These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Characterization of secretin release in secretin cell-enriched preparation isolated from canine duodenal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of secretin was studied in secretin cell-enriched preparations isolated from canine duodenal mucosa. The crude enterocytes were isolated by treating the duodenal mucosa sequentially with collagenase and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Secretin cell-enriched fraction was prepared by centrifugation of the crude enterocytes in a counterflow elutriation rotor to obtain a final preparation containing 3.2±0.3 pmol\\/106 cell of immunoreactive secretin, which

Weijian Sue; William Y. Chey; Qi Sun; Ta-Min Chang

1993-01-01

2

Surface morphology of the gastroduodenal mucosa in duodenal ulceration.  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic biopsies from the duodenal cap and prepyloric areas of 25 patients have been examined with the scanning electron microscope. Eleven patients had duodenal ulceration. Bacteria are related only to the surface of gastric type epithelial cells whether these cells are located at areas of gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb or in the pre-pyloric region of the stomach. The bacteria are not associated with the surface of intestinal type epithelial cells. The bacteria are absent from the biopsies of those patients with a normal stomach and duodenum. Of those patients with duodenal ulceration, 73% have bacteria related to the epithelial surface. The bacteria are of two morphological types - a kidney shaped bacillus and an S-shaped bacillus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6500361

Steer, H W

1984-01-01

3

Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer  

E-print Network

Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer Yang Liu,1 Randall E Shah,2 Curtis Hall,2 and Vadim Backman1 Abstract Purpose: Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most architecture of the epithe- lium.We propose a novel approach to predict pancreatic cancer through

Ottino, Julio M.

4

Increased tissue concentrations of histamine in the duodenal mucosa of children with coeliac disease.  

PubMed Central

Tissue concentrations of histamine have been estimated in peroral duodenal biopsy specimens from five children with coeliac disease while on a gluten-free diet and after a three-month gluten challenge. Histamine concentrations in the patients on a diet did not differ significantly from a group of control children. However after gluten challenge, histological relapse of the duodenal mucosa in each patient was associated with increased tissue concentrations of histamine. The findings suggest that histamine may be involved in the pathogenesis of the small intestinal mucosal changes in children with coeliac disease. PMID:7085909

Challacombe, D N; Dawkins, P D

1982-01-01

5

Enterochromaffin cells in the duodenal mucosa of children with coeliac disease.  

PubMed Central

A cell counting technique was used to count enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the duodenal mucosa of 10 children with coeliac disease and 10 controls, and significantly greater numbers of EC cells were found in children with coeliac disease. In four children with a clinical history suggestive of coeliac disease, but with minor histopathological changes in the duodenum, gluten challenge resulted in increased numbers of EC cells. Abnormalities of 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in coeliac disease may result from hyperplasia of EC cells in the small intestine. Images Figure PMID:873322

Challacombe, D N; Robertson, K

1977-01-01

6

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection did not lead to cure of duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is very rare, and little is known about its clinical course or association with Helicobacter pylori infection. This report describes the case of a 76-year-old man with a polypoid mass in the duodenal bulb, diagnosed as low-grade MALT lymphoma. H. pylori infection in the duodenal mucosa was confirmed by histology with silver stain. Endoscopic examination showed that the gross lesion regressed after the eradication of H. pylori despite its histopathologic persistence. Ten months later, however, cervical and intraperitoneal lymphadenopathy and bone marrow involvement was observed, and the pathologic diagnosis of the cervical lymph node was identical with that of the duodenal lesion. PMID:10192204

Kim, J S; Jung, H C; Shin, K H; Song, I S; Kim, C W; Kim, C Y

1999-02-01

7

Photodynamic therapy of pancreatic cancer and elastic scattering spectroscopy of the duodenal mucosa for the detection of pancreaticobiliary malignancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diagnosis and treatment of pancreaticobiliary malignancy is of major interest to our group. Building on prior work, we undertook a phase I study of verteporfin photodynamic therapy in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, pancreatic cancer. We also initiated an optical diagnostic study using elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) of the normal-appearing periampullary duodenal mucosa in vivo to investigate the hypothesis of a field effect in pancreaticobiliary malignancy. In a phase I dose escalation study, patients were treated with interstitial verteporfin PDT via a single fibre, to determine its general safety profile and the optimum treatment parameters needed to achieve effective and safe necrosis of tumour, With increasing light doses, there was a linear increase in the extent of tumour necrosis around the fibre, without serious adverse events. Follow-on studies using multiple fibres are planned. In 30 patients with benign or malignant pancreaticobiliary disease undergoing clinically-indicated endoscopy, ESS spectra were collected from the normal-appearing duodenum and antrum and a diagnostic algorithm generated by principle component and linear discriminant analysis. Pooled data from duodenal sites distal to the ampulla gave a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 72% (82% AUC) for the detection of malignancy, whereas those from the periampullary region had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 61% (72% AUC); antral measurements were not able to discriminate with such accuracy. These early results suggest that ESS of the duodenal mucosa could represent a novel minimally invasive diagnostic test for pancreaticobiliary malignancy.

Huggett, M. T.; Baddeley, R. N. B.; Sandanayake, N. S.; Webster, G. J. M.; Bown, S. G.; Lovat, L. B.; Gillams, A.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.

2011-02-01

8

Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in human gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscarinic cholinergic receptor sites in human gastric mucosa were analyzed directly by using radioligand binding techniques\\u000a with the specific muscarinic antagonist3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) as ligand. Specific binding of3H-QNB to membrane preparations from human gastric mucosa was saturable, of high affinity (Kd=4.17±1.94 nM, Bmax=0.37±0.04\\u000a pmol\\/mg protein) and selectively inhibited by muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) and agonists (acetylcholine,\\u000a pilocarpine). These findings provide

Takao Tokunaga; Reiki Nishimura; Masanobu Akagi

1984-01-01

9

An enteral leucine supply modulates human duodenal mucosal proteome and decreases the expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation.  

PubMed

Leucine is well known to regulate protein metabolism in muscle. We recently reported that enteral leucine infusion decreased proteasome activity in human duodenal mucosa and enhanced intestinal cell proliferation, but its effects on gut proteome remain unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effects of an enteral leucine infusion on the whole proteome of duodenal mucosa. In this work, 5 healthy volunteers received for 5h, on 2 occasions and in random order, an enteral supply of maltodextrins (0.25 g kg(-1) h(-1)) or maltodextrins supplemented with leucine (0.035 g kg(-1) h(-1)). At the end of infusion, endoscopic duodenal biopsy samples were collected and analyzed by 2D-PAGE. Eleven protein spots were differentially and significantly (P<0.05) expressed in response to the leucine-supplemented maltodextrins compared with maltodextrins alone. Forty percent of identified proteins by mass spectrometry were located in mitochondria. Four proteins were involved in lipid metabolism: HADHA, ACADVL and CPT2 expressions were reduced, whereas FABP1 expression was increased. In addition, the expression of DHA kinase involved in glycerol metabolism was also downregulated. Finally, leucine supplementation altered the duodenal mucosal proteome by regulating the expression of several enzymes mainly involved in lipid metabolism. These results suggest that leucine supplementation may slowdown fatty acid beta-oxidation in human duodenal mucosa. PMID:23142318

Goichon, Alexis; Chan, Philippe; Lecleire, Stéphane; Coquard, Aude; Cailleux, Anne-Françoise; Walrand, Stéphane; Lerebours, Eric; Vaudry, David; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

2013-01-14

10

[Occurrence of Campylobacter pylori in gastric mucosa and selected parameters of cell-mediated immunity in patients with duodenal ulcer and individuals with non-ulcerative dyspepsia].  

PubMed

The study was aimed at investigating a relationship between Campylobacter pylori infection in the gastric mucosa and selected parameters of cell-mediated immunity in patients with duodenal ulcer and the individuals with non-ulcerative dyspepsia. A relationship between Campylobacter pylori and gastritis has also been studied. Endoscopic and immunological tests were carried out in the group of 45 patients, including 14 patients with duodenal ulcer and 29 with non-ulcerative dyspepsia. Specimens of gastric mucosa were collected endoscopically for histological and bacteriological examinations. Immunological tests included an assessment of the number of lymphocytes T (and their subpopulations) forming active rosettes (ARFC); total - (TRFC) and theophylline-resistant in active rosettes fraction (ARFC-TR); total (TRFC-TR) and theophylline-sensitive lymphocytes in both fractions (ARFC-TS and TRFC-TS) in 1 mm3 of the peripheral blood. Results suggest, that there is correlation between an infection of the gastric mucosa by Campylobacter pylori and duodenal ulcer and gastritis. No correlation between the infection by Campylobacter pylori and examined parameters of immunity in both patients with duodenal ulcer and non-ulcerative dyspepsia was found. PMID:1845737

S?otwi?ski, R; Muszy?ski, J

11

Diamine oxidase activity in gastric and duodenal mucosa of man and other mammals with special reference to the pyloric junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the gastric mucosa of human subjects and of various mammals methylation was accepted as the main pathway of histamine catabolism. However, augmentation of gastric acid secretion by aminoguanidine, the strong inhibitor of diamine oxidase, indicated an influence of diamine oxidase activity on this secretory process. Therefore a careful reinvestigation of the occurrence of diamine oxidase activity was started from

J. Kusche; W. Lorenz; C.-D. Stahlknecht; A. Friedrich; A. Schmidt; K. Boo; G. Reichert

1978-01-01

12

Combined effects of hydroxyurea and x irradiation on murine duodenal mucosa and host survival  

SciTech Connect

The duodenal response to x irradiation, in terms of both crypt survival (D/sub 0/ and 10-clone dose) and host toxicity (LD/sub 50/6/), has been evaluated as a function of time of x irradiation after either a single injection of hydroxyurea (3 mg/g body wt) or five injections (0.5 mg/g followed at 1-h invervals by four injections of 0.25 mg/g each). The data indicate that the five-injection protocol is more effective than a single injection at accumulating proliferating crypt cells at the G/sub 1//S interface and that the initial cohort of S-phase cells after the hydroxyurea release is more radioresistant than the exponentially distributed population of proliferating crypt cells (D/sub 0/ approx. = 220 rad vs control D/sub 0/ approx. = 150 rad). The duodenal crypt cells x-irradiated 1 h after the last hydroxyurea injection (both protocols), when they are still blocked at the G/sub 1//S interface, are also more radiosensitive (D/sub 0/ approx. = 100 rad) than control crypt cells. This is apparently due to a chemical radiosensitization by the hydroxyurea still present in the serum of the mice. A comparison of the 10-clone dose to the LD/sub 50/6/ dose indicates that there is an uncoupling of crypt survival from the so-called clinical endpoint of host toxicity in such a combined-modality protocol. This suggests that, when a systemic cell-cycle phase-specific agent is used in combination with whole-abdomen irradiation, crypt survival per se is only one important variable contributing to the classical gastrointestinal death syndrome.

Dethlefsen, L.A.; Ohlsen, J.D.; Riley, R.M.

1980-06-01

13

Simultaneous Exposure of Excess Fluoride and Calcium Deficiency Alters VDR, CaR, and Calbindin D 9  k mRNA Levels in Rat Duodenal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride ingestion reduces intestinal calcium absorption; its molecular basis has not been studied. We studied the mRNA expression of calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and calbindin D 9  k (D 9  k) by northern blot analysis in the duodenal mucosa of rats. Weanling pups fed with chow diet containing adequate calcium (0.5% w\\/w) and drinking water (NaF P

S. Tiwari; S. K. Gupta; K. Kumar; R. Trivedi; M. M. Godbole

2004-01-01

14

Bovine Milk Inhibits Proteolytic Degradation of Epidermal Growth Factor in Human Gastric and Duodenal Lumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

R. K. Rao, R. D. Baker and S. S. Baker. Bovine milk inhibits proteolytic degradation of epidermal growth factor in human gastric and duodenal lumen. Peptides 19(3) 495–504, 1998.—Degradation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in human gastric and duodenal lumen was analyzed by incubating 125I-labeled or unlabeled human recombinant EGF with human gastric or duodenal luminal fluids in vitro. Degradation

R. K Rao; R. D Baker; S. S Baker

1998-01-01

15

Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is a complex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates the risk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisive role in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship between consumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred to two hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62 subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve to find the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis. Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024). Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honey amount) - 0.533(honey amount)2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount)7. Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis in gastric mucosa. PMID:24688918

Ghaffari, Aida; Somi, Mohammad H; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Modaresi, Jabiz; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

2012-01-01

16

Intra-uterine growth retardation affects birthweight and postnatal development in pigs, impairing muscle accretion, duodenal mucosa morphology and carcass traits.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the occurrence of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) in newborn (n=40) and 150-day-old (n=240) pigs of different birthweight ranges (high, HW: 1.8-2.2kg; low, LW: 0.8-1.2kg) from higher-parity commercial sows and its impact on their subsequent development and carcass traits in a Brazilian commercial production system. HW newborn pigs had heavier organs than LW pigs (P<0.01), and all brain:organ weight ratios were higher (P<0.01) in LW compared with HW offspring, providing strong evidence of IUGR in the LW piglets. HW pigs had higher bodyweights and average daily gain (ADG) in all phases of production (P<0.05), but ADG in the finisher phase was similar in both groups. Additionally, LW newborn and 150-day-old pigs showed a lower percentage of muscle fibres and a higher percentage of connective tissue in the semitendinosus muscle, greater fibre number per mm(2) and a lower height of the duodenal mucosa (P<0.05). On the other hand, HW pigs had higher hot carcass weight, meat content in the carcass and yield of ham, shoulder and belly (P<0.01). Hence, lower-birthweight piglets may suffer from IUGR, which impairs their growth performance, muscle accretion, duodenal mucosa morphology and carcass traits. PMID:22995207

Alvarenga, A L N; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Cardeal, P C; Moreira, L P; Foxcroft, G R; Fontes, D O; Almeida, F R C L

2013-01-01

17

Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. Results One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine. PMID:18681965

Troost, Freddy J; van Baarlen, Peter; Lindsey, Patrick; Kodde, Andrea; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert-Jan M

2008-01-01

18

Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

2011-01-01

19

Histologic and ultrastructural features of experimental duodenal ulcers in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

The histologic and ultrastructural features of a time sequence study of the development, evolution, and healing of acetic acid-induced experimental duodenal ulcer are presented. Duodenal ulcers produced by serosal application of acetic acid featured microvascular injury with progressive disintegration of the tips of the mucosal villi and subtotal necrosis of the duodenal wall. At 3 days ulcers transformed into a chronic state with regenerating epithelium originating from the crypts of the intact bordering mucosa extending toward the center of the ulcers. By 21 days healed ulcers were covered by distorted duodenal surface mucosa. We conclude that this reproducible and standardized model of duodenal ulcer features vascular injury as the earliest microscopic event, that ischemic necrosis leads to ulceration, and that the chronic phase bears morphologic resemblance to human duodenal ulcer. PMID:8224114

Bui, H X; Lee, C Y; del Rosario, A; Abdulla, M; Ballouk, F; Khan, M; Sheehan, C; Ross, J S

1993-10-01

20

Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

2011-01-01

21

Urocortin in Human Gastric Mucosa: Relationship to Inflammatory Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of CRH and urocortin (Ucn), members of the CRH family of neuropeptides, was examined in human gastric biopsies from normal controls and in patients with active gastritis from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and after eradi- cation treatment. RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of the Ucn transcript in biopsies (obtained by gastroscopy) from nor- mal and inflamed gastric mucosa,

E. Chatzaki; I. CHARALAMPOPOULOS; C. LEONTIDIS; I. A. MOUZAS; M. TZARDI; C. TSATSANIS; A. N. MARGIORIS; A. GRAVANIS

2003-01-01

22

Cytokeratin expression in human fetal tongue and buccal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of cytokeratins (CK), a subset of intermediate filament (IF) proteins in epithelia, is developmentally regulated.\\u000a CK expression may also change after malignant transformation. Our earlier studies on CK expression in human oral tumours and\\u000a pre-cancerous lesions have shown specific changes in CK expression. We analysed CK expression in human tongue and buccal mucosa\\u000a (BM) in fetuses in the embryonic

M M Vaidya; Sharda S. Sawant; Anita M. Borges; N K Naresh; Manda C. Purandare; A N Bhisey

2000-01-01

23

Selective mineral elements concentration of the intestinal mucosa role of the lysosomes of duodenal enterocytes in the handling of mineral elements after intragastric administration.  

PubMed

Intragastric administration to rats of four soluble lanthanides cerium, lanthanum, europium, thulium and of three soluble elements of group IIIA aluminium, indium and gallium has been shown in previous studies. In this work two new rare earths gadolinium and terbium were studied using the same protocols and the same methods (transmission electron microscopy and ion microanalysis). among the previously studied elements, some of them were administered simultaneously on the one hand aluminium and indium, and on the other hand, lanthanum and cerium. These metals were looked for in intestinal mucosa, liver and kidney. The results showed: a) gadolinium and terbium were selectively concentrated in lysosomes of duodenal enterocytes, precipitated as non-soluble phosphate salts and eliminated with the cell's turn-over in less than 48 hr; b) Administered simultaneously, they precipitated in the same lysosome. c/ none of them was observed in the liver or kidney even with high dose. This study brings up to nine the number of elements forming a non-soluble phosphate salts, explaining their precipitation in lysosomes. None of them have a physiological role, two are toxic (aluminium and indium). This rapid intralysosomal concentration is an efficient mechanism which limits the diffusion of the foreign substances through the digestive barrier, then permits their elimination along with the cytoptose phenomenon in the intestinal lumen. PMID:16375818

Tekaya, L; Ayadi, A; Fehri, E; El Hili, A

2005-01-01

24

Substance P and neurokinin A in human nasal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

The tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) were studied in human inferior turbinate nasal mucosa by radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemistry, and autoradiography and for their effect upon mucus release in an in vitro culture system in order to infer their potential functions in the upper respiratory tract. Similar amounts of SP (1.03 +/- 0.12 pmol/g wet weight; mean +/- SEM; n = 26) and NKA (0.76 +/- 0.23; n = 7) were found. NKA and SP immunoreactive nerve fibers were found in the walls of arterioles, venules, and sinusoids and as individual fibers in gland acini, near the basement membrane, and in the epithelium. ({sup 125}I)SP bound to arterioles, venules, and glands. ({sup 125}I)NKA bound only to arterioles. In short-term explant culture of fragments of human nasal mucosa, both 1 microM SP and 1 microM NKA stimulated release of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine-labeled respiratory glycoconjugates. These results indicate that SP and NKA have similar distributions in nociceptive sensory nerves in human nasal mucosa. The distribution of ({sup 125}I)SP binding sites is consistent with a role for SP as a vasodilator and mucous secretagogue. The presence of ({sup 125}I) NKA binding sites on vessels suggests a primary role for NKA in regulating vasomotor tone.

Baraniuk, J.N.; Lundgren, J.D.; Okayama, M.; Goff, J.; Mullol, J.; Merida, M.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Kaliner, M.A. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1991-03-01

25

Epithelial cell proliferation in human fundic and antral mucosae. Influence of superselective vagotomy and relationship with gastritis  

SciTech Connect

Epithelial cell proliferation in the fundic and antral mucosae was studied in 19 duodenal ulcer patients, 11 patients having undergone fundic superselective vagotomy for duodenal ulcer, and 10 controls. This was achieved through in vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine in mucosal biopsies and radioautography. Except for increased fundic mucosal height, duodenal ulcer patients did not differ from controls for all parameters studied. In vagotomized patients, as compared to the other two groups, the labeling index was significantly enhanced in the innervated antral mucosa where atrophic gastritis developed, but there was no change in the labeling index and no worsening of mucosal inflammation in the denervated fundic mucosa. The only abnormality in the latter was a striking expansion, towards the surface, of the proliferative area within the fundic pit. The labeling indices and the degree of gastritis in gastric mucosae are significantly correlated in control and duodenal ulcer patients. If findings in antral mucosa, after superselective vagotomy, seemed related to gastritis lesions, those in fundic mucosa were not and may indicate an alteration due to the vagotomy per se.

Gutierrez, O.; Lehy, T.; Rene, E.; Gres, L.; Bonfils, S.

1985-11-01

26

Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide on antro-pyloro-duodenal motility in the interdigestive state and with duodenal lipid perfusion in humans  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) is a gut hormone released postprandially. Synthetic GLP-1 strongly inhibits gastric emptying in healthy subjects and in patients with diabetes mellitus.?AIMS—To investigate the effects of GLP-1 on antro-pyloro-duodenal motility in humans.?METHODS—Eleven healthy male volunteers were studied on two separate days. On the interdigestive study day, a basal period was followed by a 60 minute period of saline infusion and two further 60 minute periods of intravenous infusion of GLP-1 0.4 and 1.2 pmol/kg/min to achieve postprandial and supraphysiological plasma levels, respectively. On the postprandial study day, the same infusions were coadministered with intraduodenal lipid perfusion at 2.5 ml/min (2.5 kcal/min) followed by another 60 minutes of recording after cessation of GLP-1. Antro-pyloro-duodenal motility was measured by perfusion manometry.?RESULTS—GLP-1 significantly inhibited the number and amplitudes of antral and duodenal contractions in the interdigestive state and after administration of duodenal lipid. It abolished interdigestive antral wave propagation. In the interdigestive state, GLP-1 dose dependently increased pyloric tone and significantly stimulated isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPW). Pyloric tone increased with duodenal lipid, and this was further enhanced by GLP-1. GLP-1 transiently restored the initial IPPW response to duodenal lipid which had declined with lipid perfusion. Plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide were dose dependently diminished by GLP-1 with and without duodenal lipid.?CONCLUSIONS—GLP-1 inhibited antro-duodenal contractility and stimulated the tonic and phasic motility of the pylorus. These effects probably mediate delayed gastric emptying. Inhibition of efferent vagal activity may be an important mechanism. As postprandial plasma levels of GLP-1 are sufficient to appreciably affect motility, we believe that endogenous GLP-1 is a physiological regulator of motor activity in the antro-pyloro-duodenal region.???Keywords: GLP-1; gastrointestinal motility; pylorus; pancreatic polypeptide PMID:10764704

Schirra, J; Houck, P; Wank, U; Arnold, R; Goke, B; Katschinski, M

2000-01-01

27

Bacteroides fragilis toxin 2 damages human colonic mucosa in vitro  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Strains of Bacteroides fragilis producing a 20 kDa protein toxin (B fragilis toxin (BFT) or fragilysin) are associated with diarrhoea in animals and humans. Although in vitro results indicate that BFT damages intestinal epithelial cells in culture, the effects of BFT on native human colon are not known. ?AIMS—To examine the electrophysiological and morphological effects of purified BFT-2 on human colonic mucosa in vitro. ?METHODS—For resistance (R) measurements, colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers was exposed to luminal or serosal BFT-2 (1.25-10 nM) and after four hours morphological damage was measured on haematoxylin and eosin stained sections using morphometry. F actin distribution was assessed using confocal microscopy. ?RESULTS—Serosal BFT-2 for four hours was four-, two-, seven-, and threefold more potent than luminal BFT-2 in decreasing resistance, increasing epithelial 3H-mannitol permeability, and damaging crypt and surface colonocytes, respectively (p<0.05). Confocal microscopy showed reduced colonocyte F actin staining intensity after exposure to BFT-2. ?CONCLUSIONS—BFT-2 increases human colonic permeability and damages human colonic epithelial cells in vitro. These effects may be important in the development of diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation caused by B fragilis in vivo. ?? Keywords: B fragilis toxin; toxin mediated colonocyte damage; actin filaments; transepithelial resistance; morphometry PMID:10075957

Riegler, M; Lotz, M; Sears, C; Pothoulakis, C; Castagliuolo, I; Wang, C; Sedivy, R; Sogukoglu, T; Cosentini, E; Bischof, G; Feil, W; Teleky, B; Hamilton, G; LaMont, J; Wenzl, E

1999-01-01

28

A novel dynamic scintigraphic technique for assessing duodenal contractions during gastric emptying in humans: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Duodenal contractions are thought to play a role in the control of gastric emptying. Although noninvasive techniques, such as ultrasonography and MRI, have been proposed for studying duodenal contractile activity in humans, there are no reports on the use of scintigraphy for this purpose. This work aimed to describe a novel scintigraphic technique for assessing duodenal contractility during gastric emptying in humans, and to present preliminary data on the frequency and amplitude of contractions detected in three different duodenal segments. Fasted young healthy volunteers (N=12) were given either a liquid or a solid test meal of similar calorie content (400?kcal) labeled with Tc-phytate. Static images were collected to determine gastric emptying. Dynamic images of the anterior aspect of the abdomen (1?frame/s) were also acquired periodically in a standard position for 256?s at 15-30?min intervals. 'Activity versus time' curves were generated for regions of interest corresponding to the proximal, middle, and distal duodenal segments. Curves were digitally filtered and processed to estimate both dominant frequency (fast Fourier transform) and amplitude (mean ejection fraction) of postprandial duodenal contractions. There were no significant differences regarding dominant frequency among proximal, middle, and distal duodenal regions of interest. In addition, there were no significant differences between the liquid and the solid meal in terms of either frequency or amplitude of duodenal contractions. Characterization of duodenal contractions in humans using scintigraphy is feasible and yields consistent data for both the frequency and the amplitude of postprandial contractions, which seems to be rather independent of meal consistency. PMID:25299468

Kubo, Tadeu T A; Moraes, Eder R; Secaf, Marie; Troncon, Luiz E A

2015-01-01

29

An electron microscopic study of human olfactory mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Two intranasal biopsies of human olfactory mucosa were studied with the electron microscope, after confirming with the light microscope that they were in fact from the olfactory region. It was noted that the end of the dendrite of the human olfactory cell is flat or dome-shaped, and is not a bulb-like projection (olfactory vesicle). Moreover, the cilia are in the long axis of the olfactory cell, perpendicular to the epithelial surface, and do not lie parallel to it as described in some species. The supporting cells had multiple long microvilli, and definite points of contact with the olfactory cells; they appeared to spread their secretion over the microvilli in a novel manner, producing a layer of regularly spaced, spike-like granules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:422486

Polyzonis, B M; Kafandaris, P M; Gigis, P I; Demetriou, T

1979-01-01

30

Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was purified 30-fold. The enzyme had a MW of 75,000 by gel filtration, was optimally active at pH 4.5, and had an isoelectric point at pH 8.0. In contrast to brush border PPH, intracellular PPH was unstable at increasing temperatures, was unaffected by dialysis against chelating agents and showed no requirement for Zn/sup 2 +/. Using PteGlu/sub 2/(/sup 14/C)Glu as substrate, they demonstrated a K/sub m/ of 1.2 ..mu..M and increasing affinity for folates with longer glutamate chains. Intracellular PPH required the complete folic acid (PteGlu) moiety and a ..gamma..-glutamyl linkage for activity. Using ion exchange chromatography and an HPLC method to determine the hydrolytic products of the reaction, they found intracellular PPH could cleave both internal and terminal ..gamma..-glutamyl linkages, with PteGlu as an end product. After subcellular fractionation of the mucosa, PPH was found in the lysosomes. In summary, the distinct characteristics of brush border and intracellular PPH suggest that the two hydrolases serve different roles in folate metabolism.

Wang, T.T.Y.; Chandler, C.J.; Halsted, C.H.

1986-03-01

31

Duodenal atresia  

MedlinePLUS

... 20-30% of infants with duodenal atresia have Down syndrome. Duodenal atresia is often associated with other birth ... abnormality. Associated problems (such as those related to Down syndrome) must be treated as appropriate.

32

Supplementation of a grape seed and grape marc meal extract decreases activities of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factors NF-?B and Nrf2 in the duodenal mucosa of pigs  

PubMed Central

Background In pigs, enteric infections and the development of gut disorders such as diarrhoea are commonly observed, particularly after weaning. The present study investigated the hypothesis that feeding a grape seed and grape marc extract (GSGME) as a dietary supplement has the potential to suppress the inflammatory process in the small intestine of pigs by modulating the activities of NF-?B and Nrf2 due to its high content of flavonoids. Methods Twenty-four crossbred, 6 weeks old pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 12 animals each and fed nutritionally adequate diets without or with 1% GSGME for 4 weeks. Results Pigs administered GSGME had a lower transactivation of NF-?B and Nrf2 and a lower expression of various target genes of these transcription factors in the duodenal mucosa than control pigs (P?duodenal mucosa of pigs and thus might provide a useful dietary strategy to inhibit inflammation in the gut frequently occurring in pigs. Feeding GSGME did not influence vitamin E status and the antioxidant system of the pigs but improved the gain:feed ratio. In overall, the study suggests that polyphenol-rich plant extracts such GSGME could be useful feed supplements in pig nutrition, in order to maintain animal health and improve performance. PMID:23453040

2013-01-01

33

Intraoral Grafting of Tissue-Engineered Human Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of a tissue-engineered human ex vivo–produced oral mucosa equivalent (EVPOME) in intraoral grafting procedures. The secondary objective was to assess the efficacy of the grafted EVPOME in producing a keratinized mucosal surface epithelium. Materials and Methods Five patients who met the inclusion criteria of having one mucogingival defect or a lack of keratinized gingiva on a nonmolar tooth, along with radiographic evidence of sufficient interdental bone height, were recruited as subjects to increase the width of keratinized gingiva at the defect site. A punch biopsy specimen of the hard palate was taken to acquire oral keratinocytes, which were expanded, seeded, and cultured on an acellular dermal matrix for fabrication of an EVPOME. EVPOME grafts were applied directly over an intact periosteal bed and secured in place. At baseline (biopsy specimen retrieval) and at 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postsurgery, Plaque Index and Gingival Index were recorded for each subject. In addition, probing depths, keratinized gingival width, and keratinized gingival thickness were recorded at baseline, 30, 90, and 180 days. Results No complications or adverse reactions to EVPOME were observed in any subjects during the study. The mean gain in keratinized gingival width was 3 mm (range, 3 to 4 mm). The mean gain in keratinized gingival thickness was 1 mm (range, 1 to 2 mm). No significant changes in probing depths were observed. Conclusion Based on these findings, it can be concluded that EVPOME is safe for intraoral use and has the ability to augment keratinized tissue around teeth. Future clinical trials are needed to further explore this potential. PMID:24066347

Izumi, Kenji; Neiva, Rodrigo F.; Feinberg, Stephen E.

2014-01-01

34

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells alleviate nasal mucosa radiation damage in a Guinea pig model.  

PubMed

Nasal complications after radiotherapy severely affect the quality of life of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, and there is a compelling need to find novel therapies for nasal epithelial cell radiation damage. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in guinea pig model of nasal mucosa radiation damage and explored its therapeutic mechanism. Cultured hUC-MSCs were injected intravenously immediately after radiation in the nasal mucosa-radiation-damage guinea pig model. Migration of hUC-MSCs into the nasal mucosa and the potential for differentiation into nasal epithelial cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence. The therapeutic effects of hUC-MSCs were evaluated by mucus clearance time (MCT), degree of nasal mucosa edema, and the nasal mucosa cilia form and coverage ratio. Results indicate that the hUC-MSCs migrated to the nasal mucosa lamina propria and did not differentiate into nasal epithelial cells in this model. The MCT and degree of mucosal edema were improved at 1 week and 1 month after radiation, respectively, but no difference was found at 3 months and 6 months after radiation. The nasal mucosa cilia form and coverage ratio was not improved 6 months after radiation. Thus, hUC-MSCs can migrate to the nasal mucosa lamina propria and improve MCT and mucosa edema within a short time period, but these cells are unable to differentiate into nasal epithelial cells and improve nasal epithelial regeneration in the nasal mucosa radiation damage guinea pig model. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 331-338, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25209829

Duan, Hong-Gang; Ji, Fang; Zheng, Chun-Quan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Jing

2015-02-01

35

Diffusion Studies of Nanometer Polymersomes Across Tissue Engineered Human Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To measure the diffusion of nanometer polymersomes through tissue engineered human oral mucosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  \\u000a In vitro models of full thickness tissue engineered oral mucosa (TEOM) were used to assess the penetration properties of two chemically\\u000a different polymersomes comprising two of block copolymers, PMPC-PDPA and PEO-PDPA. These copolymers self-assemble into membrane-enclosed\\u000a vesicular structures. Polymersomes were conjugated with fluorescent rhodamine in order

Vanessa Hearnden; Hannah Lomas; Sheila MacNeil; Martin Thornhill; Craig Murdoch; Andrew Lewis; Jeppe Madsen; Adam Blanazs; Steve Armes; Giuseppe Battaglia

2009-01-01

36

Effect of dexamethasone and ACC on bacteria-induced mucin expression in human airway mucosa.  

PubMed

Gram-negative bacteria can stimulate mucin production, but excessive mucus supports bacterial infection and consequently leads to airway obstruction. Therefore, the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and the antioxidant acetyl-cysteine (ACC) on bacteria-induced mucus expression was investigated. Explanted human airway mucosa and mucoepidermoid cells (Calu-3) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PAM3 (a synthetic lipoprotein). DEX or ACC were added to either LPS- or PAM3-stimulated airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells. Mucin mRNA expression (MUC5AC) and total mucus glycoconjugates (mucin protein) were quantified using real-time PCR and periodic acid Schiff staining. LPS and PAM3 significantly increased mucin expression in airway mucosa and Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). DEX alone had no significant effect on mucin expression in airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells (P > 0.05). In contrast, DEX significantly reduced LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression in explanted mucosal tissue and mucin expression in Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). In explanted human airway mucosa ACC alone significantly increased mucin expression (P < 0.05). In contrast, ACC significantly decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression (P < 0.05). In Calu-3 cells ACC alone had no significant effect on mucin expression (P > 0.05). ACC decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression, but this effect was not significant (P > 0.05). These data suggest that DEX can effectively reduce bacteria-induced mucin expression in the airways. ACC alone may increase mucin expression in noninfected mucosa, but it decreased bacteria-induced mucin expression. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether the effect of DEX or ACC is clinically relevant. PMID:17600317

Hauber, Hans-Peter; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter

2007-11-01

37

Regional quantitative histological variations in human oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Oral mucosa demonstrates regional variations that reflect contact with food during mastication. Though known qualitatively, our aim was to quantitatively assess regions to establish a measurable baseline from which one could compare in pathological and comparative studies, in which the abrasiveness of diets may differ. We assessed variations in the epithelial-connective tissue junction (rete ridges counts), collagen organization within the lamina propria, and elastin composition of the lamina propria of 15 regions of the labial (buccal) gingiva, lingual gingiva, vestibule, and palate. All characteristics varied more between regions within the same individual than between individuals. Lingual gingiva had high rete ridges counts, high level of collagen organization, and moderate elastin composition compared to other regions. The labial gingiva had few rete ridges, high collagen organization, and low elastin. The vestibule had the fewest average of rete ridges, least organized collagen, and high elastin. The hard palate had the highest average of rete ridges, high collagen organization, and the lowest elastin content. The soft palate conversely had the smallest average of rete ridges, moderate collagen organization, and the highest elastin composition. Our results indicate that comparison of these quantitative histological differences is warranted only for collagen organization and elastin composition. Differences in rete ridges counts were not statistically significant. Most histological characteristics observed were not significantly different between dentulous and edentulous cadavers, and the group containing all individuals. An exception was the level of collagen fiber organization within the lamina propria, which was higher in most regions when teeth were present. Anat Rec, 298:562-578, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25402000

Ciano, Joseph; Beatty, Brian Lee

2015-03-01

38

Classification of normal and malignant human gastric mucosa tissue with confocal Raman microspectroscopy and wavelet analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-two samples from the human gastric mucosa tissue, including 13 normal and 19 malignant tissue samples were measured by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The low signal-to-background ratio spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues were obtained by this technique without any sample preparation. Raman spectral interferences include a broad featureless sloping background due to fluorescence and noise. They mask most Raman spectral feature and lead to problems with precision and quantitation of the original spectral information. A preprocessed algorithm based on wavelet analysis was used to reduce noise and eliminate background/baseline of Raman spectra. Comparing preprocessed spectra of malignant gastric mucosa tissues with those of counterpart normal ones, there were obvious spectral changes, including intensity increase at ˜1156 cm -1 and intensity decrease at ˜1587 cm -1. The quantitative criterion based upon the intensity ratio of the ˜1156 and ˜1587 cm -1 was extracted for classification of the normal and malignant gastric mucosa tissue samples. This could result in a new diagnostic method, which would assist the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

Hu, Yaogai; Shen, Aiguo; Jiang, Tao; Ai, Yong; Hu, Jiming

2008-02-01

39

Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.  

PubMed

Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NF?B signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NF?B signaling in epithelial cells through I?B? phosphorylation, NF?Bp65 nuclear translocation, and TNF? secretion. In addition, NF?B activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.89. PMID:25269707

Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

2014-10-01

40

The start of a programme for measuring diamine oxidase activity in biopsy specimens of human rectal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human subjects, apart from in the kidney, diamine oxidase occurs mainly in the gut. Therefore this enzyme can be used as an indicator of intestinal integrity.In biopsies of rectal mucosa the diamine oxidase activity was assayed in 55 patients, 41 having a histologically normal mucosa and 14 being diseased. The determinations of the enzymic activity were supervised by statistical

R. Hesterberg; J. Kusche; C.-D. Stahlknecht; K.-D. Feussner

1981-01-01

41

Analysis of Human Oral Mucosa Ex Vivo for Fatty Acid Compositions Using Fouriertransform Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to develop an infrared spectroscopic technique (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with\\u000a attenuated total reflectance system; FTIR-ATR) for non-invasive measurement of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid compositions\\u000a in human oral mucosa obtained from three nationalities; Iranian, Vietnamese, and Indonesian. The histogram patterns of fatty\\u000a acid compositions for three nationalities suggest that the pattern of unsaturated

Satoshi Yoshida; Yuhki Okazaki; Takumi Yamashita; Hiroshi Ueda; Reza Ghadimi; Akihiro Hosono; Tsutomu Tanaka; Kiyonori Kuriki; Sadao Suzuki; Shinkan Tokudome

2008-01-01

42

Human Papillomavirus in the Lesions of the Oral Mucosa According to Topography  

PubMed Central

Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) types and oral lesions has been shown in many studies. Considering the significance that HPV has in the development of malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa, the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in different oral lesions. In addition, we wanted to elucidate whether the HPV infection is associated predominantly with either the lesion or a particular anatomic site of the oral cavity. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 246 subjects with different oral lesions, and 73 subjects with apparently healthy oral mucosa (controls). The oral lesions were classified according to their surface morphology and clinical diagnosis. The epithelial cells were collected with a cytobrush from different topographic sites in the oral cavity of the oral lesions and controls. The presence of HPV DNA was evaluated by consensus and type-specific primer-directed polymerase chain reaction. The HPV positivity was detected in 17.7% of oral lesions, significantly more than in apparently healthy mucosa (6.8%), with a higher presence in benign proliferative mucosal lesions (18.6%). High-risk HPV types were predominantly found in potentially malignant oral disorders (HPV16 in 4.3% and HPV31 in 3.4%), while benign proliferative lesions as well as healthy oral mucosa contained mainly undetermined HPV type (13.6 and 6.8%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance The distribution of positive HPV findings on the oral mucosa seems to be more associated with a particular anatomical site than the diagnosis itself. Samples taken from the vermilion border, labial commissures, and hard palate were most often HPV positive. Thus, topography plays a role in HPV prevalence findings in oral lesions. Because of the higher prevalence of the high-risk HPV types in potentially malignant oral disorders, these lesions need to be continuously controlled and treated. PMID:23922786

Mravak-Stipeti?, Marinka; Sabol, Ivan; Kranj?i?, Josip; Kneževi?, Marjana; Grce, Magdalena

2013-01-01

43

Profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa.  

PubMed

Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the expressed olfactory receptors gene set. PMID:24800820

Verbeurgt, Christophe; Wilkin, Françoise; Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Françoise; Dumont, Jacques E; Chatelain, Pierre

2014-01-01

44

Duodenal adenocarcinoma: why the extreme rarity of duodenal bulb primary tumors?  

PubMed

Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel accounts for only one per cent of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Duodenal adenocarcinoma accounts for half of all small bowel adenocarcinomas. The duodenum is divided into four segments: D1 (proximal horizontal 5 cm beginning with the 3-cm duodenal bulb), D2 (descending), D3 (distal horizontal), and D4 (ascending). The most common location of duodenal adenocarcinomas is the ampullary region of D2. Based on observational experience, our hypothesis was that primary adenocarcinomas arising from the mucosa of the duodenal bulb are extremely rare or possibly nonexistent. Our institutional cancer registry provided a list of patients for the years 1990 through 2012 who had small bowel cancers. Only those patients with primary adenocarcinomas of the duodenal mucosa were reviewed. Ampullary cancers arising from bile duct mucosa were specifically excluded. Medical records were abstracted to obtain patient age, sex, race, anatomic location of the tumor, disease stage (as per American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition staging guidelines), operation performed, and current vital status. A total of 30 patients with primary duodenal adenocarcinomas were identified. The mean age was 58 years and 17 (57%) patients were male. The tumor locations were: D2 in 26 (87%), D3 in two (7%), and D4 in two (7%). No tumors arose from D1. The patients presented with the following stages of disease: Stage 0is in three (10%), Stage I in three (10%), Stage II in five (17%), Stage III in 15 (50%), and Stage IV in four (13%). These findings combined with a diligent review of 724 reported cases in the English language literature yielded only five clearly defined cases of adenocarcinoma arising from the mucosa of the duodenal bulb. Although a 1991 published multicenter tumor registry series of 128 localized duodenal adenocarcinomas reported 29 D1 tumors, no anatomic distinction was made between duodenal bulb and more distal D1 tumors. Earlier reports used nonanatomic divisions of the duodenum or a simple breakdown into supra-ampullary, periampullary, and infra-ampullary portions. These data beg the question as to why primary duodenal bulb adenocarcinomas are so exceedingly rare. The obvious implication is that the duodenal bulb mucosa may be physiologically, immunologically, or otherwise uniquely privileged to virtually escape oncogenic transformation. The scientific challenge and opportunity is to explore and understand the important phenomena responsible for this finding. PMID:25264638

Goldner, Bryan; Stabile, Bruce E

2014-10-01

45

Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor in human oral mucosa and its malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The immunohistochemical localizations of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and EGF receptor (EGFr) in oral tissues, including normal mucosa, leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were examined by the use of monoclonal antibodies to hEGF and EGFr. In normal mucosa and leukoplakia, immunostaining of hEGF was limited to an underlying layer of connective tissue near the epithelium. The intensity of

Kanemitsu Shirasuna; Yasutaka Hayashido; Masaru Sugiyama; Hideo Yoshioka; Tokuzou Matsuya

1991-01-01

46

Ultrastructural changes in non-specific duodenitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the ultrastructural and morphological changes of non-specific duodenitis (NSD) in an attempt to grade them according to the extent of the lesions. METHODS: Biopsies were taken from the mucosa of duodenal bulb of 44 patients selected from the patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for epigastric discomforts. From each patient, two pinch biopsies on the same area were obtained from duodenal bulb. One was for scanning electron microscopy and the other was stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Warthin-Starry silver and both were then examined under light microscope. A total of 12 specimens (three from each degree of the normal and I-III of NSD diagnosed and graded by histology) selected from the 44 patients were dehydrated, critical point dried, coated with gold palladium and examined under a JEOL JSM-30 scanning electron microscope (SEM) at 20 kV. RESULTS: According to the ultrastructural morphologic changes, non-specific duodenitis was divided into normal (as control group), mild, moderate and severe degrees according to results of SEM. The normal villi of duodenal bulb were less than 0.2 mm. There were inflammation cells, occasionally red blood cells and macrophages on the mucosal epithelial surface. Erosion and desquamation of epithelium could be seen. Three cases (25%, 3/12) had gastric metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection could be found in 5 cases (41.67%, 5/12) in duodenal bulb mucosa. The most distinctive feature was the ulcer-like defect on the surface of epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: Non-specific duodenitis is a separate entity disease caused by different factors. SEM is of value as an aid in the diagnosis of mucosal diseases of duodenum. PMID:15655822

Wang, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Li-Jiang; Guan, Jing; Zhao, Xiao-Ling

2005-01-01

47

Downregulation of duodenal SLC transporters and activation of proinflammatory signaling constitute the early response to high altitude in humans.  

PubMed

Solute carrier (SLC) transporters mediate the uptake of biologically active compounds in the intestine. Reduced oxygenation (hypoxia) is an important factor influencing intestinal homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological consequences of hypoxia on the expression and function of SLCs in human intestine. Hypoxia was induced in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro (0.2; 1% O2 or CoCl2). For human in vivo studies, duodenal biopsies and serum samples were obtained from individuals (n = 16) acutely exposed to 4,554 meters above sea levels. Expression of relevant targets was analyzed by quantitative PCR, Western blotting, or immunofluorescence. Serum levels of inflammatory mediators and nucleosides were determined by ELISA and LC/MS-MS, respectively. In the duodenum of volunteers exposed to high altitude we observed decreased mRNA levels of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), concentrative nucleoside transporters 1/2 (CNT1/2), organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1), organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1), serotonin transporter (SERT), and higher levels of IFN-?, IL-6, and IL-17A. Serum levels of IL-10, IFN-?, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and serotonin were elevated, whereas the levels of uridine decreased upon exposure to hypoxia. Hypoxic IECs showed reduced levels of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (ENT2), OCTN2, and SERT mRNAs in vitro, which was confirmed on the protein level and was accompanied by activation of ERK1/2, increase of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) proteins, and production of IL-8 mRNA. Costimulation with IFN-? and IL-6 during hypoxia further decreased the expression of SERT, ENT2, and CNT2 in vitro. Reduced oxygen supply affects the expression pattern of duodenal SLCs that is accompanied by changes in serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and biologically active compounds demonstrating that intestinal transport is affected during systemic exposure to hypoxia in humans. PMID:24970780

Wojtal, Kacper A; Cee, Alexandra; Lang, Silvia; Götze, Oliver; Frühauf, Heiko; Geier, Andreas; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramon; Fried, Michael; Lutz, Thomas A; Maggiorini, Marco; Gassmann, Max; Rogler, Gerhard; Vavricka, Stephan R

2014-10-01

48

A novel method for the culture and polarized stimulation of human intestinal mucosa explants.  

PubMed

Few models currently exist to realistically simulate the complex human intestine's micro-environment, where a variety of interactions take place. Proper homeostasis directly depends on these interactions, as they shape an entire immunological response inducing tolerance against food antigens while at the same time mounting effective immune responses against pathogenic microbes accidentally ingested with food. Intestinal homeostasis is preserved also through various complex interactions between the microbiota (including food-associated beneficial bacterial strains) and the host, that regulate the attachment/degradation of mucus, the production of antimicrobial peptides by the epithelial barrier, and the "education" of epithelial cells' that controls the tolerogenic or immunogenic phenotype of unique, gut-resident lymphoid cells' populations. These interactions have been so far very difficult to reproduce with in vitro assays using either cultured cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, mouse models differ substantially in components of the intestinal mucosa (mucus layer organization, commensal bacteria community) with respect to the human gut. Thus, studies of a variety of treatments to be brought in the clinics for important stress-related or pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer have been difficult to carry out. To address these issues, we developed a novel system that enables us to stimulate explants of human intestinal mucosa that retain their in situ conditioning by the host microbiota and immune response, in a polarized fashion. Polarized apical stimulation is of great importance for the outcome of the elicited immune response. It has been repeatedly shown that the same stimuli can produce completely different responses when they bypass the apical face of the intestinal epithelium, stimulating epithelial cells basolaterally or coming into direct contact with lamina propria components, switching the phenotype from tolerogenic to immunogenic and causing unnecessary and excessive inflammation in the area. We achieved polarized stimulation by gluing a cave cylinder which delimited the area of stimulation on the apical face of the mucosa as will be described in the protocol. We used this model to examine, among others, differential effects of three different Lactobacilli strains. We show that this model system is very powerful to assess the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in healthy and disease conditions. PMID:23666550

Tsilingiri, Katerina; Sonzogni, Angelica; Caprioli, Flavio; Rescigno, Maria

2013-01-01

49

Fine morphology of the secretory mode of the tetragastrin-stimulated chief cells of human and dog gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

The chief cells of the gastrin-stimulated gastric mucosa of human and dog were observed under a light and electron microscope. Four microgram/kg AOC-tetragastrin were given parenterally by a single shot to a man and three dogs respectively. Pepsinogen in the gastric mucosa increased at the wash-out stage and at the following dynamic equibrium stage of the chief cell secretion cycle after the administration of AOC-tetragastrin. During those stages, the chief cells released zymogen granules intensively. As the main ultrastructural process for releasing the zymogen granules, the emiocytosis in man and the apical cytoplasm dissociation in dog were discussed. PMID:689336

Machino, M; Aoike, A; Ikeuchi, H; Sasaki, Z; Misaki, F; Kawai, K

1978-01-01

50

Duodenal Chemosensing and Mucosal Defenses  

PubMed Central

The duodenal mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including acid, CO2, bile acids and nutrients. Mucosal chemical sensors are necessary to exert physiological responses such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility. We propose a mucosal chemosensing system by which luminal chemicals are sensed via mucosal acid sensors and G-protein-coupled receptors. Luminal acid/CO2 sensing consists of ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases, epithelial ion transporters, and acid sensors expressed on the afferent nerves in the duodenum. Furthermore, a luminal L-glutamate signal is mediated via mucosal L-glutamate receptors, including metabotropic glutamate receptors and taste receptor 1 family heterodimers, with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase, whereas luminal Ca2+ is differently sensed via the calcium-sensing receptor in the duodenum. Recent studies also show the involvement of enteroendocrine G-protein-coupled receptors in bile acid and fatty acid sensing in the duodenum. These luminal chemosensors help activate mucosal defense mechanisms in or- der to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiological responses. Stimulation of luminal chemosensing in the duodenal mucosa may prevent mucosal injury, affect nutrient metabolism, and modulate sensory nerve activity. PMID:21389725

Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

2011-01-01

51

Human embryonic stem cell-derived epithelial cells in a novel in vitro model of vocal mucosa.  

