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1

Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

1983-01-01

2

Immunohistochemical localisation of urogastrone to human duodenal and submandibular glands.  

PubMed Central

Urogastrone has been localised by immunostaining to granules of the cells of human duodenal (Brunner's) glands and their ducts and of acinar cells in the human submandibular gland. The immunoreactive peptide is present in large quantities in duodenal glands and their secretory ducts. Urogastrone or human epidermal growth factor promotes cellular proliferation in vivo as well as in vitro and inhibits gastric acid secretion and may, therefore, be one of the duodenal factors inhibiting gastric activity. Thus it may have an important regulatory and protective function for the intestinal mucosa and may possibly become a useful therapeutic agent. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Heitz, P U; Kasper, M; van Noorden, S; Polak, J M; Gregory, H; Pearse, A G

1978-01-01

3

Effect of the hexapeptide dalargin on ornithine decarboxylase activity in the duodenal mucosa of rats with experimental duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

The authors study the effect of dalargin on ornithine decarboxylase in homogenates of the duodenal ulcer from rats with experimental duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine. Activity of the enzyme was expressed in pmoles /sup 14/CO/sub 2//mg protein/h. Protein was determined by Lowry's method. The findings indicate that stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase and the antiulcerative effect of dalargin may be due to direct interaction of the peptide with cells of the intestinal mucosa and with enterocytes.

Yarygin, K.N.; Shitin, A.G.; Polonskii, V.M.; Vinogradov, V.A.

1987-08-01

4

Effect of cysteamine on redox-sensitive thiol-containing proteins in the duodenal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrated that Egr-1 is upregulated in the rat duodenal mucosa during cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration and that antisense egr-1 oligonucleotide aggravates the duodenal ulcers. This study was aimed to determine the effects of cysteamine on redox-sensitive Egr-1 transcriptional activity and on other thiol-containing proteins such as redox factor-1 (Ref-1) and thioredoxin (Trx). Here we demonstrate for

Tetyana Khomenko; Xiaoming Deng; Martin R Jadus; Sandor Szabo

2003-01-01

5

Enteropathy of coeliac disease in adults: increased number of enterochromaffin cells the duodenal mucosa.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine adult patients with coeliac disease and 39 patients with a normal duodenal morphology were studied with respect to the 5-ht containing enterochromaffin cells. Their number in duodenal biopsies was assessed by fluorescence histochemistry and they were examined by immunohistochemistry for peptides known or believed to occur in enterochromaffin cells. Antisera used were raised against substance P, motilin, and leu-enkephalin. In addition, the concentration of 5-HT was determined chemically. In adult coeliac disease there was a significant increase in the number of duodenal enterochromaffin cells compared with the control group. The concentration of 5-HT in the duodenal mucosa was also greatly increased. Substance P was found in a minority population of enterochromaffin cells. These cells were very few and did not increase in number in coeliac disease. Motilin cells were distinct from enterochromaffin cells. No enkephalin immunoreactive cells were found in the biopsies. PMID:7056495

Sjölund, K; Alumets, J; Berg, N O; Håkanson, R; Sundler, F

1982-01-01

6

CD4(+) T Cell Cytokine Gene and Protein Expression in Duodenal Mucosa of Dogs with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal signs in dogs. In humans, T helper cells have important roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. In contrast, no specific involvement of a distinct T cell subset has been described in canine IBD. The present study evaluated the gene and protein expression of cytokines of T cell subsets in duodenal mucosa from dogs with IBD. Relative quantification of interleukin (IL)-17A, interferon (IFN)-?, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA transcription was performed using duodenal mucosa from 27 IBD dogs and 8 controls. Duodenal mucosal IL-17A, IFN-? and IL-10 protein levels were determined by ELISA in 15 IBD dogs and 8 controls. There was no significant difference in each cytokines mRNA transcription level between groups. There was no significant difference in IL-17A, IFN-? and IL-10 protein expression levels between groups. Thus, there is no clear evidence for the involvement of distinct Th cytokine in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. PMID:24270804

Ohta, Hiroshi; Takada, Kanae; Sunden, Yuji; Tamura, Yu; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Lim, Sue Yee; Murakami, Masahiro; Sasaki, Noboru; Wickramasekara Rajapakshage, Bandula Kumara; Nakamura, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

2014-04-01

7

CD4+ T Cell Cytokine Gene and Protein Expression in Duodenal Mucosa of Dogs with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal signs in dogs. In humans, T helper cells have important roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. In contrast, no specific involvement of a distinct T cell subset has been described in canine IBD. The present study evaluated the gene and protein expression of cytokines of T cell subsets in duodenal mucosa from dogs with IBD. Relative quantification of interleukin (IL)-17A, interferon (IFN)-?, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA transcription was performed using duodenal mucosa from 27 IBD dogs and 8 controls. Duodenal mucosal IL-17A, IFN-? and IL-10 protein levels were determined by ELISA in 15 IBD dogs and 8 controls. There was no significant difference in each cytokines mRNA transcription level between groups. There was no significant difference in IL-17A, IFN-? and IL-10 protein expression levels between groups. Thus, there is no clear evidence for the involvement of distinct Th cytokine in the pathogenesis of canine IBD.

OHTA, Hiroshi; TAKADA, Kanae; SUNDEN, Yuji; TAMURA, Yu; OSUGA, Tatsuyuki; LIM, Sue Yee; MURAKAMI, Masahiro; SASAKI, Noboru; WICKRAMASEKARA RAJAPAKSHAGE, Bandula Kumara; NAKAMURA, Kensuke; YAMASAKI, Masahiro; TAKIGUCHI, Mitsuyoshi

2013-01-01

8

Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission.

Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

9

Increased tissue concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the duodenal mucosa of patients with coeliac disease.  

