Sample records for human duodenal mucosa

  1. Localization of Xenin-immunoreactive Cells in the Duodenal Mucosa of Humans and Various Mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Anlauf; Eberhard Weihe; Wolfgang Hartschuh; Gerd Hamscher; Gerhard E. Feurle

    2000-01-01

    SUMMARY Xenin is a 25-amino-acid peptide extractable from mammalian tissue. This peptide is biologically active. It stimulates exocrine pancreatic secretion and intestinal mo- tility and inhibits gastric secretion of acid and food intake. Xenin circulates in the human plasma after meals. In this study, the cellular origin of xenin in the gastro-entero-pancre- atic system of humans, Rhesus monkeys, and dogs

  2. Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer Yang Liu,1 Randall E Shah,2 Curtis Hall,2 and Vadim Backman1 Abstract Purpose: Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most architecture of the epithe- lium.We propose a novel approach to predict pancreatic cancer through

  3. Effect of cysteamine on redox-sensitive thiol-containing proteins in the duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Khomenko, Tetyana; Deng, Xiaoming; Jadus, Martin R; Szabo, Sandor

    2003-10-01

    Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrated that Egr-1 is upregulated in the rat duodenal mucosa during cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration and that antisense egr-1 oligonucleotide aggravates the duodenal ulcers. This study was aimed to determine the effects of cysteamine on redox-sensitive Egr-1 transcriptional activity and on other thiol-containing proteins such as redox factor-1 (Ref-1) and thioredoxin (Trx). Here we demonstrate for the first time that cysteamine increases the expression and nuclear translocation of Egr-1, Ref-1, and Trx, and activates binding of Egr-1 to DNA. Moreover, we also show that Egr-1 forms a complex with other redox-sensitive transcription factors (e.g., AP-1, AP-2, NFATc, Sp1, PAX-5, MTF-1, c-Myb, and CREB) in rat duodenal mucosa and that cysteamine enhances the formation of these complexes. The antioxidant ebselen markedly elevated the nuclear Ref-1 expression and Egr-1/DNA binding, and decreased the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine as did catalase. Thus, redox-sensitive signaling systems seem to play an important role in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration. PMID:13679060

  4. CD4+ T Cell Cytokine Gene and Protein Expression in Duodenal Mucosa of Dogs with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    OHTA, Hiroshi; TAKADA, Kanae; SUNDEN, Yuji; TAMURA, Yu; OSUGA, Tatsuyuki; LIM, Sue Yee; MURAKAMI, Masahiro; SASAKI, Noboru; WICKRAMASEKARA RAJAPAKSHAGE, Bandula Kumara; NAKAMURA, Kensuke; YAMASAKI, Masahiro; TAKIGUCHI, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal signs in dogs. In humans, T helper cells have important roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. In contrast, no specific involvement of a distinct T cell subset has been described in canine IBD. The present study evaluated the gene and protein expression of cytokines of T cell subsets in duodenal mucosa from dogs with IBD. Relative quantification of interleukin (IL)-17A, interferon (IFN)-?, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA transcription was performed using duodenal mucosa from 27 IBD dogs and 8 controls. Duodenal mucosal IL-17A, IFN-? and IL-10 protein levels were determined by ELISA in 15 IBD dogs and 8 controls. There was no significant difference in each cytokines mRNA transcription level between groups. There was no significant difference in IL-17A, IFN-? and IL-10 protein expression levels between groups. Thus, there is no clear evidence for the involvement of distinct Th cytokine in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. PMID:24270804

  5. In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Bajaj, Shailesh; Konda, Vani; Siddiqui, Uzma D.; Waxman, Irving; Goldberg, Michael J.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Gould, Bradley; Eshein, Adam; Upadhye, Sudeep; Koons, Ann; Gonzalez-Haba Ruiz, Mariano; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To reduce pancreatic cancer mortality, a paradigm shift in cancer screening is needed. Our group pioneered the use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer by interrogating the duodenal mucosa. A previous ex vivo study (n = 203) demonstrated excellent diagnostic potential: sensitivity, 95%; specificity, 71%; and accuracy, 85%. The objective of the current case-control study was to evaluate this approach in vivo. Methods We developed a novel endoscope-compatible fiber-optic probe to measure LEBS in the periampullary duodenum of 41 patients undergoing upper endoscopy. This approach enables minimally invasive detection of the ultrastructural consequences of pancreatic field carcinogenesis. Results The LEBS parameters and optical properties were significantly altered in patients harboring adenocarcinomas (including early-stage) throughout the pancreas relative to healthy controls. Test performance characteristics were excellent with sensitivity = 78%, specificity = 85%, and accuracy = 81%. Moreover, the LEBS prediction rule was not confounded by patients’ demographics. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo measurement of histologically normal duodenal mucosa to predict the presence of adenocarcinoma throughout the pancreas. This represents the next step in establishing duodenal LEBS analysis as a prescreening technique that identifies clinically asymptomatic patients who are at elevated risk of PC. PMID:25906443

  6. Estrogen Regulation of Duodenal Bicarbonate Secretion and Sex-Specific Protection of Human Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Biguang; Wen, Guorong; Wei, Jinqi; Liu, Xuemei; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Yalin; Wu, Huichao; Dong, Xiao; Chow, Jimmy Y.C.; Vallon, Volker; Dong, Hui

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The reason that women have a lower prevalence of duodenal ulcer is not clear. We investigated whether estrogen regulates human duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) and whether this process accounts for sex differences in the prevalence of duodenal ulcer. METHODS We performed an epidemiological study to correlate duodenal ulcer prevalence with sex and age. Proximal DBS was measured from healthy subjects. Estrogen receptor expression was examined in human duodenal mucosa by immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS Among women, the prevalence of duodenal ulcer was significantly lower than among men. The reduced prevalence was greatest among premenopausal women (20–49 years), who were 3.91–5.09-fold less likely to develop duodenal ulcers than age-matched men; the difference was reduced to ?1.32-fold among subjects 60 years or older. Premenopausal (20–29 years), but not post-menopausal (60–69 years) women, had significantly higher basal and acid-stimulated DBS than the age-matched men. Basal and acid-stimulated DBS in premenopausal women (20–29 years) were significantly higher than in post-menopausal women (60–69 years), whereas there were no significant differences in basal or acid-stimulated DBS between men that were 20–29 years old or 60–69 years old. Serum levels of estradiol changed in parallel with basal and acid-stimulated DBS during the physiological menstrual cycle in premenopausal women. 17?-estradiol-stimulated DBS was independent of age or sex. Estrogen receptors- and - were detected on plasma membrane and in cytosol of human duodenal epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS Estrogen regulates human DBS, which could reduce the risk for duodenal ulcer in women and contribute to sex differences in prevalence of duodenal ulcer. PMID:21699784

  7. Calmodulin independence of human duodenal adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J A; Griffin, M; Mireylees, S E; Long, R G

    1991-01-01

    The calmodulin and calcium dependence of human adenylate cyclase from the second part of the duodenum was assessed in washed particulate preparations of biopsy specimens by investigating (a) the concentration dependent effects of free [Ca2+] on enzyme activity, (b) the effects of exogenous calmodulin on enzyme activity in ethylene glycol bis (b-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) washed particulate preparations, and (c) the effects of calmodulin antagonists on enzyme activity. Both basal (IC50 = 193.75 (57.5) nmol/l (mean (SEM)) and NaF stimulated (IC50 = 188.0 (44.0) nmol/l) adenylate cyclase activity was strongly inhibited by free [Ca2+] greater than 90 nmol/l. Free [Ca2+] less than 90 nmol/l had no effect on adenylate cyclase activity. NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by 50% at 2.5 mmol/l EGTA. This inhibition could not be reversed by free Ca2+. The addition of exogenous calmodulin to EGTA (5 mmol/l) washed particulate preparations failed to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity. Trifluoperazine and N-(8-aminohexyl)-5-IODO-1-naphthalene-sulphonamide (IODO 8) did not significantly inhibit basal and NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity when measured at concentrations of up to 100 mumol/l. These results suggest that human duodenal adenylate cyclase activity is calmodulin independent but is affected by changes in free [Ca2+]. PMID:1752461

  8. A light and electron microscopic study of the changes in the duodenal mucosa induced by sustained pentagastrin stimulation of gastic acid secretion in young rats.

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, W. J.; Denham, D.; Hawkins, W.; Forrest, A. P.

    1975-01-01

    The histological and electron microscopic changes in the duodenal mucosa have been studied over an 8-week experimental period in rats whose gastric acid secretion was stimulated by pentagastrin in a medium of beeswax and mineral oil, and in controls that received injections of beeswax and mineral oil only. The changes leading of final disintegration of the epithelium are described in detail. The main aim of the experiment--to induce mucous change in the duodenal mucosa--was not realized. Images Figs. 1-2 Figs. 3-4 Figs. 5-6 Figs. 7-8 Fig. 9 PMID:1222117

  9. Diminished Th1-type cytokine production in gastric mucosa T-lymphocytes after H. pylori eradication in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed

    Ihan, A; Tepes, B; Gubina, M

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects an estimated 50% of the world population, however only a small proportion of individuals develop clinical symptoms of gastritis, peptic ulceration or gastric cancer. The variations in disease presentation may be due to differences in bacterial virulence and/or immune response to the pathogen. In the previous study we reported an increased expression of the IL-2 receptor in duodenal ulcer (DU) patients infected with H. pylori. This study examined intracellular lymphokine production in gastric mucosa infiltrating T lymphocytes in DU patients before and after H. pylori eradication. T lymphocytes were isolated from gastric mucosa biopsies by using mechanical and enzymatic tissue desegregation. Ficoll-purified lymphocytes were incubated with monoclonal antibodies and analysed by using 3-colour flow cytometry analysis for intracellular interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) expression in order to define Th1 and Th2 cell population. We demonstrated a significant decrease in the proportion of Th1 cells infiltrating gastric mucosa 6 and 12 months after H. pylori eradication. Our results suggest the importance of the local immune response in the development of H. pylori related gastritis. PMID:11005624

  10. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and cell adhesion molecule mRNA expression in duodenal mucosa of dogs with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Okanishi, Hiroki; Kabeya, Hidenori; Maruyama, Soichi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Watari, Toshihiro

    2013-08-15

    Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (LPE) is the most common form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affecting the canine small intestine; however, the molecular basis of the pathogenesis remains unclear. It has recently been hypothesized that the primary defect is impaired innate immune function, as is the case for human IBD. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB) plays a central role in innate immunity, and is a major transcriptional regulator of several proinflammatory cytokines, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in the duodenal mucosa of 21 dogs with LPE and 8 control dogs, the degree of NFkappaB activity and the mRNA expression of two selected cytokines, nucleotide oligomerization domain two (NOD2) receptor and three selected CAMs, all of which are regulated by NFkappaB, using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and real-time reverse transcription PCR. NFkappaB binding activity was significantly higher in the inflamed duodenal mucosa of the LPE dogs as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, expression of mRNA for intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) was significantly higher and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) mRNA significantly lower in LPE dogs than in healthy controls. However, there was no significant difference in the mRNA levels for TNF?, IL1? and NOD2 between the two groups. These results suggest that NFkappaB and CAMs may play important roles in the pathogenesis of canine LPE. PMID:23786670

  11. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in human gastric mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Tokunaga; Reiki Nishimura; Masanobu Akagi

    1984-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptor sites in human gastric mucosa were analyzed directly by using radioligand binding techniques\\u000a with the specific muscarinic antagonist3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) as ligand. Specific binding of3H-QNB to membrane preparations from human gastric mucosa was saturable, of high affinity (Kd=4.17±1.94 nM, Bmax=0.37±0.04\\u000a pmol\\/mg protein) and selectively inhibited by muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) and agonists (acetylcholine,\\u000a pilocarpine). These findings provide

  12. [Coexistence of infection of the oral cavity and stomach and duodenal mucosa with Helicobacter pylori in patients with ulcer and chronic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Kopaánski, Z; Cienciala, A; Bana?, J; Kami?ski, B; Witkowska, B; Zastepa, P; Brandys, J; Micherdzi?ski, J

    1995-01-01

    In a group of 260 patients with a peptic ulcer of the stomach or the duodenum and/or chronic gastritis, bacteriological tests were conducted aiming at the detection of Helicobacter pylori in the mucosa of the stomach and the duodenum and in the gingival pockets. The presence of the infection of the mucosa of the stomach and/or of the duodenum was confirmed in 197 patients (75.8%). In this group of patients the bacteria occurred simultaneously in the oral cavity in 77 (39.1%) patients. It was found that the frequency of coexistence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the gingival pockets with an infected gastric or duodenal ulcer was not statistically significant. However, there was a statistically significant correlation between the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in the oral cavity (83.3%) and the simultaneous occurrence of extensive infection of the gastric mucosa. PMID:7754615

  13. Transitional mucosa in human colorectal lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Mori; Reishi Shimono; Yosuke Adachi; Hiroyuki Matsuda; Hiroyuki Kuwano; Keizo Sugimachi; Masahito Ikeda; Motonori Saku

    1990-01-01

    Mucosa adjacent to colorectal disease was studied mucinhistochemically. Selected specimens were also studied immunohistochemically for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Transitional mucosa, which showed elongation of crypts and marked sialomucin secretion, accompanied by a marked reduction in the normal sulfomucin content, was evident in 96 of 100 carcinomas (96 percent), 18 of 36 adenomas (50 percent), and 10 of 30 metaplastic polyps

  14. 5Hydroxytryptamine contributes significantly to a reflex pathway by which the duodenal mucosa protects itself from gastric acid injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders J. Smith; Alfred E. Chappell; Andre G. Buret; Kim E. Barrett; Hui Dong

    2006-01-01

    Although duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) is currently accepted as an important defense mechanism against acid-induced duodenal in- jury, the mechanism and the regulation of DMBS are largely unknown. 5-HT may regulate DMBS, but little is known about its physiological relevance in DMBS and the underlying mechanism(s). Thus, the aims of the present study were to demonstrate the role of

  15. Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Troost, Freddy J; van Baarlen, Peter; Lindsey, Patrick; Kodde, Andrea; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert-Jan M

    2008-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. Results One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine. PMID:18681965

  16. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 ± 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1.6%. Duodenal biopsies of 19 HIV patients presenting for evaluation of abdominal pain did not reveal any new diagnoses. Information pertaining to new diagnoses is provided. CONCLUSION: Routine biopsy of normal appearing duodena in patients with abdominal pain should be reserved for those with a high pre-test probability given its low diagnostic yield. PMID:26139995

  17. Neurotensin Stimulates Cl ? Secretion in Human Colonic Mucosa In Vitro: Role of Adenosine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    Background & Aims: Previous studies indicated that the peptide neurotensin (NT) stimulates Cl? secretion in animal small intestinal mucosa in vitro. In this study, we investigated whether NT causes Cl? secretion in human colonic mucosa and examined the mechanism of this response. Methods: Human mucosal preparations mounted in Ussing chambers were exposed to NT. Drugs for pharmacologic characterization of NT-induced

  18. Duodenal atresia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 20-30% of infants with duodenal atresia have Down syndrome. Duodenal atresia is often associated with other birth ... abnormality. Associated problems (such as those related to Down syndrome) must be treated as appropriate.

  19. Ex vivo correlation of the permeability of metoprolol across human and porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Müllertz, Anette; Hyrup, Birgitte; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-07-01

    The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa with a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.96) between the permeability assessed in porcine and human buccal mucosa. There was no change in the degree of either epithelial swelling or desquamation when treating with the pH 9.0 donor medium for 5.5 h. These data suggest that buccal mucosa from pigs can be used to predict human buccal absorption. PMID:24824736

  20. In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Chen, Szu-Yu; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Lou, Pei-Jen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Recent clinical studies on human skin indicated that in vivo multi-harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) can achieve sub-micron resolution for histopathological analysis with a high penetration depth and leave no energy or photodamages in the interacted tissues. It is thus highly desired to apply HGM for in vivo mucosa histopathological diagnosis. In this paper, the first in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa by using epi-HGM is demonstrated. We modified an upright microscope to rotate the angle of objective for in vivo observation. Our clinical study reveals the capability of HGM to in vivo image cell distributions in human oral mucosa, including epithelium and lamina propria with a high penetration depth greater than 280 ?m and a high spatial resolution better than 500 nm. We also found that the third-harmonic-generation (THG) contrast on nucleus depends strongly on its thicknesses, in agreement with a numerical simulation. Besides, 4% acetic acid was found to be able to enhance the THG contrast of nucleus in oral mucosa, while such enhancement was found to decay due to the metabolic clearance of the contrast enhancer by the oral mucosa. Our clinical study indicated that, the combined epi-THG and epi-second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising imaging tool for in vivo noninvasive optical virtual biopsy and disease diagnosis in human mucosa. PMID:21833368

  1. The color of human gingiva and mucosa: visual measurement and description of distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Heydecke; Stefan Schnitzer; Jens C. Türp

    2005-01-01

    No soft tissue shade guide is available for matching the color of denture resins to human intraoral soft tissues. To determine\\u000a the color of both the gingiva and the alveolar mucosa, intraoral soft tissue colors of 150 men and women were assessed under\\u000a standardized lighting conditions. Colors of the papilla, attached gingiva, and alveolar mucosa in the central incisor region

  2. Expression of Trace Amine-Associated Receptors in Human Nasal Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittoria Carnicelli; Amelia Santoro; Stefano Sellari-Franceschini; Stefano Berrettini; Riccardo Zucchi

    2010-01-01

    Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) have recently been identified in mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) and may be implicated\\u000a in the detection of volatile amines, including pheromones. We investigated TAAR expression in human nasal mucosa, evaluating\\u000a 32 nasal mucosa biopsies obtained from 16 patients with normal olfactory function undergoing routine nasal surgery. OE was\\u000a identified on the basis of olfactory marker protein

  3. Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in intact and ulcerated human gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Hull, M; Brough, J; Powe, D; Carter, G; Jenkins, D; Hawkey, C

    1998-01-01

    Background—Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes angiogenesis and healing of gastric ulcers in rats, and bFGF expression is up regulated in such ulcers. However, little is known about expression of bFGF in human gastric mucosa. ?Aims—To investigate bFGF expression in intact human gastric mucosa and gastric ulcers and to determine whether low bFGF content or altered binding by mucosa is associated with ulceration. ?Subjects—Endoscopy outpatients, gastrectomy patients, and organ donors. ?Methods—bFGF was isolated by heparin affinity chromatography and characterised by western blotting and endothelial cell bioassay. bFGF was measured by immunoassay and its distribution defined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation. Binding of bFGF by heparan sulphate proteoglycans was investigated by sodium chloride and heparin extraction. ?Results—Bioactive bFGF (19 kDa) was detected in normal mucosa but bFGF mRNA was not found. bFGF expression was up regulated in granulation tissue endothelial cells, mononuclear cells, and epithelial cells at the ulcer rim. Gastric ulcer patients had constitutively low bFGF concentrations in intact antral mucosa which were not explained by changes in binding to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. ?Conclusions—bFGF expression is up regulated in human gastric ulcers. Low intact mucosal bFGF content is associated with gastric ulceration. ?? Keywords: basic fibroblast growth factor; gastric mucosa; heparan sulphate proteoglycan; peptic ulceration PMID:9824581

  4. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1) is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients.

    PubMed

    Hussein, N R; Tunjel, I; Majed, H S; Yousif, S T; Aswad, S I; Assafi, M S

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD) (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01). The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7%) and GU (70%) than in those with NUD (13.3%) (p 0.01). The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8%) than those with GU (10%) and NUD (8.9%) (p 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1). We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6). While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01). Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure. PMID:26042186

  5. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1) is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, N.R.; Tunjel, I.; Majed, H.S.; Yousif, S.T.; Aswad, S.I.; Assafi, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD) (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01). The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7%) and GU (70%) than in those with NUD (13.3%) (p 0.01). The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8%) than those with GU (10%) and NUD (8.9%) (p 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1). We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6). While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01). Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure.

  6. NEW CONCEPTS OF NEURAL REGULATION IN HUMAN NASAL MUCOSA

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient receptor potential and voltage and calcium gated ion channels, and combinations of neurotransmitters that can be modulated during inflammation by neurotrophic factors has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and subtlety of nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants (“aromatherapy”), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as idiopathic nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19623876

  7. Transforming Gene from Human Stomach Cancers and a Noncancerous Portion of Stomach Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Sakamoto; Midori Mori; Masanori Taira; Teruhiko Yoshida; Saeko Matsukawa; Kenji Shimizu; Mutsuo Sekiguchi; Masaaki Terada; Takashi Sugimura

    1986-01-01

    DNAs from 21 human stomach cancers, 16 metastatic stomach cancers to lymph nodes, and 21 apparently noncancerous specimens of stomach mucosae from a total of 26 patients with stomach cancer were tested for their ability to induce neoplastic transformation of NIH 3T3 cells on transfection by the calcium phosphate precipitation technique. Three samples of DNA were shown to have transforming

  8. Comparative optical coherence tomography imaging of human esophagus: How accurate is localization of the muscularis mucosae?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inci Çilesiz; Paul Fockens; Raphaela Kerindongo; Dirk Faber; Guido Tytgat; Fiebo ten Kate; Ton van Leeuwen

    2002-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of esophageal cancer limited to the mucosa allows local endoscopic treatment and thereby improves prognosis. Optical coherence tomography images of normal human esophageal tissue obtained with 2 systems with light sources that provide different wavelengths (800 nm and 1275 nm) were compared with histology to determine which wavelength is best suited for detailed optical coherence tomography imaging

  9. Diffusion Studies of Nanometer Polymersomes Across Tissue Engineered Human Oral Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Hearnden; Hannah Lomas; Sheila MacNeil; Martin Thornhill; Craig Murdoch; Andrew Lewis; Jeppe Madsen; Adam Blanazs; Steve Armes; Giuseppe Battaglia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  To measure the diffusion of nanometer polymersomes through tissue engineered human oral mucosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  \\u000a In vitro models of full thickness tissue engineered oral mucosa (TEOM) were used to assess the penetration properties of two chemically\\u000a different polymersomes comprising two of block copolymers, PMPC-PDPA and PEO-PDPA. These copolymers self-assemble into membrane-enclosed\\u000a vesicular structures. Polymersomes were conjugated with fluorescent rhodamine in order

  10. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Wu; Sun, Yuping; Donelan, William; Yu, Hongfang; Scian, Joanna; Tang, Dongqi; Yang, Li-Jun

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatic duodenal hemeobox-1 (PDX1) is essential for the development of the embryonic pancreas and plays a key role in pancreatic beta-cell differentiation, maturation, regeneration, and maintenance of normal pancreatic beta-cell insulin-producing function. Purified recombinant PDX1 (rPDX1) may be a useful tool for many research and clinical applications, however, using the Escherichia coli expression system has several drawbacks for producing quality PDX1 protein. To explore the yeast expression system for generating rPDX1 protein, the cDNA coding for the full-length human PDX1 gene was cloned into the secreting expression organism Pichia pastoris. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis of culture medium from methanol-induced expression yeast clones demonstrated that the rPDX1 was secreted into the culture medium, had a molecular weight by SDS-PAGE of 50kDa, and was glycosylated. The predicted size of the mature unmodified PDX1 polypeptide is 31kDa, suggesting that eukaryotic post-translational modifications are the result of the increased molecular weight. The recombinant protein was purified to greater than 95% purity using a combined ammonium sulfate precipitation with heparin-agarose chromatography. Finally, 120mug of the protein was obtained in high purity from 1L of the culture supernatant. Bioactivity of the rPDX1 was confirmed by the ability to penetrate cell membranes and activation of an insulin-luciferase reporter gene. Our results suggest that the P. pastoris expression system can be used to produce a fully functional human rPDX1 for both research and clinical application. PMID:20381624

  11. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Recombinant Human Pancreatic Duodenal Homeobox-1 Protein in Pichia Pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Wu; Sun, Yuping; Donelan, William; Tang, Dongqi; Yu, Hongfang; Scian, Joanna; Yang, Li-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic duodenal hemeodomain protein-1 (PDX1) is essential for the development of the embryonic pancreas and plays a key role in pancreatic ?-cell differentiation, maturation, regenration, and maintenance of normal pancreatic ?-cell insulin-producing function. Purified recombinant PDX1 (rPDX1) may be a useful tool for many research and clinical applications, however, using the E. coli expression system has several drawbacks for producing quality PDX1 protein. To explore the yeast expression system for generating rPDX1 protein, the cDNA coding for the full length human PDX1 gene was cloned into the secreting expression organism Pichia pastoris. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis of culture medium from methanol-induced expression yeast clones demonstrated that the rPDX1 was secreted into the culture medium, had a molecular weight by SDS-PAGE of 50 kDa, and was glycosylated. The predicted size of the mature unmodified PDX1 polypeptide is 31 kDa, suggesting that eukaryotic post-translational modifications are the result of the increased molecular weight. The recombinant protein was purified to greater than 95% purity using a combined ammonium sulfate precipitation with heparin-agarose chromatography. Finally, 120 ?g of the protein was obtained in high purity from 1 L of the culture supernatant. Bioactivity of the rPDX1 was confirmed by the ability to penetrate cell membranes and activation of an insulin-luciferase reporter gene. Our results suggest that the P. pastoris expression system can be used to produce a fully functional human rPDX1 for both research and clinical application. PMID:20381624

  12. Immunohistochemical studies of neurochemical markers in normal human buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, M; Hellman, M; Ahlström, U; Johansson, O

    1994-04-01

    The content of various substances, such as regulatory peptides, hormones and structural proteins, was investigated in normal buccal mucosa using indirect immunofluorescence. Thin nerve fibres, which from a morphological point of view were most probably sensory, showed immunoreactivity for substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide K (NPK) and neurokinin A (NKA). Also galanin (GAL), gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) and somatostatin (SOM) stained thin fibres were found in the propria, which were, however, few in number and the gamma-MSH staining was weak. CGRP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive nerve fibres were observed in close connection to blood vessels. SOM positive cells with processes were found, mostly scattered, in the connective tissue. A population of cells within the epithelium also showed somatostatin immunoreactivity. Protein S-100 (S-100) stained distinct populations of cells at two separate locations. In the propria, cells with one or two slender processes were seen, being mostly single but sometimes forming groups. In the epithelium, dendritic cells with many processes with or without 'spines' were observed, mainly located to the basal layer of the lamina epithelialis. Single nerve fibres and nerve bundles were also stained. Neurofilament (NF) positive fibres, singly and in bundles, as well as endorgan-like structures were seen. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) both stained the same structures, namely single fibres, nerve bundles, nerves surrounding vessels and innervating muscles and glands (if present in the section), as well as Merkel cells. Also with these two markers endorgan-like structures were seen. No clear innervation of the epithelium could be observed with the markers used. No methionine-enkephalin (ENK) or synaptophysin (SYN) immunoreactive material was found. PMID:7523335

  13. Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

    2015-05-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NF?B signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NF?B signaling in epithelial cells through I?B? phosphorylation, NF?Bp65 nuclear translocation, and TNF? secretion. In addition, NF?B activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival. PMID:25269707

  14. Oxidative-stress-related proteome changes in Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hye Yeon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2004-04-15

    Helicobacter pylori infection leads to gastroduodenal inflammation, peptic ulceration and gastric carcinoma. Proteomic analysis of the human gastric mucosa from the patients with erosive gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, which were either infected or not with H. pylori, was used to determine the differentially expressed proteins by H. pylori in the human gastric mucosa in order to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of H. pylori -induced gastric diseases. Prior to the experiment, the expression of the main 18 proteins were identified in the gastric mucosa and used for a proteome map of the human gastric mucosa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis of the protein isolated from the H. pylori -infected tissues, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and computerized analysis of the stained gel, the expression of eight proteins were altered in the H. pylori -infected tissues compared with the non-infected tissues. MS analysis (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight MS) of the tryptic fragment and a data search allowed the the identification of the four increased proteins (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor, endoplasmin precursor, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain) and the four decreased proteins (intracellular chloride channel protein 1, glutathione S-transferase, heat-shock protein 60 and cytokeratin 8) caused by H. pylori infection in the gastric mucosa. These proteins are related to cell proliferation, carcinogenesis, cytoskeletal function and cellular defence mechanism. The common feature is that these proteins are related to oxidative-stress-mediated cell damage. In conclusion, the established gastric mucosal proteome map might be useful for detecting the disease-related protein changes. The H. pylori -induced alterations in protein expression demonstrate the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of H. pylori -induced gastric diseases, including inflammation, ulceration and carcinogenesis. PMID:14711373

  15. Dendritic cells transmit HIV1 through human small intestinal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruizhong Shen; Lesley E. Smythies; Ronald H. Clements; Lea Novak; Phillip D. Smith

    2009-01-01

    To dissect the early events in the transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child, we investigated whether DCs par- ticipate in HIV-1 entry into human small intestinal mu- cosa. We isolated human MNLs from jejunal lamina pro- pria and identified a subpopulation of CD11cHLA-DR MNLs that expressed DC-SIGN, CD83, CD86, CD206, and CCR7, indicating a DC phenotype. Jejunal DCs also

  16. Campylobacter pyloridis and acid induced gastric metaplasia in the pathogenesis of duodenitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J I Wyatt; B J Rathbone; M F Dixon; R V Heatley

    1987-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of gastric and duodenal mucosa from 290 patients were examined histologically for metaplasia and Campylobacter pyloridis. Estimates of pH on samples of fasting gastric juice from 55 of the patients were performed, and mucosal biopsy specimens from 33 patients were also cultured for C pyloridis. Active duodenitis was seen in 34 duodenal biopsy specimens. Thirty (88%) of the

  17. Characteristics of adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to human and animal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Endo, S; Yokota, T; Echeverria, P

    1991-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain (serotype O127a:H2) that had been isolated from a child with diarrhea in Thailand and that was negative for the virulence factors of the four categories of diarrheagenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, and enterohemorrhagic) and that showed an aggregative pattern of adherence to HeLa cells was investigated for adherence to native or Formalin-fixed human and animal mucosa. The hemagglutinating activity and adherence ability of the bacteria were resistant to D-mannose and were strictly regulated by environmental conditions. Genetic data supported the close relation between the hemagglutinating activity and adherence ability. In accordance with the adherence pattern on tissue-cultured cells, the bacteria adhered to human and animal mucosa, as evidenced by a direct gold-labeling analysis. In human intestines, Formalin-fixed mucous coatings, epithelial cells of colonic mucosa, epithelial cells of ileal single lymphoid follicles and Peyer's patches, and the absorptive cells of jejunal or ileal villi provided adherence targets. Adherence to M cells in the Peyer's patch-associated epithelium was also confirmed. The adherence levels to native jejunal or ileal human villi were low, as was the case with the corresponding Formalin-fixed villi. In human urinary tract, the superficial epithelial cells of both native and Formalin-fixed ureter provided striking adherence targets. In animal (porcine and rabbit) small intestines, the bacteria adhered to the native villi to a lesser extent than to the Formalin-fixed villi. The adherence levels were compared with those of enterotoxigenic E. coli with colonization factor antigen (CFA)/I pili or CFA/II pili. The data suggested unique mucosa adherence characteristics of the enteroaggregative E. coli strain. The possibility of the adherence ability as a virulence factor was discussed. Images PMID:1680107

  18. The effects of two sodium lauryl sulphate-containing toothpastes with and without betaine on human oral mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Irma; Jutila, Kirsti; Nicander, Ingrid; Tenovuo, Jorma; Söderling, Eva

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effects of two sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-containing toothpaste formulations with and without betaine on human oral mucosa in vivo. The results are compared with the effect of a dry mouth toothpaste without SLS. Twenty subjects participated in the double blind, crossover study. The toothpastes with 1.2% SLS, 1.2% SLS and 4% betaine and with 4% betaine but not with SLS were placed on buccal mucosa in a test chamber and kept in place for 15 min. The condition of the mucosa was studied both visually and using electrical impedance (EI) for up to 45 min. Both SLS-containing pastes had a similar, irritating effect on the mucosa as judged both by the appearance of the mucosa and the EI measurements. The dry mouth toothpaste (with betaine only) showed no significant irritation of the mucosa. Betaine did not reduce the mucosa-irritating effect of the SLS-containing toothpaste formulation. The surfactant-free toothpaste did thus not irritate the human oral mucosa in vivo while the SLS-containing pastes did. PMID:12704946

  19. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein in Pichia pastoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Wu Li; Yuping Sun; William Donelan; Hongfang Yu; Joanna Scian; Dongqi Tang; Li-Jun Yang

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic duodenal hemeobox-1 (PDX1) is essential for the development of the embryonic pancreas and plays a key role in pancreatic ?-cell differentiation, maturation, regeneration, and maintenance of normal pancreatic ?-cell insulin-producing function. Purified recombinant PDX1 (rPDX1) may be a useful tool for many research and clinical applications, however, using the Escherichia coli expression system has several drawbacks for producing quality

  20. Duodenal adenocarcinoma: why the extreme rarity of duodenal bulb primary tumors?

    PubMed

    Goldner, Bryan; Stabile, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel accounts for only one per cent of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Duodenal adenocarcinoma accounts for half of all small bowel adenocarcinomas. The duodenum is divided into four segments: D1 (proximal horizontal 5 cm beginning with the 3-cm duodenal bulb), D2 (descending), D3 (distal horizontal), and D4 (ascending). The most common location of duodenal adenocarcinomas is the ampullary region of D2. Based on observational experience, our hypothesis was that primary adenocarcinomas arising from the mucosa of the duodenal bulb are extremely rare or possibly nonexistent. Our institutional cancer registry provided a list of patients for the years 1990 through 2012 who had small bowel cancers. Only those patients with primary adenocarcinomas of the duodenal mucosa were reviewed. Ampullary cancers arising from bile duct mucosa were specifically excluded. Medical records were abstracted to obtain patient age, sex, race, anatomic location of the tumor, disease stage (as per American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition staging guidelines), operation performed, and current vital status. A total of 30 patients with primary duodenal adenocarcinomas were identified. The mean age was 58 years and 17 (57%) patients were male. The tumor locations were: D2 in 26 (87%), D3 in two (7%), and D4 in two (7%). No tumors arose from D1. The patients presented with the following stages of disease: Stage 0is in three (10%), Stage I in three (10%), Stage II in five (17%), Stage III in 15 (50%), and Stage IV in four (13%). These findings combined with a diligent review of 724 reported cases in the English language literature yielded only five clearly defined cases of adenocarcinoma arising from the mucosa of the duodenal bulb. Although a 1991 published multicenter tumor registry series of 128 localized duodenal adenocarcinomas reported 29 D1 tumors, no anatomic distinction was made between duodenal bulb and more distal D1 tumors. Earlier reports used nonanatomic divisions of the duodenum or a simple breakdown into supra-ampullary, periampullary, and infra-ampullary portions. These data beg the question as to why primary duodenal bulb adenocarcinomas are so exceedingly rare. The obvious implication is that the duodenal bulb mucosa may be physiologically, immunologically, or otherwise uniquely privileged to virtually escape oncogenic transformation. The scientific challenge and opportunity is to explore and understand the important phenomena responsible for this finding. PMID:25264638

  1. In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, R. V.; Gladkova, N. D.; Shakhova, N. M.; Snopova, L. B.; Shakhov, A. V.; Kuznetzova, I. A.; Denisenko, A. N.; Pochinko, V. V.; Chumakov, Yu P.; Streltzova, O. S.

    1997-12-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography for in vivo studies of human mucosa in respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT (EOCT) system has been created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation to investigated tissue. We have studied mucous membranes of esophagus, larynx, stomach, urinary bladder, uterine cervix and body as typical localization for carcinomatous processes. Images of tumor tissues versus healthy tissues have been recorded and analyzed. Violations of well-defined stratified healthy mucosa structure in cancered tissue are distinctly seen by EOCT, thus making this technique promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  2. Endoscopic OCT for in-vivo imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Snopova, Ludmila; Denisenko, Arkady; Almasov, Valentin

    1998-01-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography for in vivo studies of human mucosa in gastrointestinal and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT system has ben created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation to investigated tissue. We have studied mucous membranes of esophagus, stomach and uterine cervix as typical localization for carcinomatous processes. Images of tumor tissues versus healthy tissues have been recorded and analyzed. Violations of well-defined stratified healthy mucosa structure in cancerous tissue is distinctly seen by EOCT, thus making this technique promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  3. Abundance and diversity of mucosa-associated hydrogenotrophic microbes in the healthy human colon

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Gerardo M; Carbonero, Franck; Croix, Jennifer A; Greenberg, Eugene; Gaskins, H Rex

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenotrophic microbiota have a significant impact on colonic health; however, little is known about their diversity and ecology in situ. Here, molecular-based methods and multivariate analyses were used to examine the abundance and diversity of mucosa-associated hydrogenotrophic microbes in 90 biopsies collected from right colon, left colon and rectum of 25 healthy subjects. Functional genes of all three hydrogenotrophic groups were detected in at least one colonic region of all subjects. Methanogenic archaea (MA) constituted approximately one half of the hydrogenotrophic microbiota in each colonic region. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were more abundant than acetogens in right colon, while acetogens were more abundant than SRB in left colon and rectum. MA genotypes exhibited low diversity, whereas SRB genotypes were diverse and generally similar across the three regions within subject but significantly variable among subjects. Multivariate cluster analysis defined subject-specific patterns for the diversity of SRB genotypes; however, neither subject- nor region-specific clusters were observed for the abundance of hydrogenotrophic functional genes. Sequence analyses of functional gene clones revealed that mucosa-associated SRB were phylogenetically related to Desulfovibrio piger, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bilophila wadsworthia; whereas MA were related to Methanobrevibacter spp., Mb. smithii and the order Methanomicrobiales. Together these data demonstrate for the first time that the human colonic mucosa is persistently colonized by all three groups of hydrogenotrophic microbes, which exhibit segmental and interindividual variation in abundance and diversity. PMID:21753800

  4. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyang Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Joon Pio [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: lsw@amc.seoul.kr; Sohn, Jung Sook [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Department of Radiology, Iksan General Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung-Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Rock [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  5. Quantitative studies in vitro on uptake and esterification of palmitate into human and rat jejunal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sueur, R; Cerf, M; Di Costanzo, G; Debray, C

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative incorporation and esterification of (9-10) 3H palmitate into jejunal mucosa was studied in vitro comparatively on human biopsies and on everted rings of rat intestine following various incubation times. This procedure is fitted for investigation of the glycophosphate pathway. Quantitatively the total uptake of palmitate was similar in man and rat. But the distribution among the various esterified fractions was different in animal and man and different again in coeliac disease. Notwithstanding incorporation of palmitate into triglyceride the fatty acid composition of mucosal triglyceride showed little or no modification. PMID:838176

  6. Global Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Gene Expression in Human Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    GRAHAM, JAMES E.; PEEK, RICHARD M.; KRISHNA, UMA; COVER, TIMOTHY L.

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: Helicobacter pylori inhabits a highly restricted ecological niche in the human gastric mucosa. Microbial gene expression in the context of persistent infection remains largely uncharacterized. Methods: An RNA analysis method, selective capture of transcribed sequences, was used in conjunction with genomic array hybridization to characterize H. pylori complementary DNAs (cDNAs) obtained from both human and experimentally infected gerbil gastric tissue specimens. Results: Bacterial cDNAs obtained by selective capture of transcribed sequences from tissues hybridized to arrayed DNA fragments representing approximately 70% of open reading frames in the H. pylori genome. RNAs for most of these open reading frames were also detected by array hybridization analyses of total RNA prepared from the isolated H. pylori strains cultured in vitro. However, a subset of H. pylori RNAs detected in gastric tissue specimens was consistently undetectable in bacteria grown in vitro. The majority of these RNAs encode factors unique to H. pylori that are potentially produced in response to interactions with mammalian gastric mucosa. Conclusions: The combination of selective capture of transcribed sequences with array hybridization has allowed a global analysis of bacterial gene expression occurring in human tissues during a natural infection. PMID:12404238

  7. Phospholipase C ?2 Expression Characterizes the Neoplastic Transformation of the Human Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Marchisio, Marco; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Angelucci, Domenico; Caramelli, Elisabetta; Cataldi, Amelia; Castorina, Sergio; Antonucci, Adriano; Di Giovannantonio, Luigina; Schiavone, Cosima; Di Biagio, Rosa; Falconi, Mirella; Zauli, Giorgio; Miscia, Sebastiano

    2001-01-01

    The expression, cellular distribution, and activity of PIP2-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in healthy human gastric-mucosa cells have been recently studied in our laboratories and a direct evidence for an almost exclusive expression of PLC ? isoforms, with the exception of PLC ?4, has been provided. These results addressed our attention to possible modification of PLC expression and activity during neoplastic transformation of the human gastric mucosa. In the present article we present results indicating that PLC ?2 is markedly expressed in type II intestinal metaplasia and in the adenocarcinoma whereas traces of other PLC isoforms were sometime detected. Interestingly, we found that type I intestinal metaplasia was in the majority of the cases PLC ?2-negative, but when expressed, this type of metaplasia generally considered as benignant, always evolved toward neoplastic transformation. These results therefore readdress the question of surveillance of the patients with type I intestinal metaplasia and suggest that PLC ?2 expression might be a possible marker of gastric malignant transformation. PMID:11549571

  8. Variability of argon laser-induced sensory and pain thresholds on human oral mucosa and skin.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, P.; Bjerring, P.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Kaaber, S.

    1991-01-01

    The variability of laser-induced pain perception on human oral mucosa and hairy skin was investigated in order to establish a new method for evaluation of pain in the orofacial region. A high-energy argon laser was used for experimental pain stimulation, and sensory and pain thresholds were determined. The intra-individual coefficients of variation for oral thresholds were comparable to cutaneous thresholds. However, inter-individual variation was smaller for oral thresholds, which could be due to larger variation in cutaneous optical properties. The short-term and 24-hr changes in thresholds on both surfaces were less than 9%. The results indicate that habituation to laser thresholds may account for part of the intra-individual variation observed. However, the subjective ratings of the intensity of the laser stimuli were constant. Thus, oral thresholds may, like cutaneous thresholds, be used for assessment and quantification of analgesic efficacies and to investigate various pain conditions. PMID:1814248

  9. In vitro tolerability of human nasal mucosa: histopathological and scanning electron-microscopic evaluation of nasal forms containing Sandostatin ®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. de Fraissinette; M. Kolopp; I. Schiller; G. Fricker; C. Gammert; A. Pospischil; J. Vonderscher; F. Richter

    1995-01-01

    Anin vitro human nasal model was developed as a tool to study the local tolerabiliity of nasal powder forms using excised nasal mucosa in a diffusion chamber. The suitability of this model was tested using Sandostatin® (SMS) an octapeptide analog of somatostatin, as a reference drug enhanced by Avicel® (microcrystalline cellulose) or lactose (100 mesh). The standard nasal spray vehicle

  10. Bleaching action of extract of the mucosa and submucosa of the human appendix on melanophores of the frog skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. T. Raikhlin; I. M. Kvetnoi

    1974-01-01

    The action of a supernatant obtained after extraction of a homogenate of the mucosa and submucosa of the human appendix with 95% acetone on the melanophores of the frog skin was investigated. A bleaching action was found, indicating that the homogenate contained melatonin. Considering the high content of the melatonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), in the enterochromaffin cells, the possibility of

  11. [Peculiarities of microbiological and immunological indices of human nose mucosa in conditions of man-made pollution].

    PubMed

    Vo?tovych, O V; Kamyshny?, O M

    2014-01-01

    Possible influence of man-made load on formation and function of microbiocenosis of the nose mucosa in practically healthy people of industrial city has been studied. Microbiota composition, content of secretory immunoglobulin A, functional state and expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 by mucosa cells were studied in the given human biotope. The residing in conventionally contaminated districts of the industrial city tells on the increase of ecologic role of Candida albicans in the composition of microbiocenosis of the nose mucosa. The authors have shown high sensitivity of the number of TLR-4-positive epithelial cells to the type of the basic taxon of a microorganism in the composition of the nose mucosa microbiota and also sensitivity of the number of TLR-2 and TLR-4-positive epithelial cells and the density of expression by TLR-4 epithelial cells to the man-made pollution, they have also established the expressed unbalance of the system of inherent immunity of the nose mucosa of practically healthy young persons in conditions of man-made pollution. PMID:25000730

  12. T lymphocyte density and distribution in human colorectal mucosa, and inefficiency of current cell isolation protocols.

    PubMed

    Preza, Gloria Cuevas; Yang, Otto O; Elliott, Julie; Anton, Peter A; Ochoa, Maria T

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal tissues are critical immune effector sites containing complex populations of leukocytes in a tissue microenvironment that remains incompletely understood. We identify and quantify in human distal colorectal tissue absolute mucosal CD3+ lymphocytes, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, by direct visualization using immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and an automated counting protocol (r2=0.90). Sigmoid and rectal mucosal tissues are both densely packed with T lymphocytes in the mucosal compartment. Both compartments had similar densities of CD3+ T lymphocytes with 37,400 ± 2,801 cells/mm3 and 33,700 ± 4,324 cell/mm3, respectively. Sigmoid mucosa contained 57% CD3+CD4+ and 40% CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes which calculates to 21,300 ± 1,476/mm3 and 15,000 ± 275/mm3 T lymphocytes, respectively. Rectal mucosa had 57% CD3+CD4+ and 42% CD3+CD8+ or 21,577 ± 332, and 17,090 ± 1,206 cells/mm3, respectively. By comparison, sigmoid mucosal biopsies subjected to conventional collagenase digestion, mononuclear cell (MMC) isolation and staining for flow cytometry yielded 4,549 ± 381/mm3 and 2,708 ± 245/mm3 CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. These data suggest only ~20.7% recovery compared to IHC results for these markers. Further studies will determine if this reflects a selective bias in only CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells or can be generalized to all flow-analyzed cells from mucosal tissues for phenotyping and functional testing. PMID:25856343

  13. Viscoelastic shear properties of human vocal fold mucosa: measurement methodology and empirical results.

    PubMed

    Chan, R W; Titze, I R

    1999-10-01

    A standard method for the empirical rheological characterization of viscoelastic materials was adopted to measure the viscoelastic shear properties of human vocal-fold mucosal tissues (the superficial layer of lamina propria). A parallel-plate rotational rheometer was employed to measure shear deformation of viscoelastic tissue samples, which were deformed between two rigid circular plates rotating in small-amplitude sinusoidal oscillations. Elastic and viscous shear moduli of the samples were then quantified as a function of oscillation frequency (0.01 to 15 Hz) based on shear stresses and strains recorded by the rheometer. Data were obtained from 15 excised human larynges (10 male and 5 female). Results showed that the elastic shear modulus mu and the damping ratio zeta of human vocal-fold mucosa were relatively constant across the range of frequencies observed, while the dynamic viscosity eta decreased monotonically with frequency (i.e., shear thinning). Intersubject differences in mu and eta as large as an order of magnitude were observed, part of which may reflect age-related and gender-related differences. Some molecular interpretations of the findings are discussed. PMID:10530024

  14. Lactobacilli from human gastrointestinal mucosa are strong stimulators of IL-12 production

    PubMed Central

    Hessle, C; Hanson, L Å; Wold, A E

    1999-01-01

    Interaction of macrophages with bacteria is a stimulus for production of cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-12. IL-12 stimulates T cell and natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) production. IL-10 opposes the T cell-stimulating action of IL-12, decreases the release of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophages, and stimulates B cells. We have studied the capacity of human intestinal isolates from the three Lactobacillus species dominating on the human gastrointestinal mucosa, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei ssp. paracasei, to induce production of IL-10 and IL-12 from human blood mononuclear cells, or monocytes. Whole killed lactobacilli were potent stimulators of IL-12 over a wide range of bacterial concentrations. Lactobacillus paracasei gave the highest levels of IL-12 (1.5 ng/ml in response to 5 × 106 bacteria/ml), roughly 10 times more than obtained by stimulation with L. rhamnosus or L. plantarum. Escherichia coli induced on average < 50 pg/ml of IL-12 regardless of the bacterial concentration used. The secretion of free p40 subunit IL-12 followed the same pattern as the secretion of p70 (bioactive IL-12) with regard to the efficiency of different bacteria as stimulators. Escherichia coli was the most efficient trigger of IL-10 production, inducing 0.5 ng/ml IL-10 after stimulation with 5 × 106 bacteria/ml. Lactobacillus rhamnosus induced the highest levels of IL-10 among the lactobacilli (0.5 ng/ml) compared with 0.1 ng/ml evoked by L. plantarum or L. paracasei, but 10 times more bacteria were required for optimal stimulation than with E. coli. When neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibodies were added to the cultures, the IL-12-inducing capacity of L. rhamnosus was increased markedly, while that of E. coli remained low. The results show that mucosa-associated lactobacilli can be potent stimulators of IL-12, and thus potentially of cell-mediated immunity, if they pass over the gut epithelial barrier and interact with cells of the gut immune system. PMID:10337019

  15. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-01-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (Isc). Subsequent Isc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. Isc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation.

  16. Eicosanoid synthesis in duodenal ulcer disease: decrease in leukotriene C4 by colloidal bismuth subcitrate.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A; Salmon, P R; Cairns, C R; Hobsley, M; Hoult, J R

    1992-01-01

    The release of immunoreactive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) from antral and duodenal mucosal biopsy specimens taken from 20 patients with duodenal ulcer disease was measured by radioimmunoassay before and four weeks after treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate. Gastroscopic and histological examination showed complete ulcer healing in 15/18 patients and duodenal histology looked normal (n = 15) or improved (n = 3): two patients failed to attend for a second endoscopy. Analysis of the supernatant from incubations of biopsy tissue in vitro showed that unstimulated antral release of PGE2 was significantly more than that from the duodenal mucosa (p less than 0.05), whereas basal release of LTC4 was significantly lower from antral biopsy specimens (p less than 0.05). Subsequent incubation of specimens with calcium ionophore A23187 caused an increase in LTC4 but not in PGE2 generation. The ability of antral and duodenal mucosa to form ionophore mediated LTC4 in patients with duodenal ulcer disease was significantly greater (p less than 0.05; p less than 0.01 respectively) than that of normal gastroduodenal mucosa. After colloidal bismuth subcitrate treatment, basal synthesis of PGE2 was unchanged in duodenal and antral specimens. In contrast, basal duodenal LTC4 was reduced (p less than 0.05), and the capacity for ionophore mediated duodenal LTC4 formation was substantially and significantly reduced after treatment (p less than 0.001). These results indicate that after therapeutic healing of duodenal ulcer (accompanied by clearance of inflammatory cell infiltrate), there is a reduced ability of duodenal mucosa to generate proinflammatory peptidoleukotrienes. PMID:1541409

  17. Daily and Seasonal Rhythms in Human Mucosa Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Thomas; Arnold, Walter

    2015-08-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) can exert important physiological effects: for example, as precursors of eicosanoids, as signaling molecules, and, in particular, as parts of phospholipids, the major constituents of cell membranes. Animals can remodel cell membranes in terms of their FA composition in response to environmental conditions, and even endothermic mammals exhibit seasonal cycles in the FA makeup of membranes. Previous evidence pointed to the existence of both seasonal and daily cycles in phospholipid composition of human cell membranes. Therefore, we used a noninvasive method to collect human mucosa cells over 1 year in 20 healthy subjects, and we determined seasonal and daily rhythmicity of phospholipid FA content. Our results show that significant daily rhythms were detectable in 11 of 13 FAs and were largely synchronous among subjects. Also, these daily rhythms showed stable phase relationships between different FAs within subjects. In contrast, yearly rhythms in phospholipid FA content were statistically significant in only ~50% of subjects and were asynchronous between subjects. These results support the view that while human physiology is still dominated by geophysical sunrise and sunset, resulting in strong daily cycles, seasonal rhythms are less well defined, at least in Western societies. We suggest that the main physiological function underlying rhythms in cell membrane composition is the regulation of the activity of transmembrane proteins, such as ion pumps, which can be strongly affected by the fatty acyl chains of phospholipids in the surrounding membrane bilayer. Hence, among a multitude of other functions, cycles in membrane FA composition may be involved in generating the daily rhythm of metabolic rate. Rhythms in certain membrane FAs, namely polyunsaturated and monounsaturated FAs that are known to affect health, could be also involved in daily and seasonal rhythms of diseases and death. PMID:26045067

  18. Innervation of the human vaginal mucosa as revealed by PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, M; Falconer, C; Ekman-Ordeberg, G; Johansson, O

    1995-01-01

    In order to obtain a description of the innervation of the vaginal wall we employed an antiserum against the general neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, on normal human vaginal mucosa. Specimens were taken from the anterior and posterior fornices, from the anterior vaginal wall at the bladder neck level and from the introitus vaginae region, and then processed for indirect immunohistochemistry. All regions studied revealed a profound innervation, although regional differences were noted. The more distal areas of the vaginal wall had more nerve fibers compared to the more proximal parts. Also, biopsies from the anterior wall generally were more densely innervated than the posterior wall. Some large nerve coils were observed in lamina propria of the anterior wall as well as gatherings of thick-walled medium-sized blood vessels. Free intraepithelial nerve endings were only detected in the introitus vaginae region. These fibers were very thin, always varicose and could be observed just a few cell layers from the surface. In this part of the vagina, protein gene product 9.5 antibodies also stained cells within the basal parts of the epithelium. These cells were also neurone-specific enolase positive and resembled, from a morphological point of view, Merkel cells. PMID:8560964

  19. High-risk human papilloma virus in archival tissues of oral pathosis and normal oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapal, Raghu; Ranganathan, K.; Kondaiah, Paturu; Devi, R. Uma; Joshua, Elizabeth; Saraswathi, T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Oral cancer ranks third among all cancers in the Indian population. Human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a significant role in oral carcinogenesis. Population-based subtype variations are present in the HPV prevalence. This study gives an emphasis on the parameters to be considered in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based research work. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study on archival paraffin-embedded tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), epithelial dysplasia, and normal oral mucosa surrounding impacted tooth was amplified by PCR for the E6 gene of HPV type 16 and E1 gene of HPV type 18. Results: HPV 18 was positive in three OSCC cases. There was no statistically significant association of the positivity of HPV with the age, gender or habit. The HPV positive patients had a tobacco habit and were of a younger age group. Conclusion: The presence of HPV in carcinomatous tissue highlights the possible role of HPV in carcinogenesis and archival paraffin embedded tissue specimen can be used for this analysis. Recent studies on genomic analyses have highlighted that the HPV positive tumors are a separate subgroup based on genomic sequencing. The results of a larger retrospective study will help further in our understanding of the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, this study could form the baseline for such follow-up studies.

  20. Antibodies to human gastric epithelial cells and heat shock protein 60 in Helicobacter pylori positive mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Kawahara; K Yokota; M Mizuno; N Yunoki; T Uesu; H Okada; K Kobayashi; Y Hirai; K Oguma; T Tsuji

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDDevelopment of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is thought to be closely associated with host immune reactions toHelicobacter pylori.AIMTo investigate humoral immune responses in patients with MALT lymphoma to antigens shared by H pylori and human gastric epithelial cells.METHODSSera were obtained from H pylori positive patients with MALT lymphoma (n = 11) or other gastroduodenal diseases (peptic ulcer,

  1. Validation of Ussing Chamber Technology to Study Satiety Hormone Release From Human Duodenal Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maartje C. P. Geraedts; Freddy J. Troost; Rogier J. De Ridder; Alexander G. L. Bodelier; Ad A. M. Masclee; Wim H. M. Saris

    2012-01-01

    By developing novel screening technologies to test effects of food ingredients on hormone release, which are comparable to the in vivo situation, fewer tests may have to be performed using volunteers, whereas it still provides information that can be extrapolated to the human situation. In an in vivo intervention study, 10 lean (BMI: 20–25 kg\\/m2) and 10 obese (BMI >30

  2. [Contact transendoscopic thermometry via a tube in active gastric and duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Tenev, T

    1982-01-01

    The temperature of the gastric and duodenal mucosa was taken by a contact method in 473 patients with active ulcer disease, 118 of them being with gastric ulcers and 355--with duodenal ulcers. Sixty four of the gastric ulcers were with superficial gastritis, 54 gastric ulcers were with atrophic gastritis, 298 duodenal ulcers--with superficial inflammatory process and 57 duodenal ulcers with atrophic inflammatory process. The control group consisted of 31 healthy subjects without ulcer niche. In all patients, the temperature of the gastric and duodenal mucosa and in the periulcer niche was transendoscopically taken, at 6 separate levels. Four determinations were performed at each level (at the lesser curvature, greater curvature, anterior and posterior walls). A higher temperature, as compared with the control group, was found in the presence of ulcer defect in the region of duodenum and stomach. In case of superficial inflammatory process no temperature change developed in the mucosa, thus maintaining a statistically significant discrepancy in the region of the ulcer niche. The atrophic process reduced the temperature in the gastric zone in case of active gastric ulcer. The atrophic inflammatory process, in case of active duodenal ulcer, had no statistically significant effect on the higher temperature in the zones of duodenum and pylorous (T1 and T2) in the sites of the ulcer and around it, very likely due to the less manifested atrophic process in the duodenal mucosa as compared with the gastric one. PMID:7113182

  3. Enhancement of duodenal and jejunal ulceration by histamine-induced gastric hypersecretion in dogs with diversion of duodenal contents.

    PubMed

    Clémençon, G H; Lawson, H H

    1984-01-01

    In a previous investigation deviation of duodenal contents protected rats significantly from the development of peptic ulceration under maximal acid secretion. We have now assessed the effect of diversion of duodenal contents in dogs submitted to the same operative procedure under histamine-induced hypersecretion. Six mongrel dogs underwent the following procedure: A two cm duodenal segment was left adjacent to the intact pylorus, proximal jejunum anastomosed to this segment and a Roux-en-Y duodeno-jejunostomy performed. The dogs were given 30 mg histamine in beeswax daily i.m. Unexpectedly their physical condition deteriorated rapidly by the second day and they were sacrificed on the 4th day. Necropsy revealed multiple and severe peptic ulceration. There was a total of 9 duodenal ulcers with no perforations. 5 anastomotic and 24 jejunal ulcers with 1 and 3 perforations respectively. It was concluded that the diversion of duodenal contents enhanced ulcer formation in dogs and that the model mimicked a Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Ulceration occurred in transitional or jejunal type of duodenal mucosa. No gastric lesions were found and this suggests that the diversionary procedure was an effective means of preventing bile from reaching the gastric mucosa. PMID:6588497

  4. Histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan released by cultured human colonic mucosa: indication for possible presence of E mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eliakim, R.; Gilead, L.; Ligumsky, M; Okon, E.; Rachmilewitz, D.; Razin, E.

    1986-01-01

    An association between the release of histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan (PG) was demonstrates in human colonic mucosa (HCM). Colonic biopsy samples incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into PG, which was partially released into the culture medium during the incubation period. Ascending thin-layer chromatography of the released /sup 35/S-labeled PG after its digestion by chondroitin ABC lyase (chondroitinase, EC 4.2.2.4) followed by autoradiography yielded three products that migrated in the position of monosulfated disaccharides of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate and N-acetylgalactosoamine 6-sulfate and of an oversulfated disaccharide possessing N-acetylgalatosamine 4,6-disulfate. Cultured colonic mucosa released 23.6 +/- 3.7ng of histamine per mg of wet tissue without any special trigger. Comparison by linear regression analysis of the release of histamine and chondroitin (/sup 35/S)sulfate E PG revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.7. Histological examination of the colonic biopsies revealed the presence of many mast cells in various degrees of degranulation in the mucosa and submucosa. The above correlation, the observation that most of the mast cells showed various degrees of degranulation, and the lack of heparin synthesis as opposed to the synthesis and immunological release of chondroitin sulfate E strongly suggest that the E mast cell exists in the human colon.

