mucosa of upper esophagus during five-year observation, using gastroscopy in combination with histopathological and microbiological analysis of biopsies  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the upper esophagus (HGMUE) may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. Furthermore, HGMUE may be the origin of malignant progression to cervical esophageal carcinoma. Material and methods In this work, 20 patients with diagnosed heterotopic gastric mucosa of the upper esophagus (HGMUE) were subjected to 5-year follow-up to determine the extent and structure of histopathological changes within HGMUEs, as well as HGMUE dysplasia and metaplasia, and risk of their malignant transformation. As a diagnostic tool to describe localization, form, size and surface feature of HGMUEs, endoscopy was used. At the same time, the biopsies were collected for histopathological and microbiological analysis. Results In examined patients, HGMUEs were associated with inflammation, chronic gastritis, hiatus hernia, duodenal bulb erosion and ulcer and infection of H. pylori. Intestinal metaplasia and low grade dysplasia were also indicated. During 5 years of observation, both the clinical and histopathological image of diagnosed HGMUEs was stable. The patients with detected presence of H. pylori were treated with triple or quadruple therapy. These results show that HGMUEs may be associated with severe complications in the gastrointestinal tract, such as infection by H. pylori, hiatus hernia or duodenal ulcer. Although dysplasias and metaplasias found in diagnosed HGMUEs were not very numerous and relatively stable both clinically and histopathologically, at the present stage of the study we cannot exclude the possibility of HGMUE malignant transformation.

Latos, Wojciech; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina; Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Operchalski, Tomasz; Cieslar, Grzegorz; Kwiatek, Sebastian; Sieron, Aleksander

2013-01-01

291

Cell sheet technology for regeneration of esophageal mucosa.  

PubMed

The progress of tissue-engineering technology has realized development of new therapies to treat various disorders by using cultured cells. Cell- and tissue-based therapies have been successfully applied to human patients, and several tissue-engineered products have been approved by the regulatory agencies and are commercially available. In the review article, we describe our experience of development and clinical application of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been shown to be useful for removal of gastrointestinal neoplasms with less invasiveness compared with open surgery, especially in esophageal surgery. However, postoperative inflammation and stenosis are major complications observed after intensive mucosal resection. Therefore, we have developed novel regenerative medicine to prevent such complications and promote wound healing of esophageal mucosa after EMR or ESD. Transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated from patients' own oral mucosa. Immediately after EMR or ESD, fabricated autologous cell sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the ulcer sites. We performed a preclinical study with a canine model. In human clinical settings, cell culture and cell sheet fabrication were performed in clean rooms according to good manufacturing practice guidelines, and pharmaceutical drugs were used as supplements to culture medium in place of research regents used in animal study. We believe that cell-based regenerative medicine would be useful to improve quality of life of patients after EMR or ESD. PMID:23066307

Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Kanai, Nobuo; Murakami, Daisuke; Kondo, Makoto; Ishii, Takaaki; Ohki, Takeshi; Namiki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Okano, Teruo

2012-10-01

292

Cell sheet technology for regeneration of esophageal mucosa  

PubMed Central

The progress of tissue-engineering technology has realized development of new therapies to treat various disorders by using cultured cells. Cell- and tissue-based therapies have been successfully applied to human patients, and several tissue-engineered products have been approved by the regulatory agencies and are commercially available. In the review article, we describe our experience of development and clinical application of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been shown to be useful for removal of gastrointestinal neoplasms with less invasiveness compared with open surgery, especially in esophageal surgery. However, postoperative inflammation and stenosis are major complications observed after intensive mucosal resection. Therefore, we have developed novel regenerative medicine to prevent such complications and promote wound healing of esophageal mucosa after EMR or ESD. Transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated from patients’ own oral mucosa. Immediately after EMR or ESD, fabricated autologous cell sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the ulcer sites. We performed a preclinical study with a canine model. In human clinical settings, cell culture and cell sheet fabrication were performed in clean rooms according to good manufacturing practice guidelines, and pharmaceutical drugs were used as supplements to culture medium in place of research regents used in animal study. We believe that cell-based regenerative medicine would be useful to improve quality of life of patients after EMR or ESD.

Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Kanai, Nobuo; Murakami, Daisuke; Kondo, Makoto; Ishii, Takaaki; Ohki, Takeshi; Namiki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Okano, Teruo

2012-01-01

293

Hodgkin lymphoma of the oral mucosa.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a rare case of relapsed nodular sclerosing Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as a lesion of the oral mucosa. Although this is an uncommon clinical scenario, health care professionals should be aware of this possibility. A brief differential diagnosis and review of Hodgkin lymphoma is discussed. PMID:22736151

Darling, Mark R; Cuddy, Karl K; Rizkalla, Kamilia

2012-06-27

294

Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100

A Papazian; A Braillon; J L Dupas; F Sevenet; J P Capron

1986-01-01

295

Collagen types in the middle ear mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various collagen types — in particular that of type 11 as the major collagen in cartilage — in normal auricular structures is discussed with reference to a 1994 report by Ovesen describing the presence of collagen type II in normal middle ear mucosa. In contrast to this report, no collagen type 11 is normally found in the

A. G. Nerlich

1995-01-01

296

Oral mucosa: variations from normalcy, part II.  

PubMed

This is the second article in a 2-part series on the variations of oral mucosa. We describe the following 5 conditions that deviate from normalcy: lateral soft palate fistulas, double lip, fissured tongue, racial gingival pigmentation, and geographic tongue. PMID:11930907

Leston, J M Seoane; Santos, A Aguado; Varela-Centelles, P I; Garcia, Juan Vazquez; Romero, M A; Villamor, L Pias

2002-03-01

297

Efficacy of submucosal injection of different solutions inclusive blood components on mucosa elevation for endoscopic resection  

PubMed Central

Background Endoscopic resection has become the standard treatment for noninvasive gastrointestinal malignancies. In flat mucosal tumors, normal saline is frequently used for submucosal fluid injection in order to reduce the risk of complications during endoscopic resection. Recent studies have demonstrated longer-lasting mucosa elevation by injection of agents such as hyaluronic acid or glyceol, rather than normal saline. We investigated the efficacy of different blood components in comparison with other solutions for use as a submucosal fluid cushion. Methods Normal saline, sodium hyaluronate, glyceol, hydroxyethyl starch, serum, plasma, and whole blood were evaluated for their effectiveness in creating a submucosal cushion. One milliliter of each solution was injected into the submucosa of 5 × 5 cm specimens of resected porcine stomach. Mucosa elevation was measured before and up to 60 minutes after injection. Results The shortest duration of mucosa elevation was observed after injection of normal saline, glyceol, and 0.125% hyaluronic acid. A significantly longer duration was obtained after injection of hydroxyethyl starch, 0.25% and 0.5% hyaluronic acid, serum, and plasma. However, whole blood generated a longer-lasting mucosa elevation than all other agents. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that whole blood is more effective in generating long-lasting mucosa elevation than any other commonly used solution. Because autologous blood is readily available at almost no cost, this seems to be an optimal agent for creating the mucosa elevation needed for endoscopic resection. Further in vivo studies in humans are needed to clarify the potential role of autologous blood for long-lasting endoscopic mucosa resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection.

Al-Taie, Oliver H; Bauer, Yildiz; Dietrich, Christoph G; Fischbach, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

298

Polyamines, diamine oxidase, and ornithine decarboxylase activity in colorectal cancer and in normal surrounding mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the polyamine levels [putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm)] and their metabolism by simultaneously considering the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activities in human colorectal cancer and in normal surrounding tissue. Single and total polyamine levels were significantly higher in the neoplastic tissue than in the surrounding mucosa from the same patients. Furthermore, the ODC

Michele Linsalata; Francesco Russo; Aldo Cavallini; Pasquale Berloco; Alfredo Di Leo

1993-01-01

299

Physiological 3D tissue model of the airway wall and mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This protocol describes the setup, maintenance and characteristics of a tissue-engineered model of the human bronchial mucosa that can be used for basic physiology and pathophysiology studies. The model includes a well-differentiated epithelium with functional cilia, mucus secretion and subepithelial fibroblasts within type I collagen. The tissue is created within porous polymeric wells to prevent gel contraction and allow culture

Melanie M Choe; Alice A Tomei; Melody A Swartz

2006-01-01

300

[The comparative characteristics of treating herpes virus diseases of the oral mucosa with antiviral preparations].  

PubMed

The efficacy of human leukocytic interferon (ointment), 20000 IU/g, in the treatment of viral diseases of the buccal mucosa was studied in 152 patients. The results were compared with those achieved with the commercial antiviral agent 0.5% oxolin ointment. The results evidence a manifest antiviral effect of the interferon ointment, recommending it for practical dentistry. PMID:1926196

Degtiareva, E P; Ramzaeva, L V; Iovlev, V I; Stepanov, A N

301

Transplantation of Adenomatous Polyps, Normal Colonic Mucosa and Adenocarcinoma of Colon into Athymic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of benign colonic adenomatous polyps of man, adenocarcinoma of the colon of man, and normal colonic mucosa of man and rodent were transplanted under the kidney capsule of athymic mice. Benign human adenomatous cells survived for periods of up to 28 days, normal rodent colonic epithelial cells for 45 days and colonic carcinoma cells for 43 days. This was

Dinesh K. Bhargava; Martin Lipkin

1981-01-01

302

Intraoral grafting of an ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent: a preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of an ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent (EVPOME) for intraoral grafting procedures. Autogenous keratinocytes were harvested from a punch biopsy 4 weeks prior to surgery, placed in a serum-free culture system and seeded onto a human cadaveric dermal equivalent, AlloDerm®. Thirty patients with either a premalignant

K Izumi; S. E Feinberg; A Iida; M Yoshizawa

2003-01-01

303

Increased Vascularity in Cervicovaginal Mucosa with Schistosoma haematobium Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Close to 800 million people in the world are at risk of schistosomiasis, 85 per cent of whom live in Africa. Recent studies have indicated that female genital schistosomiasis might increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study is to quantify and analyse the characteristics of the vasculature surrounding Schistosoma haematobium ova in the female genital mucosa. Methodology/Principal Findings Cervicovaginal biopsies with S. haematobium ova (n?=?20) and control biopsies (n?=?69) were stained with immunohistochemical blood vessel markers CD31 and von Willebrand Factor (vWF), which stain endothelial cells in capillary buds and established blood vessels respectively. Haematoxylin and eosin (HE) were applied for histopathological assessment. The tissue surrounding S. haematobium ova had a higher density of established blood vessels stained by vWF compared to healthy controls (p?=?0.017). Immunostain to CD31 identified significantly more granulation tissue surrounding viable compared to calcified ova (p?=?0.032), and a tendency to neovascularisation in the tissue surrounding viable ova compared to healthy cervical mucosa (p?=?0.052). Conclusions/Significance In this study female genital mucosa with S. haematobium ova was significantly more vascularised compared to healthy cervical tissue. Viable parasite ova were associated with granulation tissue rich in sprouting blood vessels. Although the findings of blood vessel proliferation in this study may be a step to better understand the implications of S. haematobium infection, further studies are needed to explore the biological, clinical and epidemiological features of female genital schistosomiasis and its possible influence on HIV susceptibility.

Jourdan, Peter Mark; Roald, Borghild; Poggensee, Gabriele; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

2011-01-01

304

Urinary purine derivative excretion in swamp buffaloes after duodenal purine base infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) each fitted with a duodenal catheter, with an initial body weight of 244±19.8kg were used to study the recovery rate of urinary purine derivatives (PD) after duodenally infused with incremental amounts of purine bases (PB). During the experiment, the buffaloes were fed, at a maintenance energy level, a diet containing 40% oil palm frond

O Pimpa; J. B Liang; J Balcells; Z. A Jelan; N Abdullah

2003-01-01

305

Controlled therapeutic trial to determine the optimum dose of antacids in duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antacids are widely used in the management of duodenal ulcer but the optimum dose of antacid required for ulcer healing has not been determined. We therefore studied 107 patients with endoscopically diagnosed duodenal ulcer who were allotted at random to one of the following treatment groups; placebo (group P) and antacid (groups A, B and C). A liquid antacid (Aludrox

N Kumar; J C Vij; A Karol; B S Anand

1984-01-01

306

Adjuvant antibiotic therapy in duodenal ulcers treated with colloidal bismuth subcitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistence of Helicobacter pylori after duodenal ulcer healing is associated with high rates of ulcer relapse. We compared colloidal bismuth subcitrate alone with CBS combined with one of four antibiotic regimens in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. Endoscopy and antral biopsies were performed before treatment and four weeks afterwards. Biopsy specimens were examined for histological evidence of gastritis and by

T ORiordan; E Mathai; E Tobin; D McKenna; C Keane; E Sweeney; C OMorain

1990-01-01

307

Decision analysis in the management of duodenal adenomatosis in familial adenomatous polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis are not only at high risk of developing adenomas in the colorectum but a substantial number of patients also develop polyps in the duodenum. Because treatment of duodenal polyps is extremely difficult and it is unknown how many patients ultimately develop duodenal cancer, the value of surveillance of the upper digestive tract is uncertain.

H. F. A. Vasen; S. Bulow; T. Myrhoj; L Mathus-Vliegen; G. Griffioen; E. Buskens; B. G. Taal; F. M. Nagengast; J. F. M. Slors; P. E. de Ruiter

1997-01-01

308

SUCCESSFUL THERAPY OF BLEEDING DUODENAL VARICES BY TIPS AFTER FAILURE OF SCLEROTHERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemorrhage from duodenal varices may be severe and life threatening. We report a patient with portal hypertension and bleeding duodenal varices caused by cirrhosis of the liver. Endoscopic sclerotherapy and intravenous vasopressin failed to control bleeding in this patient. Hemorrhage was subsequently controlled by placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. We recommend that in patients with life-threatening hemorrhage from

Sreenivasa S. Jonnalagadda; Stella Quiason; Owen J. Smith

1998-01-01

309

Reevaluation of duodenal endoscopic markers in the diagnosis of celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Loss or reduction of duodenal folds, scalloping of Kerkring folds and a micronodular or mosaic duodenal mucosal pattern have been described in celiac disease (CD), endoscopic findings that are considered reliable in the diagnosis of this disorder. However, most data have been obtained in patients with suspected or certain disease. We assessed the accuracy of the above markers in

Maria Teresa Bardella; Giorgio Minoli; Franco Radaelli; Maurizio Quatrini; Paolo A. Bianchi; Dario Conte

2000-01-01

310

Importance of duodenal bulb biopsies in children for diagnosis of celiac disease in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The patchy nature of villous lesion in celiac disease is increasingly being recognized. Current guidelines recommend four endoscopic duodenal mucosal biopsies from the second or more distal part of the duodenum to confirm the diagnosis of celiac disease. The purpose of the study was to investigate the usefulness of duodenal bulb mucosal biopsies in confirming the diagnosis of celiac

Mohsin Rashid; Andrea MacDonald

2009-01-01

311

The possibility of dietary protective factors in duodenal ulcer  

PubMed Central

Rats fed on a supplement of raw cabbage, brinjal, dhal or powdered milk given in addition to a staple rice or laboratory stock diet show a high degree of protection against experimental ulceration following pyloric ligation. Wheat bran and ragi (a millet) conferred some protection, whereas rice bran and maize conferred no protection. The protection conferred by raw cabbage was destroyed by cooking. The lettuce used conferred no protection. The significance of such findings with regard to the geographical distribution of duodenal ulcer in India and Africa is discussed.