PubMed

Tissue concentrations of 5-HT have been measured in the duodenal mucosa of adults and children with coeliac disease and were found to be significantly higher than those from a control group. This finding may be associated with hyperactivity or hyperplasia of enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the duodenum of patients with coeliac disease and could also be directly related to described abnormalities of 5-HT metabolism in this disease. PMID:590848

Challacombe, D N; Dawkins, P D; Baker, P

1977-11-01

10

Quantification of enterochromaffin cells with serotonin immunoreactivity in the duodenal mucosa in coeliac disease.  

PubMed

Enterochromaffin cells in the duodenal mucosa were stained by using a monoclonal antibody against serotonin immunoreactive sites and an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A semi-automatic image analysing system showed increased numbers of these cells in patients with untreated coeliac disease compared with a control group. The number of serotonin positive granules in individual enterochromaffin cells also seemed to be increased in patients with coeliac disease, a finding which may be related to the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:6378103

Wheeler, E E; Challacombe, D N

1984-06-01

11

Gliadin and tissue transglutaminase complexes in normal and coeliac duodenal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) seems to be the target self-antigen for endomysial antibodies in coeliac disease (CD) and to catalyse the critical deamidation of gliadin which strengthens its recognition by HLA-restricted gut-derived T cells. To date, it has not been demonstrated whether gliadin is cross-linked to tTG within the gut wall, a phenomenon known to occur in vitro. We therefore investigated the putative presence of tTG and gliadin complexes directly in duodenal mucosa. The immunoprecipitation and Western blotting experiments were performed on mucosal biopsies obtained from untreated, treated CD patients and biopsied controls, by using either anti-tTG or anti-gliadin antibodies, in both denaturating/reducing or nondenaturating/nonreducing conditions. A subset of experiments was performed by using anti-tTG antibodies purified by affinity chromatography from sera of untreated coeliac patients. The localization of tTG and gliadin was studied by immunofluorescence at confocal laser microscopy on seriate sections of diseased and normal duodenal mucosa by using the same antibodies of the coimmunoprecipitation section. The amounts of tTG and gliadin coimmunoprecipitated with anti-tTG monoclonal antibody in untreated CD mucosa were significantly increased compared to those of the other two groups. When performing the experiments in nondenaturating/nonreducing conditions, a high molecular weight band formed by both molecules, was evidenciated. Also the anti-tTG antibodies purified from patients' sera turned out to be able to coimmunoprecipitate the two molecules. The analysis by confocal microscopy showed that tTG colocalizes with gliadin at the epithelial and subepithelial levels in active CD, and only in the lamina propria of the villi in normal mucosa. Our findings firstly demonstrated that gliadin was directly bound to tTG in duodenal mucosa of coeliacs and controls, and the ability of circulating tTG-autoantibodies to recognize and immunoprecipitate the tTG-gliadin complexes.

CICCOCIOPPO, R; DI SABATINO, A; ARA, C; BIAGI, F; PERILLI, M; AMICOSANTE, G; CIFONE, M G; CORAZZA, G R

2003-01-01

12

Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 both play an important role in the protection of the duodenal mucosa in cats.  

PubMed

Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs often cause ulcers in the duodenum in humans, the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcers has not been fully elucidated. We examined in cats the 1) ulcerogenic effects of selective COX-1 (SC-560, ketorolac) and COX-2 (celecoxib, meloxicam) inhibitors on the gastrointestinal mucosa, 2) effect of feeding and cimetidine on the expression of COX isoforms and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) level in the duodenum, and 3) localization of COX isoforms in the duodenum. COX inhibitors were administered after the morning meal in cats once daily for 3 days. Gastrointestinal lesions were examined on day 4. Localization and expression of COX isoforms (by immunohistochemistry, Western blot) and PGE(2) level (by enzyme immunoassay) were examined. Results were as follows. First, selective COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors alone produced marked ulcers in the duodenum but did not cause obvious lesions in the small intestine. Coadministration of SC-560 and celecoxib produced marked lesions in the small intestine. Second, feeding increased both the expression of COX isoforms and PGE(2) level in the duodenum, and the effects were markedly inhibited by pretreatment with cimetidine. Third, COX-1 was localized in goblet and Brunner's gland cells, Meissner's and Auerbach's plexus, smooth muscle cells, and arterioles; and COX-2 was observed in capillaries, venules, and basal granulated cells. The expression of COX isoforms in the duodenum is up-regulated by feeding, and inhibition of either COX-1 or COX-2 causes ulcers in the duodenum, suggesting that both isoforms play an important role in the protection of the duodenal mucosa. PMID:23008503

Satoh, Hiroshi; Amagase, Kikuko; Ebara, Satomi; Akiba, Yasutada; Takeuchi, Koji

2013-01-01

13

Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal

Freddy J Troost; Peter van Baarlen; Patrick Lindsey; Andrea Kodde; Willem M de Vos; Michiel Kleerebezem; Robert-Jan M Brummer

2008-01-01

14

Human Oral Mucosa and Gingiva  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of progenitor cells with self-renewal and multipotent differentiation potential. Aside from their regenerative role, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that MSCs are capable of potent immunomodulatory effects on a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells. In this article, we will review recent experimental studies on the characterization of a unique population of MSCs derived from human oral mucosa and gingiva, especially their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions and their application in the treatment of several in vivo models of inflammatory diseases. The ease of isolation, accessible tissue source, and rapid ex vivo expansion, with maintenance of stable stem-cell-like phenotypes, render oral mucosa- and gingiva-derived MSCs a promising alternative cell source for MSC-based therapies.

Zhang, Q.Z.; Nguyen, A.L.; Yu, W.H.; Le, A.D.