  5. Betaine reduces the irritating effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on human oral mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Irma; Nicander, Ingrid; Jutila, Kirsti; Ollmar, Stig; Tenovuo, Jorma; Söderling, Eva

    2002-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate whether betaine has a protective effect during exposure of the human oral mucosa in vivo to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or cocoamidopropylbetaine (CAPB) as measured with a multifrequency electrical impedance spectrometer (EI). Both detergents were used at the concentration of 2.0% w/v with and without 4.0% w/v betaine in distilled water in 20 volunteers, and 0.5% and 1.0% w/v SLS combined with 4.0% w/v betaine in 5 volunteers. EI measurements were taken before application of the test solutions, after their removal, and every 15 min up to 45 min. Both 0.5% and 1% SLS solutions showed a significant reduction in 3 of the 4 indices, indicating mucosal irritation after the 15-min exposure (P < 0.05), whereas 2% SLS did so in all 4 indices (P < 0.001). Betaine had no effect on the detergent-induced decline with either the 2% or the 0.5% SLS solutions. However, when combined with the 1% SLS solution, betaine significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mucosal irritation by abolishing decreases in indices MIX (magnitude index) and IMIX (imaginary part index) and lowering it for PIX (phase index). The 2% CAPB solution showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all 4 indices after the 15-min exposure, but the effect was significantly weaker than that of 2% SLS (P < 0.05). Betaine did not reduce the irritating effect of 2% CAPB. These findings can be used in the development of less irritating products for oral health care. PMID:12418722

  6. Glycosylated compounds from okra inhibit adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lengsfeld, Christian; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Faller, Gerhard; Hensel, Andreas

    2004-03-24

    In Asian medicine the fruit of the okra plant, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench., is used as a mucilaginous food additive against gastric irritative and inflammative diseases. To find a rational basis for its use against these diseases, several crude and purified carbohydrate-containing fractions from immature okra fruits were isolated and analyzed, and their effects against Helicobacter pylori in an in situ adhesion model on sections of human gastric mucosa were determined. Pretreatment of the bacteria with a fresh juice preparation inhibited the bacterial adhesion almost completely. Lyophilization and reconstitution of an extract solution led to a reduction of this effect. A crude polysaccharide (RPS) isolated from the fresh juice by ethanolic precipitation showed strong inhibitory effects. Further fractionation of RPS revealed a purified, highly acidic subfraction (AF III) with high antiadhesive qualities. Carbohydrate analysis revealed the presence of rhamnogalacturonans with a considerable amount of glucuronic acid, whereas other inactive subfractions contained little glucuronic acid or were glucuronic acid-free. After heat denaturation of the fresh juice or protein precipitation with 5% TCA the antiadhesive activity of the fresh extract was reduced, indicating that besides polysaccharides, protein fractions also exhibited antiadhesive properties. SDS-PAGE analysis of the precipitate revealed several bands of glycosylated proteins between 25 and 37 kDa that were almost diminished in the nonactive supernatant. Preincubations of gastric tissue with any of the active fractions did not lead to reduced bacterial binding. The antiadhesive activity is therefore due to the blocking capacity of specific Helicobacter surface receptors that coordinate the interaction between host and bacterium. Neither of the active fractions showed inhibitory effects on bacterial growth in vitro. The antiadhesive qualities of okra were assumed to be due to a combination of glycoproteins and highly acidic sugar compounds making up a complex three-dimensional structure that is fully developed only in the fresh juice of the fruit. PMID:15030201

  7. Duodenal stump tumor.

    PubMed

    Golden, R L; Sokol, E M

    1978-10-01

    A rare case of duodenal stump tumor is described. The patient was an 84-year-old woman who had undergone a subtotal gastrectomy nine years previously. The polypoid tumor of the duodenal stump may have been a factor in the production of extrahepatic biliary obstruction, for which surgical treatment was required. The aged patient withstood the operation well. PMID:701696

  8. Reduced expression of aquaporins in human intestinal mucosa in early stage inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Ricanek, Petr; Lunde, Lisa K; Frye, Stephan A; Støen, Mari; Nygård, Ståle; Morth, Jens P; Rydning, Andreas; Vatn, Morten H; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Tønjum, Tone

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between aquaporin (AQP) water channel expression and the pathological features of early untreated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans. Methods Patients suspected to have IBD on the basis of predefined symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or blood in stool for more than 10 days, were examined at the local hospital. Colonoscopy with biopsies was performed and blood samples were taken. Patients who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for IBD and who displayed no evidence of infection or other pathology in the gut were included as symptomatic non-IBD controls. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in biopsies from the distal ileum and colon by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of selected AQPs was assessed by confocal microscopy. Through multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences, the putative three-dimensional structures of AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 were modeled. Results AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 mRNAs were detected in all parts of the intestinal mucosa. Notably, AQP1 and AQP3 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum of patients with Crohn’s disease, and AQP7 and AQP8 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum and the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed localization of AQP3, 7, and 8 at the mucosal epithelium, whereas the expression of AQP1 was mainly confined to the endothelial cells and erythrocytes. The reduction in the level of AQP3, 7, and 8 mRNA was confirmed by immunofluorescence, which also indicated a reduction of apical immunolabeling for AQP8 in the colonic surface epithelium and crypts of the IBD samples. This could indicate loss of epithelial polarity in IBD, leading to disrupted barrier function. Conclusion AQPs 1 and 8 and the aquaglyceroporins AQPs 3 and 7 are the AQPs predominantly expressed in the lower intestinal tract of humans. Their expression is significantly reduced in patients with IBD, and they are differentially expressed in specific bowel segments in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The data present a link between gut inflammation and water/solute homeostasis, suggesting that AQPs may play a significant role in IBD pathophysiology. PMID:25624769

  9. Distinct afferent innervation patterns within the human proximal and distal esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Woodland, Philip; Aktar, Rubina; Mthunzi, Engelbert; Lee, Chung; Peiris, Madusha; Preston, Sean L; Blackshaw, L Ashley; Sifrim, Daniel

    2015-03-15

    Little is known about the mucosal phenotype of the proximal human esophagus. There is evidence to suggest that the proximal esophagus is more sensitive to chemical and mechanical stimulation compared with the distal. This may have physiological relevance (e.g., in prevention of aspiration of gastroesophageal refluxate), but also pathological relevance (e.g., in reflux perception or dysphagia). Reasons for this increased sensitivity are unclear but may include impairment in mucosal barrier integrity or changes in sensory innervation. We assessed mucosal barrier integrity and afferent nerve distribution in the proximal and distal esophagus of healthy human volunteers. In 10 healthy volunteers baseline proximal and distal esophageal impedance was measured in vivo. Esophageal mucosal biopsies from the distal and proximal esophagus were taken, and baseline transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured in Ussing chambers. Biopsies were examined immunohistochemically for presence and location of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers. In a further four healthy volunteers we investigated for colocalization of CGRP and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunoreactivity in nerve fibers. Baseline impedance was higher in the proximal than in the distal esophagus [2,936 ? (SD578) vs. 2,229 ? (SD821); P = 0.03], however, baseline TER was not significantly different between them. Mucosal CGRP-immunoreactive nerves were found in the epithelium of both proximal and distal esophagus, but were located more superficially in the proximal mucosa compared with the distal [11.5 (SD7) vs. 21.7 (SD5) cell layers from lumen, P = 0.002] 19% of proximal, and 10% of distal mucosal PGP-immunoreactive fibers colocalized with CGRP. PGP-immunoreactive fibers were also significantly closer to the luminal surface in the proximal compared with the distal esophagus (P < 0.001). We conclude that mucosal barrier integrity is similar in proximal and distal esophagus, but proximal mucosal afferent nerves are in a more superficial location. The enhanced sensitivity to reflux-evoked symptoms of the proximal esophagus most likely has an anatomical basis. PMID:25573174

  10. Duodenal ulcer. Discovery of a new mechanism and development of angiogenic therapy that accelerates healing.

    PubMed Central

    Folkman, J; Szabo, S; Stovroff, M; McNeil, P; Li, W; Shing, Y

    1991-01-01

    The complete purification of the first angiogenic molecule, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), was carried out in the authors' laboratory in 1983. Application of this peptide to chronic wounds enhances angiogenesis and accelerates wound healing. The authors showed that an acid-stable form of bFGF (i.e., bFGF-CS23) could be administered orally to rats with duodenal ulcers. The peptide promoted a ninefold increase of angiogenesis in the ulcer bed and accelerated ulcer healing more potently than cimetidine. Basic fibroblast growth factor did not reduce gastric acid. The authors now show that bFGF exists as a naturally occurring peptide in rat and human gastric and duodenal mucosa. This endogenous bFGF is present also in the bed of chronic ulcers in rats. Sucralfate binds bFGF and protects it from acid degradation. The sucralfate is angiogenic, based on its affinity for bFGF. When sucralfate is administered orally to rats, it significantly elevates the level of bFGF in the ulcer bed. Cimetidine, by its capacity to reduce gastric acid, also elevates bFGF in the ulcer bed. A hypothetical model is proposed in which prevention of ulcer formation or accelerated healing of ulcers by conventional therapies may be FGF dependent. Acid-stable bFGF-CS23 may be considered as a form of replacement therapy in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. Images Figs. 9A and B. Fig. 10. PMID:1719945

  11. Examination and classification of human olfactory mucosa in patients with clinical olfactory disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yamagishi; S. Hasegawa; Y. Nakano

    1988-01-01

    To determine objectively the degree of olfactory disturbance, we biopsied the olfactory mucosa from patients who complained of anosmia. The olfactory disturbances in this study were caused by choanal atresia, chronic sinusitis, viral inflammation, and head trauma, as well as by congenital and idiopathic anosmia. The biopsy specimens were examined by light microscopy and the degree of mucosal degeneration present

  12. Thymidine phosphorylase expression in human colorectal mucosa, adenoma and carcinoma: role of p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Shomori, K; Sakatani, T; Goto, A; Matsuura, T; Kiyonari, H; Ito, H

    1999-06-01

    The enzyme, thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase) is identical to platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), which acts as a potent angiogenic factor. The present study immunohistochemically examined the expression of dThdPase in human colorectal mucosa, adenomas and carcinomas, as well as six cultured colorectal carcinoma cell lines, in terms of intratumoral microvessel density (IMVD) and P53 expression. Thymidine phosphorylase was observed in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages, as well as smooth muscle cells and Schwann cells in the peripheral nerve fibers. The dThdPase-positive stromal cells apparently outnumbered the normal epithelial cells, adenoma and carcinoma cells with dThdPase. Weak but obvious cytoplasmic immunoreactivity was noted in a few normal colonic epithelia, predominantly the upper surface area, while a few adenoma cells showed weak nuclear immunostaining for dThdPase in six (24%) of the 25 colonic adenomas. Expression of dThdPase was noted in 33 (73.3%) of the 45 Dukes A and B, 14 (51.9%) of the 27 Dukes C and 14 (56.0%) of the 25 Dukes D carcinomas. The mean IMVD was 84.0 +/- 26.2 in the 36 dThdPase-negative carcinomas and 97.9 +/- 31.6 in the 61 dThdPase-positive carcinomas, the value being significantly higher in the latter group (P < 0.05). The frequency of dThdPase expression was significantly lower in the P53-negative carcinomas than in the positive carcinomas (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed the highest expression of dThdPase in LoVo carrying the wild-type p53 gene, followed by Colo201, Colo320, DLD-11 and WiDr carrying the mutated gene. These results indicate that: (i) the main source of dThdPase is stromal cells, including lymphocytes and macrophages in both colorectal normal and carcinoma tissues; (ii) dThdPase may take part in the induction of intratumoral microvessels, regardless of tumor stage; and (iii) expression might be modulated by not only P53 but also other molecules. PMID:10469391

  13. Induction of peripheral lymph node addressin in human gastric mucosa infected by Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Motohiro; Mitoma, Junya; Nakamura, Naoshi; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Jun; Fukuda, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects over half the world's population and is a leading cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. H. pylori infection results in chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa, and progression of chronic inflammation leads to glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. However, how this chronic inflammation is induced or maintained is not well known. Here, we show that chronic inflammation caused by H. pylori infection is highly correlated with de novo synthesis of peripheral lymph node addressin (PNAd) presented on high-endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels. The number of HEV-like vessels dramatically increases as chronic inflammation progresses. We found that the PNAd is bound by L-selectin·IgM chimeric protein, and decorated by NCC-ST-439 antibody, which is suggested to recognize both nonsulfated and 6-sulfated sialyl Lewis X on core 2 branched O-glycans, and MECA-79 antibody, which reacts with 6-sulfo N-acetyllactosamine on extended core 1 O-glycans. These results indicate that PNAd on HEV-like vessels present in the gastric mucosa subsequent to H. pylori infection is similar to those on HEVs present in the secondary lymphoid organs, which are essential for lymphocyte circulation. Moreover, eradication of H. pylori is associated with the disappearance of HEV-like vessels in the gastric mucosa. By contrast, very few PNAd were found in the gastric mucosa of patients with chemical gastritis caused by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. These results strongly suggest that PNAd in HEV-like vessels plays a critical role in lymphocyte recruitment during chronic inflammation induced by H. pylori infection. PMID:15591109

  14. High Expression of Antiviral Proteins in Mucosa from Individuals Exhibiting Resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Feria, Manuel Gerónimo; Arcia, David; Aguilar-Jiménez, Wbeimar; Zapata, Wildeman; Rugeles, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background Several soluble factors have been reported to have the capacity of inhibiting HIV replication at different steps of the virus life cycle, without eliminating infected cells and through enhancement of specific cellular mechanisms. Yet, it is unclear if these antiviral factors play a role in the protection from HIV infection or in the control of viral replication. Here we evaluated two cohorts: i) one of 58 HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs) who were compared with 59 healthy controls (HCs), and ii) another of 13 HIV-controllers who were compared with 20 HIV-progressors. Peripheral blood, oral and genital mucosa and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) samples were obtained to analyze the mRNA expression of ELAFIN, APOBEC3G, SAMHD1, TRIM5?, RNase 7 and SerpinA1 using real-time PCR. Results HESNs exhibited higher expression of all antiviral factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), oral or genital mucosa when compared with HCs. Furthermore, HIV-controllers exhibited higher levels of SerpinA1 in GALT. Conclusions These findings suggest that the activity of these factors is compartmentalized and that these proteins have a predominant role depending on the tissue to avoid the infection, reduce the viral load and modulate the susceptibility to HIV infection. PMID:26091527

  15. Dietary manipulation of oncogenic microRNA expression in human rectal mucosa: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Karen J; Conlon, Michael A; Young, Graeme P; Topping, David L; Hu, Ying; Winter, Jean M; Bird, Anthony R; Cobiac, Lynne; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Michael, Michael Z; Le Leu, Richard K

    2014-08-01

    High red meat (HRM) intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, while resistant starch is probably protective. Resistant starch fermentation produces butyrate, which can alter microRNA (miRNA) levels in colorectal cancer cells in vitro; effects of red meat and resistant starch on miRNA expression in vivo were unknown. This study examined whether a HRM diet altered miRNA expression in rectal mucosa tissue of healthy volunteers, and if supplementation with butyrylated resistant starch (HRM+HAMSB) modified this response. In a randomized cross-over design, 23 volunteers undertook four 4-week dietary interventions; an HRM diet (300 g/day lean red meat) and an HRM+HAMSB diet (HRM with 40 g/day butyrylated high amylose maize starch), preceded by an entry diet and separated by a washout. Fecal butyrate increased with the HRM+HAMSB diet. Levels of oncogenic mature miRNAs, including miR17-92 cluster miRNAs and miR21, increased in the rectal mucosa with the HRM diet, whereas the HRM+HAMSB diet restored miR17-92 miRNAs, but not miR21, to baseline levels. Elevated miR17-92 and miR21 in the HRM diet corresponded with increased cell proliferation, and a decrease in miR17-92 target gene transcript levels, including CDKN1A. The oncogenic miR17-92 cluster is differentially regulated by dietary factors that increase or decrease risk for colorectal cancer, and this may explain, at least in part, the respective risk profiles of HRM and resistant starch. These findings support increased resistant starch consumption as a means of reducing risk associated with an HRM diet. PMID:25092886

  16. Differential expression of beta1,3galactosyltransferases in human colon cells derived from adenocarcinomas or normal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bardoni, A; Valli, M; Trinchera, M

    1999-05-14

    Two beta1,3galactosyltransferases are detected in human colon cells: one corresponds to beta3GalT1, the other (beta3GalTx) is found to be different from any cloned beta3GalT since in vitro it utilizes GlcNAc very efficiently under specific reaction conditions. Expression of beta3GalT1 transcript is high in normal colon mucosa and control neuroectodermal cells, which do not express sialyl-Lewis a antigen, and low in colon adenocarcinoma cells, as assessed by competitive RT-PCR. beta3GalTx activity is high in adenocarcinoma cells expressing sialyl-Lewis a and undetectable in all other cells, suggesting differential involvement and opposite regulation of such enzymes during carcinogenesis. PMID:10356986

  17. Expression of DC-SIGN by Dendritic Cells of Intestinal and Genital Mucosae in Humans and Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Brian; Baribaud, Frédéric; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Ghavimi, Darlene; Mortari, Frank; Doms, Robert W.; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission at mucosal surfaces, we examined the expressions of the HIV adhesion molecule, dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), its closely related homologue DC-SIGNR, and HIV coreceptors by distinct DC populations in the intestinal and genital tracts of humans and rhesus macaques. We also developed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for DC-SIGN or DC-SIGNR. In the Peyer's patches, DC-SIGN expression was detected in the interfollicular regions and in clusters of cells in the subepithelial dome regions. DC-SIGN expression was not found on plasmacytoid DCs. DC-SIGNR expression was restricted to endothelial cells in approximately one-third of the capillaries in the terminal ileum. In the vaginal epithelium, Langerhans' cells did not express DC-SIGN, whereas subepithelial DCs in the lamina propria expressed moderate levels of DC-SIGN. Finally, the rectum contained cells that expressed high levels of DC-SIGN throughout the entire thickness of the mucosa, while solitary lymphoid nodules within the rectum showed very little staining for DC-SIGN. Triple-color analysis of rectal tissue indicated that CCR5+ CD4+ DC-SIGN+ DCs were localized just beneath the luminal epithelium. These findings suggest that DC-SIGN+ DCs could play a role in the transmission of primate lentiviruses in the ileum and the rectum whereas accessibility to DC-SIGN+ cells is limited in an intact vaginal mucosa. Finally, we identified a MAb that blocked simian immunodeficiency virus interactions with rhesus macaque DC-SIGN. This and other specific MAbs may be used to assess the relevance of DC-SIGN in virus transmission in vivo. PMID:11799181

  18. Analysis of Human Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Expression in Extrathyroidal Tissues and Cloning of Its Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acids from Salivary Gland, Mammary Gland, and Gastric Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Spitzweg; W. JOBA; W. EISENMENGER; A. E. HEUFELDER

    1998-01-01

    The ability to concentrate iodide is a fundamental property of normally functioning thyroid tissue and represents the first step in the production of thyroid hormones. Iodide uptake has been demon- strated in various extrathyroidal tissues, including salivary gland, gastric mucosa, and lactating mammary gland. Recently, cloning and molecular characterization of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) have been reported; however,

  19. Human ethmoid sinus mucosa: a promising novel tissue source of mesenchymal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The identification of new progenitor cell sources is important for cell-based tissue engineering strategies, understanding regional tissue regeneration, and modulating local microenvironments and immune response. However, there are no reports that describe the identification and isolation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) from paranasal sinus mucosa, and compare the properties of MPCs between tissue sources within the sinonasal cavity. We report here the identification of MPCs in the maxillary sinus (MS) and ethmoid sinus (ES). Furthermore, we contrast these MPCs in the same individuals with MPCs from two additional head and neck tissue sources of the inferior turbinate (IT) and tonsil (T). Methods These four MPC sources were exhaustively compared for morphology, colony-forming potential, proliferation capability, immunophenotype, multilineage differentiation potential, and ability to produce soluble factors. Results MS-, ES, IT-, and T-MPCs showed similar morphologies and surface phenotypes, as well as adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation capacity by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR for defined lineage-specific genes. However, we noted that the colony-forming potential and proliferation capability of ES-MPCs were distinctly higher than other MPCs. All MPCs constitutively, or upon stimulation, secrete large amounts of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-?, and TGF-?. After stimulation with TNF-? and IFN-?, ES-MPCs notably demonstrated significantly higher secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 than other MPCs. Conclusions ES-MPCs may be a uniquely promising source of MPCs due to their high proliferation ability and superior capacity toward secretion of immunomodulatory cytokines. PMID:24460892

  20. Helicobacter pylori downregulates expression of human ?-defensin 1 in the gastric mucosa in a type IV secretion-dependent fashion

    PubMed Central

    Patel, SR; Smith, K; Letley, DP; Cook, KW; Memon, AA; Ingram, RJM; Staples, E; Backert, S; Zaitoun, AM; Atherton, JC; Robinson, K

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori establishes a chronic lifelong infection in the human gastric mucosa, which may lead to peptic ulcer disease or gastric adenocarcinoma. The human beta-defensins (h?Ds) are antimicrobial peptides, h?D1 being constitutively expressed in the human stomach. We hypothesized that H.?pylori may persist, in part, by downregulating gastric h?D1 expression. We measured h?D1 and h?D2 expression in vivo in relation to the presence, density and severity of H.?pylori infection, investigated differential effects of H.?pylori virulence factors, and studied underlying signalling mechanisms in vitro. Significantly lower h?D1 and higher h?D2 mRNA and protein concentrations were present in gastric biopsies from infected patients. Those patients with higher-level bacterial colonization and inflammation had significantly lower h?D1 expression, but there were no differences in h?D2. H.?pylori infection of human gastric epithelial cell lines also downregulated h?D1. Using wild-type strains and isogenic mutants, we showed that a functionalcag pathogenicity island-encoded type IV secretion system induced this downregulation. Treatment with chemical inhibitors or siRNA revealed that H.?pylori usurped NF-?B signalling to modulate h?D1 expression. These data indicate that H.?pylori downregulates h?D1 expression via NF-?B signalling, and suggest that this may promote bacterial survival and persistence in the gastric niche. PMID:23870035

  1. Imbalance in the composition of the duodenal microbiota of children with coeliac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inmaculada Nadal; Esther Donant; Carmen Ribes-Koninckx; Miguel Calabuig; Yolanda Sanz

    2007-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is the most common immune-mediated enteropathy characterized by chronic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa. The ingestion of gluten is responsible for the symptoms of CD, but other environmental factors are also thought to play a role in this disorder. In this study, the composition of the duodenal microbiota of coeliac children with active disease, symptom-free CD

  2. A Novel Duodenal Iron-Regulated Transporter, IREG1, Implicated in the Basolateral Transfer of Iron to the Circulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew T McKie; Paola Marciani; Andreas Rolfs; Karen Brennan; Kristina Wehr; Dalna Barrow; Silvia Miret; Adrian Bomford; Timothy J Peters; Farzin Farzaneh; Matthias A Hediger; Matthias W Hentze; Robert J Simpson

    2000-01-01

    Iron absorption by the duodenal mucosa is initiated by uptake of ferrous Fe(II) iron across the brush border membrane and culminates in transfer of the metal across the basolateral membrane to the portal vein circulation by an unknown mechanism. We describe here the isolation and characterization of a novel cDNA (Ireg1) encoding a duodenal protein that is localized to the

  3. [Effect of chronic inhaled pollutants (cigarette smoke) on trans-epithelial measured potential difference of nasal mucosa in the human].

    PubMed

    Fischer, J; Dahmen, K; Jackowski, M

    1990-02-01

    The transepithelial potential difference of the mucosa of the nose is appreciably higher in non-smokers than in smokers with a moderate to heavy cigarette consumption. This reduced potential difference in response to chronic inhalation to noxae (cigarette smoke) is a marker for the change in the integrity of the mucosa of the nose, and may possibly be considered to be representative of the rest of the respiratory epithelium of the bronchial system. PMID:1694999

  4. Development of a Tissue-Engineered Human Oral Mucosa: From the Bench to the Bed Side

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Izumi; Junhui Song; Stephen E. Feinberg

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to make the reader aware of the complexity and steps that are necessary to make a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved laboratory produced cell-based device, for use in clinical trials for reconstructive surgery. Most tissue-engineered cell-based devices are considered as ‘human somatic cell therapy’ and fall under the auspices of the Center of

  5. The role of the 5HT 4 receptor in Cl ? secretion in human jejunal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misra R. Budhoo; R. Paul Harris; John M. Kellum

    1996-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a mediator of chloride ion (Cl?) secretion in the intestine which can be seen as a rise in short circuit current (ISC) in the Ussing chamber model. We investigated the 5-HT receptor mediating 5-HT-induced Cl? secretion in the human jejunum in vitro. Jejunal segments obtained from patients having gastric bypass surgery for obesity, were stripped of muscularis

  6. Lectin staining patterns in human gastric mucosae with and without exposure to Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Junior, Mario R.; Cavalcanti, Carmelita L.B.; Pontes-Filho, Nicodemos T.; Carvalho Jr, Luiz B.; Beltrão, Eduardo I. C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate qualitative changes in the glycoconjugate expression in human gastric tissue of positive and negative patients for Helicobacter pylori, through lectins: Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) and Concanavalin A (Con A). The lectins recognized differently the glycoconjugates in the superficial mucous layer at the gastric tissues. The results suggest a significant change in the carbohydrate moieties present on the surface of the gastric cells during infection. PMID:24031208

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of ?-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone in Celiac Intestinal Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gualtiero Colombo; Roberto Buffa; Maria Teresa Bardella; Letizia Garofalo; Andrea Carlin; James M. Lipton; Anna Catania

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The peptide ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) possesses potent anti-inflammatory activities and has been previously implicated in the endogenous control of inflammatory reactions. The aim of the present research was to determine whether ?-MSH and its receptors participate in a localized anti-inflammatory response in the duodenal mucosa of celiac patients. Methods: Three series of experiments were performed, using duodenal biopsy pairs

  8. From cysteamine to MPTP: structure-activity studies with duodenal ulcerogens

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Cho, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteamine is the first chemical identified that induces acute and chronic duodenal ulcers in rodents. Structure-activity studies with cysteamine, propionitrile and their derivatives, as well as with analogues of toluene, revealed numerous alkyl and aryl duodenal ulcerogens. Among these, one of the most interesting from an etiologic and pathogenetic point of view is the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP, which shows structural similarities with toluene. The chemically-induced duodenal ulcers are similar and localized on the anterior and posterior wall of the duodenal bulb. Both cysteamine and MPTP affect endogenous dopamine; MPTP is especially potent in depleting central dopamine and inducing lesions in the substantia nigra. MPTP given in high doses induces Parkinson's disease-like syndrome and gastric ulcers. Cysteamine and propionitrile also cause dyskinesia in large and multiple doses. The motility disorders and duodenal ulcers are abolished by dopamine agonists. Cysteamine and MPTP have been known to increase and decrease gastric acid secretion, respectively. However, both compounds induced duodenal dysmotility, decreased bicarbonate production, and reduced its delivery from distal to proximal duodenum. These factors decrease acid neutralization in the duodenal bulb and contribute to duodenal ulceration. Thus, studies with animal models may reveal endogenous mediators and specific receptors which might be involved in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. Specific structure-activity studies in toxicology may lead to new insights in the pathogenesis and pharmacology of a poorly understood human disorder such as duodenal ulceration. 39 references.

  9. On the Relationship between Sialomucin and Sulfomucin Expression and Hydrogenotrophic Microbes in the Human Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Croix, Jennifer A.; Carbonero, Franck; Nava, Gerardo M.; Russell, Mark; Greenberg, Eugene; Gaskins, H. Rex

    2011-01-01

    The colonic mucus layer is comprised primarily of acidomucins, which provide viscous properties and can be broadly classified into sialomucins or sulfomucins based on the presence of terminating sialic acid or sulfate groups. Differences in acidomucin chemotypes have been observed in diseases such as colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, and variation in sialo- and sulfomucin content may influence microbial colonization. For example, sulfate derived from sulfomucin degradation may promote the colonization of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which through sulfate respiration generate the genotoxic gas hydrogen sulfide. Here, paired biopsies from right colon, left colon, and rectum of 20 subjects undergoing routine screening colonoscopies were collected to enable parallel histochemical and microbiological studies. Goblet cell sialo- and sulfomucins in each biopsy were distinguished histochemically and quantified. Quantitative PCR and multivariate analyses were used to examine the abundance of hydrogenotrophic microbial groups and SRB genera relative to acidomucin profiles. Regional variation was observed in sialomucins and sulfomucins with the greatest abundance of each found in the rectum. Mucin composition did not appear to influence the abundance of SRB or other hydrogenotrophic microbiota but correlated with the composition of different SRB genera. A higher sulfomucin proportion correlated with higher quantities of Desulfobacter, Desulfobulbus and Desulfotomaculum, relative to the predominant Desulfovibrio genus. Thus, acidomucin composition may influence bacterial sulfate respiration in the human colon, which may in turn impact mucosal homeostasis. These results stress the need to consider mucus characteristics in the context of studies of the microbiome that target intestinal diseases. PMID:21931721

  10. High degree of duodenal inflammation in Nigerians with functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Nwokediuko, Sylvester Chuks; Ijoma, Uchenna N; Obienu, Olive; Anigbo, Gideon E; Okafor, Okechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a heterogeneous disorder associated with diverse pathophysiological mechanisms, including immune activation and low-grade mucosal inflammation. Genetic factors, physiological functions, and environmental factors may determine the relative importance of various pathophysiological mechanisms. This study was designed to determine the histological alterations in the duodenal mucosa of Nigerian patients with FD. Methods Consecutive patients with dyspepsia seen over a 27-month period in two gastrointestinal endoscopy facilities in Enugu, South-East Nigeria were further evaluated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal mucosal biopsies if no lesion was found in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Patients with heartburn and/or regurgitation who did not have any dyspeptic symptoms and did not have any lesion in the upper gastrointestinal tract on endoscopy were presumed to have non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and they served as controls. The control subjects also had duodenal biopsies. The histopathological findings in the cases and controls were compared. Results There were 68 patients with FD and 52 patients with NERD. The total inflammatory score was 242 in FD and 66 in NERD (Mann-Whitney U =1168, P=0.0011). Similarly, the scores for chronic inflammation, gastric metaplasia, neutrophilic activity, eosinophilic infiltration, and Helicobacter pylori were significantly higher in FD than NERD. Conclusion Functional dyspepsia is associated with a high degree of inflammation in the duodenal mucosa. This may reflect the high prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in a tropical environment such as Nigeria. These findings may have therapeutic potential that further studies might elucidate. PMID:24403840

  11. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-sheng; Chou, David; Liu, Yan; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C.; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A.; Tang, Moon-shong

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS. PMID:24939871

  12. Tissue transglutaminase expression in celiac mucosa: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gorgun, Julia; Portyanko, Anna; Marakhouski, Yuri; Cherstvoy, Eugeni

    2009-10-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) constitutes the main autoantigen in celiac disease (CD). The aim of the study was to clarify weather celiac disease is associated with changes in tTG expression in duodenal mucosa. Tissue transglutaminase was assessed immunohistochemically (clone CUB 7402) in duodenal biopsy specimens from 22 untreated CD patients, ten normal controls (NC) with unremarkable duodenal mucosa, and nine disease nonceliac controls (DC). In 15 CD patients duodenal biopsy specimens were repeatedly assessed after these patients had been prescribed gluten-free diet. Positive pixel count algorithm of ImageScope was used for quantitative evaluation of immunohistochemistry. Tissue transglutaminase expression in superficial epithelium differed significantly between the three groups (p < 0.001). It was increased in DC in relation to NC (p < 0.001) and in CD--in relation to NC (p < 0.001) and DC (p = 0.003). In CD and DC, cryptal epithelium was stained more intensively than in NC (p < 0.001), but there was no difference between CD and DC (p = 0.507). The same pattern was seen in lamina propria. A significant decrease in tTG expression in all the compartments was seen in repeatedly assessed samples. Untreated CD is associated with tTG overexpression, which is reversible. Tissue transglutaminase up-regulation does not seem to be specific for CD and can appear in other pathological conditions. PMID:19756726

  13. Involvement of b2 receptor in bradykinin-induced proliferation and proinflammatory effects in human nasal mucosa-derived fibroblasts isolated from chronic rhinosinusitis patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yih-Jeng; Hao, Sheng-Po; Chen, Chih-Li; Lin, Brian J; Wu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the sinonasal mucosa either accompanied by polyp formation (CRSwNP) or without polyps (CRSsNP). CRSsNP accounts for the majority of CRS cases and is characterized by fibrosis and neutrophilic inflammation. However, the pathogenesis of CRS, especially CRSsNP, remains unclear. Immunohistochemistry of CRSsNP specimens in the present study showed that the submucosa, perivascular areas, and the mucous glands were abundant in fibroblasts. Therefore, we investigated the effects bradykinin (BK), an autacoid known to participate in inflammation, on human CRSsNP nasal mucosa-derived fibroblasts (NMDFs). BK increased CXCL1 and -8 secretion and mRNA expression with EC50 ranging from 0.15~0.35 ?M. Moreover, BK enhanced cell proliferation and upregulated the expressions of proinflammatory molecules, including cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2. These functionally caused an increase in monocyte adhesion to fibroblast monolayer. Using pharmacological intervention and BKR siRNA knockdown, we demonstrated that the BK-induced CXCL chemokine release, cell proliferation and COX and CAM expressions were mainly through the B2 receptor (B2R). Accordingly, the B2R was preferentially expressed in the NMDFs than B1R. The B2R was highly expressed in the CRSsNP than the control specimens, while the B1R and kininogen (KNG)/BK expression slightly increased in the CRSsNP mucosa. Collectively, we report here for the first time that fibroblasts, KNG/BK, and BKRs are overexpressed in CRSsNP mucosa and BK upregulates chemokine expression, proliferation, and proinflammatory molecule expression in NMDFs via B2R activation, which lead to a functional increase in monocyte-fibroblast interaction. Our findings reveal a critical role of fibroblast, KNG/BK, and BKRs in the development of CRSsNP. PMID:25970620

  14. Involvement of B2 Receptor in Bradykinin-Induced Proliferation and Proinflammatory Effects in Human Nasal Mucosa-Derived Fibroblasts Isolated from Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yih-Jeng; Hao, Sheng-Po; Chen, Chih-Li; Lin, Brian J.; Wu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the sinonasal mucosa either accompanied by polyp formation (CRSwNP) or without polyps (CRSsNP). CRSsNP accounts for the majority of CRS cases and is characterized by fibrosis and neutrophilic inflammation. However, the pathogenesis of CRS, especially CRSsNP, remains unclear. Immunohistochemistry of CRSsNP specimens in the present study showed that the submucosa, perivascular areas, and the mucous glands were abundant in fibroblasts. Therefore, we investigated the effects bradykinin (BK), an autacoid known to participate in inflammation, on human CRSsNP nasal mucosa-derived fibroblasts (NMDFs). BK increased CXCL1 and -8 secretion and mRNA expression with EC50 ranging from 0.15~0.35 ?M. Moreover, BK enhanced cell proliferation and upregulated the expressions of proinflammatory molecules, including cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2. These functionally caused an increase in monocyte adhesion to fibroblast monolayer. Using pharmacological intervention and BKR siRNA knockdown, we demonstrated that the BK-induced CXCL chemokine release, cell proliferation and COX and CAM expressions were mainly through the B2 receptor (B2R). Accordingly, the B2R was preferentially expressed in the NMDFs than B1R. The B2R was highly expressed in the CRSsNP than the control specimens, while the B1R and kininogen (KNG)/BK expression slightly increased in the CRSsNP mucosa. Collectively, we report here for the first time that fibroblasts, KNG/BK, and BKRs are overexpressed in CRSsNP mucosa and BK upregulates chemokine expression, proliferation, and proinflammatory molecule expression in NMDFs via B2R activation, which lead to a functional increase in monocyte-fibroblast interaction. Our findings reveal a critical role of fibroblast, KNG/BK, and BKRs in the development of CRSsNP. PMID:25970620

  15. Myb Expression Is Higher in Malignant Human Colonic Carcinoma and Premalignant Adenomatous Polyps than in Normal Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Ramsay; M. A. Thompson; J. A. Hayman; G. Reid; T. J. Gonda; R. H. Whitehead

    Expression of the protooncogene c-Myb protein was assessed in normal mucosa and in tumor samples resected from six patients. We found that the tumor samples always expressed higher levels of full length Myb protein than the normal tissue. This contrasts with the situation in c-myb-associated hemopoietic malignancies of the mouse and chicken, in which Myb proteins are generally amino or

  16. [Dependence of clinical course and outcome of chronic duodenitis on some features of its pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Bogachev, R S

    1996-01-01

    The effects of acid, infectious (Helicobacter pylori) and neuroendocrine factors on the course and outcome of chronic duodenitis were studied in 57 patients aged 15-35 years. Within 5-year follow-up ulcer emerged in 26% of duodenitis patients. Ulceration occurred as a result of high acid production in the basal and stimulated phases, contamination of pyloric-antral mucosa with Helicobacter pylori, unbalance of serum hormones T4, TTH, FSH, ACTH. In risk of ulcerogenesis there were psychological shifts with appearance of pathological reaction to the disease. Consideration of pathogenetic specificity of different duodenitis forms and basing on objective and subjective criteria allow identification of ulcer risk group and early start of optimal therapy. PMID:8926702

  17. CCL20/CCR6-mediated migration of regulatory T cells to the Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Katherine W; Letley, Darren P; Ingram, Richard J M; Staples, Emily; Skjoldmose, Helle; Atherton, John C; Robinson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulceration is less likely to occur in patients with a strong gastric anti-inflammatory regulatory T cell (Treg) response. Migration of Tregs into the gastric mucosa is therefore important. Objective To identify the homing receptors involved in directing Tregs to the gastric mucosa, and investigate how H pylori stimulates the relevant chemokine responses. Design Gastric biopsy samples and peripheral blood were donated by 84 H pylori-infected and 46 uninfected patients. Luminex assays quantified gastric biopsy chemokine concentrations. Flow cytometry was used to characterise homing receptors on CD4+CD25hi Tregs. H pylori wild-type and isogenic mutants were used to investigate the signalling mechanisms behind CCL20 and IL-8 induction in gastric epithelial cell lines. Transwell assays were used to quantify Treg migration towards chemokines in vitro. Results CCL20, CXCL1-3 and IL-8 concentrations were significantly increased in gastric biopsy samples from H pylori-infected patients. CCR6 (CCL20 receptor), CXCR1 and CXCR2 (IL-8 and CXCL1-3 receptors) were expressed by a higher proportion of peripheral blood Tregs in infected patients. Most gastric Tregs expressed these receptors. H pylori induced CCL20 production by gastric epithelial cells via cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-dependent NF-?B signalling. Foxp3+, but not Foxp3?, CD4 cells from infected mice migrated towards recombinant CCL20 in vitro. Conclusions As well as increasing Treg numbers, H pylori infection induces a change in their characteristics. Expression of CCR6, CXCR1 and CXCR2 probably enables their migration towards CCL20 and IL-8 in the infected gastric mucosa. Such qualitative changes may also explain how H pylori protects against some extragastric inflammatory disorders. PMID:24436142

  18. Genotype-Specific Incidence and Clearance of Human Papillomavirus in Oral Mucosa of Women: A Six-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Louvanto, Karolina; Rautava, Jaana; Willberg, Jaana; Wideman, Lilli; Syrjänen, Kari; Grénman, Seija; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-01-01

    Background There are no previous longitudinal studies on genotype-specific natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in oral mucosa of women. Methods In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 329 pregnant women were enrolled and followed up. HPV-genotyping of oral scrapings was performed with nested PCR and Multimetrix® test (Progen, Heidelberg, Germany). Incidence and clearance times and rates for each HPV-genotype identified in oral mucosa were determined. Predictors for incident and cleared HPV infections for species 7/9 genotypes were analyzed using Poisson regression model. Results Altogether, 115 baseline HPV-negative women acquired incident oral HPV infection, and 79 women cleared their infection. HPV16 and multiple HPVs most frequently caused incident infections (65% and 12%) in 13.3 and 17.1 months respectively, followed by HPV58, HPV18 and HPV6 (close to 5% each) in 11–24 months. HPV58, HPV18 and HPV66 were the most common to clear. HPV6 and HPV11 had the shortest clearance times, 4.6 months and 2.5 months, and the highest clearance rates, 225.5/1000 wmr and 400/1000 wmr, respectively. The protective factors for incident oral HPV-species 7/9 infections were 1) new pregnancy during follow-up and 2) having the same sexual partner during FU. Increased clearance was related with older age and a history of atopic reactions, whereas previous sexually transmitted disease and new pregnancy were associated with decreased clearance. Conclusions HPV16 was the most frequent genotype to cause an incident oral HPV-infection. Low risk HPV genotypes cleared from oral mucosa more quickly than high risk HPV genotypes. Pregnancy affected the outcome of oral HPV infection. PMID:23301068

  19. Acute Pancreatitis Due to a Duodenal Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Pyeon, Sung Ik; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Ban Seok; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Oh, Kong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal ulcers and acute pancreatitis are two of the most commonly encountered gastrointestinal diseases among the general population. However, duodenal ulcer-induced pancreatitis is very rarely reported worldwide. This report elaborates on a distinct medical treatment that contributes to partial or complete treatment of acute pancreatitis induced by a duodenal ulcer scar. PMID:25505728

  20. Mucosal pemphigus vulgaris anti-dsg3 IgG is pathogenic to the oral mucosa of humanized dsg3 mice.

    PubMed

    Culton, Donna A; McCray, Suzanne K; Park, Moonhee; Roberts, James C; Li, Ning; Zedek, Daniel C; Anhalt, Grant J; Cowley, Dale O; Liu, Zhi; Diaz, Luis A

    2015-06-01

    There are two major clinical subsets of pemphigus vulgaris (PV)-mucosal PV (mPV) and mucocutaneous PV (mcPV). The mPV subset exhibits anti-human desmoglein (Dsg) 3 autoantibodies that fail to recognize murine Dsg3 (mDsg3); thus, passive transfer experiments of mPV IgG into wild-type (WT) mice have been unsuccessful at inducing disease. We therefore generated a fully humanized Dsg3 (hDSG3) murine model utilizing a hDsg3 transgenic animal crossed to the mDsg3 knockout line. Expression of hDsg3 in the mucosa rescues the mDsg3 knockout phenotype. Well-characterized mPV sera bind mucosal epithelia from the hDsg3 mice, but not mucosal tissues from WT mice, as detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IF). The majority of mPV sera preferentially recognize hDsg3 compared with mDsg3 by immunoprecipitation as well. Passive transfer of mPV IgG into adult hDsg3 mice, but not WT mice, induces suprabasilar acantholysis in mucosal tissues, thus confirming the pathogenicity of mPV anti-hDsg3 IgG in vivo. Human anti-hDsg3 antibodies are detected in perilesional mucosa as well as in sera of recipient mice by IF. These findings suggest that the Dsg3 epitopes targeted by pathogenic mPV IgG are human specific. This hDsg3 mouse model will be invaluable in studying the clinical transition from mPV to mcPV. PMID:25695683

  1. An approach to duodenal biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Serra, S; Jani, P A

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of endoscopy of the upper digestive tract as a routine diagnostic procedure has increased the number of duodenal biopsy specimens. Consequently, the pathologist is often asked to evaluate them. In this review, a practical approach to the evaluation of a duodenal biopsy specimen is discussed. An overview of the handling of specimens is given and the normal histology and commonly encountered diseases are discussed. Finally, a description of commonly seen infections is provided, together with an algorithmic approach for diagnosis. PMID:16679353

  2. Inhibition of water absorption and selective damage to human colonic mucosa induced by Shiga toxin-2 are enhanced by Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Adriana; Gerhardt, Elizabeth; García, Hugo; Amigo, Natalia; Cataldi, Angel; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for a variety of clinical syndromes including bloody and non-bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Although multiple serotypes of STEC have been isolated from hemorrhagic colitis cases, E. coli O157:H7 is by far the most prevalent serotype associated with HUS. Shiga toxin is the major virulence factor of E. coli O157:H7 and is responsible for the more severe symptoms of the infection. However, the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea mediated by Stx2 are not well known. In this study, we have determined the effects of E. coli O157:H7 strain 125/99 wild type (wt) on the human colonic mucosa mounted in an Ussing chamber. In response to 125/99wt, an inhibition of water absorption across human colonic mucosa was observed. Histological sections showed severe necrosis with detachment of the surface epithelium, mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and loss of goblet cells after 1h of incubation with 125/99wt. These alterations were not observed with the isogenic mutant strain lacking stx2 or with the filter-sterilized culture supernatant from the 125/99wt strain. These results indicate that the cell damages in human colon are induced by Stx2, and that Stx2 production is increased by the interaction with bacterial cells. Identification of host cell-derived factors responsible for increasing Stx2 can lead to new strategies for modulating STEC infections. PMID:25794836

  3. Relationship between duodenal cytosolic aconitase activity and iron status in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Rabie, A; Simpson, R J; Bomford, A; Cunninghame-Graham, D; Peters, T J

    1995-12-14

    Cytosolic aconitase activity was assayed in duodenal mucosa from mice subjected to a variety of manipulations known to modulate duodenal iron status and duodenal iron absorption. No changes in cytosolic aconitase activity were observed 1 h after oral FeSO4 dosing or intramuscular desferrioxamine treatment. Three days of hypoxic exposure and two weeks treatment with intramuscular iron dextran also had no effect on cytosolic aconitase. Three weeks growth on an iron deficient diet significantly reduced cytosolic aconitase activity. In no situation was there any evidence for significant amounts of inactive aconitase which could be activated in vitro with FeSO4/cysteine. These data suggest that duodenal cytosolic aconitase is not sensitive to acute changes in mucosal iron levels and is generally much less sensitive to body iron status than is duodenal iron absorption. There is evidence that chronic iron depletion reduces cytosolic aconitase to a relatively small degree but generally activity is maintained, consistent with an important metabolic role for the enzyme. PMID:8541321

  4. Extrinsic duodenal obstruction and halitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, B. M.; Rees, B. I.

    1990-01-01

    Two siblings with extrinsic duodenal obstruction caused by congenital peritoneal bands are reported. Attention is drawn to the unusual physical sign of halitosis as a presenting feature. It is suggested that this physical sign may be an indication for barium studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2217018

  5. Biocompatibility of solid-dosage forms of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 microbicides with the human cervicovaginal mucosa modeled ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Trifonova, Radiana T; Pasicznyk, Jenna-Malia; Fichorova, Raina N

    2006-12-01

    Topical anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) microbicides are being sought to reduce the spread of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) during sexual intercourse. The success of this strategy depends upon the selection of formulations compatible with the natural vaginal mucosal barrier. This study applied ex vivo-modeled human cervicovaginal epithelium to evaluate experimental solid-dosage forms of the anti-HIV-1 microbicide cellulose acetate 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate (CAP) and over-the-counter (OTC) vaginal products for their impact on inflammatory mediators regarded as potential HIV-1-enhancing risk factors. We assessed product-induced imbalances between interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and IL-1beta and the natural IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and changes in levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-8, gamma interferon inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha (MIP-3alpha), known to recruit and activate monocytes, dendritic cells, and T cells to the inflamed mucosa. CAP film and gel formulation, similarly to the hydroxyethylcellulose universal vaginal placebo gel and the OTC K-Y moisturizing gel, were nontoxic and caused no significant changes in any inflammatory biomarker. In contrast, OTC vaginal cleansing and contraceptive films containing octoxynol-9 or nonoxynol-9 (N-9) demonstrated similar levels of toxicity but distinct immunoinflammatory profiles. IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-8, and IP-10 were increased after treatment with both OTC vaginal cleansing and contraceptive films; however, MIP-3alpha was significantly elevated by the N-9-based film only (P < 0.01). Although both films increased extracellular IL-1RA, the cleansing film only significantly elevated the IL-1RA/IL-1 ratio (P < 0.001). The N-9-based film decreased intracellular IL-1RA (P < 0.05), which has anti-inflammatory intracrine functions. This study identifies immunoinflammatory biomarkers that can discriminate between formulations better than toxicity assays and should be clinically validated in relevance to the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:17030562

  6. Suppression of SLC11A2 Expression Is Essential to Maintain Duodenal Integrity During Dietary Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Shirase, Tomoyuki; Mori, Kiyoshi; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Kishi, Fumio; Jiang, Li; Akatsuka, Shinya; Nakao, Kazuwa; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    Iron is essential for the survival of mammals, but iron overload causes fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Reduced iron absorption and regulated release into circulation in duodenal mucosa constitute two major mechanisms of protection against dietary iron overload; however, their relative contribution remains elusive. To study the significance of the former process, we generated SLC11A2 transgenic mice (TGs) under the control of the chicken ?-actin promoter. TGs were viable and fertile, and displayed no overt abnormalities up to 20 months. No significant difference in iron concentration was observed in major solid organs between TGs and their wild-type littermates, suggesting that increased number of iron transporters does not lead to increased iron absorption. To test the sensitivity to iron overload, TGs and wild-type mice were fed with an iron-rich diet containing 2% ferric citrate. Iron supplementation caused suppression of endogenous duodenal SLC11A2 expression, down-regulation of duodenal ferroportin, and overexpression of hepatic hepcidin, precluding excessive iron uptake both in the TGs and wild-type mice. However, iron-treated TGs revealed increased mortality, resulting from oxidative mucosal damage leading to hemorrhagic erosion throughout the whole intestinal area. These findings suggest that reduced iron release from duodenal cells into circulation plays a role in mitigating excessive iron uptake from the diet and that finely regulated duodenal absorption is essential to protect intestinal mucosa from iron-induced oxidative damage. PMID:20558581

  7. Melatonin decreases duodenal epithelial paracellular permeability via a nicotinic receptor-dependent pathway in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sommansson, Anna; Nylander, Olof; Sjöblom, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial intercellular tight junctions (TJs) provide a rate-limiting barrier restricting passive transepithelial movement of solutes. TJs are highly dynamic areas, and their permeability is changed in response to various stimuli. Defects in the intestinal epithelial TJ barrier may contribute to intestinal inflammation or leaky gut. The gastrointestinal tract may be the largest extrapineal source of endogenous melatonin. Melatonin released from the duodenal mucosa is a potent stimulant of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DBS). The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of melatonin in regulating duodenal mucosal barrier functions, including mucosal permeability, DBS, net fluid flux, and duodenal motor activity, in the living animal. Rats were anesthetized with thiobarbiturate, and a ~30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ. Melatonin and the selective melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole were perfused luminally or given intravenously. Effects on permeability (blood-to-lumen clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA), DBS, mucosal net fluid flux, and duodenal motility were monitored. Luminal melatonin caused a rapid decrease in paracellular permeability and an increase in DBS, but had no effect on duodenal motor activity or net fluid flux. Luzindole did not influence any of the basal parameters studied, but significantly inhibited the effects of melatonin. The nonselective and noncompetitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine abolished the effect of melatonin on duodenal permeability and reduced that on DBS. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that melatonin significantly decreases duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability and increases DBS. The data support the important role of melatonin in the neurohumoral regulation of duodenal mucosal barrier. PMID:23009576

  8. Relative Transmissibility of an R5 Clade C Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Across Different Mucosae in Macaques Parallels the Relative Risks of Sexual HIV-1 Transmission Via Different Routes

    PubMed Central

    Chenine, Agnès L.; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Kramer, Victor G.; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Rasmussen, Robert A.; Lee, Sandra J.; Santosuosso, Michael; Poznansky, Mark C.; Velu, Vijayakumar; Amara, Rama R.; Souder, Chris; Anderson, Daniel C.; Villinger, François; Else, James G.; Novembre, Francis J.; Strobert, Elizabeth; O’Neil, Shawn P.; Secor, W. Evan; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide, ~90% of all HIV transmissions occur mucosally; almost all involve R5 strains. Risks of sexual HIV acquisition are highest for rectal, followed by vaginal and then oral exposures. Methods Mucosal lacerations may affect the rank-order of susceptibility to HIV but cannot be assessed in humans. We measured relative virus transmissibility across intact mucosae in macaques using a single stock of SHIV-1157ipd3N4, a simian-human immunodeficiency virus encoding a primary R5 HIV clade C env (SHIV-C). Results The penetrability of rhesus macaque mucosae differed significantly, with rectal challenge requiring the least virus, followed by the vaginal and then oral routes. These findings imply that intrinsic mucosal properties are responsible for the differential mucosal permeability. The latter paralleled the rank-order reported for humans, with relative risk estimates within the range of epidemiologic human studies. To test whether inflammation facilitates virus transmission – as predicted from human studies – we established a macaque model of localized buccal inflammation. Systemic infection occurred across inflamed, but not normal buccal mucosa. Conclusion Our primate data recapitulate virus transmission risks observed in humans, thus establishing R5 SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in macaques as a robust model system to study cofactors involved in human mucosal HIV transmission and its prevention. PMID:20214475

  9. Refractory duodenal ulcers (nonhealing duodenal ulcers with standard doses of antisecretory medication)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J. Collen; Valerie J. Stanczak; Cecelia A. Ciarleglio

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate possible differences between patients with refractory duodenal ulcers and those with duodenal ulcers that respond to standard doses of antisecretory medications, we determined basal acid outputs by nasogastric suction and daily smoking histories in 75 patients with endoscopically documented active duodenal ulcers. Patients were treated for at least eight weeks with standard doses of antisecretory medications and endoscopic

  10. Amoxicillin plus omeprazole versus triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer disease: a prospective, randomized, and controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Labenz; E Gyenes; G H Rühl; G Börsch

    1993-01-01

    Treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole resulted in encouraging Helicobacter pylori eradication rates in pilot studies that included medium term follow up. These results were evaluated in a prospective, randomised and controlled study. Forty patients with active duodenal ulcer disease and H pylori colonisation of the gastric mucosa were randomly assigned to receive either omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) and amoxicillin

  11. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium: IV. Permeability of water, mannitol, testosterone and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Comparison to human, monkey and porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H M; Rassing, M R

    2000-01-25

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium. For this purpose, the permeability of water, mannitol and testosterone across the TR146 cell culture model was compared to the permeability across human, monkey and porcine buccal mucosa. Further, the permeability rates of ten beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, timolol and tertatolol) across the TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa were related to their lipophilicity (logD(oct; 7.4)) and capacity factor (k') and to their polar water accessible surface area (PWASA). For water, mannitol, testosterone and some of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, the permeability enhancement across the TR146 cell culture model in the presence of sodium glycocholate (GC) was determined. The mannitol and testosterone permeability across the TR146 cell culture model could be related to the permeability across porcine and human buccal mucosa. The permeability of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists across the TR146 cell culture model varied between 2.2 x 10(-6) cm/s (atenolol) and 165 x 10(-6) cm/s (metoprolol). For propranolol the cellular permeability value (P(c)) was lower than expected, probably due to accumulation in the TR146 cell layers. Limited correlation of permeability with k' was observed both for the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa, although the porcine permeability values were approximately 100 times less than the values determined with the TR146 cell culture model. The permeability values were also found to decrease with increasing PWASA. The PWASA value seemed to be more predictable for permeability than k'. The presence of 12.5 mM GC increased the permeability only for the hydrophilic atenolol, which may help explain the mechanism for GC-induced enhancement. The present results indicate that the TR146 cell culture model can be used as an in vitro model for permeability studies and mechanistic studies of human buccal drug delivery of drugs with different lipophilicity. PMID:10692640

  12. Immunohistochemical analysis of candidate gene product expression in the duodenal epithelium of children with coeliac sprue

    PubMed Central

    Barshack, I; Goldberg, I; Chowers, Y; Weiss, B; Horowitz, A; Kopolovic, J

    2001-01-01

    Background—Coeliac sprue is a chronic disease, in which there is a characteristic mucosal lesion of the small intestine and impaired nutrient absorption, which improves upon the withdrawal of wheat gliadins and related grain proteins from the diet. Biopsy specimens demonstrate diffuse enteritis with pronounced atrophy or total loss of villi. There is also a long term risk of malignant disease. Aims—To compare the immunoexpression of DCC (deleted in colon cancer), p53, E-cadherin, and ß-catenin in the duodenal mucosa of children with coeliac disease with that seen in children with no evidence of small intestinal disease. Methods—To gain more insight into the genetic and immunohistochemical alterations of the duodenal epithelium in coeliac disease, 21 endoscopic biopsies from children with coeliac disease and 10 duodenal biopsies from children without coeliac disease were immunohistochemically evaluated for p53, DCC, E-cadherin, and ß-catenin. Results—DCC expression was not reduced in patients with coeliac disease compared with those without coeliac disease. p53 positive nuclear immunostaining was seen in seven of the 21 patients with coeliac disease. Positive nuclear staining was seen mainly in the deep and the lateral aspects of the crypts. All patients in the control group were negative for p53. In nine and three of the 21 patients with coeliac disease, respectively, the immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and ß-catenin was reduced. However, both E-cadherin and ß-catenin immunostaining in the control group was not altered. Conclusions—E-cadherin and ß-catenin were reduced in the duodenal epithelium of children with coeliac disease when compared with normal mucosa. p53 was overexpressed in the duodenal mucosa of patients with coeliac disease. The reduced expression of E-cadherin and ß-catenin and p53 overexpression may contribute to the morphological changes seen in the small intestinal mucosa in coeliac disease. Key Words: coeliac disease • p53 • deleted in colon carcinoma gene • E-cadherin • ß-catenin PMID:11533074

  13. High Transcript Levels of Vitamin D Receptor Are Correlated with Higher mRNA Expression of Human Beta Defensins and IL-10 in Mucosa of HIV-1-Exposed Seronegative Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Jiménez, Wbeimar; Zapata, Wildeman; Caruz, Antonio; Rugeles, María T.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D (VitD) is an endogenous immunomodulator that could protect from HIV-1 infection reducing immune activation and inducing the expression of anti-HIV-1 peptides. To establish a correlation between VitD and natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, a case-control study using blood and mucosa samples of 58 HIV-1-exposed but seronegative (HESN) individuals, 43 HIV-1 seropositives (SPs) and 59 non-exposed healthy controls (HCs) was carried out. The VitD concentration in plasma was determined by ELISA, and mRNA relative units (RU) of VDR, IL-10, TGF-?, TNF-? and IL-1? in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), oral and genital mucosa was quantified by qRT-PCR. mRNA levels of human beta-defensin (HBD) -2 and -3 were previously reported and used for correlations. Significantly higher levels of VitD were found in plasma as well as higher mRNA RU of VDR in PBMCs, and in genital mucosa from HESN compared to HCs. In addition, higher mRNA RU of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-10, and lower mRNA RU of TGF-? were found in PBMC from HESNs compared to HCs. We also observed higher IL-10 mRNA RU in genital mucosa of HESNs compared to HCs, and the mRNA levels of TNF-? in oral and genital mucosa of SPs were higher compared to HESNs. Furthermore, positive correlations between VDR and IL-10 mRNA RU in PBMCs and genital mucosa of HESNs were found. Finally, HBD-2 and HBD-3 mRNA RU were positively correlated with VDR mRNA expression in oral mucosa from HESNs. These results suggest that high levels of VitD and its receptor are associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. Up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory IL-10, and the induction of anti-HIV-1 defensins in mucosa might be part of the mechanisms involved in this association. However, further studies are required to define causal associations. PMID:24349345

  14. Duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine and propionitrile decrease duodenal neutralization of acid in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.S.; Gallagher, G.T.; Szabo, S.