PubMed

A satisfactory in vitro model of vocal fold mucosa does not exist, thus precluding a systematic, controlled study of vocal fold biology and biomechanics. We sought to create a valid, reproducible three-dimensional (3D) in vitro model of human origin of vocal fold mucosa of human origin. We hypothesized that coculture of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived simple epithelial cells with primary vocal fold fibroblasts under appropriate conditions would elicit morphogenesis of progenitor cells into vocal fold epithelial-like cells and creation of a basement membrane. Using an in vitro prospective study design, hESCs were differentiated into cells that coexpressed the simple epithelial cell marker, keratin 18 (K18), and the transcription factor, p63. These simple epithelial cells were cocultured with primary vocal fold fibroblasts seeded in a collagen gel scaffold. The cells were cultured for 3 weeks in a keratinocyte medium at an air-liquid interface. After that time, the engineered mucosa demonstrated a stratified, squamous epithelium and a continuous basement membrane recapitulating the key morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of native vocal fold mucosa. hESC-derived epithelial cells exhibited positive staining for vocal fold stratified, squamous epithelial markers, keratin 13 (K13) and 14 (K14), as well as tight junctions, adherens junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes. Despite the presence of components critical for epithelial structural integrity, the epithelium demonstrated greater permeability than native tissue indicating compromised functional integrity. While further work is warranted to improve functional barrier integrity, this study demonstrates that hESC-derived epithelial progenitor cells can be engineered to create a replicable 3D in vitro model of vocal fold mucosa featuring a multilayered, terminally differentiated epithelium. PMID:23672433

Leydon, Ciara; Selekman, Joshua A; Palecek, Sean; Thibeault, Susan L

2013-10-01

52

Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Epithelial Cells in a Novel In Vitro Model of Vocal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

A satisfactory in vitro model of vocal fold mucosa does not exist, thus precluding a systematic, controlled study of vocal fold biology and biomechanics. We sought to create a valid, reproducible three-dimensional (3D) in vitro model of human origin of vocal fold mucosa of human origin. We hypothesized that coculture of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived simple epithelial cells with primary vocal fold fibroblasts under appropriate conditions would elicit morphogenesis of progenitor cells into vocal fold epithelial-like cells and creation of a basement membrane. Using an in vitro prospective study design, hESCs were differentiated into cells that coexpressed the simple epithelial cell marker, keratin 18 (K18), and the transcription factor, p63. These simple epithelial cells were cocultured with primary vocal fold fibroblasts seeded in a collagen gel scaffold. The cells were cultured for 3 weeks in a keratinocyte medium at an air–liquid interface. After that time, the engineered mucosa demonstrated a stratified, squamous epithelium and a continuous basement membrane recapitulating the key morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of native vocal fold mucosa. hESC-derived epithelial cells exhibited positive staining for vocal fold stratified, squamous epithelial markers, keratin 13 (K13) and 14 (K14), as well as tight junctions, adherens junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes. Despite the presence of components critical for epithelial structural integrity, the epithelium demonstrated greater permeability than native tissue indicating compromised functional integrity. While further work is warranted to improve functional barrier integrity, this study demonstrates that hESC-derived epithelial progenitor cells can be engineered to create a replicable 3D in vitro model of vocal fold mucosa featuring a multilayered, terminally differentiated epithelium. PMID:23672433

Leydon, Ciara; Selekman, Joshua A.; Palecek, Sean

2013-01-01

53

Targeting the vaginal mucosa with human papillomavirus pseudovirion vaccines delivering simian immunodeficiency virus DNA.  

PubMed

The majority of HIV infections occur via mucosal transmission. Vaccines that induce memory T and B cells in the female genital tract may prevent the establishment and systemic dissemination of HIV. We tested the immunogenicity of a vaccine that uses human papillomavirus (HPV)-based gene transfer vectors, also called pseudovirions (PsVs), to deliver SIV genes to the vaginal epithelium. Our findings demonstrate that this vaccine platform induces gene expression in the genital tract in both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Intravaginal vaccination with HPV16, HPV45, and HPV58 PsVs delivering SIV Gag DNA induced Gag-specific Abs in serum and the vaginal tract, and T cell responses in blood, vaginal mucosa, and draining lymph nodes that rapidly expanded following intravaginal exposure to SIV(mac251.) HPV PsV-based vehicles are immunogenic, which warrant further testing as vaccine candidates for HIV and may provide a useful model to evaluate the benefits and risks of inducing high levels of SIV-specific immune responses at mucosal sites prior to SIV infection. PMID:22174446

Gordon, Shari N; Kines, Rhonda C; Kutsyna, Galyna; Ma, Zhong-Min; Hryniewicz, Anna; Roberts, Jeffery N; Fenizia, Claudio; Hidajat, Rachmat; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Cuburu, Nicolas; Buck, Christopher B; Bernardo, Marcelino L; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Miller, Christopher J; Graham, Barney S; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T; Franchini, Genoveffa

2012-01-15

54

Targeting the Vaginal Mucosa with Human Papillomavirus Pseudovirion Vaccines delivering SIV DNA  

PubMed Central

The majority of HIV infections occur via mucosal transmission. Vaccines that induce memory T-and B-cells in the female genital tract may prevent the establishment and systemic dissemination of HIV. We tested the immunogenicity of a vaccine that uses human papillomavirus-based gene transfer vectors, also called pseudovirions (HPV PsVs), to deliver SIV genes to the vaginal epithelium. Our findings demonstrate that this vaccine platform induces gene expression in the genital tract in both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Intravaginal vaccination with HPV16, HPV45, and HPV58 PsVs delivering SIV Gag DNA, induced Gag-specific antibodies in serum and the vaginal tract and T-cell responses in blood, vaginal mucosa, and draining lymph nodes that rapidly expanded following intravaginal exposure to SIVmac251. HPV PsV-based vehicles are immunogenic, warrant further testing as vaccine candidates for HIV, and may provide a useful model to evaluate the benefits and risks of inducing high levels of SIV-specific immune responses at mucosal sites prior to SIV infection. PMID:22174446

Gordon, Shari N.; Kines, Rhonda C.; Kutsyna, Galyna; Ma, Zhong-Min; Hryniewicz, Anna; Roberts, Jeffery N.; Fenizia, Claudio; Hidajat, Rachmat; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Cuburu, Nicolas; Buck, Christopher B.; Bernardo, Marcelino L.; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Miller, Christopher J.; Graham, Barney S.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.; Franchini, Genoveffa

2011-01-01

55

Nutritional factors and gender influence age-related DNA methylation in the human rectal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGI) occurs in many genes expressed in colonic epithelial cells, and may contribute to the dysregulation of signalling pathways associated with carcinogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the relative importance of age, nutritional exposures and other environmental factors in the development of CGI methylation. Rectal biopsies were obtained from 185 individuals (84 male, 101 female) shown to be free of colorectal disease, and for whom measurements of age, body size, nutritional status and blood cell counts were available. We used quantitative DNA methylation analysis combined with multivariate modelling to investigate the relationships between nutritional, anthropometric and metabolic factors and the CGI methylation of 11 genes, together with LINE-1 as an index of global DNA methylation. Age was a consistent predictor of CGI methylation for 9/11 genes but significant positive associations with folate status and negative associations with vitamin D and selenium status were also identified for several genes. There was evidence for positive associations with blood monocyte levels and anthropometric factors for some genes. In general, CGI methylation was higher in males than in females and differential effects of age and other factors on methylation in males and females were identified. In conclusion, levels of age-related CGI methylation in the healthy human rectal mucosa are influenced by gender, the availability of folate, vitamin D and selenium, and perhaps by factors related to systemic inflammation. PMID:23157586

Tapp, Henri S; Commane, Daniel M; Bradburn, D Michael; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Mathers, John C; Johnson, Ian T; Belshaw, Nigel J

2013-01-01

56

Analysis of cell damage and proliferation in Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric mucosa from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, a cause of multifocal atrophic gastritis, is considered an important factor related to the evolution of the human gastric mucosa from normal to intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. We examined cell proliferation and both double and single strand DNA damage in situ in 35 patients undergoing gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma with HP-infected gastric mucosa by immunolocalization of Ki-67, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, and in situ nick translation. We also studied the distribution of intraepithelial neutrophils by elastase immunolocalization. HP infection was confirmed in all cases by serum anti-HP antibodies, ureas testing, and histopathological examination. HP-infected gastric mucosa was classified according to the degree of inflammation and intestinal metaplasia. Ki-67, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated labeling, in situ nick translation, and intraepithelial neutrophil indices all increased with the progression of gastritis and were highest in glands with incomplete intestinal metaplasia. All indices were lowest in gastric glands with complete intestinal metaplasia. Significant positive correlations were observed among these markers. Increased proliferative activity in HP-associated chronic gastritis in response to cell damage or injury was clearly demonstrated, suggesting that both HP-associated toxins and intraepithelial neutrophils are important in HP-related gastric epithelial injury. Increased cell turnover associated with incomplete intestinal metaplasia may result in DNA instability and subsequent development of intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma in HP-infected mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9284831

Yabuki, N.; Sasano, H.; Tobita, M.; Imatani, A.; Hoshi, T.; Kato, K.; Ohara, S.; Asaki, S.; Toyota, T.; Nagura, H.

1997-01-01

57

Bioactivation of the Nasal Toxicant 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile: An Assessment of Metabolic Activity in Human Nasal Mucosa and Identification of Indicators of Exposure and Potential Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) is a potent nasal toxicant in rodents; however it is not known whether DCBN causes similar nasal toxicity in humans. The tissue-selective toxicity of DCBN in mouse nasal mucosa is largely dependent on target tissue bioactivation by CYP2A5. The human orthologs of CYP2A5, CYP2A6 and CYP2A13, are both expressed in nasal mucosa, and are capable of activating DCBN. In this study, we directly determined the ability of human nasal mucosa to bioactivate DCBN. We also tested the suitability of a glutathione conjugate of DCBN (GS-DCBN) or its derivatives as biomarkers of DCBN exposure and nasal toxicity in mouse models. We found that human fetal nasal-mucosa microsomes catalyze the formation of GS-DCBN, with a Km value comparable to that of adult mouse nasal-mucosa microsomes. The activity of the human nasal-mucosa microsomes was inhibited by 8-methoxypsoralen, a known CYP2A inhibitor. GS-DCBN and its metabolites were detected in the nasal mucosa and nasal-wash fluid obtained from DCBN-treated mice, in amounts that increased with escalations in DCBN dose, and they were all still detectable at 24 h after a DCBN treatment (at 10 mg/kg). Further studies in Cyp2a5-null mice indicated that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid were generated in the nasal mucosa, rather than in other organs. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that the human nasal mucosa is capable of bioactivating DCBN, and that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid may collectively serve as indicators of DCBN exposure and potential nasal toxicity in humans. PMID:23360412

Xie, Fang; D’Agostino, Jaime; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Xinxin

2013-01-01

58

A comparative study of chemically induced DNA damage in isolated nasal mucosa cells of humans and rats assessed by the alkaline comet assay.  

PubMed

Single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assay was used to study genotoxic effects in human nasal mucosa cells and rat nasal and ethmoidal mucosa cells in vitro. Human cells were obtained from tissue samples of 10 patients (3 females/7 males), who underwent surgery (conchotomy) for treatment of nasal airway obstruction. Rat nasal mucosa cells were derived from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cells were exposed for 1 h to either N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA), epichlorohydrin (EPI), 1,2-epoxybutane (EPB), ethylene dibromide (EDB), or 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as negative control. Alkaline comet assay was performed according to a standard protocol and DNA damage was quantified as Olive tail moment using image analysis system. All test substances induced an increase in DNA damage in human and rat cells. The absolute amount of DNA damage in rat nasal mucosa cells was usually higher than in ethmoidal mucosa cells. Human nasal mucosa cells were found to be less sensitive than rat mucosa cells to the genotoxic activities of DBCP (lowest effective concentration in human cells [LEC(human)]: 1.5, in rat cells [LEC(rat)]: 0.01 mM) and NDELA (LEC(human): 25, LEC(rat): 12.5 mM), whereas EPB-treated cells were almost equal (LEC(human) and LEC(rat) 0.78 mM). NDELA induced a marked concomitant cytotoxicity. For EPI (LEC(human) and LEC(rat): 0.097 mM) and EDB (LEC(human): 0.195, LEC(rat): 0.048 mM), pronounced interindividual differences were observed in human samples. PMID:18569599

Holzer, Jurgen; Voss, Bruno; Karroum, Saida; Hildmann, Henning; Wilhelm, Michael

2008-01-01

59

Reduced expression of aquaporins in human intestinal mucosa in early stage inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between aquaporin (AQP) water channel expression and the pathological features of early untreated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans. Methods Patients suspected to have IBD on the basis of predefined symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or blood in stool for more than 10 days, were examined at the local hospital. Colonoscopy with biopsies was performed and blood samples were taken. Patients who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for IBD and who displayed no evidence of infection or other pathology in the gut were included as symptomatic non-IBD controls. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in biopsies from the distal ileum and colon by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of selected AQPs was assessed by confocal microscopy. Through multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences, the putative three-dimensional structures of AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 were modeled. Results AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 mRNAs were detected in all parts of the intestinal mucosa. Notably, AQP1 and AQP3 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum of patients with Crohn’s disease, and AQP7 and AQP8 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum and the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed localization of AQP3, 7, and 8 at the mucosal epithelium, whereas the expression of AQP1 was mainly confined to the endothelial cells and erythrocytes. The reduction in the level of AQP3, 7, and 8 mRNA was confirmed by immunofluorescence, which also indicated a reduction of apical immunolabeling for AQP8 in the colonic surface epithelium and crypts of the IBD samples. This could indicate loss of epithelial polarity in IBD, leading to disrupted barrier function. Conclusion AQPs 1 and 8 and the aquaglyceroporins AQPs 3 and 7 are the AQPs predominantly expressed in the lower intestinal tract of humans. Their expression is significantly reduced in patients with IBD, and they are differentially expressed in specific bowel segments in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The data present a link between gut inflammation and water/solute homeostasis, suggesting that AQPs may play a significant role in IBD pathophysiology.

Ricanek, Petr; Lunde, Lisa K; Frye, Stephan A; Støen, Mari; Nygård, Ståle; Morth, Jens P; Rydning, Andreas; Vatn, Morten H; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Tønjum, Tone

2015-01-01

60

Disease-Dependent Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to the Human Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Their adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered one of the main reasons for the beneficial health effects of specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, the influence of disease on the mucosal adhesion is largely unknown. Adhesion of selected LAB to resected colonic tissue and mucus was determined in patients with three major intestinal diseases (i.e., diverticulitis, rectal carcinoma, and

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Seppo Salminen; Peter J. Roberts; Jari Ovaska; Eeva Salminen

2003-01-01

61

[The influence of vegetarian nutrition on the structure of mucosa in human colon].  

PubMed

Structural and functional peculiarities of digestive tract's wall depending from the character of nutrition (vegetarian or mixed diets) are interpreted in morphology. Proper facts and results of investigations of other authors about morphological structure of tunica mucosa colonic according of type of nutrition are discussed. PMID:15822638

Nikitiuk, D B; Trushina, E N; Mustafina, O K

2005-01-01

62

Bleeding from duodenal lymphangiectasia.  

PubMed

An 8 year old girl with recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding was found to have localised duodenal lymphangiectasia by fibreoptic endoscopy. She did not show physical signs or laboratory evidence of significant enteric protein loss. A low fat diet seemed to prevent further bleeding. Duodenal lymphangiectasia may be associated with gastrointestinal bleeding in children. PMID:1994845

Perisic, V N; Kokai, G

1991-01-01

63

Long-term effects of orthodontic magnets on human buccal mucosa--a clinical, histological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

The aim of this intra-individual study was to examine human buccal mucosa clinically, histologically and immunohistochemically after 9 months' exposure to orthodontic magnets. In each of eight subjects (17.8-42.4 years), a magnet and a demagnetized equivalent of parylene coated neodymium-iron-boron was bonded alternately on the left and right side, to the buccal surface of maxillary premolars. The buccal mucosa was clinically examined and photographed, and three punch biopsies (6 mm diameter) of the buccal mucosa were taken from each subject at the site of contact with the magnet (test), in contact with the demagnetized magnet (control), and also at a site on the control side without contact with the demagnetized magnet (normal). The biopsies were snap-frozen for histological and immunohistochemical investigation, using antibodies to PD7 (lymphocyte 'naive T'), UCHL 1 ('memory T'), HLADR, ELAM-1 and ICAM-1. Clinically, the buccal mucosa showed normal features before and after the experimental period. In four of the eight subjects, the epithelium was 1.4-2.3 times thicker in the control and test tissues than in normal tissues. The difference between controls and tests was negligible, and there were no signs of increased keratinization or other surface abnormalities. Compared with normal sites, all control and test sites showed slightly increased ELAM-1/ ICAM-1 vascular staining, accompanied in three subjects by small infiltrates of PD7/UCHL 1-positive lymphocytic cells and in all subjects by focal keratinocyte HLADR-staining. The minor tissue reactions found in test and control tissues were interpreted to be a result of microtrauma (contact irritation) and not caused by the static magnetic field per se, since there was no difference between test and control tissues. PMID:9699399

Bondemark, L; Kurol, J; Larsson, A

1998-06-01

64

Radiological assessment of duodenal calibre in congenital duodenal obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of barium meal studies in 32 cases of congenital intrinsic duodenal obstruction (CDO) from the Adelaide Childrens Hospital was performed to assess and measure pre and post operative duodenal dilatation. Comparisons were made with a group of 153 normal barium studies from the same Hospital with a view to quantifying normal and abnormal proximal duodenal calibre. Duodenal size

R. J. Linke; L. L. Morris; R. P. Davies; T. M. Cain; R. B. Davey

1992-01-01

65

HLA-DR- and CD11c-positive dendritic cells penetrate beyond well-developed epithelial tight junctions in human nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

The epithelial barrier of the upper respiratory tract plays a crucial role in host defense. In this study, to elucidate whether there is antigen monitoring by dendritic cells (DCs) beyond the epithelial tight-junction barrier in allergic rhinitis, we investigated the expression and function of tight junctions and characterized DCs in the epithelium of nasal mucosa from patients with allergic rhinitis. In reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, mRNAs of tight-junction proteins occludin, JAM-1, ZO-1, and claudin-1, -4, -7, -8, -12, -13, and -14 were detected in the nasal mucosa. Occludin, JAM-1, and ZO-1 were colocalized in the uppermost layer in the pseudostratified epithelium of the nasal mucosa, whereas claudin-1, -4, and -7 were found throughout the epithelium. In freeze-fracture replicas of the nasal mucosa, continuous tight-junction strands formed well-developed networks. Epithelial barrier function measured by a dye tracer was well maintained in occludin-positive tight junctions in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa. HLA-DR- and CD11c-positive DCs expressed claudin-1 and penetrated beyond occludin in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa with, but not without, allergic rhinitis. These results indicate that DCs may easily access antigens beyond epithelial tight junctions in the human nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis. PMID:15872054

Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kojima, Takashi; Go, Mitsuru; Murata, Masaki; Ichimiya, Shingo; Himi, Tetsuo; Sawada, Norimasa

2005-05-01

66

Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children.  

PubMed

introduction. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. objective. The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. materials and method. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined - 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 - 5 years; average age - 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents' and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. results. The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. 'High oncogenic potential' HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants. PMID:25528927

Szyd?owski, Jaroslaw; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Pucher, Beata; Buraczy?ska-Andrzejewska, Beata; Prauzi?ska, Magdalena; Kolasi?ska-Lip?ska, Jagoda; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek; ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

2014-11-26

67

[Traumatic duodenal rupture].  

PubMed

Traumatic duodenal perforation has an incidence of 1%-17% (blunt injury) or 1.7%-5% (penetrating injury). Its prognosis correlates to the kind of injury, associated injuries, size of perforation and delayed diagnosis. Mortality in cases of delayed repair is 65% compared with 5% mortality in early repaired perforation. In cases of delayed diagnosis, we recommend drainage of the perforation, naso-duodenal suction tube, parenteral alimentation. 5 patients where diagnosis was delayed for 8 days or longer were treated in this way and the duodenal wound healed completely without any complications within 22-44 days. PMID:4072459

Kupczyk-Joeris, D; Raguse, T

1985-01-01

68

[Determination of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in human gastric mucosa by high performance liquid chromatography].  

PubMed

A method for analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) in human gastric mucosa by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. A gradient elution was used for the separation and quantification of GABA and Glu after pre-column derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate (PITC). The column was Pico x Tag for free amino acids. GABA and Glu were determined with UV detector at 254 nm. Good linearities were observed within the ranges from 0.125 to 6.25 micromol/L for GABA and from 0.025 to 2.5 mmol/L for Glu. The average recoveries were 95.4% for GABA and 93.5% for Glu. The intra- and inter-precision values were within 3.56% and 7.47% for GABA, and 1.12% and 5.98% for Glu, respectively. The method is sensitive, specific and accurate. It can be used in the determination of GABA and Glu in human gastric mucosa tissue. The concentrations of GABA and Glu in cancer tissues are significantly higher than those in normal tissue. PMID:15712869

Tan, Li; Liu, Fangnan; Zhang, Xusong

2004-03-01

69

Characterization of Human Vaginal Mucosa Cells for Autologous In Vitro Cultured Vaginal Tissue Transplantation in Patients with MRKH Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) is a rare syndrome characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and vagina. The most common procedure used for surgical reconstruction of the neovagina is the McIndoe vaginoplasty, which consists in creation of a vaginal canal covered with a full-thickness skin graft. Here we characterized the autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue proposed as alternative material in our developed modified McIndoe vaginoplasty in order to underlie its importance in autologous total vaginal replacement. To this aim human vaginal mucosa cells (HVMs) were isolated from vaginal mucosa of patients affected by MRKH syndrome and characterized with respect to growth kinetics, morphology, PAS staining, and expression of specific epithelial markers by immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR analyses. The presence of specific epithelial markers along with the morphology and the presence of mucified cells demonstrated the epithelial nature of HMVs, important for an efficient epithelialization of the neovagina walls and for creating a functional vaginal cavity. Moreover, these cells presented characteristics of effective proliferation as demonstrated by growth kinetics assay. Therefore, the autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue might represent a highly promising and valid material for McIndoe vaginoplasty. PMID:25162002

Nodale, Cristina; D'Amici, Sirio; Maffucci, Diana; Ceccarelli, Simona; Monti, Marco; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Romano, Ferdinando; Angeloni, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia

2014-01-01

70

Characterization of human vaginal mucosa cells for autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue transplantation in patients with MRKH syndrome.  

PubMed

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) is a rare syndrome characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and vagina. The most common procedure used for surgical reconstruction of the neovagina is the McIndoe vaginoplasty, which consists in creation of a vaginal canal covered with a full-thickness skin graft. Here we characterized the autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue proposed as alternative material in our developed modified McIndoe vaginoplasty in order to underlie its importance in autologous total vaginal replacement. To this aim human vaginal mucosa cells (HVMs) were isolated from vaginal mucosa of patients affected by MRKH syndrome and characterized with respect to growth kinetics, morphology, PAS staining, and expression of specific epithelial markers by immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR analyses. The presence of specific epithelial markers along with the morphology and the presence of mucified cells demonstrated the epithelial nature of HMVs, important for an efficient epithelialization of the neovagina walls and for creating a functional vaginal cavity. Moreover, these cells presented characteristics of effective proliferation as demonstrated by growth kinetics assay. Therefore, the autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue might represent a highly promising and valid material for McIndoe vaginoplasty. PMID:25162002

Nodale, Cristina; Vescarelli, Enrica; D'Amici, Sirio; Maffucci, Diana; Ceccarelli, Simona; Monti, Marco; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Romano, Ferdinando; Angeloni, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia

2014-01-01

71

Duodenal follicular lymphoma lacks AID but expresses BACH2 and has memory B-cell characteristics.  

PubMed

We have reported previously that duodenal follicular lymphoma (FL) is distinct from nodal FL and showed more resemblance to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and that FL frequently involved the duodenal second portion. In the present study, we examined duodenal FLs and gastric/colonic FLs to clarify the clinicopathological and immunological differences between the tumor types. We analyzed 8 samples of gastric FL, 17 of duodenal ones, and 5 of colonic/rectal ones, and characterized them by immunohistochemistry, immunogenotyping, and histology. Gastric and colonic FLs presented in submucosal to subserosal areas, whereas duodenal ones presented in the mucosal to submucosal layers. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that duodenal FLs exhibited the following phenotypes: CD10 (+), B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) (+), BCL-6 (+), activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) (-), BACH2 (+), CD27 (+), MUM-1 (-), Blimp-1 (-), and loose CD21 network (duodenal pattern). Gastric/colonic FLs exhibited the following phenotypes: CD10 (+), BCL-2 (+), BCL-6 (+), AID (+), BACH2 (+), CD27 (-), MUM-1 (-), Blimp-1 (-), and a dense CD21 network (nodal pattern). Expression of AID and CD27 in lymphoma cells and the CD21 network pattern were considerably different between duodenal FLs and gastric/colonic ones. Moreover, in situ hybridization revealed that, in the duodenal FLs, BACH2 was expressed at the periphery of the tumor follicle and tumor villi. The number of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable domains VH4 and VH5 were higher in duodenal follicular lymphomoas than in gastric FLs. The lymphoma cells of duodenal FLs are different from those of gastric/colonic FLs, and duodenal FL is distinct even within the gastrointestinal tract. Somatic hypermutation in immunoglobulin genes and CD27 expression are hallmarks of memory B cells. We suggest that duodenal FL cells are in the memory B-cell stage, and require BACH2 instead of AID for ongoing mutation. PMID:22899287

Takata, Katsuyoshi; Sato, Yasuharu; Nakamura, Naoya; Tokunaka, Mami; Miki, Yukari; Yukie Kikuti, Yara; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Etsuro; Harigae, Hideo; Kato, Seiichi; Hayashi, Eiko; Oka, Takashi; Hoshii, Yoshinobu; Tari, Akira; Okada, Hiroyuki; Al-Kader, Lamia Abd; Mohamad, Abd Alkader Lamia; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Yoshino, Tadashi

2013-01-01

72

Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans  

SciTech Connect

During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa.

Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F. (Meyerstein Institute of Radiotherapy, Middlesex Hospital, London (England))

1991-04-01

73

Dietary manipulation of oncogenic microRNA expression in human rectal mucosa: a randomized trial.  

PubMed

High red meat (HRM) intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, while resistant starch is probably protective. Resistant starch fermentation produces butyrate, which can alter microRNA (miRNA) levels in colorectal cancer cells in vitro; effects of red meat and resistant starch on miRNA expression in vivo were unknown. This study examined whether a HRM diet altered miRNA expression in rectal mucosa tissue of healthy volunteers, and if supplementation with butyrylated resistant starch (HRM+HAMSB) modified this response. In a randomized cross-over design, 23 volunteers undertook four 4-week dietary interventions; an HRM diet (300 g/day lean red meat) and an HRM+HAMSB diet (HRM with 40 g/day butyrylated high amylose maize starch), preceded by an entry diet and separated by a washout. Fecal butyrate increased with the HRM+HAMSB diet. Levels of oncogenic mature miRNAs, including miR17-92 cluster miRNAs and miR21, increased in the rectal mucosa with the HRM diet, whereas the HRM+HAMSB diet restored miR17-92 miRNAs, but not miR21, to baseline levels. Elevated miR17-92 and miR21 in the HRM diet corresponded with increased cell proliferation, and a decrease in miR17-92 target gene transcript levels, including CDKN1A. The oncogenic miR17-92 cluster is differentially regulated by dietary factors that increase or decrease risk for colorectal cancer, and this may explain, at least in part, the respective risk profiles of HRM and resistant starch. These findings support increased resistant starch consumption as a means of reducing risk associated with an HRM diet. PMID:25092886

Humphreys, Karen J; Conlon, Michael A; Young, Graeme P; Topping, David L; Hu, Ying; Winter, Jean M; Bird, Anthony R; Cobiac, Lynne; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Michael, Michael Z; Le Leu, Richard K

2014-08-01

74

[Clinico-radiographic evaluation of the state of the spine in stomach and duodenal diseases].  

PubMed

Data are given on the condition of the thoracic spine of 465 patients with certain gastric and duodenal diseases. Degenerative-dystrophic lesions (spondylosis deformans and intervertebral osteochondrosis) of the thoracic spine together with osteoarthritis deformans of the costovertebral and costotransverse articulations lead to neurodystrophy of the gastric and duodenal mucosa through chronic stimulation by osteophytes of the thoracic sympathetic ganglia. Disorders of gastric and duodenal motor activity are also important. The attendant reflux gastritis is stipulated by reflux of the intestinal contents into the gastric lumen. Condition of the stomach and duodenum can be improved by relieving changes in the spine. PMID:2716242

Dmitriev, A E; Arapov, N A

1989-01-01

75

Analysis of Human Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Expression in Extrathyroidal Tissues and Cloning of Its Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acids from Salivary Gland, Mammary Gland, and Gastric Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to concentrate iodide is a fundamental property of normally functioning thyroid tissue and represents the first step in the production of thyroid hormones. Iodide uptake has been demon- strated in various extrathyroidal tissues, including salivary gland, gastric mucosa, and lactating mammary gland. Recently, cloning and molecular characterization of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) have been reported; however,

C. Spitzweg; W. JOBA; W. EISENMENGER; A. E. HEUFELDER

1998-01-01

76

Human oral mucosa tissue-engineered constructs monitored by Raman fiber-optic probe.  

PubMed

In maxillofacial and oral surgery, there is a need for the development of tissue-engineered constructs. They are used for reconstructions due to trauma, dental implants, congenital defects, or oral cancer. A noninvasive monitoring of the fabrication of tissue-engineered constructs at the production and implantation stages done in real time is extremely important for predicting the success of tissue-engineered grafts. We demonstrated a Raman spectroscopic probe system, its design and application, for real-time ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent (EVPOME) constructs noninvasive monitoring. We performed in vivo studies to find Raman spectroscopic indicators for postimplanted EVPOME failure and determined that Raman spectra of EVPOMEs preexposed to thermal stress during manufacturing procedures displayed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, giving a Raman metric to distinguish between healthy and compromised postimplanted constructs. This study is the step toward our ultimate goal to develop a stand-alone system, to be used in a clinical setting, where the data collection and analysis are conducted on the basis of these spectroscopic indicators with minimal user intervention. PMID:24826804

Khmaladze, Alexander; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Kim, Roderick Y; Matthews, Robert V; Marcelo, Cynthia L; Feinberg, Stephen E; Morris, Michael D

2015-01-01

77

Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease: Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Human Gut Mucosa before and after Rifaximin  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim. Uncomplicated diverticular disease (UDD) is a frequent condition in adults. The pathogenesis of symptoms remains unknown. Bacteria are able to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and to induce inflammation through both innate immunity and T-cell recruitment. We investigated the pattern of TLRs 2 and 4 and the intestinal homing in patients with UDD before and after a course of Rifaximin. Methods. Forty consecutive patients with UDD and 20 healthy asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Among UDD patients, 20 were assigned to a 2-month course of treatment with Rifaximin 1.2?g/day for 15 days/month and 20 received placebo. Blood sample and colonic biopsies were obtained from patients and controls. The samples were collected and analyzed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Flow cytometry was performed using monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD103, TCR-gamma/delta, CD14, TLR2, and TLR4). Results. In UDD, TLR2 and TLR4 expression on immune cell subpopulations from blood and mucosa of the affected colon are altered as compared with controls. Rifaximin treatment induced significant modifications of altered conditions. Conclusions. Our data show the role of TLRs in the development of inflammation in UDD. TLRs distribution is altered in UDD and these alterations are reversed after antibiotic treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02068482. PMID:25133198

Cesaro, Paola; Petruzziello, Lucio; Casciano, Fabio; Costamagna, Guido; Pandolfi, Franco

2014-01-01

78

Regulatory peptides and general neuroendocrine markers in human nasal mucosa, soft palate and larynx.  

PubMed

Various peptide immunoreactivities in the respiratory system have been reported, indicating complex physiological mechanisms. There is only little information on the upper respiratory system of man. The present study was carried out to demonstrate regulatory peptides in the nasal mucosa, larynx (vocal cords and ventricular folds) and soft palate of man using highly efficient immunocytochemical methods. In addition, some peptide immunoreactivities were measured by use of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Using indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold-silver staining (IGSS) with silver acetate autometallography, a series of peptides could be detected, including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine methionine (PHM), galanin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), C-flanking peptide of NPY (CPON) and somatostatin. In addition, antibodies to protein gene-product (PGP) 9.5, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S-100, PHE-5 and neurofilament proteins gave positive reactions in tissue sections. Using RIA, CGRP, substance P, and neurokinin A were measured. Our results demonstrate a complex network of regulatory peptide-containing nerve fibers and the possible existence of endocrine cells regulating various functions of the upper respiratory system, which need to be further investigated. PMID:1712532

Albegger, K; Hauser-Kronberger, C E; Saria, A; Graf, A H; Bernatzky, G; Hacker, G W

1991-01-01

79

Human ethmoid sinus mucosa: a promising novel tissue source of mesenchymal progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction The identification of new progenitor cell sources is important for cell-based tissue engineering strategies, understanding regional tissue regeneration, and modulating local microenvironments and immune response. However, there are no reports that describe the identification and isolation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) from paranasal sinus mucosa, and compare the properties of MPCs between tissue sources within the sinonasal cavity. We report here the identification of MPCs in the maxillary sinus (MS) and ethmoid sinus (ES). Furthermore, we contrast these MPCs in the same individuals with MPCs from two additional head and neck tissue sources of the inferior turbinate (IT) and tonsil (T). Methods These four MPC sources were exhaustively compared for morphology, colony-forming potential, proliferation capability, immunophenotype, multilineage differentiation potential, and ability to produce soluble factors. Results MS-, ES, IT-, and T-MPCs showed similar morphologies and surface phenotypes, as well as adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation capacity by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR for defined lineage-specific genes. However, we noted that the colony-forming potential and proliferation capability of ES-MPCs were distinctly higher than other MPCs. All MPCs constitutively, or upon stimulation, secrete large amounts of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-?, and TGF-?. After stimulation with TNF-? and IFN-?, ES-MPCs notably demonstrated significantly higher secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 than other MPCs. Conclusions ES-MPCs may be a uniquely promising source of MPCs due to their high proliferation ability and superior capacity toward secretion of immunomodulatory cytokines. PMID:24460892

2014-01-01

80

Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

2012-01-01

81

Infection of the oral mucosa with defined types of human papillomaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsies from 9 different oral papillomatous proliferations were analysed for human papilloma viral (HPV) sequences of types 1 to 19 and 21 to 26 by Southern blot analysis with 32p-labelled cellular DNA. HPV sequences were detected in 7 out of 9 biopsies obtained from individual patients. Of three cases with the clinical diagnosis focal hyperplasia Heck, two contained HPV-6 related

E.-M. Villiers; C. Neumann; J.-Y. Le; H. Weidauer; H. Hausen

1986-01-01

82

Comparison of divided and full pupil configurations for line-scanning confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal point-scanning microscopy has been showing promise in the detection, diagnosing and mapping of skin lesions in clinical settings. The noninvasive technique allows provides optical sectioning and cellular resolution for in vivo diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma and pre-operative and intra-operative mapping of margins. The imaging has also enabled more accurate "guided" biopsies while minimizing the otherwise large number of "blind" biopsies. Despite these translational advances, however, point-scanning technology remains relatively complex and expensive. Line-scanning technology may offer an alternative approach to accelerate translation to the clinic. Line-scanning, using fewer optical components, inexpensive linear-array detectors and custom electronics, may enable smaller, simpler and lower-cost confocal microscopes. A line is formed using a cylindrical lens and scanned through the back focal plane of the objective with a galvanometric scanner. A linear CCD is used for detection. Two pupil configurations were compared for performance in imaging human tissue. In the full-pupil configuration, illumination and detection is made through the full objective pupil. In the divided pupil approach, half the pupil is illuminated and the other half is used for detection. The divided pupil configuration loses spatial and axial resolution due to a diminished NA, but the sectioning capability and rejection of background is improved. Imaging in skin and oral mucosa illustrate the performance of the two configurations.

Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Glazowski, Chris; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

2012-02-01

83

Numerical ecology validates a biogeographical distribution and gender-based effect on mucosa-associated bacteria along the human colon.  

PubMed

We applied constrained ordination numerical ecology methods to data produced with a human intestinal tract-specific phylogenetic microarray (the Aus-HIT Chip) to examine the microbial diversity associated with matched biopsy tissue samples taken from the caecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 10 healthy patients. Consistent with previous studies, the profiles revealed a marked intersubject variability; however, the numerical ecology methods of analysis allowed the subtraction of the subject effect from the data and revealed, for the first time, evidence of a longitudinal gradient for specific microbes along the colorectum. In particular, probes targeting Streptococcus and Enterococcus spp. produced strongest signals with caecal and transverse colon samples, with a gradual decline through to the rectum. Conversely, the analyses suggest that several members of the Enterobacteriaceae increase in relative abundance towards the rectum. These collective differences were substantiated by the multivariate analysis of quantitative PCR data. We were also able to identify differences in the microarray profiles, especially for the streptococci and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, on the basis of gender. The results derived by these multivariate analyses are biologically intuitive and suggest that the biogeography of the colonic mucosa can be monitored for changes through cross-sectional and/or inception cohort studies. PMID:21124491

Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; Cuív, Páraic O; Wang, Tingting; Kang, Seungha; Worthley, Daniel; Whitehall, Vicki; Gordon, Iain; McSweeney, Chris; Leggett, Barbara; Morrison, Mark

2011-05-01

84

Transcriptome Profiling of Human Ulcerative Colitis Mucosa Reveals Altered Expression of Pathways Enriched in Genetic Susceptibility Loci  

PubMed Central

Human colonic mucosa altered by inflammation due to ulcerative colitis (UC) displays a drastically altered pattern of gene expression compared with healthy tissue. We aimed to understand the underlying molecular pathways influencing these differences by analyzing three publically-available, independently-generated microarray datasets of gene expression from endoscopic biopsies of the colon. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that all three datasets share 87 gene sets upregulated in UC lesions and 8 gene sets downregulated (false discovery rate <0.05). The upregulated pathways were dominated by gene sets involved in immune function and signaling, as well as the control of mitosis. We applied pathway analysis to genotype data derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of UC, consisting of 5,584 cases and 11,587 controls assembled from eight European-ancestry cohorts. The upregulated pathways derived from the gene expression data showed a highly significant overlap with pathways derived from the genotype data (33 of 56 gene sets, hypergeometric P?=?1.49×10–19). This study supports the hypothesis that heritable variation in gene expression as measured by GWAS signals can influence key pathways in the development of disease, and that comparison of genetic susceptibility loci with gene expression signatures can differentiate key drivers of inflammation from secondary effects on gene expression of the inflammatory process. PMID:24788701

Li, Jin; Zhu, Junfei; Gu, Mengnan; Baldassano, Robert N.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon

2014-01-01

85

Proteomic analysis of a decellularized human vocal fold mucosa scaffold using 2D electrophoresis and high-resolution mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Natural biologic scaffolds for tissue engineering are commonly generated by decellularization of tissues and organs. Despite some preclinical and clinical success, in vivo scaffold remodeling and functional outcomes remain variable, presumably due to the influence of unidentified bioactive molecules on the scaffold-host interaction. Here, we used 2D electrophoresis and high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses to evaluate decellularization effectiveness and identify potentially bioactive protein remnants in a human vocal fold mucosa model. We noted proteome, phosphoproteome and O-glycoproteome depletion post-decellularization, and identified >200 unique protein species within the decellularized scaffold. Gene ontology-based enrichment analysis revealed a dominant set of functionally-related ontology terms associated with extracellular matrix assembly, organization, morphology and patterning, consistent with preservation of a tissue-specific niche for later cell seeding and infiltration. We further identified a subset of ontology terms associated with bioactive (some of which are antigenic) cellular proteins, despite histological and immunohistochemical data indicating complete decellularization. These findings demonstrate the value of mass spectrometry-based proteomics in identifying agents potentially responsible for variation in host response to engineered tissues derived from decellularized scaffolds. This work has implications for the manufacturing of biologic scaffolds from any tissue or organ, as well as for prediction and monitoring of the scaffold-host interaction in vivo. PMID:23102991

Welham, Nathan V.; Chang, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.; Frey, Brian L.

2012-01-01

86

Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains downregulate proinflammatory genes in an ex vivo system of cultured human colonic mucosa.  

PubMed

Significant health benefits have been demonstrated for certain probiotic strains through intervention studies; however, there is a shortage of experimental evidence relative to the mechanisms of action. Here, noninvasive experimental procedure based on a colon organ culture system has been used that, in contrast to most experimental in vitro models reported, can preserve natural immunohistochemical features of the human mucosa. This system has been used to test whether commensal lactobacilli (Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and L. plantarum 299v (A(-))) were able to hinder inflammation-like signals induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin (IO). Whole genome microarrays have been applied to analyze expression differences, from which mRNA markers could be inferred to monitor the effect of putative probiotic strains under such conditions. Regarding the gene expression, PMA/IO treatment induced not only interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma (IFN-?), as expected, but also other relevant genes related to immune response and inflammation, such as IL-17A, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) 9 and CXCL11. The ex vivo culturing did not modify the pattern of expression of those genes or others related to inflammation. Interestingly, this study demonstrated that lactobacilli downregulated those genes and triggered a global change of the transcriptional profile that indicated a clear homeostasis restoring effect and a decrease in signals produced by activated T cells. PMID:22669626

Bäuerl, Christine; Llopis, Marta; Antolín, María; Monedero, Vicente; Mata, Manuel; Zúñiga, Manuel; Guarner, Francisco; Pérez Martínez, Gaspar

2013-03-01

87

Acute duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed Central

A series of 31 infants and children with acute duodenal ulcer verified by endoscopy was studied over an eight year period. Eighteen (58%) of them were under 2 years of age. The most common symptom was upper gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 27, 87%). Twenty nine patients (94%) had a preceding illness characterised by diarrhoea, upper respiratory tract infection, or fever, which was not necessarily treated with antipyretic drugs. Initial endoscopy showed that ulcer lesions were solitary in 14 patients and present on the anterior wall (n = 11), posterior wall (n = 2), or both (n = 1). Multiple ulcers were found in 17 patients, and present in the bulb with (n = 6) or without (n = 11) extension into the second part of duodenum. The most conspicuous finding was the irregularly shaped ulcers seen in eight young children with similar clinical and endoscopic features. Sixteen patients were re-endoscoped one to two weeks after the initial examination; the ulcers had entirely disappeared in 13, and there were only small residual ulcers in three. Thirty patients were treated medically and only one (with uncontrollable haemorrhage) required operation. Most patients were symptom free two to six years after the initial diagnosis. Our results suggest that young children may develop acute duodenal ulcers after viral illnesses whether or not they are treated with drugs, mainly antipyretics. This kind of acute duodenal ulcer usually heals quickly irrespective of the morphology, site, and number of ulcers. Images Figure PMID:2774612

Hsu, H Y; Chang, M H; Wang, T H; Hsu, J Y; Wang, C Y; Lin, M I; Wu, M H

1989-01-01

88

Alternative types of duodenal ulcer induced in mice by partial x irradiation of the thorax  

SciTech Connect

The present study extends our earlier observations on gastrointestinal pathology in thorax-irradiated female CFLP mice. It shows that exposure of the lower mediastinum to single doses of 14 to 30 Gy x rays results in the formation of the proximal duodenal ulcer accompanied frequently by erosion of the antral gastric mucosa. X irradiation of the lateral thoracic fields is responsible for single ulcers in the proximity of duodenal papilla, often associated with a circumscribed area of degeneration of the fundic mucosa of the stomach. In view of the small amount of radiation received by the subdiaphragmatic parts of the alimentary tract, these gastro-duodenal lesions represent abscopal effects of thoracic irradiation.

Michalowski, A.; Uehara, S.; Yin, W.B.; Burgin, J.; Silvester, J.A.

1983-07-01

89

Alternative types of duodenal ulcer induced in mice by partial X irradiation of the thorax  

SciTech Connect

The present study extends our earlier observations on gastrointestinal pathology in thorax-irradiated female CFLP mice. It shows that exposure of the lower mediastinum to single doses of 14-30 Gy X rays results in the formation of the proximal duodenal ulcer accompanied frequently by erosion of the antral gastric mucosa. X irradiation of the lateral thoracic fields is responsible for single ulcers in the proximity of duodenal papilla, often associated with a circumscribed area of degeneration of the fundic mucosa of the stomach. In view of the small amount of radiation received by the subdiaphragmatic parts of the alimentary tract, these gastro-duodenal lesions represent abscopal effects of thoracic irradiation.

Michalowski, A.; Uehara, S.; Yin, W.B.; Burgin, J.; Silvester, J.A.

1983-07-01

90

Immunolocalization of antimicrobial and cytoskeletal components in the serous glands of human sinonasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Secretory cells in the seromucous glands of paranasal sinuses secrete antibacterial proteins for innate immune mucosal integrity. We studied the localization of antimicrobial and cytoskeletal components of the human seromucous glands and respiratory epithelium of the maxillary sinus and the ethmoidal cells by immunohistochemical methods. The presence of a variety of defense proteins such as lysozyme, lactoferrin, cathelicidin, and defensin-1, -2, -3 point to a crucial role in the immune defense for the respiratory tract. Cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, myosin 2, cytokeratin 7 and 19, ?- and ?-tubulin, investigated for the first time in glands of paranasal sinuses, showed a stronger expression at the apical and lateral cell membrane. The localization of the cytoskeletal proteins might point to their participation in exocrine secretory processes and stabilizing effects. PMID:24737387

Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Olzowy, Bernhard; Ihler, Friedrich; Matthias, Christoph; Scherer, Elias Q; Babaryka, Gregor; Loeffelbein, Denys J; Rohleder, Nils H; Nieberler, Markus; Kesting, Marco R

2014-10-01

91

Depicting the inner and outer nose: the representation of the nose and the nasal mucosa on the human primary somatosensory cortex (SI).  

PubMed

The nose is important not only for breathing, filtering air, and perceiving olfactory stimuli. Although the face and hands have been mapped, the representation of the internal and external surface of the nose on the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is still poorly understood. To fill this gap functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize the nose and the nasal mucosa in the Brodman areas (BAs) 3b, 1, and 2 of the human postcentral gyrus (PG). Tactile stimulation during fMRI was applied via a customized pneumatically driven device to six stimulation sites: the alar wing of the nose, the lateral nasal mucosa, and the hand (serving as a reference area) on the left and right side of the body. Individual representations could be discriminated for the left and right hand, for the left nasal mucosa and left alar wing of the nose in BA 3b and BA 1 by comparing mean activation maxima and Euclidean distances. Right-sided nasal conditions and conditions in BA 2 could further be separated by different Euclidean distances. Regarding the alar wing of the nose, the results concurred with the classic sensory homunculus proposed by Penfield and colleagues. The nasal mucosa was not only determined an individual and bilateral representation, its position on the somatosensory cortex is also situated closer to the caudal end of the PG compared to that of the alar wing of the nose and the hand. As SI is commonly activated during the perception of odors, these findings underscore the importance of the knowledge of the representation of the nasal mucosa on the primary somatosensory cortex, especially for interpretation of results of functional imaging studies about the sense of smell. PMID:24659451

Gastl, Mareike; Brünner, Yvonne F; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

2014-09-01

92

A Novel Duodenal Iron-Regulated Transporter, IREG1, Implicated in the Basolateral Transfer of Iron to the Circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron absorption by the duodenal mucosa is initiated by uptake of ferrous Fe(II) iron across the brush border membrane and culminates in transfer of the metal across the basolateral membrane to the portal vein circulation by an unknown mechanism. We describe here the isolation and characterization of a novel cDNA (Ireg1) encoding a duodenal protein that is localized to the

Andrew T McKie; Paola Marciani; Andreas Rolfs; Karen Brennan; Kristina Wehr; Dalna Barrow; Silvia Miret; Adrian Bomford; Timothy J Peters; Farzin Farzaneh; Matthias A Hediger; Matthias W Hentze; Robert J Simpson

2000-01-01

93

Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of a novel immunohistochemical panel detecting duodenal mucosal invasion by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: We investigated a series of pancreaticoduodenectomy and duodenal biopsies with a panel of immunohistochemical markers to identify duodenal mucosal invasion by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), including markers of poor prognosis and targets of promising novel immunotherapies. Materials and Methods: Eighteen consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomy specimens with duodenal mucosal invasion by PDAC were examined for expression of MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6, mesothelin, MUC2, CDX2, and DPC4 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of duodenal-ampullary-pancreatic junctions. Expression of all but MUC6 was also assessed in duodenal biopsies from 12 patients with duodenal mucosal invasion by PDAC. Results: The duodenal mucosa expressed MUC1 (crypts), MUC2 (goblet cells), MUC6 (Brunner glands), CDX2, and DPC4. PDACs in the duodenal mucosa from the resection (n=16-18) and biopsy (n=12) specimens were marked as follows: MUC1 100% (30/30), MUC4 83% (24/29), MUC5AC 83% (25/30), mesothelin 82% (23/28), MUC2 7% (2/30), and CDX2 36% (10/28). Loss of DPC4 expression was seen in 16 of 29 (55%) cases. Reactive mucosa adjacent to PDAC expressed MUC4, MUC5AC and mesothelin in 65% (17/26), 19% (5/27), and 19% (5/26) of cases, respectively. While MUC5AC and mesothelin had high diagnostic accuracy for detection of PDAC, MUC2, CDX2 and DPC4 expression demonstrated negative correlation with PDAC, with absent expression being highly specific for PDAC. Conclusion: Immunohistochemical labeling for PDAC biomarkers may aid the diagnosis of PDAC in duodenal biopsy, especially in situations where diagnosis of a pancreatic mass is challenging. PMID:24228110

Sopha, Sabrina C; Gopal, Purva; Merchant, Nipun B; Revetta, Frank L; Gold, David V; Washington, Kay; Shi, Chanjuan

2013-01-01

94

Interaction of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor with aspirin and NO-releasing aspirin in the human gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

In addition to inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX)-1-derived prostanoid biosynthesis, aspirin acetylates COX-2, enabling the conversion of arachidonic acid to 15(R)-epi lipoxin A4, or aspirin-triggered lipoxin (ATL). Selective COX-2 inhibitors block ATL formation and exacerbate mucosal injury in rats treated with aspirin. In the present study, we have examined whether inhibition of COX-2 activity in healthy volunteers taking aspirin exacerbates gastric mucosal injury and if such an effect would be prevented by NCX-4016, a NO-releasing derivative of aspirin. Thirty-two volunteers were randomized to receive 2 wk of treatment with NCX-4016 (800 mg twice a day) or aspirin (100 mg once a day) alone or in combination with 200 mg of celecoxib twice a day. Mucosal damage was assessed by endoscopy. The mean mucosal injury score was 5.8 ± 1.8 in subjects treated with aspirin and 2.4 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01 vs. aspirin) in subjects treated with NCX-4016. Administration of celecoxib increased the injury score in volunteers treated with aspirin (9.9 ± 1.9) but not in subjects taking NCX-4016 (1.5 ± 0.8). Aspirin and NCX-4016 caused a comparable suppression of serum thromboxane B2 levels and increased urinary excretion of ATL. Celecoxib inhibited endotoxin-induced prostaglandin E2 generation in whole blood by ?80% and abolished ATL formation. These findings suggests that (i) aspirin and NCX-4016 trigger ATL formation in humans, (ii) celecoxib inhibits ATL formation and exacerbates the mucosal injury caused by low doses of aspirin, and (iii) the NO-donating moiety of NCX-4016 protects the gastric mucosa even in the presence of suppression of COX-1 and COX-2. PMID:12960371

Fiorucci, Stefano; Santucci, Luca; Wallace, John L.; Sardina, Marco; Romano, Mario; del Soldato, Piero; Morelli, Antonio

2003-01-01

95

Duodenal carcinoid with carcinoid syndrome.  