Tovey, F. I.; Jayaraj, A. Paul; Clark, C. G.

1975-01-01

312

Laparoscopic Resection of Antenataly Identified Duodenal Duplication Cyst  

PubMed Central

We report the first case of complete laparoscopic resection of a duodenal duplication cyst (DDC) in an 8-mo-old patient. The cyst was diagnosed by routine antenatal ultrasound performed at 3 mo of gestational age. Although the baby was born asymptomatic without any congenital abnormalities, the cyst had continued to increase on serial sonographic examinations. Previous reports have described treatment of DDC by surgical resection (laparotomy) or endoscopic marsupialization; we describe here, the first report of laparoscopic approach to resect DDC in a pediatric patient with a favorable outcome.

Ballehaninna, Umashankar K.; Nguyen, Tin

2013-01-01

313

Duodenal calcium absorption in vitamin D receptor-knockout mice: Functional and molecular aspects  

PubMed Central

Rickets and hyperparathyroidism caused by a defective vitamin D receptor (VDR) can be prevented in humans and animals by high calcium intake, suggesting that intestinal calcium absorption is critical for 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3] action on calcium homeostasis. We assessed the rate of serum 45Ca accumulation within 10 min of oral gavage in two strains of VDR-knockout (KO) mice (Leuven and Tokyo KO) and observed a 3-fold lower area under the curve in both KO strains. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of intestinal candidate genes involved in transcellular calcium transport. The calcium transport protein1 (CaT1) was more abundantly expressed at mRNA level than the epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) in duodenum, but both were considerably reduced (CaT1>90%, ECaC>60%) in the two VDR-KO strains on a normal calcium diet. Calbindin-D9K expression was decreased only in the Tokyo KO, whereas plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA1b) expression was normal in both VDR-KOs. In Leuven wild-type mice, a high calcium diet inhibited (>90%) and 1,25(OH)2D3 injection or low calcium diet induced (6-fold) duodenal CaT1 expression and, to a lesser degree, ECaC and calbindin-D9K expression. In Leuven KO mice, however, high or low calcium intake decreased calbindin-D9K and PMCA1b expression, whereas CaT1 and ECaC expression remained consistently low on any diet. These results suggest that the expression of the novel duodenal epithelial calcium channels (in particular CaT1) is strongly vitamin D-dependent, and that calcium influx, probably interacting with calbindin-D9K, should be considered as a rate-limiting step in the process of vitamin D-dependent active calcium absorption.

Van Cromphaut, Sophie J.; Dewerchin, Mieke; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.; Stockmans, Ingrid; Van Herck, Erik; Kato, Shigeaki; Bindels, Rene J. M.; Collen, Desire; Carmeliet, Peter; Bouillon, Roger; Carmeliet, Geert

2001-01-01

314

Modulation of individual components of gastric motor response to duodenal glucose  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate individual components of the antro-pyloro-duodenal (APD) motor response to graded small intestinal glucose infusions in healthy humans. METHODS: APD manometry was performed in 15 healthy subjects (12 male; 40 ± 5 years, body mass index 26.5 ± 1.6 kg/m2) during four 20-min intraduodenal infusions of glucose at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kcal/min, in a randomised double-blinded fashion. Glucose solutions were infused at a rate of 1 mL/min and separated by 40-min “wash-out” period. Data are mean ± SE. Inferential analyses are repeated measure analysis of variance with Bonferroni post-hoc testing. RESULTS: At 0 kcal/min frequency of pressure waves were: antrum (7.5 ± 1.8 waves/20 min) and isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs) (8.0 ± 2.3 waves/20 min) with pyloric tone (0.0 ± 0.9 mmHg). Intraduodenal glucose infusion acutely increased IPPW frequency (P < 0.001) and pyloric tone (P = 0.015), and decreased antral wave frequency (P = 0.007) in a dose-dependent fashion. A threshold for stimulation was observed at 1.0 kcal/min for pyloric phasic pressure waves (P = 0.002) and 1.5 kcal/min for pyloric tone and antral contractility. CONCLUSION: There is hierarchy for the activation of gastrointestinal motor responses to duodenal glucose infusion. An increase in IPPWs is the first response observed.

Deane, Adam M; Besanko, Laura K; Burgstad, Carly M; Chapman, Marianne J; Horowitz, Michael; Fraser, Robert JL

2013-01-01

315

An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×107/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

ZHAO, XIN; PANG, LIANG; QIAN, YU; WANG, QIANG; LI, YONG; WU, MINGYI; OUYANG, ZILAN; GAO, ZHI; QIU, LIHUA

2013-01-01

316

Why is the coexistence of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer rare? Examination of factors related to both gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coexistence of gastric cancer with duodenal ulcer has been found empirically to be rare, but why it is rare is difficult\\u000a to explain satisfactorily. To elucidate this question, we carried out a literature review of the subject. The frequency with\\u000a which the two diseases coexist is 0.1–1.7%, and the main factor associated with both gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer

Hideyuki Ubukata; Hiroyuki Nagata; Teruhiko KasugaTakafumi Tabuchi; Satoru Konishi; Teruhiko Kasuga; Takafumi Tabuchi

2011-01-01

317

Computer simulation of flow and mixing at the duodenal stump after gastric resection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the flow and mixing at the duodenal stump after gastric resection, a computer simulation was implemented. METHODS: Using the finite element method, two different Billroth II procedure cases (A and B) were modeled. Case A was defined with a shorter and almost straight duodenal section, while case B has a much longer and curved duodenal section. Velocity, pressure and food concentration distribution were determined and the numerical results were compared with experimental observations. RESULTS: The pressure distribution obtained by numerical simulation was in the range of the recorded experimental results. Case A had a more favorable pressure distribution in comparison with case B. However, case B had better performance in terms of food transport because of more continual food distribution, as well as better emptying of the duodenal section. CONCLUSION: This study offers insight into the transport process within the duodenal stump section after surgical intervention, which can be useful for future patient-specific predictions of a surgical outcome.

Filipovic, Nenad; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Isailovic, Velibor; Matovic, Zoran; Rosic, Mirko; Kojic, Milos

2009-01-01

318

Lipoma in Oral Mucosa: Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Lipoma is a common tumor of soft tissue. Its location on the oral mucosa is rare, representing 1% to 5% of benign oral tumors although it is the most mesenchymal tumor of the trunk and proximal por-tions of extremities. Lipoma of the oral cavity may occur in any region. The buccal mucosa, tongue, and floor of the mouth are among the common locations. The clinical presentation is typically as an asymptomatic yellowish mass. The overlying epithelium is intact, and superficial blood vessels are usually evident over the tumor. Other benign connective tissue lesions such as granular cell tumor, neurofibroma, traumatic fibroma and salivary gland lesions (mucocele and mixed tumor) might be included in differential diagnosis. We present two cases of oral lipoma in unusual locations: one in junction of soft and hard palate and the other in tongue. Both were rare in the literature.

Hoseini, Ali Tavakoli; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Khabazian, Arezu

2010-01-01

319

Balloon cell nevus of the oral mucosa.  

PubMed

The balloon cell nevus is an uncommon variant of melanocytic nevi in which the majority of the proliferation consists of cells demonstrating peculiarly large clear, foamy, or finely vacuolated cytoplasm. The vacuolated cells represent altered nevus cells and upon immunoperoxidase evaluation react positively with several melanocytic markers. Complete excision results in cure. This report describes the second balloon cell nevus of the oral mucosa documented in the English-language literature. PMID:18280759

Damm, Douglas D; White, Dean K; Lyu, Peter E; Puno, Pauline

2008-02-20

320

Dirithromycin concentrations in bronchial mucosa and secretions.  

PubMed

Since a high tissue penetration of dirithromycin (D) has been assessed in early studies, the aims of this study were to determine D concentrations in bronchial mucosa and secretions in patients suffering from an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB), to compare intra-individual bronchial mucosa and secretion concentrations and to relate bronchial concentrations of D and clinical efficacy. The main inclusion criteria were comprised of (1) AECB, defined by the presence of an increase in dyspnea, sputum production and change in sputum purulence, and (2) clinical indication of fiberoptic bronchoscopy allowing performance of bronchial biopsies. All patients were treated with a 500-mg once-daily D dose for 5 days. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, according to sampling times (24, 48 and 72 h after the last dose). Tissue concentration analyses were performed by one blinded microbiologist (microbiological agar diffusion assay). The results showed: (1) 37 out of the 46 patients (80.4%) had a favorable response to treatment at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (14 cured, 23 improved); (2) bronchial mucosa concentrations were high in all groups, and (3) mean values at 24, 48 and 72 h after the last dose were respectively 6.51 +/- 1.44, 6. 61 +/- 2.7, 5.67 +/- 1.02 mg.kg-1; no statistical difference was observed between the groups. In bronchial secretions collected simultaneously, concentrations were lower, i.e. 1.26 +/- 0.3, 0.61 +/- 0.12, 0.84 +/- 0.12. Significant associations were observed between bronchial mucosa and secretion concentrations (r = 0.71, p = 0.0001), and between clinical response and bronchial concentrations (p = 0.03, Kruskall-Wallis test). In conclusion, these results may confirm the clinical significance of tissue concentrations measured in bronchial tissues of patients with AECB. PMID:9782221

Leroyer, C; Muller-Serieys, C; Quiot, J; Benhamou, D; Clavier, J; Bergogne-Bérézin, E

1998-01-01

321

Analysis of gangliosides from carp intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

The gangliosides of carp intestinal mucosa were isolated and analysed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), TLC immunostaining test, and TLC/secondary ion mass spectrometry (TLC/SIMS). Four species of gangliosides, designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4, were separated on TLC. The TLC/SIMS analysis of the G-1 ganglioside of carp intestinal mucosa revealed a series of [M-H](-)ions from m/z 1061 to m/z 1131 representing the molecular mass range of GM4-like ganglioside with NeuAc. G-2, G-3 and G-4 gangliosides were analysed by the TLC immunostaining test. G-2 ganglioside was recognised by the monoclonal antibody specific for ganglioside GM1 (AGM-1 monoclonal antibody). However, G-3 ganglioside migrating on TLC between GM3 and GM1 ganglioside was not recognised by anti-GM3 monoclonal antibody and by AGM-1 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, G-4 ganglioside with a similar TLC mobility as GD1a ganglioside did not show the reactivity to the anti-GD1a monoclonal antibody. In addition using the AGM-1 monoclonal antibody, the expression of GM1 ganglioside in the carp intestinal tissue was studied. GM1 ganglioside was detected on the epithelial cell surface of carp intestinal mucosa. PMID:15123316

Irie, Takuya; Watarai, Shinobu; Kushi, Yasunori; Kasama, Takeshi; Kodama, Hiroshi

2004-02-01

322

Gastric outlet obstruction due to duodenal bezoar: A case report?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a clinical syndrome characterized by abdominal pain and postprandial vomiting. Causes of GOO include both benign and malignant disease. Bezoars, concretions of undigested or partially digested material in the gastrointestinal tract, are a rare entity and GOO due to duodenal bezoar is an uncommon presentation. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department acutely with a 3-day history of epigastric pain, weakness and postprandial nonbilious vomiting. Initially, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) was performed to evaluate the cause of the GOO. A solid impacted bezoar was detected in the first portion of the duodenum with complete obstruction of the pyloric canal. In spite of multiple attempts for fragmentation using different devices, the extraction attempts failed. We administered acetylcysteine and cola per os. Abdominal computerized tomography was obtained and showed a solid mass in the duodenum. UGE was performed once more however, the mass was not suitable for fragmentation and removal. Thus, surgical treatment was decided. The bezoar was extracted via gastrotomy. The postoperative period was uneventful. DISCUSSION Even if a duodenal bezoar is small, because of its location it may cause GOO with abruptly clinical features. The diagnostic approach is similar to the other causes of the GOO. However, therapeutic options differ for each patient. CONCLUSION We should remember all the therapeutic and diagnostic options for a patient with upper gastrointestinal bezoars who present at the hospital whether or not there is a predisposing risk factor.

Guner, Ali; Kahraman, Izzettin; Aktas, Adem; Kece, Can; Reis, Erhan

2012-01-01

323

Development of a highly reproducible three-dimensional organotypic model of the oral mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe the development of a standardized three-dimensional (3D) system of the human oral mucosa based on an immortalized human oral keratinocyte cell line (OKF6\\/TERT-2). The procedure takes approximately 2–3 weeks to complete and includes three main stages: preparation of collagen-embedded fibroblasts, addition of the mucosal component and airlifting of cultures to ensure adequate differentiation\\/stratification. This procedure

Helena Kashleva; Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou

2006-01-01

324

Broad MICA/B Expression in the Small Bowel Mucosa: A Link between Cellular Stress and Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

The MICA/B genes (MHC class I chain related genes A and B) encode for non conventional class I HLA molecules which have no role in antigen presentation. MICA/B are up-regulated by different stress conditions such as heat-shock, oxidative stress, neoplasic transformation and viral infection. Particularly, MICA/B are expressed in enterocytes where they can mediate enterocyte apoptosis when recognised by the activating NKG2D receptor present on intraepithelial lymphocytes. This mechanism was suggested to play a major pathogenic role in active celiac disease (CD). Due to the importance of MICA/B in CD pathogenesis we studied their expression in duodenal tissue from CD patients. By immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we established that MICA/B was mainly intracellularly located in enterocytes. In addition, we identified MICA/B+ T cells in both the intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments. We also found MICA/B+ B cells, plasma cells and some macrophages in the lamina propria. The pattern of MICA/B staining in mucosal tissue in severe enteropathy was similar to that found in in vitro models of cellular stress. In such models, MICA/B were located in stress granules that are associated to the oxidative and ER stress response observed in active CD enteropathy. Our results suggest that expression of MICA/B in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients is linked to disregulation of mucosa homeostasis in which the stress response plays an active role.

Allegretti, Yessica L.; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Chopita, Nestor; Fuertes, Mercedes; Zwirner, Norberto W.; Chirdo, Fernando G.

2013-01-01

325

Broad MICA/B Expression in the Small Bowel Mucosa: A Link between Cellular Stress and Celiac Disease.  

PubMed

The MICA/B genes (MHC class I chain related genes A and B) encode for non conventional class I HLA molecules which have no role in antigen presentation. MICA/B are up-regulated by different stress conditions such as heat-shock, oxidative stress, neoplasic transformation and viral infection. Particularly, MICA/B are expressed in enterocytes where they can mediate enterocyte apoptosis when recognised by the activating NKG2D receptor present on intraepithelial lymphocytes. This mechanism was suggested to play a major pathogenic role in active celiac disease (CD). Due to the importance of MICA/B in CD pathogenesis we studied their expression in duodenal tissue from CD patients. By immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we established that MICA/B was mainly intracellularly located in enterocytes. In addition, we identified MICA/B(+) T cells in both the intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments. We also found MICA/B(+) B cells, plasma cells and some macrophages in the lamina propria. The pattern of MICA/B staining in mucosal tissue in severe enteropathy was similar to that found in in vitro models of cellular stress. In such models, MICA/B were located in stress granules that are associated to the oxidative and ER stress response observed in active CD enteropathy. Our results suggest that expression of MICA/B in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients is linked to disregulation of mucosa homeostasis in which the stress response plays an active role. PMID:24058482

Allegretti, Yessica L; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Chopita, Nestor; Fuertes, Mercedes; Zwirner, Norberto W; Chirdo, Fernando G

2013-09-13

326

Synchronous mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the stomach.  