    1983-08-01

    Neutralization of acid was evaluated in rat proximal duodenal segments isolated from biliary and pancreatic secretions. Duodenal ulcerogenic doses of cysteamine produced a significant decrease in acid disposal 0.5-2 hr after treatment. Oral or subcutaneous administration of the duodenal ulcerogen was effective. The potent ulcerogen cysteamine produced a more pronounced decrease than propionitrile (a weak duodenal ulcerogen). The failure of ethanolamine, a nonulcerogenic structural analog of cysteamine to significantly alter acid disposal suggests that the effect is not due to the toxic properties of the duodenal ulcerogen. The results reinforce the concept that the duodenum is able to dispose of significant quantities of acid. The decrease in acid-handling may contribute to duodenal susceptibility to acid after treatment with ulcerogens and possibly reflects pathophysiologic changes early in duodenal ulceration.

  15. Duodenal carbonic anhydrase: mucosal protection, luminal chemosensing, and gastric acid disposal.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2006-09-01

    The duodenum serves as a buffer zone between the stomach and jejunum. Over a length of only 25 cm, large volumes of strong acid secreted by the stomach must be converted to the neutral-alkaline chyme of the hindgut lumen, generating large volumes of CO2, which the duodenum then absorbs. The duodenal mucosa consists of epithelial cells connected by low-resistance tight junctions, forming a leaky epithelial barrier. Despite this high permeability, the epithelial cells, under intense stress from luminal mineral acid and highly elevated P(CO2), maintain normal functioning. Furthermore, the duodenum plays an active role in foregut acid-base homeostasis, absorbing large amounts of H+ and CO2 that are recycled by the gastric parietal cells. Prompted by the high expression of cytosolic and membrane carbonic anhydrase (CAs) in duodenal epithelial cells, and the intriguing observation that CA activity appears to augment cellular acid stress, we formulated a novel hypothesis regarding the role of CA in duodenal acid absorption, epithelial protection, and chemosensing. In this review, we will describe how luminal CO2/H+ traverses the duodenal epithelial cell brush border membrane, acidifies the cytoplasm, and is sensed in the subepithelium. PMID:17008801

  16. [Duodenal diaphragm in children (two cases)].

    PubMed

    Wandaogo, A; Sano, D; Tapsoba, T L; Cisse, R; Sanou, A

    1998-01-01

    Duodenal diaphragm is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. Two pediatric cases are reported in which vomiting of bile-stained material and distension of the epigastrium were the main clinical signs. Roentgenograms and sonograms were highly suggestive. Duodenal bypass was easy to perform and effective. Nevertheless, it must be kept in mind that associated anomalies are frequent and may be severe. PMID:10797969

  17. Numerical ecology validates a biogeographical distribution and gender-based effect on mucosa-associated bacteria along the human colon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Aguirre de Cárcer; Páraic Ó Cuív; Tingting Wang; Seungha Kang; Daniel Worthley; Vicki Whitehall; Iain Gordon; Chris McSweeney; Barbara Leggett; Mark Morrison

    2011-01-01

    We applied constrained ordination numerical ecology methods to data produced with a human intestinal tract-specific phylogenetic microarray (the Aus-HIT Chip) to examine the microbial diversity associated with matched biopsy tissue samples taken from the caecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 10 healthy patients. Consistent with previous studies, the profiles revealed a marked intersubject variability; however, the numerical ecology

  18. Morphological and histochemical observations on the duodenal glands of eight wild ungulate species native to North America.

    PubMed

    Krause, W J

    1981-10-01

    The duodenal glands of the species examined (Alces alces, Ovis canadensis, Cervus canadensis, Oreamnos americanus, Bison bison, Antilocapra americana, Odocoileus virginianas, Odocoileus heminous) are confined primarily to the submucosa of the small intestine. In one species, the moose, a significant population of secretory tubules also is observed in the mucosa. The ducts of the duodenal glands pierce the overlying muscularis mucosae to empty most often independently into the intestinal lumen. Those of the bison, unlike the other species examined, drain into intestinal glands. The duodenal glands consist primarily of a simple columnar epithelium, the cells of which contain basally positioned round or oval nuclei. The lumina of scattered duodenal glands in the pronghorn and to some extent those of the moose, white-tailed deer, and mule deer may be extremely dilated, and the surrounding epithelium thin and attenuated. Component cells of the duodenal glands of all the species examined show remarkably similar ultrastructural features. They exhibit scattered profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum, dilated cisternae of which contain an electron-dense, amorphous material. Numerous well-developed Golgi complexes occupy the supranuclear region together with transport vesicles and forming secretory granules. Electron-dense, membrane-bound secretory granules generally are concentrated in the apical cytoplasm immediately subjacent to the cell membrane. The apical cell membrane exhibits short, scattered microvilli; and the basal cell membrane is smooth without apparent specialization. Histochemically, the duodenal glands of most species examined in this study consist of a heterogeneous population. The majority of the glands of the moose, elk, mountain goat, bison, pronghorn, and white-tailed deer elaborate a neutral mucin, whereas scattered individual glands, tubules or cells also produce acid mucins. Cells near the terminations of the ducts of the bighorn sheep are the only elements to produce acid mucins in the duodenal glands of this species. The duodenal glands of the bison are unusual in that only the peripheral portions of individual glands produce acid mucins. The remainder of the glands elaborate neutral mucins. Morphological differences between the two regions were not observed. The duodenal glands of the mule deer secrete both acid and neutral mucins. The structural and histochemical observations appear unrelated to the diet of individual species. PMID:6171158

  19. Interleukin8 expression in Helicobacter pylori infected, normal, and neoplastic gastroduodenal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J E Crabtree; J I Wyatt; L K Trejdosiewicz; P Peichl; P H Nichols; N Ramsay; J N Primrose; I J Lindley

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in Helicobacter pylori infected normal and neoplastic gastroduodenal mucosa, and in established gastric cancer cell lines. METHODS--Immunofluorescence techniques were used to localise IL-8 in cryosections of gastric (n = 25) and duodenal (n = 17) endoscopic biopsy specimens an in resected gastric tumour tissue samples from 16 patients. Two gastric cancer cell lines

  20. Duodenal carcinoid tumor - a case report.

    PubMed

    Debnath, C R; Debnath, M R; Haque, M A; Das, S N; Moshwan, M M; Karim, R; Uddoula, M S

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are well differentiated neuroendochrine tumors which most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract; however duodenal carcinoid tumors are rare. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. A 52 years old lady presented with the symptoms of recurrent upper abdominal pain, burning sensation of whole body and passage of loose stool. On endoscopy of upper GIT, there was a duodenal polyp. Polyp was removed by endoscopic resection and tissue was taken for biopsy. Histological findings of biopsy specimen shows carcinoid tumor. As duodenal carcinoid tumor is a rare presentation so we are going to present this case in this article. PMID:24584389

  1. Duodenal Perforation Precipitated by Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Rajat, Raghunath; Deepu, David; Jonathan, Arul Jeevan; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness usually presenting with fever, myalgia, headache, and a pathognomonic eschar. Severe infection may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in the form of gastric mucosal erosions and ulcerations owing to vasculitis resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding is common. This process may worsen a pre-existent asymptomatic peptic ulcer, causing duodenal perforation, and present as an acute abdomen requiring surgical exploration. We report the case of a patient with no previous symptoms or risk factors for a duodenal ulcer, who presented with an acute duodenal perforation, probably precipitated by scrub typhus infection.

  2. Laparoscopic duodenoduodenostomy for duodenal atresia.

    PubMed

    Bax, N M; Ure, B M; van der Zee, D C; van Tuijl, I

    2001-02-01

    A 3,220-g newborn baby with trisomy 21 presented with duodenal atresia. No other congenital malformations were diagnosed. Informed consent for a laparoscopic approach was obtained. The child was placed in a supine, head-up position slightly rotated to the left at the end of a shortened operating table. The surgeon stood at the bottom end with the cameraperson to his left and the scrub nurse to his right. The screen was at the right upper end. Open insertion of a cannula for a 5-mm 30 degrees telescope through the inferior umbilical fold was performed. A carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum with a pressure of 8 mmHg and a flow of 2l/min was established. Two 3.3-mm working cannulas were inserted; one in the left hypogastrium and one pararectally on the right at the umbilical level. Two more such cannulas were inserted; one under the xyphoid for a liver elevator and one in the right hypogastrium for a sucker. Mobilization of the dilated upper and collapsed lower duodenum was easy. After transverse enterotomy of the upper duodenum and longitudinal enterotomy of the distal duodenum, a diamond-shaped anastomosis with interrupted 5 zero Vicryl sutures were performed. The absence of air in the bowel beyond the atresia increased the working space and greatly facilitated the procedure. The technique proved to be easy, and the child did very well. Laparoscopic bowel anastomosis in newborn babies had not been described previously. Recently, a diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy for duodenal atresia was performed. The technique proved to be simple and is described in detail. The child did very well. PMID:12200660

  3. Fingertip and palmar patterns in duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Habibullah, C M; Mujahid Ali, M; Shivaprakash, M; Iqbal, M A; Ishaq, M

    1982-01-01

    Dermatoglyphic studies were carried out on 90 adult males suffering from duodenal ulcer. Fingertip and palmar patterns were analysed to see if there was an association between duodenal ulcer and any of the dermatoglyphic traits. The patterns which were significantly different are: (1) increased frequency of whorls; (2) reduced frequency of loops on fingertips, and (3) increased frequency of patterns in the thenar I and IV interdigital area. PMID:7152533

  4. Future directions of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Satohiro; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic therapies for lesions of the duodenum are technically more difficult than those for lesions of the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract due to the anatomical features of the duodenum, and the incidence rate of complications such as perforation and bleeding is also higher. These aforementioned trends were especially noticeable for the case of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The indication for ESD of duodenal tumors should be determined by assessment of the histopathology, macroscopic morphology, and diameter of the tumors. The three types of candidate lesions for endoscopic therapy are adenoma, carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors. For applying endoscopic therapies to duodenal lesions, accurate preoperative histopathological diagnosis is necessary. The most important technical issue in duodenal ESD is the submucosal dissection process. In duodenal ESD, a short needle-type knife is suitable for the mucosal incision and submucosal dissection processes, and the Small-caliber-tip Transparent hood is an important tool. After endoscopic therapies, the wound should be closed by clipping in order to prevent complications such as secondary hemorrhage and delayed perforation. At present, the criteria for selection between ESD and EMR vary among institutions. The indications for ESD should be carefully considered. Duodenal ESD should have limitations, such as the need for its being performed by experts with abundant experience in performing the procedure. PMID:25901218

  5. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  6. Future directions of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Satohiro; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio

    2015-04-16

    Endoscopic therapies for lesions of the duodenum are technically more difficult than those for lesions of the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract due to the anatomical features of the duodenum, and the incidence rate of complications such as perforation and bleeding is also higher. These aforementioned trends were especially noticeable for the case of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The indication for ESD of duodenal tumors should be determined by assessment of the histopathology, macroscopic morphology, and diameter of the tumors. The three types of candidate lesions for endoscopic therapy are adenoma, carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors. For applying endoscopic therapies to duodenal lesions, accurate preoperative histopathological diagnosis is necessary. The most important technical issue in duodenal ESD is the submucosal dissection process. In duodenal ESD, a short needle-type knife is suitable for the mucosal incision and submucosal dissection processes, and the Small-caliber-tip Transparent hood is an important tool. After endoscopic therapies, the wound should be closed by clipping in order to prevent complications such as secondary hemorrhage and delayed perforation. At present, the criteria for selection between ESD and EMR vary among institutions. The indications for ESD should be carefully considered. Duodenal ESD should have limitations, such as the need for its being performed by experts with abundant experience in performing the procedure. PMID:25901218

  7. Duodenal-Mucosal Bacteria Associated with Celiac Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

  8. Duodenal microbiota composition and mucosal homeostasis in pediatric celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine which is triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed (HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive) individuals. Only a fraction of HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive individuals develop CD indicating that other factors have a role in the disorder. Several studies have addressed intestinal microbiota aberrancies in pediatric CD, but the results are inconsistent. Previously, we demonstrated that pediatric CD patients have lower duodenal expression of TLR2 and higher expression of TLR9 as compared to healthy controls (HC) indicating that microbiota may have a role in CD. Methods We used bacterial phylogenetic microarray to comprehensively profile the microbiota in duodenal biopsies of CD (n?=?10) and HC (n?=?9) children. The expression of selected mucosa-associated genes was assessed by qRT-PCR in CD and HC children and in treated CD adults (T-CD, n?=?6) on gluten free diet. Results The overall composition, diversity and the estimated microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) content of microbiota were comparable between CD and HC, but a sub-population profile comprising eight genus-like bacterial groups was found to differ significantly between HC and CD. In HC, increased TLR2 expression was positively correlated with the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1. In CD and T-CD, the expression of IL-10, IFN-g and CXCR6 were higher as co5mpared to HC. Conclusions The results suggest that microbiota and altered expression of mucosal receptors have a role in CD. In CD subjects, the increased expression of IL-10 and IFN-g may have partly resulted from the increased TLR9 expression and signaling. PMID:23844808

  9. Occlusion and subsequent re-canalization in early duodenal development of human embryos: integrated organogenesis and histogenesis through a possible epithelial-mesenchymal interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Matsumoto; Koji Hashimoto; Takafumi Yoshioka; Hiroki Otani

    2002-01-01

    Histogenesis of the duodenum, especially changes in the epithelium in relation to temporal occlusion and re-canalization of\\u000a the lumen, was investigated by light microscopy together with morphometric analysis, as well as by scanning and transmission\\u000a electron microscopy of 133 externally normal human embryos ranging from Carnegie stage 12 to 23. A series of morphogenetic\\u000a events passed the duodenum in a

  10. Feasibility and safety of endoscopic cryoablation at the duodenal papilla: Porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis; Reinhard, Mary K; Wagh, Mihir S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the feasibility and safety of liquid nitrogen spray cryoablation at the duodenal papilla in a porcine model. METHODS: This prospective study protocol was approved by the University of Florida Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Six pigs underwent liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy at the duodenal papilla. Freeze time of 20-s was applied per cycle (4 cycles/session). Survival animals (n = 4) were monitored for adverse events. Hemoglobin, white blood count, liver tests, and lipase were obtained at baseline and post-treatment. EGD was performed on day#7 to evaluate the papilla and for histology. All animals were euthanized and necropsy was performed at the end of the one-week survival period. Feasibility was defined as successful placement of the decompression tube in the duodenum, followed by delivery of spray cryotherapy to the duodenal papilla. Safety was determined by monitoring post-treatment blood tests and clinical course. Treatment effect was defined as endoscopic and histologic changes after cryotherapy. This was established by comparing endoscopic and histologic findings from mucosal biopsies prior to cryotherapy and on post-operative day (POD)#7. Full-thickness specimen was obtained post-mortem to assess depth of injury. RESULTS: Spray cryotherapy was feasible and successfully performed in all 6/6 (100%) animals. Cryospray with liquid nitrogen (four 20-s freeze-thaw cycles) at the duodenal papilla resulted in white frost formation at and around the target region. The mean procedural time was 54.5 min (range 50-58 min). All six animals studied had stable blood pressure, heart rate, and pulse oximetry measurements during the procedure. There were no significant intra-procedural adverse events. There were no significant differences in hemoglobin, white cell count, liver tests or lipase from baseline to post-cryotherapy. Survival animals were monitored daily post-operatively without any clinical ill effects from the cryotherapy. There was no bleeding, infection, or perforation on necropsy. Endoscopic on POD#7 showed edema and ulceration at the duodenal papilla. On histology, there was loss of crypt architecture with moderate to severe necrosis and acute mixed inflammatory infiltration in each specimen following cryotherapy. The extent of cryogen-induced tissue necrosis (depth of injury) was limited to the mucosa on full-thickness specimen evaluation. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy is feasible and safe for ablation at the duodenal papilla in a porcine model.

  11. Mini-loop ligation of a bleeding duodenal Dieulafoy's lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gomer?i? Pal?i?, Marija; Ljubi?i?, Neven

    2013-01-01

    Two percent of gastrointestinal hemorrhages are caused by Dieulafoy’s lesions, which are located in duodenum in only 15% of cases. There are no recommendations regarding the prime endoscopic treatment technique for this condition. A 61-year-old woman presented with melena without signs of hemodynamic instability. During an urgent upper endoscopy, blood oozing from the normal mucosa of the duodenum was seen and this was classified as a Dieulafoy’s lesion. A mini-loop was opened at the rim of a transparent ligation chamber, at the end of the endoscope, and after aspiration of the lesion, closed and detached. Complete hemostasis was achieved without early or postponed complications. In every day clinical practice, mini-loop ligation is rarely used because of possible complications, such as site ulceration, organ perforation, re-bleeding and possible inexperience of the operator. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of successful treatment of bleeding duodenal Dieulafoy’s lesion by mini-loop ligation. PMID:23801846

  12. [Bronchial asthma and duodenal ulcer and erosive bulbo-duodenitis in children: report of 6 cases].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, E; Maranhão, H de S; Tahan, S

    1992-01-01

    The coexistence of moderate and severe asthma and duodenal ulcer is not very well established as yet. We started a protocol trying to establish the presence of reflux esophagitis in children with moderate or severe asthma. Thirty two patients underwent upper digestive endoscopy and, surprisingly, we found six children (18.7%) with the following digestive aspects: four children had duodenal ulcer, and two had erosive duodenitis. We report these cases and discuss some etiopathogenic aspects about these possible association, and beware the clinician to pay attention to abdominal pain in children with bronchial asthma. PMID:1340752

  13. Transcriptional Analyses of Barrett's Metaplasia and Normal Upper GI Mucosae

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Michael T; Yeung, Ka Yee; Ruzzo, Walter L; Hsu, Li; Blount, Patricia L; Sullivan, Robert; Zarbl, Helmut; Delrow, Jeffrey; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Reid, Brian J

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Over the last two decades, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) has increased dramatically in the US and Western Europe. It has been shown that EAs evolve from premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE) tissue by a process of clonal expansion and evolution. However, the molecular phenotype of the premalignant metaplasia, and its relationship to those of the normal upper gastrointestinal (GI) mucosae, including gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium of the esophagus, has not been systematically characterized. Therefore, we used oligonucleotide-based microarrays to characterize gene expression profiles in each of these tissues. The similarity of BE to each of the normal tissues was compared using a series of computational approaches. Our analyses included esophageal squamous epithelium, which is present at the same anatomic site and exposed to similar conditions as Barrett's epithelium, duodenum that shares morphologic similarity to Barrett's epithelium, and adjacent gastric epithelium. There was a clear distinction among the expression profiles of gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium whereas the BE profiles showed considerable overlap with normal tissues. Furthermore, we identified clusters of genes that are specific to each of the tissues, to the Barrett's metaplastic epithelia, and a cluster of genes that was distinct between squamous and nonsquamous epithelia. PMID:11896567

  14. Active electrolyte transport in mammalian buccal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, R.C.; Tobey, N.A.; Schreiner, V.J.; Readling, R.D. (Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1988-09-01

    The transmural electrical potential difference (PD) was measured in vivo across the buccal mucosa of humans and experimental animals. Mean PD was {minus}31 {plus minus} 2 mV in humans, {minus}34 {plus minus} 2 mV in dogs, {minus}39 {plus minus} 2 mV in rabbits, and {minus}18 {plus minus} 1 mV in hamsters. The mechanisms responsible for this PD were explored in Ussing chambers using dog buccal mucosa. Fluxes of ({sup 14}C)mannitol, a marker of paracellular permeability, varied directly with tissue conductance. The net fluxes of {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl were +0.21 {plus minus} 0.05 and {minus}0.04 {plus minus} 0.02 {mu}eq/h{center dot}cm{sup 2}, respectively, but only the Na{sup +} flux differed significantly from zero. I{sub sc} was reduced by luminal amiloride, serosal ouabain, or by reducing luminal Na{sup +} below 20 mM. This indicated that the I{sub sc} was determined primarily by active Na{sup +} absorption and that Na{sup +} traverses the apical membrane at least partly through amiloride-sensitive channels and exists across the basolateral membrane through Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity. The authors conclude that buccal mucosa is capable of active electrolyte transport and that this capacity contributes to generation of the buccal PD in vivo.

  15. AUTOMATIVE QUANTIFICATION OF RAT DUODENAL RHYTHMIC CONTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pacemaker activity of longitudinal muscle, as reflected by in vitro rhythmic contractions of the adult male rat's duodenum, has been examined in terms of intercontraction intervals that were collected using a microprocessor-based system. For each duodenal segment studied, 512...

  16. Haemophilus parainfluenzae infection of respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Middleton, A M; Dowling, R B; Mitchell, J L; Watanabe, S; Rutman, A; Pritchard, K; Tillotson, G; Hill, S L; Wilson, R

    2003-04-01

    The pathogenicity of Haemophilus parainfluenzae (Hpi) in the respiratory tract is unclear, in contrast to the accepted pathogenicity of its close relative non-typable H. influenzae. We have investigated the interaction of two Hpi isolates with the mucosa of adenoid and bronchial tissue organ cultures. The adherence of bacteria to the mucosa of organ cultures, the effect of broth culture filtrates on human nasal epithelium, and interleukin (IL)-8 production by A549 cell cultures was investigated. Hpi 4846 adhered infrequently in clusters of pleomorphic cocco-bacilli to areas of epithelial damage, mucus and unciliated cells in adenoid organ culture experiments at 24 h, but not bronchial mucosa. Hpi 3698 was seen in only one adenoid and no bronchial organ cultures at 24 h. In separate experiments, Hpi 3698 was cleared more rapidly from the centre of the adenoid organ culture and was not cultured at 24 h. Although not adhering to the mucosa at 24 h, Hpi 3698, but not Hpi 4846, caused an increase in the amount of epithelial damage in both types of organ culture. Broth culture filtrates of both strains caused immediate slowing of ciliary beat frequency that progressed, and disrupted epithelial integrity. Dialysed culture filtrates of both strains stimulated IL-8 production by A549 cells, with the culture filtrate of Hpi 3698 being most potent. We conclude that two strains of Hpi varied in their adherence to adenoid tissue, and neither adhered to bronchial tissue. These results lead us to speculate that Hpi is only likely to be a pathogen in the lower respiratory tract when impaired airway defences delay bacterial clearance. PMID:12693797

  17. Biliopancreatic Diversion with a Duodenal Switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas S. Hess; Douglas W. Hess

    1998-01-01

    Background: This paper evaluates biliopancreatic diversion combined with the duodenal switch, forming a hybrid procedure which\\u000a is a combination of restriction and malabsorption. Methods: The evaluation is of the first 440 patients undergoing this procedure\\u000a who had had no previous bariatric surgery. The mean starting weight was 183 kg, with 41% of our patients considered super\\u000a morbidly obese (BMI >

  18. Duodenal string test in typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Antony, T J; Patwari, A K; Anand, V K; Pillai, P K; Aneja, S; Sharma, D

    1993-05-01

    Twenty five children between 4-12 years of age hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of enteric fever were studied for evaluating the practicality and sensitivity of duodenal string-capsule culture (DSCC) and compared with conventional cultures from blood (BC), urine (UC) and stool (SC). Duodenal string capsule (DSCC) was successfully inserted in 18 patients (72%). Insertion of DSCC failed in 7 patients (28%) and all of them were below 6 years of age. Salmonella typhi was isolated from DSCC and/or BC in 13 cases (72.2%). DSCC was positive in 11 out of 13 confirmed cases of typhoid fever (84.6%). BC was positive in 8 cases (61.5%). DSCC was successful in isolating the organism in about 30% more cases than BC. Duodenal string test was a simple, non-invasive and a reliable test which when used in combination with BC could identify almost all cases of enteric fever irrespective of duration of fever and prior use of antibiotics. PMID:8282391

  19. Well-Differentiated Duodenal Tumor\\/Carcinoma (Excluding Gastrinomas)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T. Jensen; Guido Rindi; Rudolf Arnold; José M. Lopes; Maria Luisa Brandi; Wolf O. Bechstein; Emanuel Christ; Babs G. Taal; Ulrich Knigge; Hakan Ahlman; Dik J. Kwekkeboom; Dermot O’Toole

    2006-01-01

    Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are located in the duodenum and may or may not be associated with a functional clinical syndrome. The term duodenal NET includes all duodenal tumors with neuroendocrine (NE) features as determined by histological\\/immunohistochemical methods including positivity for NET cytosolic markers [neuron-specific enolase (NSE), PGP 9.5] or secretory vesicle proteins [chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin] and also frequently

  20. Association of interleukin 1 gene family polymorphisms with duodenal ulcer disease

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA-GONZALEZ, M A; LANAS, A; SAVELKOUL, P H M; SANTOLARIA, S; BENITO, R; CRUSIUS, J B A; PEÑA, A S

    2003-01-01

    Cytokine genes taking part in the immunological response to Helicobacter pylori infection are good candidates to study for genetic predisposition to duodenal ulcer disease (DU). Among cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1? and its natural specific inhibitor, the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, are cytokines that play a key role in regulating gastric acid secretion and modulating the immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. We aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in the IL-1B and IL-1RN genes are involved in the susceptibility to duodenal ulcer. DNA from 131 unrelated Spanish Caucasian patients with DU and 105 ethnically matched healthy controls was typed for the IL-1B-511, IL-1B-31, and IL-1B + 3954 gene polymorphisms, and the VNTR polymorphism in intron 2 of the IL-1RN gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and TaqMan assays. H. pylori status and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use was determined in all patients and controls. Logistic regression analysis identified H. pylori infection (OR: 9·74; 95%CI = 3·53–26·89) and NSAIDs use (OR: 8·82; 95%CI = 3·51–22·17) as independent risk factors for DU. In addition, the simultaneous carriage of IL-1RN*2, IL-1B-511*C, IL-1B-31*T and IL-1B + 3954*C alleles was a genetic risk factor for DU in patients with H. pylori infection (OR: 3·22; 95%CI = 1·09–9·47). No significant differences in IL-1RN and IL-1B genotypes were found when patients were categorized according to gender, age of onset, smoking habit, NSAIDs use, type of complication and positive family history. Our results provide further evidence that host genetic factors play a key role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer. PMID:14632761

  1. Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa light chain restriction.

    PubMed

    Munday, William R; Kapur, Lucy Harn; Xu, Mina; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-16

    Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules which are likely the result of disturbed secretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate within the plasma cell. Russell body collections have been identified within the stomach, known as Russell body gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenum are referred to as Russell body duodenitis, which is rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reports are associated with Helicobacter pylori. However, the etiology of Russell body duodenitis remains unclear. Here we report the first case of Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin light chain restriction in a background of peptic duodenitis. PMID:25610537

  2. Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa light chain restriction

    PubMed Central

    Munday, William R; Kapur, Lucy Harn; Xu, Mina; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules which are likely the result of disturbed secretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate within the plasma cell. Russell body collections have been identified within the stomach, known as Russell body gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenum are referred to as Russell body duodenitis, which is rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reports are associated with Helicobacter pylori. However, the etiology of Russell body duodenitis remains unclear. Here we report the first case of Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin light chain restriction in a background of peptic duodenitis. PMID:25610537

  3. Comparative study of procedures for histological detection of lectin binding by use of Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin I and gastrointestinal mucosa of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Kuhlmann; P. Peschke

    1984-01-01

    The histological localisation of a-D-galactopyranosyl residues in glycoconjugates of rat stomach and duodenal mucosae was studied by use of Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin I, i.e. the isolectin mixture (A+B) and the isolectin B4 (B4). Cryostat sections which were either unfixed or acetone fixed and paraffin sections from both ethanolacetic acid and formaldehyde fixed tissue blocks were compared. Cellular details were better

  4. Autophagy is active in normal colon mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Groulx, Jean-Francois; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Benoit, Yannick D.; Bernatchez, Gérald; Carrier, Julie C.; Basora, Nuria; Beaulieu, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Recently, autophagy has been found to be strongly activated in colon cancer cells, but few studies have addressed the normal colon mucosa. The aim of this study was to characterize autophagy in normal human intestinal cells. We used the expression of LC3-II and BECN1 as well as SQSTM1 as markers of autophagy activity. Using the normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cell experimental model, we found that autophagy was much more active in undifferentiated cells than in differentiated cells. In the normal adult colonic mucosa, BECN1 was found in the proliferative epithelial cells of the lower part of the gland while SQSTM1 was predominantly found in the differentiated cells of the upper part of the gland and surface epithelium. Interestingly, the weak punctate pattern of SQSTM1 expression in the lower gland colocalized with BECN1-labeled autophagosomes. The usefulness of SQSTM1 as an active autophagy marker was confirmed in colon cancer specimens at the protein and transcript levels. In conclusion, our results show that autophagy is active in the colonic gland and is associated with the intestinal proliferative/undifferentiated and progenitor cell populations. PMID:22652752

  5. Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep C. PONCET, M. IVAN M of duodenal digesta flow were made in sheep implanted with an electromagnetic flowmeter probe on the ascending to frequent oscillation of the digesta. It was concluded that accurate quantitative electromagnetic

  6. Cephalic Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Bleeding Duodenal Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Ruben; Dominguez, Eva; Barrena, S.; Martinez, Leopoldo; Prieto, Gerardo; Burgos, Emilio; Tovar, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction?Treatment of recurrent severe gastrointestinal bleeding due to arteriovenous malformations may require complex resections. In some particular locations, extensive surgery is the only way out, as shown in this report. Case Report?A 2.5-year-old child suffered repeated episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding since the first month of life. After an extensive diagnostic workout, the diagnosis of duodenal arteriovenous malformation was established. Cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy with pyloric preservation was performed and no further episodes of bleeding occurred in the ensuing 2 years. Conclusion?Bleeding malformations located in the pancreaticoduodenal area can be effectively treated in children by pylorus-preserving cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:25755960

  7. Duodenal perforation: an unusual complication of sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Ac?payam, Can; Ald?ç, Güliz; Akçora, Bülent; Çelikkaya, Mehmet Emin; A?kar, Hasan; Dorum, Bayram Ali

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal perforation in childhood is a rare condition with a high mortality rate if not treated surgically. Primary gastroduodenal perforation is frequently associated with peptic ulcer and exhibits a positive family history. Helicobacter pylorus is the most significant agent. Secondary gastroduodenal perforation may be a finding of specific diseases, such as Crohn disease, or more rarely may be associated with diseases such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. A 14-year-old boy presented with abdominal and back pain. The patient was operated on for acute abdomen and diagnosed with duodenal perforation. Helicobacter pylorus was negative. There was no risk factor to account for duodenal perforation other than sickle cell anemia. Surgical intervention was successful and without significant sequelae. Duodenal perforation is a rare entity described in patients with sickle cell anemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of duodenal perforation in a patient sickle cell anemia. PMID:25422692

  8. Duodenal diverticula occurring in a family--chance or inheritance?

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, A.; Deutsch, A. A.; Kott, I.; Reiss, R.

    1984-01-01

    The incidence, aetiology and possible inheritance of duodenal diverticula remain controversial. These aspects are discussed through the presentation of a family, in which duodenal diverticula occurred in a man and his two sons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such family documented in the medical literature. This familial occurrence may be attributed solely to the high incidence of duodenal diverticula in the general population (set by various authors at up to 14.2%), and, therefore, of no hereditary significance at all. We believe a screening study of the families of individuals with proven duodenal diverticula is most desirable, for it could shed light upon the controversial questions of incidence, aetiology, and inheritance patterns of duodenal diverticula. PMID:6431400

  9. Oral mucosa and therapy of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Landová, Hana; Dan?k, Zden?k; Gajdziok, Jan; Vetchý, David; Stembírek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosa is one of the specific surfaces of the human body, which is permanently exposed to external factors related with food intake, breathing and speaking processes, which can lead to the onset of some problems. Disorders of the oral mucosa are a group of diseases, affecting, in the course of life, the majority of the population. Many of the oral mucosa ailments are manifested by lesions. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common of these diseases. Despite much clinical and research attention, its causes remain poorly understood and treatment is only symptomatic. RAS is reported to affect up to 25% of the population worldwide. Topical or systemic therapy (corticosteroids, antiseptics, anti-inflamatory drugs, immunomodulating agents, etc.) can be used for treatment of RAS-associated symptoms. In general, topical therapy should be preferred due to the smaller drug load of the organism. In both cases, the active substance has to be in suitable dosage form. Recently, besides the conventional ways of application (rinses), the main disadvantage of which is the short time of resistance in the oral cavity, mucoadhesive dosage forms are used. The aim of this article is to give a theoretical overview of the oral mucosa topic and its most frequent disease - recurrent aphthous stomatitis in terms of various types of the disease classification, diagnosis and therapy, and in terms of the usage of various types of active substances and medical forms.Keywords: oral mucosa recurrent aphthous stomatitis therapy mucoadhesive dosage forms. PMID:23578262

  10. Gene Expression Profiling of Human Vaginal Cells In Vitro Discriminates Compounds with Pro-Inflammatory and Mucosa-Altering Properties: Novel Biomarkers for Preclinical Testing of HIV Microbicide Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Zalenskaya, Irina A.; Joseph, Theresa; Bavarva, Jasmin; Yousefieh, Nazita; Jackson, Suzanne S.; Fashemi, Titilayo; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Settlage, Robert; Fichorova, Raina N.; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation and immune activation of the cervicovaginal mucosa are considered factors that increase susceptibility to HIV infection. Therefore, it is essential to screen candidate anti-HIV microbicides for potential mucosal immunomodulatory/inflammatory effects prior to further clinical development. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro method for preclinical evaluation of the inflammatory potential of new candidate microbicides using a microarray gene expression profiling strategy. Methods To this end, we compared transcriptomes of human vaginal cells (Vk2/E6E7) treated with well-characterized pro-inflammatory (PIC) and non-inflammatory (NIC) compounds. PICs included compounds with different mechanisms of action. Gene expression was analyzed using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2 arrays. Data processing was performed using GeneSpring 11.5 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). Results Microarraray comparative analysis allowed us to generate a panel of 20 genes that were consistently deregulated by PICs compared to NICs, thus distinguishing between these two groups. Functional analysis mapped 14 of these genes to immune and inflammatory responses. This was confirmed by the fact that PICs induced NFkB pathway activation in Vk2 cells. By testing microbicide candidates previously characterized in clinical trials we demonstrated that the selected PIC-associated genes properly identified compounds with mucosa-altering effects. The discriminatory power of these genes was further demonstrated after culturing vaginal cells with vaginal bacteria. Prevotella bivia, prevalent bacteria in the disturbed microbiota of bacterial vaginosis, induced strong upregulation of seven selected PIC-associated genes, while a commensal Lactobacillus gasseri associated to vaginal health did not cause any changes. Conclusions In vitro evaluation of the immunoinflammatory potential of microbicides using the PIC-associated genes defined in this study could help in the initial screening of candidates prior to entering clinical trials. Additional characterization of these genes can provide further insight into the cervicovaginal immunoinflammatory and mucosal-altering processes that facilitate or limit HIV transmission with implications for the design of prevention strategies. PMID:26052926

  11. Comparative clinical wettability of teeth and intraoral mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PER-OLOF J. Glantz; Robert E. Baier; Rolf Attstrom; Anne E. Meyer; Hermann Gucinski

    1991-01-01

    The observed reduced adhesiveness of human intraoral mucosa, as compared with adjacent teeth, was determined for 14 healthy humans to correlate with differing measured intraoral contact angles for a variety of otherwise non-interacting test liquids on these two equally water-wettable surfaces under clinical conditions. Measurements were made on the front maxillary tooth surfaces and the-inner lower lip mucosal surfaces of

  12. Duodenal obstruction due to a preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Vilakazi, Mnc; Ismail, F; Swanepoel, H M; Muller, E W; Lockhat, Z I

    2014-01-01

    An infant presented with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of a pyloric stenosis. On abdominal ultrasound, pyloric stenosis was excluded, and other causes for proximal duodenal obstruction, such as a duodenal web or annular pancreas, were suspected. At surgery, the cause was found to be due to an anterior portal vein or preduodenal portal vein, compressing the duodenum. There were no associated findings such as midgut malrotation, duodenal web and congenital anomalies. The treatment was a diamond-shaped duodeno-duodenostomy anterior to the portal vein. The patient improved after surgery. PMID:25323190

  13. A human homologue to the yeast omnipotent suppressor 45 maps 100 kb centromeric to HLA-A

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvel, B.; Dorval, I.; Fergelot, P. [CNRS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes (France)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Idipathic hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive inherited disorder of iron metabolism. The molecular defect is unknown. However, the gene responsible for the disease (HFE) has been localized on the short arm of chromosome 6. It is closely linked to the HLA class I genes and possibly within a 350 kilobase (kb) region around the HLA-A locus. In order to identify candidate genes for hemochromatosis, we applied a cDNA selection technique to isolate transcribed sequences encoded on yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC). At first, we screened a cDNA library derived from normal human duodenal mucosa with the YAC B30 H3. This YAC contains a 320 kb DNA insert including the HLA-A gene and spanning 150 kb of the 350 kb zone where the hemochromatosis gene is in linkage disequilibrium with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Preparation of the cDNA library of duodenal mucosa in Lambda Zap II phage and library screening with YAC B30 were carried out as previously described. In this way, we isolated seven non-HLA-A cDNAs corresponding to seven new genomic sequences. These potential genes were named hemochromatosis candidate gene (HCG) and numbered I to VII. The survey of all these cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences is in progress. In this work, we are especially interested in one of the seven non-HLA class I cDNA clones, named clone 58. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of lactoferrin in duodenojejunal mucosa from celiac children.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, A; Tuccari, G; Magazzù, G; Arena, F; Ricciardi, R; Barresi, G

    1987-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of lactoferrin (LF) was investigated in the duodenojejunal mucosa of children with untreated and treated celiac disease and in a control group of children of short stature and of children with postenteritis syndrome. In subtotal villous atrophy, LF was present in all epithelial cells of the luminal surface with a lower degree of positivity in crypts, whereas a variable degree of reactivity for LF was observed in epithelial cells of reconstituted villi and crypts. The LF mucosal distribution, however, was not specific for celiac disease since the LF pattern was similar in untreated celiac disease and also in postenteritis syndrome. Moreover, LF was detectable only in 7 of 18 duodenojejunal juice samples obtained from untreated and treated celiac patients and normal controls, the observed values being irrespective of the mucosal morphological status. We conclude that the immunohistochemical evidence of LF in the enterocyte may derive from an autochthonous production since our histochemical findings cannot be related to the concentration of LF in duodenal juice. PMID:3323437

  15. Thyroid Storm Precipitated by Duodenal Ulcer Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Natsuda, Shoko; Nakashima, Yomi; Horie, Ichiro; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male) complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome. PMID:25838951

  16. The ?F508-CFTR mutation inhibits wild-type CFTR processing and function when co-expressed in human airway epithelia and in mouse nasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rescue or correction of CFTR function in native epithelia is the ultimate goal of CF therapeutics development. Wild-type (WT) CFTR introduction and replacement is also of particular interest. Such therapies may be complicated by possible CFTR self-assembly into an oligomer or multimer. Results Surprisingly, functional CFTR assays in native airway epithelia showed that the most common CFTR mutant, ?F508-CFTR (?F-CFTR), inhibits WT-CFTR when both forms are co-expressed. To examine more mechanistically, both forms of CFTR were transfected transiently in varying amounts into IB3-1 CF human airway epithelial cells and HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cells null for endogenous CFTR protein expression. Increasing amounts of ?F-CFTR inhibited WT-CFTR protein processing and function in CF human airway epithelial cells but not in heterologous HEK-293 cells. Stably expressed ?F-CFTR in clones of the non-CF human airway epithelial cell line, CALU-3, also showed reduction in cAMP-stimulated anion secretion and in WT-CFTR processing. An ultimate test of this dominant negative-like effect of ?F-CFTR on WT-CFTR was the parallel study of two different CF mouse models: the ?F-CFTR mouse and the bitransgenic CFTR mouse corrected in the gut but null in the lung and airways. WT/?F heterozygotes had an intermediate phenotype with regard to CFTR agonist responses in in vivo nasal potential difference (NPD) recordings and in Ussing chamber recordings of short-circuit current (ISC) in vitro on primary tracheal epithelial cells isolated from the same mice. In contrast, CFTR bitransgenic +/? heterozygotes had no difference in their responses versus +/+ wild-type mice. Conclusions Taken altogether, these data suggest that ?F-CFTR and WT-CFTR co-assemble into an oligomeric macromolecular complex in native epithelia and share protein processing machinery and regulation at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As a consequence, ?F-CFTR slows WT-CFTR protein processing and limits its expression and function in the apical membrane of native airway epithelia. Implications of these data for the relative health of CF heterozygous carriers, for CFTR protein processing in native airway epithelia, and for the relative efficacy of different CF therapeutic approaches is significant and is discussed. PMID:22999299

  17. Two- to four-year histological follow-up of gastric mucosa after Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Tepes, B; Kavcic, B; Zaletel, L K; Gubina, M; Ihan, A; Poljak, M; Krizman, I

    1999-05-01

    In a 2- to 4-year prospective study, the reversibility of gastritis after Helicobacter pylori eradication was analysed. Sixty-three H. pylori-positive, chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied after the successful eradication of bacteria in the period from 1990 to 1993. H. pylori eradication was obtained by triple antimicrobial regimens (colloidal bismuth subcitrate, amoxycillin, and metronidazole) applied for at least 14 days. The criteria for eradication were the absence of bacteria from two antral and two body of stomach biopsies stained with haematoxylin, eosin, and Warthin Starry, and a negative antral biopsy culture. The same diagnostic procedures were repeated, at regular follow-up endoscopies, each year for up to 4 years. Neutrophil-granulocyte infiltration of gastric mucosa disappeared in 2 months after bacterial eradication. Mononuclear cellular infiltration was disappearing with statistical significance up to the second year and normal mucosa was observed in the majority of patients in the fourth year of follow-up. Degeneratively changed lymphoid aggregates were also present in the fourth year in the antrum (12.5 per cent of patients) and in the body of stomach (14 per cent of patients). There was no significant change in antral intestinal metaplasia during the 4 years of follow-up. Antral atrophy declined significantly in the period from 1 to 3 years of follow-up. In conclusion, 3-4 years are needed for gastric mucosa to become normal after H. pylori eradication, although some residual lymphoid aggregates persist even after that period. PMID:10398136

  18. Morphometric Evaluation of Duodenal Biopsies in Celiac Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian G Cummins; Basile G Alexander; Adrian Chung; Edward Teo; Josh A Woenig; John B J Field; Fiona M Thompson; Ian C Roberts-Thomson

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:The Marsh classification is a semiquantitative method for the diagnosis and monitoring of changes in duodenal biopsies in celiac disease. We have explored the possibility that quantitative changes in villous area and crypt length (morphometry) may provide better information on changes in duodenal morphology, particularly after the introduction of a gluten-free diet.METHODS:We measured villous height, apical and basal villous widths,

  19. Prevalence of duodenal diverticulum in South indians: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Sulochana; Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Thiagarajan, Sivakami

    2013-01-01

    Background. Duodenum is the second most common site of diverticula after the colon. Diagnosis of duodenal diverticula is incidental and found during other therapeutic procedures. In 90% of cases, they are asymptomatic, and less than 10% develop clinical symptoms. The difficulty to ascertain the true incidence of duodenal diverticula demanded for the present study to elucidate the prevalence of the duodenal diverticulum in South Indians. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty specimens of duodenum were utilized for the study. The prevalence, anatomical location, and dimension of duodenal diverticulum were studied. Results. Among the 120 specimens of duodenum, five specimens had solitary, extraluminal, and globular-shaped diverticula in the medial wall of the duodenum. In three (60%) cases, it was found in the second part of duodenum and in two (40%) cases in the third part. The mean size of the diverticula was 1.4?cm. Conclusion. In the present study in South Indian people, the prevalence (4.2%) of duodenal diverticula is low comparable to other studies in the literature. Even though most of the duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, the knowledge about its frequency and location is of great importance to prevent complications like diverticulitis, hemorrhage, obstructive jaundice, and perforation. PMID:25938103

  20. Inhibition of water absorption and selective damage to human colonic mucosa are induced by subtilase cytotoxin produced by Escherichia coli O113:H21.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Elizabeth; Masso, Mariana; Paton, Adrienne W; Paton, James C; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) is by far the most prevalent serotype associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) although many non-O157 STEC strains have been also isolated from patients with HUS. The main virulence factor of STEC is the Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) present in O157 and non-O157 strains. Recently, another toxin, named subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), has been isolated from several non-O157 strains and may contribute to the pathogenesis of HUS. Here, we have demonstrated that an O113:H21 STEC strain expressing SubAB and Stx2 inhibits normal water absorption across human colon and causes damage to the surface epithelium, necrosis, mononuclear inflammatory infiltration, edema, and marked mucin depletion. This damage was less marked, but nevertheless significant, when purified SubAB or E. coli O113:H21 expressing only SubAB was assayed. This is the first study showing that SubAB may directly participate in the mechanisms of diarrhea in children infected with non-O157 STEC strains. PMID:23732168

  1. Inhibition of Water Absorption and Selective Damage to Human Colonic Mucosa Are Induced by Subtilase Cytotoxin Produced by Escherichia coli O113:H21

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Elizabeth; Masso, Mariana; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Zotta, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) is by far the most prevalent serotype associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) although many non-O157 STEC strains have been also isolated from patients with HUS. The main virulence factor of STEC is the Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) present in O157 and non-O157 strains. Recently, another toxin, named subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), has been isolated from several non-O157 strains and may contribute to the pathogenesis of HUS. Here, we have demonstrated that an O113:H21 STEC strain expressing SubAB and Stx2 inhibits normal water absorption across human colon and causes damage to the surface epithelium, necrosis, mononuclear inflammatory infiltration, edema, and marked mucin depletion. This damage was less marked, but nevertheless significant, when purified SubAB or E. coli O113:H21 expressing only SubAB was assayed. This is the first study showing that SubAB may directly participate in the mechanisms of diarrhea in children infected with non-O157 STEC strains. PMID:23732168

  2. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative duodenal fluid versus duodenal mucosa cultures in German Shepherd Dogs with spontaneous small bowel bacterial overgrowth 

    E-print Network

    Delles, Edward Kevin

    1993-01-01

    between pernicious anemia (vitamin 8, 2 deficiency) and small intestinal strictures in people. ' In 1939 Barker and Hummel theorized that intestinal stasis and subsequent bacterial overgrowth were responsible for the correlation between pernicious... anemia and intestinal strictures. ' Since the 1960s there has been a growing awareness of the causes, pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of SBBO. ' ' ' The first case reports of SBBO in the veterinary literature appeared...

  3. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative duodenal fluid versus duodenal mucosa cultures in German Shepherd Dogs with spontaneous small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    E-print Network

    Delles, Edward Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Observations, Clinicopathologic and Histopathologic Findings Disinfection of Endoscopic Equipment Tissue Sample Characteristics Results of Cultures Statistical Analysis . DISCUSSION Clinical Signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . Bacterial Counts and Species... bacterial populations in each location. ~'~ ~ No such comparison has been made in dogs. If quantitative and qualitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures of endoscopically-retrieved mucosal biopsy samples correlate with similar cultures of luminal aspirates...

  4. Endoscopic Diagnosis of Duodenal Stenosis in a 5-Month-Old Male Infant

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Maribeth R.; Acra, Sari A.; Chung, Dai H.

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal stenosis and duodenal atresia are well-known gastrointestinal anomalies in patients with Down syndrome. Although duodenal atresia presents early and classically with vomiting in the immediate neonatal period, the presentation of duodenal stenosis can be significantly more subtle and the diagnosis delayed. Here, we describe the case of a 5-month-old male infant with Down syndrome and delayed presentation of high-grade duodenal stenosis diagnosed endoscopically. Pediatric gastroenterologists should include duodenal stenosis in the differential diagnosis of older infants and children with vomiting and should be familiar with the endoscopic appearance of this lesion. PMID:25505725

  5. Endoscopic mucosal resection of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features: An extremely rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming-Yao; Wang, Yu; Meng, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Hua-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal adenocarcinoma, especially duodenal bulb with neuroendocrine features (NEF), is extremely rare. Here, we report one such case of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features. A 63-year-old Han Chinese woman was admitted to our department with the diagnosis of a duodenal bulb polyp and underwent an endoscopic mucosal resection. The pathological findings confirmed it as duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma with NEF. The patient remains curative after one and half a years of follow-up. Duodenal adenocarcinoma with NEF might be a low malignant neuroendocrine tumor rather than a conventional adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic treatment, including endoscopic mucosal resection, might be an ideal option for the adenocarcinomas with NEF.

  6. [Use of an herbal combination with laxative action on duodenal peptic ulcer and gastroduodenitis patients with a concomitant obstipation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Matev, M; Chak?rski, I; Stefanov, G; Ko?chev, A; Angelov, I

    1981-01-01

    Thirty two patients were treated--19 with duodenal ulcer and 19 with gastroduodenitis, all of them with concomitant obstipation syndrome. The patients were treated with a combination of Symphitum officinalis and Calendula officinales form the main disease. The obstipation syndrome was treated with a combination of Rhamus frangula, Citrus aurantium, Carum carvi. The laxative herb combination was effective in 100 per cent of the patients--daily defecation in 90.6 per cent and every second day in 9.4 per cent of the patients was attained. No effect on gastric mucosa was established as well as on the clinical effect of the main disease and on the percentage of the ulcer niche healing. PMID:7336705

  7. A double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of the efficacy and safety of 50, 100, and 200 micrograms of misoprostol QID in the prevention of ibuprofen-induced gastric and duodenal mucosal lesions and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lanza, F L; Fakouhi, D; Rubin, A; Davis, R E; Rack, M F; Nissen, C; Geis, S

    1989-06-01

    Ibuprofen, a commonly proscribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is also available in many countries, including the United States, without a prescription, is known to cause hemorrhage and erosion of the gastroduodenal mucosa. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 200, 100, and 50 micrograms of misoprostol and placebo administered qid for 6 days, with a final dose on the morning of the 7th day, in the prevention of gastric and duodenal lesions induced by the concurrent administration of 800 mg of ibuprofen qid. A total of 120 healthy subjects with endoscopically normal gastric and duodenal mucosae were enrolled in the study. The endoscopic examination was repeated 2 h after the final dose on day 7, and the mucosae were graded on a 0 to 4+ scale. In the stomach, all three misoprostol groups were significantly more protective than placebo and did not differ significantly from each other. In the duodenum, the endoscopic scores of the 200- and 100-micrograms misoprostol groups, but not the 50-micrograms group differed significantly from placebo. The 200- and 100-microgram groups did not differ significantly from each other, but both differed from the 50-micrograms group for duodenal mucosal injury. Subjective symptoms thought to be primarily attributable to the NSAID (e.g., pain, indigestion/heartburn and nausea) were recorded by each subject in a diary. Subjects in the 200-micrograms misoprostol group attained the greatest degree of mucosal protection and had a significantly higher incidence of indigestion/heartburn and abdominal pain than the placebo group. One can conclude that misoprostol in both antisecretory (200- and 100-micrograms) and non-antisecretory (50-micrograms) doses protects the gastric mucosa from injury from high anti-inflammatory doses of ibuprofen (3200 mg/day). Only the antisecretory doses (100 and 200 micrograms qid) were effective in the duodenum, suggesting that acid suppression is necessary for mucosal protection to occur in the duodenum. PMID:2499187

  8. Duodenal luminal chemosensing; acid, ATP, and nutrients.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal chemosensing of endogenous and exogenous luminal compounds, including acid, CO2, bile acids and nutrients is an emerging area of gastrointestinal research, since gut hormones, particularly including incretins and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are released in response to luminal nutrients. Identification of luminal chemosensors such as nutrient-ligand G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in enteroendocrine cells has linked luminal compounds to the corresponding gut hormone release. Mucosal chemical sensors are necessary to exert physiological responses such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility. We have been studying the mechanisms by which luminal compounds are sensed via mucosal acid sensors and GPCRs, which trigger mucosal defense mechanisms. In addition to luminal acid/CO2 sensing in the duodenum, recent studies also show that compounds present post-prandially such as amino acids, bile acids and fatty acids, enhance duodenal mucosal defenses, with digestion following the initial gastric processing. These studies may form the basis for therapies in which luminal nutrients release gut hormones that affect the mucosal protection, appetite, satiety, and systemic metabolisms. PMID:23886391

  9. Cytotoxicity associated with induction of nitric oxide synthase in rat duodenal epithelial cells in vivo by lipopolysaccharide of Helicobacter pylori: inhibition by superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Lamarque, Dominique; Moran, Anthony P; Szepes, Zoltan; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Whittle, Brendan J R

    2000-01-01

    The products released by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the gastric antral and duodenal mucosa may be involved in mucosal ulceration by stimulating the local formation of cytotoxic factors such as nitric oxide (NO), superoxide or peroxynitrite. The present study investigates the ability of purified H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in rat duodenal epithelial cells following in vivo challenge and its interaction with superoxide in promoting cellular damage and apoptosis. H. pylori LPS (0.75–3?mg?kg?1 i.v. or 3–12?mg?kg?1 p.o.) induced a dose–dependent expression of iNOS activity after 5?h in the duodenal epithelial cells, determined by [14C] arginine conversion to citrulline. The epithelial cell viability, as assessed by Trypan Blue exclusion and MTT conversion, was reduced 5?h after challenge with H. pylori LPS, while the incidence of apoptosis was increased. The iNOS activity and reduction in cell viability following H. pylori LPS challenge i.v. was inhibited by the selective iNOS inhibitor, 1400?W (0.2–5?mg?kg?1 i.v.). Concurrent administration of superoxide dismutase conjugated with polyethylene glycol (250–500 i.u. kg?1, i.v.), which did not modify the cellular iNOS activity, reduced the epithelial cell damage provoked by i.v. H. pylori LPS, and abolished the increased incidence of apoptosis. These results suggest that expression of iNOS following challenge with H. pylori LPS provokes duodenal epithelial cell injury and apoptosis by a process involving superoxide, implicating peroxynitrite involvement. These events may contribute to the pathogenic mechanisms of H. pylori in promoting peptic ulcer disease. PMID:10928954

  10. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S.; Hamid, Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the third part of the duodenum with normal pancreas following a blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical changes in isolated duodenal injury may be extremely subtle before life-threatening, peritonitis develops. Hence, a high index of suspicion, on the basis of mechanism of injury and physical examination is the key in early detection of duodenal injury especially in a rural hospital like ours where the facilities for computed tomography scan are not available. PMID:25598947

  11. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S; Hamid, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the third part of the duodenum with normal pancreas following a blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical changes in isolated duodenal injury may be extremely subtle before life-threatening, peritonitis develops. Hence, a high index of suspicion, on the basis of mechanism of injury and physical examination is the key in early detection of duodenal injury especially in a rural hospital like ours where the facilities for computed tomography scan are not available. PMID:25598947

  12. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence, a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities. PMID:25170399

  13. Assessment of duodenal amino acid profile in dairy cows by the in situ method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tagari; A. Arieli; S. Mabjeesh; I. Bruckental; S. Zamwell; Y. Aharoni

    1995-01-01

    In situ evaluation of the duodenal amino acid (AA) profile was attempted in a 4 × 4 Latin square study using four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas. Dietary supplemental crude protein (CP) sources, making up 40% of the dietary CP, were: soybean meal, cottonseed meal, corn gluten meal or urea. Duodenal flow of organic matter (OM)

  14. Helicobacter pylori augments the pH-increasing effect of omeprazole in patients with duodenal ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Labenz; B Tillenburg; U Peitz; JP Idstrom; EF Verdu; M Stolte; G Borsch; AL Blum

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Omeprazole is less effective in healthy subjects than in patients with duodenal ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine whether Helicobacter pylori augments the pH-increasing effect of omeprazole in patients with duodenal ulcers. METHODS: In 16 patients with duodenal ulcers, baseline intragastric acidity was measured before and 4-6 weeks after the cure of H. pylori

  15. Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective effects of proglumide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, M.; Parmar, N.S.; Ageel, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Proglumide has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect the gastroduodenal mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, cysteamine and the cytodestructing agents: 80% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and 30 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in 0.35 M HCl in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that proglumide has both prophylactic and curative effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rats and reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, mucosal damaging agents and that of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The intensity of gastric lesions induced by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and reserpine was also reduced significantly by proglumide. Cimetidine, which was used as a standard antiulcer drug for comparison, also produced a similar protective effect in most of the models used by us. It was found to have a more potent antisecretory effect but failed to protect the rats against the gastric mucosal damage induced by hyperthermic restraint stress and 0.2 M NaOH. Our findings suggest that proglumide exerts these antiulcer effects by its antisecretory, gastric mucosal resistance increasing and cytoprotective activities. Further studies are required to find out its exact mechanism of action and therapeutic usefulness.