PubMed

Carcinoid tumours are uncommon well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours. Primary duodenal carcinoids account for less than 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinoids. Duodenal carcinoids are seldom associated with carcinoid syndrome. We report a rare case of duodenal carcinoid presenting as a carcinoid syndrome in a middle-aged man with upper abdominal pain, hot flushes, diarrhoea and dry cough. Endoscopy-guided biopsy and 24 h urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) proved the diagnosis. He was further evaluated and managed with definitive surgical treatment. PMID:24414187

Naalla, Ravikiran; Konchada, Kamesh; Kannappan, Odaiyappan; Lingadakai, Ramachandra

2014-01-01

96

Blocking of integrins inhibits HIV-1 infection of human cervical mucosa immune cells with free and complement-opsonized virions.  

PubMed

The initial interaction between HIV-1 and the host occurs at the mucosa during sexual intercourse. In cervical mucosa, HIV-1 exists both as free and opsonized virions and this might influence initial infection. We used cervical explants to study HIV-1 transmission, the effects of opsonization on infectivity, and how infection can be prevented. Complement opsonization enhanced HIV-1 infection of dendritic cells (DCs) compared with that by free HIV-1, but this increased infection was not observed with CD4(+) T cells. Blockage of the ?4-, ?7-, and ?1-integrins significantly inhibited HIV-1 infection of both DCs and CD4(+) T cells. We found a greater impairment of HIV-1 infection in DCs for complement-opsonized virions compared with that of free virions when ?M/?2- and ?4-integrins were blocked. Blocking the C-type lectin receptor macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) inhibited infection of emigrating DCs but had no effect on CD4(+) T-cell infection. We show that blocking of integrins decreases the HIV-1 infection of both mucosal DCs and CD4(+) T cells emigrating from the cervical tissues. These findings may provide the basis of novel microbicidal strategies that may help limit or prevent initial infection of the cervical mucosa, thereby reducing or averting systemic HIV-1 infection. PMID:23686382

Tjomsland, Veronica; Ellegård, Rada; Kjölhede, Preben; Wodlin, Ninni Borendal; Hinkula, Jorma; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Larsson, Marie

2013-09-01

97

[Duodenal atresia in the newborn].  

PubMed

The specific features of intrauterine development and pheno- and genotypic characteristics were studied in newborn infants with duodenal atresia. Main anthropometric parameters at birth (weight, height, and head and chest circumferences), concomitant developmental malformations, gene frequencies and phenotypic combinations of ABO and Rhesus factor blood groups were analyzed. The babies with duodenal atresia were found to have considerably impaired intrauterine development, multiple concomitant hypoplastic developmental abnormalities, significantly higher frequencies of the ORh+ phenotype, and lower frequencies of the ARh+ phenotype. PMID:23342657

Botvin'ev, O K; Eremeeva, A V; Kondrikova, E V

2012-01-01

98

CCL20/CCR6-mediated migration of regulatory T cells to the Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulceration is less likely to occur in patients with a strong gastric anti-inflammatory regulatory T cell (Treg) response. Migration of Tregs into the gastric mucosa is therefore important. Objective To identify the homing receptors involved in directing Tregs to the gastric mucosa, and investigate how H pylori stimulates the relevant chemokine responses. Design Gastric biopsy samples and peripheral blood were donated by 84 H pylori-infected and 46 uninfected patients. Luminex assays quantified gastric biopsy chemokine concentrations. Flow cytometry was used to characterise homing receptors on CD4+CD25hi Tregs. H pylori wild-type and isogenic mutants were used to investigate the signalling mechanisms behind CCL20 and IL-8 induction in gastric epithelial cell lines. Transwell assays were used to quantify Treg migration towards chemokines in vitro. Results CCL20, CXCL1-3 and IL-8 concentrations were significantly increased in gastric biopsy samples from H pylori-infected patients. CCR6 (CCL20 receptor), CXCR1 and CXCR2 (IL-8 and CXCL1-3 receptors) were expressed by a higher proportion of peripheral blood Tregs in infected patients. Most gastric Tregs expressed these receptors. H pylori induced CCL20 production by gastric epithelial cells via cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-dependent NF-?B signalling. Foxp3+, but not Foxp3?, CD4 cells from infected mice migrated towards recombinant CCL20 in vitro. Conclusions As well as increasing Treg numbers, H pylori infection induces a change in their characteristics. Expression of CCR6, CXCR1 and CXCR2 probably enables their migration towards CCL20 and IL-8 in the infected gastric mucosa. Such qualitative changes may also explain how H pylori protects against some extragastric inflammatory disorders. PMID:24436142

Cook, Katherine W; Letley, Darren P; Ingram, Richard J M; Staples, Emily; Skjoldmose, Helle; Atherton, John C; Robinson, Karen

2014-01-01

99

[Spontaneous perforation of a retroperitoneal duodenal diverticulum].  

PubMed

Spontaneous perforation is a rare complication of a retroperitoneal duodenal diverticulum; diagnosis and treatment are both difficult. We report a case of perforated duodenal diverticulitis diagnosed by CT, which required surgical intervention after failure of medical treatment. PMID:18772741

Guinier, D; Kovacs, R

2008-01-01

100

Tuberculous duodenal stenosis: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Duodenal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity. The authors report and emphasize the lack of special clinical, radiological and endoscopic signs of duodenal tuberculosis. The diagnosis is affirmed, at laparotomy, out of the findings of peritoneal granulations or histology of lymphatic nodes. We report our experience of two cases of duodenal tuberculosis presenting with proximal intestinal obstruction and review the available literature. PMID:21897797

Benzekri, O; Mouhadi, S El; Chourak, M; Boussetta, S; Absi, M El; Echarab, M; Elouanani, M; Amraoui, M; Errougani, A; El Alami, F H; Chkoff, R

2008-09-01

101

Acupuncture treatment for duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed

The effect of acupuncture therapy for duodenal ulcer was investigated in 21 male and female patients. The diagnosis and healing were verified by gastroscopy. It was found that the needle therapy for 3 weeks led to complete recovery in 76 percent of the patients. Diet, alcohol and cigarette abstinency were necessary for healing. Cuti-visceral reflex activation eliciting the improvement of the secretory and motor function of the gastrointestinal tract and effects in the CNS leading to analgesia and tranquilization may play a role in the mechanism of action. Our conclusion is that acupuncture can be satisfactory method to cure duodenal ulcer. PMID:2904207

Debreceni, L; Denes, L

1988-01-01

102

Biocompatibility of solid-dosage forms of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 microbicides with the human cervicovaginal mucosa modeled ex vivo.  

PubMed

Topical anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) microbicides are being sought to reduce the spread of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) during sexual intercourse. The success of this strategy depends upon the selection of formulations compatible with the natural vaginal mucosal barrier. This study applied ex vivo-modeled human cervicovaginal epithelium to evaluate experimental solid-dosage forms of the anti-HIV-1 microbicide cellulose acetate 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate (CAP) and over-the-counter (OTC) vaginal products for their impact on inflammatory mediators regarded as potential HIV-1-enhancing risk factors. We assessed product-induced imbalances between interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and IL-1beta and the natural IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and changes in levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-8, gamma interferon inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha (MIP-3alpha), known to recruit and activate monocytes, dendritic cells, and T cells to the inflamed mucosa. CAP film and gel formulation, similarly to the hydroxyethylcellulose universal vaginal placebo gel and the OTC K-Y moisturizing gel, were nontoxic and caused no significant changes in any inflammatory biomarker. In contrast, OTC vaginal cleansing and contraceptive films containing octoxynol-9 or nonoxynol-9 (N-9) demonstrated similar levels of toxicity but distinct immunoinflammatory profiles. IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-8, and IP-10 were increased after treatment with both OTC vaginal cleansing and contraceptive films; however, MIP-3alpha was significantly elevated by the N-9-based film only (P < 0.01). Although both films increased extracellular IL-1RA, the cleansing film only significantly elevated the IL-1RA/IL-1 ratio (P < 0.001). The N-9-based film decreased intracellular IL-1RA (P < 0.05), which has anti-inflammatory intracrine functions. This study identifies immunoinflammatory biomarkers that can discriminate between formulations better than toxicity assays and should be clinically validated in relevance to the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:17030562

Trifonova, Radiana T; Pasicznyk, Jenna-Malia; Fichorova, Raina N

2006-12-01

103

Melatonin decreases duodenal epithelial paracellular permeability via a nicotinic receptor-dependent pathway in rats in vivo.  

PubMed

Intestinal epithelial intercellular tight junctions (TJs) provide a rate-limiting barrier restricting passive transepithelial movement of solutes. TJs are highly dynamic areas, and their permeability is changed in response to various stimuli. Defects in the intestinal epithelial TJ barrier may contribute to intestinal inflammation or leaky gut. The gastrointestinal tract may be the largest extrapineal source of endogenous melatonin. Melatonin released from the duodenal mucosa is a potent stimulant of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DBS). The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of melatonin in regulating duodenal mucosal barrier functions, including mucosal permeability, DBS, net fluid flux, and duodenal motor activity, in the living animal. Rats were anesthetized with thiobarbiturate, and a ~30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ. Melatonin and the selective melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole were perfused luminally or given intravenously. Effects on permeability (blood-to-lumen clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA), DBS, mucosal net fluid flux, and duodenal motility were monitored. Luminal melatonin caused a rapid decrease in paracellular permeability and an increase in DBS, but had no effect on duodenal motor activity or net fluid flux. Luzindole did not influence any of the basal parameters studied, but significantly inhibited the effects of melatonin. The nonselective and noncompetitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine abolished the effect of melatonin on duodenal permeability and reduced that on DBS. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that melatonin significantly decreases duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability and increases DBS. The data support the important role of melatonin in the neurohumoral regulation of duodenal mucosal barrier. PMID:23009576

Sommansson, Anna; Nylander, Olof; Sjöblom, Markus

2013-04-01

104

Double-blind randomised clinical trial of a pepsin-inhibitory pentapeptide (pepstatin) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed Central

In a double-blind randomised clinical trial a specific inhibition of peptic activity with a pentapeptide, pepstatin, had no significant advantage over placebo in the ulcer healing and symptomatology of duodenal ulcer. Thus, the inhibition of pepsin in human gastric juice does not appear to have a major influence on the healing of duodenal ulcer. PMID:385457

Bonnevie, O; Svendsen, L B; Holst-Christensen, J; Johansen, T S; Søltoft, J; Christiansen, P M

1979-01-01

105

Nd:YAG laser versus traditional scalpel. A preliminary histological analysis of specimens from the human oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Hyperplastic fibro-epithelial lesions are the most common tumor-like swellings in the mouth. The neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be useful for the surgical treatment of these lesions. Some controversies of laser surgery concern the accuracy of pathological diagnosis as well as the control of thermal damage on the target tissue. The aim of this study was to establish if the thermal changes induced by the Nd:YAG laser may affect the histopathological diagnosis and the evaluation of the resection margins. Furthermore, we compared the histological features of oral benign fibro-epithelial lesions excised through Nd:YAG laser and traditional scalpel. Twenty-six benign fibro-epithelial oral lesions from 26 patients, localized in the same oral subsites (cheek and buccal mucosa), were collected at the Unit of Oral Pathology and Oral Laser-assisted Surgery of the Academic Hospital of the University of Parma, Italy. Specimens were subclassified into three groups according to the tool used for the surgical excision. Group 1 included six specimens excised through Nd:YAG laser with an output power of 3.5 W and a frequency of 60 Hz (power density 488,281 W/cm2); Group 2 included nine specimens excised through Nd:YAG laser with an output power of 5 W and a frequency of 30 Hz; Group 3 included 11 specimens excised through a Bard-Parker scalpel blade no. 15c. Epithelial changes, connective tissue modifications, presence of vascular modifications, incision morphology and the overall width of tissue modification were evaluated. Differences between specimens removed with two different parameters of Nd:YAG laser were not significant with regard to stromal changes (p=0.4828) and vascular stasis (p=0.2104). Analysis of regularity of incision revealed a difference which was not statistically significant (p=1.000) between group 1 and group 2. Epithelial and stromal changes were significantly more frequent in specimens with a mean size less than 7 mm (p<0.0001). Nd:YAG laser induced serious thermal effects in small specimens (mean size less than 7 mm) independently from the frequency and power employed. The quality of incision was better and the width of overall tissue injuries was less in the specimens obtained with higher frequency and lower power (group 1: Nd:YAG laser at 3.5 W and 60 Hz). PMID:20393771

Vescovi, Paolo; Corcione, Luigi; Meleti, Marco; Merigo, Elisabetta; Fornaini, Carlo; Manfredi, Maddalena; Bonanini, Mauro; Govoni, Paolo; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Nammour, Samir

2010-09-01

106

[The dynamics of the indices of protein metabolic homeostasis and the status of duodenal mucosal regeneration during the etaden treatment of duodenal peptic ulcer].  

PubMed

The authors relate the results of examining 149 men suffering from duodenal ulcer. The main group was made up of 75 patients given parenteral etaden treatment combined with conventional therapy. A study was made of the dynamics of clinical manifestations, the level of total protein and its fraction in the blood, protein metabolism (by radionuclide technique). Pieces of the duodenal mucosa from the periulcerous area were examined under microscope. Scanning and electron microscopy was also performed. Based on the data obtained it is concluded that etaden had active influence on protein synthesis, which favoured more rapid regression of the ulcerous defect in the main group patients. Morphological studies have also shown the positive dynamics of the regenerative process. PMID:1509384

Korepanov, A M; Murashov, V S; Bazhenov, E L

1992-01-01

107

Human intestinal mucosa-associated Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains with probiotic properties modulate IL-10, IL-6 and IL-12 gene expression in THP-1 cells.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are considered one of the permanent genera of the physiological human intestinal microbiota and represent an enormous pool of potential probiotic candidates. Approximately 450 isolates of presumptive Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium strains were obtained from bioptic samples of colonic and ileal mucosa from 15 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. On the basis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, 20 strains were selected for further taxonomic classification and characterisation, as well as assessment of probiotic properties and safety. Importantly, selected strains showed the capability of colonising different parts of the intestine. The most frequently isolated species was Lactobacillus paracasei followed by Lactobacillus fermentum. The majority of isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials of human and veterinary importance, however, tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistance was observed in Lactobacillus plantarum and L. fermentum strains. Thirteen strains were able to ferment more than 19 different carbon sources and three out of five tested strains exerted antagonistic activity against several different indicator strains. Two Lactobacillus isolates (L. paracasei L350 and L. fermentum L930 bb) and one Bifidobacterium isolate (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis IM386) fulfilled in vitro selection criteria for probiotic strains and exhibited strong downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 and upregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10. The selected strains represent suitable candidates for further studies regarding their positive influence on host health and could play an important role in ameliorating the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25391349

Citar, M; Hacin, B; Tompa, G; Stempelj, M; Rogelj, I; Dolinšek, J; Narat, M; Matijaši?, B Bogovi?

2014-11-12

108

Genetic markers and duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed

Serum pepsinogen, alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) and blood groups were studied as genetic markers in 32 patients with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer and 44 control subjects with no family history of ulcer disease. Serum pepsinogen was determined by the modified method of Edward et al, alpha 1-AT by single radial immunodiffusion (RID) and phenotyping was carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF). Duodenal ulcer patients with hyper- pepsinogenemia (28%) and low serum alpha 1-AT (35%) had a dominant blood group O, lower mean age, an early onset of disease, a higher frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and ulcer perforation. These parameters were found considerably different in patients with normal serum pepsinogen and alpha 1-AT. Phenotype analysis of alpha 1-AT revealed that four duodenal ulcer patients had partial deficiency of the protease inhibitor and none of the normal exhibited the deficiency pattern. The etiology of the disease appears to be genetic anomaly in 28% of patients while the rest (72%) had ulcers as a result of neuroendocrinological or environmental factors. PMID:9230579

Shahid, A; Zuberi, S J; Siddiqui, A A; Waqar, M A

1997-05-01

109

Relationship between trefoil factor 1 expression and gastric mucosa injuries and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is associated with mucosa healing and carcinoma suppression, we assess the expression of trefoil factor 1 in normal and pathologic gastric mucosa. METHODS: TFF1 in normal and pathologic gastric mucosa was assessed by immunohistochemical method, and the average positive A was estimated by Motic Images Advanced 3.0 software. RESULTS: Increased TFF1 was detected in gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer compared with normal mucosa. The same result could be seen in multiple and compound ulcer compared with simple ulcer. There was no significant difference between gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastritis and simple ulcer respectively. Increased TFF1 was detected in the peripheral mucosa of the gastric adenocarcinoma compared with normal mucosa. The expression of TFF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma was related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma. The lower the differentiation of adenocarcinoma, the weaker the expression of TFF1. There was no TFF1 expressed in low-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The expression of TFF1 in middle and highly differentiated adenocarcinoma was a little lower than that in normal mucosa. But there was no significant difference. No TFF1 was assessed in esophageal squamous carcinoma and peripheral tissue. There was no significant difference between male and female. CONCLUSION: The expression of TFF1 was higher in gastritis and peptic ulcer than that in normal mucosa, and was also higher in multiple and compound ulcer than in simple ulcer. It seems that TFF1 plays a role in gastric mucosa protection and epithelial restitution. Increased expression of TFF1 in peripheral tissue suggests that TFF1 is associated with mechanism of carcinoma suppression and differentiation. Decreased expression of TFF1 in carcinoma and its relativity to the differentiation suggests that TFF1 is related to gland and cell destruction of carcinoma. PMID:15849833

Ren, Jian-Lin; Luo, Jin-Yan; Lu, Ya-Pi; Wang, Lin; Shi, Hua-Xiu

2005-01-01

110

Differentiation between human normal colon mucosa and colon cancer tissue using ToF-SIMS imaging technique and principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human normal colon mucosa and colon cancer tissue were studied using the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques. The surfaces of the tissues were successfully cleaned by C 602+ cluster-ion beams before the ToF-SIMS images were obtained. A PCA on the spectra and images were performed to compare differences in the peaks and images of normal and cancer tissues. Significant differences in principal component 1 (PC 1) score values for normal and cancer tissues were observed, and each PC 1 loadings had a specific peak profile of proteins. In addition, the PC images obtained from the ToF-SIMS images for normal and cancer tissues were clearly distinguishable, and the amino acid fragments associated with normal and cancer tissues were found to have originated from the lamina propria region and the epithelium cells, respectively. Based on the PCA results, structural distortion of the crypts in the cancer colon tissue could be attributed to the proliferation of the cancerous epithelium cells. This work shows that the application of the ToF-SIMS imaging technique with PCA could be a useful method of obtaining valuable information for cancer analysis.

Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, In Hoo; Moon, Dae Won; Lee, Tae Geol

2008-12-01

111

Cytolysins Augment Superantigen Penetration of Stratified Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes colonize mucosal surfaces of the human body to cause disease. A group of virulence factors known as superantigens are produced by both of these organisms, which allows them to cause serious diseases from the vaginal (staphylococci) or oral mucosa (streptococci) of the body. Superantigens interact with T cells and antigen presenting cells to cause massive cytokine release to mediate the symptoms collectively known as toxic shock syndrome. Here we demonstrate that another group of virulence factors, cytolysins, aid in the penetration of superantigens across vaginal mucosa as a representative nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelial surface. The staphylococcal cytolysin ? toxin and the streptococcal cytolysin streptolysin O enhanced penetration of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A, respectively, across porcine vaginal mucosa in an ex vivo model of superantigen penetration. Upon histological examination, both cytolysins caused damage to the uppermost layers of the vaginal tissue. In vitro evidence using immortalized human vaginal epithelial cells demonstrated that although both superantigens were proinflammatory, only the staphylococcal cytolysin ? toxin induced a strong immune response from the cells. Streptolysin O damaged and killed the cells quickly, allowing only a small release of interleukin-1?. Two separate models of superantigen penetration are proposed: staphylococcal ? toxin induces a strong proinflammatory response from epithelial cells to disrupt the mucosa enough to allow for enhanced penetration of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, whereas streptolysin O directly damages the mucosa to allow for penetration of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and possibly viable streptococci. PMID:19201891

Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Mantz, Mary J.; Squier, Christopher A.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

2009-01-01

112

Dragstedt, gastric acid and duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed Central

Dragstedt believed that basal hypersecretion of gastric acid was the root cause of duodenal ulcer, that the hypersecretion was due to an increased vagal stimulation, and that vagotomy would therefore cure duodenal ulcer. He introduced vagotomy and demonstrated that the operation was successful in curing most patients of their duodenal ulcers. This article reviews how further research in the succeeding half century has demonstrated that it is the effect of vagotomy on stimulated, rather than upon basal secretion that cures duodenal ulcer and that the apparent basal hypersecretion of patients with duodenal ulcer is due to an increased parietal cell mass. The article points out that there is no convincing explanation as yet of the mechanism whereby vagotomy reduces histamine-stimulated gastric secretion. PMID:7502527

Hobsley, M.

1994-01-01

113

Morphological and histochemical observations on the duodenal glands of eight wild ungulate species native to North America.  

PubMed

The duodenal glands of the species examined (Alces alces, Ovis canadensis, Cervus canadensis, Oreamnos americanus, Bison bison, Antilocapra americana, Odocoileus virginianas, Odocoileus heminous) are confined primarily to the submucosa of the small intestine. In one species, the moose, a significant population of secretory tubules also is observed in the mucosa. The ducts of the duodenal glands pierce the overlying muscularis mucosae to empty most often independently into the intestinal lumen. Those of the bison, unlike the other species examined, drain into intestinal glands. The duodenal glands consist primarily of a simple columnar epithelium, the cells of which contain basally positioned round or oval nuclei. The lumina of scattered duodenal glands in the pronghorn and to some extent those of the moose, white-tailed deer, and mule deer may be extremely dilated, and the surrounding epithelium thin and attenuated. Component cells of the duodenal glands of all the species examined show remarkably similar ultrastructural features. They exhibit scattered profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum, dilated cisternae of which contain an electron-dense, amorphous material. Numerous well-developed Golgi complexes occupy the supranuclear region together with transport vesicles and forming secretory granules. Electron-dense, membrane-bound secretory granules generally are concentrated in the apical cytoplasm immediately subjacent to the cell membrane. The apical cell membrane exhibits short, scattered microvilli; and the basal cell membrane is smooth without apparent specialization. Histochemically, the duodenal glands of most species examined in this study consist of a heterogeneous population. The majority of the glands of the moose, elk, mountain goat, bison, pronghorn, and white-tailed deer elaborate a neutral mucin, whereas scattered individual glands, tubules or cells also produce acid mucins. Cells near the terminations of the ducts of the bighorn sheep are the only elements to produce acid mucins in the duodenal glands of this species. The duodenal glands of the bison are unusual in that only the peripheral portions of individual glands produce acid mucins. The remainder of the glands elaborate neutral mucins. Morphological differences between the two regions were not observed. The duodenal glands of the mule deer secrete both acid and neutral mucins. The structural and histochemical observations appear unrelated to the diet of individual species. PMID:6171158

Krause, W J

1981-10-01

114

Photosensitisation and photodynamic therapy of oesophageal, duodenal, and colorectal tumours using 5 aminolaevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX--a pilot study.  

PubMed Central

The first study of photodynamic therapy in the human gastrointestinal tract using 5 aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX as the photosensitising agent is described. Eighteen patients with colorectal, duodenal, and oesophageal tumours were studied. After 30-60 mg/kg of ALA given orally, biopsy specimens of tumour and adjacent normal mucosa were taken 1-72 hours later. These specimens were examined by quantitative fluorescence microscopy for assessment of sensitisation with protoporphyrin IX. Ten patients were given a second dose of ALA a few weeks later and their tumours were treated with red laser light (628 nm). With 30 mg/kg ALA, the highest fluorescence values were detected in the duodenum and oesophagus, and the lowest in the large bowel. Doubling the ALA dose in patients with colorectal tumours gave protoporphyrin IX fluorescence intensities similar to those in patients with upper gastrointestinal lesions and improved the tumour:normal mucosa protoporphyrin IX sensitisation ratio. The treated patients showed superficial mucosal necrosis in the areas exposed to laser light. Six patients had transient rises in serum aspartate aminotransferases, two mild skin photosensitivity reactions, and five mild nausea and vomiting. In conclusion, photodynamic therapy with systemically administered ALA may be a promising technique for the treatment of small tumours and areas of dysplasia such as in Barrett's oesophagus. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7890239

Regula, J; MacRobert, A J; Gorchein, A; Buonaccorsi, G A; Thorpe, S M; Spencer, G M; Hatfield, A R; Bown, S G

1995-01-01

115

[Hemorrhagic stress lesions in the gastroduodenal mucosa. Incidence and therapy].  

PubMed

We have observed 428 patients with hemorrhages of the upper gastrointestinal tract; 7% of patients with stress lesions of the gastroduodenal mucosa being the cause of hemorrhages (4.9% were erosional stress hemorrhages and 2.1% were stress ulcera). Surgery is the most common cause of stress hemorrhages of the stomach and duodenum. They occur during the first 5 days after the surgery, whereas 70.59% (n = 12) occur during the first 72 hours. The localization of erosional hemorrhages of the stomach mucosa is mostly diffuse and that is why they are numerous (78.6% of the third degree) and hemorrhages are mostly heavy (the case with stress hemorrhages). Chronic peptic ulcera, especially duodenal (62.5% duodenal ulcera and 37.5% stomach ulcera) present an expressed risk factor for the occurrence of hemorrhagic erosions under the influence of the stress factor. The most common localization of the stress hemorrhagic ulcus is duodenum (66.7%) which is a potential danger for occurrence of the heaviest arterial hemorrhages. After major surgeries and during postoperative periods patients must be preventively protected by "antiulcus therapy" (especially patients with ulcera). PMID:7565340

Radovanovi?, D; Stojanovi?, D; Kalaba, J

1995-01-01

116

HLA-DR- and CD11c-positive Dendritic Cells Penetrate beyond Well-developed Epithelial Tight Junctions in Human Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial barrier of the upper respiratory tract plays a crucial role in host defense. In this study, to elucidate whether there is antigen monitoring by dendritic cells (DCs) beyond the epithelial tight-junction barrier in allergic rhinitis, we investigated the expression and function of tight junctions and characterized DCs in the epithelium of nasal mucosa from patients with allergic rhinitis.

Ken-ichi Takano; Takashi Kojima; Mitsuru Go; Masaki Murata; Shingo Ichimiya; Tetsuo Himi; Norimasa Sawada

2005-01-01

117

Occupational mortality from gastric and duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed Central

The pronounced geographical and temporal variations in gastric and duodenal ulcer suggest that important environmental factors must play a part in their aetiology. To determine the nature of possible factors, the Registrar General's decennial supplement and the vital statistics special reports of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on occupational mortality were analysed for occupation-specific mortality from peptic ulcer. The data disclose a high mortality from both types of ulcer among manual workers and a low mortality among sedentary occupations. This general pattern runs parallel to a low mortality from gastric and duodenal ulcer among the high social classes and a high mortality in the low social classes. Married women displayed a gradient of gastric ulcer mortality increasing from social class 1 to social class 5 but gave no evidence of social class correlation with respect to duodenal ulcer. The significant correlation between mortality from gastric and duodenal ulcer among different occupations could suggest that both types of ulcer hold some of the precipitating environmental risks in common. In duodenal ulcer the varying extent of energy expenditure among different occupations may be responsible for the different risk of contracting duodenal ulcer and dying from it. The association between energy expenditure and peptic ulcer mortality seems to be less important for gastric ulcer where additional factors associated with social class may also be operating. PMID:3947561

Sonnenberg, A; Sonnenberg, G S

1986-01-01

118

Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

1986-07-01

119

Duodenal-Mucosal Bacteria Associated with Celiac Disease in Children  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor

2013-01-01

120

Eviendep® reduces number and size of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate if 3 mo oral supplementation with Eviendep® was able to reduce the number of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). METHODS: Eleven FAP patients with IPAA and duodenal polyps were enrolled. They underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy at the baseline and after 3 mo of treatment. Each patient received 5 mg Eviendep twice a day, at breakfast and dinner time, for 3 mo. Two endoscopists evaluated in a blinded manner the number and size of duodenal polyps. Upper GI endoscopies with biopsies were performed at the baseline (T0) with the assessment of the Spigelman score. Polyps > 10 mm were removed during endoscopy and at the end of the procedure a new Spigelman score was determined (T1). The procedure was repeated 3 mo after the baseline (T2). Four photograms were examined for each patient, at T1 and T2. The examined area was divided into 3 segments: duodenal bulb, second and third portion duodenum. Biopsy specimens were taken from all polyps > 10 mm and from all suspicious ones, defined by the presence of a central depression, irregular surface, or irregular vascular pattern. Histology was classified according to the updated Vienna criteria. RESULTS: At baseline the mean number of duodenal detected polyps was 27.7 and mean sizes were 15.8 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 7.1. After polypectomy the mean number of duodenal detected polyps was 25.7 and mean sizes were 7.6 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 6.4. After 3 mo of Eviendep bid, all patients showed a reduction of number and size of duodenal polyps. The mean number of duodenal polyps was 8 (P = 0.021) and mean size was 4.4 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 6.6. Interrater agreement was measured. Lesions > 1 cm found a very good degree of concordance (kappa 0.851) and a good concordance was as well encountered for smaller lesions (kappa 0.641). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that short-term (90 d) supplementation with Eviendep® in FAP patients with IPAA and with recurrent adenomas in the duodenal mucosa, resulted effective in reducing polyps number of 32% and size of 51%. PMID:24039360

Calabrese, Carlo; Praticò, Chiara; Calafiore, Andrea; Coscia, Maurizio; Gentilini, Lorenzo; Poggioli, Gilberto; Gionchetti, Paolo; Campieri, Massimo; Rizzello, Fernando

2013-01-01

121

Duodenal adenomatosis in familial adenomatous polyposis  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of duodenal carcinoma is much higher in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) than in the background population, and duodenal adenomatosis is found in most polyposis patients. Aims: To describe the long term natural history of duodenal adenomatosis in FAP and evaluate if cancer prophylactic surveillance of the duodenum is indicated. Methods: A prospective five nation study was carried out in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands. Patients: A total of 368 patients were examined by gastroduodenoscopy at two year intervals during the period 1990–2001. Results: At the first endoscopy, 238 (65%) patients had duodenal adenomas at a median age of 38 years. Median follow up was 7.6 years. The cumulative incidence of adenomatosis at age 70 years was 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) 79–100%), and of Spigelman stage IV 52% (95% CI 28–76%). The probability of an advanced Spigelman score increased during the study period (p<0.0001) due to an increasing number and size of adenomas. Two patients had asymptomatic duodenal carcinoma at their first endoscopy while four developed carcinoma during the study at a median age of 52 years (range 26–58). The cumulative incidence rate of cancer was 4.5% at age 57 years (95% CI 0.1–8.9%) and the risk was higher in patients with Spigelman stage IV at their first endoscopy than in those with stages 0–III (p<0.01). Conclusions: The natural course of duodenal adenomatosis has now been described in detail. The high incidence and increasing severity of duodenal adenomatosis with age justifies prophylactic examination, and a programme is presented for upper gastrointestinal endoscopic surveillance. PMID:14960520

Bülow, S; Björk, J; Christensen, I J; Fausa, O; Järvinen, H; Moesgaard, F; Vasen, H F A

2004-01-01

122

Marked decrease in serum pepsinogen II levels resulting from endoscopic resection of a large duodenal tumor.  

PubMed

Studies have indicated that serum pepsinogen (PG) levels are not only markers for chronic atrophic gastritis but also predictive risk factors for gastric cancer. However, serum PG levels can change because of pathological conditions other than gastritis. We report the first case in which abnormally high serum PG II levels (168.8 ng/mL) led to the discovery of a large tumor covering a wide area in the duodenum, and after resection of the tumor, the serum PG II levels markedly decreased. Because endoscopic and histopathological examinations showed no indications of atrophic changes, inflammation of the gastric mucosa, or Helicobacter pylori infection, the serum PG II levels eventually returned to normal (10.1 ng/mL). The preoperative abnormally high PG II levels were probably caused by the large duodenal tumor that prevented PG II (which is produced by the duodenal Brunner's glands) from being secreted into the lumen, a condition that increased the amount transferred to the bloodstream. No previous reports have investigated serum PG II levels before and after resection of a large duodenal tumor. We believe this case provides valuable insight regarding the dynamics of PG II in the body and has important diagnostic implications. PMID:25376543

Yada, Tomoyuki; Ito, Koichi; Suzuki, Keigo; Okubo, Koki; Aoki, Yoichiro; Akazawa, Naoki; Koizuka, Hitohiko; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Uemura, Naomi

2014-12-01

123

Duodenal adenomatosis in Japanese patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.  

PubMed

Duodenal adenomatosis is the most frequent extracolonic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and duodenal cancer has been assumed to be the second most significant cause of death in patients with the disease. To stratify the risk of duodenal cancer, Spigelman's classification was proposed for the staging of duodenal adenomatosis. According to Western guidelines, patients with stage IV of the classification are candidates for prophylactic duodenectomy. Since our institutional experience disclosed only 2% of duodenal or ampullary cancers among 130 patients with FAP, and because most duodenal adenomatosis remains unchanged under endoscopic surveillance, it seems likely that aggressive endoscopic or surgical removal is unnecessary for most FAP patients with duodenal adenomatosis. In the present article, we demonstrate our data and present our strategy for duodenal adenomatosis of FAP. PMID:24750145

Maehata, Yuji; Esaki, Motohiro; Hirahashi, Minako; Kitazono, Takanari; Matsumoto, Takayuki

2014-04-01

124

Complete duodenogastric reflux: A scintigraphic sign of significant duodenal pathology  

SciTech Connect

Complete reflux of duodenal contents into the stomach with persistent retention on hepatobiliary scintigraphy or radionuclide gastrointestinal bleeding studies is a relatively rare occurrence. Two cases of complete duodenogastric reflux are reported: one case in a patient with a perforated duodenal diverticulum and the other in a patient with an inflamed, bleeding duodenal ulcer. The finding of complete duodenogastric reflux and persistent retention in the stomach should instigate a thorough evaluation for significant duodenal pathology.

Drane, W.E.; Hanner, J.S. (Shands Hospital, Gainesville, FL (USA))

1989-09-01

125

Prostaglandin pathways in duodenal chemosensing.  

PubMed

Acid-sensing pathways, which trigger mucosal defense mechanisms in response to luminal acid, involve the rapid afferent-mediated "capsaicin pathway" and the sustained "prostaglandin (PG) pathway." Luminal acid quickly increases protective PG synthesis and release from epithelia, although the mechanism by which luminal acid induces PG synthesis is still mostly unknown. Acid exposure augments purinergic ATP-P2Y signaling by inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity. Since P2Y activation increases intracellular Ca2+, we further hypothesized that ATP-P2Y signals increase the generation of H2O2 derived from dual oxidase, a member of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family activated by Ca2+. Our recent studies suggest that acid exposure increases H2O2 output, followed by phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase activation, increasing PG synthesis. Released prostaglandin E2 augments protective HCO3- and mucus secretion via EP4 receptor activation. Thus, the PG pathway as a component of duodenal acid sensing consists of acid-related intestinal alkaline phosphatase inhibition, ATP-P2Y signals, dual oxidase 2-derived H2O2 production, phospholipase A2 activation, prostaglandin E2 synthesis, and EP4 receptor activation. The PG pathway is also involved in luminal bacterial sensing in the duodenum via activation of pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2. The presence of acute mucosal responses to luminal bacteria suggests that the duodenum is important for host defenses and may reduce bacterial loading to the hindgut using H2O2, complementing gastric acidity and anti-bacterial bile acids. PMID:25521740

Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

2014-12-01

126

[Mucinous gastric adenocarcinoma and duodenal somato-statinoma. Case report].  

PubMed

The Authors present a rare association of gastric adenocarcinoma and somatostatin-producing duodenal carcinoid. The pre-operative abdominal CT scan revealed the gastric lesions and a duodenal polypoid lesion, giving an important indication to perform a subtotal gastrectomy and a duodenal resection. The definitive diagnosis was possible with histological examination. PMID:18834564

Biffoni, M; Macrina, N; Napoli, A; Amabile, M I; Cavallo Marincola, B; Anzidei, M; Catalano, C; Maturo, A; Pasta, V

2008-01-01

127

Beta-carotene isomers in human serum, breast milk and buccal mucosa cells after continuous oral doses of all-trans and 9-cis beta-carotene.  

PubMed

The concentrations of all-trans beta-carotene (tBC) and 9-cis beta-carotene (9cBC) isomers in serum, breast milk and buccal mucosa cells were determined after continuous oral doses as a simple, non-invasive method to determine whether differences in tissue uptake are important determinants of serum responses. Twelve healthy lactating women were recruited for a nonresidential study. On d 1, blood samples were obtained from fasting subjects for baseline concentrations of beta-carotene isomers. Over a 1-wk period, subjects were given either seven doses of a placebo (n = 4) or seven doses of naturally occurring BC (n = 8) derived from Dunaliella bardawil (64 mg tBC, 69 mg 9cBC). Subjects were instructed to consume a single beta-carotene dose along with a meal containing adequate fat each day for 1 wk. On d 2, 3, 5 and 8, blood samples and breast milk were collected from fasting subjects. On d 1 and 8, buccal mucosa cells were collected. Samples were analyzed for carotenoids by HPLC. In the experimental group, the mean serum concentration of tBC significantly increased to seven times the baseline level by the end of the supplementation period (P < 0.0001). The serum concentration of 9cBC significantly increased to three times the baseline level by the end of the supplementation period (P < 0.0001). The changes in milk and buccal mucosa cells levels of tBC and 9cBC followed a pattern similar to that for serum, showing significant increases at the end of the supplementation period. In the control group, the serum, milk and buccal mucosa cell concentrations of BC isomers did not change. This study confirms the previously reported differences in the serum response curves of tBC and 9cBC and provides evidence that there is no difference in tissue uptake of tBC and 9cBC. PMID:9311956

Johnson, E J; Qin, J; Krinsky, N I; Russell, R M

1997-10-01

128

AUTOMATIVE QUANTIFICATION OF RAT DUODENAL RHYTHMIC CONTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The pacemaker activity of longitudinal muscle, as reflected by in vitro rhythmic contractions of the adult male rat's duodenum, has been examined in terms of intercontraction intervals that were collected using a microprocessor-based system. For each duodenal segment studied, 512...

129

[Effect of intermittent normobaric hypoxia on gastric and duodenal mucosa in man].  

PubMed

Clinical and laboratory examinations of 11 patients with peptic ulcer have shown that combined treatment using sessions of intermittent normobaric hypoxytherapy (10% of oxygen in 90% of nitrogen, length of respiration is 7 min., respiration of free air 3 min., such 6 cycles for 1 hour) promotes healing of ulcers, decreases dyspepsic and astheno-neurotic symptoms of disease. The method can be recommended for treating the patients with peptic ulcer and for preventing seasonal acute attacks in patients with relapses of this disease. PMID:1305093

Stepanov, O G

1992-01-01

130

HIV Infection of the Genital Mucosa in Women  

E-print Network

which it more easily penetrates the mucosa. At any rate, the picture is emerging that in many cases the female genital tract. Stud- ies using human explant tissues and in vivo animal studies have improved our the inability to directly observe these activities in the virus's natural human host, our knowl- edge

Dever, Jennifer A.

131

Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Methods Forty six (46) non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Results Seventy two percent (72%) of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23%) versus palate/gum (16%). Conclusions This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression. PMID:21129222

2010-01-01

132

Duodenal string test in typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Twenty five children between 4-12 years of age hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of enteric fever were studied for evaluating the practicality and sensitivity of duodenal string-capsule culture (DSCC) and compared with conventional cultures from blood (BC), urine (UC) and stool (SC). Duodenal string capsule (DSCC) was successfully inserted in 18 patients (72%). Insertion of DSCC failed in 7 patients (28%) and all of them were below 6 years of age. Salmonella typhi was isolated from DSCC and/or BC in 13 cases (72.2%). DSCC was positive in 11 out of 13 confirmed cases of typhoid fever (84.6%). BC was positive in 8 cases (61.5%). DSCC was successful in isolating the organism in about 30% more cases than BC. Duodenal string test was a simple, non-invasive and a reliable test which when used in combination with BC could identify almost all cases of enteric fever irrespective of duration of fever and prior use of antibiotics. PMID:8282391

Antony, T J; Patwari, A K; Anand, V K; Pillai, P K; Aneja, S; Sharma, D

1993-05-01

133

Leptin Promotes Wound Healing in the Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Results Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Conclusion Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa. PMID:25033454

Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito

2014-01-01

134

Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa light chain restriction.  

PubMed

Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules which are likely the result of disturbed secretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate within the plasma cell. Russell body collections have been identified within the stomach, known as Russell body gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenum are referred to as Russell body duodenitis, which is rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reports are associated with Helicobacter pylori. However, the etiology of Russell body duodenitis remains unclear. Here we report the first case of Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin light chain restriction in a background of peptic duodenitis. PMID:25610537

Munday, William R; Kapur, Lucy Harn; Xu, Mina; Zhang, Xuchen

2015-01-16

135

Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa light chain restriction  

PubMed Central

Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules which are likely the result of disturbed secretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate within the plasma cell. Russell body collections have been identified within the stomach, known as Russell body gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenum are referred to as Russell body duodenitis, which is rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reports are associated with Helicobacter pylori. However, the etiology of Russell body duodenitis remains unclear. Here we report the first case of Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin light chain restriction in a background of peptic duodenitis. PMID:25610537

Munday, William R; Kapur, Lucy Harn; Xu, Mina; Zhang, Xuchen

2015-01-01

136

[Glycoproteins of mucus of gastric and duodenal wall surface during ulcerogenesis and the impact of fenugreek].  

PubMed

The comparative evaluation of qualitative and quantitative composition of glycoproteins of gastric and duodenal wall surface layer of protective mucus in the normal, at the modeling of ulcers in rats and at the introduction to animals with ulcerative lesions of fenugreek extract carried out. It was shown in control (normally) the general level of glycosylation of glycoproteins gastric mucus is 1.7 times more than the duodenum. Under acute stress model ulceration in the stomach mucus decrease in hexosamine (1.4 times), galactose (2.2 times), fucose (1.3-fold) and an increase in NANA (3.6 times) observed. Under cysteamine model ulceration in duodenal mucus increase galactose (2.7 times), NANA (2.4 times), fucose (1.8-fold) but significant decrease in the amount of hexosamines 3 times compared to the control occurred. It was proved the protective effect of fenugreek extract to the wall surface mucus of the stomach and duodenum mucosa under conditions modeling ulceration in rats. PMID:24175480

Khil'ko, T D; Iakubtsova, I V; Preobrazhens'ka, T D; Ostapchenko, L I

2013-01-01

137

Duodenal pH in health and duodenal ulcer disease: effect of a meal, Coca-Cola, smoking, and cimetidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraluminal duodenal pH was recorded using a combined miniature electrode and logged digitally every 10 or 20 seconds for five hours (basal\\/meal\\/drink) in eight control subjects and 11 patients with duodenal ulcer (five on and off treatment with cimetidine). Over the whole test there were no significant differences in duodenal mean pH or log mean hydrogen ion activity (LMHa) between

R F McCloy; G R Greenberg; J H Baron

1984-01-01

138

Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep C. PONCET, M. IVAN M of duodenal digesta flow were made in sheep implanted with an electromagnetic flowmeter probe on the ascending and transverse duodenum and in sheep equipped in the ascending duodenum with a 'Y'-type or 'Ash'-type reentrant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Metastasis of breast cancer to major duodenal papilla.  

PubMed

Metastasis is an infrequent cause of tumor involvement of the major duodenal papilla and of cholestasis. We report a case of obstructive jaundice due to a metastatic breast carcinoma to the major duodenal papilla, and assess curative and palliative treatment that interventional endoscopy can offer. PMID:25028907

Bastos, Tiago; Souza, Thiago F; Otoch, Jose P; Grecco, Eduardo; Àvila, Fabio; Artifon, Everson L A

2014-04-01

140

[Duodenal decompression in the surgical management of complicated ulcers].  

PubMed

Operative duodenal decompression for correction of and prophylaxis against duodenostasis is discussed. The methods used for treating complicated pyloric or duodenal ulcers include: perforation suture according to Opel-Polykarpov, resection of the stomach after Billroth-Haberer-Finney, resection of the stomach after Billroth-Vitebsky. All procedures listed above are performed in conjunction with operative interventions aimed at duodenostasis decompression. PMID:11194652

Yaramov, N; Yankov, V

1999-01-01

141

Does duodenal atresia and stenosis prevent midgut volvulus in malrotation?  

PubMed

Thirty-six of the 64 (56%) neonates with duodenal atresia and stenosis who were retrospectively reviewed had associated malrotation. A volvulus neonatorum (age: <28 days) was not encountered among these patients. Can the duodenal atresia and stenosis act as a flood gate mechanism, in the prevention of volvulus in these children? PMID:9085801

Samuel, M; Wheeler, R A; Mami, A G

1997-02-01

142

Prudence is necessary in the application of the new ESPGHAN criteria for celiac disease omitting duodenal biopsy: a case report.  

PubMed

New guidelines for celiac disease (CD) diagnosis from the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) propose the option to omit the duodenal biopsy in the diagnosis of CD. For this option, all four of the following criteria have to apply in children and adolescents: signs and symptoms suggestive of CD, anti-transglutaminase type 2 antibody (anti-TG2) levels more than 10 times the upper limit of normal, positive confirmation tests of anti-endomysium-IgA antibodies (EMA), and at-risk HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8. Here, we report the case of a female patient, 2 years old, with chronic diarrhea that started after an acute viral gastroenteritis. The patient had anti-TG2 levels of more than 10 times the upper limit of normal, positivity for EMA, antigliadin IgA, and IgG (AGA-IgA, AGA-IgG, respectively), and the at-risk HLA-DRB1*0301, DQB1*0201/DRB1*10, DQB1*0501 genotype, thus fulfilling all criteria for the diagnosis of CD. Although the diarrhea disappeared after about 5 weeks, anti-TG2, EMA, and AGA-IgG remained positive. Therefore, a duodenal biopsy was performed and evidenced a normal mucosa (Marsh 0). After about 18 months, the antibody titer for AGA-IgG, anti-TG2, and EMA became negative. The patient was all the time on a normal, gluten-containing diet. This clinical case represents an exception to the new ESPGHAN guidelines for CD diagnosis. During 5 weeks, the new ESPGHAN criteria were all fulfilled, allowing to propose for this patient the diagnosis of CD without performing a duodenal biopsy. Therefore, a prudent approach is suggested when the pediatric gastroenterologist makes a diagnosis of CD without duodenal biopsy. PMID:24694761

Schirru, Enrico; Jores, Rita-Désirée; Congia, Mauro

2014-06-01

143

Duodenal bulb tumour of unknown origin  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Their development typically depends on mutations in the Kit or PDGFRA gene. We have diagnosed and treated a duodenal bulb GIST in a 63-year-old woman. The confirmation of the diagnosis was made on the basis of a histological test after radical resection of the tumour. Making the right diagnosis is crucial for patients, since complex surgical and pharmacological approaches are effective even in the advanced stages of the disease. Nevertheless, radical surgical treatment is still the primary choice for patients with GIST.

Sobo?, Marcin; Szylberg, Tadeusz; Rudzi?ski, Janusz

2014-01-01

144

[Sonography in extensive juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum].  

PubMed

The ultrasonic appearance of a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum as a pancreatic pseudo-mass is the subject of the discussion. An attempt is made to explain the homogeneous, echo-poor and solid aspect--even after rescanning through the fluid-filled stomach and duodenum and to correlate it with the diverticula's histological layers. The ERCP is the method of choice to examine the diverticula's inner wall and to investigate at the same time the frequently involved biliary tract and pancreatic diseases. PMID:6441251

Müller, G E; Brandstätter, G; Kratochvil, P; Harnoncourt, K

1984-12-01

145

Endoscopic Treatments of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography-Related Duodenal Perforations  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic duodenal perforation associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a very uncommon complication that is often lethal. Perforations during ERCP are caused by endoscopic sphincterotomy, placement of biliary or duodenal stents, guidewire-related causes, and endoscopy itself. In particular, perforation of the medial or lateral duodenal wall usually requires prompt diagnosis and surgical management. Perforation can follow various clinical courses, and management depends on the cause of the perforation. Cases resulting from sphincterotomy or guidewire-induced perforation can be managed by conservative treatment and biliary diversion. The current standard treatment for perforation of the duodenal free wall is early surgical repair. However, several reports of primary endoscopic closure techniques using endoclip, endoloop, or newly developed endoscopic devices have recently been described, even for use in direct perforation of the duodenal wall. PMID:24143315

Han, Joung-Ho; Park, Sang-Heum

2013-01-01

146

Luminal l-glutamate enhances duodenal mucosal defense mechanisms via multiple glutamate receptors in rats  

PubMed Central

Presence of taste receptor families in the gastrointestinal mucosa suggests a physiological basis for local and early detection of a meal. We hypothesized that luminal l-glutamate, which is the primary nutrient conferring fundamental umami or proteinaceous taste, influences mucosal defense mechanisms in rat duodenum. We perfused the duodenal mucosa of anesthetized rats with l-glutamate (0.1–10 mM). Intracellular pH (pHi) of the epithelial cells, blood flow, and mucus gel thickness (MGT) were simultaneously and continuously measured in vivo. Some rats were pretreated with indomethacin or capsaicin. Duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) was measured with flow-through pH and CO2 electrodes. We tested the effects of agonists or antagonists for metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 or 4 or calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on defense factors. Luminal l-glutamate dose dependently increased pHi and MGT but had no effect on blood flow in the duodenum. l-glutamate (10 mM)-induced cellular alkalinization and mucus secretion were inhibited by pretreatment with indomethacin or capsaicin. l-glutamate effects on pHi and MGT were mimicked by mGluR4 agonists and inhibited by an mGluR4 antagonist. CaSR agonists acidified cells with increased MGT and DBS, unlike l-glutamate. Perfusion of l-glutamate with inosinate (inosine 5?-monophosphate, 0.1 mM) enhanced DBS only in combination, suggesting synergistic activation of the l-glutamate receptor, typical of taste receptor type 1. l-leucine or l-aspartate had similar effects on DBS without any effect on pHi and MGT. Preperfusion of l-glutamate prevented acid-induced cellular injury, suggesting that l-glutamate protects the mucosa by enhancing mucosal defenses. Luminal l-glutamate may activate multiple receptors and afferent nerves and locally enhance mucosal defenses to prevent subsequent injury attributable to acid exposure in the duodenum. PMID:19643955

Watanabe, Chikako; Mizumori, Misa; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

2009-01-01

147

Mimicking the biological olfactory system: a Portable electronic Mucosa.  