PubMed

The development of simultaneous primary gastric lymphoma and carcinoma is a rare event for which a possible etiopathogenetic role for Helicobacter pylori (HP) recently has been postulated. We report a series of eight such cases diagnosed from 1980 to 1995. In two cases, both tumors arose in a gastric stump, at 26 and 34 years, respectively, after gastric resection for a duodenal ulcer. Grossly, the lymphoma and carcinoma formed a single lesion in four cases (collision tumor); they were separated in the other four cases. Histologically, all the lymphomas fit into the category of B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; six of them were low-grade lymphomas and two were low-grade lymphomas with a high-grade component. The adenocarcinomas were intestinal-type in four cases, diffuse in three, and mixed in one. Regarding the depth of infiltration, four carcinomas were early gastric cancers and four were advanced. All the collision tumors contained an early gastric cancer. Our observations confirmed the association of HP with gastric lymphoma and carcinoma in 4 cases. Spiral bacteria with the features of Helicobacter heilmannii were found in one case. The occurrence of two different tumors in a gastric stump, which has not been reported previously, suggests that postgastrectomy gastritis might contribute to the development of both gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. PMID:9158673

Goteri, G; Ranaldi, R; Rezai, B; Baccarini, M G; Bearzi, I

1997-05-01

327

Cephalic phase of gastric secretion in healthy subjects and duodenal ulcer patients: role of vagal innervation.  

PubMed Central

In 10 healthy subjects and 25 duodenal ulcer patients, gastric acid and pepsin and serum gastrin responses to cephalic-vagal stimulation induced by modified sham-feeding (MSF) were studied before and after vagotomy and atropinisation and compared with those to maximal stimulation with pentagastrin. When the MSF-induced peak acid output was normalised as a percentage of peak response to pentagastrin it was about 62% in healthy subjects and 66% in duodenal ulcer patients. Serum gastrin concentration was not changed significantly by modified sham-feeding either in normal subjects or in duodenal ulcer patients. Truncal vagotomy completely abolished gastric acid and pepsin responses to MSF in duodenal ulcer patients. Atropine almost completely suppressed gastric acid and pepsin responses to MSF in healthy subjects and reduced those in duodenal ulcer patients by about 62%. The combination of the modified sham-feeding and pentagastrin infusion resulted in augmentation of the acid output in duodenal ulcer patients but not in healthy subjects. This study shows that the cephalic phase results in a potent gastric acid and pepsin stimulation which is not accompanied by any change in serum gastrin concentration either in healthy subjects or duodenal ulcer patients and which is abolished by vagotomy and suppressed by atropine.

Konturek, S J; Kwiecien, N; Obtulowicz, W; Mikos, E; Sito, E; Oleksy, J; Popiela, T

1979-01-01

328

Effects of duodenal distension on antropyloroduodenal pressures and perception are modified by hyperglycemia.  

PubMed

Marked hyperglycemia (blood glucose approximately 15 mmol/l) affects gastrointestinal motor function and modulates the perception of gastrointestinal sensations. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of mild hyperglycemia on the perception of, and motor responses to, duodenal distension. Paired studies were done in nine healthy volunteers, during euglycemia ( approximately 4 mmol/l) and mild hyperglycemia ( approximately 10 mmol/l), in randomized order, using a crossover design. Antropyloroduodenal pressures were recorded with a manometric, sleeve-side hole assembly, and proximal duodenal distensions were performed with a flaccid bag. Intrabag volumes were increased at 4-ml increments from 12 to 48 ml, each distension lasting for 2.5 min and separated by 10 min. Perception of the distensions and sensations of fullness, nausea, and hunger were evaluated. Perceptions of distension (P < 0.001) and fullness (P < 0.05) were greater and hunger less (P < 0.001) during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia. Proximal duodenal distension stimulated pyloric tone (P < 0.01), isolated pyloric pressure waves (P < 0.01), and duodenal pressure waves (P < 0.01). Compared with euglycemia, hyperglycemia was associated with increases in pyloric tone (P < 0.001), the frequency (P < 0.05) and amplitude (P < 0.01) of isolated pyloric pressure waves, and the frequency of duodenal pressure waves (P < 0.001) in response to duodenal distension. Duodenal compliance was less (P < 0.05) during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia, but this did not account for the effects of hyperglycemia on perception. We conclude that both the perception of, and stimulation of pyloric and duodenal pressures by, duodenal distension are increased by mild hyperglycemia. These observations are consistent with the concept that the blood glucose concentration plays a role in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility and sensation. PMID:10070048

Lingenfelser, T; Sun, W; Hebbard, G S; Dent, J; Horowitz, M

1999-03-01

329

[Prophylaxis of acute pancreatitis during resection of the stomach for "difficult" complicated of duodenal ulcers].  

PubMed

The authors have performed 407 resections of the stomach for duodenal ulcers. In 9 cases the major duodenal papilla was found to be involved into the zone of ulcer destruction. It was noted that operations for "difficult" complicated ulcers of the duodenum with the involvement into the zone of destruction of the major duodenal papilla required a delicate surgical strategy directed to minimization of trauma and blockade of the main factors of the development of acute postoperative pancreatitis, the proximal duodenojejunoanastomosis being the operation of choice for "difficult" complicated ulcers of the duodenum. PMID:20020623

Morozov, S V; Poluektov, V L; Dobrovol'ski?, A I; Dolgikh, V T

2009-01-01

330

Patient-specific finite element analysis of viscoelastic masticatory mucosa  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress and strain inside of the oral mucosa in partially-edentulous patients. The patient-specific finite element models of the mucosa and the bone were constructed using the CT images and in-vivo surface measurement during a continuous load. The mean initial shear modulus of 8.3 × 10–5 (GPa) and the mean relaxation time of 503 (s) were determined as the viscoelastic properties of the mucosa. The increase of the highest maximum compressive strain during the continuous loading was observed in all the patients, however; the intensity of strain was not in accordance with the thickness of the mucosa. It is suggested that the variations of the morphology and the initial modulus of the mucosa should be considered in the mathematical approaches to detect the mechanical responses of the oral mucosa.

Suzuki, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

331

The clinical significance of duodenal lymphocytosis with normal villus architecture.  

PubMed

Context.-The finding of increased intraepithelial lymphocytes with normal villous architecture (Marsh I lesion) is seen in up to 3% of duodenal biopsies. The differential diagnosis includes a wide range of possibilities, including celiac disease, bacterial overgrowth, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug damage, reaction to Helicobacter pylori infection, tropical sprue, and chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Objectives.-To highlight the histologic features of the Marsh I lesion, review the diseases and conditions associated with that finding, and to provide pathologists with a rationale and a template for how to identify and report such cases. Data Sources.-A review of the literature regarding the histologic features and clinical associations of Marsh I lesions. Conclusions.-Marsh I lesions are a nonspecific finding associated with a number of disease conditions. Historically, between 9% and 40% of cases have been shown to represent celiac disease. Current data do not suggest histologic features to differentiate between diseases associated with this histologic change. PMID:23991733

Hammer, Suntrea T G; Greenson, Joel K

2013-09-01

332

Complication of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube causing duodenal ischemia.  

PubMed

A 33-year-old woman with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube was admitted with bilious vomiting, 1 month after her feeding tube was replaced by a temporary Foley catheter. A computed tomography scan of her abdomen revealed a 4.5 cm by 7.5 cm fluid-filled structure in the distal duodenum surrounding the Foley feeding tube. Approximately 100 mL of fluid was aspirated from the Foley's balloon port. We hypothesized that the Foley catheter was flushed inappropriately through the balloon port, causing an iatrogenic ischemic duodenal injury. Conservative management was successful in the intensive care unit. This case highlights an unusual complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. In addition, it emphasizes the temporary nature of Foley catheters as replacement gastrostomy tubes, and the importance of training in the handling of feeding tubes. PMID:17277666

Martel, Guillaume; Lingas, Rania I; Gutauskas, Andrea; Clark, Heather D

2006-12-01

333

Long-Term Experience with Duodenal Switch in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Severe or extreme obesity in children and adolescents is a progressive damaging disease, increasingly requiring surgical treatment.\\u000a Timing and choice of operation are controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  In the last 16 years, we performed open biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (DS) in 13 adolescents aged 15–17 years,\\u000a who have been followed up for 2–16 years (mean, 10.6 years); three with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are presented separately.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Among

Picard Marceau; Simon Marceau; Simon Biron; Frederic-Simon Hould; Stefane Lebel; Odette Lescelleur; Laurent Biertho; John G. Kral

2010-01-01

334

Digested and fermented green kiwifruit increases human ?-defensin 1 and 2 production in vitro.  

PubMed

The intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to a variety of microbial species including commensals and pathogens, the latter leaving the host susceptible to infection. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are an important part of the first line of defense at mucosal surfaces. Human ?-defensins (HBD) are AMP expressed by colonic epithelial cells, which act as broad spectrum antimicrobials. This study explored the direct and indirect effects of green kiwifruit (KF) on human ?-defensin 1 and 2 (HBD-1 and 2) production by epithelial cells. In vitro digestion of KF pulp consisted of a simulated gastric and duodenal digestion, followed by colonic microbial fermentation using nine human faecal donors. Fermenta from individual donors was sterile filtered and independently added to epithelial cells prior to analysis of HBD protein production. KF products obtained from the gastric and duodenal digestion had no effect on the production of HBD-1 or 2 by epithelial cells, demonstrating that KF does not contain substances that directly modulate defensin production. However, when the digested KF products were further subjected to in vitro colonic fermentation, the fermentation products significantly up-regulated HBD-1 and 2 production by the same epithelial cells. We propose that this effect was predominantly mediated by the presence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the fermenta. Exposure of cells to purified SCFA confirmed this and HBD-1 and 2 production was up-regulated with acetate, propionate and butyrate. In conclusion, in vitro colonic fermentation of green kiwifruit digest appears to prime defense mechanisms in gut cells by enhancing the production of antimicrobial defensins. PMID:22872469

Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Blatchford, Paul A; Parkar, Shanthi G; Ansell, Juliet; Pernthaner, Anton

2012-09-01

335

Identification of pannexins in rat nasal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Pannexins are a second family of gap-junction proteins in vertebrates, classified as pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3. Pannexin-1 is one of the candidates for channel-mediated ATP release into the extracellular space. In airway epithelia, ATP signaling modulates multiple cellular functions such as mucus/ion secretion and mucociliary clearance systems. However, the expression of pannexins in the upper airway has not been investigated. Nasal septal mucosae were collected from adult male Wistar rats aged 20–24 weeks. The expression of pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3 was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by whole-mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Transcripts for pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3 were detected in nasal septal mucosae of adult rats by RT-PCR. Distinct immunohistochemical fluorescence for pannexin-1 was observed in the epithelial layer, whereas there was no immunoreactivity for pannexin-2 or pannexin-3. This is the first article establishing the existence of pannexins (predominantly pannexin-1) in the upper airway, suggesting their possible participation in the physiological functions of ATP release and signaling in this tissue.

Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Hohchi, Nobusuke; Ohkubo, Jun-ichi; Hashida, Koichi; Koizumi, Hiroki; Wakasugi, Tetsuro; Takenaga, Fumiko

2013-01-01

336

Quantitative comparison of the expression of antimicrobial peptides in the oral mucosa and extraoral skin.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) defend epithelial surfaces against pathological micro-organisms. We know of no comparison of their expression between the oral mucosa and extraoral epithelium, but knowledge of differences in their quantities is of interest, possibly as a starting point for new treatments. Expression of AMP human beta-defensin (hBD)-1/-2/-3 and psoriasin in the oral mucosa and extraoral epithelium of the head and neck were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (n=14), immunohistochemistry (n=6), and western blot (n=8). RT-PCR showed that all the genes investigated were expressed significantly more in the oral mucosa than in the skin (hBD-1: p=0.002; hBD-2: p=0.006; hBD-3: p=0.035; psoriasin: p=0.02). Immunohistochemistry and western blot showed differential concentrations of proteins: hBD-2 (p=0.021) and hBD-3 (p=0.043) were pronounced in the oral mucosa, whereas psoriasin was raised in the extraoral skin (p=0.021). There was no difference in protein concentrations for hBD-1 (p=0.08). The observed differences in the expression of AMP may be important for new treatments such as topical application of AMP derivatives. PMID:21820218

Kesting, Marco R; Mueller, Christian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Steiner, Timm; Bauer, Florian; Teichmann, Jan; Baumann, Claudia M; Barthel, Leopold C; Satanovskij, Robin M; Mücke, Thomas; Schulte, Matthias; Schütz, Katrin; Wolff, Klaus-D; Rohleder, Nils H

2011-08-04

337

Surgeons' attitudes to the operative management of duodenal ulcer perforation and haemorrhage.  

PubMed Central

The currently preferred operative management of duodenal ulcer haemorrhage and perforation was assessed by means of a questionnaire sent to 274 consultant general surgeons in England. A 70% response rate was achieved. Simple closure, with or without H2 antagonist treatment, was the most popular management of a perforated acute duodenal ulcer. For perforation of a chronic duodenal ulcer occurring during H2 antagonist therapy, truncal vagotomy and drainage was the definitive procedure of choice. There was no consensus about the operative management of perforation complicating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment in the elderly patient. Proximal gastric vagotomy appears to have few advocates in the definitive management of either duodenal ulcer perforation or haemorrhage. Of our sample 70% selected truncal vagotomy and drainage with underrunning of the ulcer as the operative treatment of choice for bleeding. Endoscopic coagulation appears to be used only rarely.

Stringer, M. D.; Cameron, A. E.

1988-01-01

338

Pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced duodenal and ampullary adenomatosis in familial adenomatous polyposis  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) develop duodenal and ampullary polyps that may progress to malignancy via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. Objective The aim of this study was to review a large series of FAP patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced duodenal and ampullary polyposis. Methods A retrospective case notes review of all FAP patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced duodenal and ampullary adenomatosis was performed. Results Between October 1993 and January 2010, 38 FAP patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced duodenal and ampullary polyps. Complications occurred in 29 patients and perioperative mortality in two. Postoperative histology revealed five patients to have preoperatively undetected cancer (R = 0.518, P < 0.001). Conclusions Pancreaticoduodenectomy in FAP is associated with significant morbidity, but low mortality. All patients under consideration for operative intervention require careful preoperative counselling and optimization.