  16. Duodenal adenocarcinoma presenting as a mass with aneurismal dilatation.

    PubMed

    Mama, Nadia; Ben Slama, Aïda; Arifa, Nadia; Kadri, Khaled; Sriha, Badreddine; Ksiaa, Mehdi; Jemni, Hela; Tlili-Graiess, Kalthoum

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal adenocarcinoma is frequent. Aneurysmal dilatation of the small bowel is reported to be a lymphoma characteristic imaging finding. A 57-year-old male was found to have a duodenal adenocarcinoma with aneurismal dilatation on imaging which is an exceptional feature. On laparotomy, the wall thickening of the dilated duodenum extended to the first jejunal loop, with multiple mesenteric lymph nodes and ascites. Segmental palliative resection with gastro-entero-anastomosis was done. Histopathology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with neuro-endocrine differentiation foci. Wide areas of necrosis and vascular emboli were responsible for the radiological feature of the dilated duodenum with wall thickening. PMID:24411203

  17. Campylobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, and gastric metaplasia: possible role of functional heterotopic tissue in ulcerogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, J; Lee, A; Hazell, S; Ralston, M; Daskalopoulos, G

    1989-01-01

    Multiple pinch biopsies were taken from the duodenum and antrum of 137 subjects (46 active duodenal ulceration; 44 healed ulcers; 47 'normal'), and examined for the presence and grade of gastritis, gastric metaplasia, and Campylobacter pylori. These factors, as well as age, sex, cigarette, and anti-inflammatory agent intake were evaluated as possible risk factors for duodenal ulceration. Pentagastrin induced Congo Red staining of the duodenal bulb was performed in an additional 43 cases, to determine the presence of functioning parietal cells in the duodenum. Ninety eight per cent of patients with duodenal infection with C pylori had active or healed duodenal ulcers. Bacteria were confined to areas of gastric metaplasia which was always infiltrated with inflammatory cells. The metaplastic tissue was usually superficial in type, although patients had C pylori associated with heterotopic tissue: this has not been previously described. Congo Red staining of the duodenal bulb showed that functioning endogenous acid producing tissue could be found most often at the edges of duodenal ulcers, but also in non-ulcer subjects. Cigarette smoking, age, sex, and ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents were not to be found to be significant risk factors for duodenal ulceration. In contrast, the presence of duodenal infection with C pylori proved to be a strong risk factor for duodenal ulceration (RR = 51), together with gastric metaplasia (RR = 6.2), and antral C pylori infection (RR = 7.6). These data identify duodenal infection with C pylori as the strongest risk factor for development of duodenal ulceration. Our finding of endogenous acid production around the edges of duodenal ulcers suggests an active role for parietal cells in the duodenum. We postulate a synergistic role for duodenal C pylori and endogenous acid production in the development of duodenal ulceration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:2753403

  18. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  19. [Virus diseases of the mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Nasemann, T

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with the system of viral species, viral disorders of the oral mucosa may be classified with regard to their intensity of affection. There are but few viral infections exclusively affecting the oral mucosa like e.g. 1. Glossitis papulosa of Michelson, representing a special form of vaccinia inoculata, 2. Gingivo-stomatitis herpetica and 3. warts of the mucosa or condyloma-like papillomas of the oral mucosa including oral papillomatosis, that, itself shows morphological and clinical similarities to laryngeal papilloma. A second group of disorders mainly affecting the oral mucosa includes the "Aphthoid of Pospischill and Feyrter", Zahorsky's herpangina and other viral infections by the Coxsackie group, like vesicular stomatitis. The 3rd group represents viral infections of other organs in which affection of the oral mucosa is a prerogative, e.g. smallpox, varicella, foot-and-mouth disease and pharyngo-conjunctival fever. A 4th group includes those viral infections of the organs in which co-affection of oral mucosa occurs frequently or once in a while (at occasions). Here, we find eczema vaccinatum, herpes zoster, herpes simplex of the oral mucosa mostly on the hard palate, eczema herpeticatum, post-herpetic Erythema exsudativum multiforme, Mononucleosis infectiosa Pfeiffer, viral flu, German measles, parotitis epidemica, rubeola and ECHO-exanthema. A 5th and last group is made up by viral infections of other organs, in which affection of the oral mucosa hardly occurs at all. This group contains paravaccinal Ecthyma contagiosum, poliomyelitis, viral infection of the city of Marburg and some Arbovirus infections. Relatively few viral disorders never co-exist with lesions on the oral mucosa like e.g. Virus-hepatitis or some viral encephalitides. Groups 1 and 2, most important of all, are presented in detail regarding clinics, diagnostics, differential-diagnosis and therapy. The disorders within the other 3 groups are discussed only regarding their importance in the field of ENT-related symptoms of the oral mucosa. A number of pictures and tables completes important clinical details and give further hints to their differential-diagnosis. PMID:830106

  20. Investigation of mycobacterial colonisation and invasion of the respiratory mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, A; Chadwick, M; Nicholson, A; Dewar, A; Feldman, C; Wilson, R

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The interaction of M avium complex, M tuberculosis, and M smegmatis with human respiratory tissue was investigated in an organ culture model with an air interface. Tissue was infected for intervals up to 14 days and assessed by scanning electron microscopy for adherent bacteria or cultured for recoverable bacteria. Results: The mean number of adherent bacteria/mm2 (and the viable count of macerated tissue, cfu/ml) at 15 minutes, 3 and 24 hours, 7 and 14 days were: M avium complex 168 (153), 209 (136), 289 (344), 193 (313), 14140 (16544); M tuberculosis 30 (37), 39 (23), 48 (53), 1 (760), 76 (2186); M smegmatis 108 (176), 49 (133), 97 (81), 114 (427), 34 (58), (n=6). There was no significant change in morphology between infected and uninfected tissue or tissue infected with the different species over 14 days. The number of M avium complex on the mucosa and recovered from tissue increased over time (p=0.03). M tuberculosis decreased on the surface, but recoverable bacteria increased (p=0.01). M smegmatis numbers on the mucosa and recovered from tissue decreased. Sectioned tissue showed M avium complex and M tuberculosis in submucosal mucus glands and M tuberculosis penetrating epithelial cells in one experiment. Conclusions: The initial adherence to the mucosa of the three species was similar, but after 14 days they varied in their interaction with the tissue in a manner compatible with their pathogenicity. PMID:12612305

  1. protein were dramatically reduced in the colonic mucosa of GF vs CV rats (respec-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    kinetics of a-linolenic acid were investigated in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Four clones (PD10 of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in the intestinal mucosa of the adult rat. As opposed to what happens;-linolenic acid in human ente- rocyte-like Caco-2 cells. T Tranchant1,PT Tranchant P Besson C Hoinard J Delarue c

  2. Evaluation of Microbial Load in Oropharyngeal Mucosa from Tannery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Arévalo, Diana C.; Castellanos-Arévalo, Andrea P.; Camarena-Pozos, David A.; Colli-Mull, Juan G.; Maldonado-Vega, María

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal skin provides an ideal medium for the propagation of microorganisms and it is used like raw material in the tannery and footware industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the microbial load in oropharyngeal mucosa of tannery employees. Methods The health risk was estimated based on the identification of microorganisms found in the oropharyngeal mucosa samples. The study was conducted in a tanners group and a control group. Samples were taken from oropharyngeal mucosa and inoculated on plates with selective medium. In the samples, bacteria were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and the yeasts through a presumptive method. In addition, the sensitivity of these microorganisms to antibiotics/antifungals was evaluated. Results The identified bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, of which some species are considered as pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms; these bacteria were not present in the control group. Forty-two percent of bacteria identified in the tanners group are correlated with respiratory diseases. Yeasts were also identified, including the following species: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Candida krusei. Regarding the sensitivity test of bacteria identified in the tanners group, 90% showed sensitivity to piperacillin/tazobactam, 87% showed sensitivity to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 74% showed sensitivity to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 58% showed sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion Several of the bacteria and yeast identified in the oropharyngeal mucosa of tanners have been correlated with infections in humans and have already been reported as airborne microorganisms in this working environment, representing a health risk for workers. PMID:25830072

  3. Surgical and nutritional management of postoperative duodenal fistulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. James Garden; Evelyn H. Dykes; David C. Carter

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with postoperative external duodenal fistulas were managed in general surgical units over a six-year period. Management included aggressive nutritional support, localization and drainage of intraabdominal sepsis, and definitive surgical closure for those fistulas which did not close spontaneously. Spontaneous closure occurred in 92% of cases. All but one patient survived admission to hospital, and one patient died following

  4. Altered gastric and duodenal motility in intestinal obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim B. Hunter; Laurie L. Fajardo; J. Luther Jarvis; Hugo V. Villar

    1990-01-01

    There are no strict clinical or radiographic criteria that consistently indicate imminent strangulation in cases of small bowel obstruction. An intestinal obstruction with vascular compromise produces a marked retention of food, fluid, or contrast material in the stomach and duodenum, while an obstruction without vascular problems may show no change or somewhat delayed gastric emptying with some duodenal hypotonia. The

  5. DUODENAL CYTOCHROME B: A NOVEL FERRIREDUCTASE IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytically active iron in the lung causes oxidative stress and promotes microbial growth that can be limited by intracellular sequestration of iron within ferritin. Because cellular iron uptake requires membrane ferrireductase activity that in the gut can be provided by duoden...

  6. Antacid maintenance therapy in the prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K D Bardhan; J O Hunter; J P Miller; A B Thomson; D Y Graham; R I Russell; S Sontag; C Hines; T Martin; L Gaussen

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of antacid maintenance therapy in preventing duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse was investigated. Two hundred and fifty one asymptomatic patients with healed DU were stratified into smokers and non-smokers and randomised to receive for one year either placebo, or Maalox TC three tablets (81 mmol) at bedtime (hs), or Maalox TC three tablets in the morning plus three tablets

  7. Visceral leshmaniasis diagnosed on duodenal biopsy in a child.

    PubMed

    Boukthir, S; Mejri, A; M'rad, S; Barsaoui, S

    2003-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is usually easy to recognize when clinical presentation is complete: splenomegaly, fever and palor associated to pancytopenia, hypoalbuminaemia and hypergamma globulinemia. Bone marrow smears, culture and serology confirm the diagnosis. We report the case of an infant in whom clinical and biological findings are suggestive of leishmaniasis and the diagnosis confirmed only by duodenal biopsy. PMID:14618961

  8. Duodenal Toxicity After Fractionated Chemoradiation for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Beddar, Sam; Briere, Tina; Pham, Mary; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H., E-mail: ccrane@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Improving local control is critical to improving survival and quality of life for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, previous attempts at radiation dose escalation have been limited by duodenal toxicity. In order to guide future studies, we analyzed the clinical and dosimetric factors associated with duodenal toxicity in patients undergoing fractionated chemoradiation for LAPC. Methods and Materials: Medical records and treatment plans of 106 patients with LAPC who were treated with chemoradiation between July 2005 and June 2010 at our institution were reviewed. All patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy. Seventy-eight patients were treated with conventional radiation to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions; 28 patients received dose-escalated radiation therapy (range, 57.5-75.4 Gy in 28-39 fractions). Treatment-related toxicity was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess prognostic influence of clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results: Twenty patients had treatment-related duodenal toxicity events, such as duodenal inflammation, ulceration, and bleeding. Four patients had grade 1 events, 8 had grade 2, 6 had grade 3, 1 had grade 4, and 1 had grade 5. On univariate analysis, a toxicity grade ?2 was associated with tumor location, low platelet count, an absolute volume (cm{sup 3}) receiving a dose of at least 55 Gy (V{sub 55} {sub Gy} > 1 cm{sup 3}), and a maximum point dose >60 Gy. Of these factors, only V{sub 55} {sub Gy} ?1 cm{sup 3} was associated with duodenal toxicity on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 6.7; range, 2.0-18.8; P=.002). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a duodenal V{sub 55} {sub Gy} >1 cm{sup 3} is an important dosimetric predictor of grade 2 or greater duodenal toxicity and establishes it as a dosimetric constraint when treating patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer with concurrent chemoradiation.

  9. Novel therapeutic approaches to gastric and duodenal ulcers: an update.

    PubMed

    Dajani, E Z; Klamut, M J

    2000-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, a remarkable revolution in the pathophysiology and treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers has occurred. Effective therapies were developed not only to heal ulcers, but also to cure most patients. The two principal causes for gastric and duodenal ulcers are either infection with Helicobacter pylori or the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). With H. pylori eradication, gastric and duodenal ulcers are rapidly becoming historical diseases. This communication reviews the salient pharmacology of the novel anti-ulcer drugs currently in development, with particular emphasis on the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers. Intense research is currently focused on the development of proton pump inhibitors primarily for the treatment and prevention of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The older proton pump inhibitors, omeprazole and lansoprazole, are effective in healing gastric and duodenal ulcers. Furthermore, both drugs are effective in eradicating H. pylori when given with various antibiotics. Pantoprazole, rabeprazole and esomeprazole are new proton pump inhibitors, which appear to have comparable therapeutic profiles with omeprazole and lansoprazole. Rebamipide is a new mucosal protective drug, which is effective in healing gastric ulcers. Polaprezinc and nocloprost are also mucosal protective drugs, which are in clinical development. However, none of these three cytoprotective drugs have been evaluated for their efficacy in eradicating H. pylori when given in combination with antibiotics. Likewise, no published literature exists on the use of these drugs for preventing NSAID-induced ulcers. With the rapid eradication of H. pylori currently happening in the developed world, the therapeutic challenge is now directed toward preventing NSAID-associated ulcer. Significant reduction of NSAID-induced ulcers is achieved by using continuous prophylactic anti-ulcer therapy (misoprostol or omeprazole) or by using NSAIDs possessing selective COX-2 inhibitory activity. However, outcome clinical studies are needed to compare the adjuvant anti-ulcer therapies given with COX-1 inhibitors versus the selective COX-2 inhibitors given alone. PMID:11060758

  10. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an ?-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with ?-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  11. [Acute duodenal obstruction due to incomplete duodenal diaphragm and foreign bodies in a two-year old child (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Jiménez, J I; Gualda Cantón, J; Sánchez, E B

    1977-03-01

    A case of congenital incomplete duodenal diaphragm associated to foreign bodies, in a 28 months child with Down's syndrom is reported. This case had an acute beginning of the symptoms and a severe clinical picture. We discuss the clinical features diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. PMID:145197

  12. Endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection in the treatment of sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenomatous polyps

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Joana; Baldaque-Silva, Francisco; Pereira, Pedro; Arnelo, Urban; Yahagi, Naohisa; Macedo, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Although uncommon, sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenomas have a growing detection due to the widespread of endoscopy. Endoscopic therapy is being increasingly used for these lesions, since surgery, considered the standard treatment, carries significant morbidity and mortality. However, the knowledge about its risks and benefits is limited, which contributes to the current absence of standardized recommendations. This review aims to discuss the efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the treatment of these lesions. A literature review was performed, using the Pubmed database with the query: “(duodenum or duodenal) (endoscopy or endoscopic) adenoma resection”, in the human species and in English. Of the 189 retrieved articles, and after reading their abstracts, 19 were selected due to their scientific interest. The analysis of their references, led to the inclusion of 23 more articles for their relevance in this subject. The increased use of EMR in the duodenum has shown good results with complete resection rates exceeding 80% and low complication risk (delayed bleeding in less than 12% of the procedures). Although rarely used in the duodenum, ESD achieves close to 100% complete resection rates, but is associated with perforation and bleeding risk in up to one third of the cases. Even though literature is insufficient to draw definitive conclusions, studies suggest that EMR and ESD are valid options for the treatment of nonampullary adenomas. Thus, strategies to improve these techniques, and consequently increase the effectiveness and safety of the resection of these lesions, should be developed.

  13. A study of the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori negative chronic duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    McColl, K E; el-Nujumi, A M; Chittajallu, R S; Dahill, S W; Dorrian, C A; el-Omar, E; Penman, I; Fitzsimons, E J; Drain, J; Graham, H

    1993-01-01

    In the past five years 12 patients have been identified presenting with chronic duodenal ulcer (DU) disease and with no evidence of current or recent Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. Four of them were taking regular non-steroidal anti inflammatory agents, one was subsequently found to have Crohn's disease of the duodenum, and one to have the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The remaining six patients with idiopathic DU disease were remarkable for their absence of the A1 blood antigen gene. Detailed studies of gastric function were performed in these six patients and compared with H pylori positive patients with DU and with healthy volunteers. The median integrated gastrin response in the patients with idiopathic DU (2810 (range 750-8750) ng/l min) was similar to that of the H pylori positive patients with DU (3355 (550-8725)) and higher than that of the H pylori negative healthy volunteers (560 (225-1125)). The median peak acid output in the patients with idiopathic DU (37 mmol/h, range 17-52) was similar to that of the H pylori positive patients with DU (40 (15-57)) and higher than that of the non-ulcer controls (22 (16-29)). The median percentage of a liquid meal retained in the stomach at 60 minutes was less in the patients with idiopathic DU (23 (15-33)) than in H pylori negative healthy volunteers (34 (30-53) p < 0.01). The median percentage of a solid meal retained at 60 minutes was less in the patients with idiopathic DU (54 (9-83)) than in either H pylori negative healthy volunteers (87 (49-95) p<0.01) or H pylori positive patients with DU (79 (51-100) p<0.01). In conclusion, three abnormalities of gastric function are prevalent in patients with H pylori negative idiopathic DU disease - hypergastrinaemia, increased acid secretion, and the one feature distinguishing them from H pylori positive patients with DU - rapid gastric emptying of both liquids and solids. Each of these abnormalities will increase the exposure of the duodenal mucosa to acid and thus explain its ulceration. The absence of the blood group A1 antigen gene is consistent with a genetic basis for the disturbed gastric function linked to the ABO blood group antigen genes. PMID:8314508

  14. Early Rupture of an Ultralow Duodenal Stump after Extended Surgery for Gastric Cancer with Duodenal Invasion Managed by Tube Duodenostomy and Cholangiostomy

    PubMed Central

    Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A.; Konstantinidou, Anna; Salpigktidis, Ilias I.; Katsaouni, Stavroula P.; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

    2013-01-01

    When dealing with gastric cancer with duodenal invasion, gastrectomy with distal resection of the duodenum is necessary to achieve negative distal margin. However, rupture of an ultralow duodenal stump necessitates advanced surgical skills and close postoperative observation. The present study reports a case of an early duodenal stump rupture after subtotal gastrectomy with resection of the whole first part of the duodenum, complete omentectomy, bursectomy, and D2+ lymphadenectomy performed for a pT3pN2pM1 (+ number 13 lymph nodes) adenocarcinoma of the antrum. Duodenal stump rupture was managed successfully by end tube duodenostomy, without omental patching, and tube cholangiostomy. Close assessment of clinical, physical, and radiological signs, output volume, and enzyme concentration of the tube duodenostomy, T-tube, and closed suction drain, which was placed near the tube duodenostomy site to drain the leak around the catheter, dictated postoperative management of the external duodenal fistula. PMID:24159410

  15. Early rupture of an ultralow duodenal stump after extended surgery for gastric cancer with duodenal invasion managed by tube duodenostomy and cholangiostomy.

    PubMed

    Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A; Konstantinidou, Anna; Salpigktidis, Ilias I; Katsaouni, Stavroula P; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

    2013-01-01

    When dealing with gastric cancer with duodenal invasion, gastrectomy with distal resection of the duodenum is necessary to achieve negative distal margin. However, rupture of an ultralow duodenal stump necessitates advanced surgical skills and close postoperative observation. The present study reports a case of an early duodenal stump rupture after subtotal gastrectomy with resection of the whole first part of the duodenum, complete omentectomy, bursectomy, and D2+ lymphadenectomy performed for a pT3pN2pM1 (+ number 13 lymph nodes) adenocarcinoma of the antrum. Duodenal stump rupture was managed successfully by end tube duodenostomy, without omental patching, and tube cholangiostomy. Close assessment of clinical, physical, and radiological signs, output volume, and enzyme concentration of the tube duodenostomy, T-tube, and closed suction drain, which was placed near the tube duodenostomy site to drain the leak around the catheter, dictated postoperative management of the external duodenal fistula. PMID:24159410

  16. [Endoscopic piecemeal removal of large adenomatous duodenal polyp].

    PubMed

    Zasada, Jakub; Rembiasz, Kazimierz; Budzy?ski, Andrzej; Gwó?d?, Anna; Mat?ok, Maciej; Budzy?ski, Piotr; Dyduch, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    Duodenal polyps are rare pathologies. They can be single or multiple, like in familial adenomatous polyposis or Gardner syndrome. Histologically they are usually bening: adenomas, myomas, lipomas, carcinoids, Brunner adenomas or hamartomas. Malignant lesions are mainly adenocarcinomas localized in the ampulla of the Vater area. Small polyps localized in the superior or descending segment of duodenum can be usually removed endoscopically. Larger or more distally localized polyps must be excised surgically. The largest polyps, up to several centimeters, are adenomas. Ileus or anemia are the main symptoms. Here we report the case of a 52 year old woman with a large polyp (7 cm diameter) localized in the duodenal bulb presenting with anemia. The polyp was removed endoscopically with a piecemeal method using diathermic loop. Histopthologic examination revealed that it was a ademona with grade II dysplasia. PMID:19739585

  17. Spontaneous Duodenal Perforation as a Complication of Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forouzan, Arash; Saidi, Hossein; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Khavanin, Ali; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is generally known as a systemic vasculitis that often concerns doctors due to its serious cardiac complications; however, other visceral organs may get involved as well. Surgical manifestations of the intestinal tract in Kawasaki disease are rare. In this report, we describe the case of a 2.5-year-old boy with typical Kawasaki disease who presented with GI bleeding and surgical abdomen. The diagnosis of duodenal perforation was confirmed. PMID:25883825

  18. [Treatment of perforated duodenal ulcer: the celioscopic approach].

    PubMed

    Mutter, D; Evrard, S; Keller, P; Vix, M; Vartolomei, S; Marescaux, J

    1994-01-01

    Ten patients underwent laparoscopic surgery for typical perforated peptic ulcer symptomatology. Two conversions to open surgery were due to technical problems related to delayed hospital admission. Nine patients underwent duodenal suture reinforced with fibrin glue, and one perforation was only glued. The postoperative course was uneventful without abdominal septic or abdominal wall complications in the eight patients treated by laparoscopy. Laparoscopic surgery may become the method of choice for the treatment of perforated peptic ulcer. PMID:8085758

  19. [Proteolytic activities of colonic mucosa].

    PubMed

    Hütter, H J; Egorova, V V; Nikitina, A A; Zvetkova, V A; Ugolev, A M

    1990-01-01

    The large intestine of human and dog contains considerable activities of various aminopeptidases and genuine dipeptidases. Furthermore, a dipeptidase is described, which is independant in respect to the C-terminal configuration of the peptide. This dipeptidase is an intrinsic membrane protein. The physiological significance of these enzymes is discussed. PMID:2330741

  20. Report of a case of precancerous primary duodenal polyp and a review of the related literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kikuo Nakano; Yukio Ohmori; Akira Nishimura; Masahiro Fujita; Ichiro Honda; Hidesada Takahashi; Sokoh Mayama; Noboru Tanaka; Yoshio Koike

    1981-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman with a precancerous duodenal polyp in the suprapapillary region of the second portion of the duodenum\\u000a was surgically treated by pancreato-duodenectomy. The postoperative course and follow-up was uneventful. A statistical analysis\\u000a of primary duodenal tumor cases (excluding tumors of the duodenal papilla) reported in Japan during the period from 1962 to\\u000a 1977 was also reported.

  1. Breast Cancer-Associated pS2 Protein: Synthesis and Secretion by Normal Stomach Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Rio; J. P. Bellocq; J. Y. Daniel; C. Tomasetto; R. Lathe; M. P. Chenard; A. Batzenschlager; P. Chambon

    1988-01-01

    The human pS2 gene is specifically expressed under estrogen transcriptional control in a subclass of estrogen receptor-containing human breast cancer cells. The pS2 gene encodes an 84-amino acid protein that is secreted after signal peptide cleavage. The distribution of pS2 protein in normal human tissues was studied with antibodies to pS2; pS2 was specifically expressed and secreted by mucosa cells

  2. Cell sheet technology for regeneration of esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Kanai, Nobuo; Murakami, Daisuke; Kondo, Makoto; Ishii, Takaaki; Ohki, Takeshi; Namiki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Okano, Teruo

    2012-10-01

    The progress of tissue-engineering technology has realized development of new therapies to treat various disorders by using cultured cells. Cell- and tissue-based therapies have been successfully applied to human patients, and several tissue-engineered products have been approved by the regulatory agencies and are commercially available. In the review article, we describe our experience of development and clinical application of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been shown to be useful for removal of gastrointestinal neoplasms with less invasiveness compared with open surgery, especially in esophageal surgery. However, postoperative inflammation and stenosis are major complications observed after intensive mucosal resection. Therefore, we have developed novel regenerative medicine to prevent such complications and promote wound healing of esophageal mucosa after EMR or ESD. Transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated from patients' own oral mucosa. Immediately after EMR or ESD, fabricated autologous cell sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the ulcer sites. We performed a preclinical study with a canine model. In human clinical settings, cell culture and cell sheet fabrication were performed in clean rooms according to good manufacturing practice guidelines, and pharmaceutical drugs were used as supplements to culture medium in place of research regents used in animal study. We believe that cell-based regenerative medicine would be useful to improve quality of life of patients after EMR or ESD. PMID:23066307

  3. Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: The mechanisms and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    This review updates the current views on aging gastric mucosa and the mechanisms of its increased susceptibility to injury. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that gastric mucosa of aging individuals-“aging gastropathy”-has prominent structural and functional abnormalities vs young gastric mucosa. Some of these abnormalities include a partial atrophy of gastric glands, impaired mucosal defense (reduced bicarbonate and prostaglandin generation, decreased sensory innervation), increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), impaired healing of injury and reduced therapeutic efficacy of ulcer-healing drugs. Detailed analysis of the above changes indicates that the following events occur in aging gastric mucosa: reduced mucosal blood flow and impaired oxygen delivery cause hypoxia, which leads to activation of the early growth response-1 (egr-1) transcription factor. Activation of egr-1, in turn, upregulates the dual specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) resulting in activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 and reduced expression of the anti-apoptosis protein, survivin. The imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptosis mediators results in increased apoptosis and increased susceptibility to injury. This paradigm has human relevance since increased expression of PTEN and reduced expression of survivin were demonstrated in gastric mucosa of aging individuals. Other potential mechanisms operating in aging gastric mucosa include reduced telomerase activity, increase in replicative cellular senescence, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and importin-?-a nuclear transport protein essential for transport of transcription factors to nucleus. Aging gastropathy is an important and clinically relevant issue because of: (1) an aging world population due to prolonged life span; (2) older patients have much greater risk of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastrointestinal complications (e.g., NSAIDs-induced gastric injury) than younger patients; and (3) increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury can be potentially reduced or reversed pharmacologically. PMID:24782600

  4. Helicobacter pylori associated with a high prevalence of duodenal ulcer disease and a low prevalence of gastric cancer in a developing nation.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, P J; Li, Y Y; Zhou, M H; Chen, M H; Du, G G; Huang, B J; Mitchell, H M; Hazell, S L

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer--in particular, the presence or absence of bacteria, the grading of gastritis, and the degree of inflammation in the antral and oxyntic mucosae. The grading of gastritis and the detection of H pylori were determined by histology using the Sydney system. Of the 1006 patients examined, 34.5% had duodenal ulcer disease, 3.5% gastric ulcer disease, and 2% with coexistent ulceration. Most patients (50.2%) were classified as having non-ulcer dyspepsia. Altogether 2.4% of patients had gastric cancer and two further patients had carcinoma in the gastric stump. Of the ulcer disease patients, 87.2% had histological evidence of H pylori infection. After patients who had taken antibiotics or bismuth compounds in the preceding four weeks were excluded, 98.9% of the duodenal ulcer disease, 100% of the gastric ulcer disease, and 100% of the coexistent ulcer disease patients had evidence of H pylori infection. In patients with gastric cancer who had not taken antimicrobial agents in the four weeks before endoscopy, 83.3% had evidence of H pylori infection. Thus, there was a high rate of duodenal ulcer disease and a low rate of gastric ulcer disease in southern China, an area of low gastric cancer mortality. There was a specific topographical relationship between H pylori, the histological response, and gastroduodenal disease. Our data suggest that the status of a nation as either 'developed' or 'developing' can not be used to predict the upper gastrointestinal disease profile of its population. PMID:7883217

  5. Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Papazian; A Braillon; J L Dupas; F Sevenet; J P Capron

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100

  6. Gastric mucosa under the dissecting microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Salem

    1965-01-01

    D ISSECTING-MICROSCOPY~ EXAMINATION of the small-intestinal mucosa has become an important part of biopsy study in diseases affecting the small intestine, particularly tile condition known as idiopathic steatorrhea (nontropical sprue). Examination of the biopsy specimen with the dissecting microscope provides immediate diagnosis in that condition. Rubin et at. 1 showed that in nontropical sprue, the appearance of the jejunal biopsy

  7. Role of anaerobic bacteria in the metabolic welfare of the colonic mucosa in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W E Roediger

    1980-01-01

    Suspensions of isolated epithelial cells (colonocytes) from the human colon were used to assess utilisation of respiratory fuels which are normally available to the colonic mucosa in vivo. Cells were prepared from operative specimens of the ascending colon (seven) and descending colon (seven). The fuels that were used were the short chain fatty acid n-butyrate, produced only by anaerobic bacteria

  8. Selective culturing of swine gastrointestinal bacteria on substrates simulating the intestinal mucosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many gastrointestinal (GI) microbes are in intimate contact with the host tissues, and characterizing these tissue-associated communities is important for elucidating their role in animal and human health. The GI mucosa is an environment distinct from the intestinal lumen and is covered by a mucus l...

  9. To make a new intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Stelzner, Matthias; Chen, David C

    2006-01-01

    A number of clinical conditions are caused by disorders affecting the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Some patients suffer from a loss of mucosal surface area due to congenital defects or due to surgical resections ("short bowel syndrome"). Other patients have inborn or acquired defects of certain mucosal functions (e.g., glucose-galactose malabsorption, bile acid malabsorption). Many patients with these mucosal disorders could be more effectively treated if healthy mucosa were available in larger quantities as a replacement or functional supplement. We therefore developed methods to transplant mucosal stem cells from one part of the intestine to another and to make bioengineered intestinal mucosa. We generated an animal model of bile acid malabsorption using rats that underwent resection of the distal 25% of their small intestine (ileum). This resulted in significant losses of bile acids with the fecal excretions in these animals. We subsequently harvested ileal stem cell clusters from neonatal donors, removed the mucosa from a segment of proximal intestine (jejunum), and implanted the stem cell clusters into the debrided segment of jejunum. After four weeks, the animals had developed a functional "neomucosa." We inserted the "neo-ileal" segment into continuity as a substitute ileum. Postoperative measurements of fecal bile acid excretion showed that we were able to reverse the malabsorption syndrome in this model. This was the first reported neo-mucosa-based treatment of a malabsorption syndrome in vivo. We subsequently studied different biodegradable PGA and PLLA scaffoldings to generate bioengineered intestinal mucosa. We implanted these materials into omentum of rats and were able to identify a PGA/PLLA hybrid material on which engraftment rates of 36% of the available surface area could be achieved. Most recently, we developed a novel technique that permits direct observation of cell-biomaterial interactions after implantation into omentum or intestine in vivo. This method will help to optimize engraftment conditions for stem cell clusters on biomaterials. PMID:16608391

  10. Glycophenotypic alterations induced by Pteridium aquilinum in mice gastric mucosa: synergistic effect with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Joana; Magalhães, Ana; Carvalho, Ana S; Hernandez, Gilberto E; Papp, Suzanne L; Head, Steven R; Michel, Valérie; David, Leonor; Gärtner, Fátima; Touati, Eliette; Reis, Celso A

    2012-01-01

    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewis(x). These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process. PMID:22719879

  11. HIV Infection of the Genital Mucosa in Women

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    genital mucosa of women. Anatomic Sites for HIV Invasion in the Female Genital Tract Although vaginal of the vaginal, ectocervical, and endocervical mucosa to successful transmission remain unknown, but HIV penetration and infection have been demonstrated in all three sites. The vaginal mucosa and ecto- cervix

  12. Evolution of nonspecific duodenal lymphocytosis over 2 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Losurdo, Giuseppe; Piscitelli, Domenico; Giangaspero, Antonio; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Buffelli, Francesca; Giorgio, Floriana; Montenegro, Lucia; Sorrentino, Claudia; Amoruso, Annacinzia; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the evolution of duodenal lymphocytosis (DL), a condition characterized by increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), over 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy/histology for abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, weakness or other extraintestinal features compatible with celiac disease (CD) were included. Evaluation of IELs infiltrate in duodenal biopsy samples was carried out by CD3-immunohistochemistry and expressed as number of positive cells/100 enterocytes. Diagnostic agreement on the IELs count was tested by calculating the weighted k coefficient. All patients underwent serological detection of autoantibodies associated with CD: IgG and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and endomysium. Each patient underwent further investigations to clarify the origin of DL at baseline and/or in the course of 2 years of follow-up every six months. Autoimmune thyroiditis, intestinal infections, parasitic diseases, bacterial intestinal overgrowth, hypolactasia and wheat allergy were detected. Colonoscopy and enteric magnetic resonance imaging were performed when necessary. Risk factors affecting the final diagnosis were detected by multinomial logistic regression and expressed as OR. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients (16 males, 69 females, aged 34.1 ± 12.5 years) were followed up for a mean period of 21.7 ± 11.7 mo. At baseline, endoscopy/duodenal biopsy, CD3 immunohistochemistry revealed: > 25 IELs/100 enterocytes in 22 subjects, 15-25 IELs in 37 and < 15 IELs in 26. They all had negative serum anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium, whilst 5 showed IgG anti-gliadin positivity. In the course of follow-up, 23 developed CD seropositivity and gluten sensitivity (GS) was identified in 19. Other diagnoses were: 5 Helicobacter pylori infections, 4 jejunal Crohn’s disease, 1 lymphocytic colitis and 1 systemic sclerosis. The disease in the remaining 32 patients was classified as irritable bowel syndrome because of the lack of diagnostic evidence. At multivariate analysis, the evolution towards CD was associated with an IELs infiltrate > 25 (OR = 1640.4) or 15-25 (OR = 16.95), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/8 (OR = 140.85) or DQA1*0501 (OR = 15.36), diarrhea (OR = 5.56) and weakness (OR = 11.57). GS was associated with IELs 15-25 (OR = 28.59), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR = 87.63), folate deficiency (OR = 48.53) and diarrhea (OR = 54.87). CONCLUSION: DL may have a multifactorial origin but the IELs infiltrate and HLA are strong predictive factors for CD development and a clinical diagnosis of GS. PMID:26140001

  13. Effects of rapeseed oil duodenal infusion on adipose tissue lipolytic activities of dairy cows during early lactation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of rapeseed oil duodenal infusion on adipose tissue lipolytic activities of dairy cows the effects of rapeseed oil duodenal infusion in early lactating dairy cows that are mobiliz- ing their body

  14. Acute perforated duodenal ulcer is not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D H Reinbach; G Cruickshank; K E McColl

    1993-01-01

    Most patients with chronic duodenal ulcer disease have Helicobacter pylori infection and eradicating it considerably reduces the relapse rate. The prevalence of H pylori in 80 patients (mean age = 52 years, range 17-85) presenting with acute perforated duodenal ulcer was examined and compared with age and sex matched hospital control patients. H pylori state was assessed by serum anti-H

  15. Reevaluation of duodenal endoscopic markers in the diagnosis of celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Bardella; Giorgio Minoli; Franco Radaelli; Maurizio Quatrini; Paolo A. Bianchi; Dario Conte

    2000-01-01

    Background: Loss or reduction of duodenal folds, scalloping of Kerkring folds and a micronodular or mosaic duodenal mucosal pattern have been described in celiac disease (CD), endoscopic findings that are considered reliable in the diagnosis of this disorder. However, most data have been obtained in patients with suspected or certain disease. We assessed the accuracy of the above markers in

  16. Effects of Antiulcer Agents on Healing of Mepirizole-induced Duodenal Ulcers in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ishihara; S. Okabe

    1983-01-01

    Healing processes of duodenal ulcers induced by mepirizole and effects of several drugs on the ulcer healing were studied in rats. Mepirizole-induced duodenal ulcers, except for the perforated ones within 3 days after ulceration, gradually diminished in size and depth by the 15th day. Several ulcers persisted for up to 40 days, but complete healing in all rats occurred by

  17. Radioselenium in duodenal aspirate as an assessment of pancreatic exocrine function.

    PubMed

    Youngs, G R; Agnew, J E; Levin, G E; Bouchier, I A

    1971-05-01

    A new test of pancreatic exocrine function is described in which radioselenium is measured in duodenal aspirate after an intravenous injection of (75)Se-selenomethionine and administration of a Lundh test meal. Duodenal (75)Se activity gave good separation between normals and subjects with disease of the exocrine pancreas and correlated well with trypsin levels in the aspirate. PMID:5572384

  18. Rumen metabolism and duodenal nutrient flow as affected by ration composition and antimicrobials in sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the rumen was increased by F + AVO diet. Duodenal flow of total N, total AA, essential AA was unaffected by additives. Both non ammonia N passage and non essential AA flow were lower for F + SAL than F. SalinomycinRumen metabolism and duodenal nutrient flow as affected by ration composition and antimicrobials

  19. Duodenal Perforation in a Neonate: An Unusual Presentation and Analysis of the Cause

    PubMed Central

    Al Omran, Yasser; Omer Anwar, Mohammed; Al-Hindi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal perforation in neonates is a rare surgical emergency. In the cases reported, most perforations are localised to the anterior duodenum and a few at posterior aspect. We present a case of duodenal perforation in the second part of the duodenum in a 26-day-old healthy male neonate.

  20. [Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Beck-Mannagetta, J; Hutarew, G

    2012-09-01

    The oral mucosa contains melanocytes, even though one might not suspect this when examining white subjects. Drug-induced pigmentation is usually irregularly distributed over the oral mucosa; typical causes are contraceptives and tetracyclines. Localized traumatic pigmentation can be due to injuries contaminated by foreign material (dust). Not infrequently an amalgam tattoo can be seen, caused by introduction of amalgam during dental treatment with rotating instruments. Focal melanosis is harmless. Neoplastic pigmentation is rare. Melanotic nevi are small with indistinct borders. Malignant melanoma occurs predominantly on the maxilla or hard palate. Frequently it has already metastasized by the time of diagnosis. Verification by biopsy is essential if a lesion has suddenly appeared, is extensive, elevated, with irregular pigmentation and has no obvious cause. PMID:22956033

  1. Modulation of individual components of gastric motor response to duodenal glucose

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Adam M; Besanko, Laura K; Burgstad, Carly M; Chapman, Marianne J; Horowitz, Michael; Fraser, Robert JL

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate individual components of the antro-pyloro-duodenal (APD) motor response to graded small intestinal glucose infusions in healthy humans. METHODS: APD manometry was performed in 15 healthy subjects (12 male; 40 ± 5 years, body mass index 26.5 ± 1.6 kg/m2) during four 20-min intraduodenal infusions of glucose at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kcal/min, in a randomised double-blinded fashion. Glucose solutions were infused at a rate of 1 mL/min and separated by 40-min “wash-out” period. Data are mean ± SE. Inferential analyses are repeated measure analysis of variance with Bonferroni post-hoc testing. RESULTS: At 0 kcal/min frequency of pressure waves were: antrum (7.5 ± 1.8 waves/20 min) and isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs) (8.0 ± 2.3 waves/20 min) with pyloric tone (0.0 ± 0.9 mmHg). Intraduodenal glucose infusion acutely increased IPPW frequency (P < 0.001) and pyloric tone (P = 0.015), and decreased antral wave frequency (P = 0.007) in a dose-dependent fashion. A threshold for stimulation was observed at 1.0 kcal/min for pyloric phasic pressure waves (P = 0.002) and 1.5 kcal/min for pyloric tone and antral contractility. CONCLUSION: There is hierarchy for the activation of gastrointestinal motor responses to duodenal glucose infusion. An increase in IPPWs is the first response observed. PMID:24124331

  2. Influence of duodenal infusions of EPA and DHA on the lipidic milk secretion of the dairy goat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of duodenal infusions of EPA and DHA on the lipidic milk secretion of the dairy goat C and milk lipidic secretion. Seven lactating goats equipped with duodenal cannulae have followed 3 periods, P2, the goats were duodenally perfused, twice a day after milking with an emulsion providing 4 g

  3. Does treatment of Helicobacter pylori with antibiotics alone heal duodenal ulcer? A randomised double blind placebo controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S K Lam; C K Ching; K C Lai; B C Wong; C L Lai; C K Chan; L Ong

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection prevents duodenal ulcer relapse. It has not been established if treatment of the infection heals duodenal ulcer. AIM: To test the hypothesis that treatment of the infection was associated with healing of duodenal ulcer. METHODS: A randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial was performed to study the efficacy of an antibiotic only regimen consisting

  4. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Ishoo; Nicolas Y. Busaba

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the clinical presentation and management of ectopic gastric mucosa (EGM) in the cervical esophagus. This is a case report of a 53-year-old male who presented with left-sided odynophagia of 3 months' duration. Office examination, including flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy, was unremarkable. Direct larynogoscopy and rigid esophagoscopy revealed a 2 × 1-cm fleshy, red, and raised lesion in the

  5. Use of a duodenal serosal patch in the repair of a colon rupture in a female Solomon Island eclectus parrot.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Jeleen A; Bennett, R Avery

    2011-04-01

    Case Description-A 444-g (0.98-lb) 4-year-old sexually intact female Solomon Island eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus solomonensis) was referred and evaluated for a suspected colonic obstruction. Clinical Findings-The parrot had a 3-day history of not passing feces and lack of appetite following treatment of dystocia that included percutaneous collapse of the egg and manual removal of egg fragments via the cloaca. During this procedure, a tear in the cloacal mucosa developed. The tear was repaired via a midline cloacotomy. Although clinically stable at the time of referral, the parrot became lethargic and bradycardic and had delayed crop emptying. Treatment and Outcome-A midline celiotomy and cloacotomy were performed to relieve the colonic obstruction, during which the severely distended colon ruptured. The colonic defects were closed in a simple interrupted pattern, and a serosal patch was applied by use of the adjacent duodenum. The bird recovered uneventfully from anesthesia and was passing voluminous feces with mildly increased effort within 1 hour after surgery. At 3 weeks after surgery, the parrot was passing feces with no increase in effort and had a normal appetite. Clinical Relevance-Application of a duodenal serosal patch for repair of a colon rupture was successful in this parrot. Gastrointestinal obstruction is rare in birds, but should be considered in birds that have regurgitation, decreased fecal production, and gastrointestinal dilation. Because birds lack an omentum, serosal patching with adjacent duodenum should be considered as a viable option in avian surgery. PMID:21453182

  6. Asymptomatic Duodenal Perforation from an Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jean R.; Oza, Veeral M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent exponential increase in inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placements has led to a higher rate of filter complications. A 46-year-old man with a past history of IVC filter placement for bilateral deep vein thrombosis presented with lower abdominal pain. Imaging studies demonstrated IVC filter strut penetrations into multiple structures. Upper endoscopy confirmed an uncomplicated single IVC filter strut penetration into the duodenal wall. The abdominal pain was determined to be unrelated to IVC filter strut penetration, and the patient was managed conservatively. Although IVC filter strut penetrations can cause significant complications, current guidelines remain unclear for management of asymptomatic enteric IVC filter strut penetrations.

  7. Surgical Excision of Duodenal/Pancreatic Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Eduardo; Hassani, Ali; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Shi, Dongping; Pontes, J. Edson; Weaver, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a potential to metastasize to almost any site and this may occur many years following nephrectomy. We present six cases with uncommon sites of metastasis: four patients presented with distal pancreatic metastasis and two with duodenal/head of the pancreas metastasis. Time to metastatic disease varied from 1 to 19?years following renal surgery. For patients are alive and two succumbed to their disease. Long-term survival can be achieved with aggressive surgical excision of disease. PMID:25177547

  8. Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.

    1985-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

  9. 18?-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Delivered Orally Induces Isolated Lymphoid Follicle Maturation at the Intestinal Mucosa and Attenuates Rotavirus Shedding

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Jay M.; Hoffman, Carol; Pascual, David W.; Hardy, Michele E.

    2012-01-01

    Glycyrrhizin, an abundant bioactive component of the medicinal licorice root is rapidly metabolized by gut commensal bacteria into 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA). Either or both of these compounds have been shown to have antiviral, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-ulcerative, anti-tumor, anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro or in vivo. In this study, the ability of GRA to modulate immune responses at the small intestinal mucosa when delivered orally was investigated. Analysis of cytokine transcription in duodenal and ileal tissue in response to GRA treatment revealed a pattern of chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression predictive of B cell recruitment to the gut. Consistent with this finding, GRA induced increases in CD19+ B cells in the lamina propria and B220+ B cell aggregates framed by CD11c+ dendritic cells in structures resembling isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Using a mouse model of rotavirus infection, GRA reduced the duration of viral antigen shedding, and endpoint serum antibody titers were higher in GRA-treated animals. Together the data suggest GRA delivered orally augments lymphocyte recruitment to the intestinal mucosa and induces maturation of B cell-rich ILF independently of ectopic antigenic stimulus. These results provide further support a role for dietary ligands in modulation of dynamic intestinal lymphoid tissue. PMID:23152913

  10. Palliation of Malignant Biliary and Duodenal Obstruction with Combined Metallic Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Akinci, Devrim, E-mail: akincid@hotmail.com; Akhan, Okan; Ozkan, Fuat; Ciftci, Turkmen; Ozkan, Orhan S.; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ozmen, Mustafa N. [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2007-11-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction with combined metallic stenting under fluoroscopy guidance. Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 9 patients (6 men and 3 women) who underwent biliary and duodenal stenting was performed. The mean age of patients was 61 years (range: 42-80 years). The causes of obstruction were pancreatic carcinoma in 7 patients, cholangiocellular carcinoma in one, and duodenal carcinoma in the other. Biliary and duodenal stents were placed simultaneously in 4 patients. In other 5 patients dudodenal stents were placed after biliary stenting when the duodenal obstruction symptoms have developed. In two patients duodenal stents were advanced via transgastric approach. Results. Technical success rate was 100 %. After percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting bilirubin levels decreased to normal levels in 6 patients and in remaining 3 patients mean reduction of 71% in bilirubin levels was achieved. Tumoral ingrowth occurred in one patient and percutaneous biliary restenting was performed 90 days after the initial procedure. Of the 9 patients, 6 patients were able to tolerate solid diet, whereas 2 patients could tolerate liquid diet and one patient did not show any improvement. Mean survival periods were 111 and 73 days after biliary and duodenal stenting, respectively. Conclusion. Combined biliary and duodenal stent placement which can be performed under fluoroscopic guidance without assistance of endoscopy is feasible and an effective method of palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstructions. If transoral and endoscopic approaches fail, percutaneous gastrostomy route allows duodenal stenting.

  11. Significant Depletion of CD4+ T Cells Occurs in the Oral Mucosa during Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection with the Infected CD4+ T Cell Reservoir Continuing to Persist in the Oral Mucosa during Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    George, Jeffy; Wagner, Wendeline; Lewis, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) infections are characterized by manifestation of numerous opportunistic infections and inflammatory conditions in the oral mucosa. The loss of CD4+ T cells that play a critical role in maintaining mucosal immunity likely contributes to this process. Here we show that CD4+ T cells constitute a minor population of T cells in the oral mucosa and display a predominantly central memory phenotype mirroring other mucosal sites such as the rectal mucosa. Chronic SIV infection was associated with a near total depletion of CD4+ T cells in the oral mucosa that appear to repopulate during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Repopulating CD4+ T cells harbored a large fraction of Th17 cells suggesting that ART potentially reconstitutes oral mucosal immunity. However, a minor fraction of repopulating CD4+ T cells harbored SIV DNA suggesting that the viral reservoir continues to persist in the oral mucosa during ART. Therapeutic approaches aimed at obtaining sustainable CD4+ T cell repopulation in combination with strategies that can eradicate the latent viral reservoir in the oral mucosa are essential for better oral health and long-term outcome in HIV infected patients. PMID:26065003

  12. [Primary melanoma of the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa].

    PubMed

    Ra?kov, S; Avramov, T; Despotov, O

    2001-01-01

    The authors make short review on the one of most malignant neoplasms in human pathology--its incidence, ethiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognostic features. We present a clinical case from our practice--a melanoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses--a rare localization. Melanocarcinomas of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are almost uniformly fatal. Undoubtedly some of the contributory reasons for their grave prognosis are the delay in detection and in accurate histologic diagnosis, the frequent injudicious therapy, the difficulties in adequate operative removal. Melanomas o mucous membranes may arise in mucosa lined by either normally present, or metaplastic stratified squamous epithelium. PMID:12024680

  13. Calcium transport by rat duodenal villus and crypt basolateral membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J.R.F.; Weiser, M.M.

    1987-02-01

    Rat duodenal cells were isolated sequentially to give fractions enriched for villus and crypt cells. From each of these fractions, basolateral-enriched membrane vesicles were prepared and ATP-dependent calcium uptake was studied. Calcium uptake was sensitive to temperature, was inhibited by vanadate and by A23187, and was lower in vitamin D-deficient animals. In normal animals, (UVCa)-transport was approximately twofold greater in villus-tip than in crypt cell-fraction basolateral membranes though the affinity of the uptake for calcium was similar (K/sub m/ = 0.3 M). In vitamin D-deficient animals, the crypt-to-villus gradient was reduced, and in all fractions, calcium transport was similar to or lower than that in the crypts of normal animals. Six hours after vitamin D-deficient animals were repleted with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a significant increase in calcium transport by everted gut sacs was present; however, basolateral calcium transport was significantly increased in only the mid-villus fractions, and no change was seen in the villus-tip fractions. Thus vitamin D appears necessary for the development of increased basolateral membrane calcium pump activity in duodenal villus cells, but not all cells in vitamin D-deficient rats are able to respond to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

  14. Gastric and Duodenal Stents: Follow-Up and Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto Pabon, Isabel Teresa; Paul Diaz, Laura [Vascular and Interventional Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Ctra de Toledo km. 12500, E-28905 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz de Adana, Juan Carlos; Lopez Herrero, Julio [Digestive Surgery Department, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Ctra de Toledo km. 12500, E-28905 Getafe, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of self-expanding metallic stents in treating inoperable gastric and duodenal stenoses during follow-up and to evaluate the complications encountered.Methods: A total of 31 patients suffering from gastroduodenal obstruction (29 malignant, 2 benign) were treated with a self-expanding metallic stent (Wallstent). In 24 cases insertion was by the peroral route, in seven cases via gastrostomy.Results: All the strictures were successfully negotiated under fluoroscopic guidance without having to resort to endoscopy. A total of 27 patients (87%) were able to resume a regular diet, a soft diet, or a liquid diet orally. Complications included one case of stent malpositioning, one case of leakage of ascitic fluid through the gastrostomy orifice, one case of perforation and fistula to the biliary tree, and two cases of hematemesis. In two patients (6%) additional stents were implanted to improve patency. In all patients follow-up was maintained until death. Recurrence of symptoms immediately before death occurred in seven cases (23%). Mean survival time of patients was 13.3 weeks (SE {+-} 4.6).Conclusions: The deployment of gastroduodenal stents resulted in good palliation of inoperable gastric and duodenal stenoses. Certain technical aspects, e.g., adaptation of stents to bowel morphology, is critical to proper stent function and avoidance of complications.

  15. Patient-specific finite element analysis of viscoelastic masticatory mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress and strain inside of the oral mucosa in partially-edentulous patients. The patient-specific finite element models of the mucosa and the bone were constructed using the CT images and in-vivo surface measurement during a continuous load. The mean initial shear modulus of 8.3 × 10–5 (GPa) and the mean relaxation time of 503 (s) were determined as the viscoelastic properties of the mucosa. The increase of the highest maximum compressive strain during the continuous loading was observed in all the patients, however; the intensity of strain was not in accordance with the thickness of the mucosa. It is suggested that the variations of the morphology and the initial modulus of the mucosa should be considered in the mathematical approaches to detect the mechanical responses of the oral mucosa. PMID:23580171

  16. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

  17. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

  18. Pancreatitis and duodenal obstruction due to periampullary carcinoma associated with familial polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D N; Smith, J A; Norman, J N; Brunt, P W

    1978-06-01

    Duodenal lesions are being reported in cases with familial polyposis of the colon. A case is described presenting with duodenal obstruction and pancreatitis complicating a peri-ampullary carcinoma in a patient with familial polyposis (adenomatosis of the colon and rectum). Upper gastrointestinal lesions notably in the duodenum include duodenal polyps and carcinoma and peri-ampullary malignancy. It is suggested that endoscopy and hypotonic duodenography be considered in patients with adenomatosis of the colon and rectum presenting with non-colonic alimentary symptoms. PMID:683914

  19. Quantitative comparison of the expression of antimicrobial peptides in the oral mucosa and extraoral skin.

    PubMed

    Kesting, Marco R; Mueller, Christian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Steiner, Timm; Bauer, Florian; Teichmann, Jan; Baumann, Claudia M; Barthel, Leopold C; Satanovskij, Robin M; Mücke, Thomas; Schulte, Matthias; Schütz, Katrin; Wolff, Klaus-D; Rohleder, Nils H

    2012-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) defend epithelial surfaces against pathological micro-organisms. We know of no comparison of their expression between the oral mucosa and extraoral epithelium, but knowledge of differences in their quantities is of interest, possibly as a starting point for new treatments. Expression of AMP human beta-defensin (hBD)-1/-2/-3 and psoriasin in the oral mucosa and extraoral epithelium of the head and neck were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (n=14), immunohistochemistry (n=6), and western blot (n=8). RT-PCR showed that all the genes investigated were expressed significantly more in the oral mucosa than in the skin (hBD-1: p=0.002; hBD-2: p=0.006; hBD-3: p=0.035; psoriasin: p=0.02). Immunohistochemistry and western blot showed differential concentrations of proteins: hBD-2 (p=0.021) and hBD-3 (p=0.043) were pronounced in the oral mucosa, whereas psoriasin was raised in the extraoral skin (p=0.021). There was no difference in protein concentrations for hBD-1 (p=0.08). The observed differences in the expression of AMP may be important for new treatments such as topical application of AMP derivatives. PMID:21820218

  20. A comparative ex vivo drug permeation study of beta-blockers through porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Amores, Sonia; Lauroba, Jacinto; Calpena, Ana; Colom, Helena; Gimeno, Alvaro; Domenech, José

    2014-07-01

    Apparent permeability coefficients (kp) of a series of beta-blockers: acebutolol, atenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, oxprenolol and propranolol, through porcine buccal mucosa were determined. The aim of the study was to determine the permeation parameters (apparent permeability coefficient, kp; flux, J; and lag time, TL) as a measure of the intrinsic permeability of porcine buccal mucosa to these drugs, in order to predict the efficacy of their possible administration through human buccal mucosa. A positive linear correlation was observed between the apparent permeability coefficient, kpand the partition coefficient, P. Oxprenolol and propranolol are the drugs that presented the highest values of kp: 0.3231×10(2) cm/h and 0.5666×10(2) cm/h, respectively. Multiple linear regression (MLR) using least square estimation was performed on the data set with logkpas dependent variable and the descriptors as predictor variables. The potential systemic capacity after a buccal administration was predicted by estimating the plasma concentrations at steady-stated (Css). Considering the entire process of permeation ex vivo, propranolol and oxprenolol would seem to be the best candidates for administration through the buccal mucosa. PMID:24727142

  1. Intermittent subobstruction and cholestasis as complications of duodenal amyloid tumours.

    PubMed

    Baldewijns, M; Ectors, N; Verbeeck, G; Janssens, J; De Schepper, J; Ponette, E; Geboes, K; Desmet, V

    1995-02-01

    Amyloidosis confined to the duodenum is uncommon. In the present report the history of an 83-year old patient, admitted for vomiting and heavy epigastric pain, is described. Radiographic and endoscopic investigation revealed two polypoid lesions in the duodenum (D2). Biopsies showed diffuse amyloid deposition in the lamina propria, muscularis mucosae and submucosa of the duodenum as well as vascular deposits. No other localisations were documented. Amyloid tumours of the gastrointestinal tract are rare but may lead to serious symptoms. PMID:7750713

  2. Helicobacter heilmannii sp. nov., isolated from feline gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Smet, A; Flahou, B; D'Herde, K; Vandamme, P; Cleenwerck, I; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F

    2012-02-01

    Three gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria, strains ASB1(T), ASB2 and ASB3, with a corkscrew-like morphology isolated from the gastric mucosa of cats were studied using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolates grew on biphasic culture plates under microaerobic conditions at 37 °C and exhibited urease, oxidase and catalase activities. They were also able to grow in colonies on dry agar plates. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, ASB1(T), ASB2 and ASB3 were identified as members of the genus Helicobacter and showed 98 to 99?% sequence similarity to strains of Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, 'Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii', Helicobacter cynogastricus, Helicobacter baculiformis and Helicobacter salomonis, six related Helicobacter species previously detected in feline or canine gastric mucosa. Sequencing of the partial hsp60 gene demonstrated that ASB1(T), ASB2 and ASB3 constitute a separate taxon among the feline and canine Helicobacter species. The urease gene sequences of ASB1(T), ASB2 and ASB3 showed approximately 91?% similarity to those of 'Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii'. Protein profiling, the absence of alkaline phosphatase activity and several other biochemical characteristics also allowed strains ASB1(T), ASB2 and ASB3 to be differentiated from other Helicobacter species of feline or canine gastric origin. The results of this polyphasic taxonomic study show that the cultured isolates constitute a new taxon corresponding to 'Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii', which was previously demonstrated in the stomach of humans, wild felidae, cats and dogs. The name Helicobacter heilmannii sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates; the type strain is ASB1(T) (=DSM 24751 (T) =LMG 26292(T)) [corrected]. PMID:21421932

  3. Parietal cell vagotomy and dilatation for peptic duodenal stricture.

    PubMed Central

    Mente?, A S

    1990-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic duodenal stricture (pyloric stenosis) was treated with parietal cell vagotomy and dilatation of the stricture in 32 patients. Follow-up is in the range of 5 years in 37.4% of the patients, while 6 to 10 years follow-up is available in 62.4% of the patients. At their last follow-up, 74.9% of the patients were in either Visick 1 or 2 clinical status. Recurrence rates have been 3.1% at 1 year, 9.3% at 5 years, and 21.8% after 6 to 10 years follow-up. There has been only one instance (3.1%) of restenosis. Two patients required reoperation because of recurrence and one of them died. PMID:2241315

  4. A modified Rendezvous ERCP technique in duodenal diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Eris, Cengiz; Ozkan, Erkan; Gunay, Emre; Aktekin, Ali; Muftuoglu, MA Tolga

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) failure, we describe a modified Rendezvous technique for an ERCP in patients operated on for common bile duct stone (CBDS) having a T-tube with retained CBDSs. METHODS: Five cases operated on for CBDSs and having retained stones with a T-tube were referred from other hospitals located in or around Istanbul city to the ERCP unit at the Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital. Under sedation anesthesia, a sterile guide-wire was inserted via the T-tube into the common bile duct (CBD) then to the papilla. A guide-wire was held by a loop snare and removed through the mouth. The guide-wire was inserted into the sphincterotome via the duodenoscope from the tip to the handle. The duodenoscope was inserted down to the duodenum with a sphincterotome and a guide-wire in the working channel. With the guidance of a guide-wire, the ERCP and sphincterotomy were successfully performed, the guide-wire was removed from the T-tube, the stones were removed and the CBD was reexamined for retained stones by contrast. RESULTS: An ERCP can be used either preoperatively or postoperatively. Although the success rate in an isolated ERCP treatment ranges from up to 87%-97%, 5%-10% of the patients require two or more ERCP treatments. If a secondary ERCP fails, the clinicians must be ready for a laparoscopic or open exploration. A duodenal diverticulum is one of the most common failures in an ERCP, especially in patients with an intradiverticular papilla. For this small group of patients, an antegrade cannulation via a T-tube can improve the success rate up to nearly 100%. CONCLUSION: The modified Rendezvous technique is a very easy method and increases the success of postoperative ERCP, especially in patients with large duodenal diverticula and with intradiverticular papilla. PMID:24255749

  5. Enhanced production of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 in inflammatory bowel disease mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Wedemeyer; A Lorentz; M Göke; P N Meier; P Flemming; C A Dahinden; M P Manns; S C Bischoff

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThe ? chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) has chemoattractant and activating capabilities in monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.AIMSTo investigate MCP-3 expression in inflammatory conditions of the human intestinal mucosa.PATIENTSForty five colon biopsy specimens from 18 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; 16 specimens from inflamed and 10 from non-inflamed areas) and 19 control patients were examined.METHODSImmunohistochemical staining and reverse

  6. Endocrine Cells in Gastric Carcinoma and Adjacent Mucosa. An Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Angelova Tzaneva

    2002-01-01

    Endocrine cells are often found in human gastric carcinoma and may be recognized by the immunoreactivity of their chromogranin\\u000a A, peptides and biogenic amines content. Anti-chromogranin A was used to investigate the morphology of endocrine cells using\\u000a light and electron microscope immunohistochemical techniques. The hormone content of endocrine cells was examined in both\\u000a tumour tissue and tumour-adjacent mucosa. It was

  7. [Panavir in combined treatment of chronic cystitis with hyperplastic changes in urinary bladder mucosa].

    PubMed

    Aboian, I A; Aboian, V É; Zin'kovskaia, O V; Sknar, V A; Kucherov, V A; Stovbun, S V; Safronov, D Iu; Litvin, A A

    2011-01-01

    Human papilloma virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in patients suffering from chronic cystitis with hyperplastic changes in urinary bladder mucosa. In most of the examinees (90%) it was HPV of highly oncogenic type 16. Panavir added to combined treatment of such patients produced a significant positive result in long-term period. Improvement was observed both in subjective assessment and the absence of dysuria episodes. PMID:22448476

  8. Expression of antimicrobial neutrophil defensins in epithelial cells of active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R N Cunliffe; M Kamal; F R A J Rose; P D James; Y R Mahida

    2002-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The normal intestinal epithelium is increasingly being recognised as an important component of the mucosal innate protection against microorganisms. Human neutrophil defensins 1–3 (HNP 1–3) and lysozyme are components of the systemic innate immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of HNP 1–3 and lysozyme in normal and active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mucosa.Methods: Mucosal

  9. Evaluation of a duodenal digesta sampling system PH Robinson M Gill2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evaluation of a duodenal digesta sampling system PH Robinson M Gill2 'Fredericton Research Centre to solid ratio has not been questioned, Robinson and Kennelly (1990, J Dairy Sci, 73, 3146-3157) challenged

  10. Modeling data for pancreatitis in presence of a duodenal diverticula using logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, S.; Prodanova, K.; Mlachkova, D.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of a periampullary duodenal diverticulum (PDD) is often observed during upper digestive tract barium meal studies and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A few papers reported that the diverticulum had something to do with the incidence of pancreatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate if the presence of duodenal diverticula predisposes to the development of a pancreatic disease. A total 3966 patients who had undergone ERCP were studied retrospectively. They were divided into 2 groups-with and without PDD. Patients with a duodenal diverticula had a higher rate of acute pancreatitis. The duodenal diverticula is a risk factor for acute idiopathic pancreatitis. A multiple logistic regression to obtain adjusted estimate of odds and to identify if a PDD is a predictor of acute or chronic pancreatitis was performed. The software package STATISTICA 10.0 was used for analyzing the real data.