PubMed

In this study the authors report on the development of a new type of electronic nose (e-nose) instrument, which the authors refer to as the Portable electronic Mucosa (PeM) as a continuation of previous research. It is designed to mimic the human nose by taking significant biological features and replicating them electronically. The term electronic mucosa or simply e-mucosa was used because our e-nose emulates the nasal chromatographic effect discovered in the olfactory epithelium, located within the upper turbinate. The e-mucosa generates spatio-temporal information that the authors believe could lead to improved odour discrimination. The PeM comprises three large sensor arrays each containing a total of 576 sensors, with 24 different coatings, to increase the odour selectivity. The nasal chromatographic effect provides temporal information in the human olfactory system, and is mimicked here using two-coated retentive channels. These channels are coated with polar and non-polar compounds to enhance the selectivity of the instrument. Thus, for an unknown sample, the authors have both the spatial information (as with a traditional e-nose) and the temporal information. The authors believe that this PeM may offer a way forward in developing a new range of low-cost e-noses with superior odour specificity. PMID:22559706

Che Harun, F K; Covington, J A; Gardner, J W

2012-06-01

148

A human homologue to the yeast omnipotent suppressor 45 maps 100 kb centromeric to HLA-A  

SciTech Connect

Idipathic hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive inherited disorder of iron metabolism. The molecular defect is unknown. However, the gene responsible for the disease (HFE) has been localized on the short arm of chromosome 6. It is closely linked to the HLA class I genes and possibly within a 350 kilobase (kb) region around the HLA-A locus. In order to identify candidate genes for hemochromatosis, we applied a cDNA selection technique to isolate transcribed sequences encoded on yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC). At first, we screened a cDNA library derived from normal human duodenal mucosa with the YAC B30 H3. This YAC contains a 320 kb DNA insert including the HLA-A gene and spanning 150 kb of the 350 kb zone where the hemochromatosis gene is in linkage disequilibrium with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Preparation of the cDNA library of duodenal mucosa in Lambda Zap II phage and library screening with YAC B30 were carried out as previously described. In this way, we isolated seven non-HLA-A cDNAs corresponding to seven new genomic sequences. These potential genes were named hemochromatosis candidate gene (HCG) and numbered I to VII. The survey of all these cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences is in progress. In this work, we are especially interested in one of the seven non-HLA class I cDNA clones, named clone 58. 12 refs., 2 figs.

Chauvel, B.; Dorval, I.; Fergelot, P. [CNRS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes (France)] [and others

1995-04-01

149

Biliary Stent Migration with Duodenal Perforation  

PubMed Central

Intestinal perforation from a migrated biliary stent is a known complication of endoscopic biliary stent placement. We present a case of stent migration and resultant duodenal perforation after stent placement for a malignant biliary stricture in a 52-year-old woman. We review the current literature on the diagnosis and management of stent migration and intestinal perforation after endoscopic stent placement for biliary strictures. A plain abdominal radiograph is necessary for early diagnosis of biliary stent migration. If a stent becomes lodged in the gastrointestinal tract, endoscopic or operative extraction of the stent is necessary to prevent subsequent intestinal perforation and peritonitis. Intestinal perforation secondary to biliary stent dislocation should be considered in all patients presenting with fever and abdominal pain after biliary stent insertion. Any abnormality that prevents stent migration through the intestinal tract such as gastroenterostomy, abdominal wall hernia, extensive adhesions or colonic divertucula may be a contraindication for insertion of a plastic biliary stent because of increased perforation risk.

Yaprak, Muhittin; Mesci, Ayhan; Colak, Taner; Yildirim, Bulent

2008-01-01

150

Improving management of duodenal ulcer disease.  

PubMed Central

Audit of treatment of duodenal ulcer disease has allowed management to improve and keep abreast of rapid advances in care. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori was assessed by 14C urea breath test one to two months after anti-Helicobacter therapy. The old triple therapy regime of bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole for two weeks was found to be toxic and of low effectiveness (82%). Regimes with lansoprazole for one month and antibiotics for one week gave 90-98% success rates. The best success has been with regimes containing both clarithromycin and a nitro-imidazole. There was complete success in 98% of 109 patients given quadruple therapy with lansoprazole 30 mg daily for one month plus tetracycline 500 mg twice daily, clarithromycin 250 mg twice daily and metronidazole 400 mg twice daily for one week. PMID:9519185

Bateson, M. C.; Diffey, B. L.

1997-01-01

151

Inhibition of acid secretion from parietal cells by non-human-infecting Helicobacter species: a factor in colonization of gastric mucosa?  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori has been shown to produce a protein that inhibits acid secretion from parietal cells. We have examined other non-human-infecting Helicobacter species for this property by measuring the uptake of [14C]aminopyrine into rabbit parietal cells as an indirect assessment of acid secretion. Helicobacter felis and an isolate from a rhesus monkey were shown to inhibit acid secretion. Isolates of Helicobacter mustelae gave variable responses. Whole bacteria and cell-free sonicates impaired the uptake of [14C]aminopyrine. We also tested other bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Campylobacter jejuni. As whole organisms, these control bacteria had little effect on acid secretion, but sonicates caused pronounced inhibition that was partially heat labile. Pronase treatment of H. pylori destroyed its inhibitory effect. These results suggest that most Helicobacter species, but not all isolates, are able to inhibit acid secretion from rabbit parietal cells. This property may be a factor in the establishment of long-term infection by these species. Images PMID:1894369

Vargas, M; Lee, A; Fox, J G; Cave, D R

1991-01-01

152

Interaction between IL1B gene promoter polymorphisms in determining susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori associated duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed

It has been speculated that IL-1 genes play a crucial role in the genetic predisposition to duodenal ulcer upon H. pylori infection by modulating the host immune response. In the present study, 310 individuals from Eastern India were subjected to a case-control study to determine the IL1B and IL1RN risk genotypes to H. pylori mediated duodenal ulcer. An analysis of genotype frequency revealed a significantly higher frequency of IL1B -511TT (NT_022135.14:g.2302610C>T), OR=4.22 (95% CI=1.8-9.4) and -31CC (NT_022135.14:g.2302130C>T), OR=2.16 (95% CI 1.12-4.15) genotypes in H. pylori-infected individuals with duodenal ulcer compared to infected individuals with normal mucosa. Moreover, the T/C haplotype of IL1B -511 and IL1B -31 loci was present in a significantly higher frequency in H. pylori-infected duodenal ulcer patients than in infected controls (OR=2.47, CI=1.27-4.8). Quantitative analysis of the mucosal IL1B mRNA revealed that among H. pylori-infected individuals, carriers of the -31CC genotype had significantly lower IL1B transcript levels than carriers of the CT (P<0.001) and TT (P<0.001) genotypes, independently of disease status. An IL1B promoter activity assay showed that the promoter with -31T had a 10-fold increase in activity compared to the one with -31C. The IL1B promoter bearing the different combinations of both polymorphic loci showed an interaction between the -511 and -31 loci. Our results show that H. pylori-infected individuals with the -31CC genotype secrete less IL1B and are susceptible to duodenal ulcers. They also suggest that the allelic interaction between the -511 and -31 polymorphic sites determines the overall strength of the IL1B promoter. PMID:16550552

Chakravorty, Meenakshi; Ghosh, Arunima; Choudhury, Abhijit; Santra, Amal; Hembrum, Jobaranjan; Roychoudhury, Susanta

2006-05-01

153

Duodenal switch for intractable reflux gastroesophagitis after proximal gastrectomy.  

PubMed

Reflux gastroesophagitis is a common postgastrectomy complication after proximal gastrectomy, and conservative treatments including protease inhibitors and proton pump inhibitors are effective in most patients. Here we report a patient with severe reflux gastroesophagitis after proximal gastrectomy, in whom surgical treatment of duodenal switch was effective. An 80-year-old man complained of intractable heartburn, anorexia, and body weight loss after having undergone proximal gastrectomy, with reconstruction by esophagogastrostomy with valvuloplasty and pyloroplasty, for early gastric cancer 14 months before referral to our department. Oral administration of protease inhibitors and proton pump inhibitors was ineffective. Laboratory evaluation showed poor nutritional status. On endoscopic examination, we noted the redness, bleeding, and multiple erosions in the esophagus and the gastric remnant. He was diagnosed to have severe gastroesophagitis due to reflux of duodenal juice into the gastric remnant and esophagus. We performed duodenal switch to divert duodenal juice from the gastric remnant and esophagus; the duodenum was transected 2 cm distal to the pylorus, the duodenal distal end was closed, and a 50-cm Roux limb from the proximal jejunum was anastomosed to the proximal end of the duodenum. The heartburn disappeared postoperatively, and endoscopic examination revealed marked improvement of the reflux gastroesophagitis. One year postoperatively, the patient is free from symptoms including heartburn. His body weight increased, and laboratory data showed improvement in nutritional status. In conclusion, the duodenal switch may be surgical treatment of choice for intractable reflux gastroesophagitis after proximal gastrectomy. PMID:23803250

Someya, Soutoku; Shibata, Chikashi; Tanaka, Naoki; Kudoh, Katsuyoshi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Miura, Koh; Unno, Michiaki

2013-01-01

154

[Use of an herbal combination with laxative action on duodenal peptic ulcer and gastroduodenitis patients with a concomitant obstipation syndrome].  

PubMed

Thirty two patients were treated--19 with duodenal ulcer and 19 with gastroduodenitis, all of them with concomitant obstipation syndrome. The patients were treated with a combination of Symphitum officinalis and Calendula officinales form the main disease. The obstipation syndrome was treated with a combination of Rhamus frangula, Citrus aurantium, Carum carvi. The laxative herb combination was effective in 100 per cent of the patients--daily defecation in 90.6 per cent and every second day in 9.4 per cent of the patients was attained. No effect on gastric mucosa was established as well as on the clinical effect of the main disease and on the percentage of the ulcer niche healing. PMID:7336705

Matev, M; Chak?rski, I; Stefanov, G; Ko?chev, A; Angelov, I

1981-01-01

155

Longlasting Remission of Primary Hepatic Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma Achieved by Radiotherapy Alone  

PubMed Central

Primary hepatic lymphoma is a rare disorder representing less than 1% of all extranodal lymphomas. Histological examination of a primary hepatic lymphoma usually reveals a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; there have been few reports of primary hepatic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. A 67-year-old man was being treated for a duodenal ulcer; while receiving therapy for the ulcer, a liver mass was incidentally found on abdominal ultrasonography. The pathologic diagnosis of the hepatic mass was an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT. The patient underwent radiotherapy with a total of 4,140 cGy delivered. The patient achieved complete remission and has been followed for 6 years with no recurrence of the disease. This report reviews the case of a primary hepatic extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT successfully treated by radiotherapy alone. PMID:16913444

Shin, Sang Yun; Kim, Jin Seok; Lim, Jong Keun; Yang, Woo Ick; Suh, Chang Ok

2006-01-01

156

Laser treatment of oral mucosa tattoo.  

PubMed

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-12-01

157

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

PubMed Central

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

158

Purinergic regulation of duodenal surface pH and ATP concentration: Implications for mucosal defense, lipid uptake, and cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The duodenum secretes HCO3? as part of a multi-layered series of defense mechanism against damage from luminal acid. In the 1980s, an alkaline surface layer was measured over the mucosa which correlated with the rate of HCO3? secretion. Since all biological processes are regulated, we investigated how the alkaline pH of the surface layer was maintained. Since the ecto-phosphorylase alkaline phosphatase (AP) is highly expressed in the duodenal brush border, we hypothesized that its extreme alkaline pH optimum (~pH 8-9) combined with its ability to hydrolyze regulatory purines such as ATP was part of an ecto-purinergic signalling system, consisting also of brush border P2Y receptors and CFTR-mediated HCO3? secretion. Extracellular ATP increases the rate of HCO3? secretion through this purinergic system. At high surface pH (pHs), AP activity is increased, which then increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, decreasing surface ATP concentration ([ATP]s), with a resultant decrease of the rate of HCO3? secretion, which subsequently decreases pHs. This feedback loop is thus hypothesized to regulate pHs over the duodenal mucosa, and in several other HCO3? secretory organs. Since AP activity is directly related to pHs, and since AP hydrolyzes ATP, [ATP]s and pHs are co-regulated. Since many essential tissue functions such as ciliary motility and lipid uptake are dependent on [ATP]s, dysregulation of pHs and [ATP]s may help explain the tissue dysfunction characteristic of diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:20560899

Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

2014-01-01

159

Correlation of Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody with Duodenal Histologic Marsh Grading  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Recent guidelines have proposed that there is a correlation between tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibody titers and degrees of duodenal biopsy, and that duodenal biopsy can be omitted in some patients with high levels of tTG antibody. Using data of registered patients in a gastrointestinal clinic we aimed to assess the correlation between tissue transglutaminase antibody with duodenal histologic Marsh grading in Iranian patients with celiac disease. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed hospital files of registered patients in the gastrointestinal clinic of Firoozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Demographic, laboratory, and histology data of those who had tTG titer and pathology reports of duodenal biopsy based on the modified Marsh classification were extracted and used for the study. RESULTS 159 patients with available tTG titer and pathology reports were enrolled in our study. Mean ±SD of the patients was 35.6±15.2 and 100 (62.9%) of them were women. 133 out of 153 patients had villous atrophy (Marsh IIIa-IIIc). Anemia was the most common sign and bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea were the first three common symptoms in these patients. Mean tTG titers was significantly higher in patients graded as Marsh III (p for trend=0.003). Our results showed that tTG titer more than 9 folds higher than the kit’s cut-off value was about 97.2% sensitive for Marsh II and more duodenal damage. CONCLUSION There was a correlation between tTG titers and degrees of duodenal damage in patients with celiac disease. Duodenal biopsy is not always necessary for diagnosing celiac disease and when tTG level is more than 9 folds higher than the manufacture’s recommended cut-off value it can be avoided. Meanwhile small intestinal biopsy should always be considered in case of high clinical suspicion, regardless of the results of serologic testing. PMID:25093060

Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Alipour, Abbass; Boghratian, Amirhossein; Setareh, Massomeh; Zamani, Farhad

2014-01-01

160

Correlation of tissue transglutaminase antibody with duodenal histologic marsh grading.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Recent guidelines have proposed that there is a correlation between tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibody titers and degrees of duodenal biopsy, and that duodenal biopsy can be omitted in some patients with high levels of tTG antibody. Using data of registered patients in a gastrointestinal clinic we aimed to assess the correlation between tissue transglutaminase antibody with duodenal histologic Marsh grading in Iranian patients with celiac disease. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed hospital files of registered patients in the gastrointestinal clinic of Firoozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Demographic, laboratory, and histology data of those who had tTG titer and pathology reports of duodenal biopsy based on the modified Marsh classification were extracted and used for the study. RESULTS 159 patients with available tTG titer and pathology reports were enrolled in our study. Mean ±SD of the patients was 35.6±15.2 and 100 (62.9%) of them were women. 133 out of 153 patients had villous atrophy (Marsh IIIa-IIIc). Anemia was the most common sign and bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea were the first three common symptoms in these patients. Mean tTG titers was significantly higher in patients graded as Marsh III (p for trend=0.003). Our results showed that tTG titer more than 9 folds higher than the kit's cut-off value was about 97.2% sensitive for Marsh II and more duodenal damage. CONCLUSION There was a correlation between tTG titers and degrees of duodenal damage in patients with celiac disease. Duodenal biopsy is not always necessary for diagnosing celiac disease and when tTG level is more than 9 folds higher than the manufacture's recommended cut-off value it can be avoided. Meanwhile small intestinal biopsy should always be considered in case of high clinical suspicion, regardless of the results of serologic testing. PMID:25093060

Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Alipour, Abbass; Boghratian, Amirhossein; Setareh, Massomeh; Zamani, Farhad

2014-07-01

161

microRNA profiles in coeliac patients distinguish different clinical phenotypes and are modulated by gliadin peptides in primary duodenal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

CD (coeliac disease) is a frequent autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, which is characterized by an immunological reaction against gluten and transglutaminase in genetically predisposed subjects. However, the molecular determinants underpinning CD pathogenesis are yet to be fully elucidated and little data are available about the involvement of miRNAs (microRNAs) in CD. In the present study, the duodenal mucosa miRNA expression was profiled in adult untreated CD presenting with a classic phenotype or iron-deficiency anaemia, treated patients with or without duodenal normalization, and non-CD subjects as controls. Deregulation of seven miRNAs (miR-31-5p, miR-192-3p, miR-194-5p, miR-551a, miR-551b-5p, miR-638 and miR-1290) was determined in a larger series of CD patients with different clinical phenotypes compared with non-CD subjects. These seven microRNAs were then analysed in duodenal fibroblasts obtained from CD patients and incubated with gliadin peptides (13- and 33-mer). The miRNA cluster miR-192/194, involved in matrix remodelling, was deregulated in CD according to the different clinical presentations, and miR-192-3p levels were modulated by gliadin peptides in vitro. In conclusion, the analysis of miRNAs deserves further consideration for its potential use in the treatment and management of CD. PMID:24063611

Vaira, Valentina; Roncoroni, Leda; Barisani, Donatella; Gaudioso, Gabriella; Bosari, Silvano; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Doneda, Luisa; Conte, Dario; Tomba, Carolina; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Ferrero, Stefano; Locatelli, Martina; Elli, Luca

2014-03-01

162

Duodenal perforation caused by a bird feather  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies represents a challenging clinical scenario. The greater risk is at extremes of age, in those wearing dentures, alcoholics and mentally handicapped. We present a case of duodenal perforation caused by a bird feather. A 64-year-old man was presented with abdominal pain for 4?days. Abdominal examination showed signs of peritonitis. The erect abdominal x-ray showed free gas under diaphragm. Exploratory laparotomy showed purulent fluid, but no definite site of perforation could be found. So the abdomen was closed with a drain in Morison's pouch. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. He came for a repeat check-up at 4?weeks with dull aching pain in the upper abdomen and was advised for a routine upper GI endoscopy which revealed a feather penetrating the first part of the duodenum, which was removed with a foreign body removing forceps. GI foreign bodies represent a significant problem and an increased level of suspicion is important for timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23417953

Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Kumar, Anil

2013-01-01

163

Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

Oh, Jung Suk, E-mail: oj-cumc@daum.net; Lee, Hae Giu, E-mail: hgleehfh@catholic.ac.kr; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil [Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai [Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Ohm, Joon Young [Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

164

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-01-01

165

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-12-16

166

Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

2014-06-01

167

Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective effects of proglumide in rats  

SciTech Connect

Proglumide has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect the gastroduodenal mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, cysteamine and the cytodestructing agents: 80% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and 30 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in 0.35 M HCl in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that proglumide has both prophylactic and curative effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rats and reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, mucosal damaging agents and that of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The intensity of gastric lesions induced by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and reserpine was also reduced significantly by proglumide. Cimetidine, which was used as a standard antiulcer drug for comparison, also produced a similar protective effect in most of the models used by us. It was found to have a more potent antisecretory effect but failed to protect the rats against the gastric mucosal damage induced by hyperthermic restraint stress and 0.2 M NaOH. Our findings suggest that proglumide exerts these antiulcer effects by its antisecretory, gastric mucosal resistance increasing and cytoprotective activities. Further studies are required to find out its exact mechanism of action and therapeutic usefulness.

Tariq, M.; Parmar, N.S.; Ageel, A.M.

1987-05-01

168

Isolated perforation of a duodenal diverticulum following blunt abdominal trauma  

PubMed Central

Only 10% of duodenal diverticula are symptomatic. We present the case of a man who fell from a height of 6 ft, landing on his abdomen and presenting 4 h later with severe back pain and a rigid abdomen. At laparotomy, a perforated retroperitoneal duodenal diverticulum was found and repaired with an omental patch. No other injury was noted. Not only is this perforation unusual, but the absence of other injuries sustained during this minor blunt trauma makes this case unique. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion when managing patients with back or abdominal pain following minor trauma. PMID:20165728

Metcalfe, Matthew J; Rashid, Tanwir G; Bird, Richard le R

2010-01-01

169

Surgical resection of duodenal lymphangiectasia: a case report.  

PubMed

Intestinal lymphangiectasia, characterized by dilatation of intestinal lacteals, is rare. The major treatment for primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is dietary modification. Surgery to relieve symptoms and to clarify the etiology should be considered when medical treatment failed. This article reports a 49-year-old woman of solitary duodenal lymphangiectasia, who presented with epigastralgia and anemia. Her symptoms persisted with medical treatment. Surgery was finally performed to relieve the symptoms and to exclude the existence of underlying etiologies, with satisfactory effect. In conclusion, duodenal lymphangiectasia can present clinically as epigastralgia and chronic blood loss. Surgical resection may be resorted to relieve pain, control bleeding, and exclude underlying diseases in some patients. PMID:14669360

Chen, Chih-Ping; Chao, Yee; Li, Chung-Pin; Lo, Wen-Ching; Wu, Chew-Wun; Tsay, Shyh-Haw; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Chang, Full-Young

2003-12-01

170

Lysosomes of the liver and the duodenal enterocytes, a site of handling of two rare earths. Ultrastructural and microanalytical study.  

PubMed

The frequent use of some trace elements such as gadolinium and terbium in medicine and modern industries make us worry about their behavior in the organism. In this work, we study the intracellular localization in the liver and in the intestinal mucosa of two rare earths, gadolinium and terbium, after intraperitoneal and intragastric administration. Three methods of observation and microanalysis were used: conventional transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and electron probe microanalysis. After intraperitoneal administration, gadolinium and terbium were detected with phosphorus in lysosomes of hepatocytes and Küppfer cells and in territories near to biliary canalicule. One hour after intragastric administration, gadolinium and terbium were concentrated in lysosomes of the apical part of duodenal enterocytes. No gadolinium or terbium was detected in duodenum 4 days after administration. After intragastric administration, the microanalytical techniques failed to detect gadolinium or terbium in liver whatever the time of sampling. This mechanism of concentration-precipitation in the lysosomes of enterocytes limits the diffusion through the digestive barrier of foreign elements and then permits their elimination with apoptotic cells in the intestinal lumen. Some of these elements may be toxic, and none of them have a recognized physiological function. The intestinal mucosa plays an important role in the protection of the organism against the invasion of foreign elements. PMID:18385952

Ahlem, Ayadi; Ali, El Hili; Leila, Tekaya

2008-07-01

171

Campylobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, and gastric metaplasia: possible role of functional heterotopic tissue in ulcerogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Multiple pinch biopsies were taken from the duodenum and antrum of 137 subjects (46 active duodenal ulceration; 44 healed ulcers; 47 'normal'), and examined for the presence and grade of gastritis, gastric metaplasia, and Campylobacter pylori. These factors, as well as age, sex, cigarette, and anti-inflammatory agent intake were evaluated as possible risk factors for duodenal ulceration. Pentagastrin induced Congo Red staining of the duodenal bulb was performed in an additional 43 cases, to determine the presence of functioning parietal cells in the duodenum. Ninety eight per cent of patients with duodenal infection with C pylori had active or healed duodenal ulcers. Bacteria were confined to areas of gastric metaplasia which was always infiltrated with inflammatory cells. The metaplastic tissue was usually superficial in type, although patients had C pylori associated with heterotopic tissue: this has not been previously described. Congo Red staining of the duodenal bulb showed that functioning endogenous acid producing tissue could be found most often at the edges of duodenal ulcers, but also in non-ulcer subjects. Cigarette smoking, age, sex, and ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents were not to be found to be significant risk factors for duodenal ulceration. In contrast, the presence of duodenal infection with C pylori proved to be a strong risk factor for duodenal ulceration (RR = 51), together with gastric metaplasia (RR = 6.2), and antral C pylori infection (RR = 7.6). These data identify duodenal infection with C pylori as the strongest risk factor for development of duodenal ulceration. Our finding of endogenous acid production around the edges of duodenal ulcers suggests an active role for parietal cells in the duodenum. We postulate a synergistic role for duodenal C pylori and endogenous acid production in the development of duodenal ulceration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:2753403

Carrick, J; Lee, A; Hazell, S; Ralston, M; Daskalopoulos, G

1989-01-01

172

Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature  

PubMed Central

Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an ?-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with ?-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

Soref, Cheryl M.

2015-01-01

173

Increased density of tolerogenic dendritic cells in the small bowel mucosa of celiac patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the densities of dendritic cells (DCs) and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their interrelations in the small bowel mucosa in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Seventy-four patients (45 female, 29 male, mean age 11.1 ± 6.8 years) who underwent small bowel biopsy were studied. CD without T1D was diagnosed in 18 patients, and CD with T1D was diagnosed in 15 patients. Normal small bowel mucosa was found in two T1D patients. Thirty-nine patients (mean age 12.8 ± 4.9 years) with other diagnoses (functional dyspepsia, duodenal ulcer, erosive gastritis, etc.) formed the control group. All CD patients had partial or subtotal villous atrophy according to the Marsh classification: Marsh grade IIIa in 9, grade IIIb in 21 and grade IIIc in 3 cases. Thirty-nine patients without CD and 2 with T1D had normal small bowel mucosa (Marsh grade 0). The densities of CD11c+, IDO+, CD103+, Langerin (CD207+) DCs and FOXP3+ Tregs were investigated by immunohistochemistry (on paraffin-embedded specimens) and immunofluorescence (on cryostat sections) methods using a combination of mono- and double-staining. Sixty-six serum samples were tested for IgA-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) using a fully automated EliA™ Celikey® IgA assay (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Freiburg, Germany). RESULTS: The density of CD11c+ DCs was significantly increased in CD patients compared with patients with normal mucosa (21.67 ± 2.49 vs 13.58 ± 1.51, P = 0.007). The numbers of FOXP3+ cells were significantly higher in CD patients (10.66 ± 1.50 vs 1.92 ± 0.37, P = 0.0002) and in patients with CD and coexisting T1D (8.11 ± 1.64 vs 1.92 ± 0.37, P = 0.002) compared with patients with normal mucosa. The density of FOXP3+ cells significantly correlated with the histological grade of atrophic changes in the small bowel mucosa according to the March classification (r = 0.62; P < 0.0001) and with levels of IgA antibody (r = 0.55; P < 0.0001). The densities of IDO+ DCs were significantly higher in CD patients (21.6 ± 2.67 vs 6.26 ± 0.84, P = 0.00003) and in patients with CD and coexisting T1D (19.08 ± 3.61 vs 6.26 ± 0.84, P = 0.004) compared with patients with normal mucosa. A significant correlation was identified between the densities of IDO+ DCs and FOXP3+ T cells (r = 0.76; P = 0.0001). The mean values of CD103+ DCs were significantly higher in CD patients (10.66 ± 1.53 vs 6.34 ± 0.61, P = 0.01) and in patients with CD and associated T1D (11.13 ± 0.72 vs 6.34 ± 0.61, P = 0.00002) compared with subjects with normal small bowel mucosa. The mean value of Langerin+ DCs was higher in CD patients compared with persons with normal mucosa (7.4 ± 0.92 vs 5.64 ± 0.46, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The participation of diverse DC subsets in the pathological processes of CD and the possible involvement of tolerogenic DCs in Tregs development to maintain intestinal immunological tolerance in CD patients are revealed. PMID:25593459

Vorobjova, Tamara; Uibo, Oivi; Heilman, Kaire; Uibo, Raivo

2015-01-01

174

Autonomic control of heart period in duodenal ulcer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond the fundamental pathogenetic importance of Helicobacter Pylori a possible additional role of vagal innervation in favouring or modulating the clinical history of duodenal ulcer (DU) has been suggested by old studies employing invasive methodologies. Aim of this study was to assess whether vagal prevalence in autonomic modulation was present in healed DU patients (n=20) as compared to controls,(n=50), using

Daniela Lucini; Manfredo Cerchiello; Guido Basilisco; Manuela Cainelli; Paolo A Bianchi; Gemino Fiorelli; Alberto Malliani; Massimo Pagani

2000-01-01

175

What is the Best Elective Operation for Duodenal Ulcer?  

PubMed Central

During the past 40 years, after gastroenterostomy and pyloroplasty for duodenal ulcer had been replaced by partial gastrectomy in many centres, partial gastrectomy itself gave way to combinations of vagotomy with gastroenterostomy, pyloroplasty or antrectomy. Opinions differ concerning the procedure of choice and in this paper the author examines the causes of this diversity of opinion and assesses the reliability of conclusions that can be drawn about the elective treatment of duodenal ulcer today. Most reports of results from various operations have come from retrospective studies, and the causes of variability among such reports are analyzed to point out the great difficulty in making a valid judgment about the relative worth of the various operations used to treat duodenal ulcer. Results of some of the few prospective studies with randomized operations assessed blindly are then presented and note is taken of the surprising observation that greatly different operations appear to give remarkably similar results. From the data available the author develops a logical way of approaching the choice of operation for the various problems related to duodenal ulcer that require elective surgical treatment. PMID:4922168

Hallenbeck, G. A.

1970-01-01

176

Congenital duodenal obstruction with Down's syndrome and Hirschsprung's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two rare cases of congenital duodenal obstruction (CDO) with Down's syndrome and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) are reported. The incidence of associated anomalies in CDO, with reference to the literature, and the diagnosis of HD with CDO are discussed. If intestinal dilation or difficulty in defecation persist after CDO has been diagnosed and relieved, then a barium enema should be repeated

Hiroyuki Tsuchiya; Kinzi Nagashima; Sumio Kohno

1995-01-01

177

Tubercular duodenal, jejunal and ileocecal stricture in a patient.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is a major health problem in the developing countries. Duodenal involvement is uncommon and can mimic superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Our case presented as proximal intestinal obstruction had tubercular stricture in the third part of the duodenum, proximal jejunum and ileocecal region, an uncommon and difficult intraoperative situation. PMID:24334467

Sisodiya, Rajesh; Ramachandra, Lingadakai

2013-01-01

178

DUODENAL CYTOCHROME B: A NOVEL FERRIREDUCTASE IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Catalytically active iron in the lung causes oxidative stress and promotes microbial growth that can be limited by intracellular sequestration of iron within ferritin. Because cellular iron uptake requires membrane ferrireductase activity that in the gut can be provided by duoden...

179

Duodenal Toxicity After Fractionated Chemoradiation for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Improving local control is critical to improving survival and quality of life for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, previous attempts at radiation dose escalation have been limited by duodenal toxicity. In order to guide future studies, we analyzed the clinical and dosimetric factors associated with duodenal toxicity in patients undergoing fractionated chemoradiation for LAPC. Methods and Materials: Medical records and treatment plans of 106 patients with LAPC who were treated with chemoradiation between July 2005 and June 2010 at our institution were reviewed. All patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy. Seventy-eight patients were treated with conventional radiation to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions; 28 patients received dose-escalated radiation therapy (range, 57.5-75.4 Gy in 28-39 fractions). Treatment-related toxicity was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess prognostic influence of clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results: Twenty patients had treatment-related duodenal toxicity events, such as duodenal inflammation, ulceration, and bleeding. Four patients had grade 1 events, 8 had grade 2, 6 had grade 3, 1 had grade 4, and 1 had grade 5. On univariate analysis, a toxicity grade ?2 was associated with tumor location, low platelet count, an absolute volume (cm{sup 3}) receiving a dose of at least 55 Gy (V{sub 55} {sub Gy} > 1 cm{sup 3}), and a maximum point dose >60 Gy. Of these factors, only V{sub 55} {sub Gy} ?1 cm{sup 3} was associated with duodenal toxicity on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 6.7; range, 2.0-18.8; P=.002). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a duodenal V{sub 55} {sub Gy} >1 cm{sup 3} is an important dosimetric predictor of grade 2 or greater duodenal toxicity and establishes it as a dosimetric constraint when treating patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer with concurrent chemoradiation.

Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Beddar, Sam; Briere, Tina; Pham, Mary; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H., E-mail: ccrane@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-03-01

180

A study of the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori negative chronic duodenal ulceration.  

PubMed Central

In the past five years 12 patients have been identified presenting with chronic duodenal ulcer (DU) disease and with no evidence of current or recent Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. Four of them were taking regular non-steroidal anti inflammatory agents, one was subsequently found to have Crohn's disease of the duodenum, and one to have the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The remaining six patients with idiopathic DU disease were remarkable for their absence of the A1 blood antigen gene. Detailed studies of gastric function were performed in these six patients and compared with H pylori positive patients with DU and with healthy volunteers. The median integrated gastrin response in the patients with idiopathic DU (2810 (range 750-8750) ng/l min) was similar to that of the H pylori positive patients with DU (3355 (550-8725)) and higher than that of the H pylori negative healthy volunteers (560 (225-1125)). The median peak acid output in the patients with idiopathic DU (37 mmol/h, range 17-52) was similar to that of the H pylori positive patients with DU (40 (15-57)) and higher than that of the non-ulcer controls (22 (16-29)). The median percentage of a liquid meal retained in the stomach at 60 minutes was less in the patients with idiopathic DU (23 (15-33)) than in H pylori negative healthy volunteers (34 (30-53) p < 0.01). The median percentage of a solid meal retained at 60 minutes was less in the patients with idiopathic DU (54 (9-83)) than in either H pylori negative healthy volunteers (87 (49-95) p<0.01) or H pylori positive patients with DU (79 (51-100) p<0.01). In conclusion, three abnormalities of gastric function are prevalent in patients with H pylori negative idiopathic DU disease - hypergastrinaemia, increased acid secretion, and the one feature distinguishing them from H pylori positive patients with DU - rapid gastric emptying of both liquids and solids. Each of these abnormalities will increase the exposure of the duodenal mucosa to acid and thus explain its ulceration. The absence of the blood group A1 antigen gene is consistent with a genetic basis for the disturbed gastric function linked to the ABO blood group antigen genes. PMID:8314508

McColl, K E; el-Nujumi, A M; Chittajallu, R S; Dahill, S W; Dorrian, C A; el-Omar, E; Penman, I; Fitzsimons, E J; Drain, J; Graham, H

1993-01-01

181

Breast Cancer-Associated pS2 Protein: Synthesis and Secretion by Normal Stomach Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human pS2 gene is specifically expressed under estrogen transcriptional control in a subclass of estrogen receptor-containing human breast cancer cells. The pS2 gene encodes an 84-amino acid protein that is secreted after signal peptide cleavage. The distribution of pS2 protein in normal human tissues was studied with antibodies to pS2; pS2 was specifically expressed and secreted by mucosa cells

M. C. Rio; J. P. Bellocq; J. Y. Daniel; C. Tomasetto; R. Lathe; M. P. Chenard; A. Batzenschlager; P. Chambon

1988-01-01

182

L-Glutamate Supplementation Improves Small Intestinal Architecture and Enhances the Expressions of Jejunal Mucosa Amino Acid Receptors and Transporters in Weaning Piglets  

PubMed Central

L-Glutamate is a major oxidative fuel for the small intestine. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of L-glutamate on the intestinal architecture and signaling of amino acids in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary L-glutamate supplementation on the intestinal architecture and expressions of jejunal mucosa amino acid receptors and transporters in weaning piglets. A total of 120 weaning piglets aged 35±1 days with an average body weight at 8.91±0.45 kg were randomly allocated to two treatments with six replicates of ten piglets each, fed with diets containing 1.21% alanine, or 2% L-glutamate. L-Glutamate supplementation increased the activity of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) in the jejunal mucosa. Also, the mRNA expression level of jejunal mucosa glutamine synthetase (GS) was increased by L-glutamate supplementation. The height of villi in duodenal and jejunal segments, and the relative mRNA expression of occludin and zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) in jejunal mucosa were increased by dietary L-glutamate supplementation. L-Glutamate supplementation increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and threonine. L-Glutamate supplementation also increased the relative mRNA expression of the jejunal mucosa Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR), metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4), and neutral amino acid transporter B0-like (SLC1A5) in the jejunal mucosa. These findings suggest that dietary addition of 2% L-glutamate improves the intestinal integrity and influences the expression of amino acid receptors and transporters in the jejunum of weaning, which is beneficial for the improvement of jejunal nutrients for digestion and absorption. PMID:25368996

Lin, Meng; Zhang, Bolin; Yu, Changning; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Hui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

2014-01-01

183

Effect of snuff on nasal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe inhalation of nasal snuff (powdered tobacco) is a common addiction in the Indian subcontinent. In the western world, there is a resurgence of interest in nasal snuff because it does have the morbidity associated with smoked tobacco. Very few studies have reported the long-term effects of snuff on nasal mucosa. The objective of the present study was to investigate

Suja Sreedharan; Mulki Panduranga Kamath; Urmila Khadilkar; Mahesh Chandra Hegde; Rajeev M. Kumar; Ravikumar Raju Mudunuri; Satish Chandra Tripuraneni

2005-01-01

184

Induction of Tolerance via the Respiratory Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunological tolerance is defined as a state of specific non-responsiveness to a particular antigen induced by previous exposure to that same antigen. The mucosal surfaces comprise the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the gastrointestinal tract and the urogenitary tract, and are a major site of antigenic challenge. The immune system associated with the mucosa has the extraordinary potential to discriminate

Jacqueline A. Lowrey; Nigel D. L. Savage; Deborah Palliser; Marta Corsin-Jimenez; Lynn M. G. Forsyth; Gillian Hall; Susannah Lindey; Gareth A. Stewart; Karen A. L. Tan; Gerard F. Hoyne; Jonathan R. Lamb

1998-01-01

185

Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100

A Papazian; A Braillon; J L Dupas; F Sevenet; J P Capron

1986-01-01

186

Collagen types in the middle ear mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various collagen types — in particular that of type 11 as the major collagen in cartilage — in normal auricular structures is discussed with reference to a 1994 report by Ovesen describing the presence of collagen type II in normal middle ear mucosa. In contrast to this report, no collagen type 11 is normally found in the

A. G. Nerlich

1995-01-01

187

Long-term results of subtotal gastrectomy for duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term clinical and metabolic results of subtotal gastrectomy for duodenal ulcer in 133 patients are reported. The operative\\u000a procedure consisted of a 4\\/5 gastric resection with a retrocolic no-loop Hoffmeister anastomosis. After detailed clinical\\u000a and metabolic assessment, 84% of the patients were graded Visick grades I and II. Postgastrectomy symptoms were few, only\\u000a mild or moderate in intensity, and were

A. Dinbar; I. Avigad; R. Shafir; D. B. Tulcinsky

1980-01-01

188

Selective culturing of swine gastrointestinal bacteria on substrates simulating the intestinal mucosa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many gastrointestinal (GI) microbes are in intimate contact with the host tissues, and characterizing these tissue-associated communities is important for elucidating their role in animal and human health. The GI mucosa is an environment distinct from the intestinal lumen and is covered by a mucus l...

189

Permeability of the bladder mucosa to thiotepa, adriamycin, and daunomycin in men and rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeability of the bladder mucosa to thiotepa and to the anthraquinonic antibiotics, adriamycin and daunomycin, was investigated both in humans and in experimental animals. Instillations in rabbits were performed either in intact males or in animals with ligated ureters. Absorption of thiotepa was significantly higher than that of the antibiotics both in men and in rabbits. Furthermore a qualitative

M. Pavone-Macaluso; N. Gebbia; F. Biondo; S. Bertolini; G. Caramia; F. P. Rizzo

1976-01-01

190

Effects of intranasal phototherapy on nasal mucosa in patients with allergic rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleRhinophototherapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Considering that phototherapy with ultraviolet light (UV) induces DNA damage, it is of outstanding importance to evaluate the damage and repair process in human nasal mucosa.

A. Koreck; A. Szechenyi; M. Morocz; A. Cimpean; Zs. Bella; E. Garaczi; M. Raica; T. R. Olariu; I. Rasko; L. Kemeny

2007-01-01

191

Polyamines, diamine oxidase, and ornithine decarboxylase activity in colorectal cancer and in normal surrounding mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the polyamine levels [putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm)] and their metabolism by simultaneously considering the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activities in human colorectal cancer and in normal surrounding tissue. Single and total polyamine levels were significantly higher in the neoplastic tissue than in the surrounding mucosa from the same patients. Furthermore, the ODC

Michele Linsalata; Francesco Russo; Aldo Cavallini; Pasquale Berloco; Alfredo Di Leo

1993-01-01

192

Role of anaerobic bacteria in the metabolic welfare of the colonic mucosa in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspensions of isolated epithelial cells (colonocytes) from the human colon were used to assess utilisation of respiratory fuels which are normally available to the colonic mucosa in vivo. Cells were prepared from operative specimens of the ascending colon (seven) and descending colon (seven). The fuels that were used were the short chain fatty acid n-butyrate, produced only by anaerobic bacteria

W E Roediger

1980-01-01

193

Clinicopathological evaluation of duodenal well-differentiated endocrine tumors  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal well-differentiated endocrine tumors. METHODS: We examined clinicopathological characteristics in 11 consecutive patients with duodenal well-differentiated endocrine tumors treated by endoscopic therapy or surgery in our hospital from 1992 through 2007. Patients with well-differentiated endocrine tumors of the papilla of Vater or with gastrinoma were excluded. RESULTS: Three patients received endoscopic treatment, and 8 underwent surgery. In patients who received endoscopic treatment, the tumor diameter was less than 1.0 cm, with no histopathological evidence of lymphovascular invasion or invasion of the muscularis. There were no complications such as late bleeding or perforation after treatment. Among 8 patients with tumors less than 1.0 cm in diameter, 3 underwent partial resection, and 2 underwent radical surgery. Three patients had lymphovascular invasion, 1 had invasion of the muscularis, and 1 had proximal lymph node metastasis. Among 3 patients with tumors 1.0 cm or more in diameter, 1 underwent partial resection, and 2 underwent radical surgery. One patient had lymphovascular invasion, with no lymph node metastasis. After treatment, all patients are alive and have remained free of metastasis and recurrence. CONCLUSION: Duodenal well-differentiated endocrine tumors less than 1.0 cm in diameter have a risk of lymphovascular invasion, invasion of the muscularis, and lymph node metastasis, irrespective of procedural problems. PMID:20857530

Ishido, Kenji; Tanabe, Satoshi; Higuchi, Katsuhiko; Sasaki, Tohru; Katada, Chikatoshi; Azuma, Mizutomo; Naruke, Akira; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Mikami, Tetsuo

2010-01-01

194

Endoscopic duodenal perforation: surgical strategies in a regional centre  

PubMed Central

Background Duodenal perforation is an uncommon complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) and a rare complication of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Most are minor perforations that settle with conservative management. A few perforations however result in life-threatening retroperitoneal necrosis and require surgical intervention. There is a relative paucity of references specifically describing the surgical interventions required for this eventuality. Methods Five cases of iatrogenic duodenal perforation were ascertained between 2002 and 2007 at Cairns Base Hospital. Clinical features were analyzed and compared, with reference to a review of ERCP at that institution for the years 2005/2006. Results One patient recovered with conservative management. Of the other four, one died after initial laparotomy. The other three survived, undergoing multiple procedures and long inpatient stays. Conclusions Iatrogenic duodenal perforation with retroperitoneal necrosis is an uncommon complication of endoscopy, but when it does occur it is potentially life-threatening. Early recognition may lead to a better outcome through earlier intervention, although a protracted course with multiple procedures should be anticipated. A number of surgical techniques may need to be employed according to the individual circumstances of the case. PMID:24461069

2014-01-01

195

Treatment for superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors  

PubMed Central

Because of the low prevalence of non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (NADETs), standardized clinical management of sporadic superficial NADETs, including diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, has not yet been established. Retrospective studies have revealed certain endoscopic findings suggestive of malignancy. Duodenal adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and mucosal cancer are candidates for local resection by endoscopic or minimally invasive surgery. The use of endoscopic treatment including endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), for the treatment for superficial NADETs is increasing. EMR requires multiple sessions to achieve complete remission and repetitive endoscopy is needed after resection. ESD provides an excellent complete resection rate, however it remains a challenging method, considering the high risk of intraoperative or delayed perforation. Minimally invasive surgery such as wedge resection and pancreas-sparing duodenectomy are beneficial for superficial NADETs that are technically difficult to remove by endoscopic treatment. Pancreaticoduodenectomy remains a standard surgical procedure for treatment of duodenal cancer with submucosal invasion, which presents a risk of lymph node metastasis. Endoscopic or surgical treatment outcomes of superficial NADETs without submucosal invasion are satisfactory. Establishing an endoscopic diagnostic tool to differentiate superficial NADETs between adenoma and cancer as well as between mucosal and submucosal cancer is required to select the most appropriate treatment. PMID:25253950

Kakushima, Naomi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Ono, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

196

Perforated duodenal ulcer: A rare complication of deferasirox in children  

PubMed Central

Duodenal ulcer perforation in pediatric age group is an uncommon entity; hence, it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in these patients. It is important for the emergency physician to consider perforated peptic ulcer in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or shock. We report a 6½-year-old male child with thalassemia major who presented to emergency room with an acute abdomen and shock, who was subsequently found to have a perforated duodenal ulcer, probably related to use of oral chelating agent, deferasirox. Although, gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain has been mentioned as infrequent adverse event in the scientific product information of deferasirox, in our current knowledge this is the first case report of perforated duodenal ulcer after oral deferasirox. The severity of this event justifies the reporting of this case. This patient had an atypical presentation in that there were no signs or symptoms of peptic ulcer disease before perforation and shock he was successfully managed with open surgery after initial resuscitation and stabilization of his general condition. PMID:23833377

Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vipul; El Kohly, Ashraf; Al Fadhli, Wasmi

2013-01-01

197

Perforated duodenal ulcer: a rare complication of deferasirox in children.  

PubMed

Duodenal ulcer perforation in pediatric age group is an uncommon entity; hence, it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in these patients. It is important for the emergency physician to consider perforated peptic ulcer in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or shock. We report a 6½-year-old male child with thalassemia major who presented to emergency room with an acute abdomen and shock, who was subsequently found to have a perforated duodenal ulcer, probably related to use of oral chelating agent, deferasirox. Although, gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain has been mentioned as infrequent adverse event in the scientific product information of deferasirox, in our current knowledge this is the first case report of perforated duodenal ulcer after oral deferasirox. The severity of this event justifies the reporting of this case. This patient had an atypical presentation in that there were no signs or symptoms of peptic ulcer disease before perforation and shock he was successfully managed with open surgery after initial resuscitation and stabilization of his general condition. PMID:23833377

Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vipul; El Kohly, Ashraf; Al Fadhli, Wasmi

2013-01-01

198

The Modified Kimura's Technique for the Treatment of Duodenal Atresia  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose. Kimura's diamond-shaped-duodenoduodenostomy (DSD) is a known technique for the correction of congenital intrinsic duodenal obstruction. We present a modification of the technique and review the advantages of this new technique. Methods. From 1992 to 2006, 14 newborns were treated for duodenal atresia. We inverted the direction of the duodenal incisions: a longitudinal incision was made in the proximal duodenum while the distal was opened by transverse incision. Results. Our “inverted-diamond-shaped-duodenoduodenostomy” (i-DSD) allowed postoperative oral feeding to start on days 2 to 3, peripheral intravenous fluids discontinuity on days 3 to 8 (median values 3.6); time to achieve full oral feeds on days 8 to 12 (median values 9.4); the length of hospitalisation ranged from 10 and 14 days (median value 11.2). No complications related to the anastomosis, by Viz leakage, dehiscence, biliary stasis, or stenosis were observed. Conclusions. The i-DSD provides a safe procedure to protect the ampulla of Vater from injury and avoids any formation of a blind loop. The results show that patients who have i-DSD achieve full oral feeds in a very short time period and, consequently, the length of hospitalisation is also significantly reduced. PMID:19946416

Zuccarello, Biagio; Spada, Antonella; Centorrino, Antonio; Turiaco, Nunzio; Chirico, Maria Rosaria; Parisi, Saveria

2009-01-01

199

Splenosis mimicking an extramural duodenal mass: A case report.  

PubMed

Splenosis is a common disease, patients with splenosis are generally asymptomatic and therapy is not indicated. Splenosis is frequently observed in the abdomen and pelvic cavity and may mimic malignancy on imaging, often leading to unnecessary surgical intervention. The current study presents the case of a 55-year-old female patient, with a rare case of duodenal splenosis, who underwent unnecessary laparotomy due to a misdiagnosis of a malignant duodenal stromal tumor. Although splenosis was confirmed by intraoperative tissue biopsy, this mass was resected due to the lack of information with regard to this condition, an increased suspicion of progressive growth of the mass and chronic duodenal compression. The aim of this report is to raise the awareness of this entity in patients post-splenectomy, to avoid unnecessary surgery, particularly with an increased prevalence of patients with previous splenic trauma due to road traffic accidents. Therefore, the possibility of abdominal splenosis must be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with abdominal mass as the main clinical manifestation, where there is a history of splenic trauma or splenectomy and no other systemic symptoms. In the future noninvasive nuclear scintigraphy may serve as a suitable diagnostic approach for splenosis, thereby avoiding unnecessary laparotomies. PMID:25364471

Deng, Yilei; Jin, Yanwen; Li, Fuyu; Zhou, Yong

2014-12-01

200

Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation Associated with Duodenal Ulcer and H.Pylori Infection.  

PubMed

Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare condition that may cause duodenal ulcer. A36-yr-old man with PAVM associated with duodenal ulcer and H.Pylori infection is described. The patienthad recurrent episode of upper abdominal pain despite healed ulcer and H.Pylori eradication.The preoperative diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography and the patient was treated with apancreatoduodenectomy. Histological examination of the resected pancreas revealed a pancreatic arteriovenousmalformation involving the adjacent duodenal wall. PMID:12754395

Regenet, Nicolas; Tuech, Jean-Jacques; Pessaux, Patrick; Aube, Christophe; Rousselet, Marie-Christine; Arnaud, Jean-Pierre

2001-01-01

201

Interspecies comparison of stellate cell-containing macula flavae and vitamin A storage in vocal fold mucosa.  

PubMed

The macula flavae (MF), populated by vitamin A-storing stellate cells (SCs), are believed to play a fundamental role in development, maintenance and repair of the vocal fold (VF) mucosa; however, to date, they have mostly been examined in observational human cadaver studies. Here, we conducted an interspecies comparison of MF and SC phenotype, as well as vitamin A quantification and localization, in human, pig, dog, rabbit and rat VF mucosae. MF containing vitamin A-positive SCs were only identified in human and rat specimens. Pig, dog and rabbit VF mucosae contained no discernable MF, but rather exhibited preferential vitamin A localization to mucous (pig), serous (dog) or mixed (rabbit) glands. This glandular vitamin A storage corresponded to exceedingly high concentrations of retinol in pig and dog mucosae, and retinyl ester in dog mucosa. These findings have significant implications for the presumed role of the MF and SCs in VF biology, the nature of vitamin A storage within the VF mucosa, and the selection of an appropriate animal model for future experimental studies. PMID:25040030

Toya, Yutaka; Riabroy, Napaporn; Davis, Christopher R; Kishimoto, Yo; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Bless, Diane M; Welham, Nathan V

2014-09-01

202

Case report of bacteremia due to Neisseria mucosa.  