Skipworth, James R A; Morkane, Clare; Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle; Vyas, Soumil; Olde Damink, Steven W; Imber, Charles J; Pereira, Stephen P; Malago, Massimo; West, Nicholas; Phillips, Robin K S; Clark, Sue K; Shankar, Arjun

2011-01-01

339

Urinary excretion of duodenal purine derivatives in Kedah-Kelantan cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three male Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle each fitted with a ruminal and a T-shaped duodenal cannulae, with an initial body weight of 178.3±5.78kg were used to study the recovery rate of urinary purine derivatives (PD) after duodenal infusion of incremental amounts of purine bases (PB). During the experiment, the cattle were fed at a maintenance energy level with a diet containing

O Pimpa; J. B Liang; Z. A Jelan; N Abdullah

2001-01-01

340

Acid secretory and duodenal ulcerogenic responses induced by mepirizole in anesthetized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of body temperature in the acid stimulatory mechanism by meprizole, a duodenal ulcerogen, was investigated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Subcutaneous administration of mepirizole (60 and 200 mg\\/kg) increased acid secretion in a dose-dependent manner and resulted in duodenal lesions within 8 hr. The acid secretory and ulcerogenic responses induced by mepirizole were inhibited completely by vagotomy and significantly reduced

Koji Ueshima; Koji Takeuchi; Tomohisa Ohuchi; Susumu Okabe

1994-01-01

341

Clinical course and proposed treatment strategy for ERCP-related duodenal perforation: a multicenter analysis.  

PubMed

Background and study aims: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-related duodenal perforation is rare but can cause high mortality. Our aim was to assess the clinical outcomes of these events.Method: A total of 59 patients who were diagnosed as having ERCP-related duodenal perforation at six institutions between 2000 and 2007 were enrolled in this multicenter retrospective study. We evaluated complications and mortality associated with ERCP-related duodenal perforation according to injury detection time (IDT), peritoneal irritation signs (PIS), systemic inflammation signs (SIS), and treatment modality in these patients. Results: Of the 59 patients, 41 (69.5 %) and 18 (30.5 %) underwent medical and surgical treatment, respectively. Duodenal perforation-related death was observed in five patients, who had received medical therapy (n = 2) and surgical therapy (n = 3). Among medically treated patients, seven patients (17.1 %) underwent endoscopic clipping immediately after the injury; surgery was not required as a salvage therapy and there were no complications or deaths among these patients. The remaining 34 patients received antibiotics combined with therapeutic fasting and intravenous hydration. Duodenal perforation-related complications depended significantly on IDT (P = 0.0001), treatment modality (P = 0.008), PIS (P = 0.003), and SIS (P = 0.010). The duodenal perforation-related mortality was significantly related to IDT (P = 0.008) and PIS (P = 0.001). Conclusions: IDT, PIS, and SIS appear to be important prognostic factors following ERCP-related duodenal perforation. Medical therapy can be suggested as an initial treatment strategy for ERCP-related duodenal perforation, and if possible, endoscopic clipping is strongly recommended. However, surgical treatment should be considered if the perforation is not expected to seal spontaneously, or if the continuing leakage causes PIS or SIS. PMID:23907814

Jin, Young-Joo; Jeong, Seok; Kim, Jin Hong; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Byung Moo; Moon, Jong Ho; Park, Sang Heum; Kim, Ho Gak; Lee, Dong Ki; Jeon, Yong Sun; Lee, Don Haeng

2013-08-01

342

Usefulness of F-18 FDG-PET in detection of multiple endocrine tumors with duodenal carcinoid.  

PubMed

In a 76-year-old woman in whom hypercalcemia had been followed, whole body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan detected hypermetabolic areas in the left lower region of the thyroid gland, pancreas tail, and duodenum. CT, MR, biopsy, and surgery were performed and parathyroid adenoma, pancreatic gastrinoma, and duodenal carcinoid were diagnosed. Fluorine-18 (F-18) FDG-PET may be useful for diagnosis of multiple endocrine tumors with duodenal carcinoid. PMID:17383156

Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Nihashi, Takashi; Matsuura, Toshihiro; Itoh, Kengo; Tokuda, Haruhiko

2007-03-23

343

Effect of Orally Administered Duodenal Fluid on Serum Proteins in Neonatal Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to determine if orally administered duodenal fluid, as a source of intestinal microorganisms, would influ- ence absorption of v-globulin of colos- trum in newborn calves. Duodenal fluid was obtained 2 h postfeeding from a cannulated milk-fed calf. Twenty-seven male and female Holstein calves obtained within 6 h of birth were assigned random- ly to one of three

R. E. James; C. E. Polan

1978-01-01

344

CT evaluation of hepatic paragonimiasis with simultaneous duodenal or splenic involvement.  

PubMed

Paragonimiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the genus Paragonimus and usually leads to pulmonary disease. Hepatic paragonimiasis is rare, but duodenal and splenic involvement of this disease has not yet been reported in the literature. Herein, we report two rare cases of hepatic paragonimiasis with simultaneous duodenal or splenic involvement, respectively, and described their CT features. Both patients were lifelong residents of an endemic area of paragonimiasis and were confirmed clinicopathologically. PMID:22726983

Li, Xue-Ming; Yu, Jian-Qun; He, Du; Peng, Li-Qing; Chu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Dong-Dong; Luo, Yi

2012-06-08

345

Improved Oral Intake After Palliative Duodenal Stenting for Malignant Obstruction: A Prospective Multicenter Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:We sought to test the hypothesis that placement of a new nitinol duodenal self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) for palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction is effective and safe in allowing patients to tolerate an oral diet.METHODS:In a prospective multicenter study, SEMSs (Duodenal WallFlex, Boston Scientific) were placed to alleviate gastroduodenal obstruction in inoperable patients without the ability to tolerate solid food.

Michael Piesman; Richard A Kozarek; John J Brandabur; Douglas K Pleskow; Ram Chuttani; Viktor E Eysselein; William B Silverman; John J Vargo; Irving Waxman; Marc F Catalano; Todd H Baron; Willis G Parsons; Adam Slivka; David L Carr-Locke

2009-01-01

346

Successful Endoscopic Decompression for Intramural Duodenal Hematoma with Gastric Outlet Obstruction Complicating Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Non-traumatic intramural duodenal hematoma (IDH) with duodenal obstruction caused by acute pancreatitis is rare. Most patients with non-extensive hematoma show improvement with non-operative treatments. Percutaneous drainage or surgery may be necessary in cases with suspected malignancy, perforation, or intestinal tract obstruction. We present a case of IDH caused by acute pancreatitis that led to obstruction of the duodenum and an experience of successful endoscopic decompression of the hematoma.

Lee, Jun Young; Chung, Jin Soo

2012-01-01

347

Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) on antro-pyloro-duodenal motility  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides an effective method for inhibiting antro-duodenal motility in healthy subjects and patients suffering from various disorders, without the side effects associated with other pharmaceutical compositions. GLP1(7-36)amide slows antro-duodenal motility and may be used for the treatment or prevention of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, postoperative dumping syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome, and also premedication in endoscopic procedures.

Goeke; Burkhard (Gauting, DE); Schirra; Joerg (Kirchhain, DE)

2003-06-17

348

Immunohistochemical study during healing of free palatal mucosa grafts on plastic-embedded samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This immunohistochemical study describes changes in the histology and in the distribution of the basement mem- brane components laminin and collagen IV as well as of the cytokeratins (CK)1\\/2\\/10\\/11, CK5\\/6, CK13, CK14, CK17, CK19 during the take of free split mucosa (epithelial and connective tissue) transplants in humans up to 36 months post-operative. Histology showed a flattening of the epithelial

G. Lauer; M. Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad; J. E. Otten; U. Hubner

2001-01-01

349

Effect of Dirithromycin on Haemophilus influenzae Infection of the Respiratory Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrolides have properties other than their antibiotic action which may benefit patients with airway infec- tions. We have investigated the effect of dirithromycin (0.125 to 8.0 mg\\/ml) on the interaction of Haemophilus influenzae with respiratory mucosa in vitro using human nasal epithelium, adenoid tissue, and bovine trachea. Dirithromycin did not affect the ciliary beat frequency of the nasal epithelium or

ANDREW RUTMAN; RUTH DOWLING; PETER WILLS; CHARLES FELDMAN; PETER J. COLE; ROBERT WILSON

1998-01-01

350

Effect of tyrosine administration on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Duodenal ulcers were produced by administering cysteamine to rats. Pretreatment with the catecholamine precursor, L-tyrosine (40 mg/100 g i.p. for 5 days), decreased the intensity of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Equimolar doses of tyrosine methyl ester (51.2 mg/100 g i.p. or s.c.) were equally effective in reducing ulcer intensity. Other amino acids (i.e., alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, lysine, tryptophan and valine) did not prevent experimental duodenal ulcers. Coadministration of other large neutral amino acids (e.g., leucine and valine) that compete with tyrosine for uptake into the brain did not inhibit the effect of tyrosine on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Gastric, duodenal and brain dopamine concentrations were increased 1 hr after the injection of tyrosine methyl ester (25.6 mg/100 g s.c.). These results suggest that the effect of tyrosine on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine may be mediated by changes in gastrointestinal dopamine metabolism.

Oishi, T.; Szabo, S.

1987-03-01

351

Duodenal Lipid Sensing Activates Vagal Afferents to Regulate Non-Shivering Brown Fat Thermogenesis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Previous evidence indicates that duodenal lipid sensing engages gut-brain neurocircuits to determine food intake and hepatic glucose production, but a potential role for gut-brain communication in the control of energy expenditure remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that duodenal lipid sensing activates a gut–brain–brown adipose tissue neuraxis to regulate thermogenesis. We demonstrate that direct administration of lipids into the duodenum increases brown fat temperature. Co-infusion of the local anesthetic tetracaine with duodenal lipids abolished the lipid-induced increase in brown fat temperature. Systemic administration of the CCKA receptor antagonist devazepide blocked the ability of duodenal lipids to increase brown fat thermogenesis. Parenchymal administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker MK-801 directly into the caudomedial nucleus of the solitary tract also abolished duodenal lipid-induced activation of brown fat thermogenesis. These findings establish that duodenal lipid sensing activates a gut–brain–brown fat axis to determine brown fat temperature, and thereby reveal a previously unappreciated pathway that regulates thermogenesis.

Blouet, Clemence; Schwartz, Gary J.

2012-01-01

352

Duodenal Wedge Resection for Large Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour Presenting with Life-Threatening Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background. Duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are an uncommon malignancy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We present a case of life-threatening haemorrhage caused by a large ulcerating duodenal GIST arising from the third part of the duodenum managed by a limited duodenal wedge resection. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old patient presented with acute life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. After oesophagogastroduodenoscopy failed to demonstrate the source of bleeding, a 5?cm ulcerating exophytic mass originating from the third part of the duodenum was identified at laparotomy. A successful limited wedge resection of the tumour mass was performed. Histopathology subsequently confirmed a duodenal GIST. The patient remained well at 12-month followup with no evidence of local recurrence or metastatic spread. Conclusion. Duodenal GISTs can present with life-threatening upper GI haemorrhage. In the context of acute haemorrhage, even relatively large duodenal GISTs can be treated by limited wedge resection. This is a preferable alternative to duodenopancreatectomy with lower morbidity and mortality but comparable oncological outcome.

Shaw, Alexander; Jeffery, John; Dias, Laura; Nazir, Sarfraz

2013-01-01

353

Development of a highly reproducible three-dimensional organotypic model of the oral mucosa.  

PubMed

In this report we describe the development of a standardized three-dimensional (3D) system of the human oral mucosa based on an immortalized human oral keratinocyte cell line (OKF6/TERT-2). The procedure takes approximately 2-3 weeks to complete and includes three main stages: preparation of collagen-embedded fibroblasts, addition of the mucosal component and airlifting of cultures to ensure adequate differentiation/stratification. This procedure results in a multilayer epithelial structure in which layers are organized similarly to the cells in native oral mucosa. Specifically, this model system consists of a stratum basale, having one layer of columnar to round cells, a relatively flattened stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum, and a non-keratinizing stratum corneum. This 3D system resembles the commercially available system based on the cell line TR146 (SkinEthic), with the exception that our model system does not contain dyskeratotic changes and has a submucosal component, and thus better represents the normal human mucosa and submucosa. PMID:17487190

Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna; Kashleva, Helena

2006-01-01

354

Development of a highly reproducible three-dimensional organotypic model of the oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

In this report we describe the development of a standardized three-dimensional (3D) system of the human oral mucosa based on an immortalized human oral keratinocyte cell line (OKF6/TERT-2). The procedure takes approximately 2?3 weeks to complete and includes three main stages: preparation of collagen-embedded fibroblasts, addition of the mucosal component and airlifting of cultures to ensure adequate differentiation/stratification. This procedure results in a multilayer epithelial structure in which layers are organized similarly to the cells in native oral mucosa. Specifically, this model system consists of a stratum basale, having one layer of columnar to round cells, a relatively flattened stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum, and a non-keratinizing stratum corneum. This 3D system resembles the commercially available system based on the cell line TR146 (SkinEthic), with the exception that our model system does not contain dyskeratotic changes and has a submucosal component, and thus better represents the normal human mucosa and submucosa.

Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna; Kashleva, Helena

2009-01-01

355

Equine model of inducing ulceration in alimentary squamous epithelial mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulceration of the gastric squamous epithelial mucosa was induced in 10 horses using a feeding protocol previously shown to expose the gastric mucosa to repeated periods of high acidity. The feeding protocol consisted of alternating feed deprivation with free access to hay. Over a period of seven days, each horse was provided hay for 84 hr and deprived of hay

Michael J. Murray

1994-01-01

356

Morphological characteristics of the canine and feline stomach mucosa.  

PubMed

The stomach mucosa structure in animals belonging to Order Carnivora indicates some specific characteristics in comparison with the other mammals. Between the bases of the mucosal glands and the lamina muscularis mucosae there is an additional plate which most of the morphologists have defined as lamina subglandularis. In currently used Nomina histologica this layer is indicated as stratum compactum in carnivorous stomach mucosa. The investigation aims were to study and compare canine and feline stomach tunica mucosa characteristics as well as to measure the thickness of stratum compactum and to specify some of the certain collagen types and fibronectin compounds. Conventional and differential histological and ultrastructural methods and immuno-histochemical approaches for investigation of the canine and feline stomach samples were used. The specific organization of the carnivorous stomach wall arrangement was established. In the structure of the canine stomach mucosa, no evidence of stratum compactum was observed. The presence of stratum compactum in feline stomach mucosa was ascertained and measured. Using an immunohistochemical method very high expression of collagen type IV and fibronectin, moderate positive reaction of collagen type III, and a comparatively weakest expression of collagen types I and V in the structure of stratum compactum from cat stomach mucosa was shown. The obtained results clarify the characteristics of the stomach mucosa morphology and could be used as a basis for distinguishing the stomach wall structure of the animal species belonging to Canidae and Felidae families although they are both carnivores. PMID:20825386

Zahariev, P; Sapundzhiev, E; Pupaki, D; Rashev, P; Palov, A; Todorov, T

2010-09-03

357

Lichen sclerosus of the oral mucosa: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichen sclerosus or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the ge- nital mucosa and skin. Clinically, it is characterized by white atrophic plaques in the anogenital region. The lesions are generally asymptomatic, but may cause discomfort with itching and pain. Extragenital mucosal involvement is very unusual, and lesions limited to the oral mucosa are even

Yolanda Jiménez; Carmen Gavaldá; Enrique Carbonell; María Margaix; Gracia Sarrión

358

Immunological and morphogenic basis of gastric mucosa atrophy and metaplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic gastritis with gastric mucosa atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia are alterations with an increased risk for the development of gastric neoplasias. Immunological studies in autoimmune gastritis, in atrophic Helicobacter pylori gastritis and in studies with transgenic mice point to a central role of the parietal cell in the development of gastric mucosa atrophy. Destruction of gastric epithelial

Gerhard Faller; Thomas Kirchner

2005-01-01

359

Effects of individual characteristics on healthy oral mucosa autofluorescence spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autofluorescence spectroscopy is a tool for detecting tissue alterations in vivo. In a previous study, we found spectral differences between clinically normal mucosa of different patient groups. These are possibly caused by associated patient characteristics. In the present study, we explore the influences of volunteer characteristics on healthy oral mucosa autofluorescence.Autofluorescence spectra were recorded in 96 volunteers with no clinically

Diana C. G de Veld; Henricus J. C. M Sterenborg; Jan L. N Roodenburg; Max J. H Witjes

2004-01-01

360

Urethral Mucosa Prolapse in an 18-Year-Old Adolescent  

PubMed Central

Urethra mucosa prolapse is a benign condition in which there is a circular protrusion of the distal urethra through the external urethra meatus. It is more commonly seen in prepubertal black girls and postmenopausal white women. It is rare in the reproductive age group. This case describes the presentation and management of an 18-year-old adolescent with urethra mucosa prolapse.