  11. Surgeons' attitudes to the operative management of duodenal ulcer perforation and haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, M. D.; Cameron, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    The currently preferred operative management of duodenal ulcer haemorrhage and perforation was assessed by means of a questionnaire sent to 274 consultant general surgeons in England. A 70% response rate was achieved. Simple closure, with or without H2 antagonist treatment, was the most popular management of a perforated acute duodenal ulcer. For perforation of a chronic duodenal ulcer occurring during H2 antagonist therapy, truncal vagotomy and drainage was the definitive procedure of choice. There was no consensus about the operative management of perforation complicating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment in the elderly patient. Proximal gastric vagotomy appears to have few advocates in the definitive management of either duodenal ulcer perforation or haemorrhage. Of our sample 70% selected truncal vagotomy and drainage with underrunning of the ulcer as the operative treatment of choice for bleeding. Endoscopic coagulation appears to be used only rarely. PMID:2901246

  12. [Mechanical duodenal stump suture. Report of experiences: metal staples versus resorbable staples].

    PubMed

    Tonus, C; Böckmann, U; Nier, H

    1996-03-01

    The main observation criterion of the present retrospective study is the insufficiency rate after machine closing of the duodenal stump (TA-clip seam device, Auto-Suture), as a consequence of gastrectomy, resection of the stomach with Billroth II respective Roux-Y reconstruction, depending on the used type of clip. Between January 1, 1985 and October 2, 1989 the closing of the duodenal stump was routinely carried out with metal clips (n = 253) in the City Hospital Offenbach. Between October 3, 1989 and December 31, 1991 polysorb staples (n = 96) were exclusively used. The patient collectives were comparable regarding age, sex, health status, basic diseases, accompanying diseases and surgical methods. Closing of the duodenal stump by polysorb staples demonstrated with 13.5% more dehiscent seams than with metal clips (4.7%). As a result of the present study, we cannot recommend the use of polysorb clips for the closing of the duodenal stump. PMID:8681699

  13. Congenital duodenal diaphragms in adults: a delayed cause of intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Cooperman, A M; Adachi, M; Rankin, G B; Sivak, M

    1975-01-01

    Congenital duodenal diaphragms in the adult are uncommon, unsuspected lesions that infrequently cause intestinal obstruction. The diaphragms may be single or multiple and are usually located near the ampulla of Vater. Three cases are summarized and the recent literature reviewed. At least 35 cases have been reported. Treatment most often consisted of duodenotomy,excision of the web and duodenal closure. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1103761

  14. Bacterial density of Helicobacter pylori predicts the success of triple therapy in bleeding duodenal ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bor-Shyang Sheu; Hsiao-Bai Yang; Ih-Jen Su; Shu-Chu Shiesh; Chih-Hsein Chi; Xi-Zhang Lin

    1996-01-01

    Background: We studied whether different initial bacterial densities of Helicobacter pylori would alter the eradication rate of H. pylori by triple therapy (amoxicillin 500 mg t.i.d. and metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d. for 14 days; bismuth subcitrate 120 mg t.i.d. for 28 days) in patients with duodenal ulcer bleeding. Method: One hundred thirty-six cases with duodenal ulcer bleeding and H. pylori

  15. Successful Endoscopic Decompression for Intramural Duodenal Hematoma with Gastric Outlet Obstruction Complicating Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Young; Chung, Jin Soo

    2012-01-01

    Non-traumatic intramural duodenal hematoma (IDH) with duodenal obstruction caused by acute pancreatitis is rare. Most patients with non-extensive hematoma show improvement with non-operative treatments. Percutaneous drainage or surgery may be necessary in cases with suspected malignancy, perforation, or intestinal tract obstruction. We present a case of IDH caused by acute pancreatitis that led to obstruction of the duodenum and an experience of successful endoscopic decompression of the hematoma. PMID:22977802

  16. Duodenal mucosal damage associated with chronic use of anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Uchiyama, M; Ikeda, S

    1977-08-01

    As duodenofiberscopy becomes popular, duodenal mucosal damage associated with aspirin ingestion has come to draw more attention than before. Duodenal mucosal injury, with or without gastric lesions, related to long-term use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, indomethacin, ibuprofen, diclofenac or others are reported in three patients, in which the diagnosis was confirmed by emergency endoscopy after hematemesis. Some possible explanations for pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:913366

  17. Lymphoid follicles in antral mucosa: immune response to Campylobacter pylori?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Stolte; S Eidt

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of lymphoid follicles in endoscopic biopsy specimens from normal antral mucosa (n = 220), mucosa with reflux gastritis (n = 104), and in cases with Campylobacter pylori-associated gastritis (n = 2544) was studied. In the latter group whether there were associations between degree and activity of gastritis and the prevalence of lymphoid follicles and between the occurrence of

  18. Effects of tea from Turnera ulmifolia L. on mouse gastric mucosa support the Turneraceae as a new source of antiulcerogenic drugs.

    PubMed

    Gracioso, Juliano de Souza; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2002-04-01

    Turnera ulmifolia is a plant belonging to the family Turneraceae, popularly known in Brazil as chanana. This species is distributed from Guyana to southern Brazil where it is considered a weed. The plant occurs in tropical rain forest, fields, and gardens. Chanana tea is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric dysfunction including gastric and duodenal ulcers. In this study, the ability of a lyophilized infusion, as an aqueous fraction (AqF) of the aerial parts of T. ulmifolia, was investigated for its ability to prevent ulceration of the gastric and duodenal mucosa was examined in mice and rats, respectively. The AqF significantly reduced the formation of lesions associated with HCl/ethanol administration by 39% and 46%, respectively, at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. The AqF also significantly reduced the incidence of gastric lesions induced by a combination of indomethacin and bethanechol by 58% and 72% at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. In stress-induced gastric ulcer, the inhibition by the AqF was 48%, 57%, and 58% at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively (p<0.05). A pyloric ligature experiment showed that the highest dose of the AqF significantly affected the gastric juice parameters by increasing the pH from 2.5 (control) to 5.3 and decreasing the acid output from 11.3 (control) to 3.7 mEq/ml/4 h. The AqF had no significant effect on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Preliminary phytochemical screening confirmed that flavonoids were the major constituents of the AqF of T. ulmifolia. These results indicate that this extract has a significant antiulcerogenic effect, as popularly believed. PMID:11995930

  19. Tissue engineering of oral mucosa: a shared concept with skin.

    PubMed

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Damour, Odile; Hasirci, Vasif

    2015-03-01

    Tissue-engineered oral mucosa, in the form of epithelial cell sheets or full-thickness oral mucosa equivalents, is a potential solution for many patients with congenital defects or with tissue loss due to diseases or tumor excision following a craniofacial cancer diagnosis. In the laboratory, it further serves as an in vitro model, alternative to in vivo testing of oral care products, and provides insight into the behavior of the oral mucosal cells in healthy and pathological tissues. This review covers the old and new generation scaffold types and materials used in oral mucosa engineering; discusses similarities and differences between oral mucosa and skin, the methods developed to reconstruct oral mucosal defects; and ends with future perspectives on oral mucosa engineering. PMID:25326194

  20. Ex vivo permeation characteristics of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pund, Swati; Rasve, Ganesh; Borade, Ganesh

    2013-01-23

    Venlafaxine, a dual acting antidepressant is a new therapeutic option for chronic depression. Depression is a common mental disorder associated with the abnormalities in neuronal transport in the brain. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we analyzed the transport of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa. Transmucosal permeation kinetics of venlafaxine were examined using sheep nasal mucosa mounted onto static vertical Franz diffusion cells. Nasal mucosa was treated with venlafaxine in situ gel (100 ?l; 1% w/v) for 7h. Amount of venlafaxine diffused through mucosa was measured using validated RP-HPLC method. After the completion of the study histopathological investigation of mucosa was carried out. Ex vivo studies through sheep nasal mucosa showed sustained diffusion of venlafaxine with 66.5% permeation in 7h. Transnasal transport of venlafaxine followed a non-Fickian diffusion process. Permeability coefficient and steady state flux were found to be 21.11×10(-3) cmh(-1) and 21.118 ?g cm(-2)h(-1) respectively. Cumulative amount permeated through mucosa at 7h was found to be 664.8 ?g through an area of 3.14 cm(2). Total recovery of venlafaxine at the end of the permeation study was 87.3% of initial dose distributed (i) at the mucosal surface (208.4 ?g; 20.8%) and (ii) through mucosa (664.8 ?g; 66.5%). Histopathological examinations showed no significant adverse effects confirming that the barrier function of nasal mucosa remains unaffected even after treatment with venlafaxine in situ gel. Permeation through sheep nasal mucosa using in situ gel demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery of venlafaxine, providing new dimension to the treatment of chronic depression. PMID:23159662

  1. Water Extracts of Helicobacter pylori Suppress the Expression of Histidine Decarboxylase and Reduce Histamine Content in the Rat Gastric Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Konturek; Tomasz Brzozowski; Aleksandra Duda; Eckhart G. Hahn

    2000-01-01

    Background: Acute Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in humans may be associated with markedly reduced gastric acid secretion, but the mechanism of this hypochlorhydria has not been fully explained. Aims: This study was designed to investigate how water extracts (WE) of Hp applied on rat gastric mucosa affect gastric secretion and mucosal histamine concentration as well as the gene expression for

  2. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Due to Duodenal Erosion by a Biliary Wallstent

    SciTech Connect

    Roebuck, Derek J.; Stanley, Philip [Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Katz, Michael D. [Department of Radiology, University of Southern California, 1500 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Parry, Robert L. [Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Haight, Michael A. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States)

    1998-01-15

    A self-expanding metallic stent (Wallstent) was used to relieve obstruction of the common bile duct in a young male with a desmoplastic small cell tumor of the abdomen. Two months after insertion and following a course of chemotherapy the lower end of the stent eroded the mucosa of the second part of the duodenum causing severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage which necessitated laparotomy and trimming of the stent. This complication may have been due to shrinking of the tumor as well as thrombocytopenia following chemotherapy.

  3. Melatonin inhibits alcohol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sommansson, Anna; Saudi, Wan Salman Wan; Nylander, Olof; Sjöblom, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Increased intestinal permeability is often associated with epithelial inflammation, leaky gut, or other pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. We recently found that melatonin decreases basal duodenal mucosal permeability, suggesting a mucosal protective mode of action of this agent. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of melatonin on ethanol-, wine-, and HCl-induced changes of duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability and motility. Rats were anesthetized with thiobarbiturate and a ~30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum was perfused in situ. Effects on duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability, assessed by measuring the blood-to-lumen clearance of ?¹Cr-EDTA, motility, and morphology, were investigated. Perfusing the duodenal segment with ethanol (10 or 15% alcohol by volume), red wine, or HCl (25-100 mM) induced concentration-dependent increases in paracellular permeability. Luminal ethanol and wine increased, whereas HCl transiently decreased duodenal motility. Administration of melatonin significantly reduced ethanol- and wine-induced increases in permeability by a mechanism abolished by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium (iv) or mecamylamine (luminally). Signs of mucosal injury (edema and beginning of desquamation of the epithelium) in response to ethanol exposure were seen only in a few villi, an effect that was histologically not changed by melatonin. Melatonin did not affect HCl-induced increases in mucosal permeability or decreases in motility. Our results show that melatonin reduces ethanol- and wine-induced increases in duodenal paracellular permeability partly via an enteric inhibitory nicotinic-receptor dependent neural pathway. In addition, melatonin inhibits ethanol-induced increases in duodenal motor activity. These results suggest that melatonin may serve important gastrointestinal barrier functions. PMID:23639810

  4. Role of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Virulence Factors in Colonization at the Bovine Terminal Rectal Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiqing Sheng; Ji Youn Lim; Hannah J. Knecht; Jie Li; Carolyn J. Hovde

    2006-01-01

    The human pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening sequelae and transiently colonizes healthy cattle at the terminal rectal mucosa. This study analyzed virulence factors important for the clinical manifestations of human E. coli O157:H7 infection for their contribution to the persistence of E. coli in cattle. The colonizing ability of E. coli O157:H7 was compared with those

  5. Helicobacter pylori in humans: Where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Arshad; Hamid, Shamila

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been associated with colonization of gastro duodenal mucosa of humans from millions of years. The main burden of the disese is in the developing countries, due to overcrowding and poor hygiene. If left untreated it leads to lot of sequlae from minor to sinister diseases over a period of time. The main challenges that remain are prevention of H. pylori-related diseases by effective treatment and screening procedures and development of a vaccine, which can address all these issues including beneficial aspects of H. pylori. The literature pertaining to different aspects of H. pylori were scrutinized from Pubmed. Material on clinical behavior, complications of chronic gastric involvement, and prevention besides role of H. pylori in nongastric diseases and the latest trends of management was collected for research and review. We continue to face many challenges. The prevention of cancer of the stomach, a worst sequlae of H. pylori continues to be a big challenge despite population screening and prevention surveys being underway in many countries. On the other hand continued scientific work has now unfolded involvement of H. pylori in extragastric diseases like cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, sideroblastic anemia, mental diseases, and collagen vascular diseases. In contrast, the beneficial effects of H. pylori with respect to allergic diseases and obesity are now clear. Moreover, problem of drug resistance for eradication of H. pylori has arisen for which novel treatments are being tried. Lactobacillus reuteri having anti H. pylori action is emerging as one of the promising treatment. PMID:24627871

  6. Mast cell density in cardio-esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, Fatemeh E; Asefi, Hoda; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Pourpak, Zahra; Amini, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    Mast cells are related to certain gastrointestinal complaints. Mast cell density has not been studied in cardio-esophageal region to the best of our knowledge. In this study we wanted to obtain an estimate of mast cell density in this region and compare it with mast cell density in antrum. From April 2007 till March 2010, we chose children (<14 years old) who underwent upper endoscopy and from whom the taken biopsy was stated to be from lower third of esophagus, but in microscopic examination either cardio- esophageal mucosa or only cardiac mucosa was seen. Mast cells were counted by Giemsa stain at ×1000 magnification in 10 fields. 71 children (<14 years old) were included in this study of which, 63.4% (n=45) were female and 36.6% (n=26) were male. The mean age of patients was 7.20±4.21 years (range: 0.2 -14 years). The most common clinical manifestations were recurrent abdominal pain (64.8%) and vomiting (23.9%) followed by symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disorder, poor weight gain, hematemesis and dysphagia. The mean mast cell density in the cardiac mucosa was 33.41±32.75 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-155), which was two times of that in antral mucosa. We found a significant but weak positive correlation at the 0.05 level between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum. Higher mast cell counts were seen in cardiac mucosa in this study. Significant positive correlation between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum could hint to a single underlying etiology for the inflammatory process in gastro- esophageal junction and gastric mucosa. PMID:25148804

  7. Attenuated TLRs in middle ear mucosa contributes to susceptibility of chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Si, Yu; Zhang, Zhi Gang; Chen, Sui Jun; Zheng, Yi Qing; Chen, Yu Bin; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Huaili; Feng, Lian Qiang; Huang, Xi

    2014-08-01

    The variability in the recovery of otitis media (OM) is not well understood. Recent data have shown a critical role for toll-like receptors (TLRs) in inflammatory responses to bacteria. It remains unclear whether TLRs-mediated mucosal immunity plays a role in the OM recovery. The etiology, pathological profile, expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9 and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in human middle-ear mucosae sampled from three subject groups: non-OM group, chronic otitis-media (COM) group, and chronic suppurative otitis-media (CSOM) group. Of the 72 ears, 86.11% CSOM patients were positive for bacteria. The cellular makeup of the middle ear mucosa differs among the three groups. Mucosae from the CSOM group presented chronic inflammation or suppurative inflammation in the rudimentary stroma, mainly with infiltration of monocytes and macrophages. The mRNA and protein levels of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 exhibited no difference between the non-OM and COM groups but were significantly lower in the CSOM group. Conversely, there was no significant difference in the TLR9 level among the three groups. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1?, IFN-?, IL-6 were up-regulated in the CSOM group. This study provides evidence that the variability in clinical otitis media recovery might be associated with the variability in the expression of mucosal TLRs. Reduced TLR levels in the middle-ear mucosa might cause weak host response to bacteria, persistent inflammation and susceptibility to CSOM. PMID:24882571

  8. Acute sensitivity of the oral mucosa to oncogenic K-ras.

    PubMed

    van der Weyden, Louise; Alcolea, Maria P; Jones, Philip H; Rust, Alistair G; Arends, Mark J; Adams, David J

    2011-05-01

    Mouse models of cancer represent powerful tools for analysing the role of genetic alterations in carcinogenesis. Using a mouse model that allows tamoxifen-inducible somatic activation (by Cre-mediated recombination) of oncogenic K-ras(G12D) in a wide range of tissues, we observed hyperplasia of squamous epithelium located in moist or frequently abraded mucosa, with the most dramatic effects in the oral mucosa. This epithelium showed a sequence of squamous hyperplasia followed by squamous papilloma with dysplasia, in which some areas progressed to early invasive squamous cell carcinoma, within 14 days of widespread oncogenic K-ras activation. The marked proliferative response of the oral mucosa to K-ras(G12D) was most evident in the basal layers of the squamous epithelium of the outer lip with hair follicles and wet mucosal surface, with these cells staining positively for pAKT and cyclin D1, showing Ras/AKT pathway activation and increased proliferation with Ki-67 and EdU positivity. The stromal cells also showed gene activation by recombination and immunopositivity for pERK indicating K-Ras/ERK pathway activation, but without Ki-67 positivity or increase in stromal proliferation. The oral neoplasms showed changes in the expression pattern of cytokeratins (CK6 and CK13), similar to those observed in human oral tumours. Sporadic activation of the K-ras(G12D) allele (due to background spontaneous recombination in occasional cells) resulted in the development of benign oral squamous papillomas only showing a mild degree of dysplasia with no invasion. In summary, we show that oral mucosa is acutely sensitive to oncogenic K-ras, as widespread expression of activated K-ras in the murine oral mucosal squamous epithelium and underlying stroma can drive the oral squamous papilloma-carcinoma sequence. PMID:21381032

  9. The effects of ruminal and duodenal casein infusion on dry matter (DM) intake of red clover silage and rumen pool

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The effects of ruminal and duodenal casein infusion on dry matter (DM) intake of red clover silage clover-timothy (75:25) silage fed ad libitum. Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Ayrshire cows, J Anim Sci, 70, 3528-3540). Ruminal casein infusion tended to increase (P

  10. Association of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt with Embolization in the Treatment of Bleeding Duodenal Varix Refractory to Sclerotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulio Illuminati; Allaoua Smail; Daniel Azoulay; Denis Castaing; Henri Bismuth

    2000-01-01

    Background: Bleeding from duodenal varices are often severe (mortality as high as 40%), and more difficult to sclerose than esophageal varices. We report a patient with a bleeding duodenal varix, refractory to sclerotherapy, successfully treated by the association of portosystemic shunt placement and varix embolization, via the same transjugular intrahepatic route. Methods: A 40-year-old Black male underwent emergency TIPS and

  11. Colonic Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Akasaka, Risaburo; Chiba, Toshimi; Dutta, Amit K.; Toya, Yosuke; Mizutani, Tomomi; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Abe, Keinosuke; Kamei, Masato; Kasugai, Satoshi; Shibata, Sho; Abiko, Yukito; Yokoyama, Naoki; Oana, Shuhei; Hirota, Shigeru; Endo, Masaki; Uesugi, Noriyuki; Sugai, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are rare and a definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the colon and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. In this paper we report our experience with four cases of colonic MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. The first patient had a smooth elevated lesion in the rectum and histopathologic examination of the biopsy from the lesion showed centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed thickening of the submucosa and muscularis propria. The patient underwent radiation therapy, and 9 months later a repeat colonoscopy showed complete resolution of the lesion. In case 2, colonoscopy showed a polyp in the cecum; the biopsy was diagnostic of MALT lymphoma. EUS detected a hypoechoic lesion confined to the mucosal layer of the colonic wall. The patient underwent endoscopic mucosal resection of the lesion and after 6 years of follow-up there was no evidence of recurrence. The third patient had a sessile elevated lesion in the sigmoid colon for which she underwent sigmoidectomy. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen was suggestive of MALT lymphoma. The last patient had a smooth elevated lesion in the rectum and magnification endoscopy showed irregular vascular pattern. The patient underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection, and biopsy examination showed the tumor to be MALT lymphoma. Although rare, awareness of MALT lymphoma of the colon is important to evaluate the patient appropriately and to plan further management. PMID:23012617

  12. An Unusual Case of Duodenal Perforation Caused by a Lollipop Stick: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Ae; Lee, Du Hyeon; Hong, Hyoung Ju; Park, Seon Young; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies often pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully; however, complications such as perforation do occur. Most cases of perforation are caused by thin, pointed objects such as needles, toothpicks, or fish and chicken bones. Herein, we report an unusual case of duodenal perforation caused by a lollipop stick with blunt ends. A 23-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department complaining of epigastric and right upper quadrant pain for the last 2 days. Abdominal computed tomography scans confirmed the presence of a foreign body in the duodenum, with signs of duodenal perforation and inflammation. The patient was not aware of ingesting the foreign body. Endoscopy revealed the presence of a lollipop stick in the duodenum, which was removed with forceps. The duodenal perforation was successfully managed by using hemoclips and a detachable snare. PMID:24765603

  13. Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Non-Ampullary Duodenal Neoplasms: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koyu; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen non-ampullary duodenal neoplasms in 16 patients were treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) performed by an endoscopist and an instrument assistant between February 2011 and November 2014. En bloc resection was performed in 15 cases (94%); lateral and vertical margins were pathologically free in 13 cases. Perforation occurred during submucosal dissection using a flex knife, but no perforations occurred in 15 cases using the hook knife only. No postoperative bleeding nor recurrence has been reported in any patient during the median 17-month follow-up period. Use of the hook knife as the main instrument and targeted training of the endoscopist and instrument assistant contributed to safe and effective duodenal ESD for non-ampullary duodenal neoplasms.

  14. Iron absorption by humans and swine from Fe(III)-EDTA. Further studies.

    PubMed

    Candela, E; Camacho, M V; Martínez-Torres, C; Perdomo, J; Mazzarri, G; Acurero, G; Layrisse, M

    1984-12-01

    Studies on iron absorption from Na59Fe-EDTA in humans have shown that only a small proportion of the iron absorbed is excreted by the kidney, less than 1% of the dose administered. The pathway of Na55Fe-[2-14C]EDTA absorption and excretion when administered orally was studied in swine. A certain proportion (about 5%) of the 55Fe is split from the EDTA complex in the lumen of the gut, absorbed mainly from the pylorus and upper jejunum, transferred to plasma transferrin and then incorporated into the circulating hemoglobin. A small proportion of the iron absorbed, less than 1% of the dose administered, is excreted by the kidney, to a degree similar to that excreted by humans. The rest of the iron is eliminated in the feces, about 3% in a soluble form possibly still bound to EDTA and the greater part, about 92%, in an insoluble form. About 5% of the 14C is absorbed almost uniformly along the pyloric duodenal and jejunal mucosa, then transferred slowly to the plasma and excreted by the kidney within 48 hours. The rest of the 14C was excreted in the feces, about 80% in a soluble form and 20% in the insoluble fraction. PMID:6438284

  15. Resolving sphincter of Oddi incontinence for primary duodenal Crohn's disease with strictureplasty

    PubMed Central

    Alemanno, G.; Sturiale, A.; Bellucci, F.; Giudici, F.; Tonelli, F.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Crohn's involvement of duodenum is a rare event and may be associated to proteiform symptoms and uncommon pathological aspects which make diagnosis and treatment complex. PRESENTATION OF CASE The peculiar aspect of this case was a suspected duodeno-biliary fistula. The patient (female, 22 years old) was affected by duodenal Crohn's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a dilated common bile duct, whose final part linked to a formation containing fluid, and characterized by filling of the contrast medium in the excretory phase. Abdominal ultrasound showed intra-hepatic and intra-gallbladder aerobilia. At surgery, the duodenum was mobilized showing an inflammatory stricture and a slight dilatation of the common bile duct, with no signs of fistulas. The opened duodenum was anastomized side to side to a transmesocolic loop of the jejunum. After surgery, the general condition of the patient improved. DISCUSSION Only two cases of fistula between a narrow duodenal bulb and the common bile duct have been described in literature and the Authors were not be able to verify the occurrence of a duodenal biliary fistula at surgery. The association between duodenal Crohn's disease and Sphincter of Oddi incontinence is a very rare finding with different etiology: chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, common bile duct stones, progressive systemic sclerosis. CONCLUSION The treatment to resolve Sphincter of Oddi incontinence for primary duodenal Crohn's disease is not clear. Strictureplasty could be the treatment of choice, because, resolving the stricture, the duodenal pressure is likely to decrease and the reflux through the incontinent sphincter can be avoided. PMID:23276753

  16. Migration of Eosinophils and CCR2-\\/CD68Double Positive Cells Into the Duodenal Mucosa of Patients With Postinfectious Functional Dyspepsia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiji Futagami; Tomotaka Shindo; Tetsuro Kawagoe; Akane Horie; Mayumi Shimpuku; Katya Gudis; Katsuhiko Iwakiri; Takashi Itoh; Choitsu Sakamoto

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Recent studies have shown that postinfectious functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms may persist after elimination of gastrointestinal (GI) infection as well as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome accompanying colonic inflammation. However, it is unclear whether intestinal chronic inflammation can contribute to clinical symptoms of certain FD patients such as postinfectious FD. To determine the relationship between local inflammation of the duodenum and

  17. Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Joey M.; Bentley, Julie L.; Malik, Bilal H.; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue. PMID:25426310

  18. Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Joey M; Bentley, Julie L; Malik, Bilal H; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A; Maitland, Kristen C

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue. PMID:25426310

  19. Lymphocyte subpopulations of intestinal mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Eade, O E; Andre-Ukena, S S; Moulton, C; MacPherson, B; Beeken, W L

    1980-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood (PBL) and intestinal mucosa (IML) of 10 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were compared with those of 11 non-IBD controls. PBL were separated on Ficoll/hypaque gradients, and IML were isolated by incubation in dithiothreitol, EDTA, and collagenase. These methods yielded cells of good viability and with intact HLA A and B-antigens. T-cells, identified by neuraminidase-treated sheep RBC rosettes and non-specific esterase staining, comprised approximately 91% of the IML from normal mucosa of all groups. B-cells, identified by erythrocyte-antibody-complement rosettes and surface immunoglobulins, were only 7% of these IML populations. Cell yields were two-fold or more greater from abnormal IBD mucosa, with T-cells ranging from 55 to 95% and B-cells from 2 to 36%. The percentage of Fc receptor bearing cells was low in all specimens. By these methods, T-lymphocytes predominated in intestinal mucosa of both IBD and non-IBD patients, but there is marked increase in the percentage of B-cells isolated from abnormal mucosa in IBD. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 11 PMID:6968706

  20. Viewpoints on Acid-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Karen M; Rieder, Florian; Behar, Jose

    2010-01-01

    We have focused on understanding the onset of gastroesophageal reflux disease by examining the mucosal response to the presence of acid in the esophageal lumen. Upon exposure to HCl, inflammation of the esophagus begins with activation of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1) in the mucosa, and production of IL-8, substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and platelet activating factor (PAF). Production of SP and CGRP, but not PAF, is abolished by the neural blocker tetrodotoxin suggesting that SP and CGRP are neurally released and that PAF arises from non neural pathways. Epithelial cells contain TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein and respond to HCl and to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin with production of PAF. PAF, SP and IL-8 act as chemokines, inducing migration of peripheral blood leukocytes. PAF and SP activate peripheral blood leukocytes inducing the production of H2O2. In circular muscle, PAF causes production of IL-6, and IL-6 causes production of additional H2O2, through activation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Among these, NADPH oxidase 5 cDNA is significantly up-regulated by exposure to PAF; H2O2 content of esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle is elevated in human esophagitis, causing dysfunction of esophageal circular muscle contraction and reduction in esophageal sphincter tone. Thus esophageal keratinocytes, that constitute the first barrier to the refluxate, may also serve as the initiating cell type in esophageal inflammation, secreting inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines and affecting leukocyte recruitment and activity. PMID:21103419

  1. Distal common bile duct stenosis secondary to benign duodenal ulceration: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Van Steenbergen, W; Ponette, E; Marchal, G; Fevery, J; De Groote, J

    1990-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice is a very rare complication of peptic ulcer disease. We report a patient who presented with symptoms suggestive of malignant distal common bile duct stenosis. A final diagnosis of benign duodenal ulcer with stricture of the common bile duct was made. A short review of the literature is also presented. PMID:2340997

  2. Cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall is not always associated with chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pezzilli, Raffaele; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Casadei, Riccardo; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Imbrogno, Andrea; Fabbri, Dario; Taffurelli, Giovanni; Ricci, Claudio; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall is a rare form of the disease which was described in 1970 by French authors who reported the presence of focal pancreatic disease localized in an area comprising the C-loop of the duodenum and the head of the pancreas. German authors have defined this area as a “groove”. We report our recent experience on cystic dystrophy of the paraduodenal space and systematically review the data in the literature regarding the alterations of this space. A MEDLINE search of papers published between 1966 and 2010 was carried out and 59 papers were considered for the present study; there were 19 cohort studies and 40 case reports. The majority of patients having groove pancreatitis were middle aged. Mean age was significantly higher in patients having groove carcinoma. The diagnosis of cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall can now be assessed by multidetector computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography. These latter two techniques may also add more information on the involvement of the remaining pancreatic gland not involved by the duodenal malformation and they may help in differentiating “groove pancreatitis” from “groove adenocarcinoma”. In conclusion, chronic pancreatitis involving the entire pancreatic gland was present in half of the patients with cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall and, in the majority of them, the pancreatitis had calcifications. PMID:22110260

  3. Case report: Portal and systemic venous gas in a patient with perforated duodenal ulcer: CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Maged Nassef Abdalla; Attia, Khaled Mostafa Elgharib; Khalil, Safaa Maged Fathelbab

    2014-01-01

    Gas within the portal circulation has been known to be associated with a number of conditions most commonly mesenteric ischemia and necrosis. Systemic venous gas is described with few conditions and is mostly iatrogenic in nature. We describe a case of combined portal and systemic venous gas detected by computed tomography in a patient with perforated duodenal ulcer. PMID:25426236

  4. Malignant Gastric and Duodenal Stenosis: Palliation by Peroral Implantation of a Self-Expanding Metallic Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Isabel T. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Ctra. de Toledo, Km. 12.5, E-28905 Getafe, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the use of self-expanding metallic stents in patients with inoperable malignant antrum-pylorus-duodenal obstruction. Methods: Six patients underwent implantation of a Wallstent self-expanding metallic endoprosthesis (20 mm in five patients and 16 mm in one). In five patients a catheter (Berenstein) was introduced perorally into the stomach. A guidewire (Terumo) was introduced through the catheter and advanced through the antrum-pylorus-duodenal stenosis. The guidewire was removed and a 260-cm-long, 0.035'' superstiff guide (Amplatz) was introduced. After the catheter was removed the stent assembly was introduced. In the last patient the stent was implanted through a percutaneous gastrostomy. Results: Treatment of inoperable gastric outlet obstruction caused by tumor compression is difficult and unsatisfactory. Peroral implantation of self-expanding metallic stents resulted in successful palliative therapy of antrum-pylorus-duodenal stenosis in six patients in whom surgery was not possible because of advanced disease and poor general condition. On average, patients were able to eat during 41 days. One patient is tolerating oral intake at 3 months. Conclusion: Implantation of stents resulted in palliative relief of malignant antrum-pylorus-duodenal obstructions.

  5. Intramural Duodenal Hematoma with Acute Pancreatitis in a Patient With an Overt Pancreatic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Apeksha; Ali, Ijlal; Islam, Raafa; Siddiqui, Ali A.

    2014-01-01

    Intramural hematomas have rarely been associated with pancreatitis, and to date there is only 1 case report of an intramural hematoma occurring with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We describe a patient who presented with gastric outlet obstruction secondary to a spontaneous intramural duodenal hematoma and was found to have a pancreatic adenocarcinoma on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) after it was not visualized by computed tomography (CT).

  6. Effect of food on H2-receptor blockade in normal subjects and duodenal ulcer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H S Merki; F Halter; C Wilder-Smith; P Allemann; L Witzel; M Kempf; J Roehmel; R P Walt

    1990-01-01

    Two separate studies of 24 hour intragastric acidity were carried out in normal volunteers and duodenal ulcer patients to define the interaction of food and the antisecretory effects of H2-receptor blockers. Both investigations were double blind randomised comparisons using ranitidine 300 mg with either different meal times or ad libitum snacks after an evening meal. Meals taken after drug administration

  7. [5-fluorouracil treatment of acute pancreatitis and of pancreatic and duodenal fistulae].

    PubMed

    Georgescu, T; Naftali, Z; Varga, A; Simon, G; Pan?, C; Cr?ciun, C; Nistor, V; Ilniczky, P; Bo?ianu, A; Kovács, M

    1990-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis the mechanism involved in the auto-amplification of morbid phenomena can be suppressed in most of the cases by inhibiting the pancreatic secretion. This can also enhance the repair of pancreatic, duodenal and jejunal fistulae. On the basis of experimental studies carried out by Johnson, and on the clinical studies of Guttmann, as well as on original studies done by the authors, Ftorafur was included in the complex therapy of acute pancreatitis, and of pancreatic and duodenal fistulae. A group of 14 cases of acute pancreatitis, were treated. These included 5 necrotic-haemorrhagic pancreatitis, and 9 oedematous pancreatitis. The drug was given by continuous intravenous perfusion in doses of 1,200-1,600 mg per day, for a period of 6-12 days. In all the cases the clinical improvement of the patients as well as recovery of normal values of blood amylase were spectacular, and full recovery was achieved in all the cases. Ftorafur was also used in 3 cases of pancreatic fistulae, and in 2 cases of duodenal fistulae, and recovery was also achieved in a very short time. On the basis of this experience, although small, the authors recommend the introduction of Ftorafur in the complex therapy of acute pancreatitis, as well as in that of pancreatic and duodenal fistulae. Following administration of Ftorafur no adverse effects were noted, and in the doses mentioned above this drug did not delay the repair of surgical wounds. PMID:2149191

  8. Determination of the Ruminal Escape Value and Duodenal Amino Acid Flow of Rapeseed Meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Lardy; G. E. Catlett; M. S. Kerley; J. A. Paterson

    ABSTRACT: A 4 x 4 Latin square metabolism,trial was conducted to evaluate protein escape potential, duodenal amino acid (AA) flows, and ruminal diges- tion effects of rapeseed,meal,(RSM) when,fed with non-endophyte-infected,tall fescue, .05) by

  9. Early Endoscopy of Oesophagus, Stomach, and Duodenal Bulb in Patients with Haematemesis and Melaena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Cotton; M. T. Rosenberg; R. P. L. Waldram; A. T. R. Axon

    1973-01-01

    Oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy was successfully performed in 196 of 208 patients admitted with haematemesis or melaena, or both. A precise visual diagnosis was made in 80% of all patients and in 96% of those where the final diagnosis lay within the oesophagus, stomach, and first two parts of the duodenum. Bleeding oesophagitis was more common and bleeding duodenal ulcer less common than

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection and abnormalities of acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emad M. El-Omar; Ian D. Penman; Joy E. S. Ardill; Ravi S. Chittajallu; Catherine Howie; Kenneth E. L. McColl

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: The mechanism by which Helicobacter pylori predisposes to duodenal ulcers (DUs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the infection on acid secretion. Methods: Acid output was examined basally and in response to gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and gastrin in healthy volunteers with and without H. pylori infection and in patients with

  11. Curing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer may provoke reflux esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Labenz; AL Blum; E Bayerdorffer; A Meining; M Stolte; G Borsch

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have shown previously that cure of Helicobacter pylori infection leads to the disappearance of acid-neutralizing substances. Also, patients with ulcer after cure may gain weight. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cure of the infection increases the risk of reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Patients with duodenal ulcer without reflux esophagitis at the time of

  12. Laparoscopic repair of duodenal atresia in a low birth weight neonate.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Betancourt, Abraham; Alkhoury, Fuad

    2014-09-01

    The small volume of the infant abdomen limits the application of laparoscopic procedures. We successfully repaired a duodenal atresia in a 2-kg female infant using a standard diamond-shaped anastomosis and intracorporeal suturing and knot-tying techniques. Anesthesia and positive pressure ventilation assured adequate gas exchange during pneumoperitoneum during the procedure. PMID:25197863

  13. Effect of pentagastrin on histamine output from the stomach in patients with duodenal ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W K Man; J H Saunders; C Ingoldby; J Spencer

    1981-01-01

    The role of histamine in acid secretion is controversial. Improvements in the techniques of histamine assay allow a better assessment of the relationship of histamine to acid secretion. Patients with duodenal ulcers were studied to determine the mucosal histamine responses to pentagastrin stimulation to relate the appearance of histamine in the gastric juice to acid production during stimulation, and to

  14. PREDICTING EQUATIONS OF N DUODENAL FLOW IN DAIRY CATTLE EFFECTS OF LEVEL OF FEEDING AND PROPORTION

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    take into account the needs of microorganisms for soluble nitrogen degrada- ble in ammonia. The two was to predict the Non Ammonia Nitrogen (NAN) duodenal flow for dairy cows (principally) at different levels prece- ding factors and the level of energy supply compared to energy needs were studied. Material

  15. Ultrastructure observation of middle ear mucosa with laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mengkui; Yang, Shulan; Fang, Yaoyun; Sun, Jianhe

    1998-08-01

    In order to study the effects of He-Ne laser on the mucosa of middle ear mucosa from 9 patients with chronic otitis media, all of who had slight damp eardrum, were irradiated by low power He-Ne laser ten minutes per day for ten days. Specimen was taken before and after irradiation and observed under scanning electron microscope. It was found that the surface structure of the mucosa was more integral, the arrangement of the epithelial cell was closer together and microvilli arose among the noncilliated cells after irradiation. The inflammatory cell disappeared arid the morphologic structure appeared normal. These data provided the therapeutic evidence for the lower power He-Ne laser irradiation on patients with chronic purulent otitis midia.

  16. Metformin activates a duodenal Ampk-dependent pathway to lower hepatic glucose production in rats.

    PubMed

    Duca, Frank A; Côté, Clémence D; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Rutter, Guy A; Filippi, Beatrice M; Lam, Tony K T

    2015-05-01

    Metformin is a first-line therapeutic option for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, even though its underlying mechanisms of action are relatively unclear. Metformin lowers blood glucose levels by inhibiting hepatic glucose production (HGP), an effect originally postulated to be due to a hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanism. However, studies have questioned the contribution of hepatic AMPK to the effects of metformin on lowering hyperglycemia, and a gut-brain-liver axis that mediates intestinal nutrient- and hormone-induced lowering of HGP has been identified. Thus, it is possible that metformin affects HGP through this inter-organ crosstalk. Here we show that intraduodenal infusion of metformin for 50 min activated duodenal mucosal Ampk and lowered HGP in a rat 3 d high fat diet (HFD)-induced model of insulin resistance. Inhibition of duodenal Ampk negated the HGP-lowering effect of intraduodenal metformin, and both duodenal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp-1r)-protein kinase A (Pka) signaling and a neuronal-mediated gut-brain-liver pathway were required for metformin to lower HGP. Preabsorptive metformin also lowered HGP in rat models of 28 d HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance and nicotinamide (NA)-streptozotocin (STZ)-HFD-induced type 2 diabetes. In an unclamped setting, inhibition of duodenal Ampk reduced the glucose-lowering effects of a bolus metformin treatment in rat models of diabetes. These findings show that, in rat models of both obesity and diabetes, metformin activates a previously unappreciated duodenal Ampk-dependent pathway to lower HGP and plasma glucose levels. PMID:25849133

  17. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:24833849

  18. The mucosa beyond the polyps in juvenile polyposis.

    PubMed

    Drut, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Little is known of early histologic changes in the mucosa of the colon aside from the polyps in Juvenile Polyposis. Provided with a surgical specimen of a total colectomy of a 6-year-old boy with this condition, this report describes those changes. The mucosa depicted a peculiar serrated profile of the uppermost part of the crypts due to elongation of them, dilated openings, and scant stroma. Also present were frequent aberrant crypts. Early juvenile polyps presented associated with lympho-glandular sites as distorted and microcystically dilated crypts containing granular and filamentous mucoid material. The findings possibly represent the abnormal cytologic potential of this genetic condition. PMID:22050186

  19. Oral focal mucinosis of palatal mucosa: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Vipin; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to the overproduction of hyaluronic acid by a fibroblast, at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue, primarily affecting the mucosa overlying the bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, as the diagnosis is solely based on the histopathological features. This article reports of a 32-year-old female having the rare disease of oral focal mucinosis, involving the posterior palatal mucosa, and discusses its clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23230367

  20. Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely. PMID:25355744

  1. Angiogenesis in gastric mucosa: an important component of gastric erosion and ulcer healing and its impairment in aging.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2014-12-01

    Angiogenesis (also referred to as neovascularization-formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels) is a fundamental process essential for healing of tissue injury and ulcers because regeneration of blood microvessels is a critical requirement for oxygen and nutrient delivery to the healing site. This review article updates the current views on angiogenesis in gastric mucosa following injury and during ulcer healing, its sequential events, the underlying mechanisms, and the impairment of angiogenesis in aging gastric mucosa. We focus on the time sequence and ultrastructural features of angiogenesis, hypoxia as a trigger, role of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling (VEGF), serum response factor, Cox2 and prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and importin. Recent reports indicate that gastric mucosa of aging humans and experimental animals exhibits increased susceptibility to injury and delayed healing. Gastric mucosa of aging rats has increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because of structural and functional abnormalities including: reduced gastric mucosal blood flow, hypoxia, reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and survivin, and increased expression of early growth response protein 1 (egr-1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Until recently, postnatal neovascularization was assumed to occur solely through angiogenesis sprouting of endothelial cells and formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing blood vessels. New studies in the last decade have challenged this paradigm and indicate that in some tissues, including gastric mucosa, the homing of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells to the site of injury can also contribute to neovascularization by a process termed vasculogenesis. PMID:25521743

  2. Radiotherapy by multiple fractions per day (MFD) in head and neck cancer: Acute reactions of skin and mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Schueren, E.; Van den Bogaert, W.; Vanuytsel, L.; Van Limbergen, E. (Academisch Ziekenhuis St. Rafal, Leuven (Belgium))

    1990-08-01

    The feasibility of several unusual fractionation schedules in the radiotherapy of head and neck tumors was assessed, especially the acute reactions of skin and mucosa. All schedules were based on the principle of multiple fractions per day (MFD) leading to highly concentrated treatment series, alternating with rest periods. The fraction sizes used were between 1.6-2 Gy, overall treatment time was about 6 weeks, and total dose ranged from 60 to 67.2 Gy. The most important parameter that was modified was the size of the dose given in one treatment series. The first schedule consisted of two unequal radiation series: 48 Gy/12 days, followed by a second series of 19.2 Gy/4 days after a 3- to 4-week interval. All subsequent treatment schedules were divided in equal series: the first in 2 times 30 Gy, the second in 3 times 22.4 Gy, and the third in 4 times 16 Gy. Comparison of acute reactions in skin and mucosa after these irradiations to different dose levels has made it possible to obtain a precise idea of the time course in the development of radiation induced damage and of the dose-effect relationship. Such dose-response curves will be extremely useful in further studies on the dose-modifying effects of sensitizers and cytostatic drugs. Conclusions of this study: 1. In human oral mucosa, the threshold dose for the development of confluent mucositis (patches of 0.5 cm) after fractionated irradiation appears to be around 20 Gy. 2. Intervals of 12 days allow full repair of mucosa damage after a dose of about 20 Gy and repeating the irradiation leads to an identical reaction after second, third or fourth treatments, demonstrating that no cumulative effect exists for acute damage. This phenomenon could be exploited to reduce the acute side effects in radiotherapy. 3. The reactions observed in skin are less pronounced than those of mucosa.

  3. Intestinal Metaplasia —The Effect of Acid on the Gastric Mucosa and Gastric Carcinogenesis—

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This review concerns stem cells and their relation to intestinal metaplasia. When gastric regions of mice, Mongolian gerbils or several strains of rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy of X-rays given in two fractions, intestinal metaplasia was only induced in rats. In addition, it was greatly influenced by rat strain and sex. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive metaplastic foci were increased by administration of ranitidine (H2 receptor antagonist), crude stomach antigens or subtotal resection of the fundus and decreased by cysteamine (gastric acid secretion stimulator), histamine or removal of the submandibular glands. Recent studies have shown that Cdx2 transgenic mice with gastric achlorhydria develop intestinal metaplasia and that in men and animals, Helicobacter pylori (H. pyrlori) infection can cause intestinal metaplasias that are reversible on eradication. Our results combined with findings for H. pylori infection or eradication and transgenic mice suggest that an elevation in the pH of the gastric juice due to disappearance of parietal cells is one of the principal factors for development of reversible intestinal metaplasia. When different organs were transplanted into the stomach or duodenum, they were found to transdifferentiate into gastric or duodenal mucosae, respectively. Organ-specific stem cells in normal non-liver tissues (heart, kidney, brain and skin) also differentiate into hepatocytes when transplanted into an injured liver. Therefore, stem cells have a multipotential ability, transdifferentiating into different organs when transplanted into different environments. Finally, intestinal metaplasia has been found to possibly increase sensitivity to the induction of tumors by colon carcinogens of the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), azoxymethane (AOM) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4.5-b]pyridine (PhIP) type. This carcinogenic process, however, may be relatively minor compared with the main gastric carcinogenesis process induced by N-methy1-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MMNG) or N-methylnitrosourea (MNU), which is not affected by the presence of intestinal metaplasia. The protocol used in these experiments may provide a new approach to help distinguish between developmental events associated with intestinal metaplasia and gastric tumors. PMID:22272022

  4. Impaired oxygenation of gastric mucosa in portal hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Sarfeh; H. Soliman; K. Waxman; M. Coccia; E. B. Rypins; H. X. Bui; A. Tarnawski

    1989-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to mucosal damage is a prominent feature of portal hypertensive gastropathy. Since the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa has extensive microvascular changes, we postulated that the increased sensitivity to mucosal damage could have an ischemic basis. We measured distribution of gastric serosal and mucosal oxygenation in a group of portal hypertensive and sham-operated rats, and then studied the effects

  5. Iron Binding Substances in the Intestinal Mucosa of Neonatal Piglets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KOU FURUGOURI

    Fifty piglets from birth to 14 days of age were used to investigate iron binding substances of neonatal intestinal mucosa, and to evaluate the effects of these substances in neonatal iron absorption. 59Fe- labeled ferric citrate with a molecular weight of 1,500 was injected directly into the ligated duodenum. Approximately 65% of radioiron in the whole homogenate of scraped intestinal

  6. Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa. Methods. Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history. Results. In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition. Conclusions. This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs.

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of carboxylesterase in the nasal mucosa of rats.

    PubMed

    Olson, M J; Martin, J L; LaRosa, A C; Brady, A N; Pohl, L R

    1993-02-01

    The enzymatic esterase activity of carboxylesterases is integral to the nasal toxicity of many esters used as industrial solvents or in polymer manufacture, including propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, dimethyl glutarate, dimethyl succinate, dimethyl adipate, and ethyl acrylate. Inhalation of these chemicals specifically damages the olfactory mucosa of rodents. We report the localization and differential distribution of a 59 KD carboxylesterase in nasal tissues of the rat by immunohistochemistry. Rabbit antiserum against the 59 KD rat liver microsomal carboxylesterase bound most prominently to the olfactory mucosa when applied to decalcified, paraffin-embedded sections of rat nasal turbinates. Within the olfactory mucosa, anti-carboxylesterase did not bind to sensory neurons, the target cell for ester-initiated toxicity; these cells apparently lack carboxylesterase. Instead, the antibody was preferentially bound by cells of Bowman's glands and sustentacular epithelial cells which are immediately adjacent to the olfactory nerve cells. In contrast, non-olfactory tissues (respiratory mucosa and squamous epithelium), which are more resistant to the toxicity of esters, had less carboxylesterase content. The distribution of immunoreactivity correlated well with the distribution of carboxylesterase catalytic activity described elsewhere. These findings help to link the metabolic fate of inhaled esters to the site-specific pathological findings that follow exposure to such chemicals. PMID:8419465

  8. Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    and gastric juice Citation for published version: Freeman, TC, Playford, RJ, Quinn, C, Beardshall, K, Poulter and gastric juice' Gut, vol 31, no. 11, pp. 1318-23. Link: Link to publication record in Edinburgh Research-1323 Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa and gastric juice T C Freeman, R J Playford

  9. Muscularis mucosae layer detection in colon biopsy images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Yamin Ahmad; Azlinah Mohamed; Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Manual screening of colon cancer biopsy tissue under microscope is difficult and time consuming. With the help of a computerized system, the diagnosis time can be shortened. In this paper, we proposed a method of detecting the layer of muscularis mucosae in the colon biopsy tissue image. By using RGB color information, we analyzed 65 images and preserved a specific

  10. Mature Dendritic Cells Infiltrate the T Cell-Rich Region of Oral Mucosa in Chronic Periodontitis: In Situ, In Vivo, and In Vitro Studies1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi Jotwani; Anna Karolina Palucka; Mahyar Nouri-Shirazi; Jay Kim; Diana Bell; Jacques Banchereau; Christopher W. Cutler

    Previous studies have analyzed the lymphoid and myeloid foci within the gingival mucosa in health and chronic periodontitis (CP); however, the principal APCs responsible for the formation and organizational structure of these foci in CP have not been defined. We show that in human CP tissues, CD1a immature Langerhans cells predominantly infiltrate the gingival epithelium, whereas CD83 mature dendritic cells

  11. Effect on gastric and duodenal mucosal prostaglandins of repeated intake of therapeutic doses of naproxen and etodolac in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Taha, A S; McLaughlin, S; Holland, P J; Kelly, R W; Sturrock, R D; Russell, R I

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of gastric and duodenal mucosal prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin I2, and thromboxane B2 during a 60 minute incubation of biopsy specimens, the degree of endoscopic and histological damage, and the anti-inflammatory response were all studied after a four week, double blind study of therapeutic doses of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, naproxen and etodolac, received by 27 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (13 receiving naproxen, 14 etodolac). Prostaglandin values after treatment did not differ from the baseline levels when all the patients were analysed as one group. Subgroup analysis showed that naproxen suppressed gastric prostaglandin E2 from a median of 29 to 9 ng/mg protein, duodenal prostaglandin E2 from 34 to 11 ng/mg, and duodenal prostaglandin I2 from 62 to 15 ng/mg protein. No overall suppression occurred with etodolac. Also, on the second assessment patients receiving naproxen had lower gastric and duodenal prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin I2, but higher values of duodenal thromboxane B2, than patients receiving etodolac. Both drugs had comparable anti-arthritic activity and caused microscopic gastritis in similar proportions of patients. No correlation was detected between prostaglandin values and the mucosal damage which developed in seven patients receiving naproxen (54%) and three receiving etodolac (21%). These findings indicate that, unlike naproxen, etodolac does not seem to affect gastric or duodenal prostaglandin synthesis; other mechanisms of injury need to be considered. PMID:2143369

  12. Duodenal ulcers induced by diethyldithiocarbamate, a superoxide dismutase inhibitor, in the rat: role of antioxidative system in the pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Nishiwaki, H; Niida, H; Ueshima, K; Okabe, S

    1991-11-01

    Pathogenesis of duodenal ulcers induced by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor, was investigated in the rat. Repeated s.c. administration of DDC (750 mg/kg) every 12 hr induced duodenal ulcers in the fed rats, and the severity of the ulcers reached the maximum after three injections. DDC not only reduced basal acid output but also impaired duodenal alkaline secretion. These ulcers were significantly prevented by antioxidative agents such as SOD (50000 units/kg, s.c.), allopurinol (50 mg/kg, s.c.) or glutathione (200 mg/kg, s.c.) as well as the antisecretory agent cimetidine (100 mg/kg, s.c.). The impaired HCO3- response caused by DDC was partially but significantly reversed by either SOD (15000 units/kg/hr, i.v.), allopurinol or glutathione; and SOD by itself significantly elevated the rate of basal alkaline secretion. 16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (10 micrograms/kg, s.c.) increased duodenal HCO3- output in the presence of DDC and significantly prevented the development of duodenal ulcers in response to DDC. These results suggest that the mucosal antioxidative system including SOD may play a role in the regulatory process of alkaline secretion and contribute to the mucosal defensive ability in the duodenum. The insufficiency of this system may be involved in the pathogenesis of DDC-induced duodenal ulcers. PMID:1667532

  13. Release of antral and duodenal gastrin in response to an intestinal meal.

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, O L; Villar, H V; Konturek, S J; Rayford, P L; Thompson, J C

    1977-01-01

    In dogs prepared with isolated, innervated antral pouches, intraduodenal perfusion with liver extract at pH 7, with the atrum buffered at pH 7, resulted in a significant release of gastrin selectively from the antrum and from the duodenum. Acidification of the meal to pH 1 abolished both antral and duodenal gastrin release, whereas acidification of the antrum abolished only the antral gastrin response. After antrectomy, liver extract at pH 7 caused a diminished but significant release of duodenal gastrin. These studies provide evidence that an intestinal meal may release (in addition to a specific intestinal phase hormone) gastrin from the intestine, and from antrum, by means of a pH-sensitive mechanism which may involve a humoral agent (enterobombesin?) from the small bowel. PMID:21638

  14. The effects on gastrin and gastric secretion of five current operations for duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J C; Fender, H R; Watson, L C; Villar, H V

    1976-01-01

    We have measured serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in 66 duodenal ulcer patients before and after vagotomy and pyloroplasty (V + P--15 patients), selective proximal vagotomy without drainage (SPV - D--11 patients), and with drainage (SPV + D--19 patients), and vagotomy, antrectomy, and either gastroduodenostomy (V + BI--15 patients) or gastrojejunostomy (V + BII--6 patients). Basal and peak postprandial gastrin levels were increased in postoperative V + P, SPV - D, and SPV + D patients. Basal and peak postprandial levels of gastrin were unchanged after V + BII, indicative of duodenal release of gastrin. Gastrin response to food was abolished in V + BII patients. Acid output was reliably reduced after all five operations; reduction was greatest in patients after antrectomy and least in patients after SPV. No beneficial results were found with drainage in SPV patients. Acid secretion increased with time in SPV patients, especially those with drainage. PMID:1275599

  15. Down syndrome: Molecular mapping of the congenital heart disease and duodenal stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Korenburg, J.R. (University of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Bradley, C.; Disteche, C.M. (University of Washington, Seattle (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of congenital heart and gut disease and mental retardation. DS individuals also have characteristic facies, hands, and dermatoglyphics, in addition to abnormalities of the immune system, and increased risk of leukemia, and an Alzheimer-like dementia. Although their molecular basis is unknown, recent work on patients with DS and partial duplications of chromosome 21 has suggested small chromosomal regions located in band q22 that are likely to contain the genes for some of these features. The authors now extend these analyses to define molecular markers for the congenital heart disease, the duodenal stenosis, and an 'overlap' region for the facial and some of the skeletal features. They report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis of two patients. These studies provide the molecular basis for the construction of a DS phenotypic map and focus the search for genes responsible for the physical features, congenital heart disease, and duodenal stenosis of DS.

  16. Delayed duodenal obstruction after intramural hematoma in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tezcaner, Tugan; Ekici, Yahya; K?rnap, Mahir; Kural, Feride; Moray, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal stem cell disorder of hematopoietic cells. Gastrointestinal complications of PNH are rare and mostly related with intravascular thrombosis or intramural hematoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a case of a man with PNH complicated by intramural duodenal hematoma initially treated with supportive care. Three months after his first admission; he was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. He had undergone to surgery because of duodenal obstruction was treated with duodenojejunal by-pass surgery. DISCUSSION Patients were healed from gastrointestinal complications could suffer from gastrointestinal strictures, which cause wide spread symptoms ranging from chronic abdominal pain and anorexia to intestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION We report a rare intestinal obstruction case caused by stricture at the level of ligamentum Treitz with PNH. The possibility simply has to be borne in mind that strictures can be occurring at hematoma, ischemia or inflammation site of gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25123648

  17. Novel oesophago-gastro-duodenal stenting for gastric leaks after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shirley Yuk-Wah; Wong, Simon Kin-Hung; Ng, Enders Kwok-Wai

    2015-01-01

    The management of gastric leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) can be complex and challenging. Whilst operative interventions are mostly complicated and reserved for unstable or refractory cases, endoscopic self-expandable metal stenting (SEMS) is increasingly preferred as a safer treatment option. Yet, SEMS carries the problems of frequent stent migration and inconsistent healing as ordinary SEMS is designed mainly for stenotic disease. We hereby present two cases of early and chronic post-LSG leakage that were respectively failed to be treated by surgery and ordinary SEMS but were successfully managed by a dedicated extra-long oesophago-gastro-duodenal stent. In oesophago-gastro-duodenal stenting, the characteristics of extra-long stent length allow total gastric exclusion between the mid-oesophagus and the first part of duodenum to prevent stent migration and to equalise high pressure gradient within the gastric sleeve to promote fistula healing. PMID:25534492

  18. Clarithromycin-resistant helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer in the united states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nimish Vakil; Beth Hahn; D. McSorley

    1998-01-01

    Background: Clarithromycin is a key component of several antimicrobial treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori. Cure rates with clarithromycin-containing regimens are significantly decreased when resistance is present. Resistance develops by a point mutation in the ribosomal RNA of some organisms exposed to clarithromycin. We studied the prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant organisms in patients with duodenal ulcer in the United States from 1993–96.

  19. Gastric cell c-AMP stimulating autoantibodies in duodenal ulcer disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F De Lazzari; R Mirakian; L Hammond; C Venturi; R Naccarato; G F Bottazzo

    1988-01-01

    Gastric cell c-AMP stimulating antibodies (GCS-Ab) were studied in 30 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) disease. Semipurified immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations from 13\\/30 patients stimulated c-AMP production in parietal cell enriched gastric cell suspensions obtained from male guinea pig stomachs. Maximum stimulation (varying between 260 and 547%) was reached after four hours incubation with 2 and 4 mg\\/ml Ig concentrations. The

  20. [Serologic detection of Helicobacter pylori antibodies after surgery for stomach and duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Kopa?ski, Z; Cienciata, A

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori was measured by means of ELISA in 175 patients who had undergone surgery for duodenal or gastric ulcer. There was a significant correlation between surgery with resection and the absence of IgG to Helicobacter pylori in about 80% of cases. In patients undergoing surgery without resection there was no influence of the surgical technique on the presence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies. PMID:8367977

  1. Bicarbonate Secretion in the Guinea Pig Duodenum: Functional Characterization of Peptide Hormone Receptors in Duodenal Enterocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reimer; H. S. Odes; W. Beil; M. Schwenk; R. Muallem; K.-F. Sewing

    1996-01-01

    To get information about the peptide hormone receptors involved in duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) and their cellular location, we determined DBS and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity in response to hormones of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (V?P)&slash;secretin family of peptides. DBS was determined in an isolated, perfused (24 mmol\\/l NaHCO3) loop of the proximal duodenum in urethane- and indometacin-treated guinea pigs.