PubMed

Neisseria mucosa, a Gram-negative diplococcus, is part of normal nasopharyngeal flora. We report a case of bacteremia caused by N. mucosa in a 50-year-old neutropenic patient suffering from non-secretory multiple myeloma stage IIIA. This case underscores that mostly nonpathogenic N. mucosa can cause bacteremia in neutropenic patients who developed mucositis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23905778

Mechergui, Arij; Achour, Wafa; Baaboura, Rekaya; Ouertani, Hela; Lakhal, Amal; Torjemane, Lamia; Othman, Tarek Ben; Hassen, Assia Ben

2014-04-01

203

Characterization of a three-dimensional mucosal equivalent: similarities and differences with native oral mucosa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to create and characterize a tissue-engineered mucosal equivalent (TEM) that closely resembles native mucosa. TEM consists of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts isolated from biopsies taken from healthy donors and seeded onto a de-epidermized dermis and cultured for 14 days at the air/liquid interface. The structure of TEM was examined and compared with native nonkeratinizing oral mucosa (NNOM). The various components of the newly formed epidermal layer, basement membrane and underlying connective tissue were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The mucosal substitute presented in this study showed a mature stratified squamous epithelium that was similar to that of native oral mucosa, as demonstrated by K19, desmoglein-3 and involucrin staining. In addition, the expression of basement membrane components collagen type IV, laminin-5 and integrin ?6 and ?4 in TEM proved to be consistent with native oral mucosa. The expression of PAS, Ki67, K10 and K13, however, appeared to be different in TEM compared to NNOM. Nevertheless, the similarities with native oral mucosa makes TEM a promising tool for studying the biology of mucosal pathologies such as oral mucositis or fibrosis as well as the development of new therapies. PMID:21494020

Tra, Wendy M W; van Neck, Johan W; Hovius, Steven E R; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Perez-Amodio, Soledad

2012-01-01

204

The Duodenal Switch Operation for the Treatment of Morbid Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of the duodenal switch procedure as surgical treatment of morbid obesity. Summary Background Data: The longitudinal gastrectomy and duodenal switch procedure as performed for morbid obesity involves a 75% subtotal greater curvature gastrectomy and long limb suprapapillary Roux-en-Y duodenoenterostomy. This results in a restricted caloric intake and diversion of bile and pancreatic secretions to induce fat malabsorption. Broad acceptance of this procedure has been impeded because of concerns that the malabsorptive component may produce serious nutritional complications. Methods: Review of data collected prospectively from all patients who underwent duodenal switch as the primary surgical treatment of morbid obesity at a single institution during the 10-year period beginning September 1992. Operative morbidity and mortality, weight loss, volume of food intake, and bowel function were recorded. Sequential measurements of serum albumin, hemoglobin, and calcium levels were obtained to assess metabolic function and nutrient absorption. Results: Duodenal switch was performed as the primary operation in 701 (81%) of a total 863 patients undergoing bariatric surgery during the period of study. The average body mass index (BMI) was 52.8 (range, 34–95). Perioperative mortality was 1.4%, and morbidity (including leaks, wound dehiscence, splenectomy, and postoperative hemorrhage) occurred in 21 patients (2.9%). Weight loss averaged 127 pounds at 1 year, 131 at 3 years, and 118 at 5 or more years (% EBWL of 69%, 73%, and 66%, respectively). The mean number of bowel movements was fewer than 3 per day. Patients reported and maintained a mean restriction of 63% of their preoperative intake (approximately 1600 calories), with no specific food intolerance, at 3 or more years follow-up. At 3 years, serum albumin remained at normal levels in 98% of patients, hemoglobin in 52%, and calcium in 71%. No patients reported dumping, and marginal ulcers were not seen. Conclusions: The longitudinal gastrectomy with duodenal switch is a safe and effective primary procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity. It has the advantage of allowing acceptable alimentation with a minimum of side effects while producing and maintaining significant weight loss. These results are achieved without developing significant dietary restrictions or clinical metabolic or nutritional complications. PMID:14530733

Anthone, Gary J.; Lord, Reginald V. N.; DeMeester, Tom R.; Crookes, Peter F.

2003-01-01

205

Experimental and numerical determination of odorant solubility in nasal and olfactory mucosa.  

PubMed

Odorant deposition in the nasal and olfactory mucosas is dependent on a number of factors including local air/odorant flow distribution patterns, odorant mucosal solubility and odorant diffusive transport in the mucosa. Although many of these factors are difficult to measure, mucosal solubility in the bullfrog mucus has been experimentally determined for a few odorants. In the present study an experimental procedure was combined with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques to further describe some of the factors that govern odorant mucosal deposition. The fraction of odorant absorbed by the nasal mucosa (eta) was experimentally determined for a number of odorants by measuring the concentration drop between odorant 'blown' into one nostril and that exiting the contralateral nostril while the subject performed a velopharyngeal closure. Odorant concentrations were measured with a photoionization detector. Odorants were delivered to the nostrils at flow rates of 3.33 and 10 l/min. The velopharyngeal closure nasal air/odorant flows were then simulated using CFD techniques in a 3-D anatomically accurate human nose modeland the mucosal odorant uptake was numerically calculated. The comparison between the numerical simulations and the experimental results lead to an estimation of the human mucosal odorant solubility and the mucosal effective diffusive transport resistance. The results of the study suggest that the increase in diffusive resistance of the mucosal layer over that of a thin layer of water seemed to be general and non-odorant-specific; however, the mucosa solubility was odorant specific and usually followed the trend that odorants with lower water solubility were more soluble in the mucosa than would be predicted from water solubility alone. The ability of this approach to model odorant movement in the nasal cavity was evaluated by comparison of the model output with known values of odorant mucosa solubility. PMID:15574812

Kurtz, Daniel B; Zhao, Kai; Hornung, David E; Scherer, Peter

2004-11-01

206

Unusual presentation of duodenal plasmablastic lymphoma in an immunocompetent patient: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare and recently described entity of large B-cell lymphoma. It predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and exhibits a highly aggressive clinical behavior without effective treatment. Recently, sporadic cases describing PBL in extraoral locations of HIV-negative patients have been reported; frequently in patients with underlying immunosuppressive states. To develop the understanding of PBL, the current study reports the unusual presentation of duodenal PBL and reviews the pathogenesis, immunohistochemical features, clinical and differential diagnoses, as well as the treatment of PBL as described in previous studies. The case of a 75-year-old female with duodenal PBL without definite immunosuppression is presented in the current report. The tumor was composed of large B-cell-like cells, and was positive for cluster of differentiation 138 and melanoma ubiquitous mutated-1, with ~80% of the tumor cells positive for Ki-67. The features of the tumor were as follows: Extraoral location, HIV-negative, immunoglobulin M ?-type M protein expression, light chain restriction (monoclonal) and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA-negative, which are considered to be unusual for PBL. These unusual features complicate the differentiation of PBL from other plasma cell diseases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report a case of duodenal PBL in an immunocompetent patient. To date, the standard treatment of PBL remains elusive, however, the most commonly administered chemotherapy treatments are CHOP [intravenous cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m2, day 1), intravenous doxorubicin (50 mg/m2, day 1), intravenous vincristine (1.4 mg/m2, day 1) and prednisone (100 mg, days 1–50)]-like regimens. The patient was administered two cycles of CHOP chemotherapy for 56 days, however, ultimately succumbed as a result of disease progression. Therefore, PBL represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. PBL must be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors in daily practice, even in immunocompetent patients. Furthermore, CHOP does not appear to be an optimal treatment regimen and more intensive regimens are required. PMID:25364423

CAO, CHUN; LIU, TING; LOU, SHIFENG; LIU, WEIPING; SHEN, KAI; XIANG, BING

2014-01-01

207

Buccal mucosa urethroplasty for adult urethral strictures  

PubMed Central

Urethral strictures are difficult to manage. Some treatment modalities for urethral strictures are fraught with high patient morbidity and stricture recurrence rates; however, an extremely useful tool in the armamentarium of the Reconstructive Urologist is buccal mucosal urethroplasty. We like buccal mucosa grafts because of its excellent short and long-term results, low post-operative complication rate, and relative ease of use. We utilize it for most our bulbar urethral stricture repairs and some pendulous urethral stricture repairs, usually in conjunction with a first-stage Johanson repair. In this report, we discuss multiple surgical techniques for repair of urethral stricture disease. Diagnosis, evaluation of candidacy, surgical techniques, post-operative care, and complications are included. The goal is to raise awareness of buccal mucosa grafting for the management urethral stricture disease. PMID:22022061

Zimmerman, W. Britt; Santucci, Richard A.

2011-01-01

208

Defense mechanisms of the gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

The chemical and physical architecture of the apical membranes of the surface epithelial cells and of the tight junctions which bind the cells together, are such that water and water soluble substances are very slowly admitted. This impermeability is the most important factor in the defense of the gastric mucosa against damaging agents. The barrier provided by this impermeability can be measured by determining the rate of passage of substances from gastric contents to blood. Damage to the barrier will be reflected in an increase in this rate. The common ions, H+, Na+, K+, Cl- and HCO3- and water provide suitable yardsticks for the estimate. The rate of entry of H+ is the most important for it is the common agent producing serious damage to mucosal cells. The state of the barrier is not static. It can be lowered or raised. Barrier breakers are fat soluble, e.g. ethanol, bile, aspirin. They enter the apical membranes of the surface epithelial cells and in doing so permit H+ and other ions to penetrate at accelerated rates. Exposure to a damaging agent can, however, produce an increase in the resistance of the mucosa to subsequent exposures. Increased resistance of the mucosa can be accomplished also by pretreatment with prostaglandins or epidermal growth factor. Both inhibit acid secretion and this is an important element in limiting mucosal damage. Prostaglandins and some barrier breakers also increase the production of HCO3- and of mucus by the mucosa. Both may aid in disposal of damaging agents. Increases in mucosal circulation can also contribute by ridding the submucosa of damaging substances. Protective factors can also increase the impermeability of the membrane but how this is accomplished is unknown. PMID:7017894

Code, C F

1981-01-01

209

[Optimizing biopsies of the oral mucosa].  

PubMed

We had for aim to describe and illustrate the artefacts observed in biopsies of the oral mucosa, as well as the impact of sending non-representative histological material to a laboratory. This article was based on an international literature review, as well as on our experience. We analysed the problems raised, for the pathologists and the histology lab-technicians, by these artefacts as well as their impact on the pathology report patient management. We suggest simple solutions. PMID:23017279

Raybaud, H; Voha, C; Cardot-Leccia, N; Monteil, R A

2012-11-01

210

Penetration of cefaclor into bronchial mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Bronchial mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained during fibreoptic bronchoscopy in 30 patients receiving a new oral cephalosporin antibiotic, cefaclor (10 had 250 mg, 10 had 500 mg, and 10 had 1000 mg every eight hours). In 10 patients (from all dosage groups) cefaclor was undetectable in the bronchial mucosa but in every case the serum concentration was low, suggesting incomplete absorption. The mean (SD) bronchial mucosal concentration after 250 mg was 3.78 (1.77) micrograms/g (range 2.1-5.8 micrograms/g, n = 4), after 500 mg 4.43 (2.04) micrograms/g (range 2.0-7.1 micrograms/g, n = 8), and after 1000 mg 7.73 (2.76) micrograms/g (range 5.0-12.7 micrograms/g, n = 6). A significantly higher concentration in the bronchial mucosa was achieved with 1000 mg than with 250 mg (p less than 0.05) or 500 mg (p less than 0.025). These concentrations should be effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae, most strains being inhibited below 1.0 microgram/ml. The concentrations were within one dilution of the minimal inhibitory concentration for Haemophilus influenzae, most strains being inhibited below 4.0 micrograms/ml. Some strains of H influenzae will not be inhibited by the concentrations of cefaclor found in the bronchial mucosa, particularly those that are ampicillin resistant. PMID:6505987

Marlin, G E; Nicholls, A J; Funnell, G R; Bradbury, R

1984-01-01

211

Malignant colo-duodenal fistula; case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Colo-duodenal fistula is a rare complication of malignant and inflammatory bowel disease. Cases with malignant colo-duodenal fistulae can present with symptoms from the primary, from the fistula or from metastatic disease. The fistula often results in diarrhoea and vomiting with dramatic weight loss. Upper abdominal pain is usually present as is general malaise both from the presence of the

Ruth Soulsby; Edmund Leung; Nigel Williams

2006-01-01

212

Effects of Antiulcer Agents on Healing of Mepirizole-induced Duodenal Ulcers in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healing processes of duodenal ulcers induced by mepirizole and effects of several drugs on the ulcer healing were studied in rats. Mepirizole-induced duodenal ulcers, except for the perforated ones within 3 days after ulceration, gradually diminished in size and depth by the 15th day. Several ulcers persisted for up to 40 days, but complete healing in all rats occurred by

Y. Ishihara; S. Okabe

1983-01-01

213

Limited utilization of serologic testing in patients undergoing duodenal biopsy for celiac disease  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical algorithms for the workup of celiac disease often recommend the use of serologic assays for initial screening, followed by duodenal biopsy for histologic confirmation. However, the majority of duodenal biopsies submitted to pathology for “rule out celiac” are negative. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying causes for this low diagnostic yield. Methods We performed a retrospective review of pathology reports from 1432 consecutive duodenal biopsies submitted for pathologic assessment to “rule out celiac” and correlated biopsy results with results for concurrent serologic testing for celiac autoantibodies. Results The majority of patients had no record of serologic testing prior to biopsy, and evidence of positive serology results was found in only 5% of patients. Most duodenal biopsies were submitted as part of a multi-site GI sampling strategy that included biopsies from other locations. In this context, serologic results correlated with the likelihood of significant duodenal and non-duodenal findings, and were also helpful in evaluating patients with indeterminate duodenal histology. Conclusions The presence of a positive screening test for celiac autoantibodies does not appear to be a major driver in the decision to submit duodenal biopsies for evaluation of celiac disease, which accounts for the low incidence of findings in these samples. In patients where celiac serology testing was performed, the results were a good predictor of the likelihood of findings on biopsy. PMID:24209459

2013-01-01

214

Controlled therapeutic trial to determine the optimum dose of antacids in duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antacids are widely used in the management of duodenal ulcer but the optimum dose of antacid required for ulcer healing has not been determined. We therefore studied 107 patients with endoscopically diagnosed duodenal ulcer who were allotted at random to one of the following treatment groups; placebo (group P) and antacid (groups A, B and C). A liquid antacid (Aludrox

N Kumar; J C Vij; A Karol; B S Anand

1984-01-01

215

Adjuvant antibiotic therapy in duodenal ulcers treated with colloidal bismuth subcitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistence of Helicobacter pylori after duodenal ulcer healing is associated with high rates of ulcer relapse. We compared colloidal bismuth subcitrate alone with CBS combined with one of four antibiotic regimens in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. Endoscopy and antral biopsies were performed before treatment and four weeks afterwards. Biopsy specimens were examined for histological evidence of gastritis and by

T ORiordan; E Mathai; E Tobin; D McKenna; C Keane; E Sweeney; C OMorain

1990-01-01

216

Supraduodenal Branch of the Left Hepatic Artery: A Rare Cause of Bleeding Duodenal Ulcer  

SciTech Connect

This is a case report describing a rare cause of massive duodenal ulcer hemorrhage resulting from the erosion of the supraduodenal branch of the left hepatic artery. This arterial branch is not a well known variation and is rarely recognized as a source of duodenal bleeding.

Kapoor, Baljendra S., E-mail: bkapoor@uabmc.ed [University of Alabama at Birmingham NHB H623, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Berscheid, Bruce [St. Paul's Hospital, Interventional Radiology (Canada); Saddekni, Souheil [University of Alabama at Birmingham NHB H623, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

2009-07-15

217

Broad MICA/B expression in the small bowel mucosa: a link between cellular stress and celiac disease.  

PubMed

The MICA/B genes (MHC class I chain related genes A and B) encode for non conventional class I HLA molecules which have no role in antigen presentation. MICA/B are up-regulated by different stress conditions such as heat-shock, oxidative stress, neoplasic transformation and viral infection. Particularly, MICA/B are expressed in enterocytes where they can mediate enterocyte apoptosis when recognised by the activating NKG2D receptor present on intraepithelial lymphocytes. This mechanism was suggested to play a major pathogenic role in active celiac disease (CD). Due to the importance of MICA/B in CD pathogenesis we studied their expression in duodenal tissue from CD patients. By immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we established that MICA/B was mainly intracellularly located in enterocytes. In addition, we identified MICA/B(+) T cells in both the intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments. We also found MICA/B(+) B cells, plasma cells and some macrophages in the lamina propria. The pattern of MICA/B staining in mucosal tissue in severe enteropathy was similar to that found in in vitro models of cellular stress. In such models, MICA/B were located in stress granules that are associated to the oxidative and ER stress response observed in active CD enteropathy. Our results suggest that expression of MICA/B in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients is linked to disregulation of mucosa homeostasis in which the stress response plays an active role. PMID:24058482

Allegretti, Yessica L; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Chopita, Nestor; Fuertes, Mercedes; Zwirner, Norberto W; Chirdo, Fernando G

2013-01-01

218

Placebo effect in the treatment of duodenal ulcer  

PubMed Central

Aims To assess whether frequency of placebo administration is associated with duodenal ulcer healing. Methods A systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials was undertaken. 79 of 80 trials that met the inclusion criteria. The pooled 4 week placebo healing rate of all duodenal ulcer trials that employed a four times a day regimen was compared with the rate obtained from trials with a twice a day regimen. Results The pooled 4 week healing rate of the 51 trials with a four times a day regimen was 44.2% (805 of 1821 patients) compared with 36.2% (545 of 1504 patients) in the 28 trials with a twice a day regimen (difference, 8.0% [equal effects model]; 95% confidence interval, 4.6% to 11.3%). Depending on the statistical analysis, the rate difference ranged from 6.0% (multivariable random effects model) to 8.0% (equal effects model). A number of sensitivity analyses showed comparable differences between the two regimens. Most of these sensitivity analyses were not significant, probably because a number of trials were excluded resulting in a loss of power. Conclusions We found a relation between frequency of placebo administration and healing of duodenal ulcer. We realize that the comparison was based on nonrandomized data. However, we speculate that the difference between regimens was induced by the difference in frequency of placebo administration. A better knowledge of various placebo effects is required in order to make clinically relevant assessments of treatment effects derived from placebo-controlled trials. PMID:10594490

de Craen, Anton J M; Moerman, Daniel E; Heisterkamp, Simon H; Tytgat, Guido N J; Tijssen, Jan G P; Kleijnen, Jos

1999-01-01

219

Differential stimulation of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 by live and killed Helicobacter pylori in vitro and association of IL-12 production with gamma interferon-producing T cells in the human gastric mucosa.  

PubMed Central

The objective of these experiments was to examine the ability of Helicobacter pylori to stimulate interleukin-10 (IL-10) or IL-12 and select for either Th1 or Th2 cells. Gastric biopsy specimens were collected from patients who were categorized with respect to the presence of H. pylori and gastric disease as well as their age, gender, medications, and other factors. As Th1 and Th2 cells are selected by IL-12 and IL-10, respectively, biopsy specimens were screened for mRNA and protein for these cytokines. Although mRNA for IL-12 and IL-10 was detected in biopsy specimens obtained from both infected and uninfected patients, IL-12 protein predominated. Levels of IL-10 and IL-12 in gastric tissue did not change in response to infection. Moreover, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-producing T cells were found in both the infected and the uninfected gastric mucosa. Stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes from either infected or uninfected donors with various concentrations of live or killed H. pylori induced immunoreactive IL-12 and IL-10. After stimulation with live H. pylori, IL-12 levels increased more than 30-fold, whereas IL-10 levels increased only 2- to 5-fold, compared to cells stimulated with medium alone. Interestingly, killed H. pylori induced significantly more IL-10 (P < 0.05) than live H. pylori, while recombinant urease only induced IL-10. These results demonstrate that live H. pylori selectively stimulates the induction of IL-12 and Th1 cells that produce IFN-gamma, whereas preparations used in oral vaccines induce more IL-10 and may favor Th2 cell responses. PMID:9317031

Haeberle, H A; Kubin, M; Bamford, K B; Garofalo, R; Graham, D Y; El-Zaatari, F; Karttunen, R; Crowe, S E; Reyes, V E; Ernst, P B

1997-01-01

220

Pouching a draining duodenal cutaneous fistula: a case study.  

PubMed

Blockage of the mesenteric artery typically causes necrosis to the colon, requiring extensive surgical resection. In severe cases, the necrosis requires removal of the entire colon, creating numerous problems for the WOC nurse when pouching the opening created for effluent. This article describes the management of a draining duodenal fistula in a middle-aged woman, who survived surgery for a blocked mesenteric artery that necessitated the removal of the majority of the small and large intestine. Nutrition, skin management, and pouch options are described over a number of months as the fistula evolved and a stoma was created. PMID:10036421

Zwanziger, P J

1999-01-01

221

The possibility of dietary protective factors in duodenal ulcer  

PubMed Central

Rats fed on a supplement of raw cabbage, brinjal, dhal or powdered milk given in addition to a staple rice or laboratory stock diet show a high degree of protection against experimental ulceration following pyloric ligation. Wheat bran and ragi (a millet) conferred some protection, whereas rice bran and maize conferred no protection. The protection conferred by raw cabbage was destroyed by cooking. The lettuce used conferred no protection. The significance of such findings with regard to the geographical distribution of duodenal ulcer in India and Africa is discussed. PMID:1240629

Tovey, F. I.; Jayaraj, A. Paul; Clark, C. G.

1975-01-01

222

Surgical Excision of Duodenal/Pancreatic Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a potential to metastasize to almost any site and this may occur many years following nephrectomy. We present six cases with uncommon sites of metastasis: four patients presented with distal pancreatic metastasis and two with duodenal/head of the pancreas metastasis. Time to metastatic disease varied from 1 to 19?years following renal surgery. For patients are alive and two succumbed to their disease. Long-term survival can be achieved with aggressive surgical excision of disease. PMID:25177547

Espinoza, Eduardo; Hassani, Ali; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Shi, Dongping; Pontes, J. Edson; Weaver, Donald W.

2014-01-01

223

Duodenal Perforation: Unusual Complication of Gastrostomy Tube Replacement  

PubMed Central

Feeding gastrostomy is widely used for children with feeding impairment. The replacement of gastrostomy tube is known as an easy and safe procedure. However, various complications associated with replacement of gastrostomy tube were reported, including fistula disruption and colo-cutaneous fistula. For replacement of gastrostomy tube in small children with small stomach, special cautions are needed. Here, we report a rare case of duodenal perforation as an acute complication after the replacement of gastrostomy tube for a 33-month-old girl. PMID:25061587

Kim, Soo-Hong; Min, Sa-Hong; Jung, Sung-Eun

2014-01-01

224

Modification of lectin binding in rat gut mucosa during experimental cholestasis.  

PubMed Central

Glycoconjugate distribution on rat gut mucosa has been studied by using peroxidase-labelled lectins (Lotus tetragonolobus, Dolichos biflorus, Arachis hypogaea and Glycine max) after surgical interruption of the common bile duct. Specimens from cholestatic rats were compared with sham-operated (simple laparotomy) and normal controls to determine which of the observed modifications could be due either to the operation itself or to the cholestasis. Most of the modifications occurred in the duodenum. The operation itself modified some binding properties. Lotus tetragonolobus binding extended both in cholestatic and in sham-operated rats, but returned to normal levels earlier in sham-operated than in cholestatic rats. Conversely, cholestasis induced (1) almost total loss of Arachis hypogaea binding in the Golgi zone of superficial duodenal goblet cells; (2) an increase at the 14th postoperative day of Dolichos biflorus binding in the cytoplasmic calyx of goblet cells which then diminished up until the 28th day; and (3) an increase of Glycine max binding in the Golgi zone of goblet cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1295862

Vaccaro, R; Casu, C; Renda, T

1992-01-01

225

Palliation of Malignant Biliary and Duodenal Obstruction with Combined Metallic Stenting  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction with combined metallic stenting under fluoroscopy guidance. Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 9 patients (6 men and 3 women) who underwent biliary and duodenal stenting was performed. The mean age of patients was 61 years (range: 42-80 years). The causes of obstruction were pancreatic carcinoma in 7 patients, cholangiocellular carcinoma in one, and duodenal carcinoma in the other. Biliary and duodenal stents were placed simultaneously in 4 patients. In other 5 patients dudodenal stents were placed after biliary stenting when the duodenal obstruction symptoms have developed. In two patients duodenal stents were advanced via transgastric approach. Results. Technical success rate was 100 %. After percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting bilirubin levels decreased to normal levels in 6 patients and in remaining 3 patients mean reduction of 71% in bilirubin levels was achieved. Tumoral ingrowth occurred in one patient and percutaneous biliary restenting was performed 90 days after the initial procedure. Of the 9 patients, 6 patients were able to tolerate solid diet, whereas 2 patients could tolerate liquid diet and one patient did not show any improvement. Mean survival periods were 111 and 73 days after biliary and duodenal stenting, respectively. Conclusion. Combined biliary and duodenal stent placement which can be performed under fluoroscopic guidance without assistance of endoscopy is feasible and an effective method of palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstructions. If transoral and endoscopic approaches fail, percutaneous gastrostomy route allows duodenal stenting.

Akinci, Devrim, E-mail: akincid@hotmail.com; Akhan, Okan; Ozkan, Fuat; Ciftci, Turkmen; Ozkan, Orhan S.; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ozmen, Mustafa N. [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2007-11-15

226

Patient-specific finite element analysis of viscoelastic masticatory mucosa  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress and strain inside of the oral mucosa in partially-edentulous patients. The patient-specific finite element models of the mucosa and the bone were constructed using the CT images and in-vivo surface measurement during a continuous load. The mean initial shear modulus of 8.3 × 10–5 (GPa) and the mean relaxation time of 503 (s) were determined as the viscoelastic properties of the mucosa. The increase of the highest maximum compressive strain during the continuous loading was observed in all the patients, however; the intensity of strain was not in accordance with the thickness of the mucosa. It is suggested that the variations of the morphology and the initial modulus of the mucosa should be considered in the mathematical approaches to detect the mechanical responses of the oral mucosa. PMID:23580171

Suzuki, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

227

Prevalence of non-Helicobacter pylori duodenal ulcer in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the prevalence of non-Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-related duodenal ulcer in patients with acid-peptic diseases. METHODS: Medical records of patients who attended the Gastroenterology Department at Aga Khan University Hospital from 1999 to 2001 and had endoscopic diagnosis of duodenal ulcers were reviewed. Duodenal ulcer associated with H pylori was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopy, rapid urease test and histopathology whereas histories of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) related duodenal ulcers. Non-H pylori, non-NSAID duodenal ulcers were those without H pylori infection and history of NSAID intake. Co-morbid conditions associated were noted. RESULTS: Of 2260 patients, 10% (217/2 260) had duodenal ulcer. Duodenal ulcer related to H pylori infection accounted for 53% (116/217), NSAID-related 10% (22/217), non-H pylori non-NSAID 29% (62/217), and 8% (17/217) had both H pylori infection and histories of NSAID intake. Fifteen percent (18/116) patients had past histories of peptic ulcer disease in H pylori infection, while 8% (5/62) in non-H pylori non-NSAID ulcer. Co-morbid conditions in H pylori infection were seen in 23% (27/116) and 34% (21/62) in non-H pylori non-NSAID ulcer. CONCLUSION: Incidence of H pylori infection related with duodenal ulcer is common. In the presence of co-morbids, non-H pylori and non-NSAID duodenal ulcer is likely to be present. PMID:15962375

Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Jafri, Nadim; Islam, Muhammad; Abid, Shahab; Hamid, Saeed; AliShah, Hasnain; Shaikh, Hizbullah

2005-01-01

228

Perforated Duodenal Ulcer –A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Acute abdomen during pregnancy is a medico-surgical emergency demanding concerted, synchronized specialties approach of obstetrician, surgeon and gastroenterologist. Duodenal perforation is one of the rarer causes of acute abdomen in pregnancy. Here, we report a case of duodenal perforation with peritonitis in third trimester of pregnancy requiring surgical management. Our aim of reporting this case is to stress the physicians to keep the differential of duodenal perforation also in mind while dealing with cases of acute abdomen in pregnancy and to proceed with multidisciplinary approach for better feto-maternal outcome. PMID:25386494

Rani, Jyotsna; Huria, Anju; Gupta, Pratiksha; Dalal, Usha

2014-01-01

229

Aberrant gene expression in mucosa adjacent to tumor reveals a molecular crosstalk in colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background A colorectal tumor is not an isolated entity growing in a restricted location of the body. The patient’s gut environment constitutes the framework where the tumor evolves and this relationship promotes and includes a complex and tight correlation of the tumor with inflammation, blood vessels formation, nutrition, and gut microbiome composition. The tumor influence in the environment could both promote an anti-tumor or a pro-tumor response. Methods A set of 98 paired adjacent mucosa and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 50 colon mucosa from healthy donors (246 samples in total) were included in this work. RNA extracted from each sample was hybridized in Affymetrix chips Human Genome U219. Functional relationships between genes were inferred by means of systems biology using both transcriptional regulation networks (ARACNe algorithm) and protein-protein interaction networks (BIANA software). Results Here we report a transcriptomic analysis revealing a number of genes activated in adjacent mucosa from CRC patients, not activated in mucosa from healthy donors. A functional analysis of these genes suggested that this active reaction of the adjacent mucosa was related to the presence of the tumor. Transcriptional and protein-interaction networks were used to further elucidate this response of normal gut in front of the tumor, revealing a crosstalk between proteins secreted by the tumor and receptors activated in the adjacent colon tissue; and vice versa. Remarkably, Slit family of proteins activated ROBO receptors in tumor whereas tumor-secreted proteins transduced a cellular signal finally activating AP-1 in adjacent tissue. Conclusions The systems-level approach provides new insights into the micro-ecology of colorectal tumorogenesis. Disrupting this intricate molecular network of cell-cell communication and pro-inflammatory microenvironment could be a therapeutic target in CRC patients. PMID:24597571

2014-01-01

230

Enhanced production of leptin in gastric fundic mucosa with Helicobacter pylori infection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the concentrations of leptin in plasma and gastric fundic mucosa in humans, with reference to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, and their association with gastric mucosal levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and IL-8. METHODS: Plasma leptin concentrations were determined in 135 outpatients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, consisting of 95 H pylori-infected and 40 uninfected subjects, and 13 patients before and after cure of the infection with anti-H pylori regimen. Using biopsy samples that were endoscopically obtained from the middle corpus along the greater curvature, gastric leptin contents were measured by radioimmunoassay and the mucosal concentrations of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. We also analysed the expression of leptin in the fundic mucosa by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The mucosal levels of leptin in the fundic mucosa of H pylori-infected patients were significantly higher than those of uninfected patients. The amount of gastric leptin correlated positively with the mucosal levels of IL-1? and IL-6, but not IL-8. Circulating leptin correlated with body mass index, but not with H pylori status, and there was no change in plasma leptin levels following cure of the infection. Leptin immunoreactive cells were noted in the lower half of the fundic glands, and its expression of messenger ribonucleic acid in the oxyntic mucosa was detected by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Leptin production is enhanced in H pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Gastric leptin may be involved in immune and inflammatory response during H pylori infection, through interaction with proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:15655824

Nishi, Yoshito; Isomoto, Hajime; Uotani, Shigeo; Wen, Chun Yang; Shikuwa, Saburo; Ohnita, Ken; Mizuta, Yohei; Kawaguchi, Akio; Inoue, Kenichiro; Kohno, Shigeru

2005-01-01

231

Aloin delivery on buccal mucosa: ex vivo studies and design of a new locoregional dosing system.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Chemoprevention of potential malignant disorders or cancerous lesions that affect oral mucosae requires extended duration of treatment. Locoregional delivery of natural products could represent a promising strategy for this purpose. Objective: To investigate the aptitude of aloin to permeate through, or accumulate in, the buccal mucosa and to develop a new prolonged oro-mucosal drug delivery system. Materials and methods: Permeation/accumulation of aloin from Curacao Aloe (containing 50% barbaloin) was evaluated ex vivo, using porcine buccal mucosa as the most useful model to simulate human epithelium. Oro-mucosal matrix tablets were prepared by dispersing aloin (10% w/w) in Eudragit® RS 100 as, biocompatible, low permeable, pH-independent, and non-swelling polymer. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug-polymer compatibility, weight variation, drug uniformity content, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, and drug release. Results: Aloin has low tendency to cross buccal mucosa, permeation is marginal, and high drug amounts remain entrapped into the epithelium. Matrix tablets characteristics were in agreement with pharmacopoeial requirements. Drug release showed highly reproducible Higuchian profile. Delivery through matrix tablets promoted drug accumulation in the mucosal tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Following application of matrix tablets on porcine buccal mucosa, the amount of discharged drug recovered in the tissue should be sufficient to produce the desired effects, providing therapeutic drug levels directly at the site of action. Aloin-loaded tablets are valid candidates for prevention/treatment of potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer and could potentially lead to clinically relevant drug delivery system as coadjuvant of conventional chemotherapy/radiation therapy. PMID:25311426

De Caro, Viviana; Scaturro, Anna Lisa; Di Prima, Giulia; Avellone, Giuseppe; Sutera, Flavia Maria; Di Fede, Olga; Campisi, Giuseppina; Giannola, Libero Italo

2014-10-14

232

Lichen sclerosus of the oral mucosa: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichen sclerosus or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the ge- nital mucosa and skin. Clinically, it is characterized by white atrophic plaques in the anogenital region. The lesions are generally asymptomatic, but may cause discomfort with itching and pain. Extragenital mucosal involvement is very unusual, and lesions limited to the oral mucosa are even

Yolanda Jiménez; Carmen Gavaldá; Enrique Carbonell; María Margaix; Gracia Sarrión

233

[Differential diagnosis: blue gastric mucosa. Post-mortem staining of the gastric mucosa with methylene blue].  

PubMed

An intense discoloration of the gastric mucosa or the gastrointestinal tract found at autopsy gives rise to the question of its cause. Such discolorations are mostly described in the context of intoxications. However, traditional foods and diagnostic procedures using indicator dyes can also lead to an unusual discoloration of the mucous membranes. The authors report on the autopsy findings in a man who died from a bleeding gastric ulcer and whose gastric mucosa showed intense blue discoloration. Experimental postmortem examinations (on stomachs) were performed with methylene blue, a dye used in gastroenterology, resulting in a blue discoloration resembling the appearance of the stomach in the autopsy case. Together with the outcome of the toxicological analyses, the experiments pointed to a diagnostic procedure using methylene blue (chromoendoscopy). PMID:22924277

Osterwald, Anna; Scholz, Jula; Gehl, Axel; Püschel, Klaus

2012-01-01

234

Chronic diarrhea due to duodenal candidiasis in a patient with a history of kidney transplantation.  

PubMed

Candida infection in the small intestine is uncommon. We report an unusual case of duodenal candidiasis that presented as chronic diarrhea in a patient who had previously undergone kidney transplantation. A 60-year-old man presented with profuse watery diarrhea that had lasted 6 months 13 years after kidney transplantation. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy results indicated candidiasis within the esophagus and duodenum. Biopsy results revealed active duodenitis with hyphal and yeast forms of Candida overlying the duodenal epithelium in periodic acid Schiff staining. The patient was successfully treated with fluconazole. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient had no complaint of diarrhea. Duodenal candidiasis may be the result of chronic diarrhea in patients with a history of kidney transplantation. PMID:25362226

Nouri-Majalan, Nader; Moghaddasi, Sarasadat; Qane, Mohammad Davud; Shefaie, Farzane; Masoumi Dehshiri, Roghayyeh; Amirbaigy, Mohammad Kassem; Baghbanian, Mahmoud

2014-11-01

235

The papilla of Vater just below the pylorus presenting as recurrent duodenal ulcer bleeding.  

PubMed

The papilla of Vater emptying into the duodenal bulb site is extremely rare and considered an aberrant condition. We report here a case with recurrent duodenal ulcer bleeding associated with this anomaly. A 42-year-old man was admitted to St. Mary Hospital because of tarry stool for three days. Despite no documented etiology to explain recurrent ulceration, the patient had about ten episodes of ulcer bleeding since 1995. On duodenoscopy, 1.0 x 0.6 cm sized active stage duodenal ulcer with oozing was observed at the posterior wall side below the pylorus. The papilla of Vater was bulging just below the pylorus. Bile juice was excreted from its opening. Pancreatic duct and common bile duct, which drained into the bulb site, were observed on ERCP. In this report, we show that recurrent duodenal ulcer can be associated with the papilla of Vater just below the pylorus. PMID:18025767

Sung, Hye Young; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Yong Bum; Cheung, Dae Young; Cho, Se Hyun; Park, Soo-Heon; Han, Joon-Yeol; Kim, Jae Kwang

2007-01-01

236

Study of the microcirculation of oral mucosa in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

The research has the following aims: 1: to verify the applicability of capillaroscopic investigation to oral mucosa; 2: to propose oral mucosa as an alternative to the fingernail fold for capillaroscopic investigation; 3: to describe the characteristics of the microcirculation of oral mucosa in healthy subjects. 100 healthy patients were examined. The characteristics of the micro-circulation in the areas of gum mucosa and the mucosa covering of the lower lip were examined using computerised videomicroscopic techniques. For each patient we evaluated the visibility, the course, the density, the tortuosity and any images characteristic of capillary loops, besides the possible presence of microhaemorrhages, the average calibre of capillary loops and the number of capillary loops visible per square millimetre. The investigation was simple, non invasive and repeatable for each patient. An investigation of gum mucosa has revealed a course of capillary loops both parallel and perpendicular to the surface: often the tops of the capillary loops appear as regularly distributed dots or commas. Microcirculatory architecture in the area of the mucosa covering is characterised by capillary loops with a variable diameter, course and length; next to typical capillary loops with the appearance of horse stirrups, there are other loops similar to hairpins, commas and cork screws; there are also rare microhaemorrhages with the aspect of reddish stains, that could be caused by microtraumas. Visibility was very good in the area of the mucosa covering of the lower lip: mediocre in the area of gum mucosa. Our research has highlighted, that today it is possible to carry out a capillaroscopic investigation of oral mucosa in a simple and reliable way. Future research could evaluate how "normal microcirculation", that we describe in this paper, is modified during pathology PMID:12737514

Scardina, Giuseppe Alessandro; Messina, Pietro

2003-01-01

237

Small bowel perforation after duodenal stent migration: An interesting case of a rare complication  

PubMed Central

Duodenal stents are frequently used for palliating malignant gastric outlet obstruction. Successful stent placement relieves obstructive symptoms, is cost effective, and has a relatively low complication rate. However, enteral stents have the potential of migrating distally and rarely, even lead to bowel perforation. We present a rare case of a duodenal stent placed as a palliative measure for gastric outlet obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic cancer that migrated distally after a gastrojejunostomy resulting in small bowel perforation. PMID:21860709

Lee, Peter HU; Moore, Robert; Raizada, Akshay; Grotz, Richard

2011-01-01

238

Urinary excretion of duodenal purine derivatives in Kedah-Kelantan cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three male Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle each fitted with a ruminal and a T-shaped duodenal cannulae, with an initial body weight of 178.3±5.78kg were used to study the recovery rate of urinary purine derivatives (PD) after duodenal infusion of incremental amounts of purine bases (PB). During the experiment, the cattle were fed at a maintenance energy level with a diet containing

O Pimpa; J. B Liang; Z. A Jelan; N Abdullah

2001-01-01

239

Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding  

SciTech Connect

We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40{sup o}C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya, E-mail: ksj@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Isoda, Hiroyoshi [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Taura, Kojiro [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Surgery (Japan); Arizono, Shigeki; Shimada, Kotaro; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2010-12-15

240

Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa  

E-print Network

- scopies. PSTI was present in the stomach, small intestine, and colon. Concentrations (1ig/g protein) were highest in the stomach, and significantly higher in the antrum (1240, 670-1700, median and range) than. The median (range) concentration ofPSTI in basal gastric juice from 13 patients with duodenal ulcers was 9 (3

MacDonald, Andrew

241

Analysis of 4-hydroxy-1-(-3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB)-releasing DNA adducts in human exfoliated oral mucosa cells by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Quantitation of DNA adducts could provide critical information on the relationship between exposure to tobacco smoke and cancer risk in smokers. In this study, we developed a robust and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB1)-releasing DNA adducts in human oral cells, a non-invasive source of DNA for biomarker studies. Isolated DNA undergoes acid hydrolysis, after which samples are purified by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The developed method was applied for analysis of samples obtained via collection with a commercial mouthwash from 30 smokers and 15 nonsmokers. In smokers, the levels of HPB-releasing DNA adducts averaged 12.0 pmol HPB/mg DNA (detected in 20 out of 28 samples with quantifiable DNA yield) and in nonsmokers, the levels of adducts averaged 0.23 pmol/mg DNA (detected in 3 out of 15 samples). For the 30 smoking subjects, matching buccal brushings were also analyzed and HPB-releasing DNA adducts were detected in 24 out of 27 samples with quantifiable DNA yield, averaging 44.7 pmol HPB/mg DNA. The levels of adducts in buccal brushings correlated with those in mouthwash samples of smokers (R = 0.73, p < 0.0001). Potentially the method can be applied in studies of individual susceptibility to tobacco-induced cancers in humans. PMID:23252610

Stepanov, Irina; Muzic, John; Le, Chap T.; Sebero, Erin; Villalta, Peter; Ma, Bin; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S.

2013-01-01

242

Neuroendocrinology of gastric H+ and duodenal HCO3- secretion: the role of brain-gut axis.  

PubMed

Gastric H+ and duodenal HCO3- secretions are precisely regulated by neuro-hormonal mechanisms at central and peripheral levels to match the rate of these secretions with the type of stimulation of sensory receptors in the head area (sight, smell, taste, etc.) and in the gastro-intestinal system. Two-way communication pathways operate between the brain and the gut, each comprising afferent fibers signaling sensory information from the gut to the brain and efferent fibers transmitting signals in opposite direction. Short intramural and long extramural reflexes are triggered as well as various gut hormones are released by feeding that "cooperate" with the "brain-gut axis" in the alteration of exocrine and endocrine gastro-duodenal secretion, motility and blood circulation. The malfunction of gastric or duodenal secretory mechanisms may lead to disturbances of gastric H+-pepsin or duodenal mucus-HCO3- secretion and to gastro-duodenal disorders and diseases. This review presents recent advances in pathophysiological mechanisms underlying gastro-duodenal secretory disorders. PMID:15363947

Konturek, Peter C; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Ochma?ski, Wladyslaw

2004-09-19

243

Laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery for duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G1: Report of a case  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION We report a case of duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G1 resected by laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) technique. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 58-year-old woman underwent esophagastroduodenoscopy, revealing an 8-mm, gently rising tumor distal to the pylorus, on the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonography suggested the tumor might invade the submucosal layer. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as a G1 duodenal NET, by biopsy. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was attempted, but was unsuccessful because of the difficulty of endoscopically performing an inversion operation in the narrow working space. The case was further complicated by the patient's duodenal ulcer scar. We performed a full-thickness local excision using laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery. The tumor was confirmed and endoscopically marked along the resection line. After full-thickness excision, using endoscopy and laparoscopy, interrupted full-thickness closure was performed laparoscopically. DISCUSSION Endoscopic treatment is generally recommended for G1 NETs <10 mm in diameter and extending only to the submucosal layer. However, some cases are difficult to resect endoscopically because the wall of duodenum is thinner than that of stomach, and endoscope maneuverability is limited within the narrow working space. LECS is appropriate for early duodenal G1 NETs because they are less invasive and resection of the lesion area is possible. CONCLUSION We demonstrated that LECS is a safe and feasible procedure for duodenal G1 NETs in the anterior wall of the first portion of the duodenum. PMID:25460463

Tsushimi, Takaaki; Mori, Hirohito; Harada, Takasuke; Nagase, Takashi; Iked, Yoshitaka; Ohnishi, Hiromo

2014-01-01

244

Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptors on plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa  

SciTech Connect

The binding of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), beta-urogastrone, to plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa was studied to characterize gastric EGF receptors. The binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF was temperature dependent, reversible, and saturable. A single class of binding sites for EGF with a dissociation constant of 0.42 nM and maximal binding capacity of 42 fmol/mg protein was suggested. There was little change in the binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF upon addition of peptide hormones (secretin, insulin), antiulcer drugs (cimetidine), or an ulcer-inducing reagent (aspirin). Cross-linking of ({sup 125}I)hEGF to gastric plasma membranes with the use of disuccinimidyl suberate resulted in the labeling of a protein of 150 kDa. These results indicate the presence of EGF receptors on plasma membranes of rat gastric mucosa.

Hori, R.; Nomura, H.; Iwakawa, S.; Okumura, K. (Kyoto Univ. Hospital (Japan))

1990-06-01

245

Effect of cimetidine on augmented gastric blood flow in duodenal ulcer patients.  

PubMed Central

Blood flow in the human stomach was measured during operation with a 85Krypton washout method which made simultaneous determinations of total blood flow and intramural flow distribution possible. The antrum and the corpus of the stomach could be investigated separately. Eleven patients with duodenal ulcer disease were studied during pentagastrin infusion and after the addition of cimetidine, 3 mg/kg bw, to evaluate the effect of the drug on augmented gastric blood flow. Eight recordings were made over the corpus of the stomach and three recordings over the antrum. Cimetidine caused a 66 +/- 5% decrease (mean +/- SE; range 56-86) in acid secretion and a 62 +/- 5% decrease (range 44-91) in the corpus mucosal blood flow within 15 minutes. Changes were only seen in the acid secreting part of the stomach while the antral circulation remained unaltered. It is concluded that the decrease in pentagastrin induced vasodilatation in the stomach seen after giving cimetidine was secondary to an inhibition of acid secretion. PMID:6479684

Ivarsson, L; Darle, N; Lundgren, O

1984-01-01

246

Clinical outcome of simultaneous self-expandable metal stents for palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: Previous studies have shown that self-expanding metal stents are an effective method for palliation of malignant\\u000a biliary or duodenal obstruction. We present our experience with the use of simultaneous self-expandable metal stents for palliation\\u000a of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing simultaneous\\u000a biliary and duodenal self-expandable metal stent placement between

M. Kaw; S. Singh; H. Gagneja

2003-01-01

247

THEMIS and PTPRK in celiac intestinal mucosa: coexpression in disease and after in vitro gliadin challenge.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune mediated, polygenic disorder, where HLA-DQ2/DQ8 alleles contribute around 35% to genetic risk, but several other genes are also involved. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and the more recent immunochip genotyping projects have fine-mapped 39 regions of genetic susceptibility to the disease, most of which harbor candidate genes that could participate in this disease process. We focused our attention to the GWAS peak on chr6: 127.99-128.38?Mb, a region including two genes, thymocyte-expressed molecule involved in selection (THEMIS) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, kappa (PTPRK), both of which have immune-related functions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression levels of these two genes in duodenal mucosa of active and treated CD patients and in controls, and to determine whether SNPs (rs802734, rs55743914, rs72975916, rs10484718 and rs9491896) associated with CD have any influence on gene expression. THEMIS showed higher expression in active CD compared with treated patients and controls, whereas PTPRK showed lower expression. Our study confirmed the association of this region with CD in our population, but only the genotype of rs802734 showed some influence in the expression of THEMIS. On the other hand, we found a significant positive correlation between THEMIS and PTPRK mRNA levels in CD patients but not in controls. Our results suggest a possible role for both candidate genes in CD pathogenesis and the existence of complex, regulatory relationships that reside in the vast non-coding, functional intergenic regions of the genome. Further investigation is needed to clarify the impact of the disease-associated SNPs on gene function. PMID:23820479

Bondar, Constanza; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Irastorza, Iñaki; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca; Chirdo, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

2014-03-01

248

Melatonin inhibits alcohol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability in rats in vivo.  

PubMed

Increased intestinal permeability is often associated with epithelial inflammation, leaky gut, or other pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. We recently found that melatonin decreases basal duodenal mucosal permeability, suggesting a mucosal protective mode of action of this agent. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of melatonin on ethanol-, wine-, and HCl-induced changes of duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability and motility. Rats were anesthetized with thiobarbiturate and a ~30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum was perfused in situ. Effects on duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability, assessed by measuring the blood-to-lumen clearance of ?¹Cr-EDTA, motility, and morphology, were investigated. Perfusing the duodenal segment with ethanol (10 or 15% alcohol by volume), red wine, or HCl (25-100 mM) induced concentration-dependent increases in paracellular permeability. Luminal ethanol and wine increased, whereas HCl transiently decreased duodenal motility. Administration of melatonin significantly reduced ethanol- and wine-induced increases in permeability by a mechanism abolished by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium (iv) or mecamylamine (luminally). Signs of mucosal injury (edema and beginning of desquamation of the epithelium) in response to ethanol exposure were seen only in a few villi, an effect that was histologically not changed by melatonin. Melatonin did not affect HCl-induced increases in mucosal permeability or decreases in motility. Our results show that melatonin reduces ethanol- and wine-induced increases in duodenal paracellular permeability partly via an enteric inhibitory nicotinic-receptor dependent neural pathway. In addition, melatonin inhibits ethanol-induced increases in duodenal motor activity. These results suggest that melatonin may serve important gastrointestinal barrier functions. PMID:23639810

Sommansson, Anna; Saudi, Wan Salman Wan; Nylander, Olof; Sjöblom, Markus

2013-07-01

249

Aggregation factor as an inhibitor of bacterial binding to gut mucosa.  

PubMed

Modern research in the area of probiotics is largely devoted to discovering factors that promote the adherence of probiotic candidates to host mucosal surfaces. The aim of the present study was to test the role of aggregation factor (AggL) and mucin-binding protein (MbpL) from Lactococcus sp. in adhesion to gastrointestinal mucosa. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments in rats were used to assess the adhesive potential of these two proteins expressed in heterologous host Lactobacillus salivarius BGHO1. Although there was no influence of MbpL protein expression on BGHO1 adhesion to gut mucosa, expression of AggL had a negative effect on BGHO1 binding to ileal and colonic rat mucosa, as well as to human HT29-MTX cells and porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Because AggL did not decrease the adhesion of bacteria to intestinal fragments in ex vivo tests, where peristaltic simulation conditions were missing, we propose that intestinal motility could be a crucial force for eliminating aggregation-factor-bearing bacteria. Bacterial strains expressing aggregation factor could facilitate the removal of pathogens through the coaggregation mechanism, thus balancing gut microbial ecosystems in people affected by intestinal bacteria overgrowth. PMID:24823989

Lukic, Jovanka; Strahinic, Ivana; Milenkovic, Marina; Nikolic, Milica; Tolinacki, Maja; Kojic, Milan; Begovic, Jelena

2014-10-01

250

Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were not identified in sinus mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.  

PubMed

Chronic rhinosinusitis is a symptomatic inflammation of the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses lasting for at least 12 weeks. Atypical bacteria Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are important causes of human respiratory tract infection. Also, they were identified in bronchial respiratory epithelium of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma. Having in mind the unified airway concept, it is also possible that these bacteria can cause persistent infection of sinus mucosa in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Sixty consecutive patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who underwent the functional endoscopic sinus surgery due to medical therapy failure were included in the study. During the operation, sinuses were irrigated with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution and this lavage was immediately aspirated. Aspirates were used for the detection of C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae DNA using real-time PCR. C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae DNA were not detected in samples analysed. Atypical bacteria C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae did not cause persistent infection of sinus mucosa in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:24096817

Pandak, Nenad; Paji?-Penavi?, Ivana; Židovec-Lepej, Snježana; Planini?, Ana; Trošelj-Vuki?, Biserka; Peri?, Ljiljana

2014-06-01

251

Computer simulation of flow and mixing at the duodenal stump after gastric resection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the flow and mixing at the duodenal stump after gastric resection, a computer simulation was implemented. METHODS: Using the finite element method, two different Billroth II procedure cases (A and B) were modeled. Case A was defined with a shorter and almost straight duodenal section, while case B has a much longer and curved duodenal section. Velocity, pressure and food concentration distribution were determined and the numerical results were compared with experimental observations. RESULTS: The pressure distribution obtained by numerical simulation was in the range of the recorded experimental results. Case A had a more favorable pressure distribution in comparison with case B. However, case B had better performance in terms of food transport because of more continual food distribution, as well as better emptying of the duodenal section. CONCLUSION: This study offers insight into the transport process within the duodenal stump section after surgical intervention, which can be useful for future patient-specific predictions of a surgical outcome. PMID:19399932

Filipovic, Nenad; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Isailovic, Velibor; Matovic, Zoran; Rosic, Mirko; Kojic, Milos

2009-01-01

252

Altered solid and liquid gastric emptying in patients with duodenal ulcer disease.  