Olumide, Akadiri; Kayode Olusegun, Ajenifuja; Babatola, Bakare

2013-01-01

361

A Disguised Tuberculosis in Oral Buccal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

2011-01-01

362

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Due to Duodenal Erosion by a Biliary Wallstent  

SciTech Connect

A self-expanding metallic stent (Wallstent) was used to relieve obstruction of the common bile duct in a young male with a desmoplastic small cell tumor of the abdomen. Two months after insertion and following a course of chemotherapy the lower end of the stent eroded the mucosa of the second part of the duodenum causing severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage which necessitated laparotomy and trimming of the stent. This complication may have been due to shrinking of the tumor as well as thrombocytopenia following chemotherapy.

Roebuck, Derek J.; Stanley, Philip [Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Katz, Michael D. [Department of Radiology, University of Southern California, 1500 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Parry, Robert L. [Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Haight, Michael A. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States)

1998-01-15

363

Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin preferentially interacts with blood group A-active glycolipids from pig intestinal mucosa and A- and B-active glycolipids from human red cells compared to H-active glycolipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of cholera toxin (CT) and of the heat-labile enterotoxin produced by Escherichia coli isolated from humans (LTh) to interact with glycolipids bearing ABO(H) blood group determinants isolated from different sources and separated by thin layer chromatography was studied. Toxin binding to the ABO(H)-related glycolipids depends on the glycolipid source, the type of the blood group activity, and the

Jose L. Barra; Clara G. Monferran; Luis E. Balanzino; Federico A. Cumar

1992-01-01

364

Effects of tea from Turnera ulmifolia L. on mouse gastric mucosa support the Turneraceae as a new source of antiulcerogenic drugs.  

PubMed

Turnera ulmifolia is a plant belonging to the family Turneraceae, popularly known in Brazil as chanana. This species is distributed from Guyana to southern Brazil where it is considered a weed. The plant occurs in tropical rain forest, fields, and gardens. Chanana tea is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric dysfunction including gastric and duodenal ulcers. In this study, the ability of a lyophilized infusion, as an aqueous fraction (AqF) of the aerial parts of T. ulmifolia, was investigated for its ability to prevent ulceration of the gastric and duodenal mucosa was examined in mice and rats, respectively. The AqF significantly reduced the formation of lesions associated with HCl/ethanol administration by 39% and 46%, respectively, at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. The AqF also significantly reduced the incidence of gastric lesions induced by a combination of indomethacin and bethanechol by 58% and 72% at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. In stress-induced gastric ulcer, the inhibition by the AqF was 48%, 57%, and 58% at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively (p<0.05). A pyloric ligature experiment showed that the highest dose of the AqF significantly affected the gastric juice parameters by increasing the pH from 2.5 (control) to 5.3 and decreasing the acid output from 11.3 (control) to 3.7 mEq/ml/4 h. The AqF had no significant effect on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Preliminary phytochemical screening confirmed that flavonoids were the major constituents of the AqF of T. ulmifolia. These results indicate that this extract has a significant antiulcerogenic effect, as popularly believed. PMID:11995930

Gracioso, Juliano de Souza; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

2002-04-01

365

Function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in antibody formation.  

PubMed

Abundant evidence supports the notion that human intestinal plasma cells are largely derived from B cells initially activated in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Nevertheless, insufficient knowledge exists about the uptake, processing, and presentation of luminal antigens occurring in GALT to accomplish priming and sustained expansion of mucosal B cells. Also, it is unclear how the germinal center reaction so strikingly promotes class switch to IgA and expression of J chain, although the commensal microbiota appears to contribute to both diversification and memory. B-cell migration from GALT to the intestinal lamina propria is guided by rather well-defined adhesion molecules and chemokines/chemokine receptors, but the cues directing homing to secretory effector sites beyond the gut require better definition. In this respect, the role of human Waldeyer's ring (including adenoids and the palatine tonsils) as a regional mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue must be better defined, although the balance of evidence suggests that it functions as nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) like the characteristic NALT structures in rodents. Altogether, data suggest a remarkable compartmentalization of the mucosal immune system that must be taken into account in the development of effective local vaccines to protect specifically the airways, small and large intestines, and the female genital tract. PMID:20450282

Brandtzaeg, Per

2010-01-01

366

Surveillance and Treatment of Periampullary and Duodenal Adenomas in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.  

PubMed

Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) have a cumulative lifetime risk of over 90% for developing duodenal adenomas, which are the precursor lesions for duodenal adenocarcinoma. Consequently, these patients have a 5% to 10% lifetime risk of periampullary or duodenal adenocarcinoma, making this the leading cause of cancer death in FAP patients who have had prophylactic colectomies. The increased relative risk of duodenal carcinoma in FAP patients and the poor outcomes associated with the treatment of advanced duodenal cancer have led to the development of prevention strategies for this cancer in the setting of FAP. It is generally accepted that surveillance for duodenal adenomas and adenocarcinomas should be included in the management of patients with FAP, although there are few data from clinical trials that demonstrate the effectiveness of surveillance strategies or chemoprevention for the prevention of death from duodenal cancer. Prospective case series have shown that endoscopic surveillance with endoscopic or surgical treatment of high-risk lesions in the duodenal or periampullary region can be performed with successful removal of the at-risk lesion(s). Surveillance should begin at about 21 years of age and should be performed using both an end-viewing and a side-viewing upper endoscope. An interval of 3 to 5 years between examinations appears to be adequate if no polyposis is evident. Once polyposis develops, an interval of 1 to 3 years between screenings for mild polyposis is appropriate. Patients with denser polyposis or larger adenomas are recommended to undergo examination every 6 to 12 months because of their increased risk of developing duodenal adenocarcinoma. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy with sulindac, a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, or celecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, may be of benefit after the development of duodenal polyposis by inducing the regression or stabilization of the polyposis, although there is limited evidence from randomized, controlled trials to support its routine use. Almost all cases of adenocarcinoma occur in patients with advanced polyposis (Spigelman stage IV disease), and approximately 33% of this group will go on to develop adenocarcinoma if left untreated. The most definitive procedure for reducing the risk of adenocarcinoma is surgical resection of the ampulla and/or duodenum. Pancreaticoduodenectomy or pancreas-sparing duodenectomy are appropriate surgical therapies that are believed to substantially reduce the risk of developing periampullary adenocarcinoma. However, these procedures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including the risk of inducing desmoid tumor formation in FAP patients. PMID:15010021

Johnson, J. Chad; DiSario, James A.; Grady, William M.

2004-04-01

367

Symptomatic duodenal duplication cyst in an adult demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Case report and literature review.  

PubMed

A patient with a symptomatic duodenal duplication cyst demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is presented. This lesion usually does not communicate with duodenal lumen but should be added to the list of cystic duodenal lesions demonstrable by ERCP. ERCP preoperatively is helpful to the surgeon in isolating adjacent duct structures but cyst wall histology is mandatory for correct anatomic diagnosis as this lesion has often been confused with Type III choledochal cysts. PMID:474555

Luckmann, K F; Welch, R W; Schwesinger, W; Oswalt, C; Bannayan, G

1979-08-01

368

Ex vivo permeation characteristics of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Venlafaxine, a dual acting antidepressant is a new therapeutic option for chronic depression. Depression is a common mental disorder associated with the abnormalities in neuronal transport in the brain. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we analyzed the transport of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa. Transmucosal permeation kinetics of venlafaxine were examined using sheep nasal mucosa mounted onto static vertical Franz diffusion cells. Nasal mucosa was treated with venlafaxine in situ gel (100 ?l; 1% w/v) for 7h. Amount of venlafaxine diffused through mucosa was measured using validated RP-HPLC method. After the completion of the study histopathological investigation of mucosa was carried out. Ex vivo studies through sheep nasal mucosa showed sustained diffusion of venlafaxine with 66.5% permeation in 7h. Transnasal transport of venlafaxine followed a non-Fickian diffusion process. Permeability coefficient and steady state flux were found to be 21.11×10(-3) cmh(-1) and 21.118 ?g cm(-2)h(-1) respectively. Cumulative amount permeated through mucosa at 7h was found to be 664.8 ?g through an area of 3.14 cm(2). Total recovery of venlafaxine at the end of the permeation study was 87.3% of initial dose distributed (i) at the mucosal surface (208.4 ?g; 20.8%) and (ii) through mucosa (664.8 ?g; 66.5%). Histopathological examinations showed no significant adverse effects confirming that the barrier function of nasal mucosa remains unaffected even after treatment with venlafaxine in situ gel. Permeation through sheep nasal mucosa using in situ gel demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery of venlafaxine, providing new dimension to the treatment of chronic depression. PMID:23159662

Pund, Swati; Rasve, Ganesh; Borade, Ganesh

2012-11-16

369

Intraoral Wound Closure with Tissue-Engineered Mucosa: New Perspectives for Urethra Reconstruction with Buccal Mucosa Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urethra reconstruction, the creation of a new ure- thra from a free oral mucosa graft is an established surgical technique. The oral mucosa is removed at the same time that the urethra reconstruction procedure is performed. Depending on the size of graft required, the intraoral wound is closed primarily or left to heal secondarily. The latter method limits this

Ronald Schimming; Alexander Frankenschmidt

2001-01-01

370

Melatonin inhibits alcohol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability in rats in vivo.  

PubMed

Increased intestinal permeability is often associated with epithelial inflammation, leaky gut, or other pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. We recently found that melatonin decreases basal duodenal mucosal permeability, suggesting a mucosal protective mode of action of this agent. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of melatonin on ethanol-, wine-, and HCl-induced changes of duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability and motility. Rats were anesthetized with thiobarbiturate and a ~30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum was perfused in situ. Effects on duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability, assessed by measuring the blood-to-lumen clearance of ?¹Cr-EDTA, motility, and morphology, were investigated. Perfusing the duodenal segment with ethanol (10 or 15% alcohol by volume), red wine, or HCl (25-100 mM) induced concentration-dependent increases in paracellular permeability. Luminal ethanol and wine increased, whereas HCl transiently decreased duodenal motility. Administration of melatonin significantly reduced ethanol- and wine-induced increases in permeability by a mechanism abolished by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium (iv) or mecamylamine (luminally). Signs of mucosal injury (edema and beginning of desquamation of the epithelium) in response to ethanol exposure were seen only in a few villi, an effect that was histologically not changed by melatonin. Melatonin did not affect HCl-induced increases in mucosal permeability or decreases in motility. Our results show that melatonin reduces ethanol- and wine-induced increases in duodenal paracellular permeability partly via an enteric inhibitory nicotinic-receptor dependent neural pathway. In addition, melatonin inhibits ethanol-induced increases in duodenal motor activity. These results suggest that melatonin may serve important gastrointestinal barrier functions. PMID:23639810

Sommansson, Anna; Saudi, Wan Salman Wan; Nylander, Olof; Sjöblom, Markus

2013-05-02

371

Gender and Racial Disparities in Duodenal Biopsy to Evaluate For Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Celiac disease (CD) is common but under-diagnosed in the United States. Serological screening studies indicate that, although CD occurs at the same frequency in both genders, women are diagnosed more frequently than men (2:1). CD is less frequently diagnosed among black patients, though the seroprevalence in this group is not known. Objective to measure the rates of duodenal biopsy during esophagogastroeduodenoscopy (EGD) for symptoms consistent with CD. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative National Endoscopy Database, spanning the years 2004–2009. Patients Adults undergoing EGD for the indication of diarrhea, anemia, iron deficiency, or weight loss, in which the endoscopic appearance of the upper gastrointestinal tract was normal. Main outcome measurement performance of duodenal biopsy. Results Of 13,091 individuals (58% females, 9% blacks) who met the inclusion criteria, duodenal biopsy was performed in 43%, 45% of females and 39% of males (p<0.0001). Blacks underwent duodenal biopsy in 28% of EGD’s, compared to 44% for whites (p<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, male gender (OR 0.81 95%CI 0.75–0.88), older age (OR for ?70 compared to 20–49 0.51 95%CI 0.46–0.57), and black race (OR 0.55 95%CI 0.48–0.64) were associated with decreased odds of duodenal biopsy. Limitations Lack of histopathologic correlation with CD prevalence. Conclusions In this multi-region endoscopy database spanning 2004–2009, rates of duodenal biopsy increased modestly over time, but overall remain low in patients with possible clinical indications for biopsy. Non-performance of duodenal biopsy during endoscopy may be contributing to the under-diagnosis of CD in the United States.

Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tennyson, Christina A.; Holub, Jennifer L.; Lieberman, David A.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Green, Peter H.R.

2012-01-01

372

The responses of duodenal tension receptors in sheep to pentagastrin, cholecystokinin and some other drugs.  

PubMed Central

The proposal that some post-prandially released alimentary hormones modify ingestive behaviour and gastric emptying by altering impulse activity in alimentary enteroceptors has been tested using a number of gastrointestinal peptide hormone analogues. These and other drugs were applied to single-unit afferent preparations of duodenal tension receptors in chloralose-anaesthetized sheep. In separate experiments the effect of pentagastrin and cholecystokinin on duodenal motor activity was recorded without unitary afferent activity measurements. Local intra-arterial bolus injections of pentagastrin, cholecystokinin, insulin, prostaglandin, acetylcholine, phenylbiguanide, veratrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and bradykinin aroused or enhanced activity in tension receptors. With the exception of a short-latency effect of insulin B.P., these responses occurred together with local increases in tension and electromyographic activity of the duodenum. Combinations of atropine and hexamethonium reduced duodenal motor activity and abolished most drug-evoked afferent responses. Intracarotid bolus injections of pentagastrin at first increased, then reduced duodenal tension, electromyographic activity and impulse activity of tension receptors. Cholecystokinin (CCK-8) injected by this route caused similar alterations of these parameters, and the response was characterized by periods of reduced activity followed by a prolonged excitation of duodenal motility. From the responses to bolus injections of humoral agents it is concluded that some alimentary hormones released after a meal may have a peripheral excitatory action on the tension receptor environment which causes increased afferent activity. The mechanism probably involves both an alteration in duodenal motility and a sensitization of the receptor ending. In addition, the peptide hormones gastrin and cholecystokinin may act centrally to alter duodenal motor control and thus may influence gastric emptying and post-prandial satiety mechanisms.