2012-01-01

15

Impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on CD4+ T-cell Repopulation in Duodenal and Rectal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to assess the effects of HAART initiation on CD4+ T-cell repopulation and T-cell immune activation in rectal and duodenal mucosa. Design The effects of HAART on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remain controversial, and studies have reached different conclusions regarding its effectiveness at restoring mucosal CD4+ T-cells depending upon time of initiation, duration of treatment, and GI tract region studied. Methods We obtained blood, rectal biopsies, and duodenal biopsies from fourteen chronically infected individuals at baseline and at four to nine months post HAART initiation. We examined CD4+ T-cell frequencies in blood, rectum and duodenum at both time points, and performed a detailed assessment of CD4+ T-cell phenotype, immune activation marker expression, and HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in blood and rectal mucosa. Results CD4+ T-cell percentages increased significantly in blood, rectal, and duodenal mucosa after four to nine months of HAART (p = 0.02, 0.0005, 0.0002), but remained lower than in uninfected controls. HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in blood and rectal mucosa declined following HAART initiation (p=0.0015, 0.021). CD8+ T-cell coexpression of CD38 and HLA-DR in blood and mucosa, as well as plasma sCD14, declined significantly. CD28 expression on blood and mucosal CD8+ T-cells increased, while PD-1 expression on blood HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells decreased. Conclusions Within the first months of HAART, limited CD4+ T-cell reconstitution occurs in small and large intestinal mucosa. Nevertheless, decreased immune activation and increased CD28 expression suggest rapid immunological benefits of HAART despite incomplete CD4+ T-cell reconstitution.

Hayes, Timothy L.; Asmuth, David M.; Critchfield, J. William; Knight, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, Bridget E.; Yotter, Tammy; McConnell, Delandy H.; Garcia, Juan Carlos; Pollard, Richard B.; Shacklett, Barbara L.

2014-01-01

16

Neuroregulation of human nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nerves innervate human nasal mucosa. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular, and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent identification of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of transient receptor potential sensory receptor ion channel proteins may account for the polymodal, chemo- and mechanicosensitivity of many trigeminal neurons. Modulation of these families of proteins, excitatory and inhibitory autoreceptors, and combinations of neurotransmitters introduces a new level of complexity and subtlety to nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air-temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants ("aromatherapy"), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19686200

Baraniuk, James N; Merck, Samantha J

2009-07-01

17

Photodynamic therapy of pancreatic cancer and elastic scattering spectroscopy of the duodenal mucosa for the detection of pancreaticobiliary malignancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diagnosis and treatment of pancreaticobiliary malignancy is of major interest to our group. Building on prior work, we undertook a phase I study of verteporfin photodynamic therapy in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, pancreatic cancer. We also initiated an optical diagnostic study using elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) of the normal-appearing periampullary duodenal mucosa in vivo to investigate the hypothesis of a field effect in pancreaticobiliary malignancy. In a phase I dose escalation study, patients were treated with interstitial verteporfin PDT via a single fibre, to determine its general safety profile and the optimum treatment parameters needed to achieve effective and safe necrosis of tumour, With increasing light doses, there was a linear increase in the extent of tumour necrosis around the fibre, without serious adverse events. Follow-on studies using multiple fibres are planned. In 30 patients with benign or malignant pancreaticobiliary disease undergoing clinically-indicated endoscopy, ESS spectra were collected from the normal-appearing duodenum and antrum and a diagnostic algorithm generated by principle component and linear discriminant analysis. Pooled data from duodenal sites distal to the ampulla gave a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 72% (82% AUC) for the detection of malignancy, whereas those from the periampullary region had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 61% (72% AUC); antral measurements were not able to discriminate with such accuracy. These early results suggest that ESS of the duodenal mucosa could represent a novel minimally invasive diagnostic test for pancreaticobiliary malignancy.

Huggett, M. T.; Baddeley, R. N. B.; Sandanayake, N. S.; Webster, G. J. M.; Bown, S. G.; Lovat, L. B.; Gillams, A.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.

2011-02-01

18

Duodenal window revisited: A histological study using human fetuses.  

PubMed

To assess the development of the duodenal window in fetuses, we examined semiserial histological sections of 59 human fetuses with a crown-rump length of 27-156 mm (?4-18 weeks of gestation). In 44 of the 54 fetuses with horizontal sections, the duodenal window was formed by interdigitation of the anterior and posterior muscle slips from the proper duodenal circular muscle coat. The anterior slips approached the common bile duct from the anterior side and wound around the bile duct from the right aspect, whereas the posterior slips approached the main pancreatic duct from the posterior side, reaching the left or outer aspect of the duct without winding. These slips may become longitudinal muscles in the ampulla after birth. Six specimens showed variations in this typical pattern, in that the posterior muscle slips as well as the duodenal longitudinal muscle coat wound around the bile duct. In the remaining four specimens, we observed an abnormal union of the bile and pancreatic ducts, with the duodenal circular muscles suddenly ending along the window or slightly inserted into the right side of the common duct after joining. In all later-stage fetuses, the common sphincter surrounded both the bile and pancreatic ducts in the ampulla. Consequently, at and along the duodenal window, the proper duodenal circular muscle seemed to contribute to fetal sphincter formation. The window was not a simple hiatus but a functional interface between the sphincter and the duodenal wall. PMID:22674759

Yang, Jae Do; Hwang, Hong Pil; Kim, Ji Hyun; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Yu, Hee Chul; Cho, Baik Hwan

2013-07-01

19

Endocrine cells of the human gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

By light and electron microscopy investigation of the human gastric mucosa five types of ultrastructurally different endocrine cells have been detected: 5-hydroxytryptamine storing enterochromaffin (EC) cells, gastrin storing G cells, and functionally undefined ECL, D and D1 cells. By direct application of Masson's argentaffin reaction as well as of Sevier-Munger's and Grimelius' argyrophil method to electron microscopy specimens, selective deposition

Gabriele Vassallo; Carlo Capella; Enrico Solcia

1971-01-01

20

Duodenase, a new serine protease of unusual specificity from bovine duodenal mucosa. Purification and properties.  