PubMed Central

Alteration in gastric emptying has been implicated in duodenal ulcer disease. The precise abnormalities remain controversial. We have used a radionuclide technique to assess solid and liquid gastric emptying in 14 patients with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer and 22 healthy controls. Solid gastric emptying values for the patient group fell within the normal range. The median time taken for 50% (T50) of the liquid marker to empty from the stomach was 12 minutes (range 6-23 minutes) which was significantly faster (p less than .005) than controls (median 18 minutes, range 11-35). In 10 of the 14 patients, however, the rate of liquid emptying was within the normal range. There was no significant difference in the T50 for gastric emptying of solids between the groups, but in duodenal ulcer patients food left the stomach significantly earlier than in controls (p less than .05). After this, however, the linear rate at which duodenal ulcer patients emptied solid food from the stomach was a median 0.75%/minutes (range 0.5-1.4 minutes), which was slower (p less than .0005) than controls, median 1.25/minutes (range 0.7-2.3). These results show that the pattern of gastric emptying of digestible solids and liquids in patients with duodenal ulcer disease, as a group, is significantly altered. PMID:4018631

Maddern, G J; Horowitz, M; Hetzel, D J; Jamieson, G G

1985-01-01

253

Polyneuropathy while on duodenal levodopa infusion in Parkinson's disease patients: we must be alert.  

PubMed

Some reports have emerged describing the occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome and polyneuropathy related to vitamin B(12) deficiency in some patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with continuous duodenal levodopa infusion. We describe five PD patients who developed axonal polyneuropathy and vitamin B(12) deficiency while on treatment with duodenal levodopa infusion, review other cases reported in the literature, discuss potential etiologic factors, and suggest a possible algorithm for the management and prevention of this complication. One case of Guillain-Barré syndrome and at least 12 cases of polyneuropathy related to vitamin B(12) deficiency have been reported in PD patients treated with duodenal levodopa infusion. Levodopa gel infusion may induce a decrease in vitamin B(12) levels, leading to peripheral neuropathy. Additional pathogenetic mechanisms include alterations related to the metabolism of L: -dopa, abnormal L: -dopa absorption, and direct neurotoxicity of L: -dopa at high doses. Vitamin B(12) supplementation may need to be considered in PD patients on duodenal levodopa infusion therapy. Vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients on duodenal levodopa infusion therapy may be more frequent than the published data suggest. We must be alert. PMID:22270132

Santos-García, Diego; de la Fuente-Fernández, Raúl; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Palasí, Antonio; Carrillo, Fátima; Grande, Mónica; Mir, Pablo; De Fabregues, Oriol; Casanova, Jordi

2012-08-01

254

Coeliac-like duodenal pathology in orthotopic liver transplant patients on mycophenoloic acid therapy.  

PubMed

Introduction: Diarrhoea following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a significant clinical problem associated with mycophenoloic acid (MPA). The histological injury pattern associated with MPA in the large bowel is well documented in the literature, however, less extensively in the duodenum. Aims: To investigate the histological spectrum of duodenal injury specifically in symptomatic OLT patients on MPA and compare this with patients with coeliac and normal controls. Methods: We reviewed our pathology database for all duodenal biopsies in patients on the OLT list over 19 years. Medical records, anti-tTG IgA serology and histology were reviewed. Results: Of the 667 patients that underwent endoscopy, 127 patients had duodenal biopsies (152 biopsies). 87.5% were normal. 16 showed abnormal histology with 7 (43.8%) on MPA at the time of biopsy. Significant features included coeliac-like changes (shortened villi and increased intraepithelial lymphocyte counts) and novel findings included increased endocrine cell counts, apoptotic counts and lamina propria eosinophil counts in comparison to normal duodenal biopsies. Conclusions: Pathologists should be aware of the features of MPA-associated duodenal injury, including coeliac-like changes and increased apoptotic counts. In those with abnormal histology, a discontinuation or reduction in dosage of MPA should be discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25195696

Cotter, Maura Brid; AbuShanab, Ahmed; Merriman, Raphael; McCormick, Aiden; Sheahan, Kieran

2014-09-01

255

Intramural Duodenal Haematoma after Endoscopic Biopsy: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

The development of intramural duodenal haematoma (IDH) after small bowel biopsy is an unusual lesion and has only been reported in 18 children. Coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and some special features of duodenal anatomy, e.g. relatively fixed position in the retroperitoneum and numerous submucosal blood vessels, have been suggested as a cause for IDH. The typical clinical presentation of IDH is severe abdominal pain and vomiting due to duodenal obstruction. In addition, it is often associated with pancreatitis and cholestasis. Diagnosis is confirmed using imaging techniques such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and upper intestinal series. Once diagnosis is confirmed and intestinal perforation excluded, conservative treatment with nasogastric tube and parenteral nutrition is sufficient. We present a case of massive IDH following endoscopic grasp forceps biopsy in a 5-year-old girl without bleeding disorder or other risk for IDH, which caused duodenal obstruction and mild pancreatitis and resolved within 2 weeks of conservative management. Since duodenal biopsies have become the common way to evaluate children or adults for suspected enteropathy, the occurrence of this complication is likely to increase. In conclusion, the review of the literature points out the risk for IDH especially in children with a history of bone marrow transplantation or leukaemia. PMID:22379465

Grasshof, Claudia; Wolf, Anna; Neuwirth, Frank; Posovszky, Carsten

2012-01-01

256

Evaluation of non-ampullary duodenal polyps: Comparison of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate duodenal polyps, divided into non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. In addition, the clinical characteristics of duodenal hyperplastic polyps are determined. METHODS: We analyzed medical records of 50?114 consecutive patients submitted to for first diagnostic esophago-gastroduodenoscopy between January 2004 and December 2009. We excluded lesions on the ampulla of Vater and submucosal tumors. We studied 510 cases that were diagnosed endoscopically with duodenal polyps and enrolled a total of 221 cases that had undergone tissue biopsy. We analyzed the differences between non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, and determined the clinical features of duodenal hyperplastic polyps. RESULTS: Non-neoplastic lesions were found in 196 patients and neoplastic lesions in 25 patients. On univariate analysis, there were significant differences in shape, location, and size. Polyps more than 10 mm in diameter or polyps in the second portion had independent risk factors for being neoplastic lesions, as identified by multivariate analysis. In 23 cases of hyperplastic polyps (79.3%), they were accompanied by gastro-duodenal pathology, which was possibly associated with Helicobacter pylori. CONCLUSION: Polyps of more than 10 mm or polyps in the second portion of the duodenum should be evaluated by histological examination. PMID:21086567

Jung, Sung Hoon; Chung, Woo Chul; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Seol Hye; Paik, Chang Nyol; Lee, Bo In; Cho, Young Seok; Lee, Kang-Moon

2010-01-01

257

Antacid maintenance therapy in the prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse.  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of antacid maintenance therapy in preventing duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse was investigated. Two hundred and fifty one asymptomatic patients with healed DU were stratified into smokers and non-smokers and randomised to receive for one year either placebo, or Maalox TC three tablets (81 mmol) at bedtime (hs), or Maalox TC three tablets in the morning plus three tablets at bedtime (bd) (162 mmol), or cimetidine 400 mg at bedtime. A double dummy technique was used to render the study double blind. In 176 patients evaluable for efficacy, the cumulative relapse at one year was: placebo 57%; Maalox TC hs 39%; Maalox TC bd 23%; cimetidine 25%. Maalox TC bd and cimetidine were equally effective and superior to placebo (p less than 0.01) and bedtime Maalox TC (p less than 0.04). The benefit of treatment was significant for the overall sample and for the subgroup of smokers. The results for the non-smokers also supported efficacy for these two treatments but, perhaps because of small sample sizes, these comparisons were not significant. All 251 patients were assessed for safety. Approximately half the patients in each treatment group had adverse events, leading to withdrawal in three, seven, 12, and four patients on placebo, Maalox hs, Maalox bd, and cimetidine respectively. Diarrhoea occurred in 12 patients in Maalox TC bd and eight in each other group. Serum magnesium concentrations were unchanged; aluminium concentrations were higher than baseline at six and 12 months in both antacid groups and at 12 months in the cimetidine group but the differences were not significant. Maalox TC three tablets bd are as effective as cimetidine 400 mg at bedtime in reducing DU relapse and both are superior to placebo. PMID:3065157

Bardhan, K D; Hunter, J O; Miller, J P; Thomson, A B; Graham, D Y; Russell, R I; Sontag, S; Hines, C; Martin, T; Gaussen, L

1988-01-01

258

Association of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt with Embolization in the Treatment of Bleeding Duodenal Varix Refractory to Sclerotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Bleeding from duodenal varices are often severe (mortality as high as 40%), and more difficult to sclerose than esophageal varices. We report a patient with a bleeding duodenal varix, refractory to sclerotherapy, successfully treated by the association of portosystemic shunt placement and varix embolization, via the same transjugular intrahepatic route. Methods: A 40-year-old Black male underwent emergency TIPS and

Giulio Illuminati; Allaoua Smail; Daniel Azoulay; Denis Castaing; Henri Bismuth

2000-01-01

259

Ruptured duodenal varices successfully treated by mini-loop ligation: report of a case.  

PubMed

Bleeding from duodenal varices is a rare, but often fatal manifestation of portal hypertension and these ectopic varices are more common in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. There are over 160 cases of duodenal varices reported in the English literature. A 47-year-old female presented with massive hematemesis and prolonged shock. Initial endoscopy revealed non-bleeding small esophageal varices and large varices in the first portion of the duodenum with spurting bleeding. Endoscopic hemostasis was obtained with 5 detachable nylon loops. Portal hypertension was caused by liver cirrhosis and postthrombotic portal cavernoma. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of successful mini-loop ligation of bleeding duodenal varices reported in the literature. PMID:19943566

Ghidirim, Gh; Mishin, I; Dolghii, A; Zastavnitsky, Gh

2009-01-01

260

Wilkie's Syndrome and Left Adnexal Mass: Unusual Presentation of Duodenal Adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Duodenal adenocarcinoma (DACa) is a rare malignancy, the presenting symptoms of which are vague and nonspecific. We report the case of a patient presenting with symptoms of subacute small bowel obstruction whose CT scan revealed i) left adnexal mass and ii) compression of 3(rd) portion of duodenum with reduced aortomesentric angle consistent with Wilkie's syndrome (WS). Laparatomy in addition revealed a distal duodenal stricture, which showed a well differentiated DACa causing subtotal intestinal obstruction. The ovarian mass revealed adenocarcinoma with similar morphology. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed positive expression of CK 20 and CDX 2 and absence of CK 7 staining in the tumours consistent with Primary DACa with ovarian metastasis. We further concluded that the WS resulted from reduced mesenteric fat pad caused by DACa induced cachexia. The case highlights the elusive nature of duodenal malignancy and emphasises the importance of meticulous small bowel examination during exploration of ovarian masses. PMID:25302201

Devadass, Clement Wilfred; Okaly, Geetha V Patil; Hm, Sudha; Pai, Sreekar Agumbe; Sridher, H

2014-08-01

261

A 12-mm carcinoid tumor of the minor duodenal papilla with lymph node metastases.  

PubMed

Carcinoid tumors located in the minor duodenal papilla are extremely rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report the case of a 71-year-old man with a 12-mm carcinoid tumor at the minor duodenal papilla with lymph node metastases. Multidetector-row computed tomography with contrast enhancement revealed a 12-mm well-enhanced tumor in the duodenum. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a 12-mm submucosal tumor at the minor papilla of the duodenum. Biopsy specimens revealed a carcinoid tumor, and a subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. Carcinoid tumors at the minor duodenal papilla have a high prevalence of nodal disease, even for tumors <2 cm in diameter. Therefore, we believe that radical resection with tumor-free margins (i.e. pancreatoduodenectomy) is the treatment of choice. PMID:23136240

Fukami, Yasuyuki; Kurumiya, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Keisuke; Sekoguchi, Ei; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ito, Akira; Tomida, Akihiro; Onishi, Sakura; Shirotsuki, Ryo; Okubo, Kenji; Narita, Michihiko

2013-01-01

262

Endoscopic drainage for duodenal hematoma following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: A case report  

PubMed Central

Intramural duodenal hematoma (IDH) is a rare complication following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Blunt damage caused by the endoscope or an accessory has been suggested as the main reason for IDH. Surgical treatment of isolated duodenal hematoma after blunt trauma is traditionally reserved for rare cases of perforation or persistent symptoms despite conservative management. Typical clinical symptoms of IDH include abdominal pain and vomiting. Diagnosis of IDH can be confirmed by imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Duodenal hematoma is mainly treated by drainage, which includes open surgery drainage and percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage, both causing great trauma. Here we present a case of massive IDH following ERCP, which was successfully managed by minimally invasive management: intranasal hematoma aspiration combined with needle knife opening under a duodenoscope. PMID:23599635

Pan, Ya-Min; Wang, Tian-Tian; Wu, Jun; Hu, Bing

2013-01-01

263

Effect of diet on amino-acid profile of duodenal digesta in the goat H Archimde D Sauvant M Dorlans JC Robert2  

E-print Network

Effect of diet on amino-acid profile of duodenal digesta in the goat H Archimède D Sauvant M Paris; 2 Rhbne Poulenc Nutrition Animale, 03600 Commentry, France Amino-acid profiles (AAP) of duodenal% (Met), and 90% (Val) of the variations in the relative proportions of the amino acids in the duodenal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Local anaesthesia through the action of cocaine, the oral mucosa and the Vienna group.  

PubMed

Local anaesthesia through the action of cocaine was introduced in Europe by the Vienna group, which includeed Freud, Koller and Königstein. Before using the alkaloid in animal or human experimentation all these scientists tested it on their oral mucosa - so-called self-experimentation. Some of them with different pathologies (that is, in the case of Freud), eventually became addicted to the alkaloid. Here we attempt to describe the people forming the so-called 'Vienna group', their social milieu, their experiences and internal disputes within the setting of a revolutionary discovery of the times. PMID:25012333

López-Valverde, A; de Vicente, J; Martínez-Domínguez, L; de Diego, R Gómez

2014-07-11

265

Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue. PMID:25426310

Jabbour, Joey M; Bentley, Julie L; Malik, Bilal H; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A; Maitland, Kristen C

2014-11-01

266

Differential expression of microRNAs in preneoplastic gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial H.pylori-triggered dynamic process that goes through a cascade of preneoplastic conditions. The expression of miRNAs in the stomach with regard to preneoplastic precursor conditions and H.pylori infection has not been investigated systematically. In this prospective proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the miRNA expression in gastric antrum and corpus mucosa from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG), atrophic gastritis (AG), and GC compared to controls. Gastric normal mucosa shows a unique expression pattern for miR-21, miR-155 and miR-223, which is specific for different regions. In correlation with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, we observed a gradual increase in miR-155 and miR-223 both in corpus and antrum and miR-21 only in the antrum mucosa. Using miRNA expression we calculated a score that allowed us to discriminate patients with AG from subjects with normal mucosa with high diagnostic accuracy in testing and validation cohorts reproducibly. In summary, the expression pattern of miRNAs in the gastric mucosa is gradually increased with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, suggesting miRNAs as potential biomarkers for preneoplastic precursor conditions. However, differences of miRNA expression between the gastric antrum and the corpus need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25652892

Link, Alexander; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Langner, Cosima; Varbanova, Mariya; Bornschein, Jan; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

2015-01-01

267

Differential expression of microRNAs in preneoplastic gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial H.pylori-triggered dynamic process that goes through a cascade of preneoplastic conditions. The expression of miRNAs in the stomach with regard to preneoplastic precursor conditions and H.pylori infection has not been investigated systematically. In this prospective proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the miRNA expression in gastric antrum and corpus mucosa from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG), atrophic gastritis (AG), and GC compared to controls. Gastric normal mucosa shows a unique expression pattern for miR-21, miR-155 and miR-223, which is specific for different regions. In correlation with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, we observed a gradual increase in miR-155 and miR-223 both in corpus and antrum and miR-21 only in the antrum mucosa. Using miRNA expression we calculated a score that allowed us to discriminate patients with AG from subjects with normal mucosa with high diagnostic accuracy in testing and validation cohorts reproducibly. In summary, the expression pattern of miRNAs in the gastric mucosa is gradually increased with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, suggesting miRNAs as potential biomarkers for preneoplastic precursor conditions. However, differences of miRNA expression between the gastric antrum and the corpus need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25652892

Link, Alexander; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Langner, Cosima; Varbanova, Mariya; Bornschein, Jan; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

2015-01-01

268

[Efficacy of galavit in patients with duodenal ulcer].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate clinical efficacy of the medical complex Galavit in patients with acute phase of duodenal ulcer (DU) in. The subjects were 60 DU patients aged 32 +/- 2 years with ulcerous defects of 0.4 to 1.3 cm in diameter. In patients receiving Galavit, pain was coped with by Mann-Whitney method in 2.5 +/- 0.2 days, p < 0.001; in the control group--in 5.7 +/- 0.1 days. In the Galavit group the ulcers healed in 11.3 +/- 0.2 days, p < 0.001; in the control group--17.8 +/- 0.3 days; in 4 cases (13.3%) the ulcerous defects healed with forming of rough scars. Galavit elevated T-lymphocyte rate from 53.1 +/- 0.6% to 65.1 +/- 0.2%, p < 0.001; T-helper inductor level--from 27.8 +/- 0.2% to 38.5 +/- 0.3%, p < 0.001; cytotoxic T-lymphocyte level--from 18.5 +/- 0.5% to 27.3 +/- 0.3%, p < 0.001; B-lymphocyte level--from 12.3 +/- 0.2% to 19.1 +/- 0.1%, p < 0.001. The therapy significantly lowered malonic aldehyde level by 23.5%, trienoic conjugate level--by 61.6%; superoxide dismutase level rose 1.6 times, catalase level--1.4 times, glutathion reductase level--from 19.03 +/- 1.17 to 27.01 +/- 1.24 optical density units/mg, p < 0.001. The study did not find any significant changes in the immune status and lipid peroxidative/antioxidative system of patients receiving basic therapy. The results show that Galavit has anti-inflammatory effect, improves immune status and anti-oxidative protection. It is appropriate to administer Galavit as a component of DU basic therapy. The results show that Galavit has anti-inflammatory effect, improves immune status and anti-oxidative protection. It is appropriate to administer Galavit as a component of DU basic therapy. PMID:16218370

Butorov, I V; Nikolenko, I A; Butorov, S I

2005-01-01

269

Cytogenetic biomonitoring of oral mucosa cells of crack cocaine users.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate genomic damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from crack cocaine users by micronucleus test. A total of 30 crack cocaine users and 30 health controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative, and dropped in clean slides, which were checked for the above nuclear phenotypes. The results pointed out significant statistical differences (p?mucosa cells from crack cocaine users. Exposure to crack cocaine caused an increase of other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyolysis in oral cells as well. In summary, these data indicate that crack cocaine is able to induce chromosomal breakage and cellular death in oral mucosa cells of users. PMID:24430497

das Graças Alonso de Oliveira, Maria; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Oliveira, Nara Rejane Cruz; da Costa Padovani, Ricardo; Tucci, Adriana Marcassa; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2014-04-01

270

The development of an improved methodology for the detection of Arcobacter spp. in foods  

E-print Network

mammalian species, including humans, and has been associated with the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoma, gastritis, and duodenal ulcers (15, 36). In spite of its presence in the stomach, it has yet...

Johnson, Lee Graydon

1998-01-01

271

Effect of dopamine-related drugs on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine or propionitrile: prevention and aggravation may not be mediated by gastrointestinal secretory changes in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Dose- and time-response studies have been performed with dopamine agonists and antagonists using the cysteamine and propionitrile duodenal ulcer models in the rat. The experiments demonstrate that the chemically induced duodenal ulcer is prevented by bromocriptine, lergotrile and reduced by apomorphine or L-dopa. Aggravation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was seen especially after (-)-butaclamol, (-)-sulpiride, haloperidol and, less effectively, after other dopaminergic antagonists. The duodenal antiulcerogenic action of dopamine agonists was more prominent after chronic administration than after a single dose, whereas the opposite was found concerning the proulcerogenic effect of dopamine antagonists. In the chronic gastric fistula rat, both the antiulcerogens bromocriptine or lergotrile and the proulcerogens haloperidol, pimozide or (-)-N-(2-chlorethyl)-norapomorphine decreased the cysteamine- or propionitrile-induced gastric secretion. No correlation was apparent between the influence of these drugs on duodenal ulcer development and gastric and duodenal (pancreatic/biliary) secretions. In the chronic duodenal fistula rat, decreased acid content was measured in the proximal duodenum after haloperidol, and diminished duodenal pepsin exposure was recorded after bromocriptine. Furthermore, the aggravation by dopamine antagonists of experimental duodenal ulcer probably involves a peripheral component. The site of dopamine receptors and physiologic effects which modulate experimental duodenal ulcer remain to be identified, but their elucidation may prove to be an important element in the pathogenesis and treatment of duodenal ulcer.

Gallagher, G.; Brown, A.; Szabo, S.

1987-03-01

272

[Supportive therapy for locally advanced cancer of the oral mucosa].  

PubMed

The article discusses the practice of detoxication therapy to minimize undesirable toxic effects during chemo- and radiotherapy for locally advanced cancer of the oral mucosa in 88 patients treated with 1.5% solution of reamberine. There was a significant improvement in the parameters of liver function, as well as in the general wellbeing of patients. We analyzed the main symptoms of the toxicity of chemo- and radiotherapy in both groups. Inclusion of the reamberine solution as supportive therapy for cancer patients who were receiving chemo- and radiotherapy for cancer of the oral mucosa allowed reducing the number and severity of toxic complications. PMID:23600298

Ivanov, V M; Matiakin, G G; Ivanova, O V; She?kin, M V; Romantsov, M G

2012-01-01

273

The mucosa beyond the polyps in juvenile polyposis.  

PubMed

Little is known of early histologic changes in the mucosa of the colon aside from the polyps in Juvenile Polyposis. Provided with a surgical specimen of a total colectomy of a 6-year-old boy with this condition, this report describes those changes. The mucosa depicted a peculiar serrated profile of the uppermost part of the crypts due to elongation of them, dilated openings, and scant stroma. Also present were frequent aberrant crypts. Early juvenile polyps presented associated with lympho-glandular sites as distorted and microcystically dilated crypts containing granular and filamentous mucoid material. The findings possibly represent the abnormal cytologic potential of this genetic condition. PMID:22050186

Drut, Ricardo

2012-02-01

274

Variations in development of the ruminal mucosae of sheep  

E-print Network

content 29 mucous tissue of the tunica propria or submucosa to show a noticeable difference in dry weight of the mucosa. Despite the fact. that terminal rate of gain is highly significantly correlated with both the percent of mucosa and with the total... and ideas did much to initiate the original thinking of thi. s study, to Mr. J. D. Robbins who provided feed and gain data for the animals used, and to Messrs. P. E. Tutt and Earl Whittaker for their assistance in collecting and preparing tissues...

Sinclair, John Henry

2012-06-07

275

Retained foreign body: associations with elevated lead levels, pica, and duodenal anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14-month-old girl presented with elevated lead levels and a metallic foreign body was detected on abdominal radiograph. Subsequent evaluation, performed after the child failed to pass the foreign body with cathartics, revealed a bezoar proximal to a partial duodenal obstruction. The metallic foreign body was later removed and found to contain lead, however, the patient has subsequently had recurrent

J. D. Sprinkle; E. A. Hingsbergen

1995-01-01

276

Spontaneous intramural duodenal hematoma in type 2B von Willebrand disease  

PubMed Central

Intramural duodenal hematoma is a rare cause of a proximal gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Presentation of intramural duodenal hematoma most often occurs following blunt abdominal trauma in children, but spontaneous non-traumatic cases have been linked to anticoagulant therapy, pancreatitis, malignancy, vasculitis and endoscopy. We report an unusual case of spontaneous intramural duodenal hematoma presenting as an intestinal obstruction associated with acute pancreatitis in a patient with established von Willebrand disease, type 2B. The patient presented with abrupt onset of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography imaging identified an intramural duodenal mass consistent with blood measuring 4.7 cm × 8.7 cm in the second portion of the duodenum abutting on the head of the pancreas. Serum lipase was 3828 units/L. Patient was managed conservatively with bowel rest, continuous nasogastric decompression, total parenteral nutrition, recombinant factor VIII (humateP) and transfusion. Symptoms resolved over the course of the hospitalization. This case highlights an important complication of an inherited coagulopathy. PMID:24222967

Eichele, Derrick D; Ross, Meredith; Tang, Patrick; Hutchins, Grant F; Mailliard, Mark

2013-01-01

277

Effects of rapeseed oil duodenal infusion on dairy cow performances and blood metabolites during early lactation  

E-print Network

Effects of rapeseed oil duodenal infusion on dairy cow performances and blood metabolites during-oil was continuously infused (1.03 kg/d) into the duodenum of 6 multip- arous fistulated cows ('0 group'), from about 3. Neither plasma cholesterol, phospholip- ids or 3-OH-butyrate were affected by oil infusion. Preprandial

Boyer, Edmond

278

Effect of lactose hydrolysis on calcium absorption during duodenal milk perfusion  

E-print Network

Effect of lactose hydrolysis on calcium absorption during duodenal milk perfusion Ines BIRLOUEZ, Skala and Bakos, 1973). However, as yet there is little direct evidence that such hydrolysis show the role of lactose hydrolysis ; such a study was carried out by Debongnie et al. (1979), but only

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Duodenal myotomy blocks reduction of meal size and prolongation of intermeal interval by cholecystokinin.  

PubMed

We have shown that vagotomy (VGX) attenuates the reduction of meal size (MS) produced by cholecystokinin (CCK) -8 and -33 and that celiaco-mesenteric ganglionectomy (CMGX) attenuates the prolongation of the intermeal interval (IMI) produced by CCK-33. Here, we report the following novel data. First, by determining the distribution of CCK(1) receptor messenger RNA, which mediates reduction of MS and prolongation of IMI by CCK, in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract in the adult rat we found that the duodenum contains the highest concentration of this receptor in the gut. Second, based on the previous finding we performed a unique surgical technique known as duodenal myotomy (MYO), which severs all the nerves of the gut wall in the duodenum including vagus, splanchnic and enteric nerves. Third, we determined MS and IMI in duodenal MYO rats in responses to endogenous CCK-58 released by the non-nutrient, trypsin inhibitor, camostat and CCK-8 to test the possibility that the duodenum is the site of action for reduction of MS and prolongation of IMI. We found that, similar to the previous work reported by using CCK-8 and MS, duodenal MYO also blocked reduction of MS by camostat. Forth, duodenal MYO blocked prolongation of IMI by camostat. As such, our current results suggest that the duodenum is the gut site that communicates both feeding signals of endogenous CCK, MS and IMI, with the brain through vagal and splanchnic afferents. PMID:22047890

Lateef, Dalya M; Washington, Martha C; Raboin, Shannon J; Roberson, Allison E; Mansour, Mahmoud M; Williams, Carol S; Sayegh, Ayman I

2012-02-01

280

Determination of assay parameters for RNA analysis in bacterial and duodenal samples by spectrophotometry.  

E-print Network

bases (RNA eq), was carried out to measure microbial nitrogen flow in the ruminant duodenum. SeveralDetermination of assay parameters for RNA analysis in bacterial and duodenal samples was also determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The proposed method (RNA eq

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Effect of short-term cognitive psychotherapy on recurrence of duodenal ulcer: a prospective randomized trial.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective, randomized trial was to assess whether short-term cognitive psychotherapy (10 sessions during 4 months) could reduce the 1-year recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer. One group received psychotherapy; one group was a control group. One hundred patients, aged 17 to 64 years, with duodenal ulcer were selected from March 1989 to May 1991. The main outcome measure was relapse of duodenal ulcer, which was verified by endoscopy. When psychotherapy started after cessation of antiulcer medication, the relapse-free time was significantly shorter in the therapy group than in the controls. When the protocol was modified so that psychotherapy and antiulcer medication were given concomitantly, there was no significant difference in recurrence rate between the groups at 1-year follow-up (84% in the therapy group and 92% in the control group). Symptoms of upper abdominal discomfort/pain, measured every second month, decreased significantly in the therapy group compared to the control group. Psychotherapy led to less neuroticism (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) and less trait anxiety (Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale) compared to controls at 4 months. At the 12-month follow-up, most of this gain was lost, but the psychotherapy group had lower scores on "concern about disapproval" on the Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale than the control group. There is no beneficial effect of short-term cognitive psychotherapy on the 1-year recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer. PMID:7809344

Wilhelmsen, I; Haug, T T; Ursin, H; Berstad, A

1994-01-01

282

Value of routine duodenal biopsy in diagnosing coeliac disease in patients with iron deficiency anaemia  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a recognised feature of coeliac disease in adults and can be its only presentation. Objective: To determine the yield of routine distal duodenal biopsies in diagnosing coeliac disease in adult and elderly patients with IDA whose endoscopy revealed no upper gastrointestinal cause of iron deficiency. Study design: Prospective study in a teaching hospital endoscopy unit. Method: Altogether 504 consecutive patients with IDA, aged 16–80 years, attending for endoscopy were included in this study. At least two distal duodenal biopsies were taken if endoscopy revealed no cause of iron deficiency. Result: In nine (1.8%) patients duodenal biopsies revealed typical histological features of coeliac disease. Of these, five patients were above 65 years old. Conclusion: In adult and elderly patients undergoing endoscopy for IDA, the endoscopist should take distal duodenal biopsies to exclude coeliac disease if no upper gastrointestinal cause of anaemia is found. Coeliac disease is not an uncommon cause of IDA in patients >65 years of age and a history of chronic diarrhoea increases diagnostic yield in this age group. PMID:15299158

Mandal, A; Mehdi, I; Munshi, S; Lo, T

2004-01-01

283

History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:24833849

Graham, David Y

2014-01-01

284

Duodenal calcium uptake, femur ash, and eggshell quality decline with age and increase following molt.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the decline in eggshell quality over time during egg production, and its improvement after molting, paralleled the rate of calcium uptake by the duodenum of the laying hen. In vitro duodenal calcium uptake rate and femur ash (percentage of femur weight) were determined at 37, 45, 51, 58, 68, and 72 wk of age. Percentage shell and shell thickness (millimeters) were determined at 22, 29, 36, 44, 50, 57, and 71 wk of age. Molt was induced at 63 wk of age. Three commercial strains DeKalb XL-Link, ISA/Babcock B-300V, and Hy-Line W-36 were compared. There were no differences in duodenal calcium uptake rate among strains. There was a significant decline (P < .01) in duodenal calcium uptake from 408 pmol/mg tissue per min at 37 wk of age to 329 pmol/mg per min at 58 wk of age. Femur ash decreased (P < .01) from 50.8% at 37 wk of age to 47.6% at 58 wk of age. Percentage shell and shell thickness declined (P < .01) from 9.79% and .403 mm at 22 wk of age to 8.88% and .373 mm at 57 wk of age, respectively. After the induced molt, duodenal calcium uptake increased (P < .01) to 402 pmol/mg tissue per min, and percentage shell and shell thickness increased (P < .01) to 10.23% and .389 mm, respectively. Duodenal calcium uptake increased immediately postmolt, whereas femur ash did not increase until 72 wk of age (P < .01). PMID:7816734

al-Batshan, H A; Scheideler, S E; Black, B L; Garlich, J D; Anderson, K E

1994-10-01

285

Helicobacter pylori infection and antioxidants can modulate the genotoxic effects of heterocyclic amines in gastric mucosa cells.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. This bacterium may induce cancer transformation and change the susceptibility of gastric mucosa cells to various exogenous dietary irritants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of H. pylori infection on the reaction of the stomach cells to a genotoxic effect of heterocyclic amines (HCAs). These well-known mutagens are formed during cooking of protein-rich foods, primarily meat. Taking into account that persons consuming a mixed-western diet are exposed to these compound nearly an entire lifetime and more than half of human population is infected with H. pylori, it is important to assess the combined effect of H. pylori infection and HCAs in the context of DNA damage in gastric mucosa cells, which is a prerequisite to cancer transformation. We employed 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) because these substances are present in a great amount in cooked and fried meat. Using alkaline comet assay, we showed that the extent of the DNA damage induced by HCAs was significantly higher in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa cells than in non-infected counterparts. We did not observed any difference in the efficiency of repair of DNA lesions induced by HCAs in both type of cells. Vitamin C reduced the genotoxic effects of HCAs in H. pylori infected and non-infected gastric mucosa cells. Melatonin more effectively decreased DNA damage caused by HCAs in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa cells as compared with control. Our results suggest that H. pylori infection may influence the susceptibility of gastric mucosa cells to HCAs and dietary antioxidative substances, including vitamin C and melatonin may inhibit the genotoxic effects of HCAs on gastric mucosa cells and may reduce the risk of carcinogenesis caused by food borne mutagens and H. pylori infection. PMID:23661025

Poplawski, Tomasz; Chojnacki, Cezary; Czubatka, Anna; Klupinska, Grazyna; Chojnacki, Jan; Blasiak, Janusz

2013-08-01

286

Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely. PMID:25355744

van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

2014-01-01

287

Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

288

Inflammatory cells in nasal mucosa and nasal polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Since some controversy exists concerning the frequency of inflammatory cells in nasal polyps, we have compared the frequency of tissue inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells) including 11 kinds of lymphocyte subsets in the same specimens of nasal mucosa and nasal polyps. Methods: Histopathological observations and flow cytometric analyses were performed on eight mucosal specimens of the

Setsuko Morinaka; Hiroyuki Nakamura

2000-01-01

289

Effects of host temperature, and gastric and duodenal environments on microsporidia spore germination and infectivity of intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Approximately 14 of the more than 1,000 species of microsporidia infect humans, only 2 of which, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, cause intestinal microsporidiosis. Clinical isolates of three microsporidia species, E. intestinalis, Encephalitozoon hellem, and the insect parasite, Anncaliia (Brachiola, Nosema) algerae were used in a spore germination assay, and enterocyte attachment and infection assays to model the potential roles of gastric and duodenal environments, and host temperature in determining why only one of these microsporidia species causes intestinal microsporidiosis. Enterocyte infection with A. algerae spores was 10% that of the Encephalitozoon species, a difference not attributable to differences in spore attachment to host cells. Prior spore treatment with pepsin in HCl, pancreatic enzymes or ox bile did not inhibit germination or enterocyte infection by the three microsporidia species. While the Encephalitozoon species differentiated to mature spores within 3 days, the time taken for many enterocytes to turn over, A. algerae took 3 - 5 days to produce mature spores, near the upper limit for enterocyte turnover in vivo. Thus host temperature may contribute to A. algerae not causing human intestinal microsporidiosis, but none of the factors tested account for the inability of E. hellem to cause such an infection. PMID:18751726

Leitch, Gordon J.; Ceballos, Carolina

2009-01-01

290

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 32:367376 (2003) Autofluorescence Characteristics of Healthy Oral Mucosa  

E-print Network

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 32:367­376 (2003) Autofluorescence Characteristics of Healthy Oral and alcoholics can cause long-term damage of the oral mucosa (``condemned mucosa'') which can lead to ``field

Duin, Robert P.W.

291

Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

Gerbino, Andrea, E-mail: gerbino@biologia.uniba.i [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Curci, Silvana [VA Boston Healthcare System and the Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury MA 02132 (United States); Colella, Matilde [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy)

2010-06-01

292

Binding of cholera toxin to pig intestinal mucosa glycosphingolipids: relationship with the ABO blood group system.  

PubMed Central

A search for compounds from intestinal mucosa of pigs carrying and not carrying blood group A-active substances (A+ and A- pigs, respectively) capable of binding cholera toxin (CT) was performed. Glycolipid extracts from a pool of pig intestinal mucosa resolved in thin-layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the presence of six to eight compounds capable of binding 125I-CT, two of them running as the ganglioside standards GM1 and GD1b. When intestinal mucosa glycolipids from single pigs were assayed by TLC for CT-binding capacity, two different patterns of labeling were observed. The main difference was at the level of compounds running below GD1b. The A+ pigs but not the A- pigs showed CT binding at this level. The major CT-binding compound detected only in A+ pigs was purified and some properties were determined. After TLC developed with different solvent systems, the purified compound bound CT and also immunoreacted with anti-A and anti-AB antisera but not with anti-B antiserum. The compound was also able to inhibit the hemagglutination of human A erythrocytes caused by anti-A antiserum, but inhibition was not observed with the B-anti-B or O (H)-Ulex europaeus lectin systems. A partial chemical characterization indicated that the active compound is a neutral glycosphingolipid containing glucose, fucose, galactose, and hexosamine. The existence of a blood group-active substance(s) able to interact with CT may help to explain the relationship between ABO blood groups and the diarrheal disease caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae. Images PMID:2917796

Bennun, F R; Roth, G A; Monferran, C G; Cumar, F A

1989-01-01

293

Heavy metals in normal mucosa and nasal polyp tissues from Tunisian patients.  

PubMed

Despite growing evidence that bacteria, fungi, allergens, and superantigens play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of nasal polyps (NP), the exact cause of polyposis is still unknown. The etiology of NP is considered multifactorial. Until now, there is no information on the presence of heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) or of their role, in the pathogenesis of NP disease. In this study, concentrations of these four metals in tissue of NP were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The Ni, Cr, and As levels in NP tissues were 2.1-, 3.2-, and 8.0-fold higher than those of normal mucosa (p?20 PY) are significantly higher than those of non-smokers (p?=?0.006, 0.002, and < 0.001, respectively). The highest As concentrations among patients lived at polluted areas (1-25 and > 25 years) were observed in both nasal mucosa and NP tissues. The Ni and As in both nasal mucosa and NP tissues of patients occupationally exposed were significantly higher than non-exposed group. Cr and As levels were found to be associated with NP stage classification (p?human NP tissues and the risk of NP disease. Tissue metal levels have increased due to smoking, environmental, and occupational exposure. Therefore, heavy metal exposure may increase the risk of NP in the Tunisian population. The considerable risk in the category of highest cumulative exposure argues for an association between heavy metals exposure and nasal polyposis risk. Future investigations with larger samples should better elucidate this association. PMID:25081002

Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Chakroun, Amine; Hammami, Boutheina; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

2014-08-01

294

[Quantitative bacterial ecology of normal nasal mucosa].  

PubMed

A quantitative research into the aerobic bacteria of human nasal cavities has been carried out; 183 healthy individuals observed, negative results 18 (9.83%). Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria, were numerically determined and the incidence of each single species or genus exactly specified. Among gram-negative bacteria, Enterobacter, Providencia, Proteus, Citrobacter freundii, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia, Herella, Pseudomonas, and among the Hyphomycetes, Candida albicans have been identified and their number calculated. Diphteroid bacteria were also detected and counted; among them, the Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum seemed to be the most frequent and numerous species. Finally, interference phenomena in vivo by Staphylococcus aureus and environmental and nourishment competition by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus and Diphtheroids were noted. PMID:7034653

Linoli, O; Marconi, S; Garaffa, M

1981-01-01

295

Monosaccharide composition of fundic and duodenal mucins in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus or Teladorsagia circumcincta.  

PubMed

The effects on the monosaccharide composition of fundic and duodenal mucins of parasitism by Haemonchus contortus or Teladorsagia circumcincta were investigated in sheep at 4, 6 and 9 months of age. Infected sheep were euthanased at days 21 and 28 post-infection respectively, together with uninfected controls. Fundic and duodenal mucins were purified by gel filtration and CsCl density gradient centrifugation and monosaccharides were released by heating at 95 degrees C for 6h in 2M HCl. Thin-layer chromatography identified fucose, glucosamine, galactose and galactosamine in both mucins, as well as very small amounts of sialic acids. Neither N-acetylglucosamine nor N-acetylgalactosamine was present, as these are deacetylated during acid hydrolysis to glucosamine and galactosamine, respectively. Fucose, glucosamine, galactose and galactosamine were separated and quantified by High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography on a CarboPac PA-20 column. Sialic acids were determined by the thiobarbiturate assay. Over the age range of 4-9 months, the principal changes in the monosaccharide composition of mucins in non-infected sheep were increasing fucosylation and decreasing sialylation, as observed in other mammals. In duodenal mucins, there was a statistically significant increase in fucosylation and a decrease in sialylation (p=0.043 and 0.014, respectively), while similar trends were seen in fundic mucins. Other modifications with age in sheep mucins were decreased acetylglucosamine (N-acetylglucosamine) in the fundus and galactosamine (N-acetylgalactosamine) in the duodenum. The effects of H. contortus and T. circumcincta infection on fundic mucin monosaccharide composition were not identical, although both parasites decreased fucosylation and sialylation. Both parasites caused the same effects on duodenal mucins, however, these differed from the changes in the fundus. H. contortus infection increased the proportions of glucosamine and galactose in fundic and duodenal mucins, respectively. Mucins from the fundus of H. contortus-infected sheep had similar monosaccharide profiles at all ages, but this was not the case for T. circumcincta, in which there were lesser changes on mucins in 9 months old sheep, apart from decreased sialylation. This may indicate immunity to T. circumcincta from previous exposure in the field. The effect on duodenal mucins was similar for the two infections (decreased sialic acids, fucose and N-acetylgalactosamine and increased galactose), suggesting it may result from the immune response to the presence of worms in the abomasum. Mucin profiles from organs more accessible than the gastrointestinal tract may be useful markers for the host immune response and identify resistant, resilient or susceptible individuals. PMID:20211529

Hoang, V C; Williams, M A K; Simpson, H V

2010-06-24

296

Prospective multicentre study of risk factors associated with delayed healing of recurrent duodenal ulcers (RUDER). RUDER Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for delayed duodenal ulcer healing during treatment with ranitidine (300 mg daily) were examined in a multicentre German study of 1923 patients with endoscopically proved, recurrent duodenal ulceration. Healing rates, per protocol, were 39.5% at two weeks, 70.9% at four weeks, and 93.2% at eight weeks. Prospective testing of five, predefined risk factors indicated that smoking (p =

D Armstrong; R Arnold; M Classen; M Fischer; H Goebell; A L Blum

1993-01-01

297

Pseudoaneurysm of the proper hepatic artery with duodenal fistula appearing as a late complication of blunt abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic pseudoaneurysms of the hepatic artery are rare and usually occur as a complication of open abdominal trauma. Even less common is the coexisting presence of enteric fistulization. We report a patient with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurring 3 years after blunt abdominal trauma resulting from a pseudoaneurysm of the proper hepatic artery with duodenal fistulization. The patient was treated successfully by ligation of the proper hepatic artery and closure of the duodenal opening. PMID:8576975

Aboujaoude, M; Noel, B; Beaudoin, M; Ghattas, G; Lalonde, L; The Bao Bui; Oliva, V L

1996-01-01

298

[Cancers of the oral and genital mucosa].  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinomas account for over 90 % of cancers of the oral cavity in France. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Delay in diagnosis is unfortunately frequent. The management of the cancer is based on surgery, possibly associated to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The survival rate at 5 years does not exceed 30-40%. We hope to see a decrease in the number of oral cancer thanks to the development of preventive medicine (alcohol and tobacco cessation and early detection of potentially malignant lesions). Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease which traditionally affect elderly woman but continues to rise in incidence especially in younger women. There are at least 2 forms of genital squamous cell carcinoma. The most common form is found on older women arising in a background of lichen sclerosus and the second is associated with "high risk" human papillomavirus infection affecting younger women. A biopsy is usually required for diagnosis. Attempts to reduce genital cancer must focus on treating precursor lesions, namely lichen sclerosus and HPV-related intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and PIN). Most genital cancer occur on undiagnosed or untreated lichens sclerosus, vulvar inspection when women attend for their cervical smears or seeking about significance of any chronic genital symptom by a clinical examination. PMID:24167879

Dehen, Laure; Schwob, Emilie; Pascal, Francis

2013-09-01

299

Evaluation of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats and dogs in an adapter-modified Ussing chamber  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of transport physiology in endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from healthy cats and dogs, as well as dogs with chronic enteropathies. 17 duodenal biopsies from five cats and 51 duodenal biopsies from 13 dogs were obtained. Samples were transferred into an adapter-modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to various absorbagogues and secretagogues. Overall, 78.6% of duodenal samples obtained from cats responded to at least one compound. In duodenal biopsies obtained from dogs, the rate of overall response ranged from 87.5% (healthy individuals; n = 8), to 63.6% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological unremarkable duodenum; n = 15), and 32.1% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases and moderate to severe histopathological lesions; n = 28). Detailed information regarding the magnitude and duration of the response are provided. The adapter-modified Ussing chamber enables investigation of the absorptive and secretory capacity of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from cats and dogs and has the potential to become a valuable research tool. The response of samples was correlated with histopathological findings. PMID:24378587

DeBiasio, John V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Newman, Shelley; Musch, Mark W.; Steiner, Jörg M.

2014-01-01

300

Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover  

PubMed Central

Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. ?Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. ?Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequentially from the crypt-villus axis of the rat small intestine. In separate experiments, urokinase activity and epithelial kinetics (measured stathmokinetically) were measured in homogenates of distal colonic mucosa of 14 groups of eight rats fed diets known to alter epithelial turnover. ?Results—From the crypt base, an ascending gradient of expression and activity of urokinase was associated with the epithelial cells. Median mucosal urokinase activities in each of the dietary groups of rats correlated positively with autologous median number of metaphase arrests per crypt (r=0.68; p<0.005) and per 100 crypt cells (r=0.75; p<0.001), but not with crypt column height. ?Conclusions—Localisation of an enzyme capable of leading to digestion of cell substratum in the region where cells are loosely attached to their basement membrane, and the association of its activity with indexes of cell turnover, suggest a role for urokinase in facilitating epithelial cell loss in the intestine. ?? Keywords: urokinase; intestinal epithelium; colon; epithelial proliferation PMID:9824347

Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

1998-01-01

301

Cultured fibroblasts from alveolar and gingival mucosae are biologically and biochemically different  

SciTech Connect

Tissues removed from the alveolar or gingival mucosa of 5 patients were separated into cell populations to assess the relative contributions each might make in wound healing intraorally. Growth curves and protein synthetic patterns of fibroblasts, free of epithelial cells, were obtained at pass 5. The morphologies of the two cell types were not grossly different. However, the AM cells (alveolar mucosa) had a generation time (gt) of 18.7 hrs. whereas the gt for KG cells (keratinized gingiva) was 49.6 hrs. Cells labeled in vitro with /sup 35/S-methionine had distinct patterns of protein synthesis. The AM cells had more of the 275, 220, 92, 80, 50 and 46 kd bands on the autoradiogram of a 7.5% PAGE slab gel than did the KG cells. The KG cells contained more of the 165, 84, 68, 60, 54, 51, 43, 36, and 32a kd bands. In a wound healing situation, the AM cells may be the first fibroblasts to rapidly divide to fill a defect, whereas the KG cells may require a longer time period to divide. This is the first report of biochemical and biological differences in these two fibroblast populations from cultured, human tissues.

Lanz, J.; Banes, A.

1986-05-01

302

Down syndrome: Molecular mapping of the congenital heart disease and duodenal stenosis  

SciTech Connect

Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of congenital heart and gut disease and mental retardation. DS individuals also have characteristic facies, hands, and dermatoglyphics, in addition to abnormalities of the immune system, and increased risk of leukemia, and an Alzheimer-like dementia. Although their molecular basis is unknown, recent work on patients with DS and partial duplications of chromosome 21 has suggested small chromosomal regions located in band q22 that are likely to contain the genes for some of these features. The authors now extend these analyses to define molecular markers for the congenital heart disease, the duodenal stenosis, and an 'overlap' region for the facial and some of the skeletal features. They report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis of two patients. These studies provide the molecular basis for the construction of a DS phenotypic map and focus the search for genes responsible for the physical features, congenital heart disease, and duodenal stenosis of DS.

Korenburg, J.R. (University of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Bradley, C.; Disteche, C.M. (University of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1992-02-01

303

Delayed duodenal obstruction after intramural hematoma in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal stem cell disorder of hematopoietic cells. Gastrointestinal complications of PNH are rare and mostly related with intravascular thrombosis or intramural hematoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a case of a man with PNH complicated by intramural duodenal hematoma initially treated with supportive care. Three months after his first admission; he was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. He had undergone to surgery because of duodenal obstruction was treated with duodenojejunal by-pass surgery. DISCUSSION Patients were healed from gastrointestinal complications could suffer from gastrointestinal strictures, which cause wide spread symptoms ranging from chronic abdominal pain and anorexia to intestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION We report a rare intestinal obstruction case caused by stricture at the level of ligamentum Treitz with PNH. The possibility simply has to be borne in mind that strictures can be occurring at hematoma, ischemia or inflammation site of gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25123648

Tezcaner, Tugan; Ekici, Yahya; K?rnap, Mahir; Kural, Feride; Moray, Gökhan

2014-01-01

304

How diet and lifestyle affect duodenal ulcers. Review of the evidence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the role of diet in reducing or aggravating risk of duodenal ulcer (DU). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2001 for articles on the relationship between diet and lifestyle and DU using the key words duodenal ulcer and diet, fibre, or lifestyle. Evidence that these factors are associated with DU arose mainly from three case-control and three prospective studies (level II evidence) and from expert opinion (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE: A high-fibre diet appears to reduce risk of DU; soluble fibre might be associated with reduced risk also. Vitamin A intake is associated with lower risk of DU. Little evidence indicates that fat, type of fat, protein intake, or consumption of alcohol or caffeine affect the etiology of DU. CONCLUSION: A high-fibre diet, particularly if the fibre comes from fruit and vegetables, could reduce risk of DU; vitamin A might also be beneficial. PMID:15171675

Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Aldoori, Walid

2004-01-01

305

Gastric emptying of combined liquid-solid meals in healed duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

The gastric emptying rates of combined liquid and solid radioisotopically labeled meals in 47 healed duodenal ulcer subjects and 17 healthy control subjects are compared. No significant differences were found between the groups in emptying slopes and the emptying half-times or in the percent retention values at any of the counting intervals for either the liquid or solid meals. These results are compatible with the observation that the rapid gastric emptying in many patients with duodenal ulcer is associated with the disease and that healing results in a return to normal gastric emptying rates. However, since gastric emptying rates during active ulceration were not determined in our patients, a more definitive interpretation awaits a study comparing emptying rates obtained during and after healing of active ulceration in the same patient.

Moore, J.G.; McIntyre, B.; Alazraki, N.