Cottrell, D F; Iggo, A

1984-01-01

373

Genotoxic damage in the oral mucosa cells of subjects carrying restorative dental fillings.  

PubMed

A large proportion of the population carries restorative dental fillings containing either classic Hg-based amalgams and/or the more frequently used methacrylates. Both Hg- and resin-based materials have been shown to be released into the buccal cavity and to be spread systemically. In addition, they induce toxic and genotoxic alterations in experimental test systems. Using the comet assay, we previously demonstrated that circulating lymphocytes of subjects with dental fillings have an increased DNA damage. Here, we analyzed the oral mucosa cells of 63 young subjects of both genders, by using both the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test and by monitoring cell death markers. The results obtained show that both amalgams and resin-based composite fillings can induce genotoxic damage in human oral mucosa cells, as convincingly and dose-dependently inferred from the results of the MN test and, more marginally, from comet assay data. Lifestyle variables, also including alcohol intake and smoking habits, did not affect the genotoxic response and did not act as confounding factors. Thus, we provide unequivocal evidence for the genotoxicity of both amalgams and resin-based dental fillings in humans not only by testing circulating lymphocytes but also by analyzing oral mucosa cells. These findings are of particular relevance due to the circumstance that subjects with restorative materials are exposed continuously and for long periods of time. PMID:22872142

Visalli, Giuseppa; Baluce, Barbara; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna Tindara; Cingano, Luciano; De Flora, Silvio; Di Pietro, Angela

2012-08-08

374

Microvascular abnormalities of the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Compared with normotensive mucosa, the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa has increased susceptibility to injury by noxious agents such as alcohol and aspirin, but the mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear. Since the microvasculature of the normal gastric mucosa is an important target of injury by these agents, we studied the histologic and ultrastructural features of gastric vasculature and mucosal microvasculature in rats with portal hypertension (produced by staged portal vein ligation) and in sham-operated rats. In portal hypertensive rats, the gastric mucosa was swollen and hyperemic and the endothelial cells of mucosal microvessels had very prominent enlarged cytoplasm obstructing capillary lumina. Quantitative analysis of transmission electron micrographs demonstrated that in portal hypertensive rats the gastric mucosal capillary endothelium had significantly increased cytoplasmic area (236%), increased pinocytic vesicular area (416%) and increased capillary basement membrane thickness (143%) compared to respective parameters in sham-operated control rats. Arterioles in the muscularis mucosae and in submucosa were thickened, and submucosal veins demonstrated features of arterialization. All these findings indicate that portal hypertension produces definite microvascular changes in the gastric mucosa resulting in compromise of the capillary lumina. These changes may be the basis for the observed morphologic and functional abnormalities of the portal hypertensive mucosa and its increased predisposition to injury. PMID:3192161

Tarnawski, A S; Sarfeh, I J; Stachura, J; Hajduczek, A; Bui, H X; Dabros, W; Gergely, H

375

HIV Target Cells in Schistosoma haematobium-Infected Female Genital Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The parasite Schistosoma haematobium frequently causes genital lesions in women and could increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. This study quantifies the HIV target cells in schistosome-infected female genital mucosa. Cervicovaginal biopsies with and without schistosomiasis were immunostained for quantification of CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD3, CD8), macrophages (CD68), and dendritic Langerhans cells (S100 protein). We found significantly higher densities of genital mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages surrounding schistosome ova compared with cervicovaginal mucosa without ova (P = 0.034 and P = 0.018, respectively). We found no increased density of Langerhans cells (P = 0.25). This study indicates that S. haematobium may significantly increase the density of HIV target cells (CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages) in the female genitals, creating a beneficial setting for HIV transmission. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to evaluate the effect of anti-schistosomal treatment on female genital schistosomiasis.

Jourdan, Peter Mark; Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

2011-01-01

376

Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptors on plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa  

SciTech Connect

The binding of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), beta-urogastrone, to plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa was studied to characterize gastric EGF receptors. The binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF was temperature dependent, reversible, and saturable. A single class of binding sites for EGF with a dissociation constant of 0.42 nM and maximal binding capacity of 42 fmol/mg protein was suggested. There was little change in the binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF upon addition of peptide hormones (secretin, insulin), antiulcer drugs (cimetidine), or an ulcer-inducing reagent (aspirin). Cross-linking of ({sup 125}I)hEGF to gastric plasma membranes with the use of disuccinimidyl suberate resulted in the labeling of a protein of 150 kDa. These results indicate the presence of EGF receptors on plasma membranes of rat gastric mucosa.

Hori, R.; Nomura, H.; Iwakawa, S.; Okumura, K. (Kyoto Univ. Hospital (Japan))

1990-06-01

377

Acute effects of irradiation on middle ear mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Single field, fixed irradiation of bilateral tympanic cavities using 200-kV x-rays was administered to five guinea pigs. The irradiation dose was 30 Gy. They were killed immediately after irradiation, and bilateral middle ear mucosa was examined for ciliary activity and epithelial structure. Significant deterioration of the ciliary activity in the middle ear mucosa was observed, proximal as well as distal to the eustachian tube. Electron microscopy showed various changes in the irradiated middle ear mucosa. The most conspicuous findings were hyperreactivity in secretion, vacuolation of ciliated cells, and stomal edema.

Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Esaki, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Onoyama, Y.

1988-03-01

378

Duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple in a cow  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this report was to describe duodenal obstruction caused by a rubber foreign body in a cow. Case Presentation The clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic findings in a five-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow with duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple are described. The main clinical signs were anorexia, ruminal tympany, decreased faecal output and abomasal reflux syndrome. Ultrasonographic examination revealed reticular hyperactivity and a dilated duodenum. A diagnosis of duodenal ileus was made and the cow underwent right-flank laparotomy, which revealed a dilation of the cranial part of the duodenum because of obstruction by a pliable foreign body. This was identified via enterotomy as a calf feeding nipple. The cow was healthy at the time of discharge four days after surgery and went on to complete a successful lactation. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first description of duodenal obstruction by a calf feeding nipple. This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of the causes of duodenal ileus, which is usually caused by obstruction of the duodenum by a phytobezoar.

2011-01-01

379

Nitric oxide prevents rat duodenal contractions induced by potentially noxious agents.  

PubMed

After abdominal surgery, luminal HCl fails to induce duodenal contractions in anaesthetized rats. Elevated tissue levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins possibly contribute to this observation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of luminal capsaicin (1.2 mg mL-1), ethanol (15%) and high partial pressure of CO2 (>250 mmHg) with those of HCl (10 mM) in anaesthetized rats. Motility (intraluminal pressure), mucosal permeability [blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-EDTA (51Chromium-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetate)] and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) were recorded. Three groups of animals were studied: (1) controls, (2) pretreatment with the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME) and (3) pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Neither capsaicin, ethanol, CO2 nor HCl induced duodenal contractions or affected DMBS in control rats. However, L-NAME induced duodenal contractions that were augmented by capsaicin, ethanol and HCl, but not by CO2. Indomethacin also induced contractions that were reversibly diminished by capsaicin and HCl, but not by ethanol or CO2. Significant increases in mucosal permeability occurred during ethanol perfusion in indomethacin- and L-NAME pretreated rats. In conclusion, NO probably plays a key role in preventing duodenal contractions in response to luminally HCl, capsaicin and ethanol. The HCl-induced effect on motility appears to be independent of CO2 and is not caused by alteration in mucosal integrity. PMID:10886038

Hellgren, S; Flemström, G; Nylander, O

2000-07-01

380

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

A distinctive type of low-grade extranodal lymphoma recapitulates the cytomorphologic features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Typically, these MALT lymphomas arise from sites normally devoid of lymphoid tissue, but are preceded by chronic inflammatory, usually autoimmune, disorders that result in the accumulation of lymphoid tissue. The stomach is the most common site of MALT lymphoma, which arises from lymphoid tissue acquired as the result of Helicobacter pylori infection. The indolent clinical behavior of gastric MALT lymphoma coupled with certain histologic features suggests that its growth is subject to immunologic stimuli, and the role of H pylori in this respect has been examined in detail. In vitro experiments have shown that the growth of lymphoma cells is stimulated by contact with T cells, which, in turn, show strain specific responses to heat-killed H pylori. Clinically, approximately 70% of cases of stage IE gastric MALT lymphoma regress following eradication of H pylori with antibiotics. Large, deeply invasive tumors and those that have undergone high-grade transformation typically do not respond to antibiotic therapy. Other common sites of MALT lymphoma include the salivary glands, lung, and ocular adnexa. The clinicopathologic features of these lymphomas are remarkably similar to gastric MALT lymphoma, which suggests that they, too, may be antigen-driven. PMID:10319382

Isaacson, P G

1999-04-01

381

[Changes in gastric mucosa in acute malaria].  

PubMed

A high incidence rate of Malaria is observed at Bolívar state (Venezuela) and, beside classic acute symptomatology, we have observed gastric symptoms like epigastralgia, anorexia, nausea and vomits. The scope of this study is to establish changes of gastric mucosa related to Plasmodium infection, using macro and microscopic technics. One hundred both sex patients with Malaria diagnosis done with thick drop technic and gastric symptomatology were studied in our department from March 1990 to February 1991. The esophagus, stomach and duodenum of all patients were evaluated with upper digestive tract endoscopy and still photographs, and biopsies of fundus, body and antrum were taken, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and stained with hematoxylin-eosine method. P. falciparum was found in 52 cases, P. vivax in 39 and 9 infected with both, most of patients complained of shivering fever, epigastralgia (76%), nausea and vomits (72%), tartness (25%) and burning pain (21%). Mucosal edema and congestion (gastritis) were the endoscopic findings in 88% of cases, usually located at antrum (67%) and fundus (33%). The microscopic findings were: mucosal edema (90%), superficial bleeding (87%), microthrombosis (60%), gastric atrophy (40%) and intestinal metaplasia (8%). Acute gastric symptomatology we have observed in patients with acute malaria my be due to microthrombosis and arteriolar occlusion, leading to ischemic changes and mucosal edema. These pathophysiological changes explain most of upper digestive tract symptoms in acute malaria, particularly when agent is P. falciparum. We have not found related papers in bibliography. PMID:8112547

Romero, A; Matos, C; González, M M; Nuñez, N; Bermudez, L; de Castro, G

382

Protective effect of pentoxifylline on gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Pentoxifylline (PF) has been shown to increase tissue oxygen tension. This study was performed to determine if PF has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against alcohol (EtOH)-induced injury. Fasted Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with randomized test solution (control, normal saline, or PF, 75 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (ip). At 30 min, 100% EtOH (pH 8.5) was given intragastric. At 90 min, laparotomy was performed and gastric serosal stomach surface oxygen tensions (pO2) were measured. Stomachs were excised and opened and pH was measured. Photographs were taken and sections were obtained for histologic analysis to determine mucosal injury. The PF-pretreated rats had significantly higher serosal pO2 and significantly lower intragastric pH than control animals. There was significantly less gross and histologic mucosal injury in PF-treated animals. We conclude that PF is protective against EtOH gastric mucosal injury. This effect correlates with increased gastric serosal pO2 and is likely due to improved microcirculatory blood flow following PF administration. PMID:3379950

Tominaga, G; Waxman, K; Soliman, M H; Sarfeh, I J; Bui, H X; Tarnawski, A

1988-06-01

383

Oral Bacteria as Potential Probiotics for the Pharyngeal Mucosa?  

PubMed Central

The research described here was aimed at the selection of oral bacteria that displayed properties compatible with their potential use as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa. We included in the study 56 bacteria newly isolated from the pharynges of healthy donors, which were identified at the intraspecies level and characterized in vitro for their probiotic potential. The experiments led us to select two potential probiotic bacterial strains (Streptococcus salivarius RS1 and ST3) and to compare them with the prototype oral probiotic S. salivarius strain K12. All three strains efficiently bound to FaDu human epithelial pharyngeal cells and thereby antagonized Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and growth. All were sensitive to a variety of antibiotics routinely used for the control of upper respiratory tract infections. Immunological in vitro testing on a FaDu layer revealed different responses to RS1, ST3, and K12. RS1 and ST3 modulated NF-?B activation and biased proinflammatory cytokines at baseline and after interleukin-1? (IL-1?) induction. In conclusion, we suggest that the selected commensal streptococci represent potential pharyngeal probiotic candidates. They could display a good degree of adaptation to the host and possess potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

Guglielmetti, Simone; Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Stuknyte, Milda; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego

2010-01-01

384

Antacid maintenance therapy in the prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of antacid maintenance therapy in preventing duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse was investigated. Two hundred and fifty one asymptomatic patients with healed DU were stratified into smokers and non-smokers and randomised to receive for one year either placebo, or Maalox TC three tablets (81 mmol) at bedtime (hs), or Maalox TC three tablets in the morning plus three tablets at bedtime (bd) (162 mmol), or cimetidine 400 mg at bedtime. A double dummy technique was used to render the study double blind. In 176 patients evaluable for efficacy, the cumulative relapse at one year was: placebo 57%; Maalox TC hs 39%; Maalox TC bd 23%; cimetidine 25%. Maalox TC bd and cimetidine were equally effective and superior to placebo (p less than 0.01) and bedtime Maalox TC (p less than 0.04). The benefit of treatment was significant for the overall sample and for the subgroup of smokers. The results for the non-smokers also supported efficacy for these two treatments but, perhaps because of small sample sizes, these comparisons were not significant. All 251 patients were assessed for safety. Approximately half the patients in each treatment group had adverse events, leading to withdrawal in three, seven, 12, and four patients on placebo, Maalox hs, Maalox bd, and cimetidine respectively. Diarrhoea occurred in 12 patients in Maalox TC bd and eight in each other group. Serum magnesium concentrations were unchanged; aluminium concentrations were higher than baseline at six and 12 months in both antacid groups and at 12 months in the cimetidine group but the differences were not significant. Maalox TC three tablets bd are as effective as cimetidine 400 mg at bedtime in reducing DU relapse and both are superior to placebo. PMID:3065157

Bardhan, K D; Hunter, J O; Miller, J P; Thomson, A B; Graham, D Y; Russell, R I; Sontag, S; Hines, C; Martin, T; Gaussen, L

1988-12-01

385

Antacid maintenance therapy in the prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse.  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of antacid maintenance therapy in preventing duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse was investigated. Two hundred and fifty one asymptomatic patients with healed DU were stratified into smokers and non-smokers and randomised to receive for one year either placebo, or Maalox TC three tablets (81 mmol) at bedtime (hs), or Maalox TC three tablets in the morning plus three tablets at bedtime (bd) (162 mmol), or cimetidine 400 mg at bedtime. A double dummy technique was used to render the study double blind. In 176 patients evaluable for efficacy, the cumulative relapse at one year was: placebo 57%; Maalox TC hs 39%; Maalox TC bd 23%; cimetidine 25%. Maalox TC bd and cimetidine were equally effective and superior to placebo (p less than 0.01) and bedtime Maalox TC (p less than 0.04). The benefit of treatment was significant for the overall sample and for the subgroup of smokers. The results for the non-smokers also supported efficacy for these two treatments but, perhaps because of small sample sizes, these comparisons were not significant. All 251 patients were assessed for safety. Approximately half the patients in each treatment group had adverse events, leading to withdrawal in three, seven, 12, and four patients on placebo, Maalox hs, Maalox bd, and cimetidine respectively. Diarrhoea occurred in 12 patients in Maalox TC bd and eight in each other group. Serum magnesium concentrations were unchanged; aluminium concentrations were higher than baseline at six and 12 months in both antacid groups and at 12 months in the cimetidine group but the differences were not significant. Maalox TC three tablets bd are as effective as cimetidine 400 mg at bedtime in reducing DU relapse and both are superior to placebo.