PubMed

In this paper, data are presented on purification and properties of a new serine endopeptidase (duodenase) isolated from bovine duodenum mucosa. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity by combinations of ammonium sulphate fractionation, carboxymethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography, and affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B with Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor as a ligand. Some physicochemical properties of this protease have been investigated. The molecular mass of the purified duodenase was determined to be 29 +/- 0.5 kDa by SDS/PAGE and G-2000 SW column chromatography. The enzyme molecule is a single chain and the native enzyme is a monomeric protein. Its isoelectric point was estimated to be 10 +/- 0.2. Duodenase has two forms (I and II) which possess similar properties but differ in their amino acid composition. The new protease is a glycoprotein and contains approximately 3.5% sugars. The enzyme displays trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities and hydrolyzes the amide bonds of substrates having Lys, Arg, Tyr, Phe and Leu residues at the P1 position. Duodenase is most active at pH 7.9-8.2. Duodenase was irreversibly inhibited by diisopropylphosphofluoridate and phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride, indicative of an active-site serine in this protease. alpha-N-Tosyl-L-lysine chloromethane and alpha-N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethane, which react with an active His, caused marked inhibition of trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities of duodenase. The enzyme activity was strongly suppressed by trypsin inhibitors from different sources (soybeans, bovine lungs and Lima beans). Chicken egg white ovomucoid had no effect on the duodenase activity. The N-terminal sequence of the native duodenase (24 amino acid residues) shows high similarity with those of human and murine cytotoxic T-lymphocyte granzymes, human leukocyte cathepsin G and rat mast cell chymases. The biological role of duodenase is discussed. PMID:7867648

Zamolodchikova, T S; Vorotyntseva, T I; Antonov, V K

1995-02-01

21

Early ultrastructural changes in rat duodenal mucosa associated with cysteamine-induced ulcer  

SciTech Connect

The early morphologic sequelae induced by the duodenal ulcerogen, cysteamine, have been studied in rats by transmission electron microscopy. Cysteamine was administered per os at 70 mg/100 g body wt to groups of female rats sacrificed at 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 20, and 24 hr after chemical treatment, and duodenal tissue sampled from the antimesenteric side of the proximal duodenum, where ulcers develop, was studied. Emphasis was placed on early times as our previous scanning electron microscopic data had demonstrated enhanced in situ cellular necrosis and surface cavitation at 2-4 hr after cysteamine treatment. Results indicated intracellular changes as early as 30 min after treatment and prior to damage of the columnar cell microvilli or epithelial tight junctions. A staging of observed cellular degenerative changes suggested early apical endoplasmic reticular swelling and loss of cytoplasmic ground substance, followed later by moderate internal disruption of mitochondria. Through these stages the cell surface microvilli remained morphologically normal. Subsequently, microvilli degenerated and mitochondrial fine structure became severely disrupted and cell contents were expelled. Deeper villous changes such as separation of columnar cells from the lamina propria and alterations of selected elements within the lamina propria were observed. These data suggest that intracellular cytotoxic reactions at the villous tips occur early and may precede the influence of intraluminal damaging factors induced by cysteamine.

Pfeiffer, C.J.; Pfeiffer, D.C.; Szabo, S.

1987-02-01

22

Vasoactive intestinal peptide in human nasal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which is present with acetylcholine in parasympathetic nerve fibers, may have important regulatory functions in mucous membranes. The potential roles for VIP in human nasal mucosa were studied using an integrated approach. The VIP content of human nasal mucosa was determined to be 2.84 +/- 0.47 pmol/g wet weight (n = 8) by RIA. VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were found to be most concentrated in submucosal glands adjacent to serous and mucous cells. 125I-VIP binding sites were located on submucosal glands, epithelial cells, and arterioles. In short-term explant culture, VIP stimulated lactoferrin release from serous cells but did not stimulate [3H]glucosamine-labeled respiratory glycoconjugate secretion. Methacholine was more potent than VIP, and methacholine stimulated both lactoferrin and respiratory glycoconjugate release. The addition of VIP plus methacholine to explants resulted in additive increases in lactoferrin release. Based upon the autoradiographic distribution of 125I-VIP binding sites and the effects on explants, VIP derived from parasympathetic nerve fibers may function in the regulation of serous cell secretion in human nasal mucosa. VIP may also participate in the regulation of vasomotor tone. Images

Baraniuk, J N; Lundgren, J D; Okayama, M; Mullol, J; Merida, M; Shelhamer, J H; Kaliner, M A

1990-01-01

23

Combined effects of hydroxyurea and x irradiation on murine duodenal mucosa and host survival  

SciTech Connect

The duodenal response to x irradiation, in terms of both crypt survival (D/sub 0/ and 10-clone dose) and host toxicity (LD/sub 50/6/), has been evaluated as a function of time of x irradiation after either a single injection of hydroxyurea (3 mg/g body wt) or five injections (0.5 mg/g followed at 1-h invervals by four injections of 0.25 mg/g each). The data indicate that the five-injection protocol is more effective than a single injection at accumulating proliferating crypt cells at the G/sub 1//S interface and that the initial cohort of S-phase cells after the hydroxyurea release is more radioresistant than the exponentially distributed population of proliferating crypt cells (D/sub 0/ approx. = 220 rad vs control D/sub 0/ approx. = 150 rad). The duodenal crypt cells x-irradiated 1 h after the last hydroxyurea injection (both protocols), when they are still blocked at the G/sub 1//S interface, are also more radiosensitive (D/sub 0/ approx. = 100 rad) than control crypt cells. This is apparently due to a chemical radiosensitization by the hydroxyurea still present in the serum of the mice. A comparison of the 10-clone dose to the LD/sub 50/6/ dose indicates that there is an uncoupling of crypt survival from the so-called clinical endpoint of host toxicity in such a combined-modality protocol. This suggests that, when a systemic cell-cycle phase-specific agent is used in combination with whole-abdomen irradiation, crypt survival per se is only one important variable contributing to the classical gastrointestinal death syndrome.

Dethlefsen, L.A.; Ohlsen, J.D.; Riley, R.M.

1980-06-01

24

Simultaneous Exposure of Excess Fluoride and Calcium Deficiency Alters VDR, CaR, and Calbindin D 9  k mRNA Levels in Rat Duodenal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride ingestion reduces intestinal calcium absorption; its molecular basis has not been studied. We studied the mRNA expression of calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and calbindin D 9  k (D 9  k) by northern blot analysis in the duodenal mucosa of rats. Weanling pups fed with chow diet containing adequate calcium (0.5% w\\/w) and drinking water (NaF P

S. Tiwari; S. K. Gupta; K. Kumar; R. Trivedi; M. M. Godbole

2004-01-01

25

Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and UC-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids.

Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.

1985-11-01

26

Honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is a complex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates the risk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisive role in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship between consumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred to two hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62 subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve to find the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis. Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024). Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honey amount) - 0.533(honey amount)2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount)7. Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis in gastric mucosa. PMID:24688918

Ghaffari, Aida; Somi, Mohammad H; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Modaresi, Jabiz; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

2012-01-01

27

Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. Results One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine.

Troost, Freddy J; van Baarlen, Peter; Lindsey, Patrick; Kodde, Andrea; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert-Jan M

2008-01-01

28

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are scarcely represented in the human gut mucosa and are not recruited to the celiac lesion.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic small intestinal inflammation precipitated by gluten ingestion. According to case reports, interferon (IFN)-? administration may induce development of overt CD. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) were thought to be the source of IFN-? and promote a T helper type 1 response leading to lesion formation. Surprisingly and contradicting to earlier findings, PDCs were described as the main antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in human duodenal mucosa and particularly in CD. Here we show that when assessed by flow cytometry and in situ staining, PDCs represent < 1% of APCs in both normal duodenal mucosa and the celiac lesion. Low levels of IFN-? were detected in the celiac lesion assessed by western blot, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. In four cell populations sorted from the celiac lesion (based on their expression of HLA-DR and CD45), we found that equally low levels of mRNA for IFN-? were distributed among these cell populations. Together, these results suggest that relatively small amount of IFN-?, produced by a variety of cell types, is present in the celiac mucosa. IFN-?, a type III IFN important in intestinal antiviral defense, was produced mainly by APCs, but its expression was not increased in the celiac lesion. PMID:23340820

Ráki, M; Beitnes, A-C Røberg; Lundin, K E A; Jahnsen, J; Jahnsen, F L; Sollid, L M

2013-09-01

29

Methylation of TNFRSF13B and TNFRSF13C in duodenal mucosa in canine inflammatory bowel disease and its association with decreased mucosal IgA expression.  

PubMed

Although decreased intestinal IgA expression has been reported in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the mechanism underlying this decrease is unknown. Transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin-ligand interactor (TACI) and B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) receptor (BAFF-R) are key receptors for T cell-independent IgA class switching by the binding of IgA-inducing cytokine a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and BAFF. Here we show decreased TACI and BAFF-R mRNA expression and hypermethylation of their corresponding genes TNFRSF13B and TNFRSF13C, respectively in the duodenal mucosa of dogs with IBD. To examine whether DNA methylation of the TNFRSF13B and TNFRSF13C influences the mRNA expression of TACI and BAFF-R, respectively, we first analyzed methylation and mRNA expression levels in vitro using 2 canine B lymphoid cell lines, GL-1 and CLBL-1. Methylation profiles in the cells were examined by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) with primer pairs specific to methylated or unmethylated sequences. These methylation analyses revealed hypermethylation of the CpG islands of both TNFRSF13B and TNFRSF13C in GL-1, but not in CLBL-1 cells. The mRNA expression levels of TACI and BAFF-R were significantly lower in GL-1 than in CLBL-1 cells. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly increased TACI and BAFF-R mRNA expression in GL-1 cells through demethylation of TNFRSF13B and TNFRSF13C, respectively. These results suggest that the mRNA expression of TACI and BAFF-R is regulated through methylation of their genes in canine B cells. Quantitative real-time MSP showed significant hypermethylation of the CpG islands of TNFRSF13B and TNFRSF13C in the duodenal mucosa of dogs with IBD. Furthermore, duodenal mRNA expression levels of TACI and BAFF-R were significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy controls. The mRNA expression levels of TACI positively correlated with intestinal IgA expression, whereas the methylation level of its gene (TNFRSF13B) negatively correlated with IgA expression. The present results suggest the role of TACI in the regulation of mucosal IgA expression through epigenetic modifications. PMID:24814046

Maeda, Shingo; Ohno, Koichi; Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime

2014-07-15

30

Evaluation of repair in duodenal perforation with human amniotic membrane: An animal model (dog)  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a growing tendency toward application of human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a biologic substitute in various tissue injuries where a significant tissue loss is a matter of concern. In gastrointestinal injuries especially duodenal ones, some potential limitations in current surgical techniques contribute to not fully acceptable healing outcomes. Thus, this study was carried out to assess repair with HAM patch for duodenal defect in comparison with simple duodenoraphy in an animal model (dog). Materials and Methods: A total of 15 male German shepherd dogs weighing 23-27 kg were randomly divided into two groups. Group A with 10 dogs, which were a candidate for duodenal repair by amniotic membrane patch and Group B consisted of 5 dogs perform simple duodenorraphy. A precise control was made to match all conditions except surgical technique. Macroscopic and microscopic features of the healed duodenal lumen in both groups were recorded. Results: Gross evaluation revealed no difference in luminal diameter in both groups. Statistical analysis of duodenal diameter between both groups after operation also showed no significant difference (Pv = 0.789). Histological assessment indicated less inflammation with better wound healing in Group A. Conclusion: It seems that repairing duodenal wall defect with HAM would result in better histological outcomes compared with what is seen in simple duodenoraphy in animal models. However, there is no significant difference regarding surgical findings.