1985-12-01

306

The permeability of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

The intercellular permeability barrier of neonatal rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture for periods up to 24 days was studied ultrastructurally using the tracers horseradish peroxidase and lanthanum nitrate. At all time intervals examined the limit of penetration of the tracers corresponded to the level at which the membrane-coating granules were being discharged. However, in the cultured mucosa, extrusion of granules occurred closer to the granular cell-keratin junction after 6 and 12 days in vitro than at other time intervals. This probably is a reflexion of the higher rate of tissue turnover at these times. It is concluded that a permeability barrier comparable with that described in vivo is produced by the epithelium during maintenance inorgan culture and is further evidence of the functional integrity of the tissue in vitro. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:422477

Hill, M W; Squier, C A

1979-01-01

307

The ultrastructure of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was examined by electron microscopy after maintenance in a chemically defined medium in organ culture for periods up to 24 days. Throughout the culture period there was little overall change in the explants. Apart from limited disturbances of the basal lamina complex early in the culture period, and the presence of occasional degenerating keratinocytes after 18 days in vitro, the epithelium displayed an ultrastructure comparable with that at the time of explantation. The connective tissue showed greater changes, but despite considerable cell death a viable cell population apparently capable of both phagocytosis and synthesis of extracellular material was maintained. It is concluded that this organ culture system is a valid model for experimental investigations into the behaviour of oral mucosa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:744746

Hill, M W

1978-01-01

308

Mechanisms of lipid loss from the small intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Many water-soluble compounds have been shown to pass from the small intestinal mucosa into the lumen. In this work, the loss of lipids from the mucosa was investigated by perfusion experiments in rats, using 0-15M NaCl or buffer solutions over range of pH, with or without the addition of 5-7 or 11-4mM taurocholic acid. Perfusates were extracted for the estimation of individual lipids and for DNA, which is a measure of cell loss. The results suggest that free fatty acids reach the lumen by diffusion and that their solubility in the luminal fluid is a factor determining their rate of loss. Triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and phosphatidly choline are present onlyas the result of desquamation of mucosal cells. Images Fig 1 PMID:236212

Waldram, R

1975-01-01

309

Induction of oesophageal and forestomach carcinomas in rats by reflux of duodenal contents.  

PubMed Central

A study was designed to determine whether oesophageal carcinomas can be induced through reflux of duodenal contents. Male Wistar rats weighing 230-250 g were divided into three groups according to the surgical procedure performed: (1) the duodenal contents were directed into the forestomach through a stoma (duodeno-forestomach reflux); (2) the duodenal contents were regurgitated into the forestomach through the glandular stomach (duodeno-glandular-forestomach reflux); and (3) a sham operation was performed as a control. Animals were fed standard CRF-1 solid food and tap water that was not exposed to carcinogens and were sacrificed 50 weeks post-operatively. While no neoplasia was observed in any of the 32 control rats, 4/11 (36%) with duodeno-forestomach reflux and 3/18 (17%) animals with duodeno-glandular-forestomach reflux developed carcinomas in the lower oesophagus and forestomach. The incidence in each group was significantly higher than in the controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively). Six of the seven lesions consisted of squamous cell carcinomas, and one was a mucinous adenocarcinoma. Oesophageal columnar epithelial metaplasia was observed in two (18%) of the animals with duodeno-forestomach reflux. Carcinomas were always surrounded by chronic inflammatory changes, including regenerative thickening, basal cell hyperplasia and dysplasia. Additional well-differentiated adenocarcinomas were observed in the prepyloric antrum of 6/18 (33%) animals with duodeno-glandular-forestomach reflux. These findings indicate that chronic reflux of duodenal contents may cause oesophageal carcinoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8054264

Miwa, K.; Segawa, M.; Takano, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Sahara, H.; Yagi, M.; Miyazaki, I.; Hattori, T.

1994-01-01

310

Rumen metabolism and duodenal nutrient flow as affected by ration composition and antimicrobials in sheep  

E-print Network

in sheep H Fébel, I Zsolnai Harczi, S Huszar Research Institute of Animal Breeding and Nutrition, Dept in this 2 x3 factorial design experiment using six rumen and duodenal cannulated wether sheep. Diets were). Additives were provided at 0.75 mg/kg BW. Sheep were fed diets at a rate of 60 g DM/kg BW075 for 133 d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Evaluation of antiulcer potential of Mimusops hexandra in experimental gastro duodenal ulcers.  

PubMed

The study was aimed to investigate antiulcer effects of acetone extract and its different fractions Mimusops hexandra against experimental gastro-duodenal ulcers. 80% acetone extract of stem bark of Mimusops hexandra (Extract A, p.o.) and its different fractions namely diethyl ether (Extract A1, p.o.), ethyl acetate (Extract A2, p.o.) and aqueous (Extract A3, p.o.) were tested for the presence of preliminary phytoconstituents and were screened for their antiulcer potential in experimental animals using ethanol-HCl and aspirin-induced gastric damage at the dose of 500 mg kg-1p.o. Extract A2 being the most active fraction amongst all the fractions tested was also studied at different doses to find its ED50. Further, to establish the mechanism of action, Extract A2 was also tested for its effects in acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer models and cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer. The effect was compared with cimetidine. Flavonoids (quercetin), procyanidins, saponins and triterpenoids were found to be present in bark. Oral administration of Extract A2 inhibited formation of gastric lesions induced by aspirin in a dose dependent manner. Elevated level of lipid peroxidation due to ethanol-HCl and aspirin induced gastric damage was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the treatment with Extract A2. Further, Extract A2 at the dose of 100 mg kg-1 (p.o.) reduced extent of acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in experimental animals. Moreover, protection afforded by Extract A2 against cysteamine-induced duodenal lesions was evident from dose dependent decrease in ulcer index (p<0.05), score for intensity (p<0.05) and total lesion area (p<0.05), when compared with the control group. The antiulcer activity shown by Extract A2 in experimental gastro-duodenal ulcer could be attributed to decrease in gastric acid secretory activity along with strengthening of mucosal defensive mechanisms. PMID:22944719

Modi, Karuna P; Lahiri, Suman K; Goswami, Sunita S; Santani, Dev D; Shah, Mamta B

2012-01-01

312

Comparison between uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placement in malignant duodenal obstruction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare the clinical outcomes of uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placements in patients with malignant duodenal obstruction. METHODS: A total of 67 patients were retrospectively enrolled from January 2003 to June 2013. All patients had symptomatic obstruction characterized by nausea, vomiting, reduced oral intake, and weight loss. The exclusion criteria included asymptomatic duodenal obstruction, perforation or peritonitis, concomitant small bowel obstruction, or duodenal obstruction caused by benign strictures. The technical and clinical success rate, complication rate, and stent patency were compared according to the placement of uncovered (n = 38) or covered (n = 29) stents. RESULTS: The technical and clinical success rates did not differ between the uncovered and covered stent groups (100% vs 96.6% and 89.5% vs 82.8%). There were no differences in the overall complication rates between the uncovered and covered stent groups (31.6% vs 41.4%). However, stent migration occurred more frequently with covered than uncovered stents [20.7% (6/29) vs 0% (0/38), P < 0.05]. Moreover, the overall cumulative median duration of stent patency was longer in uncovered than in covered stents [251 d (95%CI: 149.8 d-352.2 d) vs 139 d (95%CI: 45.5 d-232.5 d), P < 0.05 by log-rank test] The overall cumulative median survival period was not different between the uncovered stent (70 d) and covered stent groups (60 d). CONCLUSION: Uncovered stents may be preferable in malignant duodenal obstruction because of their greater resistance to stent migration and longer stent patency than covered stents.

Kim, Ji Won; Jeong, Ji Bong; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Ahn, Dong Won; Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Su Hwan

2015-01-01

313

Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

Hausmann, K.

1981-12-01

314

Untersuchungen zur Regeneration des Hinterendes bei Anaitides mucosa (Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.

Röhrkasten, A.

1983-06-01

315

Total duodenectomy with enteric duct drainage: a rescue operation for duodenal complications occurring after pancreas transplantation.  

PubMed

Duodenal graft complications (DGC) occur frequently after pancreas transplantation but rarely cause graft loss. Graft pancreatectomy, however, may be required when DGC compromise recipient's safety. We herein report on two patients with otherwise untreatable DGC in whom the entire pancreas was salvaged by means of total duodenectomy with enteric drainage of both pancreatic ducts. The first patient developed recurrent episodes of enteric bleeding, requiring hospitalization and blood transfusions, starting 21 months after transplantation. The disease causing hemorrhage could not be defined, despite extensive investigations, but the donor duodenum was eventually identified as the site of bleeding. The second patient was referred to us with a duodenal stump leak, 5 months after transplantation. Two previous surgeries had failed to seal the leak, despite opening a diverting stoma above the duodenal graft. Thirty-nine and 16 months after total duodenectomy with dual duct drainage, respectively, both patients are insulin-independent and free from abdominal complaints. Magnetic resonance pancreatography shows normal ducts both basal and after intravenous injection of secretin. The two cases presented herein show that when DGC jeopardize pancreas function or recipient safety, total duodenectomy with enteric duct drainage may become an option. PMID:20121744

Boggi, U; Vistoli, F; Del Chiaro, M; Moretto, C; Croce, C; Signori, S; D'Imporzano, S; Amorese, G; Campani, D; Calabrese, F; Capocasale, E; Marchetti, P

2010-03-01

316

Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter in a polyarteritis nodosa sufferer  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are currently used in the management of pulmonary embolism (PE) and lower limb venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite their widespread use, associated complications including duodenal perforation have been reported. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a unique case of duodenal perforation 2 years post IVC filter insertion in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa (steroid dependent) and thrombocytopenia secondary to chronic cyclophosphamide use. DISCUSSION IVC filters are commonly employed in the management of VTE. Associated complications have been reported including filter migration, fracture and adjacent organ perforation. There is growing consensus that temporary IVC filters should be retrieved as soon as possible with dedicated IVC filter registries to ensure patients are not lost to follow-up post insertion. CONCLUSION Duodenal perforation is a rare complication of IVC filter insertion. This case however illustrates the potentially catastrophic consequences of a relatively common endovascular procedure. Caution should be taken when considering the insertion of IVC filters in patients with longstanding vasculopathies who are on immunosuppressants. PMID:25437665

Dat, Anthony; McCann, Andrew; Quinn, John; Yeung, Shinn

2014-01-01

317

Efficacy of ilaprazole in the treatment of duodenal ulcers: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerance of ilaprazole compared with other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. METHODS: An electronic database search of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane controlled trials register, Web of Science, PubMed, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (updated to July 2013), and manual searches were conducted. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and tolerance of ilaprazole and other PPIs in the treatment of duodenal ulcers was performed. RESULTS: Five articles involving 1481 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed no difference in the 4-wk healing rate between ilaprazole and other PPIs [89.7% vs 87.0%; relative risk (RR) = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.98-1.06; Z = 1.00; P = 0.32]. The results did not change in the sensitivity analyses. The meta-analysis indicated that the adverse effect rate in the ilaprazole group was lower than that in the control group, but the difference was not significant (9.7% vs 13.0%; RR = 0.81; 95%CI: 0.60-1.07; Z = 1.47; P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Ilaprazole is a highly effective and safe PPI in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. Ilaprazole can be recommended as a therapy for acid-related disorders, especially in Asian populations. PMID:24803828

Ji, Xi-Qing; Du, Jun-Feng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Guang; Yu, Bo

2014-01-01

318

Surgical management of pancreatico-duodenal tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1  

PubMed Central

Pancreatico-duodenal tumors are the second most common endocrinopathy in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1, and have a pronounced effect on life expectancy as the principal cause of disease-related death. Previous discussions about surgical management have focused mainly on syndromes of hormone excess and, in particular, the management of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1-related Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. Since hormonal syndromes tend to occur late and indicate the presence of metastases, screening with biochemical markers and endoscopic ultrasound is recommended for early detection of pancreatico-duodenal tumors, and with early surgery before metastases have developed. Surgery is recommended in patients with or without hormonal syndromes in the absence of disseminated liver metastases. The suggested operation includes distal 80% subtotal pancreatic resection together with enucleation of tumors in the head of the pancreas, and in cases with Zollinger–Ellison syndrome, excision of duodenal gastrinomas together with clearance of regional lymph node metastases. This strategy, with early and aggressive surgery before metastases have developed, is believed to reduce the risks for tumor recurrence and malignant progression. PMID:22584725

Åkerström, Göran; Stålberg, Peter; Hellman, Per

2012-01-01

319

Duodenal application of Li+ in a submaximal therapeutic dose inhibits exocrine pancreatic secretion and modulates gastro-duodenal myoelectrical activity in a conscious pig model.  

PubMed

This study tested whether duodenal application of lithium inhibits gastroduodenal motility, and whether it suppresses secretion from the exocrine pancreas. Five suckling pigs, 16-18 days old, were surgically fitted with 3 serosal electrodes on the wall of the gastric antrum and the duodenum for electromyography of smooth muscles, and with a pancreatic duct catheter and a duodenal T-cannula for collection and re-entrant flow of pancreatic juice. After the recovery period, on alternative days, each animal was tested once with an intraduodenal infusion of Li+ (100 mmol·L(-1) C3H5LiO3, 10 mL·kg(-1)·h(-1)) for 1 h, and once with an intraduodenal infusion of NaCl (154 mM, 10 ml·kg(-1)·h(-1)), also for 1 h, with the first treatment, i.e., Li+ or NaCl, randomly assigned. Individual pigs served as their own controls, with data recorded prior to a treatment being used as the baseline. Li+ increased the duration of quiescence (P < 0.05) and activity phase (P < 0.05) in the antrum, thus increasing (P < 0.05) the duration of antral myoelectrical cycles. Li+ shortened (P < 0.05) phase I, but it did not affect phase II or phase III or the MMC in the duodenum. Li+ inhibited pancreatic juice outflow as well as pancreatic enzyme and bicarbonate output (P < 0.05 for all pancreatic parameters). PMID:23984933

Naughton, Violetta; Hedemann, Mette S; Naughton, Patrick J; McSorley, Emeir; Laerke, Helle N

2013-09-01

320

Tissue-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Analysis Reveals Large Modifications of the Duodenal “Immunological Niche” in Coeliac Disease After Gluten-Free Diet  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of Celiac disease (CD) is well established. However, the mechanisms of T-cell involvement remain elusive. Little is known on the distribution of T subpopulations: T-regulatory (Treg), Th17, CD103, and CD62L cells at disease onset and after gluten-free diet (GFD). We investigated the involvement of several T subpopulations in the pathogenesis of CD. METHODS: We studied T cells both in the peripheral blood (PB) and the tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from the mucosa of 14 CD patients at presentation and after a GFD, vs. 12 controls. RESULTS: Our results extend the involvement of Treg, Th1, and Th17 cells in active CD inflammation both in the PB and at the TILs. At baseline, Tregs, Th1, and Th17 cells are significantly higher in active CD patients in TILs and PB. They decreased after diet. Moreover, CD62L+ TILs were increased at diagnosis as compared with GFD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show significant modifications of the above-mentioned subpopulations both in the PB and TILs. The increase of suppressive Tregs in active CD both in the PB and TILs is intriguing. T lymphocytes are known to have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CD. We have shown that gluten trigger results in systemic recruitment of T lymphocytes, the unbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory populations and the increase of CD62L+ T cells in TILs. Our results delineate a more complete picture of T-cell subsets in active vs. GFD disease. Our data of T-cell subpopulations, combined with known data on cytokine production, support the concept that duodenal micro-environment acts as an immunological niche and this recognition may have an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutical approach of CD. PMID:23324655

Cianci, Rossella; Cammarota, Giovanni; Frisullo, Giovanni; Pagliari, Danilo; Ianiro, Gianluca; Martini, Maurizio; Frosali, Simona; Plantone, Domenico; Damato, Valentina; Casciano, Fabio; Landolfi, Raffaele; Paola Batocchi, Anna; Pandolfi, Franco

2012-01-01

321

Collection protocol for human pancreas.  

PubMed

This dissection and sampling procedure was developed for the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) program to standardize preparation of pancreas recovered from cadaveric organ donors. The pancreas is divided into 3 main regions (head, body, tail) followed by serial transverse sections throughout the medial to lateral axis. Alternating sections are used for fixed paraffin and fresh frozen blocks and remnant samples are minced for snap frozen sample preparations, either with or without RNAse inhibitors, for DNA, RNA, or protein isolation. The overall goal of the pancreas dissection procedure is to sample the entire pancreas while maintaining anatomical orientation. Endocrine cell heterogeneity in terms of islet composition, size, and numbers is reported for human islets compared to rodent islets. The majority of human islets from the pancreas head, body and tail regions are composed of insulin-containing ?-cells followed by lower proportions of glucagon-containing ?-cells and somatostatin-containing ?-cells. Pancreatic polypeptide-containing PP cells and ghrelin-containing epsilon cells are also present but in small numbers. In contrast, the uncinate region contains islets that are primarily composed of pancreatic polypeptide-containing PP cells. These regional islet variations arise from developmental differences. The pancreas develops from the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds in the foregut and after rotation of the stomach and duodenum, the ventral lobe moves and fuses with the dorsal. The ventral lobe forms the posterior portion of the head including the uncinate process while the dorsal lobe gives rise to the rest of the organ. Regional pancreatic variation is also reported with the tail region having higher islet density compared to other regions and the dorsal lobe-derived components undergoing selective atrophy in type 1 diabetes. Additional organs and tissues are often recovered from the organ donors and include pancreatic lymph nodes, spleen and non-pancreatic lymph nodes. These samples are recovered with similar formats as for the pancreas with the addition of isolation of cryopreserved cells. When the proximal duodenum is included with the pancreas, duodenal mucosa may be collected for paraffin and frozen blocks and minced snap frozen preparations. PMID:22665046

Campbell-Thompson, Martha L; Montgomery, Emily L; Foss, Robin M; Kolheffer, Kerwin M; Phipps, Gerald; Schneider, Lynda; Atkinson, Mark A

2012-01-01

322

Collection Protocol for Human Pancreas  

PubMed Central

This dissection and sampling procedure was developed for the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) program to standardize preparation of pancreas recovered from cadaveric organ donors. The pancreas is divided into 3 main regions (head, body, tail) followed by serial transverse sections throughout the medial to lateral axis. Alternating sections are used for fixed paraffin and fresh frozen blocks and remnant samples are minced for snap frozen sample preparations, either with or without RNAse inhibitors, for DNA, RNA, or protein isolation. The overall goal of the pancreas dissection procedure is to sample the entire pancreas while maintaining anatomical orientation. Endocrine cell heterogeneity in terms of islet composition, size, and numbers is reported for human islets compared to rodent islets 1. The majority of human islets from the pancreas head, body and tail regions are composed of insulin-containing ?-cells followed by lower proportions of glucagon-containing ?-cells and somatostatin-containing ?-cells. Pancreatic polypeptide-containing PP cells and ghrelin-containing epsilon cells are also present but in small numbers. In contrast, the uncinate region contains islets that are primarily composed of pancreatic polypeptide-containing PP cells 2. These regional islet variations arise from developmental differences. The pancreas develops from the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds in the foregut and after rotation of the stomach and duodenum, the ventral lobe moves and fuses with the dorsal 3. The ventral lobe forms the posterior portion of the head including the uncinate process while the dorsal lobe gives rise to the rest of the organ. Regional pancreatic variation is also reported with the tail region having higher islet density compared to other regions and the dorsal lobe-derived components undergoing selective atrophy in type 1 diabetes4,5. Additional organs and tissues are often recovered from the organ donors and include pancreatic lymph nodes, spleen and non-pancreatic lymph nodes. These samples are recovered with similar formats as for the pancreas with the addition of isolation of cryopreserved cells. When the proximal duodenum is included with the pancreas, duodenal mucosa may be collected for paraffin and frozen blocks and minced snap frozen preparations. PMID:22665046

Campbell-Thompson, Martha L.; Montgomery, Emily L.; Foss, Robin M.; Kolheffer, Kerwin M.; Phipps, Gerald; Schneider, Lynda; Atkinson, Mark A.

2012-01-01

323

PCR based detection of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes in normal oral mucosa of tobacco users and non-users.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence of a causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Several studies have shown that HPV is associated with increased risk of oral cancer independent of exposure to tobacco and alcohol. The association is valid for HPVs 16 and 18, which generally are considered high risk types, because they have been detected in oral dysplastic lesions and cancers. We determined the baseline prevalence of HPVs 16 and 18 in normal oral mucosa of individuals with and without tobacco habit. PCR was used for DNA collected by oral smears to detect HPV 16/18 DNA in normal oral mucosa of 60 healthy individuals who were assigned to two groups of 30 subjects each. One group had a tobacco habit, the other did not. The tobacco user group comprised individuals who were tobacco chewers only. Sixty-five percent of individuals were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, but HPV 16/18 positivity was less in individuals with tobacco habit than in those without tobacco habit. No significant association was found between the presence of HPVs and gender, age or duration of chewing habit, or between groups with and without a tobacco habit. We propose that HPVs16 and 18 commonly are present in normal oral mucosa and emphasize the importance of distinguishing clinical, subclinical and latent HPV infections when investigating HPVs and OSCC. PMID:24588599

Pattanshetty, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Nayak, R; Bhat, K; Somannavar, P; Babji, D

2014-08-01

324

A Dosimetric Model of Duodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Dose escalation for pancreas cancer is limited by the tolerance of adjacent normal tissues, especially with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The duodenum is generally considered to be the organ at greatest risk. This study reports on the dosimetric determinants of duodenal toxicity with single-fraction SBRT. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma received 25 Gy in a single fraction. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) endpoints evaluated include V{sub 5} (volume of duodenum that received 5 Gy), V{sub 10}, V{sub 15}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 25}, and D{sub max} (maximum dose to 1 cm{sup 3}). Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was evaluated with a Lyman model. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Results: The median time to Grade 2-4 duodenal toxicity was 6.3 months (range, 1.6-11.8 months). The 6- and 12-month actuarial rates of toxicity were 11% and 29%, respectively. V{sub 10}-V{sub 25} and D{sub max} all correlated significantly with duodenal toxicity (p < 0.05). In particular, V{sub 15} {>=} 9.1 cm{sup 3} and V{sub 15} < 9.1 cm{sup 3} yielded duodenal toxicity rates of 52% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.002); V{sub 20} {>=} 3.3 cm{sup 3} and V{sub 20} < 3.3 cm{sup 3} gave toxicity rates of 52% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.002); and D{sub max} {>=} 23 Gy and D{sub max} < 23 Gy gave toxicity rates of 49% and 12%, respectively (p = 0.004). Lyman NTCP model optimization generated the coefficients m = 0.23, n = 0.12, and TD{sub 50} = 24.6 Gy. Only the Lyman NTCP model remained significant in multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Multiple DVH endpoints and a Lyman NTCP model are strongly predictive of duodenal toxicity after SBRT for pancreatic cancer. These dose constraints will be valuable in future abdominal SBRT studies.

Murphy, James D.; Christman-Skieller, Claudia; Kim, Jeff; Dieterich, Sonja; Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Koong, Albert C., E-mail: akoong@stanford.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

2010-12-01

325

Systemically Administered IgG Anti-Toxin Antibodies Protect the Colonic Mucosa during Infection with Clostridium difficile in the Piglet Model  

PubMed Central

The use of anti-toxin human monoclonal antibodies (HMab) as treatment for C. difficile infection has been investigated in animal models and human clinical trials as an alternative to or in combination with traditional antibiotic therapy. While HMab therapy appears to be a promising option, how systemically administered IgG antibodies protect the colonic mucosa during Clostridium difficile infection is unknown. Using the gnotobiotic piglet model of Clostridium difficile infection, we administered a mixture of anti-TcdA and anti-TcdB HMabs systemically to piglets infected with either pathogenic or non-pathogenic C. difficile strains. The HMabs were present throughout the small and large intestinal tissue of both groups, but significant HMabs were present in the lumen of the large intestines only in the pathogenic strain-infected group. Similarly, HMabs measured in the large intestine over a period of 2–4 days following antibody administration were not significantly different over time in the gut mucosa among the groups, but concentrations in the lumen of the large intestine were again consistently higher in the pathogenic strain-infected group. These results indicate that systemically administered HMab IgG reaches the gut mucosa during the course of CDI, protecting the host against systemic intoxication, and that leakage through the damaged colon likely protects the mucosa from further damage, allowing initiation of repair and recovery. PMID:25347821

Cohen, Ocean R.; Steele, Jennifer A.; Zhang, Quanshun; Schmidt, Diane J.; Wang, Yuankai; Hamel, Philip E. S.; Beamer, Gillian; Xu, Bingling; Tzipori, Saul

2014-01-01

326

Delayed duodenal stump blow-out following total gastrectomy for cancer: Heightened awareness for the continued presence of the surgical past in the present is the key to a successful duodenal stump disruption management. A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Duodenal stump disruption remains one of the most dreadful postgastrectomy complications, posing an overwhelming therapeutic challenge. PRESENTATION OF CASE The present report describes the extremely rare occurrence of a delayed duodenal stump disruption following total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy for cancer, because of mechanical obstruction of the distal jejunum resulting in increased backpressure on afferent limp and duodenal stump. Surgical management included repair of distal jejunum obstruction, mobilization and re-stapling of the duodenum at the level of its intact second part and retrograde decompressing tube duodenostomy through the proximal jejunum. DISCUSSION Several strategies have been proposed for the successful management post-gastrectomy duodenal stump disruption however; its treatment planning is absolutely determined by the presence or not of generalized peritonitis and hemodynamic instability with hostile abdomen. In such scenario, urgent reoperation is mandatory and the damage control principle should govern the operative treatment. CONCLUSION Considering that scientific data about duodenal stump disruption have virtually disappeared from the current medical literature, this report by contradicting the anachronism of this complication aims to serve as a useful reminder for gastrointestinal surgeons to be familiar with the surgical techniques that provide the ability to properly manage this dreadful postoperative complication. PMID:25437683

Vasiliadis, K.; Fortounis, K.; Kokarhidas, A.; Papavasiliou, C.; Nimer, A. Al; Stratilati, S.; Makridis, C.

2014-01-01

327

Functional perturbation of classical natural killer and innate lymphoid cells in the oral mucosa during SIV infection  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that the majority of human pathogens are transmitted across mucosal surfaces, including the oral mucosae, oral immunity is poorly understood. Furthermore, because the normal flora of the oral cavity is vast and significantly diverse, host immunity must balance a complex system of tolerance and pathogen recognition. Due to the rapid recognition and response to pathogens, the innate immune system, including natural killer (NK) cells, likely plays a critical role in mediating this balance. Because logistical and ethical restraints limit access to significant quantities of human mucosal tissues, non-human primate models offer one of the best opportunities to study mucosal NK cells. In this study we have identified both classical NK cells, as well as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in tonsillar and buccal tissues and oral-draining lymph nodes. Identified by mutually exclusive expression of NKG2A and NKp44, NK cells, and ILCs in the oral mucosa are generally phenotypically and functionally analogous to their gut counterparts. NKG2A+ NK cells were more cytotoxic while NKp44+ ILCs produced copious amounts of IL-17 and TNF-?. However, in contrast to gut, oral NK cells and ILCs both produced large quantities of IFN-? and the beta-chemokine, MIP-1?. Also in contrast to what we have previously found in gut tissues of SIV-infected macaques, we found no reduction in NK cells during chronic SIV infection, but rather an expansion of ILCs in oral-draining lymph nodes and tonsils. These data suggest that the lentivirus-induced depletion of the NK cell/ILC compartment in the gut may be absent in the oral mucosa, but the inherent differences and SIV-induced alterations are likely to have significant impact on preventing oral opportunistic infections in lentiviral disease. Furthermore, these data extend our understanding of the oral innate immune system in general and could aid future studies evaluating the regulation of both normal oral flora and limiting transmission of oral mucosal pathogens. PMID:23316201

Li, Haiying; Reeves, R. Keith

2012-01-01

328

Three-dimensional architecture of the ovine oviductal mucosa.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to establish for the first time a complete three-dimensional model of the ovine oviductal mucosa. The oviducts of 15 cyclic ewes were examined combining the direct examination of the mucosa, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology, with the SEM observation of resin moulds of the oviductal lumen. Around the ostium abdominale, all longitudinal primary folds and wide secondary are seen to form cul-de-sacs, with their opening pointing in the ovarian direction were observed. At the connection of the ampulla to the isthmus, there is a sharp change in the morphology, from a high folded structure to a smoother one. In the utero-tubal junction, the primary folds broaden and become more voluminous, the lumen has a slit-like appearance, and secondary folds form cul-de-sacs with their opening oriented towards the uterus. The areas between the folds throughout the lumen of the oviduct show a high degree of complexity. The presence of crypts was observed in all the regions studied, branched in the ampulla and spiniform in the isthmus. Marked variations were observed in the oviductal epithelium depending on the oviductal segment and the basal or apical areas of the folds. The variations found regarding the phase of the oestrous cycle were similar to those described in studies of other species. The anatomy of the oviductal mucosa provides a complex system that seems to be designed to regulate the movement of fluids and the passage of cells within the oviductal canal. PMID:23848134

Yániz, J L; Carretero, T; Recreo, P; Arceiz, E; Santolaria, P

2014-10-01

329

Extensive amalgam tattoo on the alveolar-gingival mucosa.  

PubMed

Amalgam tattoos are common exogenous pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa occurring mainly by inadvertent placement of amalgam particles into soft tissues. The diagnosis of amalgam tattoo is simple, usually based on clinical findings associated with presence or history of amalgam fillings removal. Intraoral X-rays may be helpful in detecting amalgam-related radiopacity. In cases where amalgam tattoo cannot be differentiated from other causes of oral pigmentation, a biopsy should be performed. This article deals with an extensive amalgam tattoo lesion which required a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:22147048

Galletta, Vivian C; Artico, Gabriela; Dal Vechio, Aluana M C; Lemos Jr, Celso A; Migliari, Dante A

2011-01-01

330

[Neuropeptides and nasal mucosa: a general review and update].  

PubMed

Following a review of the literature, the authors focused their interest on the sensitive physiology of the biochemistry of the nasal mucosa. After a general presentation of the neurotransmitter molecules studied (the tachykinins), the authors have determined their presence in the sensitive afferent nerves of the pituitary gland, evidencing their co-existence with various other neuropeptides. The distribution of these molecules was studied, given their capacity of acting on peripheral tissular receptors. The widespread distribution and the considerable potential of such neuropeptides reveal the important they play in nasal physiology. PMID:8734258

Duroux, S; Stoll, D

1996-01-01

331

Localization and Differential Activity of P-glycoprotein in the Bovine Olfactory and Nasal Respiratory Mucosae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is localized in the olfactory mucosa and is capable of limiting the nose-to-brain transport of substrates. Bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosae were compared to both localize P-gp and to measure its activity within the epithelia. Methods. Immunolocalization was performed on the bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosa

Karunya K. Kandimalla; Maureen D. Donovan

2005-01-01

332

Distribution of galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the rat nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Galanin-like immunoreactivity was found in nerve fibers beneath and within the epithelium of the rat mucosa by the use of immunohistochemical techniques. Immunoreactive fibers were also noted close to blood vessels and seromucous glands in the lamina propria. Fast blue applied to the nasal mucosa underwent retrograde transport to some immunoreactive neurons of the trigeminal ganglion. Thus, the rat nasal mucosa was shown to be innervated by galanin-containing sensory nerves. PMID:1707721

Matsuda, Y; Inagaki, S; Nakai, Y; Takagi, H

1990-12-17

333

Laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery for duodenal tumors: a unique procedure that helps ensure the safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection.  

PubMed

A new rendezvous-style surgical technique has been developed to ensure the safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for duodenal tumors. The new technique, called "laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS)," combines ESD with laparoscopic, reinforcing, seromuscular suturing. This case series report describes how three patients with a duodenal tumor were safely treated by LECS. ESD was performed by endoscopy, followed by closure of the mucosal defect using seromuscular suturing by laparoscopy. ESD was successfully completed in all patients. Endoscopic findings after suturing revealed that the mucosal defect was closed appropriately and tightly. None of the three patients experienced delayed perforation or stricture after LECS. LECS for extraction of duodenal tumors seems to be feasible and helps to ensure the safety of ESD in the duodenum. PMID:25479560

Irino, Tomoyuki; Nunobe, Souya; Hiki, Naoki; Yamamoto, Yorimasa; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Manabu; Fujisaki, Junko; Sano, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

2014-12-01

334

Life threatening bleeding from duodenal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare, but serious complication of gastric bypass surgery. The inaccessibility of the excluded stomach restrains postoperative examination and treatment of the gastric remnant and duodenum, and represents a major challenge, especially in the emergency setting. A 59-year-old patient with previous history of peptic ulcer disease had an upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a duodenal ulcer two years after having a gastric bypass procedure for morbid obesity. After negative upper endoscopy finding, he was urgently evaluated for gastrointestinal bleeding. At emergency laparotomy, the bleeding duodenal ulcer was identified by intraoperative endoscopy through gastrotomy. The patient recovered well after surgical hemostasis, excision of the duodenal ulcer and completion of the remnant gastrectomy. Every general practitioner, gastroenterologist and general surgeon should be aware of growing incidence of bariatric operations and coherently possible complications after such procedures, which modify patient’s anatomy and physiology. PMID:25512773

Ivanecz, Arpad; Sremec, Marko; ?erani?, Davorin; Potr?, Stojan; Skok, Pavel

2014-01-01

335

Life threatening bleeding from duodenal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare, but serious complication of gastric bypass surgery. The inaccessibility of the excluded stomach restrains postoperative examination and treatment of the gastric remnant and duodenum, and represents a major challenge, especially in the emergency setting. A 59-year-old patient with previous history of peptic ulcer disease had an upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a duodenal ulcer two years after having a gastric bypass procedure for morbid obesity. After negative upper endoscopy finding, he was urgently evaluated for gastrointestinal bleeding. At emergency laparotomy, the bleeding duodenal ulcer was identified by intraoperative endoscopy through gastrotomy. The patient recovered well after surgical hemostasis, excision of the duodenal ulcer and completion of the remnant gastrectomy. Every general practitioner, gastroenterologist and general surgeon should be aware of growing incidence of bariatric operations and coherently possible complications after such procedures, which modify patient's anatomy and physiology. PMID:25512773

Ivanecz, Arpad; Sremec, Marko; Cerani?, Davorin; Potr?, Stojan; Skok, Pavel

2014-12-16

336

A comparison of unrefined wheat and rice diets in the management of duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one chronic duodenal ulcer patients in a rice-eating area were put on to an unrefined wheat diet and twenty-one continued on their previous rice diet. After 5 years only 14% of the first group had had relapses compared with 81% of the second group. A similar 5-year relapse rate (80%) was obtained in a group of thirty patients from another area with a more varied rice diet. The author attributes this difference to the increased mastication required by the unrefined wheat diet, which is associated with an increase in saliva, lower stomach acidity and reduced bile output. PMID:625462

Malhotra, S. L.

1978-01-01

337

Duodenal subepithelial hyperechoic lesions of the third layer: Not always a lipoma  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic ultrasonography is the most accurate procedure for the evaluation of subepithelial lesions. The finding of a homogeneous, hyperechoic, well-delimited lesion, originating from the third layer of the gastrointestinal tract (submucosa) suggests a benign tumor, generally lipoma. As other differential diagnoses have not been reported, echoendoscopists might not pursue a definitive pathological diagnosis or follow-up the patient. This case series aims to broaden the spectrum of differential diagnosis for duodenal hyperechoic third layer subepithelial lesions by providing four different and relevant pathologies with this echoendoscopic pattern. PMID:24147196

Figueiredo, Pedro C; Pinto-Marques, Pedro; Mendonça, Evelina; Oliveira, Pedro; Brito, Maria; Serra, David

2013-01-01

338

Co-existence of Sarcina Organisms and Helicobacter pylori Gastritis/Duodenitis in Pediatric Siblings  

PubMed Central

Sarcina are gram-positive anaerobic bacteria found to be associated with delayed gastric emptying and gastric outlet obstruction. We describe two cases of Sarcina co-existing with Helicobacter pylori organisms in pediatric siblings presenting within four months of each other with pyloric obstruction secondary to severe gastritis/duodenitis. The co-existence of Sarcina and Helicobacter pylori has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. Its characteristic tetrad packeted morphology permits Sarcina to be readily identified on routine sections. Detection of these organisms in gastric biopsies should prompt consideration of gastric outlet obstruction and/or delayed gastric emptying as a possible etiologic factor.

Sauter, Jennifer L.; Nayar, Suresh K.; Anders, Paige D.; D’Amico, Michael; Butnor, Kelly J.; Wilcox, Rebecca L.

2015-01-01

339

Advances of Knowledge on Allergic Inflammation and the Oral Mucosa.  

PubMed

Allergic diseases are common worldwide and are prevalently caused by an inflammatory pathophysiology induced by the exposure to the specific allergen(s). The development of inflammation requires the involvement of regulatory cells that include antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes, respectively orientating and orchestrating the immunological response, and the activity of cells such as mast cells and basophils, that release the typical mediators of allergic reactions, and eosinophils, which sustain the protracted inflammation. Differently from other sites of contact with allergen(s) such as respiratory or gastrointestinal tissues, the oral mucosa, based on the abundance of dendritic cells and their interaction with T cells, is apparently working as a tolerogenic site concerning the response to allergen molecules. of The other pivotal aspect of the oral mucosa is the minimal presence of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils and mast cells. These characteristics play a crucial role in the sublingual administration of allergen immunotherapy, which in fact is easier to tolerate than injective immunotherapy, taking into account recent studies highlighting the important role of the Waldeyer's ring in developing tolerance to the sublingually administered allergen. Some patents addressing the identification of therapeutic agents for allergic inflammation are also summarized. PMID:25487260

Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Fuiano, Nicola; Frati, Franco; Marcucci, Francesco

2014-12-01

340

Histochemical studies on rectal mucosa in active intestinal schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Thirty patients suffering from active intestinal S. mansoni infection, were classified into 3 groups. The first group: 13 cases with early active intestinal schistosomiasis without hepatosplenomegaly. The second group: 11 cases with hepatosplenomegaly and the third group: 6 cases with splenomegaly and ascites. Also 10 normal individuals were included as a normal control group. Histopathological examination of rectal mucosa showed hyperaemia with extravasation of blood in early cases and granulomatous lesions in the second group with hepatosplenomegaly. The structural changes were severe in the late ascitic group. In this group the rectal mucosal glands showed distorted irregular tubular branching in addition to the granulomatous and the fibrous reactions. Histochemical studies including periodic acid schiff, alkaline phosphatase and acetyl cholinestrase reactions were done. Using the periodic acid shiff stain, the goblet cells showed strong reaction for neutral mucin in cases of group I (early cases) and group II (late hepatosplenomegalic cases). In group III (late ascitic cases) the goblet cells were faintly stained. A notable difference was observed between the lightly and heavily infected patients of this group. No alkaline phosphatase reactivity could be identified in rectal crypts of patients and controls. Alkaline phosphatase reactivity was sharply localised in S. mansoni egg shell. There was obvious decrease in the acetyl cholinesterase stained nerve fibres in the rectal mucosa of all studied patients. The decrease was more in chronic and heavily infected cases rather than in the acute and lightly infected ones. PMID:1908499

el-Din, S S; Massoud, M M; Hossny, S; el-Gindy, I M; Arafa, M A; Labib, H

1991-08-01

341

Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

2013-01-01

342

ATP: a mediator for HCl-induced TRPV1 activation in esophageal mucosa  

PubMed Central

In esophageal mucosa, HCl causes TRPV1-mediated release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) from submucosal neurons and of platelet-activating factor (PAF) from epithelial cells. CGRP and SP release was unaffected by PAF antagonists but reduced by the purinergic antagonist suramin. ATP caused CGRP and SP release from esophageal mucosa, confirming a role of ATP in the release. The human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A was used to identify epithelial cells as the site of ATP release. HCl caused ATP release from HET-1A, which was reduced by the TRPV1 antagonist 5-iodoresiniferatoxin. Real-time PCR demonstrated the presence of mRNA for several P2X and P2Y purinergic receptors in epithelial cells. HCl also increased activity of lyso-PAF acetyl-CoA transferase (lyso-PAF AT), the enzyme responsible for production of PAF. The increase was blocked by suramin. ATP caused a similar increase, confirming ATP as a mediator for the TRPV1-induced increase in enzyme activity. Repeated exposure of HET-1A cells to HCl over 2 days caused upregulation of mRNA and protein expression for lyso-PAF AT. Suramin blocked this response. Repeated exposure to ATP caused a similar mRNA increase, confirming ATP as a mediator for upregulation of the enzyme. Thus, HCl-induced activation of TRPV1 causes ATP release from esophageal epithelial cells that causes release of CGRP and SP from esophageal submucosal neurons and activation of lyso-PAF AT, the enzyme responsible for the production of PAF in epithelial cells. Repeated application of HCl or of ATP causes upregulation of lyso-PAF AT in epithelial cells. PMID:21960521

Ma, Jie; Altomare, Annamaria; Rieder, Florian; Behar, Jose; Biancani, Piero

2011-01-01

343

Probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa: effects on cell proliferation and polyamine metabolism.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed neoplasms. In the last decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the relations between the intestinal microbiota and the onset of both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal neoplasms. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. The internationally accepted definition of probiotics is live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract following probiotic administration have been investigated in vitro and in animal models, as well as in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from different human gastrointestinal diseases. Although several evidences are available on the use of probiotics against the carcinogen Helicobacter pylori, little is still known about the potential cross-interactions among probiotics, the composition and quality of intestinal flora and the neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa. In this connection, a significant role in cell proliferation is played by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine). These small amines are required in both pre-neoplastic and neoplastic tissue to sustain the cell growth and the evidences here provided suggest that probiotics may act as antineoplastic agents in the stomach by affecting also the polyamine content and functions. This review will summarize data on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa and in particular on their ability in modulating cell proliferation, paying attention to the polyamine metabolism. PMID:25309063

Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Orlando, Antonella

2014-10-01

344

Effect of longterm misoprostol coadministration with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a histological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandins are widely used in the prevention and healing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastric and duodenal ulcers, but their longterm effect on the human gastric mucosa is unknown. This study assessed the effect of coadministration of prostaglandins with NSAIDs on the histology of the gastroduodenal mucosa. Histological appearances (using the Sydney system) of gastric biopsy specimens from 180

K Shah; A B Price; I C Talbot; K D Bardhan; C G Fenn; I Bjarnason

1995-01-01

345

Treatment of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Associated Gastric and Duodenal Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the mainstay of treatment for rheumatic diseases. However, a significant number of patients receiving these drugs experience upper gastrointestinal side effects, including physical injury to the gastroduodenal mucosa. This may range from clinically insignificant bleeding and minor erosive changes to deeper ulceration, with attendant risk of haemorrhage or perforation. The majority of the published literature

Graham Pipkin; Jane G. Mills

1995-01-01

346

Mantle cell lymphoma with the features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in an HTLV-I-seropositive patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A case of small lymphocytic B-cell lymphoma with seropositivity for human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), whose clinical features were closely related to those of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, is presented. The neoplastic cells of the lymph node were immunologically positive for CD5, in addition to several B-cell markers, but negative for CD10, and cytogenetically carried a

K. Shibata; Y. Shimamoto; S. Nakano; M. Miyahara; H. Nakano; M. Yamaguchi

1995-01-01

347

Omeprazole vs. ranitidine in short-term treatment of Helicobacter pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients.  

PubMed

Forty-three patients with active duodenal ulcer and Helicobacter pylori positivity in gastric antrum were randomly assigned to either omeprazole treatment (20 mg once a day) or ranitidine treatment (300 mg once a day) for 28 days. Re-evaluation of the patients (clinical and endoscopic examination and assessments for H pylori detection) was repeated after 2 weeks and at the end of the treatment. Healing rates in the omeprazole group were 40% after 2 weeks and 90% after 4 weeks, in the ranitidine group ulcer healing was recorded in 20% of patients after 2 weeks and in 80% after 4 weeks. Differences between treatments at 2 and 4 weeks were not statistically significant. Clinical response (disappearance of ulcer-related symptoms) was better in the omeprazole group at 2 weeks (p less than 0.05) but not at 4 weeks. At the end of the trial H pylori positivity in gastric antrum disappeared in 95% of the patients treated with omeprazole and in 5% of the patients who received ranitidine (p less than 0.001). The results confirm the effectiveness of omeprazole in short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer and re-emphasize the powerful activity of the drug on H pylori infection. PMID:1747501

Catalano, F; Mangiameli, A; Inserra, G; Monello, S; Brogna, A; Sofia, M; Rizzo, G; Ayoubi Khajekini, M; Blasi, A

1991-01-01

348

Bile salt-induced increases in duodenal brush-border membrane proton permeability, fluidity, and fragility  

SciTech Connect

Rabbit duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles were treated in vitro with deoxycholate, glycodeoxycholate, or taurodeoxycholate. Intravesicular (14C)glucose space at equilibrium, 0.54 microliters/mg protein, was reduced by exposure to the three bile salts in a concentration (0.1-5.0 mM)-dependent manner, equatable with increased membrane fragility. Net proton permeability (Pnet), determined by acridine orange fluorescence quenching, was increased from 6.3 x 10(-4) cm/sec in untreated vesicles, by approximately 120, 150, and 170%, by treatment with bile salts at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM, respectively. The three bile salts were equipotent. The increases in membrane fragility and Pnet were not accompanied by significant increases in membrane fluidity, as assessed from steady-state and time-resolved diphenylhexatriene fluorescence anisotropy. The data demonstrate direct effects of bile salts on duodenal apical membrane fragility and proton permeability that are likely to be early events in bile salt-induced mucosal damage.

Zhao, D.L.; Hirst, B.H. (Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne Medical School (England))

1990-05-01

349

Duodenal Ferroportin Is Up-Regulated in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver-related mortality. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is frequently associated with disturbances in iron homeostasis, with serum iron and hepatic iron stores being elevated. Accumulating evidence indicates that chronic HCV infection suppresses expression of hepatic hepcidin, a key mediator of iron homeostasis, leading to iron overload conditions. Since hepcidin mediates degradation of ferroportin, a basolateral transporter involved in the release of iron from cells, diminished hepcidin expression probably leads to up-regulation of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1) in patients with CHC. In this study, we determined the protein levels of duodenal Fpn1, and found that its expression was significantly up-regulated in patients with CHC. The expression of duodenal Fpn1 is negatively correlated with mRNA levels of hepcidin, and positively correlated with serum iron parameters. Although iron is a critical factor for growth of a variety of pathogenic bacteria, our results suggest that iron overload in blood does not increase the infection rate of bacteria in patients with CHC. PMID:25330009

Yuan, Yuping; Lv, Jiajun; Dong, Xiangqian; Yang, Gang; Zhu, Yunzhen; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Zhigang; Yang, Jiefu

2014-01-01

350

Perforated duodenal ulcer presenting with massive hematochezia in a 30-month-old child  

PubMed Central

Peptic ulcer disease is uncommon in children and rarely suspected as a cause of abdominal complaints in this age group; the diagnosis is therefore made almost exclusively when complications develop. Peptic ulcer disease is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of pediatric patients. We present the case of a 30-month-old boy with duodenal perforation due to a peptic ulcer without a known etiology. The patient was admitted through the emergency department due to severe hematochezia and ongoing anemia; he presented with neither abdominal pain nor abdominal distension. There were no medical problems, and no drugs, such as corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, had been prescribed or administered recently. We tried to control the active bleeding by medical treatment including arterial embolization, but the active bleeding was not controlled. Finally, an exploratory laparotomy was performed. A discrete anterior perforation with active bleeding of the duodenal wall was found. After the operation, there were no complications and the patient recovered fully. PMID:19824124

Lee, Na Mi; Yun, Sin Weon; Chae, Soo Ahn; Yoo, Byoung Hoon; Cha, Seong Jae; Kwak, Byung Kook

2009-01-01

351

Omeprazole compared with ranitidine once daily in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed

A double-blind randomized study in 230 Malaysian patients with duodenal ulcer was conducted to compare the proton-pump inhibitor, omeprazole 20 mg, given once daily in the morning, with ranitidine 300 mg, administered once daily at night. After 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, 222 and 220 patients, respectively, were evaluable according to the study protocol. Omeprazole produced significantly higher healing rates than ranitidine at both 2 weeks (75% versus 46%, respectively, P less than 0.0001) and 4 weeks (97% versus 83%, respectively, P = 0.001). Ulcer symptoms were relieved more rapidly by omeprazole than ranitidine. After 2 weeks, daytime epigastric pain was reported by 30% of ranitidine-treated patients but only by 15% of omeprazole-treated patients, which is a statistically significant difference (P = 0.004). No major clinical or biochemical side effects were recorded for either omeprazole or ranitidine. In conclusion, omeprazole 20 mg was found to be superior to ranitidine 300 mg administered once daily for the treatment of duodenal ulcer as measured by ulcer healing and pain relief. PMID:2491362

Chelvam, P; Goh, K L; Leong, Y P; Leela, M P; Yin, T P; Ahmad, H; Jalleh, R; Wong, N W; Lee, H B; Mahendran, T

1989-01-01

352

Duodenal tuberculosis--a rare case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is rare and often difficult to diagnose infection. We report a case of duodenal tuberculosis, who presented with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. There was evidence of obstruction in the third part of duodenum (D3) on oesophagogastro endoscopy, barium meal follow through and CT scan of abdomen. On exploration there was thickening of D3 and D4 causing luminal obstruction. Resection of stricturous segment with end-to-side duodenojejunostomy was done. Biopsy of the diseased segment was tubercular. Antitubercular treatment was given to the patient for 6 months and he is doing well on follow up (1 year after surgery). Duodenal tuberculosis being the rarest form of intestinal tuberculosis poses great difficulty in diagnosis. High index of suspicion supported by radiological investigation, exploratory laparotomy and histopathological examination of the tissue can only lead to a definitive diagnosis of this rare condition. Treatment is both surgical which involves resection or by-pass for an obstructive lesion and medical which includes antitubercular therapy. PMID:24009058

Dahiya, Divya; Garg, Mandeep; Kaman, Lileswar; Rana, Surinder; Rao, Chalapathi; Behera, Arunanshu

2013-08-01

353

Perforated duodenal ulcer associated with an incarcerated hiatal hernia: report of a case.  