Bardhan, K D; Hunter, J O; Miller, J P; Thomson, A B; Graham, D Y; Russell, R I; Sontag, S; Hines, C; Martin, T; Gaussen, L

1988-01-01

386

Role of Meteorological Factors in Duodenal Ulcer Seasonality  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Understanding disease seasonality can provide guidance for future biomedical research. OBJECTIVE To examine whether meteorological factors and calendar months impact duodenal ulcer (DU) exacerbations. DESIGN We conducted a retrospective time series analysis of population-based claims data. PARTICIPANTS DU inpatients (1997–2003; all endoscopy confirmed) from Taiwan, a small island nation, n?=?160,510. Inpatient admission was used as a proxy for exacerbation because 98.5% of cases had hemorrhage or perforation or both. MEASUREMENTS We used multivariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modeling to examine if DU admissions/100,000 was associated with calendar month, ambient temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, and sunshine hours, controlling for available DU-relevant comorbidities. RESULTS DU admissions increased with age. ARIMA modeling showed a February (Chinese New Year-related) trough in all age groups (all p?

Xirasagar, Sudha; Chen, Chin-Shyan

2007-01-01

387

Effect of hydrogen peroxide on guinea pig nasal mucosa vasculature.  

PubMed

The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on guinea pig nasal mucosa vasculature was studied by in vitro assay. H2O2 elicited relaxation of guinea pig nasal mucosa strips precontracted with phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner. The relaxant response to H2O2 was abolished in the presence of catalase. Preincubation of the strips with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or methylene blue significantly attenuated the relaxant responses elicited by H2O2. Fluorescence caused by DAF-2 DA, a fluorescence indicator for nitric oxide, was observed along the nasal mucosa vasculature in response to H2O2. These results suggest that H2O2 induced relaxation of the guinea pig nasal mucosa vasculature and that this relaxation is mediated by the NO/cGMP pathway. PMID:11202622

Hirai, T; Tsuru, H; Tanimitsu, N; Takumida, M; Watanabe, H; Yajin, K; Sasa, M

2000-12-01

388

A Case of Acute Ischemic Duodenal Ulcer Associated with Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection After Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)-related acute ischemic duodenal ulcer that developed in association with dissection of the superior mesenteric artery. We conclude that the acute duodenal ulcer was developed by ischemia related to superior mesenteric artery dissection during TACE. TACE should be conducted carefully with continuous observation of abdominal arteries.

Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang, E-mail: jsh@snubh.org; Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hyub [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2009-03-15

389

Analysis of Pancreatic Elastase1 Concentrations in Duodenal Aspirates from Healthy Subjects and Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal pancreatic elastase 1 (PE-1) has been advocated as a noninvasive marker of pancreatic function and allows detection of moderate and severe exocrine insufficiency. Few studies have evaluated the utility of measuring PE-1 in duodenal fluid for the diagnosis of pancreatic insufficiency. Our purpose was (1) to determine the feasibility of measuring PE-1 concentrations in duodenal aspirates obtained through our

Tyler Stevens; Darwin Conwell; Gregory Zuccaro; Frederick Van Lente; Farah Khandwala; Patrick Hanaway; John J. Vargo; John A. Dumot

2004-01-01

390

Esophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, and unilateral lung agenesis: a case report.  

PubMed

The association of pure esophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, and unilateral lung agenesis has not been reported previously. Here the authors present a case of a newborn with this constellation of anomalies that underwent staged repair. The primary principle guiding treatment was the avoidance of iatrogenic injury to the single lung. Therefore, the order of operations proceeded as follows: (1) placement of a decompressing gastrostomy tube, (2) repair of the duodenal atresia, and (3) repair of the esophageal atresia. The congenital closed loop obstruction caused by the esophageal and duodenal atresias was beneficial in that it resulted in growth by stretching of the distal esophagus, allowing a tension-free primary repair of the esophageal atresia. PMID:15300548

Downard, Cynthia D; Kim, Heung Bae; Laningham, Fred; Fishman, Steven J

2004-08-01

391

Predicting Chemically Induced Duodenal Ulcer and Adrenal Necrosis with Classification Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary tree-structured statistical classification algorithms and properties of 56 model alkyl nucleophiles were brought to bear on two problems of experimental pharmacology and toxicology. Each rat of a learning sample of 745 was administered one compound and autopsied to determine the presence of duodenal ulcer or adrenal hemorrhagic necrosis. The cited statistical classification schemes were then applied to these outcomes and 67 features of the compounds to ascertain those characteristics that are associated with biologic activity. For predicting duodenal ulceration, dipole moment, melting point, and solubility in octanol are particularly important, while for predicting adrenal necrosis, important features include the number of sulfhydryl groups and double bonds. These methods may constitute inexpensive but powerful ways to screen untested compounds for possible organ-specific toxicity. Mechanisms for the etiology and pathogenesis of the duodenal and adrenal lesions are suggested, as are additional avenues for drug design.

Giampaolo, Casimiro; Gray, Andrew T.; Olshen, Richard A.; Szabo, Sandor

1991-07-01

392

A 12-mm carcinoid tumor of the minor duodenal papilla with lymph node metastases.  

PubMed

Carcinoid tumors located in the minor duodenal papilla are extremely rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report the case of a 71-year-old man with a 12-mm carcinoid tumor at the minor duodenal papilla with lymph node metastases. Multidetector-row computed tomography with contrast enhancement revealed a 12-mm well-enhanced tumor in the duodenum. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a 12-mm submucosal tumor at the minor papilla of the duodenum. Biopsy specimens revealed a carcinoid tumor, and a subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. Carcinoid tumors at the minor duodenal papilla have a high prevalence of nodal disease, even for tumors <2 cm in diameter. Therefore, we believe that radical resection with tumor-free margins (i.e. pancreatoduodenectomy) is the treatment of choice. PMID:23136240

Fukami, Yasuyuki; Kurumiya, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Keisuke; Sekoguchi, Ei; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ito, Akira; Tomida, Akihiro; Onishi, Sakura; Shirotsuki, Ryo; Okubo, Kenji; Narita, Michihiko

2012-11-06

393

Serum pepsinogen I in relation to some clinical features and complications of duodenal ulcer disease.  

PubMed

Fasting serum pepsinogen 1 was assayed in 60 patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital with endoscopy - confirmed active duodenal ulceration. Pepsinogen 1 values were also correlated with some clinical features and complications of this disorder. 54 (90%) of the patients had significantly elevated values when compared with age and sex matched controls. Although elevated values were found in patients with chronic dyspepsia, family history of ulcer dyspepsia, history of gastro-duodenal blood loss and in patients with virulent ulcers, this did not show statistical significance. The possibility of using serum pepsinogen I to identify duodenal ulcer patients and to predict the clinical course and complications of this disorder is discussed. PMID:2743907

Faraj, F J; Lule, G N; Mwai, J S

1989-04-01

394

High seropositivity of anti-CagA antibody in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients irrelevant to peptic ulcers and normal mucosa in Japan.  

PubMed

CagA-positive H. pylori is reported to be associated with gastroduodenal disease in Western countries. To evaluate the relationship between CagA and disease, cloning of the entire cagA gene (3771 bp), insertion of a partial fragment (1272 bp) into an expression vector, purification of the recombinant protein, production of an antibody against the recombinant CagA protein through rabbits, and use of the recombinant CagA protein as an antigen, detection of the anti-CagA antibody by western blotting were all performed. Sera of 132 H. pylori-infected patients undergoing endoscopy were studied. Anti-CagA antibodies were detected in 90%, 87%, 90%, 94%, and 93% of patients with gastric ulcer (N = 34), duodenal ulcer (N = 27), chronic gastritis (N = 31), gastric cancer (N = 17), and normal mucosa (N = 15), respectively. High seropositivity of anti-CagA antibody even in individuals with normal mucosa indicated that CagA may not be a unique marker for disease by H. pylori infection in Japan. PMID:9331145

Maeda, S; Kanai, F; Ogura, K; Yoshida, H; Ikenoue, T; Takahashi, M; Kawabe, T; Shiratori, Y; Omata, M

1997-09-01

395

Laparoscopic Repair of a Large Duodenal Perforation Secondary to an Indwelling Nasogastric Tube in a Tracheotomized Adult  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic repair of perforated duodenal ulcers is safe and effective in centers with experience and increasingly performed by laparoscopic surgeons. However, the role of laparoscopy for the management of large duodenal perforations (>1?cm) is unclear. To date, no experience has been reported with emergency laparoscopic repair of large perforations for gastroduodenal ulcers. The commonest reason for conversion to open surgery is a perforation size of more than 1?cm. This paper reports a case of a large duodenal perforation due to a nasogastric tube in a 26-year-old male who had undergone a tracheostomy, following a cut-throat injury. This large perforation was successfully diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. This is probably the first paper in the English literature to report duodenal perforation due to a nasogastric tube in an adult and also the first report of a successful laparoscopic repair of a large duodenal perforation.

Zachariah, Sanoop Koshy

2013-01-01

396

Lipid composition of bile and gallbladder mucosa in patients with acalculous cholesterolosis.  

PubMed

To investigate pathogenetic factors of cholesterolosis of the gallbladder, the lipid composition of both the hepatic and gallbladder bile and gallbladder mucosa were compared with each other in 6 patients with and 5 patients without acalculous cholesterolosis. The molar percentage of biliary cholesterol and total bile acid pattern were similar in the two groups. Of the biliary cholesterol precursors, methyl sterols, but not squalene, correlated closely with cholesterol both in the hepatic (r = 0.901) and gallbladder bile (r = 0.747). Methyl sterols, expressed either per cholesterol or bile acids, were higher and squalene was lower in the gallbladder bile than in the hepatic bile. In addition, methyl sterols were increased in the hepatic and gallbladder bile of the patients with cholesterolosis, as if the hepatic production of these precursors had been enhanced--probably as a consequence of altered hepatic cholesterol synthesis. In cholesterolosis the gallbladder mucosa was characterized by a marked increase in triglycerides and significant elevations of the esterified sterols and free methyl sterols. The esterification degrees of sterols, which were consistently higher for methyl sterols than for cholesterol, were closely correlated with the respective mucosal sterol concentrations. The methyl sterols/cholesterol ratio in the bile correlated significantly with mucosal free and esterified methyl sterols, esterified cholesterol, and the methyl sterols/cholesterol ratio. The data suggest that free sterols can be transferred from the bile to the gallbladder mucosa, and that altered hepatic cholesterol synthesis is associated with the development of the cholesterolosis of human gallbladder. PMID:7060883

Tilvis, R S; Aro, J; Strandberg, T E; Lempinen, M; Miettinen, T A

1982-04-01

397

Diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in infants: Tc-99m DISIDA in duodenal juice  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m di-isopropylphenylcarbamoylmethylimidodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy, together with measurements of radioactivity in duodenal juice, was used to evaluate 23 infants with prolonged obstructive jaundice. Four patients proved to have biliary atresia. The remainder had neonatal hepatitis. There was distinct differentiation of biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis when the time-activity curves were analyzed. In neonatal hepatitis the radioactivity in duodenal juice is obviously higher, peaking above 1500 cpm/100 ..mu..l per mCi dose. In biliary atresia the pattern is flattened, with maximal activity below 500 cpm/100 ..mu..l per mCi dose.

Jaw, T.S.; Wu, C.C.; Ho, Y.H.; Huang, B.L.; Lu, C.C.

1984-03-01

398

[The assessment of the psychophysiological status of patients with duodenal peptic ulcer].  

PubMed

Clinicopsychologic and psychophysiologic evaluation was done in 290 patients with duodenal ulcer during the stage of exacerbation. The results obtained suggest the levels of vegetative lability, anxiety and depression in the above patients to be significantly higher by comparison with those in healthy subjects. The degree of neuropsychic disorders depends upon the type of personal response to the illness which is greater in women than it is in men. Differentiated complex approach for the psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with duodenal ulcer permits dealing with their neuropsychic disorders and influencing their personal traits in a purposive manner, which consideration contributes to the improvement of the patients' soma and psyche. PMID:9035844

Ol'khov, O G; Pertseva, T A; Gerasimchuk, O N; Khrustaleva, O S; Sokolovski?, A V; Ba?buz, T E

399

Diffuse duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia: a large cohort of patients etiologically related to Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gastrointestinal tract is a rare disorder, often associated with immunodeficiency syndromes.\\u000a There are no published reports of its association with Helicobacter pylori infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From March 2005 till February 2010, we prospectively followed all patients with diffuse duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia\\u000a (DDNLH). Patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with targeted biopsies, colonoscopy, and small bowel video capsule\\u000a endoscopy. Duodenal nodular

Mehnaaz S Khuroo; Naira S Khuroo; Mohammad S Khuroo

2011-01-01

400

Duodenal diverticulum and associated pancreatitis: case report with brief review of literature.  

PubMed

Pancreatitis in the elderly is a problem of increasing occurrence and is associated with severe complications. Periampullary diverticula (PAD) are extraluminal outpouchings of the duodenum rarely associated with pancreatitis. The presence of PAD should be excluded before diagnosing idiopathic pancreatitis, particularly in the elderly. However, when a duodenal diverticulum is found in the absence of any additional pathology, only then should the symptoms be attributed to the diverticulum. We describe a case of duodenal diverticulum presenting with pancreatitis to emphasize the importance of this commonly neglected etiology. PMID:21455344

Rizwan, Mian Muhammad; Singh, Harpeet; Chandar, Vp; Zulfiqar, Maria; Singh, Veera

2011-03-16

401

Duodenal diverticulum and associated pancreatitis: case report with brief review of literature  

PubMed Central

Pancreatitis in the elderly is a problem of increasing occurrence and is associated with severe complications. Periampullary diverticula (PAD) are extraluminal outpouchings of the duodenum rarely associated with pancreatitis. The presence of PAD should be excluded before diagnosing idiopathic pancreatitis, particularly in the elderly. However, when a duodenal diverticulum is found in the absence of any additional pathology, only then should the symptoms be attributed to the diverticulum. We describe a case of duodenal diverticulum presenting with pancreatitis to emphasize the importance of this commonly neglected etiology.