Ghahramani, Leila; Jahromi, Ali Bagherpour; Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

2014-01-01

31

Phagocytes in cell suspensions of human colon mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because little is known of the phagocytes of the human colon we enumerated these cells in mucosal suspensions and studied their phagocytic activity. Phagocyte rich suspensions were made by EDTA collagenase dissociation followed by elutriation centrifugation. Phagocytosis was evaluated by measuring cellular radioactivity after incubation of phagocytes with 3H-adenine labelled E coli ON2 and checked microscopically. Dissociation of normal mucosa

W Beeken; I Northwood; C Beliveau; D Gump

1987-01-01

32

Halophilic archaea in the human intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

The human gastrointestinal tract microbiota, despite its key roles in health and disease, remains a diverse, variable and poorly understood entity. Current surveys reveal a multitude of undefined bacterial taxa and a low diversity of methanogenic archaea. In an analysis of the microbiota in colonic mucosal biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease we found 16S rDNA sequences representing a phylogenetically rich diversity of halophilic archaea from the Halobacteriaceae (haloarchaea), including novel phylotypes. As the human colon is not considered a salty environment and haloarchaea are described as extreme halophiles, we evaluated and further discarded the possibility that these sequences originated from pre-colonoscopy saline lavage solutions. Furthermore, aerobic enrichment cultures prepared from a patient biopsy at low salinity (2.5% NaCl) yielded haloarchaeal sequence types. Microscopic observation after fluorescence in situ hybridization provided evidence of the presence of viable archaeal cells in these cultures. These results prove the survival of haloarchaea in the digestive system and suggest that they may be members of the mucosal microbiota, even if present in low numbers in comparison with methanogenic archaea. Investigation of a potential physiological basis of this association may lead to new insights into gastrointestinal health and disease. PMID:20438582

Oxley, Andrew P A; Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Würdemann, Dieco; Ott, Stephan; Schreiber, Stefan; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N; Nogales, Balbina

2010-09-01

33

Butyrate-Induced Transcriptional Changes in Human Colonic Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFermentation of dietary fiber in the colon results in the production of short chain fatty acids (mainly propionate, butyrate and acetate). Butyrate modulates a wide range of processes, but its mechanism of action is mostly unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of butyrate on the transcriptional regulation of human colonic mucosa in vivo.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsFive hundred genes were found

Steven A. L. W. Vanhoutvin; Freddy J. Troost; Henrike M. Hamer; Patrick J. Lindsey; Ger H. Koek; Daisy M. A. E. Jonkers; Andrea Kodde; Koen Venema; Robert J. M. Brummer; Stefan Bereswill

2009-01-01

34

Epithelial cell proliferation in human fundic and antral mucosae. Influence of superselective vagotomy and relationship with gastritis  

SciTech Connect

Epithelial cell proliferation in the fundic and antral mucosae was studied in 19 duodenal ulcer patients, 11 patients having undergone fundic superselective vagotomy for duodenal ulcer, and 10 controls. This was achieved through in vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine in mucosal biopsies and radioautography. Except for increased fundic mucosal height, duodenal ulcer patients did not differ from controls for all parameters studied. In vagotomized patients, as compared to the other two groups, the labeling index was significantly enhanced in the innervated antral mucosa where atrophic gastritis developed, but there was no change in the labeling index and no worsening of mucosal inflammation in the denervated fundic mucosa. The only abnormality in the latter was a striking expansion, towards the surface, of the proliferative area within the fundic pit. The labeling indices and the degree of gastritis in gastric mucosae are significantly correlated in control and duodenal ulcer patients. If findings in antral mucosa, after superselective vagotomy, seemed related to gastritis lesions, those in fundic mucosa were not and may indicate an alteration due to the vagotomy per se.

Gutierrez, O.; Lehy, T.; Rene, E.; Gres, L.; Bonfils, S.

1985-11-01

35

Apoprotein B in fasting and postprandial human jejunal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

We tested whether apoprotein B is present in fasting and postprandial human duodenojejunal mucosa because lipoprotein-like particles are visualized by electron microscopy within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi cisternae of these absorptive cells. Duodenojejunal biopsies from normal volunteers were incubated in citrate buffer and were shaken in 1% EDTA so that absorptive cells could be freed from underlying tissue. Apoprotein B was determined by double-antibody radioimmunoassay in homogenates of absorptive cells. The preparations of absorptive cells were shown to be uncontaminated by plasma lipoproteins; they did not contain any albumin by immunodiffusion able to detect 2 mug/ml. They adsorbed less than 0.1% of 125I-low density lipoprotein which was added to the citrate buffer. Cell preparations from suction biopsies of human rectum contained no detectable apoprotein B. Duodenojejunal absorptive cells from 22 fasting subjects contained 3.2 +/- 0.5 mug of apoprotein B per 100 mg (wet wt) of biopsies or 1.3 mug of apoprotein B per mg of total cell protein. The amount of apoprotein B per milligram of cell protein fell to 0.3 mug in 14 of these individuals whose mucosa was also sampled 45 min after instilling fat intraduodenally. These experiments provide immunochemical evidence that human duodenojejunal absorptive cells contain apoprotein B. This technique should be valuable for studying the physiology of intestinal lipoproteins in absorption and in patients with hyperlipidemia.

Rachmilewitz, D; Albers, J J; Saunders, D R

1976-01-01

36

Adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to rat and human colonic mucosa.  

PubMed Central

We studied the adherence of [3H]thymidine-labeled axenic Entamoeba histolytica (strain HM1-IMSS) to in vitro preparations of rat and human colonic mucosa. Studies were performed with fixed or unfixed rat colonic mucosa, unfixed rat mucosa exposed to trypsin, unfixed rat submucosa, and fixed human colonic mucosa. Twenty percent of the amebae adhered to fixed rat colonic mucosa; adherence was specifically inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), galactose, and asialofetuin. The adherence of amebae to fixed human colonic mucosa was also GalNAc inhibitable. Greater adherence was found with unfixed rat colonic mucosa (40.9%) and was not GalNAc inhibitable unless the tissue was first exposed to trypsin. However, GalNAc did inhibit the adherence of amebae to unfixed rat submucosa. Glutaraldehyde fixation of amebae inactivates known amebic adhesion proteins; there was a markedly decreased adherence of fixed amebae to trypsin-exposed mucosa or fixed rat colonic mucosa. However, fixed or viable amebae had equal levels of adherence to unfixed rat colonic mucosa, suggesting the presence of a host adhesion protein that binds to receptors on amebae. Human (10%) and rabbit (5%) immune sera reduced the adherence of viable amebae to fixed rat colonic mucosa. We concluded that the GalNAc-inhibitable adhesion protein on the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites mediated adherence to fixed rat mucosa, fixed human colonic mucosa, trypsin-exposed unfixed rat mucosa, and unfixed rat submucosa. The surface of unfixed rat colonic mucosa contained a glutaraldehyde- and trypsin-sensitive host adhesion protein, perhaps in the overlying mucus blanket, which bound viable or fixed E. histolytica trophozoites. Images