PubMed

We report the case of a perforated duodenal ulcer and diffuse peritonitis associated with an incarcerated hiatal hernia. A 77-year-old woman with a 17-year history of rheumatoid arthritis treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, who had also been receiving treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma over 4 years, was referred to us for investigation of nausea and vomiting. An abdominal compute tomography (CT) scan showed an incarcerated hiatal hernia and free air in the hernia sac. Emergency laparotomy revealed an incarcerated hiatal hernia involving the stomach, transverse colon, and omentum. A perforated ulcer was also found in the posterior wall of the first portion of the duodenum. The combination of these disorders is thought to be rare in patients with a hiatal hernia and free air in its sac. As the reported mortality of perforated gastric ulcer associated with a hiatal hernia is high, early elective surgery should be performed in patients with a duodenal ulcer associated with a hiatal hernia. PMID:12541028

Otsuka, Yuichi; Nara, Satoshi; Ito, Kei; Nakajima, Kentaro; Mieno, Hiroaki; Konishi, Toshiro

2002-01-01

354

Eosinophilic ascites and duodenal obstruction in a patient with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of portions of the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophilic ascites is probably the most unusual and rare presentation of EG and is generally associated with the serosal form of EG. Hereby, we report a case of eosinophilic ascites with duodenal obstruction in a patient with liver cirrhosis. A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, and constipation. She had a history of laparotomy because of duodenal obstruction 2 years ago. Based on clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings, and given the excluding the other causes of peripheral eosinophilia, the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis along with liver cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was established. Based on the findings of the present case, it is highly recommended that, in the patients presented with liver cirrhosis associated with peripheral blood or ascitic fluid eosinophilia, performing gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy can probably reveal this rare disorder of EG. PMID:24772356

Maleki, Nasrollah; Kalantar Hormozi, Mohammadreza; Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Tavosi, Zahra; Mosallai Pour, Hamidreza; Taghiyan Jamaleddin Kolaii, Seiiedeh Samaneh

2014-01-01

355

Eosinophilic Ascites and Duodenal Obstruction in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of portions of the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophilic ascites is probably the most unusual and rare presentation of EG and is generally associated with the serosal form of EG. Hereby, we report a case of eosinophilic ascites with duodenal obstruction in a patient with liver cirrhosis. A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, and constipation. She had a history of laparotomy because of duodenal obstruction 2 years ago. Based on clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings, and given the excluding the other causes of peripheral eosinophilia, the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis along with liver cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was established. Based on the findings of the present case, it is highly recommended that, in the patients presented with liver cirrhosis associated with peripheral blood or ascitic fluid eosinophilia, performing gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy can probably reveal this rare disorder of EG. PMID:24772356

Kalantar Hormozi, Mohammadreza; Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Tavosi, Zahra; Mosallai Pour, Hamidreza; Taghiyan Jamaleddin Kolaii, Seiiedeh Samaneh

2014-01-01

356

Management of patients with combined tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and duodenal atresia  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Patients with combined esophageal atresia (EA), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and duodenal atresia (DA) pose a rare management challenge. PRESENTATION OF CASE Three patients with combined esophageal atresia (EA), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and duodenal atresia safely underwent a staged approach inserting a gastrostomy tube and repairing the EA/TEF first followed by a duodenoduodenostomy within one week. None of the patients suffered significant pre- or post-operative complications and our follow-up data (between 12 and 24 months) suggest that all patients eventually outgrow their reflux and respiratory symptoms. DISCUSSION While some authors support repair of all defects in one surgery, we recommend a staged approach. A gastrostomy tube is placed first for gastric decompression before TEF ligation and EA repair can be safely undertaken. The repair of the DA can then be performed within 3–7 days under controlled circumstances. CONCLUSION A staged approach of inserting a gastrostomy tube and repairing the EA/TEF first followed by a duodenoduodenostomy within one week resulted in excellent outcomes. PMID:25460495

Nabzdyk, Christoph S.; Chiu, Bill; Jackson, Carl-Christian; Chwals, Walter J.

2014-01-01

357

The ovine nasal mucosa: An alternative tissue site for mucosal immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovine nasal mucosal environment has histological and ultrastructural features that resemble well-known inductive sites of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the present study, the nasal mucosa was assessed as a potential mucosal tissue site for delivering vaccines to sheep. Sheep were immunized by either injection with the model antigen, Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH), and aluminium hydroxide gel (alum) or by

Bradley J. Sedgmen; Shari A. Lofthouse; Els N. T. Meeusen

2006-01-01

358

Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

359

IMMUNOCHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE SPECIES ORIGIN OF INTESTINAL MUCOSA USED FOR HEPARIN PURIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species specific antisera against bovine, ovine, and porcine serum albumin were produced in order to control the absence of bovine, ovine, or caprine tissues in the porcine intestinal mucosa used for heparin production. Two immunoassays were developed. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was very sensitive down to 1 ng\\/mL bovine albumin or 10 ppm bovine intestinal mucosa in porcine

Didier Levieux; Annie Levieux

2001-01-01

360

Ultrastructure and development of the nephridia in Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different developmental stages (trochophores, nectochaetae, non-mature and mature adults) of Anaitides mucosa were investigated ultrastructurally. A. mucosa has protonephridia throughout its life; during maturity a ciliated funnel is attached to these organs. The protonephridial duct cells are multiciliated, while the terminal cells are monociliated. The single cilium is surrounded by 14 microvilli which extend into the duct lumen without coming

Thomas Bartolomaeus

1989-01-01

361

Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and gastric mucosa: correlation revisited.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) related gastric infection is highly prevalent in developing countries. Prevalence of bacterium in dental plaque from these regions is also reported to be high, but association between simultaneous colonization of H. pylori in both these sites has not been established yet. Aim of this paper is to review possible association between simultaneous oral and gastric H. pylori colonization in dyspeptic patients. Pertinent literature was reviewed and all available evidence collected from Medline and PakMedinet. Studies conducted in the developing world show conflicting results. Some report a positive relation between oral and gastric H. pylori colonization while others deny any association. This may be due to the population sampled or methodology applied. Further studies are recommended to confirm the association between concurrent presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and gastric mucosa of dyspeptic patients using sensitive and specific tests for detection of bacterium in oral samples. PMID:18988394

Chaudhry, Saima; Iqbal, Hafiz Aamer; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Izhar, Mateen; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Akhter, M Waheed; Izhar, Faisal; Mirza, Kamran Masood

2008-06-01

362

Solitary Angiokeratoma of Oral Mucosa: A Rare Presentation  

PubMed Central

Solitary angiokeratoma of oral mucosa is rare entity. The term Angiokeratoma is used to refer to several lesions, whose common denominator is the presence of dilated blood vessels in association with epidermal hyperplasia. Mucosal involvement, including oral cavity is occasionally found either as a component of the systemic variety, cutaneous involvement or isolated oral involvement. Clinically, the lesion is irregular, whitish to dark brown in color, with female predominance. The etiological factors include injury, trauma, or chronic irritation to the wall of a papillary dermis. Histologically, it is characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and dilated vascular spaces with or without organizing thrombi in papillary dermis. The vascular spaces are partly or completely enclosed by elongated ret-ridges. Along with this reporting a case of solitary angiokeratoma affecting tongue in a 38-year-old male patient, along with the literature review is presented. PMID:23936686

Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa; Tupsakhare, Suyog; Patil, Ashok; Gabhane, Mahesh; Sonune, Shrikant

2013-01-01

363

Pyogenic Granuloma on the Upper Labial Mucosa: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granuloma is thought to represent an exuberant tissue response to a local irritation or trauma. It is a reactional response to constant minor trauma and it might be related to hormonal changes. Clinically, these lesions usually present as single nodules or sessile papules with smooth or lobulated surfaces. These may be seen in any size, from a few millimetres to several centimetres. Pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity is known to involve the gingiva more commonly (75% of all the cases). An extragingival occurrence of pyogenic granuloma is rare. This paper has described an extragingival pyogenic granuloma which occurred on the upper labial mucosa in a 30 years old female patient. PMID:23905151

K A, Kamala; Ashok, L.; G P, Sujatha

2013-01-01

364

Irritable bowel syndrome: is the colonic mucosa to blame?  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered gastrointestinal function of unknown etiology. Studies of colonic mucosal biopsies from patients with IBS have suggested altered immune system function as a potential mechanism in the pathophysiology of IBS, but efforts to identify the mucosal mediators responsible for the manifestation of symptoms that define the disorder have been limited. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Buhner et al. and Balestra et al. report findings from studies linking increased excitability of the enteric nervous system with mucosal mediators released from biopsies of patients with IBS. These studies provide evidence for the concept that mediators present in the colonic mucosa may contribute to the manifestation of clinical symptoms present in IBS. PMID:23176660

Hoffman, Jill M

2012-12-01

365

Polymers with embedded chemical indicators as an artificial olfactory mucosa.  

PubMed

Physiological investigations suggest that the olfactory mucosa probably plays an ancillary role in the recognition of odours introducing a sort of chromatographic separation that, together with the zonal distribution of olfactory receptors, gives place to selective spatio-temporal response patterns. It has been recently suggested that this behaviour may be simulated by chemical sensors embedded in continuous polymer layers. In this paper, in analogy to the biology of olfaction, a simple and compact platform able to separate and detect gases and vapours on the basis of their diffusion properties is proposed. In such a system, broadly selective colour indicators, such as metalloporphyrins, are embedded in continuous layers of polymers with different sorption properties. The exposure to various alcohols and amines shows that the porphyrins are mainly responsible for the recognition of the molecular family, while the occurring spatio-temporal signal patterns make possible the identification of the individual chemical species. PMID:20405062

Dini, Francesca; Filippini, Daniel; Paolesse, Roberto; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Lundström, Ingemar; Di Natale, Corrado

2010-06-01

366

Solitary angiokeratoma of oral mucosa: a rare presentation.  

PubMed

Solitary angiokeratoma of oral mucosa is rare entity. The term Angiokeratoma is used to refer to several lesions, whose common denominator is the presence of dilated blood vessels in association with epidermal hyperplasia. Mucosal involvement, including oral cavity is occasionally found either as a component of the systemic variety, cutaneous involvement or isolated oral involvement. Clinically, the lesion is irregular, whitish to dark brown in color, with female predominance. The etiological factors include injury, trauma, or chronic irritation to the wall of a papillary dermis. Histologically, it is characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and dilated vascular spaces with or without organizing thrombi in papillary dermis. The vascular spaces are partly or completely enclosed by elongated ret-ridges. Along with this reporting a case of solitary angiokeratoma affecting tongue in a 38-year-old male patient, along with the literature review is presented. PMID:23936686

Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa; Tupsakhare, Suyog; Patil, Ashok; Agrawal, Gaurav; Gabhane, Mahesh; Sonune, Shrikant

2013-01-01

367

Synovial Sarcoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient. PMID:23762651

Mahesh, Kumar T. S.; Ponnuswamy, Indira Annamalai; David, Maria Priscilla; Shivhare, Peeyush; Puttaranganayak, Mahalakshmi Ikkanur; Sinha, Pooja

2013-01-01

368

Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor  

PubMed Central

Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months. PMID:24963257

Lata, Jeevan; Ahmad, Fahad; Chand, Vimal

2014-01-01

369

The maintenance of rat palatal mucosa in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was maintained under organ culture conditions in a chemically defined medium for periods up to 28 days. The histological state of the cultured palatal mucosa was compared with that of control tissue from growing animals of comparable age. The control tissues showed an increase in epithelial thickness, first noticeable at 17 days. Whilst the general structure of the tissues in organ culture was preserved for the duration of the experiment, some changes in epithelial behavior were evident. There was an increase in epithelial thickness up to 6 days, followed by a reduction in the nucleated cell layer of the epithelium to a thickness comparable with that at the start of the experiment. There was a loss of epithelial glycogen within the first day, with occasional reappearance of patchy and irregular deposits. Whereas the control of epithelial thickness appeared to be restored after 10 days in vitro, disturbances in the maturation of the keratinocytes, manifested as epithelial pearls and dyskeratotic cells, were evident at subsequent stages. Epiboly never occurred. The connective tissue component showed continued development, indicated by an increase in the thickness of collagen fibres. The overall palatal growth seen in vivo did not occur in organ culture. We suggest that the improved maintenance reported is partly the result of explanting tissues in such a way as to minimize trauma, and partly the result of incorporating serum albumin into the chemically defined medium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1010792

Hill, M W; Miles, A E

1976-01-01

370

Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.

2004-06-30

371

The Oral Mucosa Immune Environment and Oral Transmission of HIV/SIV  

PubMed Central

Summary The global spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on the ability of this virus to efficiently cross from one host to the next by traversing a mucosal membrane. Unraveling how mucosal exposure of HIV results in systemic infection is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on understanding the immune events associated with the oral route of transmission (via breastfeeding or sexual oral intercourse), which occurs across the oral and/or gastrointestinal mucosa. Studies in both humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey models have identified viral changes and immune events associated with oral HIV/SIV exposure. This review covers our current knowledge of HIV oral transmission in both infants and adults, the use of SIV models in understanding early immune events, oral immune factors that modulate HIV/SIV susceptibility (including mucosal inflammation), and interventions that may impact oral HIV transmission rates. Understanding the factors that influence oral HIV transmission will provide the foundation for developing immune therapeutic and vaccine strategies that can protect both infants and adults from oral HIV transmission. PMID:23772613

Wood, Lianna F.; Chahroudi, Ann; Chen, Hui-Ling; Jaspan, Heather B.; Sodora, Donald L.

2013-01-01

372

EUS diagnosis of ectopic opening of the common bile duct in the duodenal bulb: A case report  

PubMed Central

Among the various congenital anomalies of the biliary system, an ectopic opening of the common bile duct (CBD) in the duodenal bulb is extremely rare. ERCP is essential for diagnosing the anomaly. A 55-year-old male was admitted to hospital for severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain, followed by fever, chills, elevated body temperature and mild icterus. The diagnosis of ectopic opening of CBD in the duodenal bulb was established on endoscopic ultraso-nography (EUS), which clearly demonstrated dilated CBD, with multiple stones and air in the lumen, draining into the bulb. A normal pancreatic duct, which did not drain into the bulb, was also observed. This finding was confirmed on ERCP and surgery. As far as we know, this is the first case of this anomaly diagnosed by EUS. Ectopic opening of the CBD in the duodenal bulb is not an incidental finding, but a pathologic condition which can be associated with clinical entities such as recurrent or intractable duodenal ulcer, recurrent biliary pain, choledocholithiasis or acute cholangitis. Endoscopic ultrasonography features allow preoperative diagnosis of this anomaly and can replace ERCP as a first diagnostic tool in such clinical circumstances. Embryology of the anomalies of the extrahepatic biliary tree has been also reviewed. PMID:16124069

Krstic, Miodrag; Stimec, Bojan; Krstic, Radmilo; Ugljesic, Milenko; Knezevic, Srbislav; Jovanovic, Ivan

2005-01-01

373

Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein and on plasma calcium  

E-print Network

Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein Josas. Summary. In vitamin D-deficient pigs the amount of intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP. In chicks and rats, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD,) is the major circulating metabolite of vitamin D3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

374

Use of bethanechol and metoclopramide in horses with duodenitis\\/proximal jejunitis: 13 cases (1987–1993)  

Microsoft Academic Search

All horses diagnosed with duodenitis\\/proximal jejunitis (DPJ) at the Texas Veterinary Medican Center between January 1, 1987 and July 1, 1993 were included in a retrospective study to evaluate the therapeutic and prognostic value of bethanechol and metoclopramide as gastrointestinal prokinetic drugs in horses with DPJ treated at our clinic, and to compare the clinical outcome of horses with DPJ

N. D. Cohen; N. A. Faber; G. W. Brumbaugh

1995-01-01

375

Characterization of T9–T10 spinal neurons with duodenal input and modulation by gastric electrical stimulation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has been suggested as a therapy for patients with gastric motility disorders or morbid obesity. However, it is unclear whether GES also affects intestinal sensory and motor functions. Furthermore, little is known about intraspinal visceroreceptive transmission and processing for duodenal afferent information. The aims of this study were to characterize responses of thoracic spinal neurons to

Chao Qin; Jiande D. Z. Chen; Jing Zhang; Robert D. Foreman

2007-01-01

376

The effects of ruminal and duodenal casein infusion on dry matter (DM) intake of red clover silage and rumen pool  

E-print Network

The effects of ruminal and duodenal casein infusion on dry matter (DM) intake of red clover silage) infused continuously into rumen (R), duodenum (D) or both (RD) on forage intake, milk yield, chewing, J Anim Sci, 70, 3528-3540). Ruminal casein infusion tended to increase (P

Boyer, Edmond

377

Influence of duodenal infusions of EPA and DHA on the lipidic milk secretion of the dairy goat  

E-print Network

Influence of duodenal infusions of EPA and DHA on the lipidic milk secretion of the dairy goat C. By considering the time partition of milk fat secretion within a day it appeared that the infusion effect. In conclusion, the infusions of EPA and DHA induced a reversible decrease of milk fat secretion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer Show Same Phylogeographic Origin in the Andean Region in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background A recent report has shown that the phylogenetic origin of Helicobacter pylori based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was significantly associated with the severity of gastritis in Colombia. However, the potential relationship between phylogenetic origin and clinical outcomes was not examined in that study. If the phylogenetic origin rather than virulence factors were truly associated with clinical outcomes, identifying a population at high risk for gastric cancer in Colombia would be relatively straightforward. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic origins of strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients living in Bogota, Colombia. Methods We included 35 gastric cancer patients and 31 duodenal ulcer patients, which are considered the variant outcomes. The genotypes of cagA and vacA were determined by polymerase chain reaction. The genealogy of these Colombian strains was analyzed by MLST. Bacterial population structure was analyzed using STRUCTURE software. Results H. pylori strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients were scattered in the phylogenetic tree; thus, we did not detect any difference in phylogenetic distribution between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer strains in the hpEurope group in Colombia. Sixty-six strains, with one exception, were classified as hpEurope irrespective of the cagA and vacA genotypes, and type of disease. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that Colombian hpEurope strains have a phylogenetic connection to Spanish strains. Conclusions Our study showed that a phylogeographic origin determined by MLST was insufficient for distinguishing between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer risk among hpEurope strains in the Andean region in Colombia. Our analysis also suggests that hpEurope strains in Colombia were primarily introduced by Spanish immigrants. PMID:25121764

Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Matsuo, Yuichi; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Tran, Trang Thu Huyen; Binh, Tran Thanh; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2014-01-01

379

Characterization of the motor inhibitory role of colonic mucosa under chemical stimulation in mice.  

PubMed

The main roles of the colonic mucosa are the absorption of water and electrolytes and the barrier function that preserves the integrity of the colonic wall. The mediators and mechanisms to accomplish these functions are under continuous investigation, but little attention has been paid to a possible control of colonic motility by the mucosa that would fine tune the relationship between absorption and motility. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of the mucosa in the control of induced colonic contractility. Young ICR-CD1 mice (3-5 mo old) were studied. Isometric tension transducers were used to record contractility in full-thickness (FT) and mucosa-free (MF) strips from proximal colon. Proximal FT strips showed lower KCl- and bethanechol-induced responses than MF strips. The difference was not due to mechanical artefacts since the contractile response of FT strips to electrical field stimulation was around 50% lower than in MF. The inhibitory effects of the mucosa on FT strips were mimicked by immersion of separate strips of mucosa in the organ bath but not by addition of mucosal extract, suggesting gaseous molecules as mediators of this effect. Incubation of MF strips with synthase inhibitors of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide abolished the inhibition caused by addition of the mucosal strip, indicating that mucosal gasotransmitters are the mediators of these effects. This suggests that the control of colonic motility exerted by the mucosa could fine tune the balance between transit and absorption. PMID:24525019

Martín-Cano, Francisco E; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J

2014-04-01

380

Helicobacter pylori Genetic Diversity and Gastro-duodenal Diseases in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection results in diverse clinical conditions ranging from chronic gastritis and ulceration to gastric adenocarcinoma. Among the multiethnic population of Malaysia, Indians consistently have a higher H. pylori prevalence as compared with Chinese and Malays. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori, Indians have a relatively low incidence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. In contrast, gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease incidence is high in Chinese. H. pylori strains from Chinese strains predominantly belong to the hspEAsia subpopulation while Indian/Malay strains mainly belong to the hspIndia subpopulation. By comparing the genome of 27 Asian strains from different subpopulations, we identified six genes associated with risk of H. pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This study serves as an important foundation for future studies aiming to understand the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori-induced gastro-duodenal diseases. PMID:25503415

Gunaletchumy, Selva Perumal; Seevasant, Indran; Tan, Mun Hua; Croft, Laurence J; Mitchell, Hazel M; Goh, Khean Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna

2014-01-01

381

Transcatheter Coil Embolization of an Aneurysm of the Pancreatico-duodenal Artery with Occluded Celiac Trunk  

SciTech Connect

We report on a case of a wide-necked aneurysm of the pancreatico-duodenal artery with occlusion of the celiac trunk in an asymptomatic patient. The aneurysm was considered to be at high risk of rupture. Successful embolization after interdisciplinary consultation was followed with color-coded duplex ultrasound (CCDS) demonstrating significant flow reduction. Three weeks later CCDS and angiography demonstrated exclusion of the aneurysm and a patent arterial supply of the liver and spleen fed by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) collaterals. The patient has done well so far, without major adverse clinical events or evidence for tissue necrosis of the liver, pancreas or spleen. Discussion of the case and review of the literature indicate that transcatheter embolization is the therapy of choice even in complicated cases.

Weber, C.H., E-mail: Christof.Weber@med.uni-muenchen.de; Pfeifer, K.J. [LMU Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology (Germany); Tato, F. [LMU Munich, Clinic of Internal Medicine (Germany); Reiser, M.; Rieger, J. [LMU Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology (Germany)

2005-04-15

382

Endoscopic and interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy to control duodenal and periampullary carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duodenal and periampullary cancer present with jaundice, bleeding and obstruction. Many patients are unsuitable for radical surgery. Endoscopic palliation of jaundice can be achieved using endoscopic sphincterotomy or stent insertion. However, the problems of bleeding and obstruction can be difficult to manage. Ten patients were treated using superficial Nd:YAG laser ablation and lower power interstitial laser therapy. After initial outpatient endoscopic therapy, treatment was repeated at 4 monthly intervals to prevent recurrent symptoms. Bleeding was controlled in all patients and only one patient developed obstructive symptoms between treatment sessions. This responded to further endoscopic laser therapy. The median survival was 21 months. Laser treated patients were compared with a historical series of 22 patients treated with endoscopic sphincterotomy or stent insertion. The complication rate was less in patients treated with the laser.

Barr, Hugh; Fowler, Aiden L.

1996-12-01

383

Mechanistic Comparison between Gastric Bypass vs. Duodenal Switch with Sleeve Gastrectomy in Rat Models  

PubMed Central

Background Both gastric bypass (GB) and duodenal switch with sleeve gastrectomy (DS) have been widely used as bariatric surgeries, and DS appears to be superior to GB. The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms leading to body weight loss by comparing these two procedures in experimental models of rats. Methods Animals were subjected to GB, DS or laparotomy (controls), and monitored by an open-circuit indirect calorimeter composed of comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system and adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Results Body weight loss was greater after DS than GB. Food intake was reduced after DS but not GB. Energy expenditure was increased after either GB or DS. Fecal energy content was increased after DS but not GB. Conclusion GB induced body weight loss by increasing energy expenditure, whereas DS induced greater body weight loss by reducing food intake, increasing energy expenditure and causing malabsorption in rat models. PMID:24039816

Kodama, Yosuke; Johannessen, Helene; Furnes, Marianne W.; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Johnsen, Gjermund; Mårvik, Ronald; Kulseng, Bård; Chen, Duan

2013-01-01

384

Early effect of low-dose endotoxin on rat cecal mucosa ex vivo.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that endotoxin triggers translocation of intestinal bacteria in vivo, either by directly damaging intestinal mucosa or by inducing a systemic inflammatory reaction that leads to mucosal disruption. To address this issue, we examined the immediate effect of extraluminal endotoxin on structure and function of isolated rat cecal mucosa without other inflammatory cells in vitro. The cecal mucosa of 12 male Wistar rats was mounted in modified Ussing chambers filled with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and the ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli HB101:K12 incubated on the mucosal side. Endotoxin was added to the submucosal side at concentrations of 1 and 10 EU/ml, respectively. Under gassing with carbogene at 37 degreesC, the potential difference across the mucosa was measured continuously. Samples of the mucosal and submucosal solutions were removed at 60, 120, and 180 min and plated out on McConkey ampicillin-agar. After 180 min, the mucosal specimens were retrieved and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. No significant change in potential difference was observed in control or endotoxin-incubated mucosa within the observation period. Neither light nor scanning electron microscopy showed a significant change in the structure of the epithelium, mucosa, or submucosa. No significant translocation of the E. coli across the mucosa was seen. We concluded that endotoxin alone does not induce immediate structural and functional damage to rat cecal mucosa in vitro. Therefore, it seems unlikely that a short endotoxemia alone directly triggers bacterial translocation by disrupting intestinal mucosa, but rather, entotoxin induces a local and systemic inflammatory reaction that leads to mucosal disruption. PMID:9878322

Mayer, J M; Dolch, M; Rozdzinski, E; Schoenberg, M H; Beger, H G

1998-12-01

385

Limited smoothelin expression within the muscularis mucosae: validation in bladder diverticula.  

PubMed

Smoothelin, a marker of differentiated smooth muscle, is diffusely expressed by bladder muscularis propria and is negative to only weakly and focally expressed in muscularis mucosae. We used bladder diverticula, which lack muscularis propria and frequently demonstrate hyperplastic muscularis mucosae, to evaluate the use of smoothelin immunoreactivity in diagnostic pathology. Diverticula from 40 patients (21 with benign features, 19 with neoplastic features) were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using smoothelin antibody (clone R4A, 1:150 dilution; Abcam, Cambridge, MA); and tissue was scored as 0 (no expression), 1+ (moderate expression b10% of cells), 2+ expression (moderate expression N10% of cells), and 3+ (robust diffuse expression). All diverticula contained muscularis mucosae of varying caliber; staining in diverticular muscularis mucosae was compared with historic results in the muscularis mucosae of cystectomy specimens. Hyperplastic muscularis mucosae occurred in 31 (78%) of 40 cases. Smoothelin immunoreactivity in the diverticular muscularis mucosae included 0 (16/40, or 40%); 1+ (11/40, or 27.5%); 2+ (13/40, or 32.5%); and 3+ (0/40, or 0%), with a slightly higher 2+ expression level in hyperplastic versus nonhyperplastic muscularis mucosae (35% versus 22%). Adjacent normal muscularis propria, present in 12 specimens, demonstrated 3+ muscularis propria immunoreactivity. Comparison between diverticula with benign and neoplastic features showed no significant difference in smoothelin immunoreactivity. No correlation was evident with smoothelin immunohistochemistry and muscle caliber. Smoothelin immunoreactivity in bladder diverticula confirms the limited nature of smoothelin expression in the muscularis mucosae and represents a useful ancillary technique in the proper histopathologic evaluation of diverticular and nondiverticular bladder carcinomas. A strong and robust staining of smooth, rounded muscle with smoothelin remains a useful diagnostic adjunct in the reliable recognition of muscularis propria. PMID:21683983

Hansel, Donna E; Paner, Gladell P; Nese, Nalan; Amin, Mahul B

2011-11-01

386

Regulatory mechanism of duodenal bicarbonate secretion: Roles of endogenous prostaglandins and nitric oxide.  

PubMed

The secretion of HCO(3)(-) in the duodenum is increased by exogenous prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and mucosal acidification, the latter being accompanied by a rise in mucosal PGE(2) content and nitric oxide (NO) release. The stimulatory effect of PGE(2) is mediated intracellularly by both Ca(2+) and 3',5'-adenosine cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and this action is inhibited by EP3 and EP4 antagonists. The secretion is also increased by NOR3 (NO donor), and this response is mimicked by dibutyryl 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (dbcGMP) and attenuated by indomethacin. Mucosal acidification stimulates HCO(3)(-) secretion with concomitant increases in mucosal PGE(2) production and NO release. The effects on HCO(3)(-) secretion and PGE(2) production are inhibited by indomethacin [nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor] and SC-560 (selective COX-1 inhibitor) but not rofecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor). N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester [l-NAME: nonselective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor], but not aminoguanidine [selective inducible NOS inhibitor], attenuates the acid-induced HCO(3)(-) secretion and NO release in an l-arginine-sensitive manner. In addition, the response to PGE(2) is potentiated by vinpocetine [phosphodiesterase (PDE) 1 inhibitor] and cilostamide (PDE3 inhibitor), while the response to NOR3 is increased by vinpocetine. We conclude that endogenous PGs and NO are both involved in the local regulation of acid-induced duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion; COX-1 and constitutive NOS are key enzymes responsible for the production of PGs and NO, respectively; NO stimulates HCO(3)(-) secretion by increasing PG production; PGE(2) stimulates HCO(3)(-) secretion via activation of EP3/EP4 receptors; and both PDE1 and PDE3 are involved in the regulation of duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion. PMID:21185865

Takeuchi, Koji; Kita, Kazutomo; Hayashi, Shusaku; Aihara, Eitaro

2011-04-01

387

Optimal treatment for duodenal ulcer disease: a cost-decision analysis in Malaysian patients.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the cost-efficiency of different duodenal ulcer disease treatment practices in Malaysia. Six Malaysian gastroenterologists met to discuss the direct costs related to Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication treatment. Five treatment strategies were compared: (i) histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA), acid suppression therapy for 6 weeks followed by maintenance therapy as needed; (ii) bismuth triple + proton pump inhibitor (PPI), bismuth (120 mg, q.i.d.), metronidazole (400 mg; t.i.d.), tetracycline (500 mg, q.i.d.) for 7 days and PPI, b.i.d., for 7 days; (iii) OAC, omeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.), amoxycillin (1000 mg, b.i.d.) and clarithromycin (500 mg, b.i.d.) for 7 days; (iv) OMC, omeprazole (20mg, b.i.d.), metronidazole (400mg, b.i.d.) and clarithromycin (500 mg, b.i.d.) for 7 days; and (v) OAM, omeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.), amoxycillin (1000 mg, b.i.d.) and metronidazole (400 mg, b.i.d.) for 7 days. A decision tree model was created to determine which therapy would be the most cost-effective. The model considered eradication rates, resistance to anti-microbial agents, compliance and cost implications of treatment regimens, physician visits and ulcer recurrences during a 1 year time period assumption. The H2RA maintenance therapy was the most expensive treatment at Malaysian Ringgit (MR) 2335, followed by bismuth triple therapy (MR 1839), OMC (MR 1786), OAM (MR 1775) and OAC, being the most cost-effective therapy, at MR 1679. In conclusion, HP eradication therapy is superior to H2RA maintenance therapy in the treatment of duodenal ulcer disease. Of the HP eradication regimens, OAC is the most cost-effective. PMID:10029275

Goh, K L; Cutler, A; Chua, A B; Ding, R P; Kandasami, P; Mazlam, M Z; Raj, S M

1999-01-01

388

Cell reconstruction of the rectal mucosa in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: endoscopy, morphology, immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

We propose a new surgical approach to the treatment of familial colorectal adenomatous polyposis implying preservation of a portion of the rectum with removed mucosa. For reconstruction of the rectum, allotransplantation of the mixed culture of fetal allogenic somatic cells of the intestinal epithelium and mesenchymal cells of various origin is used. The mechanisms of mucosa reparation were studied in 34 patients. Endoscopic, morphological, and immunohistochemical studies showed that cell transplantation considerably accelerated reparation of the mucosa in mucosectomized rectum. The proposed treatment of familial colorectal adenomatous polyposis allows delaying the development of rectal polyps and cancer for many years. PMID:25257440

Kogan, E A; Vyshegorodtsev, D V; Faizullina, N M; Demura, T A; Kuz'minov, A M; Shelygin, Yu A; Sukhikh, G T

2014-09-01

389

Wagner-Meissner-like corpuscles in gastric mucosa: a brief report.  

PubMed

Wagner-Meissner corpuscles are touch receptors that are located in dermal papillae and are usually absent in gastrointestinal mucosa. Wagner-Meissner-like corpuscles have been reported in association with benign neural neoplasm. A case of Wagner-Meissner-like corpuscles in endoscopically normal gastric mucosa biopsy of a 48-year-old woman is presented here. The corpuscles were positive for S-100 and clinical evidence of neurofibromatosis was negative. From a review of the literature, only 2 cases of tactile corpuscle-like structures in gastric mucosa are available. PMID:24583834

Reale, Domenico; Ballotta, Maria R; Borghi, Laura; Lisato, Laura C; Rasi, Annalisa; Menegatti, Maria T

2014-09-01

390

Duodenal Tumor Presenting as Acquired Hemophilia in an 88-Year-Old Woman: A Clinical Case and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Acquired hemophilia is a rare disease, presenting with severe hemorrhage, we present a case caused by a duodenal tumor, the clinical management, ethical implications, treatment recommendations, and a review of the literature. PMID:22966469

Murray, Nigel P.; Moncada, Juan Carlos; Moran, Marcelo

2012-01-01

391

Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy  

PubMed Central

Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up.

Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

2014-01-01

392

[Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the larynx].  

PubMed

A 63-year-old female suffering from hepatitis C virus infection and manic depression was admitted with a 4-month history of hoarseness. Endoscopic examination revealed the presence of a neoplasm with a smooth surface in the left supraglottic region extending to the left false vocal cord. Based on the histological findings, together with the results of systemic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as having a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in clinical stage IE, according to the Ann Arbor classification. After one month of follow-up, the patient presented with involvement of multiple subcutaneous regions in the left neck area, etc. Biopsies revealed the same type of lymphoma as that in the supraglottis. The disease was considered to have progressed to clinical stage IV. Six courses of R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone) treatment resulted in complete remission of all lesions. Primary MALT lymphoma in the larynx is extremely rare. Since the first description by Diebold et al in 1990, only 43 cases have been reported. Among these reported cases, only 7 (16%) with progressive stages were described. The R-CVP regimen appears to be effective for the treatment of progressive primary MALT lymphoma of the larynx. Furthermore, hepatitis C virus infection is thought to be closely associated with the aggressive malignant process and subcutaneous dissemination. PMID:24681938

Hua, Jian; Iwaki, Yasunobu; Inoue, Morihiro; Takiguchi, Yoichiro; Ota, Yasunori; Hagihara, Masao

2014-03-01

393

Vibrio cholerae Represses Polysaccharide Synthesis To Promote Motility in Mucosa.  

PubMed

The viscoelastic mucus layer of gastrointestinal tracts is a host defense barrier that a successful enteric pathogen, such as Vibrio cholerae, must circumvent. V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is able to penetrate the mucosa and colonize the epithelial surface of the small intestine. In this study, we found that mucin, the major component of mucus, promoted V. cholerae movement on semisolid medium and in liquid medium. A genome-wide screen revealed that Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) production was inversely correlated with mucin-enhanced motility. Mucin adhesion assays indicated that VPS bound to mucin. Moreover, we found that vps expression was reduced upon exposure to mucin. In an infant mouse colonization model, mutants that overexpressed VPS colonized less effectively than wild-type strains in more distal intestinal regions. These results suggest that V. cholerae is able to sense mucosal signals and modulate vps expression accordingly so as to promote fast motion in mucus, thus allowing for rapid spread throughout the intestines. PMID:25561707

Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuning; Liu, Shengyan; Sheng, Ying; Rueggeberg, Karl-Gustav; Wang, Hui; Li, Jie; Gu, Frank X; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao; Zhu, Jun

2015-03-01

394

Do Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement Collaborate in the Intestinal Mucosa?  

PubMed Central

It is well understood that multiple antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are constitutively deployed by the epithelium to bolster the innate defenses along the entire length of the intestines. In addition to this constitutive/homeostatic production, AMPs may be inducible and levels changed during disease. In contrast to this level of knowledge on AMP sources and roles in the intestines, our understanding of the complement cascade in the healthy and diseased intestines is rudimentary. Epithelial cells make many complement proteins and there is compelling evidence that complement becomes activated in the lumen. With the common goal of defending the host against microbes, the opportunities for cross-talk between these two processes is great, both in terms of actions on the target microbes but also on regulating the synthesis and secretion of the alternate family of molecules. This possibility is beginning to become apparent with the finding that colonic epithelial cells possess anaphylatoxin receptors. There still remains much to be learned about the possible points of collaboration between AMPs and complement, for example, whether there is reciprocal control over expression in the intestinal mucosa in homeostasis and restoring the balance following infection and inflammation. PMID:25688244

Kopp, Zoë A.; Jain, Umang; Van Limbergen, Johan; Stadnyk, Andrew W.

2015-01-01

395

Surveillance of the gastrointestinal mucosa by sensory neurons.  

PubMed

A dense network of extrinsic and intrinsic sensory neurons supplies the gastrointestinal tract. Intrinsic sensory neurons provide the enteric nervous system with the kind of information that this brain of the gut requires for its autonomic control of digestion, whereas extrinsic afferents notify the brain about processes that are relevant to energy and fluid homeostasis and the sensation of discomfort and pain. The sensory repertoire of afferent neurons is extended by their responsiveness to mediators released from enteroendocrine and immune cells, which act like "taste buds" of the gut and serve as interface between the gastrointestinal lumen and the sensory nerve terminals in the lamina propria of the mucosa. Functional bowel disorders such as non-ulcer dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome are characterized by abdominal discomfort or pain in the absence of an identifiable organic cause. It is hypothesized with good reason that infection, inflammation or trauma causes sensory pathways to undergo profound phenotypic and functional alterations that outlast the acute insult. The pertinent changes involve an exaggerated sensitivity of the peripheral afferent nerve fibres as well as a distorted processing and representation of the incoming information in the brain. This concept identifies a number of receptors and ion channels that are selectively expressed by primary afferent neurons as important molecular targets at which to aim novel therapies for functional bowel disorders. PMID:11787755

Holzer, P; Michl, T; Danzer, M; Jocic, M; Schicho, R; Lippe, I T

2001-12-01

396

Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

2014-12-01

397

Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy.  

PubMed

Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

2014-12-28

398

Defective Expression of Scavenger Receptors in Celiac Disease Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten sensitive enteropathy characterized by a marked infiltration of the mucosa with immune cells, over-production of inflammatory cytokines and epithelial cell damage. The factors/mechanisms that sustain and amplify the ongoing mucosal inflammation in CD are not however fully understood. Here, we have examined whether in CD there is a defective clearance of apoptotic cells/bodies, a phenomenon that helps promote tolerogenic signals thus liming pathogenic responses. Accumulation of apoptotic cells and bodies was more pronounced in the epithelial and lamina propria compartments of active CD patients as compared to inactive CD patients and normal controls. Expression of scavenger receptors, which are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells/bodies, namely thrombospondin (TSP)-1, CD36 and CD61, was significantly reduced in active CD as compared to inactive CD and normal mucosal samples. Consistently, lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) of active CD patients had diminished ability to phagocyte apoptotic cells. Interleukin (IL)-15, IL-21 and interferon-?, cytokines over-produced in active CD, inhibited the expression of TSP-1, CD36, and CD61 in normal intestinal LPMC. These results indicate that CD-related inflammation is marked by diminished clearance of apoptotic cells/bodies, thus suggesting a role for such a defect in the ongoing mucosal inflammation in this disorder. PMID:24971453

Cupi, Maria Laura; Sarra, Massimiliano; De Nitto, Daniela; Franzè, Eleonora; Marafini, Irene; Monteleone, Ivan; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Paoluzi, Omero Alessandro; Di Fusco, Davide; Gentileschi, Paolo; Ortenzi, Angela; Colantoni, Alfredo; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

2014-01-01

399

Amylolytic activity in fish intestinal mucosa: temperature effects.  

PubMed

The activity, temperature characteristics and energy of activation of amylolytic enzymes in the intestinal mucosa were studied in six species of fish living in a boreal zone [burbot (Lota lota L.), northern pike (Exos lucius L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), bream (Abramis brama L.), roach (Rutilis rutilis L.), and carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)] and in three species from tropical and subtropical areas [pilchard (Sardina pilchardus W.), jack mackerel (Trachurus trecae C.) and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita V.)]. The amylolytic activity correlated with the feeding habits: it was essentially lower in predators. The enzyme activity at low temperature, relative to the maximal activity, was correlated with the natural environmental temperature where the species lived. At low temperature the relative activity was higher in boreal fish than in tropical and subtropical fish. We found a breakpoint in the Arrhenius plots in all fish species, except for jack mackerel. The energy of activation in predators decreased below the breakpoint in the low-temperature region. The energy of activation in benthophages of the Aral-Ponto-Caspian area was lower at higher temperatures above the breakpoint. A reduction in activation energy in the range of physiological temperatures might indicate adaptation to the environmental temperature. PMID:12628384

Kuz'mina, V; Glatman, L; Drabkin, V; Gelman, A

2003-03-01

400

Sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenoma/carcinoma is associated with not only colon adenoma/carcinoma but also gastric cancer: association of location of duodenal lesions with comorbid diseases.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. It is well known that in patients with sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenoma/carcinoma (SNADA) with no polyposis syndrome, including familial adenomataous polyposis, the rates of colorectal adenoma/carcinoma are high. However, the prevalence rates of other tumor types, for example, gastric cancer, in SNADA patients remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to analyze the prevalence rate of comorbid diseases in SNADA patients. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 78 patients with SNADA treated by endoscopic resection between May 2005 and September 2014 at our institution. Results. Overall, 51 of the 78 (65.4%) SNADA patients had comorbid colorectal adenoma/carcinoma. Further, 10 of the 78 (12.8%) SNADA patients had comorbid gastric cancer, and all of them were positive for Helicobacter pylori infection. SNADA lesions were located significantly more frequently at the oral side of the major papilla in patients with H. pylori infection than in those without H. pylori infection (27 of 36 [75.0%] vs. 19 of 42 [45.2%], p = 0.008, chi-square test). In contrast, SNADA lesions were located significantly more frequently at the anal side of the major papilla in patients with colorectal adenoma/carcinoma than in those without colorectal adenoma/carcinoma (27 of 51 [52.9%] vs. 5 of 27 [18.5%], p = 0.003, chi-square test). Conclusion. SNADA patients showed comorbidity with not only colorectal adenoma/carcinoma but also gastric cancer. H. pylori infection is known to cause gastric cancer and may influence tumorigenesis of SNADA lesions at the oral side of the major papilla. PMID:25582657

Maruoka, Daisuke; Arai, Makoto; Ishigami, Hideaki; Okimoto, Kenichiro; Saito, Keiko; Minemura, Shoko; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Yokosuka, Osamu

2015-03-01

401

Effects of anticancer drug docetaxel on the structure and function of the rabbit olfactory mucosa.  

PubMed

Docetaxel (DCT) is an anticancer drug which acts by disrupting microtubule dynamics in the highly mitotic cancer cells. Thus, this drug has a potential to affect function and organization of tissues exhibiting high cellular turnover. We investigated, in the rabbit, the effects of a single human equivalent dose (6.26 mg/kg, i.v.) of DCT on the olfactory mucosa (OM) through light and electron microscopy, morphometry, Ki-67 immunostaining, TUNEL assay and the buried food test for olfactory sensitivity. On post-exposure days (PED) 5 and 10, there was disarrangement of the normal cell layering in the olfactory epithelium (OE), apoptotic death of cells of the OE, Bowman's glands and axon bundles, and the presence (including on PED 3) of blood vessels in the bundle cores. A decrease in bundle diameters, olfactory cell densities and cilia numbers, which was most significant on PED 10 (49.3%, 63.4% and 50%, respectively), was also evident. Surprisingly by PED 15, the OM regained normal morphology. Furthermore, olfactory sensitivity decreased progressively until PED 10 when olfaction was markedly impaired, and with recovery from the impairment by PED 15. These observations show that DCT transiently alters the structure and function of the OM suggesting a high regenerative potential for this tissue. PMID:24846480

Kavoi, Boniface M; Plendl, Johanna; Makanya, Andrew N; Ochieng', Shem; Kiama, Stephen G

2014-06-01

402

Is keratinized mucosa indispensable to maintain peri-implant health? A systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

The significance of keratinized mucosa (KM) around dental implants is still not well explained and has been controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the importance of KM around dental implants. The electronic databases Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Virtual Health Library (VHL) databases were utilized to search original articles from 2006 to March 2013. The inclusion and exclusion criteria used to select the articles were: (1) Human studies published in the English language; (2) Study published in international peer-viewed journals; (3) Studies evaluated the association between KM width and the peri-implant tissue health; (4) Studies that have follow up of greater than 12 months; (5) Publication of studies not older than 10 years. The searches retrieved 285 citations. Seven articles fulfilled all of the inclusion criteria. Out of these, three studies were ranked as presenting high methodological quality, and four were judged to be of moderate quality. This systematic review concludes that the presence of an adequate zone of keratinized tissue may be necessary because it was shown to be related to better peri-implant tissue health. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to support this statement. PMID:24124021

Brito, Carlos; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Wong, Benjamin K C; Schmitt, Christian; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio

2014-04-01

403

Polyclonal Mucosa-Associated Invariant T Cells Have Unique Innate Functions in Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a unique population of ?? T cells in mammals that reside preferentially in mucosal tissues and express an invariant V? paired with limited V? T-cell receptor (TCR) chains. Furthermore, MAIT cell development is dependent upon the expression of the evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib molecule MR1. Using in vitro assays, recent studies have shown that mouse and human MAIT cells are activated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) infected with diverse microbes, including numerous bacterial strains and yeasts, but not viral pathogens. However, whether MAIT cells play an important, and perhaps unique, role in controlling microbial infection has remained unclear. To probe MAIT cell function, we show here that purified polyclonal MAIT cells potently inhibit intracellular bacterial growth of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in macrophages (M?) in coculture assays, and this inhibitory activity was dependent upon MAIT cell selection by MR1, secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-?), and an innate interleukin 12 (IL-12) signal from infected M?. Surprisingly, however, the cognate recognition of MR1 by MAIT cells on the infected M? was found to play only a minor role in MAIT cell effector function. We also report that MAIT cell-deficient mice had higher bacterial loads at early times after infection compared to wild-type (WT) mice, demonstrating that MAIT cells play a unique role among innate lymphocytes in protective immunity against bacterial infection. PMID:22778103

Chua, Wei-Jen; Truscott, Steven M.; Eickhoff, Christopher S.; Blazevic, Azra

2012-01-01

404

Dosimetric Predictors of Duodenal Toxicity After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Treatment of the Para-aortic Nodes in Gynecologic Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the incidence of duodenal toxicity in patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for treatment of para-aortic nodes and to identify dosimetric parameters predictive of late duodenal toxicity. Methods and Materials: We identified 105 eligible patients with gynecologic malignancies who were treated with IMRT for gross metastatic disease in the para-aortic nodes from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009. Patients were treated to a nodal clinical target volume to 45 to 50.4 Gy with a boost to 60 to 66 Gy. The duodenum was contoured, and dosimetric data were exported for analysis. Duodenal toxicity was scored according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis and recursive partitioning analysis were used to determine associations between dosimetric variables and time to toxicity and to identify the optimal threshold that separated patients according to risk of toxicity. Results: Nine of the 105 patients experienced grade 2 to grade 5 duodenal toxicity, confirmed by endoscopy in all cases. The 3-year actuarial rate of any duodenal toxicity was 11.7%. A larger volume of the duodenum receiving 55 Gy (V55) was associated with higher rates of duodenal toxicity. The 3-year actuarial rates of duodenal toxicity with V55 above and below 15 cm{sup 3} were 48.6% and 7.4%, respectively (P<.01). In Cox univariate analysis of dosimetric variables, V55 was associated with duodenal toxicity (P=.029). In recursive partitioning analysis, V55 less than 13.94% segregated all patients with duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT can safely and effectively treat para-aortic nodal disease in gynecologic malignancies, provided that care is taken to limit the dose to the duodenum to reduce the risk of late duodenal toxicity. Limiting V55 to below 15 cm{sup 3} may reduce the risk of duodenal complications. In cases where the treatment cannot be delivered within these constraints, consideration should be given to other treatment approaches such as resection or initial chemotherapy.

Verma, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Sulman, Erik P.; Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rauch, Gaiane M. [Department of Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eifel, Patricia J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Klopp, Ann H., E-mail: aklopp@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2014-02-01

405

Reduced absorption of 45 calcium from isolated duodenal segments in vitro in juvenile but not adult X-linked hypophosphatemic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In juvenile X-linked hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mice, whole body calcium balances are significantly lower than in genetically normal mice. This is associated with low duodenal\\u000a vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein and a failure of skeletal mineralization. To seek more specific evidence of an\\u000a intestinal defect in these mice, absorption of45Ca was measured in isolated duodenal segmentsin vivo in mice from 2–13 weeks

Ralph A. Meyer; Martha H. Meyer; Pamela R. Erickson; Adel B. Korkor

1986-01-01

406

Rabeprazole in Treatment of Acid Peptic Diseases (Results of Three Placebo-Controlled Dose-Response Clinical Trials in Duodenal Ulcer, Gastric Ulcer, and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabeprazole, a new proton pump inhibitor, wasstudied in patients with acid-pepticrelated diseases(duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, GERD) in threeplacebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinicaltrials. Men and women over the age of 18 were enrolledif the presence of an active duodenal or gastric ulceror erosive or ulcerative esophagitis was confirmed onupper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients were randomly allocated to either placebo orrabeprazole 20 mg or

M. L. Cloud; N. Enas; T. J. Humphries; S. Bassion

1998-01-01

407

Evaluation of oral mucosa collagen condition with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

The goal of the research was analysis of the effect of collagen condition in formation of cross-polarized CP OCT images. We used of the CP OCT technique for studying collagen condition on an example of oral mucosa. Special histologic picrosirius red (PSR) staining of cheek mucosa specimens was used with subsequent assessing of the result of collagen staining in polarized light. High correlation (r = 0.692, p = 0.0001) between OCT signal standard deviation (SD) in cross-polarized images and brightness of PSR stained collagen fibers in cheek mucosa specimens was demonstrated in patients with inflammatory intestine and oral mucosa diseases. We have found that the OCT signal SD in cross-polarized images reflects two boundary conditions of collagen disorganization, namely, loss of fiber properties at active inflammation which attenuates the signal and fibrosis that occurs due to synthesis of a new remodeled collagen which amplifies the OCT signal. PMID:22764058

Gladkova, Natalia; Kiseleva, Elena; Robakidze, Natalia; Balalaeva, Irina; Karabut, Maria; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Feldchtein, Felix

2013-04-01

408

HELICOBACTER-LIKE ORGANISMS IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) AND GREY FOXES (UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microscopic examination of gastric mucosa of raccoons (Procyon lotor), porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and black bears (Ursus amaricanus) was done on archival tissue blocks for evidence of Helicobacter-like org...

409

Immunocytochemical localization of pyrazine-binding protein in bovine nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Polyclonal antibodies have been raised against purified bovine pyrazine-binding protein, a protein that binds the odorant 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine. These antibodies have been utilized in immunocytochemical experiments to localize the pyrazine-binding protein in bovine nasal mucosa. Tissue fragments, macroscopically identified as olfactory and respiratory mucosa, were fixed in Bouin's fluid and embedded in paraffin. Consecutive serial sections were processed for immunofluorescence studies and restained either with haematoxylin-eosin or with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. In both olfactory and respiratory mucosa, only seromucous tubulo-acinar glands were specifically labelled. These glands are located in the lamina propria underlying typical respiratory epithelium, even in those tissues that are macroscopically defined as olfactory mucosa. PMID:3545483

Avanzini, F; Bignetti, E; Bordi, C; Carfagna, G; Cavaggioni, A; Ferrari, G; Sorbi, R T; Tirindelli, R

1987-02-01

410

Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier*  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen in clinic with a rapid onset and dangerous pathogenetic condition. AP can cause an injury of intestinal mucosa barrier, leading to translocation of bacteria or endotoxin through multiple routes, bacterial translocation (BT), gutorigin endotoxaemia, and s