Rizwan, Mian Muhammad; Singh, Harpeet; Chandar, VP; Zulfiqar, Maria; Singh, Veera

2011-01-01

402

Gastrointestinal absorption and metabolism of apple polyphenols ex vivo by the pig intestinal mucosa in the Ussing chamber.  

PubMed

Polyphenols contained in food have various positive effects on human health. The absorption and metabolism of polyphenols in the intestinal tract needs to be studied to estimate these effects. The Ussing chamber technique was used to investigate the transport behavior of apple polyphenols through pig small intestinal mucosa, which served as a model for human gastrointestinal mucosa. The identities and concentrations of polyphenols and their metabolites in the half-chambers (luminal and basolateral) within an incubation period of 4 h were determined by HPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD (DAD = diode-array detection). Flux values were also measured. It was found that 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid were absorbed and translocated to the basolateral side (1.9 and 3.7%, respectively), but other compounds, including glycosides of phloretin and quercetin, were observed without translocation. A Ussing chamber utilizing pig small intestinal mucosa is a suitable model for assessing the effect of apple polyphenols on mucosal integrity and nutrition absorption across porcine mucosa. PMID:23229958

Deusser, Hannah; Rogoll, Dorothee; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Volk, Antje; Melcher, Ralph; Richling, Elke

2013-01-17

403

Surgical treatment of complicated duodenal ulcers: controlled trials.  

PubMed

Indications for surgery of duodenal ulcer (DU) have changed radically because of the efficacy of H(2)-antagonists, endoscopic procedures, and eradication of Helicobacter pylorus. The aim of this study was to analyze the current literature to determine if definitive surgery is still relevant for complicated DU (bleeding, perforation, gastric outlet obstruction). Two studies have compared early to late surgery in terms of bleeding. One recommended early surgery (significant reduction in mortality) in the elderly, but no statistically significant difference was found when analyzed with "intention to treat." In the other, mortality with early surgery was five times higher than with expectant therapy (when it was possible). Two studies comparing different surgical techniques for bleeding favored the radical procedure. Of at least 15 studies comparing endoscopic treatments, however, none has compared endoscopic therapy to surgical intervention for bleeding DU. One trial, comparing nonoperative to surgical treatment for perforation, found similar rates of morbidity, intraabdominal abscess, and mortality; but the hospital stay was longer (p < 0.001). Nonoperative treatment failed more often (p < 0.05) in patients over age 70. In three trials, postoperative morbidity (excepting wound sepsis in one) was not significantly increased by definitive surgery, with less ulcer recurrence (p < 0.05) compared with simple closure. Laparoscopy (versus laparotomy) was shown to take longer (p < 0.001) but required less postoperative analgesics (p < 0.03); there were no statistically significant differences as concerns the duration of nasogastric aspiration, intravenous drips, hospital stay, time to resume normal diet, Visual Analogous Scale pain scores for the first 24 hours after surgery, morbidity, reoperation rate, or mortality. Of 48 laparoscopic patients, 11 (23%) underwent conversion to open surgery. Three surgical techniques [highly selective vagotomy (HSU) + gastrojejunostomy (group 1), HSV + Jaboulay gastroduodenostomy (group 2), or selective vagotomy (group 3) + antrectomy) for gastric outlet obstruction (GOO)] showed that although postoperative results were similar (except wound sepsis in one trial), long-term Visick scores were significantly (p < 0.01) better in group 1 than in group 2, but not in group 3. Further studies are needed to determine the exact prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in complicated DU and to compare (1) definitive to minimal surgery (stop the bleeding or close the perforation) combined with antisecretory drugs and eradication of H. pylori; (2) surgery to endoscopic treatment combined with eradication of H. pylori; and (3) for GOO, surgery to balloon dilatation combined with eradication of H. pylori. PMID:10658064

Millat, B; Fingerhut, A; Borie, F

2000-03-01

404

Efficacy observation on Yunnan Baiyao () combined with antibiotics in treating Helicobacter pylori related duodenal ulcer) combined with antibiotics in treating Helicobacter pylori related duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of Yunnan Baiyao (\\u000a \\u000a , YNBY) combined with antibiotics in treating Helicobacter pylori (HP) related duodenal ulcer (DU).Methods: Eighty-two HP positive DU patients were randomly divided into two groups: Treated group (44 cases) used YNBY plus amoxicillin\\u000a and metronidazole; control group (38 cases) used de-nol plus amoxicillin and metronidazole).Results: After a 2-week treatment course,

Li Hong-guang; Li Jin-geng

2001-01-01

405

A case of congenital duodenal web causing duodenal stenosis in a down syndrome child: endoscopic resection with an insulated-tip knife.  

PubMed

A 35-month-old girl visited our hospital with repetitive vomiting and abdominal distention; this was especially aggravated after the introduction of solid and semisolid foods. At 5 months of age, the patient, who had Down's syndrome, had undergone surgery for ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus, and had subsequently been frequently hospitalized for respiratory infections and other viral infectious diseases. After her admission, the abdominal distension improved with fasting and intravenous fl uid therapy. Radiograph from a small-bowel series revealed a thin fi lling defect with a dilated duodenal bulb in the distal region of the second portion of the duodenum, suggesting a duodenal web, and endoscopy revealed duodenal stenosis. We therefore performed endoscopic resection with an insulated-tip knife because of the history of prior operations, fasting problems after operations, and respiratory infections. Seven days later, scar formation was noted on the second portion of the duodenum, the scope passed well at the excision site, and no retained food material was noted on the follow-up endoscopy. After the procedure, the patient's abdominal distention and repetitive vomiting subsided, and she was discharged with the ability to eat eat an age-appropriate normal diet. There were no specifi c symptoms or other complications for 1 year after the procedure. PMID:21461083

Lee, Sang Seon; Hwang, Seon Tae; Jang, Nam Gil; Tchah, Hann; Choi, Duk Young; Kim, Hyun Young; Ryoo, Eell

2011-03-16

406

A Case of Congenital Duodenal Web Causing Duodenal Stenosis in a Down Syndrome Child: Endoscopic Resection with an Insulated-Tip Knife  

PubMed Central

A 35-month-old girl visited our hospital with repetitive vomiting and abdominal distention; this was especially aggravated after the introduction of solid and semisolid foods. At 5 months of age, the patient, who had Down's syndrome, had undergone surgery for ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus, and had subsequently been frequently hospitalized for respiratory infections and other viral infectious diseases. After her admission, the abdominal distension improved with fasting and intravenous fl uid therapy. Radiograph from a small-bowel series revealed a thin fi lling defect with a dilated duodenal bulb in the distal region of the second portion of the duodenum, suggesting a duodenal web, and endoscopy revealed duodenal stenosis. We therefore performed endoscopic resection with an insulated-tip knife because of the history of prior operations, fasting problems after operations, and respiratory infections. Seven days later, scar formation was noted on the second portion of the duodenum, the scope passed well at the excision site, and no retained food material was noted on the follow-up endoscopy. After the procedure, the patient's abdominal distention and repetitive vomiting subsided, and she was discharged with the ability to eat eat an age-appropriate normal diet. There were no specifi c symptoms or other complications for 1 year after the procedure.

Lee, Sang Seon; Hwang, Seon Tae; Jang, Nam Gil; Tchah, Hann; Choi, Duk Young; Kim, Hyun Young

2011-01-01

407

Correlation of salivary and gastric acid secretions in duodenal ulcer patients in tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary flow rates on mechanical stimulation by forced spitting method and by chemical stimulation with 10% citric acid and gastric acidity using an augmented histamine test were determined in 20 adult patients suffering from duodenal ulcer and in 20 adult control subjects matched with respect to age, sex, and body weight. Salivary flow rates were found to be much higher

P. L. Nagwani; S. R. Naik; S. Sachdev; P. N. Srivastava; H. K. Chuttani

1979-01-01

408

Comparison of cimetidine 800 mg once daily and 400 mg twice daily in acute duodenal ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double blind trial was conducted in seven centres to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cimetidine 800 mg given at night compared with 400 mg given at breakfast and at bedtime. Altogether 197 patients with active duodenal ulcer confirmed by endoscopy entered the study, of whom 187 were eligible for analysis. After four weeks' treatment the ulcer was healed

L Capurso; P R Dal Monte; F Mazzeo; G Menardo; A Morettini; A Saggioro; G Tafner

1984-01-01

409

Esophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, and unilateral lung agenesis: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of pure esophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, and unilateral lung agenesis has not been reported previously. Here the authors present a case of a newborn with this constellation of anomalies that underwent staged repair. The primary principle guiding treatment was the avoidance of iatrogenic injury to the single lung. Therefore, the order of operations proceeded as follows: (1) placement

Cynthia D. Downard; Heung Bae Kim; Fred Laningham; Steven J. Fishman

2004-01-01

410

Duodenal obstruction - an unusual presentation of Strongyloides stercoralis enteritis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Intestinal obstruction is a poorly recognized and probably underreported complication of strongyloidiasis. We present herein an unusual case, of complete duodenal obstruction caused by S. stercoralis. Methods A systematic review of the literature examining the clinical course, diagnostic methods, and outcome of this rare complication of strongyloidiasis was performed. Results A 42-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of abdominal pain, vomit, and weight loss. An abdominal CT scan showed an obstruction of the third part of the duodenum. Segmental intestinal resection was carried out and histopathology examination revealed heavy Strongyloides stercoralis infestation. Duodenal obstruction is a rare complication of S. stercoralis infection, with only 8 cases described in the literature since 1970. Most of the patients are males, middle-aged, and the diagnosis was made by duodenal aspirate/biopsy, or analysis of surgical specimen. Conclusions Duodenal obstruction is an unusual, but potential fatal, complication of S. stercoralis infection. The large spectrum of clinical manifestation and lack of classic clinical syndrome make the final diagnosis of strongyloidiasis extremely difficult. A high index of suspicion, mainly in patients from endemic areas, is needed for correct and early diagnosis of this uncommon presentation of Strogyloides stercoralis enteritis.

2010-01-01

411

Cimetidine or propantheline combined with antacid therapy for short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-one patients with duodenal ulcer disease completed a 3-to 6-week controlled randomized trial in which cimetidine (1 g daily) was compared with an optimally effective dose of propantheline. Both groups had free access to an antacid suspension. There were no significant differences between the groups concerning ulcer healing, relief of ulcer symptoms, antacid consumption, or patient compliance. After 3 weeks

Hans-olov Adami; Olle Björklund; Lars-Krister Enander; Sven Gustavsson; Lars Lööf; Arne Nordahl; Anders Rosén

1982-01-01

412

UREA SYNTHESIS BY RUMINAL EPITHELIAL AND DUODENAL MUCOSAL CELLS ISOLATED FROM GROWING SHEEP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the capability of ruminant gut tissues to synthesize urea, ruminal epithelial (REC) and duodenal mucosal cells (DMC) were isolated from growing Polypay ram lambs (n=4) fed a mixed forage-concentrate diet. Isolated cells were incubated for 90 min with either acetate (5mM) or propionate ...

413

USE OF AMMONIA-N BY RUMINAL EPITHELIAL AND DUODENAL MUCOSAL CELLS ISOLATED FROM GROWING SHEEP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the capability of ruminant gut tissues to detoxify ammonia-N, ruminal epithelial cells (REC) and duodenal mucosal cells (DMC) were isolated from growing Texel-Polypay ram lambs (n=4) fed a mixed forage-concentrate diet. Immediately after isolation, primary cells were incubated for 60 m...

414

UREA SYNTHESIS BY RUMINAL EPITHELIAL AND DUODENAL MUCOSAL CELLS FROM GROWING SHEEP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to determine whether ruminant gut tissues have capability to synthesize urea in a short-term incubation. Ruminal epithelial (REC) and duodenal mucosal cells (DMC) were isolated from growing Polypay ram lambs (n=4) fed a mixed forage-concentrate diet. Cells were incubated (90 min)...

415

METABOLIC FATES OF AMMONIA NITROGEN IN RUMINAL EPITHELIAL AND DUODENAL MUCOSAL CELLS ISOLATED FROM GROWING SHEEP.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this experiment was to determine the capability of ruminant gut tissues to detoxify ammonia-N using short-term incubations of isolated cells in vitro. Ruminal epithelial cells (REC) and duodenal mucosal cells (DMC) were isolated from growing Texel-Polypay ram lambs (n=4) fed a pelle...

416

UTILIZATION OF AMMONIA-N BY RUMINAL EPITHELIAL AND DUODENAL MUCOSAL CELLS ISOLATED FROM GROWING SHEEP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the capability of ruminant gut tissues to detoxify ammonia-N, ruminal epithelial cells (REC) and duodenal mucosal cells (DMC) were isolated from growing Texel-Polypay ram lambs (n=4) fed a mixed forage-concentrate diet. Immediately after isolation, primary cells were incubated for 60 m...

417

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome occurring after an emergency operation for traumatic duodenal perforation: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially fatal complication which may develop in psychiatric patients taking neuroleptic drugs. We report herein the successful treatment of a 33-year-old schizophrenic man, prescribed neuroleptic drugs, who underwent an emergency operation for traumatic duodenal perforation with a retroperitoneal infection. Five days after the operation, he began to demonstrate clinical features consistent with NMS such

Masayuki Honda; Hiroaki Ueo; Hiroshi Inoue; Shigeru Nanbara; Shinya Arinaga; Tsukasa Asoh; Tsuyoshi Akiyoshi

1994-01-01

418

Helicobacter pylori infection and abnormalities of acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The mechanism by which Helicobacter pylori predisposes to duodenal ulcers (DUs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the infection on acid secretion. Methods: Acid output was examined basally and in response to gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and gastrin in healthy volunteers with and without H. pylori infection and in patients with

Emad M. El-Omar; Ian D. Penman; Joy E. S. Ardill; Ravi S. Chittajallu; Catherine Howie; Kenneth E. L. McColl

1995-01-01

419

Curing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer may provoke reflux esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have shown previously that cure of Helicobacter pylori infection leads to the disappearance of acid-neutralizing substances. Also, patients with ulcer after cure may gain weight. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cure of the infection increases the risk of reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Patients with duodenal ulcer without reflux esophagitis at the time of

J Labenz; AL Blum; E Bayerdorffer; A Meining; M Stolte; G Borsch

1997-01-01

420

Ectopic opening of the common bile duct in the duodenal bulb: Clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An ectopic opening of the common bile duct in the duodenal bulb is extremely rare, and the clinical significance of this anomaly has not been clarified. This study analyzed the clinical implications and cholangiographic findings of this anomaly. Methods: A total of 18 patients (15 men, 3 women; median age, 51 years) with an ectopic opening of the common

Sang Soo Lee; Myung-Hwan Kim; Sung-Koo Lee; Kyu-Pyo Kim; Hong Ja Kim; Jong Seok Bae; Hyun Jun Kim; Dong Wan Seo; Hyun Kwon Ha; Jae Seon Kim; Chang Duk Kim; Jun Pyo Chung; Young Il Min

2003-01-01