Ravdin, J I; John, J E; Johnston, L I; Innes, D J; Guerrant, R L

1985-01-01

37

Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide on antro-pyloro-duodenal motility in the interdigestive state and with duodenal lipid perfusion in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDGlucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) is a gut hormone released postprandially. Synthetic GLP-1 strongly inhibits gastric emptying in healthy subjects and in patients with diabetes mellitus.AIMSTo investigate the effects of GLP-1 on antro-pyloro-duodenal motility in humans.METHODSEleven healthy male volunteers were studied on two separate days. On the interdigestive study day, a basal period was followed by a 60 minute period of saline

J Schirra; P Houck; U Wank; R Arnold; B Göke; M Katschinski

2000-01-01

38

Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was purified 30-fold. The enzyme had a MW of 75,000 by gel filtration, was optimally active at pH 4.5, and had an isoelectric point at pH 8.0. In contrast to brush border PPH, intracellular PPH was unstable at increasing temperatures, was unaffected by dialysis against chelating agents and showed no requirement for Zn/sup 2 +/. Using PteGlu/sub 2/(/sup 14/C)Glu as substrate, they demonstrated a K/sub m/ of 1.2 ..mu..M and increasing affinity for folates with longer glutamate chains. Intracellular PPH required the complete folic acid (PteGlu) moiety and a ..gamma..-glutamyl linkage for activity. Using ion exchange chromatography and an HPLC method to determine the hydrolytic products of the reaction, they found intracellular PPH could cleave both internal and terminal ..gamma..-glutamyl linkages, with PteGlu as an end product. After subcellular fractionation of the mucosa, PPH was found in the lysosomes. In summary, the distinct characteristics of brush border and intracellular PPH suggest that the two hydrolases serve different roles in folate metabolism.

Wang, T.T.Y.; Chandler, C.J.; Halsted, C.H.

1986-03-01

39

A human infection of Echinostoma hortense in duodenal bulb diagnosed by endoscopy  

PubMed Central

As gastroduodenoscopy performed more frequently, case reports of human echinostomiasis are increasing in Korea. A Korean woman presented at a local clinic with complaints of abdominal pain and discomfort that had persisted for 2 weeks. Under gastroduodenoscopy, two motile flukes were found attached on the duodenal bulb, and retrieved with endoscopic forceps. She had history of eating raw frog meat. The two flukes were identified as Echinostoma hortense by egg morphology, 27 collar spines with 4 end-group spines, and surface ultrastructural characters. This report may prove frogs to be a source of human echinostome infections.

Chang, Young-Doo; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ryu, Jae-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Yong

2005-01-01

40

A human infection of Echinostoma hortense in duodenal bulb diagnosed by endoscopy.  

PubMed

As gastroduodenoscopy performed more frequently, case reports of human echinostomiasis are increasing in Korea. A Korean woman presented at a local clinic with complaints of abdominal pain and discomfort that had persisted for 2 weeks. Under gastroduodenoscopy, two motile flukes were found attached on the duodenal bulb, and retrieved with endoscopic forceps. She had history of eating raw frog meat. The two flukes were identified as Echinostoma hortense by egg morphology, 27 collar spines with 4 end-group spines, and surface ultrastructural characters. This report may prove frogs to be a source of human echinostome infections. PMID:15951640

Chang, Young-Doo; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ryu, Jae-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Yong; Hong, Sung-Jong

2005-06-01

41

Dendritic mast cells in the human nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Human mast cells can be divided into two subtypes: MCTC cells, which contain tryptase and chymase, and MCT cells, which contain tryptase only. Herein we have used a combination of histamine, tryptase and chymase immunohistochemistry as a novel approach to the study of mast cells. Using this technique, we have discovered a new type of MCTC mast cell in biopsies of the nasal mucosa from healthy subjects and allergic patients. These mast cells have histamine-positive, dendrite-like cellular processes. Some cells have only one slender process, whereas other cells have several long processes extending from different parts of the cell body. Some of the cellular processes divide into two or three terminal branches, and histamine is sometimes found in small swellings along the course of the processes. Our findings contribute new aspects to the concept of mast cell heterogeneity. Thus, human mast cells may vary not only with respect to mediator content, but also with respect to gross morphologic features such as the presence of dendrite-like cellular processes. The recognition of this extreme heterogeneity may be an important step toward a better understanding of mast cell biology. PMID:9759661

Jacobi, H H; Liang, Y; Tingsgaard, P K; Larsen, P L; Poulsen, L K; Skov, P S; Haak-Frendscho, M; Niles, A L; Johansson, O

1998-09-01

42

A double-blind study of prophylactic effect of misoprostol on lesions of gastric and duodenal mucosa induced by oral administration of tolmetin in healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolmetin, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, is known to induce edema, submucosal hemorrhage, and erosions of the gastrointestinal tract when administered at recommended doses. The purpose of our study was to determine whether misoprostol prevented or reduced the severity of duodenal and gastric mucosal injury induced by tolmetin. Following endoscopic screening, 60 healthy male and female subjects were assigned at random

Frank L. Lanza

1986-01-01

43

In vitro genotoxicity of ethanol and acetaldehyde in human lymphocytes and the gastrointestinal tract mucosa cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of ethanol and acetaldehyde on DNA in human lymphocytes, gastric mucosa (GM) and colonic mucosa (CM) was investigated by using the comet assay. All kinds of cells were exposed to ethanol and acetaldehyde in two regimens: the cells were incubated with either chemical and analysed or they were exposed first to ethanol, washed and then exposed to acetaldehyde