  2. Comparison between uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placement in malignant duodenal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Won; Jeong, Ji Bong; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Ahn, Dong Won; Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Su Hwan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical outcomes of uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placements in patients with malignant duodenal obstruction. METHODS: A total of 67 patients were retrospectively enrolled from January 2003 to June 2013. All patients had symptomatic obstruction characterized by nausea, vomiting, reduced oral intake, and weight loss. The exclusion criteria included asymptomatic duodenal obstruction, perforation or peritonitis, concomitant small bowel obstruction, or duodenal obstruction caused by benign strictures. The technical and clinical success rate, complication rate, and stent patency were compared according to the placement of uncovered (n = 38) or covered (n = 29) stents. RESULTS: The technical and clinical success rates did not differ between the uncovered and covered stent groups (100% vs 96.6% and 89.5% vs 82.8%). There were no differences in the overall complication rates between the uncovered and covered stent groups (31.6% vs 41.4%). However, stent migration occurred more frequently with covered than uncovered stents [20.7% (6/29) vs 0% (0/38), P < 0.05]. Moreover, the overall cumulative median duration of stent patency was longer in uncovered than in covered stents [251 d (95%CI: 149.8 d-352.2 d) vs 139 d (95%CI: 45.5 d-232.5 d), P < 0.05 by log-rank test] The overall cumulative median survival period was not different between the uncovered stent (70 d) and covered stent groups (60 d). CONCLUSION: Uncovered stents may be preferable in malignant duodenal obstruction because of their greater resistance to stent migration and longer stent patency than covered stents. PMID:25663777

  3. Early Results of Laparoscopic Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch: A Case Series of 40 Consecutive Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine J. Ren; Emma Patterson; Michel Gagner

    2000-01-01

    Background: Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) is an operation which provides one of the greatest maintained\\u000a weight losses of any bariatric procedure.We looked at the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic BPD-DS for morbid obesity. Methods:\\u000a A 150-200 ml sleeve gastrectomy was created and anastomosed to the distal 250 cm of divided ileum. The median length of the\\u000a common channel

  4. Histopathological and clinical characteristics of duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumors as predictors of malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, they are very rare. This study evaluated clinical and histopathological characteristics of duodenal GISTs to identify factors useful in predicting prognosis for patients with these tumors. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 20 patients who had undergone surgery between 1987 and 2009 for duodenal GISTs. Clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical data were evaluated. Survival analyses were conducted using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results In 12 patients (60%), duodenal GISTs were diagnosed incidentally. Eight cases (40%) were classified as high risk grade GISTs. Skeinoid fibers (SkF), which are eosinophilic globular hyaline deposits in the extracellular interstitium of the tumor, were found in 12 patients. Skeinoid fibers were not recognized in 8 cases, and these included 3 cases (37.5%) where tumors recurred after surgery and the patient died. Tumors without SkF were larger (81?±?92 vs. 23?±?8 mm, P < 0.001) and had a higher mitotic count (224.0?±?336.6 vs. 0.0?±?0.0 /50 high-power field, P < 0.001) than those with SkF. Survival time was shorter in patients with tumors lacking SkF (52.9?±?50.7 vs. 108.9?±?86.5 months, P = 0.019). Conclusions We have identified clinical and histopathological characteristics that were useful in predicting the prognosis of patients with duodenal GISTs. In this study, 60% of the tumors were found incidentally, SkF were not recognized in tumors from 40% of patients, and all cases of post-operative tumor recurrence and death occurred in this subgroup of patients. PMID:23953746

  5. Anxiety and depression in association with morbid obesity: changes with improved physical health after duodenal switch

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with morbid obesity have an increased risk for anxiety and depression. The "duodenal switch" is perhaps the most effective obesity surgery procedure for inducing weight loss. However, to our knowledge, data on symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch are lacking. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that self-reported physical health is the major predictor of symptoms of depression in patients with morbid obesity. We therefore investigated the symptoms of anxiety and depression before and after the duodenal switch procedure and whether post-operative changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of changes in these symptoms. Methods Data were assessed before surgery (n = 50), and one (n = 47) and two (n = 44) years afterwards. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale", and self-reported physical health was assessed by the "Short-Form 36" questionnaire. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Correlation and linear multiple regression analyses were used to study whether changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of post-operative changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results The symptom burden of anxiety and depression were high before surgery but were normalized one and two years afterwards (P < 0.001). The degree of improvement in self-reported physical health was associated with statistically significant reductions in the symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.003) and depression (P = 0.004). Conclusions The novelty of this study is the large and sustained reductions in the symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch procedure, and that these changes were closely associated with improvements in self-reported physical health. PMID:20492663

  6. Laparoscopic Versus Open Treatment of Congenital Duodenal Obstruction: Multicenter Short-Term Outcomes Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Short, Scott S.; Anselmo, Dean M.; Torres, Manuel B.; Frykman, Philip K.; Shin, Cathy E.; Wang, Kasper; Nguyen, Nam X.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Laparoscopic repair of congenital duodenal obstruction has become popularized over the past decade. Comparative data on outcomes, however, are sparse. We hypothesized that laparoscopic repair of congenital duodenal obstruction could be performed with similar outcomes to traditional open repair. Patients and Methods Medical records for all cases of congenital duodenal obstruction from 2005 to 2011 at three academic teaching hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were excluded from the analysis if they had confounding surgical diseases, did not have duodenoduodenostomy during the first hospital admission, had the repair performed before transfer from a referring hospital, or weighed less than 1.7?kg at the time of surgery. Analysis was performed as intention to treat, with laparoscopic converted to open cases included in the laparoscopic group. Results Sixty-four cases were included in the analysis (44 open, 20 laparoscopic). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups with the exception that the open group, on average, underwent repair later than the laparoscopic group (6 days versus 4 days, respectively). Seven laparoscopic cases were converted to an open procedure (35%), most commonly for difficulty in exposing the decompressed distal duodenum. Laparoscopic repair did take significantly longer than open repair (145 minutes versus 96 minutes, respectively), but clinical outcomes were similar. Complications were rare and were similar between methods of repair. Two patients in the laparoscopic group required subsequent open revision. Conclusions Laparoscopic duodenoduodenostomy for congenital duodenal obstruction is a technically challenging procedure with a steep learning curve. Despite a relatively high conversion rate, clinical outcomes remained similar to the traditional open repair in selected patients. PMID:24079961

  7. The phenotype of gastric mucosa coexisting with Barrett's oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Rugge, M; Russo, V; Busatto, G; Genta, R; Di, M; Farinati, F; Graham, D

    2001-01-01

    Background/Aims—Barrett's oesophagus complicates the gastro-oesophageal acid reflux. Helicobacter pylori infection, particularly with cagA positive strains, induces inflammatory/atrophic lesions of the gastric mucosa, which may impair acid output. No systematic study has investigated the phenotype of the gastric mucosa coexisting with Barrett's oesophagus. This study was designed to identify the phenotype of gastric mucosa associated with Barrett's oesophagus. Methods—In this retrospective case control study, the phenotype of the gastric mucosa was histologically characterised in 53 consecutive patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 53 (sex and age matched) non-ulcer dyspeptic controls. Both patients and controls underwent extensive sampling of the gastric mucosa (two antral, one incisural, and two oxyntic biopsies). Intestinal metaplasia (IM) was categorised (type I, complete IM; types II and III, incomplete IM) by the high iron diamine stain; cagA status was ascertained by genotyping. Results—Helicobacter pylori was present in 19 of the 53 patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 30 of the 53 controls (p < 0.02); eight of the 19 patients with Barrett's oesophagus and 28 of the 35 controls harboured cagA positive H pylori (p < 0.03). The histological severity of non-atrophic gastritis detected in the controls was significantly higher than that detected in the patients with Barrett's oesophagus (p < 0.0001). Multifocal atrophic gastritis was present in 4% of the patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 23% of controls (p < 0.01). The odds ratio for the association between multifocal atrophic gastritis and Barrett's oesophagus was 0.20 (95% confidence interval, 0.006 to 0.60). Gastric IM was detected in 13.2% of the patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 30.1% of the controls (p < 0.03). Type III IM at the gastric mucosa was only detected among controls. Conclusions—Barrett's oesophagus is associated with a low prevalence of H pylori cagA positive infection and multifocal atrophic gastritis. This pathobiological pattern is considered to be associated with a low risk of distal gastric cancer. Key Words: Barrett's oesophagus • gastritis in Barrett's oesophagus • Barrett's oesophagus and gastric precancerous lesions PMID:11376019

  8. Metabolism of model organic pollutants in canine respiratory tract mucosa slices

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Gerde, P.; Chen, S.T.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-11-01

    The high incidence of human bronchial tumors has been correlated with the high fractional deposition of inhaled particles in the bronchi. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are frequently bound to airborne particles due to their low vapor pressures. It is thought that tumorigenicity may result from the release and subsequent bioactivation of these particle-associated organic compounds in the respiratory tract. Previous studies at ITRI examined the clearance of organic toxicants from various regions of the canine respiratory tract. Their results indicated that, while clearance of a highly lipophilic PAH such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from the thin alveolar epithelium took only a few minutes, clearance through the thicker epithelium of the conducting airways took hours. Slower, diffusion-limited clearance results in higher concentrations of lipophilic compounds in the epithelium of the bronchi. Hence, the ability of these tissues to metabolize organic compounds to water-soluble metabolites or reactive intermediates may be extremely important in their clearance from the respiratory tract and the potential susceptibility of this region of the respiratory tract to cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of bronchial mucosa to metabolize a model organic pulmonary carcinogen, BaP, to reactive and nonreactive metabolites and to evaluate the diffusion of the parent compound and metabolites through the bronchial mucosa.

  9. Cytokeratin 8 and 18 tissue expression in gallbladder mucosa of patients with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Aldona; Malkowski, Wojciech; Seraszek, Agnieszka; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Szmeja, Jacek; Rogacki, Karol; Kaczmarek, El?bieta; Zabel, Maciej

    2011-12-01

    Cytokeratins (CKs) 8 and 18 are normally expressed in simple epithelia. This unique pair of CKs is believed to be involved in hepatic diseases and many human cancers. Little is known about the role of tissue expression of both CKs in patients with cholelithiasis (CH). The aim of the study was to analyse tissue expression of CK8 and 18 in the specimens of gallbladder mucosa in 35 young (up to 25 years of age) and 20 older patients (approximately 50 years of age) with CH. An immunocytochemical ABC method and the spatial visualization technique were conducted. Our study demonstrated significantly lower amounts of both CKs in young patients, as compared to older patients. The higher cellular expression of CK8 in older patients was linked to acute clinical course vs. chronic ones. Tissue expression of neither CK correlated with inflammatory activity (grading) of the gallbladder mucosa. A positive correlation between reciprocal expressions of the two CKs may confirm a cytoprotective role of the two proteins in both groups of patients with symptomatic CH. Significantly higher expression of CK18 than that of CK8 in younger patients suggests a different role of CK8 and 18 in lithogenesis in this group. PMID:22246910

  10. Case report: pancreas graft with a duodenal complication rescued using total duodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Uva, P D; Villavicencio Fornaciari, S; Giunippero, A E; Cabrera, I C; Casadei, D H

    2014-11-01

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation is the treatment of choice for type 1 diabetics with end-stage renal disease. Recently patients with type 2 diabetes have been considered for transplantation. Despite that the patient and graft survival rates have improved over the past years, it continues to be a procedure with high surgical complication rates. We herein report a case of a pancreatic graft with a duodenal complication rescued using a total duodenectomy, a procedure that is seldom used. A 57-year-old type 2 diabetic underwent a SPK transplantation with systemic-enteric drainage. He was converted to a Roux en Y at day 7 for a small duodenal fistula without peritonitis. At day 13, with good graft function, he presented with gastrointestinal and abdominal bleeding. At laparotomy he had a congestive duodenum with intraluminal bleeding and an anastomotic fistula. We performed a total duodenectomy with enteric drainage. The patient was discharged home on day 39 with a pancreatic fistula on intramuscular Octretotide that lasted for 3 months. He was never readmitted and has good pancreas and kidney function at 16 months of follow-up. We think this is an option to rescue a pancreas graft with duodenal complications in selected cases. PMID:25420824

  11. Duodenal Chromogranin A Cell Density as a Biomarker for the Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gundersen, Doris; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Chromogranin A (CgA) is a common marker for endocrine cells. The density of duodenal CgA cells is reduced in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the density of duodenal CgA as a biomarker for the diagnosis of IBS. Two hundred and three patients with IBS were recruited (180 females and 23 males; mean age, 36 years; range, 18–66 years). The control group comprised 86 healthy subjects without gastrointestinal complaints (77 females and 9 males; mean age, 38 years; range, 18–67 years). Biopsy samples were taken from the duodenum during gastroscopy. Sections from these biopsy samples were immunostained for CgA using the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method. CgA cell density was quantified by computerized image analysis. Results. The CgA cell density was lower in IBS-total and in all of the IBS subgroups than in the controls. The sensitivity and specificity for a cutoff of <200?cells/mm2 were 86% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion. The duodenal CgA cell density seems to be a good biomarker for the diagnosis of IBS. It is an inexpensive, simple, and easy-to-use method that does not require sophisticated equipment or considerable experience. PMID:25028588

  12. Role of duodenal iron transporters and hepcidin in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Dostalikova-Cimburova, Marketa; Balusikova, Kamila; Kratka, Karolina; Chmelikova, Jitka; Hejda, Vaclav; Hnanicek, Jan; Neubauerova, Jitka; Vranova, Jana; Kovar, Jan; Horak, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) often display disturbed iron indices. Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, has been shown to be down-regulated by alcohol in cell lines and animal models. This down-regulation led to increased duodenal iron transport and absorption in animals. In this study, we investigated gene expression of duodenal iron transport molecules and hepcidin in three groups of patients with ALD (with anaemia, with iron overload and without iron overload) and controls. Expression of DMT1, FPN1, DCYTB, HEPH, HFE and TFR1 was measured in duodenal biopsies by using real-time PCR and Western blot. Serum hepcidin levels were measured by using ELISA. Serum hepcidin was decreased in patients with ALD. At the mRNA level, expressions of DMT1, FPN1 and TFR1 genes were significantly increased in ALD. This pattern was even more pronounced in the subgroups of patients without iron overload and with anaemia. Protein expression of FPN1 paralleled the increase at the mRNA level in the group of patients with ALD. Serum ferritin was negatively correlated with DMT1 mRNA. The down-regulation of hepcidin expression leading to up-regulation of iron transporters expression in the duodenum seems to explain iron metabolism disturbances in ALD. Alcohol consumption very probably causes suppression of hepcidin expression in patients with ALD. PMID:24894955

  13. [Comparative lectin histochemical analysis of the duodenal glands in various mammals].

    PubMed

    Iatskovski?, A N; Lutsik, A D

    1991-02-01

    Composition and histotopography of lectin receptors have been studied in 12 species of mammals with various nutritional specialization: carnivorous, phytophagous and omnivorous. In cells of the duodenal glands of the carnivorous and omnivorous receptors to concanavalin A and lentil lectin (D-mannosoglycans ) are absent and they are present in the glands of the phytophagous animals. In cells of some parts of the glands presence of receptors to soya bean lectin (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine++) is the most characteristic sign of the duodenal glands in the carnivorous and phytophagous animals. Together with certain differences, depending on the nutritional way of the animals, specific peculiarities of lectins binding with glandulocytes of the duodenal glands are demonstrated. The data on rearrangement of the lectin receptors are obtained during the process of cellular differentiation. Presence of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine++ remnants-biding soya bean lectin in composition of oligosaccharide++ chains of glycoconjugates is a sign of low differential degree of the glandular cells. In more differentiated cells concealment in oligosaccharide chains of D-galactose remnants (peanut and castor-oil lectins receptors) by L-fucose, N-acetil-D-glucosamin remnants and sialic acid can have place; this is demonstrated as accumulation of receptors to wheat germ and Laburnum anagyroides lectins in the glandular cells. PMID:2053882

  14. Epithelial–Mesenchymal Interactions as a Working Concept for Oral Mucosa Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiarong

    2011-01-01

    Oral mucosa consists of two tissue layers, the superficial epithelium and the underlying lamina propria. Together, oral mucosa functions as a barrier against exogenous substances and pathogens. In development, interactions of stem/progenitor cells of the epithelium and mesenchyme are crucial to the morphogenesis of oral mucosa. Previous work in oral mucosa regeneration has yielded important clues for several meritorious proof-of-concept approaches. Tissue engineering offers a broad array of novel tools for oral mucosa regeneration with reduced donor site trauma and accelerated clinical translation. However, the developmental concept of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) is rarely considered in oral mucosa regeneration. EMIs in postnatal oral mucosa regeneration likely will not be a simple recapitulation of prenatal oral mucosa development. Biomaterial scaffolds play an indispensible role for oral mucosa regeneration and should provide a conducive environment for pivotal EMIs. Autocrine and paracrine factors, either exogenously delivered or innately produced, have rarely been and should be harnessed to promote oral mucosa regeneration. This review focuses on a working concept of epithelial and mesenchymal interactions in oral mucosa regeneration. PMID:21062224

  15. Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Based Biosensor for Bioelectronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Ye, Weiwei; Yu, Hui; Hu, Ning; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Biological olfactory system can distinguish thousands of odors. In order to realize the biomimetic design of electronic nose on the principle of mammalian olfactory system, we have reported bioelectronic nose based on cultured olfactory cells. In this study, the electrical property of the tissue-semiconductor interface was analyzed by the volume conductor theory and the sheet conductor model. Olfactory mucosa tissue of rat was isolated and fixed on the surface of the light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), with the natural stations of the neuronal populations and functional receptor unit of the cilia well reserved. By the extracellular potentials of the olfactory receptor cells of the mucosa tissue monitored, both the simulation and the experimental results suggested that this tissue-semiconductor hybrid system was sensitive to odorants stimulation.

  16. Variations in development of the ruminal mucosae of sheep

    E-print Network

    Sinclair, John Henry

    1959-01-01

    , it may be that color represents products of microbial activity. If Bo, color may provide additional means. of evaluating bacterial action and thereby, be also a means of evaluating the influence of dietary, factors on the rumen flora. It appeared, from... the products of micro- bial metabolism have far reaching physiologic chnsequence, accounting in large part for the marked differences in rates of gain observed among young ruminants. CHAPTER III VARIATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUMINAL MUCOSAE IN SHEEP: I...

  17. Localization of Inflammatory Mediators in Pediatric Sinus Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofang; Mimms, Remy; Lima, Roberta; Peters-Hall, Jennifer; Rose, Mary C.; Peña, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Microarray analyses of sinus mucosa in pediatric patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have recently demonstrated increased messenger RNA expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL5 and CXCL13 and of the innate immune mediators ?-defensin 1 (DEFB1), serum amyloid A2 (SAA2), and serpin B4. The objectives of this study were to determine whether these gene products were expressed at the protein level in pediatric sinus mucosa and to determine their localization. Design Immunohistochemical analysis was used to identify protein expression and cellular localization of CXCL5, CXCL13, DEFB1, SAA2, and serpin B4. Coimmunofluorescence staining of inflammatory cells was performed to further evaluate expression of CXCL5 and CXCL13. Setting Pediatric tertiary care facility. Patients Fifteen children with CRS who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery and 8 children who underwent craniofacial or neurosurgical procedures for abnormalities other than sinusitis. Main Outcome Measures Protein expression and cellular localization of CXCL5, CXCL13, DEFB1, SAA2, and serpin B4 in pediatric sinus mucosa. Results Ciliated and basal cells in the pseudostratified epithelium stained positively for the 5 mediators examined in both cohorts. Except for serpin B4, goblet cells did not stain for any mediators in either cohort. Glandular cells stained positively for all 5 mediators in both cohorts. Coimmunofluorescence staining of inflammatory cells showed that CXCL13 was expressed in macrophages, T and B cells but not in neutrophils. CXCL5 was detected only in T cells. Conclusions CXCL5, CXCL13, DEFB1, SAA2, and serpin B4 were expressed at the protein level in the sinus mucosa of controls and pediatric patients with CRS and exhibited cell-specific localization. These mediators, not typically associated with pediatric CRS, may be involved in the inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion seen in pediatric CRS. PMID:22508623

  18. l-Menthol sprayed on gastric mucosa causes edematous change

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Akihiro; Hachiya, Hiroki; Yumura, Takayuki; Ito, Shun; Hayashi, Shintaro; Nozaki, Masashi; Yoshida, Atsui; Ohashi, Noritsugu

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: l-Menthol (LM), sprayed on the distal gastric mucosa, is a safe antispasmodic agent used during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, it seems to affect gastric mucosal endoscopic findings. Therefore, we evaluated whether LM causes specific changes and impacts the endoscopic morphology of gastric lesions. Patients and methods: A total of 98 patients scheduled to undergo EGD were randomly assigned to receive LM solution (160?mg of 0.8?% LM added to 2.5?mL of indigo carmine [IC]; n?=?49; LM group) or decuple-diluted IC solution without LM (n?=?49; placebo group). We compared the incidence of specific mucosal changes and the difference in the endoscopic findings of several gastric lesions between these groups. Results: Annular-reticular – like mucosal changes appeared immediately after the administration of LM solution. This change was observed in 71.4?% of the LM group compared with 12.2?% of the placebo group (P?mucosa into edematous mucosa, and this occurs more frequently in atrophic gastric mucosa than in pathologic lesions. LM may facilitate the demarcation of pathologic gastric lesions without intestinal metaplasia.

  19. Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, K.

    1981-12-01

    Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

  20. Modified perineal urethrostomy using preputial mucosa in cats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, L S; Chin, S C

    2000-04-01

    A modified perineal urethrostomy was performed in 14 males cats with partial or complete urethral obstruction. Follow-up information was available for 2 to 18 months. By use of this method, the preputial tissues were preserved, and the penile urethra was anastomosed to the preputial mucosa to enlarge and lengthen the urethra. Urine flow was reestablished in all cats without evidence of urethral stenosis or other major complications. Appearance of the perineal region and prepuce was not substantially altered. PMID:10754669

  1. A Dosimetric Model of Duodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James D.; Christman-Skieller, Claudia; Kim, Jeff; Dieterich, Sonja; Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Koong, Albert C., E-mail: akoong@stanford.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Dose escalation for pancreas cancer is limited by the tolerance of adjacent normal tissues, especially with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The duodenum is generally considered to be the organ at greatest risk. This study reports on the dosimetric determinants of duodenal toxicity with single-fraction SBRT. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma received 25 Gy in a single fraction. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) endpoints evaluated include V{sub 5} (volume of duodenum that received 5 Gy), V{sub 10}, V{sub 15}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 25}, and D{sub max} (maximum dose to 1 cm{sup 3}). Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was evaluated with a Lyman model. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Results: The median time to Grade 2-4 duodenal toxicity was 6.3 months (range, 1.6-11.8 months). The 6- and 12-month actuarial rates of toxicity were 11% and 29%, respectively. V{sub 10}-V{sub 25} and D{sub max} all correlated significantly with duodenal toxicity (p < 0.05). In particular, V{sub 15} {>=} 9.1 cm{sup 3} and V{sub 15} < 9.1 cm{sup 3} yielded duodenal toxicity rates of 52% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.002); V{sub 20} {>=} 3.3 cm{sup 3} and V{sub 20} < 3.3 cm{sup 3} gave toxicity rates of 52% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.002); and D{sub max} {>=} 23 Gy and D{sub max} < 23 Gy gave toxicity rates of 49% and 12%, respectively (p = 0.004). Lyman NTCP model optimization generated the coefficients m = 0.23, n = 0.12, and TD{sub 50} = 24.6 Gy. Only the Lyman NTCP model remained significant in multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Multiple DVH endpoints and a Lyman NTCP model are strongly predictive of duodenal toxicity after SBRT for pancreatic cancer. These dose constraints will be valuable in future abdominal SBRT studies.

  2. Local immunoglobulin e in the nasal mucosa: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    De Schryver, Els; Devuyst, Lien; Derycke, Lara; Dullaers, Melissa; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus; Gevaert, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. We review evidence for local production of IgE in allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation (SHM), clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of local IgE in patients with a history of AR or CRSwNP. PMID:25749769

  3. Local Immunoglobulin E in the Nasal Mucosa: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, Els; Devuyst, Lien; Derycke, Lara; Dullaers, Melissa; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. We review evidence for local production of IgE in allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation (SHM), clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of local IgE in patients with a history of AR or CRSwNP. PMID:25749769

  4. Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1. 1. 1. 146)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, A.F.; Anderson, F.H.

    1983-10-01

    Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with /sup 3/H-cortisone and /sup 14/C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Effect of ochratoxin A on the intestinal mucosa and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Solcan, Carmen; Pavel, Geta; Floristean, Viorel Cezar; Chiriac, Ioan Sorin Beschea; ?lencu, Bogdan Gabriel; Solcan, Gheorghe

    2015-03-01

    The immunotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the intestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and its cytotoxic action on the intestinal epithelium were studied in broiler chickens experimentally treated with the toxin. From the 7th day of life, 80 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups of 20 birds each. The three experimental groups (E1-3) were treated with OTA for 28 days (E1: 50 ?g/kg body weight [bw]/day; E2: 20 ?g/kg bw/day; E3: 1 ?g/kg bw/day) and the fourth group served as control. Histological examination of the intestinal mucosa and immunohistochemical staining for identification of CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocytes in the duodenum, jejunum and ileocaecal junction were performed, and CD4+/CD8+ and TCR1/TCR2 ratios were calculated. OTA toxicity resulted in decreased body weight gain, poorer feed conversion ratio, lower leukocyte and lymphocyte count, and altered intestinal mucosa architecture. After 14 days of exposure to OTA, immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium and the lamina propria. After 28 days of exposure, an increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ values in both the duodenum and jejunum of chickens in Groups E1 and E2 was observed, but the TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocyte counts showed a significant reduction. No significant changes were observed in Group E3. The results indicate that OTA induced a decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and was cytotoxic to the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, altering the intestinal barrier and increasing susceptibility to various associated diseases. PMID:25655413

  6. Analysis of pancreatic elastase-1 concentrations in duodenal aspirates from healthy subjects and patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Tyler; Conwell, Darwin; Zuccaro, Gregory; Van Lente, Frederick; Khandwala, Farah; Hanaway, Patrick; Vargo, John J; Dumot, John A

    2004-09-01

    Fecal pancreatic elastase 1 (PE-1) has been advocated as a noninvasive marker of pancreatic function and allows detection of moderate and severe exocrine insufficiency. Few studies have evaluated the utility of measuring PE-1 in duodenal fluid for the diagnosis of pancreatic insufficiency. Our purpose was (1) to determine the feasibility of measuring PE-1 concentrations in duodenal aspirates obtained through our endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT) in healthy subjects and patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and (2) to determine correlations between duodenal PE-1 concentrations and bicarbonate and lipase concentrations in duodenal fluid. Healthy subjects (HS) and CP patients underwent an ePFT with CCK or secretin. CP was defined as endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) Cambridge class III-IV, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) score >5, or presence of pancreatic calcifications on CT scan. Duodenal fluid PE-1, lipase, and bicarbonate concentrations were measured in each study group. Duodenal lipase and bicarbonate concentrations were measured using an autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). PE-1 was measured using an ELISA (Genova Diagnostics, Asheville, NC). Ten HS and 10 CP patients were studied. In the CCK test the median peak lipase for HS and CP was 1605 and 113 IU/L, respectively (P < 0.008). In the secretin test the median peak bicarbonate for HS and CP was 102 and 40 mEq/L, respectively (p < 0.008). Median PE-1 concentrations for HS and CP were 317 and 63 microg/ml, respectively, after CCK stimulation (p = 0.046) and 87 and 17 microg/ml, respectively, after secretin stimulation (p = 0.033). Statistically significant correlations were found between [PE-1] and peak [lipase] (r = 0.83, P < 0.001), as well as [PE-1] and peak [HCO3(3)-] (r = 0.65, P = 0.037). Conclusions are as follows: (1) PE-1 concentrations can be measured from duodenal fluid obtained by endoscopic aspiration. (2) Duodenal fluid PE-1 concentrations are decreased in CP compared to HS. (3) Duodenal fluid [PE-1] has an excellent correlation with [lipase] and therefore is a marker of acinar cell function. (4) Secretin-stimulated endoscopic function testing with measurement of bicarbonate and PE-1 may provide a simultaneous assessment of both ductal cell and acinar cell function. PMID:15481311

  7. [Characteristics of duodenal ruptures depending on topographical and anatomical properties of this organ and circumstances of blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dubrovin, I A; Chirkov, R N; Dubrovina, I A; Khachaturian, B S; Mosoian, A S; Dallakian, V F

    2013-01-01

    We have studied specific morphological properties of duodenal rupture depending on the topographic and anatomical features of this organ and circumstances of blunt abdominal trauma suffered in a car crash (with the victim found in the passenger compartment or involved in an automobile-pedestrian accident) and a railway crash (a train-pedestrian accident) or resulting from a blunt-force trauma, a fall from height, a fall on the stomach, and traumatic compression of the body. We took into consideration the anatomical peculiarities of the duodenal rupture, such as its circular, horseshoe, and loop-like shape. The study has demonstrated that the frequency of duodenal injury associated with a blunt abdominal trauma shows a stronger dependence on the topographical and anatomical peculiarities of duodenum than on the circumstances of the case. Specifically, the circular duodenum and especially its descending portion are more readily subjected to the damage than the organs of a different shape. The position of the break with respect to the duodenal axis is an important diagnostic signs allowing to clarify circumstances of the blunt injury. Transverse ruptures are typical of strong impacts associated with the short-term interaction between the damaging object and the affected part of the body whereas longitudinal ruptures more commonly occur as a result the long-term traumatic impact. Bile imbibition of paraduodenal and peripancreatic retroperitoneal adipose tissue may be used as an additional diagnostic sign of duodenal rupture. PMID:24428049

  8. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  9. Effect of pentobarbital anesthesia and bile acids on cysteamine-induced duodenal and gastric ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Schwedes, U; Clémençon, G H; Paschke, R; Usadel, K H

    1984-01-01

    Cysteamine given three times within 8 h produced severe duodenal and gastric ulcers in female SIV rats. A pentobarbital anesthesia during the first 10 h prevented gastric ulcer formation without affecting duodenal ulcer. An additional 10 h lasting intragastric infusion with 0.6 ml/h Ringer containing 5 mmol/l of a mixture 3: 1 pure taurocholic and glycocholic acid or 20 and 50 mmol/l pure taurocholic acid in 0.2 N HCl did not reverse the protective effect of pentobarbital, e.g. incidence and intensity of gastric ulcer did not change. Treatment with somatostatin significantly reduced the intensity of duodenal ulcer. The inhibition of cysteamine-induced gastric ulcer formation by pentobarbital does not seem to be due to a possible inhibition of duodenogastric reflux but more likely to an inhibition of central nervous stress reactions by anesthesia. PMID:6146197

  10. Life threatening bleeding from duodenal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ivanecz, Arpad; Sremec, Marko; Cerani?, Davorin; Potr?, Stojan; Skok, Pavel

    2014-12-16

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare, but serious complication of gastric bypass surgery. The inaccessibility of the excluded stomach restrains postoperative examination and treatment of the gastric remnant and duodenum, and represents a major challenge, especially in the emergency setting. A 59-year-old patient with previous history of peptic ulcer disease had an upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a duodenal ulcer two years after having a gastric bypass procedure for morbid obesity. After negative upper endoscopy finding, he was urgently evaluated for gastrointestinal bleeding. At emergency laparotomy, the bleeding duodenal ulcer was identified by intraoperative endoscopy through gastrotomy. The patient recovered well after surgical hemostasis, excision of the duodenal ulcer and completion of the remnant gastrectomy. Every general practitioner, gastroenterologist and general surgeon should be aware of growing incidence of bariatric operations and coherently possible complications after such procedures, which modify patient's anatomy and physiology. PMID:25512773

  11. Life threatening bleeding from duodenal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ivanecz, Arpad; Sremec, Marko; ?erani?, Davorin; Potr?, Stojan; Skok, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare, but serious complication of gastric bypass surgery. The inaccessibility of the excluded stomach restrains postoperative examination and treatment of the gastric remnant and duodenum, and represents a major challenge, especially in the emergency setting. A 59-year-old patient with previous history of peptic ulcer disease had an upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a duodenal ulcer two years after having a gastric bypass procedure for morbid obesity. After negative upper endoscopy finding, he was urgently evaluated for gastrointestinal bleeding. At emergency laparotomy, the bleeding duodenal ulcer was identified by intraoperative endoscopy through gastrotomy. The patient recovered well after surgical hemostasis, excision of the duodenal ulcer and completion of the remnant gastrectomy. Every general practitioner, gastroenterologist and general surgeon should be aware of growing incidence of bariatric operations and coherently possible complications after such procedures, which modify patient’s anatomy and physiology. PMID:25512773

  12. Primary adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla with mass-forming chronic pancreatitis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Suzumura, Kazuhiro; Hai, Seikan; Kuroda, Nobukazu; Hirano, Tadamichi; Asano, Yasukane; Okada, Toshihiro; Iimuro, Yuji; Tanaka, Shogo; Nakasho, Keiji; Fujimoto, Jiro

    2015-04-01

    A 70-year-old male was treated for gastric ulcers. Follow-up upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an irregular, elevated tumor in the second portion of the duodenum. Upon pathological inspection of a biopsy specimen, a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was made, and the patient was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography showed an irregular mass in the pancreatic head and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct and bile duct. Pancreatic head carcinoma with infiltration of the duodenum was diagnosed, and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. A histopathological examination of the resected specimen showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in the minor duodenal papilla and chronic pancreatitis in the pancreatic head. Therefore, primary adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla with mass-forming chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed. Currently, the patient is alive without recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Primary adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla is extremely rare. We herein report this case, and also provide a review of the literature. PMID:24522893

  13. Reactivity of gliadin and lectins with celiac intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pittschieler, K; Ladinser, B; Petell, J K

    1994-11-01

    The binding patterns of gliadin and selected lectins to jejunal biopsy specimens obtained from children with total villous atrophy during active celiac disease (CD; 19 patients) and in remission (16 patients) were examined by light microscopy. Three categories of carbohydrate-specific lectins were chosen for the study: those recognizing mannose/glucose residues, those recognizing N-acetyl-glucosamine/glucose (glcNAc/glc) residues, and those recognizing N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose (galNAc/gal) residues. The galNAc/gal lectins, with the exception of phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin variants, presented a typical staining of the luminal surface of the jejunal mucosa obtained from CD patients. However, these lectins displayed no reactivity to jejunal sections of CD patients in remission or control biopsies that included healthy children (25 children) and patients suffering from cow milk protein allergy (10 children). The glcNAc/glc lectin showed a strong preferential recognition of CD jejunal tissue but also bound with less intensity to specimens from patients with cow milk allergies and healthy children. Unlike other galNAc/gal lectins, phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin variants were indistinguishable in their binding patterns to the mucosa of control groups and CD patients in remission and failed to react to CD biopsies. The mannose/glc lectins were not distinctive in their binding patterns. In all cases, lectin binding was specifically inhibited by the lectins' competitive saccharides. Atypical of lectin binding patterns, gliadin reactivity was restricted to intracellular areas of enterocytes and was unique to active CD mucosa. The distinctive binding patterns of lectins and gliadin provide a diagnostic tool to distinguish patients with active CD from those in remission or patients with other intestinal disorders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7877884

  14. Enhanced permeation of triamcinolone acetonide through the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shin, S C; Kim, J Y

    2000-09-01

    To develop new formulations that have suitable bioadhesive force and provide sustained release in buccal area for an extended period of time, bioadhesive gels containing triamcinolone acetonide were prepared using two polymers, carbopol 934 and poloxamer 407 which were selected for their bioadhesiveness and gelling property, respectively. The drug release profiles from the gels were studied as a function of drug concentration and temperature. Different enhancers such as bile salts, glycols and non-ionic surfactants were used for the enhancement of its permeation through buccal mucosa. Among the enhancers used, sodium deoxycholate showed the best enhancing effects. PMID:10962230

  15. Association of circulating VacA-neutralizing antibodies with gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guadalupe Ayala; Lourdes Flores-Luna; Dulce Hernández-Amaro; Guillermo Mendoza-Hernández; Lilia Chihu-Amparán; Fernando Bernal-Sahagún; Margarita Camorlinga; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce; Javier Torres

    Objective  To study the association between anti-VacA antibodies and pre-neoplastic lesions (IM), gastric cancer (GC), and duodenal ulcer\\u000a (DU).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A case–control study that included 347 patients, 90 with IM, 60 with GC, 52 with DU, and 145 with non-atrophic gastritis was\\u000a conducted. For the analysis, a polytomous logistic regression models were used. Anti-VacA antibodies were identified in sera\\u000a from these patients,

  16. The Helicobacter pylori duodenal ulcer promoting gene, dupA in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Zheng, Qing; Chen, Xiaoyu; Xiao, Shudong; Liu, Wenzhong; Lu, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Background The prevalence of H. pylori is as high as 60–70% in Chinese population. Although duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer are both caused by H. pylori, they are at opposite ends of the spectrum and as such are considered mutually exclusive. Duodenal ulcer promoting (dupA) gene was reported to be associated with duodenal ulcer development. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dupA gene of Helicobacter pylori in patients with various gastroduodenal diseases and to explore the association between the gene and other virulence factors. Methods H. pylori were isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer (DU), gastric ulcer (GU), or non-cardia gastric carcinoma. The dupA, cagA, vacA, iceA and babA2 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Histological features of gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were graded based on the scoring system proposed by the updated Sydney system. IL-1? polymorphism was investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results Isolates from 360 patients including 133 with chronic gastritis, 101 with DU, 47 with GU, and 79 with non-cardia gastric carcinoma were examined. The dupA gene was detected in 35.3% (127/360) and the prevalence DU patients was significantly greater than that in gastric cancer or GU patients (45.5% vs. 24.1% and 23.4%, P < 0.05). Patients infected with dupA-positive strains had higher scores for chronic inflammation compared to those with dupA-negative strains (2.36 vs. 2.24, p = 0.058). The presence of dupA was not associated with the cagA, vacA, iceA and babA 2 genotypes or with IL-1? polymorphisms. Conclusion In China the prevalence of dupA gene was highest in DU and inversely related to GU and gastric cancer. PMID:18950522

  17. Production of Epigastric Pain in Duodenal Ulcer by Lower Oesophageal Acid Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Earlam, Richard J.

    1970-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with duodenal ulceration were divided into group 1 (30), who had epigastric pain, and group 2 (6), who had pain in the upper abdomen but not in the epigastrium, and were studied by perfusing the lower oesophagus with dilute acid in an attempt to reproduce epigastric pain. In group 1, 25 suffered epigastric pain, indistinguishable from that which they normally had, after perfusion of 30 ml. of 0·1N HC1 in under four minutes (mean values), but none of group 2 had pain. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5491256

  18. [Resorbable staple sutures for partial stomach and duodenal stump closure. Animal experiment studies].

    PubMed

    Walgenbach, S; Sorger, K; Junginger, T

    1990-01-01

    In two groups of pigs, 10 in each, partial gastrectomies with gastroduodenostomy (Billroth I) respectively gastrojejunostomy (Roux-en-Y) were performed. Absorbable lactomer (Polysorb, Auto-Suture) staple lines--a copolymer of glycolic acid/lactic acid-, used for the closure of the lesser curvature of the stomach and the duodenal stump, were safe. No suture dehiscence was observed. Macroscopic examination showed no major inflammatory adhesions around the staples. Microscopically inflammatory reactions around the staples in the gastrointestinal wall were found. Our results yielded no contraindication for clinical tests of absorbable sutures in gastrointestinal surgery. PMID:2329892

  19. Relationships between circulating plasma concentrations and duodenal flows of essential amino acids in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Patton, R A; Hristov, A N; Parys, C; Lapierre, H

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to better define essential AA (EAA) requirements in lactating dairy cows through examination of the relationship between plasma essential AA concentration (p[EAA]) and predicted duodenal flow of essential AA (EAAduo). Our hypothesis was that at a given level of milk protein output, p[EAA] would remain steady in response to increasing EAAduo until the EAA requirement was met, at which point p[EAA] would increase rapidly in response to greater duodenal flow of EAA until p[EAA] reached a plateau as other body processes degraded excess EAA to avoid toxicity. Thus, the requirement of each EAA would be fulfilled when p[EAA] increased rapidly. To investigate this hypothesis, we compiled a literature database that included 102 studies with 420 treatment means that reported p[EAA], dietary nutrient content, body weight, and milk production. A second database was produced to validate relationships developed in the first database and included 32 studies with 98 treatment means. All relationships were evaluated as regression equations with study as a random factor. Breed, days in milk, body weight, and milk protein production had no effect on the plasma concentration of any EAA. Other than metabolizable protein supply, nutritional content of the rations did not affect p[EAA]. Only p[Arg] was affected by parity, with primiparous cows having higher concentrations of Arg than older cows. No break points in the relationship between p[EAA] versus EAAduo were detected as either steep increases or plateaus. Plasma Arg, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val concentrations were best associated with their respective EAAduo as quadratic equations, whereas His, Leu, Met, and Phe were associated only linearly. Adding a quadratic term improved the adjusted R(2) or decreased the root mean square error marginally (<2.0%). Thus, we conclude that the main effect of EAAduo on p[EAA] is linear. Abomasal or duodenal infusions of Met, Lys, His, Lys+Met, and casein revealed that Met or Lys infused alone increased the plasma concentration of the infused EAA and lowered the concentration of other EAA, particularly His. Infusion of Lys+Met or His alone was associated with increases in concentrations of these EAA without affecting others. We conclude that over a wide range of protein intakes in lactating cows, plasma levels of EAA increase linearly with duodenal flow. No evidence was found that EAA requirements are reflected in blood plasma concentrations. PMID:25912872

  20. [Effects of dicetel on gastrointestinal motility and vegetative dysfunction in patients with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Golovanova, E S; Kravtsova, T Iu; Vysokova, O L

    2003-01-01

    The great majority of patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) given a single oral dose (50 mg) of dicetel (pinaverium bromide)--a selective blocker of calcium channels--showed optimization of vegetative reactivity and vegetative support of physical and mental activities. This contributes to relief of psychovegetative syndrome of the modulation of dysfunctions of proximal gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The addition of dicetel to combined treatment of PH shortened healing of DU, relieved pain, stopped gastric and intestinal dyspepsia, corrected motor-tonic defects of the proximal GIT caused by dysfunction of different links of the regulatory-adaptive system. PMID:14520942

  1. Localization and Differential Activity of P-glycoprotein in the Bovine Olfactory and Nasal Respiratory Mucosae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karunya K. Kandimalla; Maureen D. Donovan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is localized in the olfactory mucosa and is capable of limiting the nose-to-brain transport of substrates. Bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosae were compared to both localize P-gp and to measure its activity within the epithelia. Methods. Immunolocalization was performed on the bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosa

  2. Experimental Model for Production of Perforating Duodenal Ulcers by Cysteamine in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Selye; Sandor Szabo

    1973-01-01

    IT has long been known that exposure to stress, in itself1 or in combination with various sensitizing agents, particularly glucocorticoids2,3, can produce acute haemorrhagic erosions of the gastric mucosa which have been used as experimental models of ``stress ulcers''. However, these erosions have little, if any, tendency to perforate and usually disappear after a few days unless the eliciting Stressor

  3. Sulforaphane induces SLPI secretion in the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Megan; Kesic, Matthew J; Clarke, John; Ho, Emily; Simmen, Rosalia C M; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Noah, Terry L; Jaspers, Ilona

    2013-03-01

    Cells lining the respiratory tract are equipped with mechanisms that dampen the effects of oxidative stress. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a mediator involved in regulating oxidative stress. Recent data indicate Nrf2 also controls expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, enhances Nrf2 activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that SFN supplementation induces SLPI secretion in the nasal mucosa in an Nrf2 dependent manner. Healthy nonsmoking adults ingested SFN-containing broccoli shake homogenate (BSH) for 3 consecutive days. Nasal lavage fluid (NLF) was collected before and after BSH ingestion and analyzed for SLPI protein levels. In follow up in vitro experiments, differentiated primary nasal epithelial cells were used to evaluate the relationship between SFN, Nrf2, and SLPI. Epithelial cells were transduced with Nrf2-specific shRNA to examine the regulatory role of Nrf2 on SLPI expression. Supplementation with BSH significantly increased SLPI levels in NLF. SFN supplementation in vitro significantly enhanced SLPI secretion and these effects were significantly decreased in cells transduced with Nrf2-specific shRNA. Our data support a relationship between nutritional supplementation, Nrf2 activation, and SLPI secretion. Therefore, ingestion of SFN-containing foods has therapeutic potential to augment SLPI expression in the nasal mucosa. PMID:23195333

  4. Effect of salmeterol on Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Dowling, R B; Rayner, C F; Rutman, A; Jackson, A D; Kanthakumar, K; Dewar, A; Taylor, G W; Cole, P J; Johnson, M; Wilson, R

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the effect of salmeterol on both P. aeruginosa interactions with the mucosa of nasal turbinate organ cultures and on pyocyanin-induced (20 microg/ml) and elastase-induced (100 microg/ml) damage to nasal epithelial cells. Organ cultures were exposed to salmeterol either by preincubation with 4 x 10(-7) M salmeterol for 30 min or by pipetting 20 microl of 4 x 10(-7) M salmeterol onto the organ culture surface immediately prior to bacterial inoculation. Infected organ cultures (8 h) had significantly (p < or = 0.01) increased epithelial damage, and P. aeruginosa was predominantly associated with damaged epithelium and mucus. Salmeterol significantly (p < or = 0.02) reduced epithelial damage caused by infection and the total number of adherent bacteria (p < or = 0.05), but bacterial distribution on the mucosa was unchanged. Nasal epithelial cells incubated with pyocyanin (20 microg/ml) or elastase (100 microg/ml) for 3 h had significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased cytoplasmic blebbing and mitochondrial damage versus control values. Elastase also significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased cell projection and reduced the level of ciliation. Cells preincubated with salmeterol (2 x 10(-7) M) showed a significant reduction in some features of cell damage caused by both toxins, which was inhibited by the beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Our results indicate that salmeterol reduces P. aeruginosa-induced damage to both organ culture and nasal epithelium. PMID:9001332

  5. Quantitation of conductance pathways in antral gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The magnitude of cellular and shunt conductance of Necturus gastric antral mucosa was studied by (a) comparing the cellular PD response to transepithelial PD response during changes of ionic activity in the serosal bathing solution and (b) by measurement of current spread within the epithelial sheet. Using constant product KCl changes cellular resistance was 6,788 omegacm2 and shunt resistance was 1,803 omegacm2. Deletion of HCO3- from the serosal solution produced similar but quantitatively smaller changes in PD. Using HCO3- deletion cellular resistance was 7,338 omegacm2 and shunt resistance was 1,973 omegacm2. Measurement of current spead within the mucosa avoids changing ionic gradients yet gave very similar results; cellular resistance was 8,967 omegacm2 and shunt resistance was 2,947 omegacm2. The shunt contribution to transepithelial conductance ranged from 75.2 to 79.0%. Shunt selectivity was assessed using KCl dilution potentials, where mucosal dilution gave a small change in tissue PD compatible with an anion/cation selectivity ratio of 1.16 across the shunt, whereas serosal dilution effect was dominated by a PD change across the serosal membrane of the cell. PMID:1176941

  6. Autonomic Neurotransmitters Modulate Immunoglobulin A Secretion in Porcine Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Lisa D.; Xie, Yonghong; Lyte, Mark; Vulchanova, Lucy; Brown, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) plays a crucial role in mucosal surface defense. We tested the hypothesis that colonic sIgA secretion is under enteric neural control. Immunohistochemistry of the porcine distal colonic mucosa revealed presumptive cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers apposed to secretory component (SC)-positive crypt epithelial cells and neighboring IgA+ plasmacytes. The cholinomimetic drug carbamylcholine elicited rapid, atropine-sensitive IgA secretion into the luminal fluid bathing mucosal explants mounted in Ussing chambers. The adrenergic receptor agonist norepinephrine also increased IgA secretion, an action inhibited by phentolamine. These effects were independent of agonist-induced anion secretion. In Western blots of luminal fluid, both agonists increased the density of protein bands co-immunoreactive for IgA and SC. Mucosal exposure to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli did not affect IgA secretion, and carbamylcholine treatment did not affect mucosal adherence of this enteropathogen. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine, acting respectively through muscarinic cholinergic and alpha-adrenergic receptors in the colonic mucosa, stimulate sIgA secretion and may enhance mucosal defense in vivo. PMID:17320195

  7. Preparation and characterization of a biologic scaffold from esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Keane, Timothy J; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M; Carruthers, Christopher A; Reing, Janet E; Dearth, Christopher L; D'Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2013-09-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in-vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  8. Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  9. Permeation and metabolism of cocaine in the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hefei; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Donovan, Maureen D

    2012-12-01

    The rapid onset of psychostimulatory effects of cocaine following intranasal administration suggests either extremely rapid absorption into the bloodstream or the potential for cocaine's access to the suggested direct nose-to-brain transport pathway. Cocaine transport was measured across excised bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa to investigate site-specific uptake of cocaine. Flux in both the mucosal-to-submucosal (J (m-s)) and submucosal-to-mucosal (J (s-m)) directions across normal, 2, 4-dinitrophenol (2, 4-DNP) exposed, and de-epithelialized tissues increased linearly with increasing cocaine concentration, and no significant differences (p < 0.05) in directional permeability were observed for each condition. Some metabolism of cocaine to benzoylecgonine was observed, both in full-thickness and de-epithelialized tissues, demonstrating the activity of the submucosal tissues, in addition to the epithelial cell layer, in determining the disposition of cocaine. Results indicate that cocaine is transported across the nasal mucosa predominantly via passive diffusion, and no significant differences were observed between transport behaviors in the olfactory and nasal respiratory tissues. PMID:22351075

  10. Effect of Dirithromycin on Haemophilus influenzae Infection of the Respiratory Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Rutman, Andrew; Dowling, Ruth; Wills, Peter; Feldman, Charles; Cole, Peter J.; Wilson, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Macrolides have properties other than their antibiotic action which may benefit patients with airway infections. We have investigated the effect of dirithromycin (0.125 to 8.0 ?g/ml) on the interaction of Haemophilus influenzae with respiratory mucosa in vitro using human nasal epithelium, adenoid tissue, and bovine trachea. Dirithromycin did not affect the ciliary beat frequency of the nasal epithelium or the transport of mucus on bovine trachea, but dirithromycin (1 ?g/ml) did reduce the slowing of the ciliary beat frequency and the damage to the nasal epithelium caused by H. influenzae broth culture filtrate. Amoxicillin (2 ?g/ml) did not reduce the effects of the H. influenzae broth culture filtrate. H. influenzae infection of the organ cultures for 24 h caused mucosal damage and the loss of ciliated cells. Bacteria adhered to damaged epithelium and to a lesser extent to mucus and unciliated cells. Incubation of H. influenzae with dirithromycin at sub-MICs (0.125 and 0.5 ?g/ml) prior to infection of the organ cultures did not reduce the mucosal damage caused by bacterial infection. By contrast, incubation of adenoid tissue with dirithromycin (0.125 to 1.0 ?g/ml) for 4 h prior to assembling the organ culture reduced the mucosal damage caused by subsequent H. influenzae infection by as much as 50%. The number of bacteria adherent to the mucosa was reduced, although the tissue that had been incubated with dirithromycin (0.125 and 0.5 ?g/ml) did not inhibit bacterial growth. This was achieved by a reduction in the amount of damaged epithelium to which H. influenzae adhered and a reduction in the density of bacteria adhering to mucus. We conclude that dirithromycin at concentrations achievable in vivo markedly reduces the mucosal damage caused by H. influenzae infection due to a cytoprotective effect. PMID:9559781

  11. Effect of dirithromycin on Haemophilus influenzae infection of the respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rutman, A; Dowling, R; Wills, P; Feldman, C; Cole, P J; Wilson, R

    1998-04-01

    Macrolides have properties other than their antibiotic action which may benefit patients with airway infections. We have investigated the effect of dirithromycin (0.125 to 8.0 microg/ml) on the interaction of Haemophilus influenzae with respiratory mucosa in vitro using human nasal epithelium, adenoid tissue, and bovine trachea. Dirithromycin did not affect the ciliary beat frequency of the nasal epithelium or the transport of mucus on bovine trachea, but dirithromycin (1 microg/ml) did reduce the slowing of the ciliary beat frequency and the damage to the nasal epithelium caused by H. influenzae broth culture filtrate. Amoxicillin (2 microg/ml) did not reduce the effects of the H. influenzae broth culture filtrate. H. influenzae infection of the organ cultures for 24 h caused mucosal damage and the loss of ciliated cells. Bacteria adhered to damaged epithelium and to a lesser extent to mucus and unciliated cells. Incubation of H. influenzae with dirithromycin at sub-MICs (0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml) prior to infection of the organ cultures did not reduce the mucosal damage caused by bacterial infection. By contrast, incubation of adenoid tissue with dirithromycin (0.125 to 1.0 microg/ml) for 4 h prior to assembling the organ culture reduced the mucosal damage caused by subsequent H. influenzae infection by as much as 50%. The number of bacteria adherent to the mucosa was reduced, although the tissue that had been incubated with dirithromycin (0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml) did not inhibit bacterial growth. This was achieved by a reduction in the amount of damaged epithelium to which H. influenzae adhered and a reduction in the density of bacteria adhering to mucus. We conclude that dirithromycin at concentrations achievable in vivo markedly reduces the mucosal damage caused by H. influenzae infection due to a cytoprotective effect. PMID:9559781

  12. Duodenal flow of digesta in preruminant calves fed clotting or nonclotting milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Petit, H V; Ivan, M; Brisson, G J

    1987-12-01

    Four Holstein male calves each were fitted with a reentrant duodenal cannula and fed a low heat milk replacer with or without an oxalate-NaOH buffer known to prevent curd formation in the abomasum. Animals were used in a crossover design to study the effect of milk clotting on duodenal flow of DM, fat, protein, lactose, and Ca. Clotting affected the flow of DM, protein N, total N, and fat as shown by the more uniform gastric emptying of the clotting milk replacer compared with the nonclotting one. For both treatments, the flow rate of these components reached a peak 2 h after feeding. Clotting did not alter the flow rate of free amino N, lactose, and Ca. The cumulative flow of DM, lactose, and Ca was similar for the clotting and nonclotting milk replacers rising gradually during the first 4 h postfeeding and tending to plateau thereafter. The clotting milk replacer resulted in a more linear cumulative flow of fat, protein N, and total N than the nonclotting one. Proteolysis of milk protein in the abomasum was the same for the two milk replacers as indicated by the total flow of free amino N measured over 24 h. Data suggest that milk clotting modifies abomasal flow of milk constituents retained in the abomasal clot but does not alter the flow of constituents in the whey fraction. PMID:3448108

  13. Mechanism of relaxation induced by K+ and nicotine in dog duodenal longitudinal muscle.

    PubMed

    Toda, N; Baba, H; Tanobe, Y; Okamura, T

    1992-02-01

    Dog duodenal longitudinal muscle strips precontracted with bradykinin responded to K+ (10 mM) with a transient relaxation, which was abolished by tetrodotoxin and oxyhemoglobin, but not influenced by atropine, ouabain and apamin. The induced relaxation was suppressed by treatment with 10(-5) M NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, but not by the D-enantiomer. The inhibitory effect was antagonized by L- but not D-arginine. High concentrations (20 mM or higher) of K+ produced a relaxation followed by a sustained contraction; nicardipine abolished the contraction, but did not alter the relaxation. Nicotine produced a contraction, which was converted to a relaxation by atropine. The relaxant response was abolished by tetrodotoxin, hexamethonium and oxyhemoglobin, but was unaffected by timolol and phentolamine. L-NNA suppressed the relaxation, and L-arginine reversed the inhibition. The addition of K+ (20 mM) increased the content of cyclic GMP in the strips, the effect being prevented by tetrodotoxin and L-NNA. These findings suggest that K+ selectively stimulates the nonadrenergic inhibitory nerve, whereas nicotine stimulates both the excitatory cholinergic and inhibitory nerves. Nitric oxide released from the inhibitory nerve appears to transmit information to duodenal smooth muscle by increasing the production of cyclic GMP. PMID:1310740

  14. Duodenal ulceration in a patient with celiac disease and plasminogen I deficiency: coincidence or cofactors?

    PubMed

    Veres, Gabor; Korponay-Szabó, Ilma; Maka, Erika; Glasz, Tibor; Mamula, Petar; Schuster, Volker; Tefs, Katrin; Schuster, Volker; Tefs, Katrin; Papp, Maria; Dezsöfi, Antal; Arató, Andras

    2011-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-dependent inflammatory disease of the small bowel that affects up to 1% of the worldwide population. Despite severe mucosal abnormalities including total villous atrophy and autoantibody deposition, duodenal ulcer is not a feature of CD. However, a recent study found an elevated rate of peptic ulcer disease in patients with CD. Plasminogen deficiency (PLD) is an autosomal recessive disease that causes pseudomembranous lesions in different organs, but gastrointestinal involvement is rare. Here we report the case of a 6-year-old girl who had a sudden onset of hematemesis caused by duodenal ulcer. On the basis of mucosal atrophy, elevated celiac antibody levels, decreased plasminogen serum activity, and homozygous missense mutation R216H in the plasminogen gene, CD and PLD were diagnosed. This report is, to our knowledge, the first description of the 2 entities, and results of our double-immunofluorescent studies also suggest that both diseases may have a role in the ulceration process. Excessive amounts of fibrin deposition due to PLD caused the distortion of the vessels and was responsible for the unusual celiac immunoglobulin A and tissue transglutaminase 2 in vivo binding pattern. On the basis of this result, patients with CD and unknown cause of gastrointestinal ulcer may require investigation for PLD. PMID:21969282

  15. A Case of Duodenal Obstruction and Pancreatitis Due to Intragastric Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Alaattin; Yavuz, Yunus; Atalay, Talha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intragastric balloons have several advantages such as easy placement and low complication rates over other bariatric procedures. It is very rare for intragastric balloons to dislodge and give rise to pancreatitis. In this article, we present a case of duodenal obstruction caused by a gastric balloon leading to pancreatitis. Case Report: A 38-year-old obese female patient had undergone intragastric implantation one month before admission. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of abdominal pain. On the abdominal ultrasonography and tomography, edematous pancreatitis and cholelithiasis were observed. The patient was given medical treatment for pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography was repeated on the next day, and a distended gallbladder was revealed. Thus, the patient was operated on with the pre-diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and biliary pancreatitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. During the operation, a hard and trapped object was determined in the second part of the duodenal lumen. The patient was reevaluated on the second postoperative day as her pain had increased. On direct abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scan, the tubular part of the gastric balloon was found to be stuck in the duodenum. A gastroscopy was performed, but the balloon could not be removed. Therefore, an immediate laparotomy was performed, and the balloon was removed via gastrotomy. Conclusion: Although intragastric balloons are designed to reduce the risk of displacement, all unexpected patient complaints should lead to a thorough examination of the position and status of the balloon. PMID:26185725

  16. Management of patients with combined tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and duodenal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Nabzdyk, Christoph S.; Chiu, Bill; Jackson, Carl-Christian; Chwals, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Patients with combined esophageal atresia (EA), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and duodenal atresia (DA) pose a rare management challenge. PRESENTATION OF CASE Three patients with combined esophageal atresia (EA), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and duodenal atresia safely underwent a staged approach inserting a gastrostomy tube and repairing the EA/TEF first followed by a duodenoduodenostomy within one week. None of the patients suffered significant pre- or post-operative complications and our follow-up data (between 12 and 24 months) suggest that all patients eventually outgrow their reflux and respiratory symptoms. DISCUSSION While some authors support repair of all defects in one surgery, we recommend a staged approach. A gastrostomy tube is placed first for gastric decompression before TEF ligation and EA repair can be safely undertaken. The repair of the DA can then be performed within 3–7 days under controlled circumstances. CONCLUSION A staged approach of inserting a gastrostomy tube and repairing the EA/TEF first followed by a duodenoduodenostomy within one week resulted in excellent outcomes. PMID:25460495

  17. Persistent duodenal ulcers bleeding in postkidney transplant patient treated by infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Pittayanon, Rapat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease was admitted for a living-donor kidney transplantation. On post-transplantation day 6, she developed antibody-mediated rejection and was treated with plasmapheresis, rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulin. 1?week later, she developed severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding from multiple duodenal ulcers along the bulb and the third part of the duodenum. She underwent 11 sessions of endoscopic and interventional therapies comprised with the combination of various techniques including bipolar coaptation, hemoclipping, band ligation and angiogram with coil embolisation of duodenal branch of gastroduodenal artery. Histopathology showed neither any organism nor any feature of graft-versus-host disease. However, empiric treatments with intravenous proton pump inhibitor and broad-spectrum antibiotics/antifungal were given but failed to heal the ulcer, and bleeding recurred from the new developed ulcers. Finally, a single dose of intravenous infliximab was administered to stop bleeding. The patient responded dramatically with rapid ulcers healing and there was no recurrent bleeding during a 3-month follow-up. PMID:23616323

  18. A 'quality of life questionnaire' adapted to duodenal ulcer therapeutic trials.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Marquis, P; Bonfils, S

    1994-01-01

    In order to compare subpopulations of duodenal ulcer (DU) patients a quality of life (QoL) questionnaire (self-administered) was developed with the objective of investigating: (i) general parameters of health and well-being, and (ii) dimensions specifically adapted to patients with DU. For the former, Ware's MOS SF-36 was selected as a central core, with 36 items investigating 9 dimensions, and for the latter the anxiety scale (5 items) of the Psychological General Well-being Index (PGWBI) questionnaire and a further 5 dimensions (13 items) resulting from a preliminary survey of ulcer patients were selected. Validation of the proposed questionnaire was obtained for: linguistic aspects, content (i.e. ability to cover problems of patients suffering from DU), internal consistency, reliability, and sensitivity (i.e. analysis of discrimination between three groups of patients (acute DU episode, remission and control). The final version of the Quality of Life in Duodenal Ulcer Patients (QLDUP) questionnaire, which includes 54 items investigating 15 dimensions, appears to be a sensitive and reproducible tool, the simplicity of which makes it suitable for monitoring long-term treatments in DU. PMID:7863252

  19. Second-stage robot-assisted biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch after sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Fantola, G; Reibel, N; Germain, A; Ayav, A; Bresler, L; Brunaud, L

    2015-01-01

    Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) was initially described in 1979 and consisted of a distal gastrectomy with a 250-mL stomach pouch and a distal intestinal bypass with a 50 to 100-cm common channel resulting in malabsorption of dietary fat (Scopinaro et al. Br J Surg. 66(9):618-20, 1979). Later, several modifications (sleeve gastrectomy, pylorus preservation, and duodenal switch) were proposed to improve incidence of postoperative dumping syndrome, diarrhea, and anastomotic ulcerations (Lagacé et al. Obes Surg. 5(4):411-8, 1995). Gagner et al. developed a simplified and reproducible approach for laparoscopic BPD with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) after sleeve gastrectomy (Ren et al. Obes Surg. 10(6): 514-23, 2000). BPD-DS has been considered as one of the most difficult bariatric procedures for its surgical complexity and postoperative metabolic complications management. In this regard, the number of BPD-DS has remained extremely low (<4 %). We hypothesize that robotic approach could facilitate the feasibility of BPD-DS procedure. In this multimedia video (8 min), we present a step-by-step robotic BPD-DS. PMID:25392077

  20. Successful open abdomen treatment for multiple ischemic duodenal perforated ulcers in dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dermatomyositis is an autoimmune disease characterized by proximal myopathy, cutaneous Gottron papules and heliotrope rash; intestinal involvement associated to acute vasculitis is less common but could be a life-threatening condition. Methods A 21-year-old woman, affected by dermatomyositis, presented to our attention with a three-day story of severe abdominal pain, no bowel movement and biliary vomit. She was diagnosed with acute abdomen. A CT scan with bowel contrast demonstrated the presence of a leakage from the retroperitoneal aspect of duodenum. The surgical and clinical management in the light of literature review is presented. Results Our first approach consisted in primary repair of the duodenal perforation with omentopexy. Post-operative course was complicated by hemorrhage. A reintervention showed a new perforation associated with multiple ischemic intestinal areas. We performed a gastroenteric anastomosis with functional exclusion of the damaged duodenum and positioning of drainages to create a biliary fistula. A nutritional enteric tube and an open abdomen vacuum-assisted closure system to monitor the fistula creation and to prevent abdominal contamination and collections were positioned. To reduce the amount of biliary leakage, a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was placed, with progressive fistula flow disappearance in four months. Conclusions In patients with dermatomyositis, when clinical findings and symptoms suggest abdominal vasculitis, it is very important to be aware of the risk of bowel and particularly duodenal perforations. Open abdomen treatment favors control of contamination by gastrointestinal contents, offers temporary abdominal closure, helps ICU care and delays definitive surgery.

  1. Unexpected endoscopic full-thickness resection of a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hatogai, Ken; Oono, Yasuhiro; Fu, Kuang-I; Odagaki, Tomoyuki; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takashi; Yano, Tomonori; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    A 57-year-old man underwent endoscopy for investigation of a duodenal polyp. Endoscopy revealed a hemispheric submucosal tumor, about 5 mm in diameter, in the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb. Endoscopic biopsy disclosed a neuroendocrine tumor histologically, therefore endoscopic mucosal resection was conducted. The tumor was effectively and evenly elevated after injection of a mixture of 0.2% hyaluronic acid and glycerol at a ratio of 1:1 into the submucosal layer. A small amount of indigo-carmine dye was also added for coloration of injection fluid. The lesion was completely resected en bloc with a snare after submucosal fluid injection. Immediately, muscle-fiber-like tissues were identified in the marginal area of the resected defect above the blue-colored layer, which suggested perforation. The defect was completely closed with a total of 9 endoclips, and no symptoms associated with peritonitis appeared thereafter. Histologically, the horizontal and vertical margins of the resected specimen were free of tumor and muscularis propria was also seen in the resected specimen. Generally, endoscopic mucosal resection is considered to be theoretically successful if the mucosal defect is colored blue. The blue layer in this case, however, had been created by unplanned injection into the subserosal rather than the submucosal layer. PMID:23864794

  2. Age-related changes in elastic properties and moisture content of lower labial mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, K; Sakurai, K; Ueda-Kodaira, Y; Ueda, T

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify age-related changes in the elastic properties and moisture content of the lower labial mucosa. Elastic properties and moisture content were also compared between the lower labial mucosa and skin. A total of 85 adults aged 20-82 took part in the study. Elastic properties (distensibility and elasticity) and moisture content of lower labial mucosa and skin were determined in each participant. Measurements for the oral mucosa were taken at the midline of the lower labial mucosa; for the skin, they were taken at the midpoint of the right anterior surface of the forearm. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for the statistical analysis. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also performed, with age as the dependent variable and sex, distensibility, elasticity and moisture content of the lower labial mucosa as independent variables. A negative correlation was found between age and distensibility of the lower labial mucosa. No correlation was observed between age and elasticity of the lower labial mucosa. A negative correlation was observed between age and moisture content of the lower labial mucosa. A significant difference was observed in moisture content between the 20- to 39-year-old group and the over 40-year-old group. Stepwise analysis identified distensibility and moisture content of the lower labial mucosa as predictive factors of age. The results indicate that distensibility and moisture content of the lower labial mucosa decrease with age. Moisture content in the over 40-year-old group, in particular, was lower than in the 20- to -30-year-old group. PMID:20735799

  3. The structures of the colonic mucosa-associated and luminal microbial communities are distinct and differentially affected by a prolonged murine stressor.

    PubMed

    Galley, Jeffrey D; Yu, Zhongtang; Kumar, Purnima; Dowd, Scot E; Lyte, Mark; Bailey, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    The commensal microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract live in a largely stable community structure, assisting in host physiological and immunological functions. Changes to this structure can be injurious to the health of the host, a concept termed dysbiosis. Psychological stress is a factor that has been implicated in causing dysbiosis, and studies performed by our lab have shown that restraint stress can indeed shift the cecal microbiota structure as well as increase the severity of a colonic infection caused by Citrobacter rodentium. However, this study, like many others, have focused on fecal contents when examining the effect of dysbiosis-causing stimuli (e.g. psychological stress) upon the microbiota. Since the mucosa-associated microbiota have unique properties and functions that can act upon the host, it is important to understand how stressor exposure might affect this niche of bacteria. To begin to understand whether chronic restraint stress changes the mucosa-associated and/or luminal microbiota mice underwent 7 16-hour cycles of restraint stress, and the microbiota of both colonic tissue and fecal contents were analyzed by sequencing using next-gen bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon technology (bTEFAP) pyrosequencing. Both control and stress groups had significantly different mucosa-associated and luminal microbiota communities, highlighting the importance of focusing gastrointestinal community structure analysis by microbial niche. Furthermore, restraint stress was able to disrupt both the mucosa-associated and luminally-associated colonic microbiota by shifting the relative abundances of multiple groups of bacteria. Among these changes, there was a significant reduction in the immunomodulatory commensal genus Lactobacillus associated with colonic mucosa. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. was not affected in the lumen. These results indicate that stressor-exposure can have distinct effects upon the colonic microbiota situated at the mucosal epithelium in comparison to the luminal-associated microbiota. PMID:25536463

  4. Endoscopic tissue shielding method with polyglycolic acid sheets and fibrin glue to prevent delayed perforation after duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Kengo; Imai, Yoshihito; Matsuyama, Kiichi

    2014-04-01

    Delayed perforation after duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) occurs at a high rate because the duodenal wall is very thin and the artificial ulcer after resection is exposed to bile and pancreatic juice. We investigated the application of the combination of a polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet and fibrin glue. PGA sheets comprise materials widely used in surgery for absorbable thread. Fibrin glue is a heated blood product and is used for hemostasis during operations. We developed a combined method using both materials. We have used this method in two cases. One case involved an elevated lesion located in the lower duodenal angle of the duodenum. The other involved an elevated lesion in the second portion of the duodenum. About 1 week after ESD, the PGA sheets remained covering the ulcer and delayed perforation did not occur. We were able to easily carry out this method for several parts of the duodenum. This method may be helpful for the prevention of delayed perforation after duodenal ESD. PMID:24750148

  5. Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein and on plasma calcium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein Josas. Summary. In vitamin D-deficient pigs the amount of intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP. In chicks and rats, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD,) is the major circulating metabolite of vitamin D3

  6. Effects of duodenal infusions of palmitic, stearic, or oleic acids on milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R

    2000-07-01

    Four dairy cows fitted with a duodenal cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of daily duodenal infusion of 500 g of fatty acids (containing mainly C16:0, C18:0, or cis-C18:1) on fecal concentrations of fatty acids, fatty acid profiles of milk fat, and solid fat content of butter. Fecal concentrations of C16:0 and especially of C18:0 were increased by duodenal infusion. Infusion with C16:0 increased the proportion of C16:0 in milk fat and delayed softening of butter when the temperature rose. Infusion with C18:0 resulted only in a slight increase of C18:0 proportion in milk fat and did not significantly affect solid fat in butter between -10 and 30 degrees C. With the infusion of cis-C18:1, the proportion of cis-C18:1 in milk fat was more than twice that of control, to the detriment of C16:0. Butter contained low proportion of solid fat, even at low temperatures. Increasing C16:0 or cis-C18:1 in milk fatty acid via duodenal infusion can be used to study their specific effects on butter characteristics, but, because of a low transfer from infusion to milk, this method is less efficient with C18:0. PMID:10908048

  7. A controlled study comparing cimetidine treatment to an intensive antacid regimen in the therapy of uncomplicated duodenal ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fedeli; M. Anti; G. L. Rapaccini; I. De Vitis; A. Butti; I. M. Civello

    1979-01-01

    The authors report the results of a randomized study in which comparison was made between two different kinds of treatment in patients affected by uncomplicated duodenal ulcer endoscopically diagnosed. The first group was treated with 1 g of cimetidine per day, during a period of four weeks (200 mg three times a day and 400 mg at bedtime); the second

  8. Ranitidine in the treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug associated gastric and duodenal ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster-Smith, M J; Jaderberg, M E; Jackson, D A

    1991-01-01

    In a multicentre study the effect of ranitidine on healing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) associated peptic ulcers was compared in a group of patients who had stopped NSAID treatment with another group who continued with NSAID treatment. A total of 190 patients with confirmed ulcers were randomised to continue or stop NSAID treatment. All patients in addition received ranitidine 150 mg twice daily. Patients were endoscopically monitored at four, eight, and 12 weeks. Gastric ulcers at eight weeks had healed in 63% of those taking NSAIDs compared with 95% of those who had stopped NSAID treatment. For duodenal ulcer the healing rates at eight weeks were 84% in the group continuing NSAIDs compared with 100% in those who stopped NSAIDs. The differences in healing rates were statistically significant for both gastric ulcer (p = 0.001) and for duodenal ulcer (p = 0.006). At 12 weeks, 79% of gastric ulcers and 92% of duodenal ulcers were healed in the group continuing with NSAIDs. All patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers who stopped taking NSAIDs were healed at 12 weeks. The study shows that ranitidine 150 mg twice daily effectively heals NSAID associated peptic ulcers. Healing is more successful when NSAID treatment stops but even if these drugs are continued, substantial healing rates are achievable. PMID:2013419

  9. Relationship between histology and gastric juice pH and nitrite in the stomach after operation for duodenal ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P C Watt; J M Sloan; J D Donaldson; C C Patterson; T L Kennedy

    1984-01-01

    One hundred patients who had undergone operation for duodenal ulcer (68 vagotomy and gastroenterostomy; seven vagotomy and pyloroplasty; 22 gastrectomy and three gastroenterostomy) 10 or more years previously each underwent endoscopy. Biopsies were taken and gastric juice aspirated for measurement of pH and nitrite concentration. Patients were divided into five histological grades; chronic superficial gastritis (+\\/- minimal atrophic gastritis) (35),

  10. Mycobacterium avium Invades the Intestinal Mucosa Primarily by Interacting with Enterocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FELIX J. SANGARI; JOSEPH GOODMAN; MARY PETROFSKY; PETER KOLONOSKI; LUIZ E. BERMUDEZ

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium can invade intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. When given to mice orally, M. avium preferentially interacts with the intestinal mucosa at the terminal ileum. We evaluated the mechanism(s) of M. avium binding and invasion of the intestinal mucosa using three different systems: (i) electron microscopy following administration of M.

  11. Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma After a Childhood Hypospadias Repair With Bladder Mucosa Graft.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, Raffaella; Stackhouse, Danielle A; McMann, Leah P; Sterbis, Joseph R

    2015-06-01

    Bladder mucosa grafts were historically used for hypospadias surgical repairs, when preputial or penile skin was unavailable and in cases of prior failed hypospadias repairs. We present a case of advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed 22 years after a childhood hypospadias repair with a free bladder mucosa graft. PMID:25863837

  12. Melanoma in situ of the oral mucosa in an adolescent with dysplastic nevus syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Tremblay; Elizabeth A. O’Brien; Peter J. Chauvin

    2000-01-01

    We describe a case of melanoma in situ occurring on the oral mucosa in an adolescent male patient who has dysplastic nevus syndrome. This association has not been previously reported and is of interest both because of the rarity of melanoma involving the oral mucosa, particularly in childhood, and because of the lack of any previous reports of oral mucosal

  13. Clinical, histological and therapeutic study regarding the variations of the edentulous ridge's mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Davila

    The oral mucosa of the edentulous ridges presents many morphological macroscopic and microscopic variations, from one area of the edentulous ridge to another, as well as from one patient to another. Because the mobile prosthetic treatment realizes a direct contact between the dental prosthesis and the mucosa of the denture supporting structures and of the peripheral structures, the prosthetic success

  14. Ultrastructure and development of the nephridia in Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bartolomaeus

    1989-01-01

    Different developmental stages (trochophores, nectochaetae, non-mature and mature adults) of Anaitides mucosa were investigated ultrastructurally. A. mucosa has protonephridia throughout its life; during maturity a ciliated funnel is attached to these organs. The protonephridial duct cells are multiciliated, while the terminal cells are monociliated. The single cilium is surrounded by 14 microvilli which extend into the duct lumen without coming

  15. Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

  16. A ballistic study of micro-particle penetration to the oral mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J Mitchell; Mark AF Kendall; Brian J Bellhouse

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into the impact of model micro-particles to ex vivo buccal mucosa (the cheek) of pigs and beagle dogs. The work is aimed at optimizing a unique form of pharmaceutical delivery. The pharmaceutical is formulated into particle form and accelerated toward the target of skin or mucosa by using a gas jet. In

  17. A novel method for delineation of oral mucosa for radiotherapy dose-response studies.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jamie A; Welsh, Liam C; Gulliford, Sarah L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    There is currently no standard method for delineating the oral mucosa and most attempts are oversimplified. A new method to obtain anatomically accurate contours of the oral mucosa surfaces was developed and applied to 11 patients. This is expected to represent an opportunity for improved toxicity modelling of oral mucositis. PMID:25779721

  18. Expression of TAG-72 in normal colon, transitional mucosa, and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Real, F X; Welt, S; Schüssler, M H; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1989-12-15

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) B72.3 detects an epitope carried by high-molecular-weight mucins (tumor-associated glycoprotein, TAG-72) recently identified as sialyl-Tn. B72.3 MAb has a restricted pattern of reactivity with normal tissues but it reacts with a high proportion of epithelial cancers. To determine the possible relationship between neoplastic transformation and reactivity with B72.3 MAb, we have analyzed samples of normal colon, colon cancer and transitional mucosa (mucosa adjacent to colorectal cancer) or reactive mucosa (mucosa adjacent to squamous carcinoma of the anal canal, or mucosa overlying lymphoma). B72.3 MAb reacted strongly with 21/21 specimens of transitional mucosa and with 17/21 specimens of adjacent colon cancer. Reactivity of B72.3 MAb with transitional mucosa was strong and homogeneous, whereas reactivity with cancer tissue was weaker and more heterogeneous. Reactive mucosa adjacent to squamous carcinoma or lymphoma was also reactive with B72.3 MAb. Our findings show that, in the colon, expression of TAG-72 antigen occurs during the process of epithelial cell transformation but is also regulated by factors unrelated to the process of carcinogenesis. PMID:2481651

  19. Identification of Restricted Subsets of Mature microRNA Abnormally Expressed in Inactive Colonic Mucosa of

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Mucosa of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Magali Fasseu1,2. , Xavier Tre´ton1,2,3. , Ce Background: Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD) are two chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDRNA Abnormally Expressed in Inactive Colonic Mucosa of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. PLoS ONE 5

  20. Fragility of the esophageal mucosa: A pathognomonic endoscopic sign of primary eosinophilic esophagitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Livio Rossi; Hans-Uwe Simon; Pius Heer; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Christoph Beglinger

    2003-01-01

    Background: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus, evokes recurrent dysphagia. Endoscopy is often unremarkable, and no consensus exists regarding management of resultant dysphagia. The response of a series of patients with primary eosinophilic esophagitis to dilation is reported together with a description of a possibly pathognomonic sign: fragile esophageal mucosa, for which the term “crêpe-paper” mucosa

  1. Phase contrast imaging of buccal mucosa tissues-Feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, A.; Tripathi, S.; Shripathi, T.; Kulkarni, V. K.; Banda, N. R.; Agrawal, A. K.; Sarkar, P. S.; Kashyap, Y.; Sinha, A.

    2015-06-01

    Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) technique has been used to interpret physical parameters obtained from the image taken on the normal buccal mucosa tissue extracted from cheek of a patient. The advantages of this method over the conventional imaging techniques are discussed. PCI technique uses the X-ray phase shift at the edges differentiated by very minute density differences and the edge enhanced high contrast images reveal details of soft tissues. The contrast in the images produced is related to changes in the X-ray refractive index of the tissues resulting in higher clarity compared with conventional absorption based X-ray imaging. The results show that this type of imaging has better ability to visualize microstructures of biological soft tissues with good contrast, which can lead to the diagnosis of lesions at an early stage of the diseases.

  2. Gastric mucosa analysis using speckle patterns: a medical diagnosis alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade Eraso, Carlos Augusto; Patiño Velasco, Mario Milver; Vásquez Lopez, Jairo Alfonso; Tellez, Jaury Leon; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Rabal, Hector; Trivi, Marcelo

    2011-08-01

    Speckle techniques have been extensively employed in biomedical applications. It has been shown, that these non invasive optical techniques are useful to discriminate healthy tissues from those presenting some type of pathology. In this work we analyze speckle patterns from histological samples of gastric mucosa obtained by means of digestive endoscopies with three different histopathological confirmed diagnoses: atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia. We studied biopsies from 27 patients and formed groups following the corresponding speckle contrast features. Three different groups according to the speckle contrast were established: higher for intestinal metaplasia, intermediate for gastric dysplasia and low for gastric atrophy. The comparison with histopathology shows a high value of concordance between both tests, making this methodology emerges as a possible new classification system for qualitative and quantitative gastric biopsy using optical techniques.

  3. In vitro adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to human intestinal epithelial cells from mucosal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Knutton, S; Lloyd, D R; Candy, D C; McNeish, A S

    1984-05-01

    An adhesion assay with isolated human enterocytes prepared from duodenal biopsies has been developed and tested by using human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli expressing colonization factor antigens I and II (CFA/I and CFA/II) and type 1 fimbriae. Enterotoxigenic E. coli strains H10407 (CFA/I) and B2C (CFA/II) bound to duodenal enterocytes to a much greater extent (mean of 4.6 and 4.0 bacteria per brush border) than did strain H10407P, a CFA/I- mutant of H10407 (mean of 0.1 bacteria per brush border). Type 1 fimbriae also promoted adhesion of strain H10407P to duodenal enterocytes but attachment was to basolateral rather than brush border surfaces. CFA/I and CFA/II, on the other hand, promoted adhesion only to human enterocyte brush borders. PMID:6370868

  4. Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.

    2004-06-30

    This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

  5. Secreted factors from olfactory mucosa cells expanded as free-floating spheres increase neurogenesis in olfactory bulb neurosphere cultures

    E-print Network

    Barraud, Perrine; He, Xiao-ling; Caldwell, Maeve; Franklin, Robin J M

    2008-02-18

    progenitor cells derived from mouse neonatal olfactory bulb or subventricular zone (SVZ) in the presence of medium conditioned by olfactory mucosa-derived spheres (olfactory-spheres). Our data demonstrated that olfactory mucosa cells produced soluble factors...

  6. White specks in the esophageal mucosa: an endoscopic manifestation of non-reflux eosinophilic esophagitis in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel R Lim; Sandeep K Gupta; Joseph M Croffie; Marian D Pfefferkorn; Jean P Molleston; Mark R Corkins; Mary M Davis; Philip P Faught; Steven J Steiner; Joseph F Fitzgerald

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundWhite specks in the esophageal mucosa have been observed in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between white specks in the esophageal mucosa and allergic (non-reflux) eosinophilic esophagitis.

  7. The pathogenesis of duodenal gastric metaplasia: the role of local goblet cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Shaoul, R; Marcon, P; Okada, Y; Cutz, E; Forstner, G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Gastric metaplasia is frequently seen in biopsies of the duodenal cap, particularly when inflamed or ulcerated. In its initial manifestation small patches of gastric foveolar cells appear near the tip of a villus. These cells contain periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive neutral mucins in contrast with the alcian blue (AB) positive acidic mucins within duodenal goblet cells. Previous investigations have suggested that these PAS positive cells originate either in Brunner's gland ducts or at the base of duodenal crypts and migrate in distinct streams to the upper villus. To investigate the origin of gastric metaplasia in superficial patches, we used the PAS/AB stain to distinguish between neutral and acidic mucins and in addition specific antibodies to immunolocalise foveolar cell mucin MUC5AC, the foveolar cell secretory product, gastric trefoil factor (TFF1), the mature goblet cell mucin MUC2, and MUC2 core antigen.?RESULTS—Cells in focal patches of gastric metaplasia contained secretory granules of both gastric and goblet cell phenotypes. MUC5AC and TFF1 were present as expected in gastric foveolar cells but in addition, MUC2 core antigen, normally present only in the Golgi of intestinal goblet cells, was expressed in secretory granules. Goblet cells in the vicinity of metaplastic patches also expressed both gastric and intestinal antigens. MUC5AC/MUC2 containing goblet cells were most common near the villus tip but were also seen at the base of crypts. Where crypts and Brunner's gland ducts merged they were always seen on the crypt side of the junction. Goblet cells were the only cells to express gastric antigens in these areas. In advanced metaplastic lesions, dual phenotype goblet cells were less evident and fewer cells expressed intestinal mucin antigens.?CONCLUSIONS—We suggest that goblet cells that express both intestinal and gastric antigens may represent local precursors of gastric metaplasia undergoing a transition to foveolar-like cells of mixed phenotype at the site of early metaplastic patches. As metaplasia becomes more widespread, a more pure gastric phenotype emerges. This progression is likely to be controlled by local inflammatory signals.???Keywords: gastric metaplasia; goblet cells; mucin PMID:10764705

  8. Enhanced production of interleukin 1-beta by mononuclear cells isolated from mucosa with active ulcerative colitis of Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y R Mahida; K Wu; D P Jewell

    1989-01-01

    IL1-beta production by mononuclear cells isolated from normal and active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa was studied. Significantly more IL1-beta was produced spontaneously by mononuclear cells from the inflamed mucosa compared with those from normal colonic mucosa (median 190 pg\\/ml (range 45-700) v 20 pg\\/ml (0-165)). Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide enhanced IL1-beta production by mononuclear cells from active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa

  9. Tachykinin receptors mediate atropine-resistant rat duodenal reflex contractions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, S; Tramontana, M; Lecci, A; Maggi, C A

    1996-01-01

    The study aimed to establish the possible role of tachykinins as mediators of atropine-resistant reflex contractions evoked by balloon distension in the proximal duodenum of urethane-anesthetized, guanethidine (34 mumol/kg s.c.)-pretreated rats. Distension of the balloon with a small amount (0.2-0.3 ml) of saline induced the appearance of phasic rhythmic contractions (about 11 mmHg in amplitude) which were promptly suppressed by either atropine (3 mumol/kg i.v.) or hexamethonium (28 mumol/kg i.v.). Despite the continuous i.v. infusion of atropine (2 mumol/h), low-amplitude rhythmic phasic contractions recovered, which were promptly suppressed by hexamethonium, to indicate the involvement of an atropine-resistant excitatory reflex. The amplitude of these atropine-resistant contractions was increased to about 4-5 mmHg by further distension of the balloon (0.4-0.6 ml) : under these conditions, the atropine-resistant contractions undergo a progressive fading. The fading was prevented by i.v. administration of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 55 mumol/h), to provide a suitable baseline (amplitude of contractions was 7-8 mmHg) for studying the effect of tachykinin receptor antagonists. I.v. administration of the selective tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists, MEN 10,627 (10-100 nmol/kg) and SR 48968 (100-300 nmol/kg) or of the selective NK1 antagonist SR 140333 (100 nmol/kg), at doses which do not affect the duodenal contractions induced by acetylcholine (5.5 mumol/kg i.v.), produced a prompt and long lasting suppression of the atropine-resistant reflex duodenal contractions produced by balloon distension in urethane-anesthetized rats, whilst SR-48965 (300 nmol/kg), the enantiomer of SR-48968 devoid, of NK2 receptor blocking activity, was without effect. I.v. administration of the selective NK1 receptor agonists [Sar9] substance P sulfone and septide or of the NK2 receptor selective agonist, [beta Ala8] neurokinin A(4-10) produced dose-dependent contractions of the duodenum. SR 140333 (100 nmol/kg i.v.) selectively antagonized the duodenal contractions produced by [Sar9] substance P sulfone and septide without affecting those produced by [beta Ala8] neurokinin A(4-10). On the other hand, MEN 10,627 (30-100 nmol/kg i.v.) and SR 48968 (100-300 nmol/kg i.v.) but not SR 48965 (300 nmol/kg i.v.) antagonized, at a comparable extent, duodenal contractions induced by both the selective NK2 and NK1 receptor agonists. We conclude that endogenous tachykinins are involved in mediating atropine-resistant reflex contractions evoked by distension of the rat duodenum in vivo: both NK1 and NK2 receptors are activated by endogenous ligands to produce NANC contractions of rat duodenum in vivo. However, the contractile response to i.v. administered NK1 receptor agonists, [Sar9] substance P sulfone and septide, may involve the release of mediators producing smooth muscle contraction via NK2 receptors. PMID:8878063

  10. Duodenal ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease today: long-term therapy--a sideways glance.

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, K. D.

    1996-01-01

    Acid-peptic disease is widely considered conquered or controlled, future advances being refinements of existing treatments rather than radical new developments. Yet controversies remain and developments have yet to be made. DUODENAL ULCER: Daily maintenance treatment with the anti-secretory drugs, histamine H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump blockers, controls duodenal ulcer effectively, markedly reducing relapse rate at one year after treatment from about 75 percent to 15 to 20 percent (and to about 10 percent on proton pump blockers). In contrast, Helicobacter pylori eradication with a one to two week course of treatment yields prolonged remission or cure. The consequent reduction in drug costs in individual patients, however, has been exceeded by increasing community use on the more expensive proton pump blockers for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The marked decline in elective surgery since the introduction of histamine H2 receptor antagonists is commonly attributed to the power of these drugs. The fall, however, had started much earlier, indicating that the decline is due to changing natural history. In contrast, complication rates remain unaltered. An increasing proportion of newly diagnosed duodenal ulcer patients are elderly, and more of them now present for the first time with complications (in this center, about 40 percent), which consequently cannot be forestalled. Thus, duodenal ulcer disease is likely to remain a problem and in many will be a serious illness. GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE: The proton pump blockers have revolutionized the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In clinical trials they have proven markedly superior to the histamine H2 receptor antagonists in healing (at eight weeks, 80 to 90 percent vs. 50 to 60 percent), symptom relief, prevention of relapse on maintenance therapy and cost-effectiveness. However, several issues remain. The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease seems to be rising and is now probably the commonest acid-peptic disease encountered in the West. Most clinical trials comparing proton pump blockers vs. histamine H2 receptor antagonists have been done in patients with erosive esophagitis, whereas the majority (50 to 60 percent) of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease have milder, generally non-erosive, disease. The therapeutic gain of proton pump blockers diminishes in mild disease so may not be worth the higher drug costs. This is an important area for investigation. The majority of patients with erosive esophagitis relapse when treatment is stopped (about 75 percent at one year). Relapse is markedly reduced (to 20 to 25 percent) by daily maintenance treatment with proton pump blockers. Mild disease relapses less often, so longterm therapy by intermittent treatment may prove acceptable and more cost-effective than maintenance treatment. This strategy remains unexplored in trials. The ideal profile of an anti-secretory drug for intermittent treatment would combine rapid onset of action (similar to histamine H2 receptor antagonists) with powerful effect (as with proton pump blockers). The new class of drug, the reversible proton pump blocker (e.g., BY841) approaches this requirement. PMID:9165690

  11. Situs Ambiguous, Levocardia, Right Sided Stomach, Obstructing Duodenal Web, and Intestinal Nonrotation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mujo, Tomas; Finnegan, Tess; Joshi, Jonathan; Wilcoxen, Kathirene A.; Reed, James C.

    2015-01-01

    When approaching a case with a situs abnormality, using the proper terminology, making a specific diagnosis, and understanding the other often associated abnormalities that need to be excluded are of great importance. We present a case of situs ambiguous in the presence of intestinal nonrotation and an obstructing duodenal web. Our patient initially presented at two days old with bilious emesis and failure to pass meconium after birth. An abdominal radiograph demonstrated an unusual bowel gas pattern, a reversed “double bubble” sign. A subsequent thorough imaging survey was crucial to further characterize our patient’s unique anatomy. Overall, our case demonstrates many of the unusual plain radiographic and sonographic findings associated with our patient’s situs abnormality and allows for review of situs abnormalities and their significance. PMID:25926924

  12. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol to thiosulfate by rat tissues: a specialized function of the colonic mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Furne; John Springfield; Thomas Koenig; Eugene DeMaster; Michael D Levitt

    2001-01-01

    Colonic bacteria release large quantities of the highly toxic thiols hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methanethiol (CH3SH). These gases rapidly permeate the colonic mucosa, and tissue damage would be expected if the mucosa could not detoxify these compounds rapidly. We previously showed that rat cecal mucosa metabolizes these thiols via conversion to thiosulfate. The purpose of the present study in rats

  13. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques

    PubMed Central

    kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin–like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. Results: The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (p<0.001). Moreover, the comparison of staining techniques showed a significantly higher number of eosinophils in EMR1immunohistochemicalmarker than were observed when Congo red and hematoxylin - eosin (H&E) staining techniques were used (p<0.001). Conclusion: It can be argued that eosinophil contributes to the identification of lesions that have a higher potential of malignant transformation. Moreover, eosinophil can be suggested as an indicator in the differentiation of oral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy. PMID:26120409

  14. Immune suppressive effects of Helicobacter pylori on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Knipp; Sabine Birkholz; Wolfgang Kaup; Wolfgang Opferkuch

    1993-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of type-B gastritis and duodenal ulcer in man is described as a bacterium able to stimulate the human immune system. This study demonstrates that H. pylori besides this property possesses an immune suppressive activity. The in vitro proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD), phytohemagglutinin, and concanavalin A

  15. Increased counts and degranulation of duodenal mast cells and eosinophils in functional dyspepsia- a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shijun; Song, Yan; Zhang, Haishan; Li, Gaiqin; Li, Xiaopei; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    The above article published in Medicinski Glasnik online on 26 June 2014 by the Medical Association of Zenica-Doboj Canton (http://www.ljkzedo.com.ba/index.php/u-sljedecem-broju) and in Volume 11, Issue 2, pages 276-282, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Professor Selma Uzunovi?, and the Medical Association of Zenica-Doboj Canton. The reasons for this retraction are as follows: The work reported in the paper was about the role of duodenal eosinophils and mast cells in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. Most of the experiments were carried out by a former member of the authors' team named Yuan Haipeng, who has left the team for more than two years. A high proportion of data in the paper had been reported in the doctoral dissertation of Yuan Haipeng in 2012, and the paper was published without the knowledge or permission of Yuan. Besides the data previously reported in the doctoral dissertation of Yuan Haipeng, the authors calculated the other data in the paper before the submission. However, it has come to the authors' attention that they had made quite a few mistakes due to a loss of the original data, which was not described in details in the dissertation. REFERENCE Shijun Song, Yan Song, Haishan Zhang, Gaiqin Li, Xiaopei Li, Xiaohong Wang, Zhen Liu. Increased counts and degranulation of duodenal mast cells and eosinophils in functional dyspepsia- a clinical study. Med Glas (Zenica) 2014; 11(2):276-82. PMID:25669347

  16. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for treating pituitary adenoma via a sub-septum mucosa approach.

    PubMed

    Nie, Sheng; Li, Keqin; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Jikuang; Gao, Xiang; Sun, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A novel sub-suptum mucusa approach was used to investigate the surgical method via an endonasal sub-septum-mucosa approach to pituitary adenoma under endoscopy. In this work, we aim to ensure the quality of operation and to reduce the operation trauma and complications. By endoscopy, the nasal mucosa was incised in the nasal septum, and all mucosal flaps were retained, a sub-septum-mucosa surgical corridor was made where the endoscope was used in the mucosa cavity for operation and to remove the pituitary adenoma. 52 patients (28 women, mean age 46.76 years) underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal sub-septum-mucosa approach for treating pituitary adenoma. 46 patients (88.5%) underwent gross total removal (GTR) for the tumor; 6 patients (11.5%) went through partial tumor removal (PTR). After operation, all nasal mucosa was retained, no complications such as nasal bleeding, loss of sense of smell or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Our results showed that treating pituitary adenoma using endonasal transsphenoidal surgeries by keeping nasal mucosa under neuroendoscopy tend to have smaller trauma. This novel method more advanced since it provides a clear operation field, a flexible transformation of operation modes and leads to less postoperative complications. PMID:26131087

  17. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for treating pituitary adenoma via a sub-septum mucosa approach

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Sheng; Li, Keqin; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Jikuang; Gao, Xiang; Sun, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A novel sub-suptum mucusa approach was used to investigate the surgical method via an endonasal sub-septum-mucosa approach to pituitary adenoma under endoscopy. In this work, we aim to ensure the quality of operation and to reduce the operation trauma and complications. By endoscopy, the nasal mucosa was incised in the nasal septum, and all mucosal flaps were retained, a sub-septum-mucosa surgical corridor was made where the endoscope was used in the mucosa cavity for operation and to remove the pituitary adenoma. 52 patients (28 women, mean age 46.76 years) underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal sub-septum-mucosa approach for treating pituitary adenoma. 46 patients (88.5%) underwent gross total removal (GTR) for the tumor; 6 patients (11.5%) went through partial tumor removal (PTR). After operation, all nasal mucosa was retained, no complications such as nasal bleeding, loss of sense of smell or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Our results showed that treating pituitary adenoma using endonasal transsphenoidal surgeries by keeping nasal mucosa under neuroendoscopy tend to have smaller trauma. This novel method more advanced since it provides a clear operation field, a flexible transformation of operation modes and leads to less postoperative complications.

  18. Duodenal content reflux esophagitis in the rat: an animal model for the ulcer-associated cell lineage (UACL)?

    PubMed Central

    Hanby, A. M.; Pera, M.; Filipe, I.; Duranceau, A.; Wright, N. A.; Pera, M.; Grande, L.; Poulsom, R.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the histological changes observed in the mucosa of 10 rats in the region of a esophagojejunostomy to evaluate it as a model for the ulcer-associated cell lineage (UACL). In man, the UACL has a distinctive morphology, proliferative organization, and pattern of trefoil peptide localization. We have therefore examined these aspects aided by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to the trefoil peptides TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3. Only TFF2 was studied by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mRNAs for all three peptides were examined by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled riboprobes. The marker MIB-1 to the Ki67 proliferation-related antigen was used to examine the proliferative organization of UACL-like changes. In all cases, columnar epithelialization of the distal esophagus was seen, and in all, glands with morphological and gene expression attributes of the UACL were identified. TFF3 mRNA localized patchily throughout the UACL, whereas TFF1 mRNA was found in the upper portions of the lineage and TFF2 mRNA and its product in the acini. These lineages showed virtually no intrinsic proliferative activity. These appearances are similar to those seen in early human UACL, and we therefore propose this that this represents the first published animal model of this lineage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9403733

  19. [Metastatic small intestine carcinoma--delayed diagnosis due to misinterpretation of diagnostic imaging and symptom confusion due to Bechterew disease and duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zinsser, E; Oelzner, P; Bartunek, R; Adam, G

    2000-06-01

    Misinterpretations of sonographic and computed tomography scans and reduced sensitivity to pain of a patient suffering from Bechterew's disease and duodenal ulcer caused delayed diagnosis of metastasized carcinoma of the small intestine. PMID:10923361

  20. Dosimetric Predictors of Duodenal Toxicity After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Treatment of the Para-aortic Nodes in Gynecologic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Sulman, Erik P.; Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rauch, Gaiane M. [Department of Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eifel, Patricia J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Klopp, Ann H., E-mail: aklopp@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of duodenal toxicity in patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for treatment of para-aortic nodes and to identify dosimetric parameters predictive of late duodenal toxicity. Methods and Materials: We identified 105 eligible patients with gynecologic malignancies who were treated with IMRT for gross metastatic disease in the para-aortic nodes from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009. Patients were treated to a nodal clinical target volume to 45 to 50.4 Gy with a boost to 60 to 66 Gy. The duodenum was contoured, and dosimetric data were exported for analysis. Duodenal toxicity was scored according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis and recursive partitioning analysis were used to determine associations between dosimetric variables and time to toxicity and to identify the optimal threshold that separated patients according to risk of toxicity. Results: Nine of the 105 patients experienced grade 2 to grade 5 duodenal toxicity, confirmed by endoscopy in all cases. The 3-year actuarial rate of any duodenal toxicity was 11.7%. A larger volume of the duodenum receiving 55 Gy (V55) was associated with higher rates of duodenal toxicity. The 3-year actuarial rates of duodenal toxicity with V55 above and below 15 cm{sup 3} were 48.6% and 7.4%, respectively (P<.01). In Cox univariate analysis of dosimetric variables, V55 was associated with duodenal toxicity (P=.029). In recursive partitioning analysis, V55 less than 13.94% segregated all patients with duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT can safely and effectively treat para-aortic nodal disease in gynecologic malignancies, provided that care is taken to limit the dose to the duodenum to reduce the risk of late duodenal toxicity. Limiting V55 to below 15 cm{sup 3} may reduce the risk of duodenal complications. In cases where the treatment cannot be delivered within these constraints, consideration should be given to other treatment approaches such as resection or initial chemotherapy.

  1. Bleeding Duodenal Varices Successfully Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (B-RTO) Assisted by CT During Arterial Portography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakatsu Tsurusaki; Koji Sugimoto; Shinichi Matsumoto; Kenta Izaki; Tetsuya Fukuda; Yoshinobu Akasaka; Masahiko Fujii; Shozo Hirota; Kazuro Sugimura

    2006-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman with massive hemorrhage from duodenal varices was transferred to our hospital for the purpose of transcatheter\\u000a intervention. Although digital subtraction arterial portography could not depict the entire pathway of collateral circulation,\\u000a the efferent route of the duodenal varices was clearly demonstrated on subsequent CT during arterial portography. Balloon-occluded\\u000a retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) of the varices was performed

  2. The long-term reinfection rate and the course of duodenal ulcer disease after eradication of Helicobacter pylori in a developing country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Rollan; Rossana Giancaspero; Francisco Fuster; Claudia Acevedo; Cecilia Figueroa; Karen Hola; Marcela Schulz; Ignacio Duarte

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on the natural history of duodenal ulcer disease and the reinfection rate after treatment in a developing country.METHODS:A total of 111 H. pylori-infected patients with duodenal ulcer were treated with either omeprazole or famotidine plus two antibiotics for 2 wk. Those failed to respond

  3. Sulphomucins favour adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to metaplastic gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, J C; Correa, P

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the influence of sulphomucin secretion on Helicobacter pylori colonisation and adhesion to metaplastic gastric cells. METHODS: Gastric biopsies from 230 H pylori positive patients with intestinal metaplasia were analysed. Sulphated mucins and H pylori were visualised using a new technique combining high iron diamine-alcian blue mucin stains with the Steiner silver stain for the bacteria. RESULTS: Sulphomucin secretion anywhere in the mucosa and a histological diagnosis of dysplasia increase the risk of H pylori adhesion to metaplastic cells (odds ratios 19.9 and 4.3, respectively). However, only 9.4% of cases showing sulphomucin secretion and 10.8% of cases with dysplasia had evidence of adhesion of H pylori bacteria to metaplastic cells. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that H pylori may play a role in the advanced stages of carcinogenesis. It will be of interest to investigate if the relative small proportion of type III metaplasias that actually progress to carcinoma show persistence of H pylori. Images PMID:10396242

  4. The aging/precancerous gastric mucosa: a pilot nutraceutical trial.

    PubMed

    Marotta, F; Barreto, R; Tajiri, H; Bertuccelli, J; Safran, P; Yoshida, C; Fesce, E

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of antioxidant supplementation on enzymatic abnormalities and free radical-modified DNA adducts associated with premalignant changes in the gastric mucosa of elderly patients with HP-negative atrophic gastritis (CAG). Sixty patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia underwent a nutritional interview and a gastroscopy with multiple biopsy samples in the antrum that were processed for histology and for assaying: alpha-tocopherol, MDA, xanthine oxidase (XO), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and 8-OHdG. Patients were randomly allocated into three matched groups and supplemented for 6 months with (1) vitamin E, 300 mg/day; (2) multivitamin, two tablets t.i.d.; and (3) Immun-Age 6 g/day nocte (ORI, Gifu, Japan), a certified fermented papaya preparation with basic science-validated antioxidant/immunomodulant properties. Ten dyspeptic patients served as controls. Histology and biochemistry were blindly repeated at 3 and 6 months. CAG patients showed a significantly (P <.05) increased level of mucosal MDA and XO concentration that were reverted to normal by each supplementation (P <.05). All supplements caused a significant decrease of ODC (P <.01), but Immun-Age yielded the most effective (P < 0.05) and was the only one significantly decreasing 8-OhdG (P < 0.05). These data suggest that antioxidant supplementation, and, namely, Immun-Age, might be potential chemopreventive agents in HP-eradicated CAG patients and especially in the elderly population. PMID:15247013

  5. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE GASTRIC MUCOSA IN THE BAT

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Susumu; Winchester, Robert J.

    1963-01-01

    A description of the cytology of the gastric mucosa is presented based upon an electron microscopic investigation of the bat stomach. The fine structure of the various cell types in this species is fundamentally similar to that of the corresponding cell types of other mammals, but the relative cell numbers and distribution are somewhat different. (a). The surface mucous cells are identified by their superficial location and by the character of their dense secretory granules. (b). The mucous neck cells are distinguished by a characteristically different appearance and distribution of their mucous granules, and by their varied shape and their location between parietal cells. (c). The parietal cells are very large and have unusually prominent secretory canaliculi and an extraordinary number of large mitochondria. (d). The chief cells are found at the base of the gastric glands and are similar in their fine structure to other zymogenic cells. They contain many large zymogen granules and have an extensively developed granular endoplasmic reticulum. The latter is sometimes aggregated in unusual, hexagonally packed straight tubules, each with twelve longitudinal rows of ribosomes uniformly spaced around its circumference and with the rows of ribosomes in precise register with those of adjoining tubules. (e). Argentaffin cells lodged between other cell types vary sufficiently in the structure of their mitochondria and the character of their specific granules to suggest that they are of more than one kind. The majority are at the base of the epithelium but some extend to the lumen and bear microvilli on their free surface. PMID:13957001

  6. Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

  7. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach.

    PubMed

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S P; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R; Krishna, C Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions. PMID:25478870

  8. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  9. Feeding Regulates the Expression of Pancreatic Genes in Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Maria Rita; Yoshioka, Mayumi; St-Amand, Jonny

    2010-01-01

    The ineffective short-term control of feeding behavior compromises energy homeostasis and can lead to obesity. The gastrointestinal tract secretes several regulatory peptides. However, little is known about the stomach peptide contribution to the acute regulation of intake. In an attempt to identify new gastric signals, the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method was used for the transcription profiling of stomach mucosa in 7 groups of mice: fasting and sacrificed 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours after a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) ad libitum meal. In total, 35 genes were differentially modulated by LF and HF meals compared to fasting, including 15 mRNAs coding for digestive enzymes/secretory proteins, and 10 novel transcripts. Although the basic expression profile did not undergo substantial variations, both LF and HF meals influenced the transcription. This study represents the first global analysis of stomach transcriptome as induced by different nutritional stimuli. Further studies including the characterization of novel genes may help to identify new targets for the therapy and prevention of obesity. PMID:21234387

  10. Carboxyl-ester lipase maturity-onset diabetes of the young disease protein biomarkers in secretin-stimulated duodenal juice.

    PubMed

    Bjorlykke, Yngvild; Vethe, Heidrun; Vaudel, Marc; Barsnes, Harald; Berven, Frode S; Tjora, Erling; Raeder, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Patients with carboxyl-ester lipase-maturity-onset diabetes of the young (CEL-MODY) display distinct disease stages toward the development of monogenic diabetes and exocrine pancreatic disease. The finding of differentially increased proteins, some related to MAPK signaling, in a discovery proteomics study of secretin-stimulated duodenal juice in three CEL-MODY patients, prompted us to monitor their abundance in an extensive number of CEL-MODY subjects at different disease stages and controls using targeted proteomics. In the current study, we demonstrate the feasibility of selected reaction monitoring assays to quantify protein levels in secretin-stimulated duodenal juice. Furthermore, we define a set of five peptides for potential use as diagnostic tests in CEL-MODY patients. Finally, we propose a further set of seven proteins with a likely pathogenic role in CEL-MODY disease progression. PMID:25369532

  11. HELICOBACTER-LIKE ORGANISMS IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) AND GREY FOXES (UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic examination of gastric mucosa of raccoons (Procyon lotor), porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and black bears (Ursus amaricanus) was done on archival tissue blocks for evidence of Helicobacter-like org...

  12. Endoscopic tissue shielding with polyglycolic acid sheets, fibrin glue and clips to prevent delayed perforation after duodenal endoscopic resection.

    PubMed

    Doyama, Hisashi; Tominaga, Kei; Yoshida, Naohiro; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of delayed perforation after endoscopic resection for superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors is extremely high. Endoscopic tissue shielding with polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets and fibrin glue is a promising method to prevent delayed perforation after endoscopic resection in the duodenum. However, we often encounter difficulty when covering an artificial ulcer with PGA sheets after endoscopic resection. We report three cases of postoperative ulcers covered by PGA sheets, fibrin glue, and clips. PMID:24750147

  13. Motor Vehicle Collision Patient with Simultaneous Duodenal Transection and Thoracic Aorta Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Blunt polytrauma can present complex management decisions. Here we report the case of a 31-year-old male involved in a high speed motor vehicle collision resulting in both duodenal and thoracic aorta injury that was managed collaboratively between the trauma, vascular, and cardiothoracic surgical teams. The patient went on to a full recovery. We also review the management of such injuries which has evolved over the past two decades resulting in less morbidity and mortality. PMID:25688322

  14. Congenital duodenal obstruction with preduodenal portal vein and situs inversus totalis: report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mukherjee, Partha Pratik; Mukhopadhyay, B; Mandal, Kartik Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare congenital anomaly that causes high intestinal obstruction. The authors report two interesting cases of preduodenal portal vein that were diagnosed as having congenital duodenal obstruction. As there is a high potential for surgical risk, this anomaly is of special interest to the surgeon and should be kept in mind. Here, we discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management along with a review of the literature. PMID:24426519

  15. Double-blind randomized multicenter study comparing Maalox TC tablets and ranitidine in healing of duodenal ulcers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Hunter; R. J. Walker; J. Crowe; R. R. Gillies; K. R. Gillies; K. R. Gough; S. Lorber

    1991-01-01

    The efficacy of ranitidine 150 mg twice daily and Maalox TC three tablets four times daily were compared in patients with endoscopically confirmed duodenal ulcer. Seventy-nine patients were randomly allocated to double-blind, double-dummy treatment, stratified for smokers. Endoscopy was repeated after four weeks. Those unhealed continued treatment for a further two weeks before final endoscopy. Per protocol analysis in 53

  16. Gastric emptying and duodenal motility upon intake of a liquid meal with monosodium glutamate in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiyasu; Yogo, Hideto; Nishimiya, Yuuta; Hori, Shinji; Kosugi, Takashi; Nakayama, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glutamate is thought to serve as a special signal for gut functions. We investigated the effects of monosodium l?glutamate (MSG) on gastric emptying and duodenal motility. Ten healthy male volunteers underwent rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. Coronal images were successively acquired after ingestion of liquid meal (200 kcal in 200 mL: 9 g protein, 28.4 g carbohydrate, 5.6 g fat, 370 mg Na+) with and without 0.5% MSG. During the acquisition of MRI, participants breathed freely. In all participants, the gastric residual volume gradually decreased to 80.1 ± 14.2% without MSG and to 75.9 ± 14.3% with MSG after 60 min (P = 0.45 between the groups, n = 10). In two of 10 participants, gastric emptying slowed down significantly, whereas in the remaining eight participants, gastric residual volume decreased to 84.0 ± 13.1% without MSG, and to 73.0 ± 14.6% with MSG after 60 min (P = 0.015, n = 8). There was no difference in the shape of the stomach between groups. In four of the eight participants responding positively to MSG, the duodenum wall was sufficiently identified to quantify the motions. The inclusion of MSG enhanced duodenal motility, judging from changes in (1) the magnitude of the duodenal area, (2) the center of gravity, and (3) the mean velocity of the wall motions. The third parameter most significantly indicated the excitatory effect of l?glutamate on duodenum motility (~ three? to sevenfold increase during 60 min, P < 0.05, n = 4). These results suggest that MSG accelerates gastric emptying by facilitating duodenal motility, at least in subjects with positive responses to MSG. PMID:24744869

  17. Metabolism of manganese in calves as affected by dietary manganese and intravenous or duodenal manganese-54 dosing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Miller; P. E. Stake; M. W. Neathery; R. P. Gentry; D. M. Blackmon

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen intact male Holstein calves averaging 101 d of age were utilized to determine the effects of dietary Mn concentration and routes of administration on its metabolism. They were fed a practical grain diet containing 23 ppm Mn with 0, 100, or 1000 ppm supplemental Mn (MnSOâ.HâO) for 7 d prior to intravenous or duodenal dosing with ⁵⁴Mn. Animals were

  18. Effects of dietary methionine and lysine sources on nutrient digestion, nitrogen utilization, and duodenal amino acid flow in growing goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. H. Sun; Z. L. Tan; S. M. Liu; G. O. Tayo; B. Lin; B. Teng; S. X. Tang; W. J. Wang; Y. P. Liao; Y. F. Pan; J. R. Wang; X. G. Zhao; Y. Hu

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of supplementation of various sources of Met and Lys on nutrient digestion, N utilization, and duodenal AA flows in growing goats. Four 4-mo-old Liuyang Black wether goats were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experi- ment and were assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (1) control, (2) control + lipid-coated Met-Zn chelate and Lys-Mn

  19. The Risk of Gastric Cancer in Patients with Duodenal and Gastric Ulcer: Research Progresses and Clinical Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zunwu Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Introduction  Although controversial, clinicians generally consider patients who present with gastric ulcer to have an increased risk of\\u000a gastric cancer, while the risk for patients with duodenal ulcer is reduced in comparison with that of the general population.\\u000a Infection with Helicobacter pylori and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the major causes for peptic ulcers, but their roles in

  20. Role of oxygen-derived free radicals in mechanism of acute and chronic duodenal ulceration in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aws S. Salim

    1990-01-01

    This study employed the oxygen-derived free radical removing agentsdl -cysteine, methyl-methionine sulfonium bromide (MMSB), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and allopurinol to examine the role of oxyradicals in the mechanism of acute and chronic duodenal ulceration in the rat. These agents were administered by gavage under light ether anesthesia. All rats infused subcutaneously for 24 hr with pentagastrin (4 µg\\/kg\\/min) and carbachol

  1. Histamine stimulates chloride secretion in omeprazole-inhibited frog gastric mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. McGreevy; R. Barton; T. Housinger

    1986-01-01

    Omeprazole (OME) stops hydrogen ion (H) secretion in the histamine (HIST)-stimulated gastric mucosa while the chloride (Cl) which had accompanied the H continues to be pumped into the lumen. This finding suggests that the Cl pump is independent of the H\\/K ATP-ase driven H pump. To test this hypothesis, 16 Ussing-chambered frog mucosas were exposed to OME prior to HIST

  2. Evaluation of mastic, a crude drug obtained from Pistacia lentiscus for gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Said, M S; Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Tariq, M

    1986-03-01

    The effect of mastic, a concrete resinous exudate obtained from the stem of the tree Pistacia lentiscus, has been studied on experimentally-induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats. Mastic at an oral dose of 500 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in the intensity of gastric mucosal damage induced by pyloric ligation, aspirin, phenylbutazone, reserpine and restraint + cold stress. It produced a significant decrease of free acidity in 6-h pylorus-ligated rats and a marked cytoprotective effect against 50% ethanol in rats which could be reversed by prior treatment with indomethacin. The protective effect was not seen when it was given intraperitoneally in phenylbutazone and restraint + cold stress models. The reduction in the intensity of ulceration in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers was not found to be statistically significant in mastic-pretreated rats. The results suggest that mild antisecretory and a localized adaptive cytoprotectant action may be responsible for its anti-ulcer activity. These observations support the results of an earlier study on the clinical effectiveness of mastic in the therapy of duodenal ulcer. PMID:3724207

  3. Endoscopic Therapeutic Option for Weight Loss and Control of Type 2 Diabetes: the Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass Liner.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Eduardo G H; Orso, Ivan R B; Martins, Bruno C; Lopes, Guilherme S

    2015-05-01

    For a long time, obesity has been known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which is one of the main causes of death in developed countries. This risk is due to the coexistence of other factors associated with obesity, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and abnormalities in glycemic metabolism. Obesity is also a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and it is not surprising that the global prevalence of this disease continues to increase. Surgical intervention is now the most effective modality to treat severe obesity and its comorbidities. However, endoluminal interventions performed entirely through the gastrointestinal tract by using endoscopic devices offer the potential for an outpatient weight loss procedure that may be safer, less invasive, and more cost-effective, compared with current surgical approaches. Given the emerging role of endoscopic procedures in the treatment of obesity and rapid changes in endoscopic technologies and techniques, this review considers the current state of endoscopic management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Endoscopic techniques attempt to mimic some of the anatomic features of bariatric surgery and rely on gastric restriction and duodenal exclusion. The endoscopic placement of the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner in morbidly obese patients induces significant weight loss. Additionally, early studies reported significant improvements in several parameters of glucose homeostasis in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes. In this article we will review the available results obtained with the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner. PMID:26054998

  4. Nivalenol Has a Greater Impact than Deoxynivalenol on Pig Jejunum Mucosa in Vitro on Explants and in Vivo on Intestinal Loops

    PubMed Central

    Cheat, Sophal; Gerez, Juliana R.; Cognié, Juliette; Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. L.; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo. The histological changes induced by DON and NIV were analyzed after four-hour exposure on pig jejunum explants and loops, two alternative models. On explants, dose-dependent increases in the histological changes were induced by DON and NIV, with a two-fold increase in lesion severity at 10 µM NIV. On loops, NIV had a greater impact on the mucosa than DON. The overall proliferative cells showed 30% and 13% decrease after NIV and DON exposure, respectively, and NIV increased the proliferative index of crypt enterocytes. NIV also increased apoptosis at the top of villi and reduced by almost half the proliferative/apoptotic cell ratio. Lamina propria cells (mainly immune cells) were more sensitive than enterocytes (epithelial cells) to apoptosis induced by NIV. Our results demonstrate a greater impact of NIV than DON on the intestinal mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, and highlight the need of a specific hazard characterization for NIV risk assessment. PMID:26035490

  5. Nivalenol has a greater impact than deoxynivalenol on pig jejunum mucosa in vitro on explants and in vivo on intestinal loops.

    PubMed

    Cheat, Sophal; Gerez, Juliana R; Cognié, Juliette; Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Bracarense, Ana Paula F L; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Oswald, Isabelle P; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo. The histological changes induced by DON and NIV were analyzed after four-hour exposure on pig jejunum explants and loops, two alternative models. On explants, dose-dependent increases in the histological changes were induced by DON and NIV, with a two-fold increase in lesion severity at 10 µM NIV. On loops, NIV had a greater impact on the mucosa than DON. The overall proliferative cells showed 30% and 13% decrease after NIV and DON exposure, respectively, and NIV increased the proliferative index of crypt enterocytes. NIV also increased apoptosis at the top of villi and reduced by almost half the proliferative/apoptotic cell ratio. Lamina propria cells (mainly immune cells) were more sensitive than enterocytes (epithelial cells) to apoptosis induced by NIV. Our results demonstrate a greater impact of NIV than DON on the intestinal mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, and highlight the need of a specific hazard characterization for NIV risk assessment. PMID:26035490

  6. Down syndrome: molecular mapping of the congenital heart disease and duodenal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Korenberg, J R; Bradley, C; Disteche, C M

    1992-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of congenital heart and gut disease and mental retardation. DS individuals also have characteristic facies, hands, and dermatoglyphics, in addition to abnormalities of the immune system, an increased risk of leukemia, and an Alzheimer-like dementia. Although their molecular basis is unknown, recent work on patients with DS and partial duplications of chromosome 21 has suggested small chromosomal regions located in band q22 that are likely to contain the genes for some of these features. We now extend these analyses to define molecular markers for the congenital heart disease, the duodenal stenosis, and an "overlap" region for the facial and some of the skeletal features. We report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis of two patients. The first is DUP21JS, who carries both a partial duplication of chromosome 21, including the region 21q21.1-q22.13, or proximal q22.2, and DS features including duodenal stenosis. Using quantitative Southern blot dosage analysis and 15 DNA sequences unique to chromosome 21, we have defined the molecular extent of the duplication. This includes the region defined by DNA sequences for APP (amyloid precursor protein), SOD1 (CuZn superoxide dismutase), D21S47, SF57, D21S17, D21S55, D21S3, and D21S15 and excludes the regions defined by DNA sequences for D21S16, D21S46, D21S1, D21S19, BCE I (breast cancer estrogen-inducible gene), D21S39, and D21S44. Using similar techniques, we have also defined the region duplicated in the second case occurring in a family carrying a translocation associated with DS and congenital heart disease. This region includes DNA sequences for D21S55 and D21S3 and excludes DNA sequences for D21S47 and D21S17.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1531166

  7. Russell Body Gastroenteritis: An Aberrant Manifestation of Chronic Inflammation in Gastrointestinal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bhaijee, Feriyl; Brown, Keith A.; Long, Billy W.; Brown, Alexandra S.

    2013-01-01

    First described in 1998, Russell body gastritis is a rare chronic inflammatory condition characterized by abundant intramucosal polyclonal plasma cells, which contain intracytoplasmic eosinophilic globules of immunoglobulins (Russell bodies) that displace the nucleus, with an accompanying chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Russell bodies represent a cellular response to overstimulation of plasma cells, leading to the accumulation of abundant, nondegradable, condensed immunoglobulin in dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Russell body gastritis usually occurs in the gastric antrum, but two cases of Russell body duodenitis have been recently described. Herein, we report an unusual case of Barrett esophagus with prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and Russell bodies, which expands the current spectrum of Russell body gastritis/duodenitis. Given the various anatomic locations in which Russell body gastritis may arise, we suggest that “Russell body gastroenteritis” may be a more appropriate designation for this uncommon reactive condition. PMID:24198839

  8. Effect of gastrointestinal hormones on the pertechnetate imaging of ectopic gastric mucosa in experimental Meckel's diverticulum. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.N.; Anderson, G.F.; King, D.R.; Boles, E.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Meckel's diverticula were simulated in 12 dogs by implanting vascularized patches of gastric wall onto Roux-en-Y loops of distal ileum. All animals had camera imaging studies every 10 min for 60 min, with computer acquisition following intravenous injection of 2 mCi of pertechnetate. The scintigrams were repeated following (a) subcutaneous injection of pentagastrin 15 min before injection of pertechnetate; (b) intravenous injection of glucagon 10 min after the tracer injection; (c) pretreatment with pentagastrin plus glucagon as above; and (d) pretreatment with pentagastrin plus secretin. Pentagastrin alone accelerated accumulation of the tracer but resulted in a decrease in the target-to-background ratio. Glucagon alone enhanced late gastric mucosal activity by preventing washout of the intraluminal activity. The combination of pentagastrin and glucagon enhanced visualization and kept background activity lowest. These findgings indicate a potential role for glucagon in the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa in humans.

  9. Short communication: Increased expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in oral mucosa of Colombian HIV type 1-exposed seronegative individuals.

    PubMed

    Taborda, Natalia; Zapata-Builes, Wildeman; Montoya, Carlos; Rugeles, María Teresa

    2012-09-01

    The exposure to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not always result in infection. Indeed, there are individuals who have been repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but do not exhibit clinical or serological evidence of infection; they are known as HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN). To determine if secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a soluble factor secreted by epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces that showed anti-HIV activity in vitro, was associated with natural resistance to HIV infection, we measured by real time RT-PCR the expression of SLPI in oral mucosa of a cohort of Colombian HESN, in chronically HIV-1-infected individuals and in healthy controls. The HESN expressed significantly higher levels of SLPI mRNA than healthy controls (p=0.033) and chronically infected subjects (p=0.011). These findings suggest an association between SLPI expression and the natural resistance to HIV-1 infection exhibited by our HESN cohort. PMID:22149181

  10. Ultrastructure, Immunofluorescence, Western Blot, and PCR Analysis of Eight Isolates of Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis Established in Culture from Sputum and Urine Samples and Duodenal Aspirates of Five Patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    del Aguila, C.; Croppo, G. P.; Moura, H.; Da Silva, A. J.; Leitch, G. J.; Moss, D. M.; Wallace, S.; Slemenda, S. B.; Pieniazek, N. J.; Visvesvara, G. S.

    1998-01-01

    Microsporidia are ancient, intracellular, eukaryotic protozoan parasites that form spores and that lack mitochondria. Currently, as many as eight species included under six genera are known to infect humans, mostly patients with AIDS. Among these, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the agent of gastrointestinal (GI) disease, is the most frequently identified microsporidian in clinical laboratories in the United States. Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis, the agent that causes a disseminated infection including infection of the GI tract, is the second most frequently identified microsporidian parasite. In spite of this, not many isolates of E. intestinalis have been established in culture. We describe here the continuous cultivation of eight isolates of E. intestinalis obtained from different samples including the urine, sputum, and duodenal aspirate or biopsy specimens from five AIDS patients originating from California, Colorado, and Georgia. The specific identification was made on the bases of ultrastructural, antigenic, and PCR analyses. PMID:9574677

  11. Release of endogenous opioids from duodenal enteroendocrine cells requires Trpm5

    PubMed Central

    Kokrashvili, Zaza; Rodriguez, Deniliz; Yevshayeva, Valeriya; Zhou, Hang; Margolskee, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Enteroendocrine cells, the largest and most diverse population of mammalian endocrine cells, comprise a number of different cell types in the gut mucosa that produce, store, and secrete small molecules, peptides and/or larger proteins that regulate many aspects of gut physiology. Little is known about less-typical endocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa that do not contain secretory granules, such as brush or caveolated cells. We studied a subset of these enteroendocrine cells in duodenum that produce several peptides, including endogenous opioids, and that also express the Trpm5 cation channel. Methods We studied expression patterns of Trpm5 and other molecules by immunohistochemical and ELISA analyses of intestinal tissues from transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein from theTrpm5 promoter, as well as wild-type and Trpm5-null mice. Results We describe a type of enteroendocrine cell in mouse duodenum that is defined by the presence of the Trpm5, that does not contain typical secretory granules, yet expresses endogenous opioids (?-endorphin and Met-enkephalin) and uroguanylin in apical compartments close to the lumen of the gut. Conclusion Solitary chemosensory cells that co-express ?-endorphin, Met-enkephalin, uroguanylin and Trpm5 exist in mouse duodenum. These cells are likely to secrete the bioactive peptides into the intestinal lumen in response to dietary factors; release of the opioid peptides requires the Trpm5 ion channel. PMID:19272386

  12. Deep-Sea Water Containing Selenium Provides Intestinal Protection against Duodenal Ulcers through the Upregulation of Bcl-2 and Thioredoxin Reductase 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Yao, Chien-An; Lin, Yi-Ruu; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea water (DSW), which is rich in micronutrients and minerals and with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities, may be developed as marine drugs to provide intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers. We determined several characteristics in the modified DSW. We explored duodenal pressure, oxygenation, microvascular blood flow, and changes in pH and oxidative redox potential (ORP) values within the stomach and duodenum in response to tap water (TW, hardness: 2.48 ppm), DSW600 (hardness: 600 ppm), and DSW1200 (hardness: 1200 ppm) in Wistar rats and analyzed oxidative stress and apoptosis gene expressions by cDNA and RNA microarrays in the duodenal epithelium. We compared the effects of drinking DSW, MgCl2, and selenium water on duodenal ulcers using pathologic scoring, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blotting. Our results showed DSW has a higher pH value, lower ORP value, higher scavenging H2O2 and HOCl activity, higher Mg2+ concentrations, and micronutrients selenium compared with TW samples. Water infusion significantly increased intestinal pressure, O2 levels, and microvascular blood flow in DSW and TW groups. Microarray showed DSW600, DSW1200, selenium water upregulated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic genes and downregulated pro-apoptotic gene expression compared with the TW group. Drinking DSW600, DSW1200, and selenium water but not Mg2+ water significantly enhanced Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1 expression. Bax/Bcl-2/caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase signaling was activated during the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. DSW drinking reduced ulcer area as well as apoptotic signaling in acetic acid-induced duodenal ulcers. DSW, which contains selenium, provides intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers through the upregulation of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1. PMID:24984066

  13. Duodenal leaks after pancreas transplantation with enteric drainage - characteristics and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Marquez, Max A; Singh, Sunita K; Norgate, Andrea; McGilvray, Ian D; Schiff, Jeffrey; Greig, Paul D; Cattral, Mark S; Selzner, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Pancreas-kidney transplantation with enteric drainage has become a standard treatment in diabetic patients with renal failure. Leaks of the graft duodenum (DL) remain a significant complication after transplantation. We studied incidence and predisposing factors of DLs in both simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) and pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation. Between January 2002 and April 2013, 284 pancreas transplantations were performed including 191 SPK (67.3%) and 93 PAK (32.7%). Patient data were analyzed for occurrence of DLs, risk factors, leak etiology, and graft survival. Of 18 DLs (incidence 6.3%), 12 (67%) occurred within the first 100 days after transplantation. Six grafts (33%) were rescued by duodenal segment resection. Risk factors for a DL were PAK transplantation sequence (odds ratio 3.526, P = 0.008) and preoperative immunosuppression (odds ratio 3.328, P = 0.012). In the SPK subgroup, postoperative peak amylase as marker of preservation/reperfusion injury and recipient pretransplantation cardiovascular interventions as marker of atherosclerosis severity were associated with an increased incidence of DLs. CMV-mismatch constellations showed an increased incidence in the SPK subgroup, however without significance probability. Long-term immunosuppression in PAK transplantation is a major risk factor for DLs. Early surgical revision offers the chance of graft rescue. PMID:25647150

  14. Duodenal seromyectomy in the management of adherent colonic carcinoma in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Peeyush; Klaasen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Objective To determine if partial denudation of the duodenum by seromyectomy can achieve tumour clearance in elderly patients with adherent primary colonic carcinoma. Design A case series. Setting An urban tertiary care centre. Patients Seven elderly patients with Dukes’ class C primary adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon adherent to the duodenum but without distant metastases. The follow-up ranged from 29 to 41 months. Interventions Right hemicolectomy and seromyectomy of the duodenum at the site of adhesion. Main outcome measures Patient survival and tumour recurrence. Results One patient died 29 months postoperatively of myocardial infarction but without tumour recurrence. Another patient had a solitary metastasis in the right liver lobe 7 months postoperatively. She was disease free 34 months after a right hemihepatectomy. The other 5 patients were alive and disease free at their last follow-up. Conclusion Duodenal seromyectomy with postoperative chemotherapy for locally advanced adherent colonic cancer seems to be an acceptable management strategy for elderly patients in whom major en bloc resections present a greater than average risk of death. PMID:9267298

  15. [Juxta-papillary duodenal diverticula in patients with primary common duct stones].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Kawaguchi, H; Hasegawa, S; Muto, T

    1985-09-01

    Incidence of juxta papillary duodenal diverticula (JPDD) was studied in 182 patients with benign biliary diseases. Incidences of JPDD were 11.1% in cholecystolithiasis, 23.4% in cholecystocholedocholithiasis and 54.5% in choledocholithiasis. Concerning to the patients with common duct stones, average of age was significantly higher in the group with diverticulum than in the group without diverticulum (65.9 +/- 7.6 vs 55.9 +/- 13.7, p less than 0.01). Diameter of the common duct was also significantly larger in the group with diverticulum. To exclude the effect of aging, the same comparison was performed in patients older than 60 years. Here again, the group with diverticulum showed significantly greater dilatation of the common duct. Incidences of JPDD in the primary and secondary common duct stones were 73.1% and 19.7%, respectively. The difference was highly significant. JPDD seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cholestasis in the aged patients which may result in formation of primary common duct stones. PMID:3937042

  16. Feasibility of Endoscopic Resection for Sessile Nonampullary Duodenal Tumors: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Min; Ham, Joo Ho; Kim, Byung-Wook; Kim, Chang Whan; Kim, Jin Il; Lim, Chul Hyun; Oh, Jung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Sessile nonampullary duodenal tumors (SNADTs) are relatively rare and endoscopic resection of these lesions is considered more challenging than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic resection for SNADT. Methods. Medical records including endoscopic resection for SNADT from July 2002 to July 2013 from 5 centers affiliated to The Catholic University of Korea were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic features and clinical outcomes such as complete resection and complications were analyzed. Results. A total of 56 lesions from 54 patients were enrolled in this study. Forty-five lesions were resected by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), 6 lesions by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and 5 lesions by simple polypectomy. Histologic examination after endoscopic resection revealed adenocarcinoma in 2, low grade adenoma in 25, high grade adenoma in 11, and carcinoid tumor in 18 lesions. En bloc resection rates and histological complete resection rates were 78.6% (44/56) and 80.0% (28/35), respectively. Bleeding which required additional endoscopic intervention occurred in 1.8% (1/56) and perforation in 7.1% (4/56). There was no procedure-related mortality. Conclusions. Endoscopic resection techniques including ESD might be safe and effective modalities for the management of SNADT. PMID:25810715

  17. Duodenal Cytochrome b (DCYTB) in Iron Metabolism: An Update on Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Darius J. R.; Bae, Dong-Hun; Merlot, Angelica M.; Sahni, Sumit; Richardson, Des R.

    2015-01-01

    Iron and ascorbate are vital cellular constituents in mammalian systems. The bulk-requirement for iron is during erythropoiesis leading to the generation of hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes. Additionally, both iron and ascorbate are required as co-factors in numerous metabolic reactions. Iron homeostasis is controlled at the level of uptake, rather than excretion. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that in addition to the known ability of dietary ascorbate to enhance non-heme iron absorption in the gut, ascorbate regulates iron homeostasis. The involvement of ascorbate in dietary iron absorption extends beyond the direct chemical reduction of non-heme iron by dietary ascorbate. Among other activities, intra-enterocyte ascorbate appears to be involved in the provision of electrons to a family of trans-membrane redox enzymes, namely those of the cytochrome b561 class. These hemoproteins oxidize a pool of ascorbate on one side of the membrane in order to reduce an electron acceptor (e.g., non-heme iron) on the opposite side of the membrane. One member of this family, duodenal cytochrome b (DCYTB), may play an important role in ascorbate-dependent reduction of non-heme iron in the gut prior to uptake by ferrous-iron transporters. This review discusses the emerging relationship between cellular iron homeostasis, the emergent “IRP1-HIF2? axis”, DCYTB and ascorbate in relation to iron metabolism. PMID:25835049

  18. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory mucosae of the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    PubMed

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Kim, Jeongtae; Kim, Seungjoon; Moon, Changjong; Shin, Taekyun

    2015-04-01

    The morphological features of the olfactory mucosae of Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus, were histologically studied using the ethmoid turbinates containing the olfactory mucosae from six roe deer (male, 2-3 years old). The ethmoid turbinates were embedded in paraffin, and histochemically evaluated in terms of the mucosal characteristics. Lectin histochemistry was performed to investigate the carbohydrate-binding specificity on the olfactory mucosa. Lectins, including Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA) were used for the N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and N-acetylgalactosamine carbohydrate groups, respectively. Histologically, the olfactory mucosa, positioned mainly in the caudal roof of the nasal cavity, consisted of the olfactory epithelium and the lamina propria. The olfactory epithelium consisted of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive olfactory receptor cells, galectin-3-positive supporting cells and basal cells. Bowman's glands in the lamina propria were stained by both the periodic acid Schiff reagent and alcian blue (pH 2.5). Two types of lectin, WGA and SBA, were labeled in free border, receptor cells, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, with the exception of basal cells, while UEA-I was labeled in free border, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, but not in receptor cells and basal cells, suggesting that carbohydrate terminals on the olfactory mucosae of roe deer vary depending on cell type. This is the first morphological study of the olfactory mucosa of the Korean roe deer to evaluate carbohydrate terminals in the olfactory mucosae. PMID:25480445

  19. Two-dimensional gel proteome reference map of human small intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Paola Simula; Renato Cannizzaro; Maria Dolores Marin; Alessandro Pavan; Giuseppe Toffoli; Vincenzo Canzonieri; Valli De Re

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The small intestine is an important human organ that plays a central role in many physiological functions including digestion, absorption, secretion and defense. Duodenal pathologies include, for instance, the ulcer associated to Helicobacter Pylori infection, adenoma and, in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease. Alterations in the bowel reduce its capability to absorb nutrients, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins. Anemia and

  20. Protective effects of bifidobacterial adhesin on intestinal mucosa of stressed male rats via modulation of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Liang; Yu, Tin-Tin; Kang, Kai; Xu, Han; Lei, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess BA impact on inflammation markers and repair of intestinal mucosa. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into stress (n = 24) and BA (n = 24) groups. Stress was induced by fettering in all animals, fed enterally with 125.4 kJ/kg/d and 0.2 g/kg/d nitrogen. Then, rats were treated for 8 days with 5 mg/kg/d BA (BA group) or 5 mg/kg/d saline (Stress group). Levels of NF-?B, IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured at different time points, in plasma and intestinal mucosa samples. Changes in intestinal mucosa morphology were observed by electron microscopy. Plasma and/or mucosal levels of NF-?B, TNF-?, and IFN-? were significantly higher in both groups after stress induction (P < 0.05). These high levels persisted in control animals throughout the experiment, and were significantly reduced in the BA group, 3 and 8 days after stress induction (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IL-10 levels were increased after BA treatment (P < 0.05). At day 8, ileal mucosal villi and crypt structure were significantly restored in the BA group. Bifidobacterial adhesin plays a role in repairing intestinal mucosa injury after stress by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:25031756

  1. Microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa after fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Serati, Maurizio; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Iannitti, Tommaso; Salvatore, Stefano; Marotta, Francesco; Calligaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy occurring during menopause is closely related to the dramatic decrease in ovarian estrogens due to the loss of follicular activity. Particularly, significant changes occur in the structure of the vaginal mucosa, with consequent impairment of many physiological functions. In this study, carried out on bioptic vaginal mucosa samples from postmenopausal, nonestrogenized women, we present microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of vaginal mucosa following fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment. We observed the restoration of the vaginal thick squamous stratified epithelium with a significant storage of glycogen in the epithelial cells and a high degree of glycogen-rich shedding cells at the epithelial surface. Moreover, in the connective tissue constituting the lamina propria, active fibroblasts synthesized new components of the extracellular matrix including collagen and ground substance (extrafibrillar matrix) molecules. Differently from atrophic mucosa, newly-formed papillae of connective tissue indented in the epithelium and typical blood capillaries penetrating inside the papillae, were also observed. Our morphological findings support the effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser application for the restoration of vaginal mucosa structure and related physiological trophism. These findings clearly coupled with striking clinical relief from symptoms suffered by the patients before treatment. PMID:25410301

  2. Genome-wide methylation profiling of the bronchial mucosa of asthmatics: relationship to atopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common respiratory disease that is characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway obstruction due to chronic airway inflammation. Atopic asthma is a typical IgE-mediated disease in which the enhanced production of IgE is driven by the activation of Th2 cells, which release a distinct pattern of cytokines, including interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL3, in response to specific antigen presentation. To evaluate the methylation status of the whole genomes of bronchial mucosa tissues from subjects who lacked or had sensitization to Dermatophagoides farina (Df) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). Methods The genome-wide DNA methylation levels in the bronchial mucosa tissues of atopic asthmatics (N?=?10), non-atopic asthmatics (N?=?7), and normal controls (N?=?7) were examined using microarrays. Results In the bronchial mucosa of atopic asthmatics, hypermethylation was detected at 6 loci in 6 genes, while hypomethylation was detected at 49 loci in 48 genes compared to those of non-atopic asthmatics. Genes that were assigned the ontologies of multicellular organismal process, response to organic substance, hormone metabolic process, and growth factor receptor binding were hypomethylated. The methylation levels in the mucosa of asthmatics and normal controls were similar. Conclusions The bronchial mucosa of asthmatics who are atopic to Df or Dp have characteristic methylation patterns for 52 genes. The genes and pathways identified in the present study may be associated with the presence of atopy in asthmatics and therefore represent attractive targets for future research. PMID:23521807

  3. Altered Interactions between the Gut Microbiome and Colonic Mucosa Precede Polyposis in APCMin/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Son, Joshua S.; Khair, Shanawaj; Pettet, Donald W.; Ouyang, Nengtai; Tian, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuanhao; Zhu, Wei; Mackenzie, Gerardo G.; Robertson, Charles E.; Ir, Diana; Frank, Daniel N.; Rigas, Basil; Li, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene), an early event in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, is present in 70-80% of sporadic human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. To test the hypothesis that mutation of the APC gene alters microbial interactions with host intestinal mucosa prior to the development of polyposis, culture-independent methods (targeted qPCR assays and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V1V2 hypervariable region) were used to compare the intestinal microbial composition of 30 six-week old C57BL/6 APCMin/+ and 30 congenic wild type (WT) mice. The results demonstrate that similar to 12-14 week old APCMin/+ mice with intestinal neoplasia, 6 week old APCMin/+ mice with no detectable neoplasia, exhibit an increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes spp in the colon. Parallel mouse RNA sequence analysis, conducted on a subset of proximal colonic RNA samples (6 APCMin/+, 6 WT) revealed 130 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, fold change ? 2, FDR <0.05). Hierarchical clustering of the DEGs was carried out by using 1-r dissimilarity measurement, where r stands for the Pearson correlation, and Ward minimum variance linkage, in order to reduce the number of input variables. When the cluster centroids (medians) were included along with APC genotype as input variables in a negative binomial (NB) regression model, four of seven mouse gene clusters, in addition to APC genotype, were significantly associated with the increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes spp. Three of the four clusters include several downregulated genes encoding immunoglobulin variable regions and non-protein coding RNAs. These results support the concept that mutation of the APC gene alters colonic-microbial interactions prior to polyposis. It remains to be determined whether interventions directed at ameliorating dysbiosis in APCMin/+mice, such as through probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics, could reduce tumor formation. PMID:26121046

  4. Management of duodenal stump fistula after gastrectomy for gastric cancer: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Aurello, Paolo; Sirimarco, Dario; Magistri, Paolo; Petrucciani, Niccolò; Berardi, Giammauro; Amato, Silvia; Gasparrini, Marcello; D’Angelo, Francesco; Nigri, Giuseppe; Ramacciato, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify the most effective treatment of duodenal stump fistula (DSF) after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CILEA Archive, BMJ Clinical Evidence and UpToDate databases were analyzed. Three hundred eighty-eight manuscripts were retrieved and analyzed and thirteen studies published between 1988 and 2014 were finally selected according to the inclusion criteria, for a total of 145 cases of DSF, which represented our group of study. Only patients with DSF after gastrectomy for malignancy were selected. Data about patients’ characteristics, type of treatment, short and long-term outcomes were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: In the 13 studies different types of treatment were proposed: conservative approach, surgical approach, percutaneous approach and endoscopic approach (3 cases). The overall mortality rate was 11.7% for the entire cohort. The more frequent complications were sepsis, abscesses, peritonitis, bleeding, pneumonia and multi-organ failure. Conservative approach was performed in 6 studies for a total of 79 patients, in patients with stable general condition, often associated with percutaneous approach. A complete resolution of the leakage was achieved in 92.3% of these patients, with a healing time ranging from 17 to 71 d. Surgical approach included duodenostomy, duodeno-jejunostomy, pancreatoduodenectomy and the use of rectus muscle flap. In-hospital stay of patients who underwent relaparotomy ranged from 1 to 1035 d. The percutaneous approach included drainage of abscesses or duodenostomy (32 cases) and percutaneous biliary diversion (13 cases). The median healing time in this group was 43 d. CONCLUSION: Conservative approach is the treatment of choice, eventually associated with percutaneus drainage. Surgical approach should be reserved for severe cases or when conservative approaches fail.

  5. Mycobacterium avium Invades the Intestinal Mucosa Primarily by Interacting with Enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sangari, Felix J.; Goodman, Joseph; Petrofsky, Mary; Kolonoski, Peter; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium can invade intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. When given to mice orally, M. avium preferentially interacts with the intestinal mucosa at the terminal ileum. We evaluated the mechanism(s) of M. avium binding and invasion of the intestinal mucosa using three different systems: (i) electron microscopy following administration of M. avium into an intestinal loop in mice, (ii) quantitative comparison of the bacterial load in Peyer's patch areas of the terminal ileum versus areas that do not contain Peyer's patches, and (iii) investigation of the ability of M. avium to cause disseminated infection following oral administration using B-cell-deficient mice, lacking Peyer's patches, in comparison with C57BL/6 black mice. By all approaches, M. avium was found to invade the intestinal mucosa by interacting primarily with enterocytes and not with M cells. PMID:11179321

  6. Mycobacterium avium invades the intestinal mucosa primarily by interacting with enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Sangari, F J; Goodman, J; Petrofsky, M; Kolonoski, P; Bermudez, L E

    2001-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium can invade intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. When given to mice orally, M. avium preferentially interacts with the intestinal mucosa at the terminal ileum. We evaluated the mechanism(s) of M. avium binding and invasion of the intestinal mucosa using three different systems: (i) electron microscopy following administration of M. avium into an intestinal loop in mice, (ii) quantitative comparison of the bacterial load in Peyer's patch areas of the terminal ileum versus areas that do not contain Peyer's patches, and (iii) investigation of the ability of M. avium to cause disseminated infection following oral administration using B-cell-deficient mice, lacking Peyer's patches, in comparison with C57BL/6 black mice. By all approaches, M. avium was found to invade the intestinal mucosa by interacting primarily with enterocytes and not with M cells. PMID:11179321

  7. [An in vitro of acrylonitrile inducing early damage on buccal mucosa of murine

    PubMed

    Fu, P; Jin, W C; Jin, X J; Zhu, P

    1998-06-01

    ObJECTIVE:Understand the change and damage of rats and mice buccal mucosa tissue structure posioned by acrylonitrile and alcohol. METHODS: Using optical microscope and transmitted electron microscope (TEM) techniques, observed the structure of rats and mice buccal mucosa which posioned by acrylonitrile and alcohol for 13 weeks in different dosages. RESULTS: Acrylonitrile can damage the ultrastructure of the cells and lead to precancerous dysplasia,such as enlargement and deformation of nuclei, reducing of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes,break of basement membrane,swelling and denaturalization of mitochondrion. The degree of damage was correlated with its dosage. Alcohol can increase the damage caused by acrylonitrile. CONCLUSION: Both acrylonitrile and alcohol can destroy the ultrastructure of cells,TEM is helpful for diagnosing disease in their early stage,and buccal mucosa can be used as a window for observing the disease caused by many toxic factors. PMID:15071667

  8. Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Buccal Mucosa 19 Years after Radical Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Julio, Hernani; Vázquez-Alonso, Fernando; Fernández-Sánchez, Antonio J.; Puche-Sanz, Ignacio; Flores-Martín, José F.; Cózar, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has high metastatic potential, which requires early diagnosis to optimize the chance of cure. Metastasis of RCC to the head and neck region is less common and metastasis to the buccal mucosa is extremely rare. This phenomenon occurs mostly in patients with generalized dissemination, especially with lung metastases. In this article we report a case of buccal mucosa metastasis from RCC in a 65-year-old man who presented 19 years after undergoing a left radical nephrectomy for clear cell RCC. Surgical excision of the buccal lesion was performed without evidence of recurrence or new metastatic lesions after 6 years of followup. To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastasis to the buccal mucosa from a RCC reported in the literature. PMID:23133770

  9. Successful emergency combined therapy with partial splenic arterial embolization and endoscopic injection therapy against a bleeding duodenal varix in a child.

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Hironori; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Akira; Sugimori, Satoshi; Morotomi, Yoshiki; Taniguchi, Shino; Nakaya, Masaharu; Cho, Yuki; Matsui, Katsutoshi; Kasuga, Saki; Sakae, Yukari; Yamato, Kazumi; Nishida, Norifumi; Tokimasa, Sadao; Shintaku, Haruo

    2015-06-01

    There is no consensus guidelines for treating duodenal variceal bleeding, which is a rare and life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. Here we report an exceedingly unusual case in a 9-year-old boy who had developed left-sided portal hypertension after surgical treatment for pancreatoblastoma followed by a duodenal variceal bleeding with massive melena, severe anemia (hemoglobin 4.5 g/dL) and hypovolemic shock. Emergency partial splenic arterial embolization (PSE) provided a reduction of variceal bleeding and improved blood pressure. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) was subsequently performed and stopped the duodenal variceal bleeding without the complication of portal vein thrombosis caused by injected sclerosant under hepatopetal flow. Our case demonstrates that emergency combined therapy with PSE and EIS can be considered as the therapeutic option for the management of left-sided portal hypertension-induced ectopic variceal bleedings in order to avoid the complication of portal embolization by EIS and provide effective hematostasis. PMID:25851961

  10. Inhibition of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat by bile diversion. Enhancement of the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine by taurocholic and glycocholic acids.

    PubMed

    Clémençon, G H; Fehr, H F

    1983-01-01

    Three groups of rats were twice given cysteamine subcutaneously in a dose of 20 mg/100 g body weight. Nine of 10 controls developed severe duodenal ulcers. In contrast, the ulcer formation was inhibited significantly in the rats submitted, before exposure to cysteamine, to a bile diversion operation consisting of jejunopylorostomy and Roux-en-Y anastomosis without gastric resection. However, rats submitted to the same operation but drinking a solution with 5 mmol/l sodium salts of taurocholic and glycocholic acid, 1:3, developed severe duodenal ulcers after cysteamine injections (8 of 10). The conclusion is that neither the chemical cysteamine nor hydrochloric acid alone can be made responsible for cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat, but that bile salts clearly enhance the ulcerogenic property of cysteamine. PMID:6675171

  11. Peritonitis secondary to traumatic duodenal laceration in the presence of a large pancreatic pseudocyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A pancreatic pseudocyst is a common sequela of severe acute pancreatitis. Commonly, it presents with abdominal pain and a mass in the epigastrium several weeks after the acute episode and can be managed conservatively, endoscopically or surgically. We report a patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst awaiting endoscopic therapy who developed a life-threatening complication following a rather innocuous trauma to the abdomen. Case presentation A 23-year-old Asian male student presented as an emergency with an acute abdomen a week after a minor trauma to his upper abdomen. The injury occurred when he was innocently punched in the abdomen by a friend. He experienced only moderate discomfort briefly at the time. His past medical history included coeliac disease and an admission four months previously with severe acute pancreatitis. He was hospitalized for 15 days; his pancreatitis was thought to be due to alcohol binge drinking on weekends. Ultrasound scanning showed no evidence of gallstone disease. Five days after the trauma, he became anorexic, lethargic and feverish and started vomiting bilious content. Seven days post-trauma, he presented to our emergency department with severe abdominal pain. An emergency laparotomy was performed where a transverse linear duodenal laceration was found at the junction of the first and second part of his duodenum, with generalized peritonitis. His stomach and duodenum were stretched over a large pancreatic pseudocyst posterior to his stomach. It was postulated that an incomplete duodenal injury (possibly a serosal tear) occurred following the initial minor trauma, which was followed by local tissue necrosis at the injury site resulting in a delayed presentation of generalized peritonitis. Conclusion This is the first reported case of a traumatic duodenal laceration following minor blunt trauma in the presence of a large pancreatic pseudocyst. Minor blunt abdominal trauma in a normal healthy adult would not be expected to result in a significant duodenal injury. In the presence of a large pseudocyst, however, the stretching of the duodenum over the pseudocyst had probably predisposed the duodenum to this injury. Patients awaiting therapeutic interventions for their pancreatic pseudocysts should be warned about this unusual but life-threatening risk following minor blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:22029762

  12. Percutaneous Transhepatic Duodenal Drainage as an Alternative Approach in Afferent Loop Obstruction with Secondary Obstructive Jaundice in Recurrent Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, N.-S. [Division of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, A191, Veterans General Hospital, 201, Shih-Pai Road, Sec. 2, Taipei 112 (China); Wu, C.-W. [National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Lih-Nong Street, Taipei 112 (China); Tiu, Chui-Mei [Department of Radiology, Veterans General Hospital, 201, Shih-Pai Road, Sec. 2, Taipei 112 (China); Liu, Jacqueline M.; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Chen, L.-T. [Division of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, A191, Veterans General Hospital, 201, Shih-Pai Road, Sec. 2, Taipei 112 (China)

    1998-07-15

    Two cases are reported of chronic, partial afferent loop obstruction with resultant obstructive jaundice in recurrent gastric cancer. The diagnosis was made by characteristic clinical presentations, abdominal computed tomography, and cholescintigraphy. Percutaneous transhepatic duodenal drainage (PTDD) provided effective palliation for both afferent loop obstruction and biliary stasis. We conclude that cholescintigraphy is of value in making the diagnosis of partial afferent loop obstruction and in differentiating the cause of obstructive jaundice in such patients, and PTDD provides palliation for those patients in whom surgical intervention is not feasible.

  13. Trans-anastomotic tubes reduce the need for central venous access and parenteral nutrition in infants with congenital duodenal obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. HallM; M. Drewett; R. A. Wheeler; D. M. Griffiths; L. J. Kitteringham; D. M. Burge

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  To determine the effect of trans-anastomotic tube (TAT) feeding on outcome following repair of congenital duodenal obstruction\\u000a (CDO).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective comparative study of all infants with CDO over 10 years. Data are median (range). Mann–Whitney U test and Fisher’s exact test were used.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Of 55 infants with CDO (48 atresia, 7 stenosis), 17 were managed with a TAT, 38 without. Enteral feeds

  14. Looking after local nasal and sinus mucosa in health, disease and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Kacker, S K

    2010-09-01

    The paper emphasises the need for looking after of nasal and sinus mucosa in health, disease and after nasal surgery. It is a systematic arrangement of steps required to restore nasal mucosa to healthy state. These steps have been arranged to co relate them to diseases and symptoms for symptomatic and curative treatment. It can rationalise the need for surgery in cases non responsive to maximum medical treatment. It can improve postoperative surgical results after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and other endoscopic assisted procedures. PMID:23120723

  15. Open label, prospective, randomized controlled trial of an endoscopic duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve versus low calorie diet for pre-operative weight loss in bariatric surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tarnoff; L. Rodriguez; A. Escalona; A. Ramos; M. Neto; M. Alamo; E. Reyes; F. Pimentel; L. Ibanez

    2009-01-01

    Background  The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) has been shown to achieve a completely endoscopic duodenal exclusion without the\\u000a need for stapling. This report is the first randomized controlled trial for weight loss.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a 12-week, prospective, randomized study, subjects received either a low fat diet and the DJBS or a low fat diet control\\u000a (no device). Twenty-five patients were implanted with

  16. Successful treatment of life-threatening bleeding from a duodenal posterior bulb peptic ulcer by an over-the-scope-clip

    PubMed Central

    Brechmann, Thorsten; Schmiegel, Wolff

    2015-01-01

    Bleeding of peptic ulcer at the posterior duodenal bulb still is a particular endoscopic challenge with increased risk of treatment failure and worse outcome. In this article, we report successful treatment of an actively bleeding peptic ulcer located at the posterior duodenal wall, using an over-the-scope-clip in the case of a 54-year-old male patient with hemorrhagic shock. Incident primary hemostasis was achieved and no adverse events occurred during a follow-up of 60 d. PMID:25663788

  17. Human intestinal ion transport in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, C L; Isaacs, P E; Riley, A K; Turnberg, L A

    1977-01-01

    The transport of sodium and chloride across human jejunal and ileal mucosa was studied using an in vitro technique. Specimens of mucosa removed at operation were stripped of muscle coats, mounted in specially designed Perspex flux chambers and bathed in warmed oxygenated and stirred buffer solutions. Evidence was obtained for the active transport of sodium in both jejunum and ileum and of chloride in the ileum. Sodium absorption was enhanced by glucose in both regions of the gut but net chloride transport was unaffected. Glucose had a greater effect on sodium transport in the ileum than the jejunum. The electrical potential difference and resistance was greater and undirectional ion fluxes smaller in jejunal than ileal mucosa. Many of these results with human intestine are similar to results reported with in vitro animal intestine. Apparent discrepancies between the behavior in vivo of human intestine and in vitro of animal intestine are thus likely to be due predominantly to technical rather species differences. PMID:852747

  18. Insulin relaxes bladder via PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway activation in mucosa: unfolded protein response-dependent insulin resistance as a cause of obesity-associated overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Leiria, Luiz O; Sollon, Carolina; Báu, Fernando R; Mónica, Fabíola Z; D'Ancona, Carlos L; De Nucci, Gilberto; Grant, Andrew D; Anhê, Gabriel F; Antunes, Edson

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of insulin in the bladder and its relevance for the development of overactive bladder (OAB) in insulin-resistant obese mice. Bladders from male individuals who were involved in multiple organ donations were used. C57BL6/J mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 10 weeks to induce insulin-resistant obesity. Concentration-response curves to insulin were performed in human and mouse isolated mucosa-intact and mucosa-denuded bladders. Cystometric study was performed in terminally anaesthetized mice. Western blot was performed in bladders to detect phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) (Ser1177) and the phosphorylated protein kinase AKT (Ser473), as well as the unfolded protein response (UPR) markers TRIB3, CHOP and ATF4. Insulin (1-100 nm) produced concentration-dependent mouse and human bladder relaxations that were markedly reduced by mucosal removal or inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway. In mouse bladders, insulin produced a 3.0-fold increase in cGMP levels (P < 0.05) that was prevented by PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway inhibition. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition abolished insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT and eNOS in bladder mucosa. Obese mice showed greater voiding frequency and non-voiding contractions, indicating overactive detrusor smooth muscle. Insulin failed to relax the bladder or to increase cGMP in the obese group. Insulin-stimulated AKT and eNOS phosphorylation in mucosa was also impaired in obese mice. The UPR markers TRIB3, CHOP and ATF4 were increased in the mucosa of obese mice. The UPR inhibitor 4-phenyl butyric acid normalized all the functional and molecular parameters in obese mice. Our data show that insulin relaxes human and mouse bladder via activation of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway in the bladder mucosa. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent insulin resistance in bladder contributes to OAB in obese mice. PMID:23478138

  19. Related IgA1 and IgG producing cells in blood and diseased mucosa in ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V C Thoree; S J C Golby; L Boursier; M Hackett; D K Dunn-Walters; J D Sanderson; J Spencer

    2002-01-01

    Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease in which the colonic mucosa is infiltrated with plasma cells producing IgG autoantibodies. It is not known whether this represents a local mucosal response which has switched to IgG or a peripheral response which may have been initiated by peripheral antigen which homed to the colonic mucosa. The clonal distribution

  20. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Field-Wide Changes in Protein Expression in the Morphologically Normal Mucosa of Patients with Colorectal Neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abigael C. J. Polley; Francis Mulholland; Elizabeth A. Williams; D. Mike Bradburn; Sarah J. Mills; John C. Mathers; Ian T. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Models for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer tend to focus on the localized lesion, with less attention paid to changes in normal-appearing mucosa. Here we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to define patterns of protein expression in morphologically normal colonic mucosa from 13 healthy subjects, 9 patients with adenomatous polyps, and 9 with cancer. Tumor samples were also

  1. Detection of vesicant-induced upper airway mucosa damage in the hamster cheek pouch model using optical

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    Detection of vesicant-induced upper airway mucosa damage in the hamster cheek pouch model using Sciences Road Irvine, California 92612 Abstract. Hamster cheek pouches were exposed to 2-chloroethyl ethyl; vesicants; optical coher- ence tomography; hamster cheek pouch model; oral mucosa. Paper 09155RR received

  2. Esophageal motility and 24-h pH profiles of patients with heterotopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esin Korkut; Mehmet Bekta?; Murat Alkan; Yusuf Üstün; Cem Meco; Ali Özden; Irfan Soykan

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundHeterotopic gastric mucosa occurs as a flat island of red mucosa in the proximal third of the esophagus where it gives rise to the cervical inlet patch. The aims of this study were to investigate the esophageal motility pattern and 24-h pH profiles of patients with cervical inlet patch.

  3. The Effects of Permeation Enhancers on the Surface Morphology of the Rat Nasal Mucosa: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Ennis; Lucy Borden; William A. Lee

    1990-01-01

    A rat model has been developed to compare relative morphological changes in the nasal mucosa after exposure to potential membrane permeation enhancers. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize gross structural and specific cellular changes following exposure. Micrographs of the rat nasal mucosa were scored in four categories: (1) mucosal surface integrity, (2) ciliary morphology, (3) mucus\\/extracellular debris, and (4)

  4. Randomized prospective trial comparing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed by excising the anal mucosa to ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed by preserving the anal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, W T; Pemberton, J H; Wolff, B G; Nivatvongs, S; Devine, R M; Litchy, W J; McIntyre, P B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to compare the results of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in patients in whom the anal mucosa is excised by handsewn techniques to those in whom the mucosa is preserved using stapling techniques. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the operation of choice for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis requiring proctocolectomy. Controversy exists over whether preserving the transitional mucosa of the anal canal improves outcomes. METHODS: Forty-one patients (23 men, 18 women) were randomized to either endorectal mucosectomy and handsewn IPAA or to double-stapled IPAA, which spared the anal transition zone. All patients were diverted for 2 to 3 months. Nine patients were excluded. Preoperative functional status was assessed by questionnaire and anal manometry. Twenty-four patients underwent more extensive physiologic evaluation, including scintigraphic anopouch angle studies and pudendel never terminal motor latency a mean of 6 months after surgery. Quality of life similarly was estimated before surgery and after surgery. Univariate analysis using Wilcoxon test was used to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: The two groups were identical demographically. Overall outcomes in both groups were good. Thirty-three percent of patients who underwent the handsewn technique and 35% of patients who underwent the double-stapled technique experienced a postoperative complication. Resting anal canal pressures were higher in the patients who underwent the stapled technique, but other physiologic parameters were similar between groups. Night-time fecal incontinence occurred less frequently in the stapled group but not significantly. The number of stools per 24 hours decreased from preoperative values in both groups. After IPAA, quality of life improved promptly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Stapled IPAA, which preserves the mucosa of the anal transition zone, confers no apparent early advantage in terms of decreased stool frequency or fewer episodes of fecal incontinence compared to handsewn IPAA, which excises the mucosa. Higher resting pressures in the stapled group coupled with a trend toward less night-time incontinence, however, may portend better function in the stapled group over time. Both operations are safe and result in rapid and profound improvement in quality of life. PMID:9230807

  5. Metabolism of manganese in calves as affected by dietary manganese and intravenous or duodenal manganese-54 dosing.

    PubMed

    Miller, W J; Stake, P E; Neathery, M W; Gentry, R P; Blackmon, D M

    1987-10-01

    Fifteen intact male Holstein calves averaging 101 d of age were utilized to determine the effects of dietary Mn concentration and routes of administration on its metabolism. They were fed a practical grain diet containing 23 ppm Mn with 0, 100, or 1000 ppm supplemental Mn (MnSO4.H2O) for 7 d prior to intravenous or duodenal dosing with 54Mn. Animals were killed 4 h later. With added Mn there was a significant decrease in 54Mn content of some small intestine parts. However, in most tissue, including organs, bones, intestinal tract tissues, and blood, added Mn did not have a significant effect on 54Mn concentrations. Concentrations of 54Mn in tissues, except in small intestine, were far higher following intravenous dosing than with duodenal dosing. This further confirms that absorption of Mn is very low. Dosing method had a sizable effect on the relative amounts of 54Mn in different tissues. This suggests that intravenously administered Mn, at least initially, is not metabolized in the same way as that absorbed. In most tissues, unlabeled Mn was not affected greatly by supplemental Mn. This is in contrast to earlier results with very young calves and indicates that Mn metabolism changes sharply before 3 to 4 mo of calf age. PMID:3680726

  6. Metabolism of manganese in calves as affected by dietary manganese and intravenous or duodenal manganese-54 dosing

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.J.; Stake, P.E.; Neathery, M.W.; Gentry, R.P.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-10-01

    Fifteen intact male Holstein calves averaging 101 d of age were utilized to determine the effects of dietary Mn concentration and routes of administration on its metabolism. They were fed a practical grain diet containing 23 ppm Mn with 0, 100, or 1000 ppm supplemental Mn (MnSO/sub 4/.H/sub 2/O) for 7 d prior to intravenous or duodenal dosing with /sup 54/Mn. Animals were killed 4 h later. With added Mn there was a significant decrease in /sup 54/Mn content of some small intestine parts. However, in most tissue, including organs, bones, intestinal tract tissues, and blood, added Mn did not have a significant effect on /sup 54/Mn concentrations. Concentrations of /sup 54/Mn in tissues, except in small intestine, were far higher following intravenous dosing than with duodenal dosing. This further confirms that absorption of Mn is very low. Dosing method had a sizable effect on the relative amounts of /sup 54/Mn in different tissues. This suggests that intravenously administered Mn, at least initially, is not metabolized in the same way as that absorbed. In most tissues, unlabeled Mn was not affected greatly by supplemental Mn. This is in contrast to earlier results with very young calves and indicates that Mn metabolism changes sharply before 3 to 4 mo of calf age.

  7. Comparative study of cimetidine and trimipramine in the short-term treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Valnes, K; Wetterhus, S; Myren, J; Arva, P; Larsen, S

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-nine outpatients with endoscopically confirmed duodenal and prepyloric (DU) or gastric ulcers (GU) completed a 4-week double-blind trial with either cimetidine, 1 g/day, or trimipramine, 50 mg/day. Ulcer healing was assessed by endoscopy at 4 weeks. At the end of the study 14 of 23 patients with DU treated with cimetidine and 13 of 25 treated with trimipramine had healed ulcers. In the patients with GU 7 of 11 ulcers (cimetidine) and 4 of 10 (trimipramine) healed. The differences in healing rates between the two treatment groups were not statistically significant, either in DU and GU groups separately or in the total material. The number of pain attacks per week decreased and the symptoms improved significantly in both treatment groups in DU, GU, and totally. Both drugs were well tolerated, but two patients in each treatment group developed a slight increase in serum transaminases. No serious side effects occurred. The study suggests trimipramine as an alternative drug to the well-established drug cimetidine in the treatment of duodenal and possibly also of gastric ulcer. PMID:6372066

  8. Luminal sulfide and large intestine mucosa: friend or foe?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Blachier; Anne-Marie Davila; Sabria Mimoun; Pierre-Henri Benetti; Calina Atanasiu; Mireille Andriamihaja; Robert Benamouzig; Frédéric Bouillaud; Daniel Tomé

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is present in the lumen of the human large intestine at millimolar concentrations. However, the concentration of free (unbound)\\u000a sulfide is in the micromolar range due to a large capacity of fecal components to bind the sulfide. H2S can be produced by the intestinal microbiota from alimentary and endogenous sulfur-containing compounds including amino\\u000a acids. At excessive concentration,

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of human carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kumpulainen

    1979-01-01

    Methods for immunohistochemical localization of human carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme C (HCA C) with indirect fluorescent antibody and immunoperoxidase techniques are described. Both methods revealed large amounts of this “high activity” isoenzyme in the mucosae of human stomach and appendix. With the indirect immunofluorescent method the presence of the enzyme in human erythrocyte cytoplasm was also demonstrated. Correlations of present findings

  10. Characterization of T9-T10 spinal neurons with duodenal input and modulation by gastric electrical stimulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chao; Chen, Jiande D.Z.; Zhang, Jing; Foreman, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has been suggested as a therapy for patients with gastric motility disorders or morbid obesity. However, it is unclear whether GES also affects intestinal sensory and motor functions. Furthermore, little is known about intraspinal visceroreceptive transmission and processing for duodenal afferent information. The aims of this study were to characterize responses of thoracic spinal neurons to duodenal distension, to determine the afferent pathway, and to examine the effects of GES on activity of these neurons. Extracellular potentials of single T9-T10 spinal neurons were recorded in pentobarbital anesthetized, paralyzed, ventilated male rats (n=19). Graded duodenal distension (DD, 0.2–0.6 ml, 20 s) was produced by water inflation of a latex balloon surgically placed into the duodenum. One pair of platinum electrodes (1.0–1.5 cm apart) was sutured onto the serosal surface of the lesser curvature of the stomach. GES with four sets of parameters was applied for one minute: GES-A (6 mA, 0.3 ms, 40 Hz, 2s on, 3s off), GES-B (6 mA, 0.3 ms, 14 Hz, 0.1s on, 5s off), GES-C (6 mA, 3 ms, 40 Hz, 2s on, 3s off), GES-D (6 mA, 200 ms, 12 pulses/min). Results showed that 33/117 (28%) spinal neurons responded to noxious DD (0.4 ml, 20s). Of these, 7 (6%) neurons had low-threshold responses to DD (?0.2 ml) and 26 (22%) had high-threshold responses to DD (?0.4 ml). DD-responsive spinal neurons were encountered more frequently in deeper (depth: 0.3–1.2 mm) than in superficial laminae (depth: <0.3 mm) of the dorsal horn (24/67 vs 9/50, P<0.05). DD excited all 9 superficial neurons. In contrast, 20 deeper neurons were excited and 4 neurons were inhibited by DD. Activity of DD-responsive neurons was affected more frequently with GES-C (13/15, 87%) than GES-A (6/16, 38%), -B (3/15, 20%), -D (5/14, 36%), (P<0.01). Bilateral cervical vagotomy did not significantly alter the effects of DD and GES on 5/5 neurons. Resiniferatoxin (2.0 ?g/kg, i.v.), an ultrapotent agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1), abolished DD responses and GES effects on all neurons examined in vagotomized rats. Additionally, 29/33 (88%) DD-responsive neurons received inputs from somatic receptive fields on the back, flank, and medial/lateral abdominal areas. It was concluded that GES mainly exerted an excitatory effect on T9-T10 spinal neurons with duodenal input transmitted by sympathetic afferent fibers expressing TRPV1; spinal neuronal responses to GES were strengthened with an increased pulse width and/or frequency of stimulation; T9-T10 spinal neurons processed input from the duodenum and might mediate effects of GES on duodenal sensation and motility. PMID:17433808

  11. Gender bias in lupus: does immune response initiated in the gut mucosa have a role?

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, M-C; Johnson, B M; Gudi, R; Al-Gadban, M M; Vasu, C

    2015-06-01

    The risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is approximately nine times higher among women compared to men. However, very little is understood concerning the underlying mechanisms that contribute to this gender bias. Further, whether there is a link between immune response initiated in the gut mucosa, the progression of SLE and the associated gender bias has never been investigated. In this report, we show a potential link between the immune response of the gut mucosa and SLE and the gender bias of lupus for the first time, to our knowledge. Both plasma cell- and gut-imprinted- ?4?7 T cell frequencies were significantly higher in the spleen and gut mucosa of female (SWR × NZB)F1 (SNF1 ) mice compared to that of their male counterparts. Importantly, female SNF1 mice not only showed profoundly higher CD45(+) immune cell densities, but also carried large numbers of interleukin (IL)-17-, IL-22- and IL-9-producing cells in the lamina propria (LP) compared to their male counterparts. Intestinal mucosa of female SNF1 mice expressed higher levels of a large array of proinflammatory molecules, including type 1 interferons and Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 (TLR-7 and TLR-8), even before puberty. Our work, therefore, indicates that the gut immune system may play a role in the initiation and progression of disease in SLE and the associated gender bias. PMID:25603723

  12. Differences between fibroblasts cultured from oral mucosa and normal skin: implication to wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lee, H G; Eun, H C

    1999-11-01

    It is generally agreed that oral mucosa heals faster with less scar than skin does, and hypertrophic scar or keloid is very rare in the oral cavity. Fibroblasts are thought to play an important role in wound healing and scar formation, whose control is mediated by growth factors. We have studied whether there are any differences in the cellular behavior of fibroblasts between oral mucosa and skin, and in their response to growth factors. Oral mucosal fibroblasts proliferated slightly more than dermal fibroblasts on average. Dermal fibroblasts in collagen gel possessed greater contraction potency than oral mucosa fibroblasts, irrespective of the presence of growth factors; however, oral mucosa fibroblasts showed an earlier collagen gel contraction with or without TGF-beta1. There were no differences in basal collagen synthetic rate between dermal and oral mucosal fibroblasts, while the latter synthesized more collagen than dermal fibroblasts when they were stimulated with TGF-beta1. Our study showed that oral mucosal fibroblasts and dermal fibroblasts had selective differences in cellular behavior and in their responses to growth factors, which seems to contribute to the differences in wound healing. PMID:10527379

  13. The effects of CPAP treatment on nasal mucosa in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Saka, Cem; Vuralkan, Erkan; F?rat, Ibrahim Hikmet; Alicura, Sibel; Hücümeno?lu, Sema; Ak?n, Istemihan; Ard?ç, Sad?k; Gökler, Ayhan

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effects of nasal CPAP treatment on the morphology and function of nasal mucosa in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Patients with complaints relevant to OSA underwent respiratory function tests, arterial blood gas analyses and polysomnography. Saccharine test and nasal biopsies were performed to assess the mucociliary transport time and to observe the histopathological changes in patients with apnea-hypopnea index ?15 in whole night polysomnography. Tissue samples were obtained from middle and inferior turbinates and septal mucosa to observe the degree of inflammation and fibrosis by semiquantitative means. Biopsies and mucociliary transport test were performed before and 3 months after the initiation of CPAP treatment. A total of 25 patients with a mean age of 52 were enrolled in the study. While the pretreatment mucociliary transport time before and 3 months after the treatment were 10.50 and 11.50 min respectively. The difference between these values was statistically insignificant. Mean apnea-hypopnea index was 63.19, while mean partial oxygen pressure was 75.46 mmHg. Nasal CPAP treatment was introduced with a mean pressure of 9.54 cmH2O. The degree of inflammation and fibrosis was found to be significantly increased after CPAP treatment. Nasal CPAP leads to alterations in mucosa. Efforts should be directed to make CPAP treatment a safer method via protecting the morphologic and functional properties of the nasal mucosa. PMID:22212699

  14. Endocrine cells in the antro-pyloric mucosa of the stomach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Solcia; G. Vassallo; R. Sampietro

    1967-01-01

    A type of endocrine-like cell displaying all morphological features of protein secreting cells, has been found in the antro-pyloric mucosa of the stomach of mammals. Light and electron microscopy observations provide a sharp distinction of this cell from the 5-hydroxytryptamine-storing enterochromaffin cell. Its possible involvement in the secretion of a protein or peptide hormone is discussed.

  15. Sutureless Rabbit Bladder Mucosa Patch Graft Urethroplasty Using Diode Laser And Solder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Kirsch; David T. Chang; Mark L. Kayton; Jeffrey Newhouse; Steven K. Libutti; Michael R. Treat; John P. Connor; Terry W. Hensle

    1995-01-01

    Fistula and strictures at the site of sutured anastomoses are frequent complications of major urethroplasty. We harvested bladder mucosa in 26 rabbits to repair large defects in the proximal urethra using laser-activated solder in the hope that such a repair would be stronger, faster to create and avoid common complications seen with conventional repair.Large oval defects were created in the

  16. Histamine stimulates chloride secretion in omeprazole-inhibited frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    McGreevy, J.; Barton, R.; Housinger, T.

    1986-03-05

    Omeprazole (OME) stops hydrogen ion (H) secretion in the histamine (HIST)-stimulated gastric mucosa while the chloride (Cl) which had accompanied the H continues to be pumped into the lumen. This finding suggests that the Cl pump is independent of the H/K ATP-ase driven H pump. To test this hypothesis, 16 Ussing-chambered frog mucosas were exposed to OME prior to HIST stimulation. If the Cl pump is independent, HIST should stimulate Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited mucosa. A 1 hr control (CON) interval preceded exposure to OME (10/sup -4/M) in the nutrient solution. Potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (Isc), resistance (R), H flux (J/sup H/) and Cl flux (J/sup Cl/ with /sup 36/Cl) were measured every 15 min. After 1 hr of OME exposure, HIST (10/sup -5/M) was added to the nutrient solution. The findings demonstrate that HIST stimulates Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited bullfrog gastric mucosa.

  17. Genome Sequence of the Heteropolysaccharide-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Paul M.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; London, Lis E. E.; Kelleher, Philip R.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Caplice, Noel M.; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide-synthesizing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 is a heterofermentative strain, which has demonstrated cholesterol-lowering properties in an animal model of lipid-driven atherosclerosis. The genome revealed a plethora of homologues linked to carbohydrate metabolism and mucin binding. PMID:25593248

  18. The comparative evaluation of uterine and cervical mucosa cytology with endometrial histopathology in cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Ahmadi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; S. Nazifi; H. R. Ghaisari

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive tract abnormalities especially in the uterus and ovaries of cows often results in infertility. The object of this study was to determine the relationship between the cytology of uterine and cervical mucosa and endometrial histopathology in normal and endometritic cows. In this study, the genital tracts of 131 slaughtered cows were collected. According to macroscopic appearances and histopathological evaluation,

  19. Volume-based Feature Analysis of Mucosa for Automatic Initial Polyp Detection in Virtual Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Su; Zhu, Hongbin; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a volume-based mucosa-based polyp candidate determination scheme for automatic polyp detection in computed colonography. Different from most of the existing computer-aided detection (CAD) methods where mucosa layer is a one-layer surface, a thick mucosa of 3-5 voxels wide fully reflecting partial volume effect is intentionally extracted, which excludes the direct applications of the traditional geometrical features. In order to address this dilemma, fast marching-based adaptive gradient/curvature and weighted integral curvature along normal directions (WICND) are developed for volume-based mucosa. In doing so, polyp candidates are optimally determined by computing and clustering these fast marching-based adaptive geometrical features. By testing on 52 patients datasets in which 26 patients were found with polyps of size 4-22 mm, both the locations and number of polyp candidates detected by WICND and previously developed linear integral curvature (LIC) were compared. The results were promising that WICND outperformed LIC mainly in two aspects: (1) the number of detected false positives was reduced from 706 to 132 on average, which significantly released our burden of machine learning in the feature space, and (2) both the sensitivity and accuracy of polyp detection have been slightly improved, especially for those polyps smaller than 5mm. PMID:19774204

  20. Campylobacter like organisms on the gastric mucosa: culture, histological, and serological studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D M Jones; A M Lessells; J Eldridge

    1984-01-01

    Biopsy samples were taken from the gastric mucosa of 50 patients attending a gastroscopy clinic; blood was also taken for serological studies. A campylobacter like organism was grown from 31 patients (62%) and the organism was seen in sections from 27 biopsies. Antibody was found in 31 patients by complement fixation and in 27 by bacterial agglutination. There were strong