J Blasiak; A Trzeciak; E Malecka-Panas; J Drzewoski; M Wojewódzka

2000-01-01

44

Khat Alters the Phenotype of in vitro-reconstructed Human Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khat-chewing has been associated with oral lesions including oral cancer, but the mechanisms leading to their development are not known. We hypothesized that khat interferes with the physiological processes of the oral mucosa, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, and aimed at investigating the effects of khat exposure on in vitro-reconstructed human normal buccal mucosa. Khat decreased cell proliferation, epithelial

O. M. Lukandu; E. Neppelberg; O. K. Vintermyr; A. C. Johannessen; D. E. Costea

2010-01-01

45

Duodenal Acid Clearance in Humans: Observations Made with Intraluminal Impedance Recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenal acid clearance appears to be involved not only in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease but also in functional dyspepsia. Duodenal contractile activity can help to maintain neutral pH in the duodenum by mixing acid with bicarbonate or by aborally transporting the acid load. Intraluminal impedance recording, allowing the detection of nonacid liquid boluses, can be carried out concomitantly

Guillaume Savoye; Jac Oors; ANDR ´ E SMOUT

2005-01-01

46

Biochemical and morpho-cytochemical evidence for the intestinal absorption of insulin in control and diabetic rats. Comparison between the effectiveness of duodenal and colon mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A combined biochemical and morpho-cytochemical investigation was carried out in order to assess insulin absorption by the\\u000a duodenal and colon epithelium. Insulin was introduced in the lumen of the rat duodenum or colon in combination with sodium\\u000a cholate and aprotinin. Blood analysis made at several time points has demonstrated a rapid increase in circulating levels\\u000a of insulin followed by significant

M. Bendayan; E. Ziv; D. Gingras; R. Ben-Sasson; H. Bar-On; M. Kidron

1994-01-01

47

Ex vivo correlation of the permeability of metoprolol across human and porcine buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa with a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.96) between the permeability assessed in porcine and human buccal mucosa. There was no change in the degree of either epithelial swelling or desquamation when treating with the pH 9.0 donor medium for 5.5 h. These data suggest that buccal mucosa from pigs can be used to predict human buccal absorption. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:2053-2061, 2014. PMID:24824736

Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Müllertz, Anette; Hyrup, Birgitte; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette

2014-07-01

48

Observations on plasma secretion levels by radioimmunoassay in response to duodenal acidification and to a meat meal in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endogenous release of secretin in healthy human subjects was studied by measuring plasma secretin levels by radioimmunoassay (RIA) before, during, and following duodenal acidification and eating a meal. The sensitivity of our RIA was assessed by measuring plasma secretin levels during constant intravenous infusions of 4 graded doses of secretin. Our RIA detected significant increases (PN HCl resulted in

Ross A. Rhodes; Hsin-Hsiung Tai; William Y. Chey

1976-01-01

49

High and Low Inhibitor Soybean Meals Affect Human Duodenal Proteinase Activity Differently: In Vitro Comparison of Proteinase Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate the in vitro inhibition of the proteolytic activity in samples of duodenal juice obtained during instillation of raw soy beans in humans. The results suggested the presence of an inhibitor-resistant trypsin. Practically no inhibition was obtained with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, aprotinin, hu man <« ,-antitrypsin or lima bean trypsin inhibitor. Specificity against synthetic

HALVOR HOLM; SHILD KROGDAHL; E. HANSSEW

50

Lipid islands in human gastric mucosa: Morphological and immunohistochemical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lipid islands are a common finding in the gastric mucosa, but their pathogenesis has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology and immunophenotype of the various cells in lipid islands and to consider the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of these lesions. METHODS: Morphological and immunohistochemical investigations using antibodies

E Kaiserling; H Heinle; H Itabe; T Takano; W Remmele

1996-01-01

51

In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy.  

PubMed

Recent clinical studies on human skin indicated that in vivo multi-harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) can achieve sub-micron resolution for histopathological analysis with a high penetration depth and leave no energy or photodamages in the interacted tissues. It is thus highly desired to apply HGM for in vivo mucosa histopathological diagnosis. In this paper, the first in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa by using epi-HGM is demonstrated. We modified an upright microscope to rotate the angle of objective for in vivo observation. Our clinical study reveals the capability of HGM to in vivo image cell distributions in human oral mucosa, including epithelium and lamina propria with a high penetration depth greater than 280 ?m and a high spatial resolution better than 500 nm. We also found that the third-harmonic-generation (THG) contrast on nucleus depends strongly on its thicknesses, in agreement with a numerical simulation. Besides, 4% acetic acid was found to be able to enhance the THG contrast of nucleus in oral mucosa, while such enhancement was found to decay due to the metabolic clearance of the contrast enhancer by the oral mucosa. Our clinical study indicated that, the combined epi-THG and epi-second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising imaging tool for in vivo noninvasive optical virtual biopsy and disease diagnosis in human mucosa. PMID:21833368

Tsai, Ming-Rung; Chen, Szu-Yu; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Lou, Pei-Jen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

2011-08-01

52

In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical studies on human skin indicated that in vivo multi-harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) can achieve sub-micron resolution for histopathological analysis with a high penetration depth and leave no energy or photodamages in the interacted tissues. It is thus highly desired to apply HGM for in vivo mucosa histopathological diagnosis. In this paper, the first in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa by using epi-HGM is demonstrated. We modified an upright microscope to rotate the angle of objective for in vivo observation. Our clinical study reveals the capability of HGM to in vivo image cell distributions in human oral mucosa, including epithelium and lamina propria with a high penetration depth greater than 280 ?m and a high spatial resolution better than 500 nm. We also found that the third-harmonic-generation (THG) contrast on nucleus depends strongly on its thicknesses, in agreement with a numerical simulation. Besides, 4% acetic acid was found to be able to enhance the THG contrast of nucleus in oral mucosa, while such enhancement was found to decay due to the metabolic clearance of the contrast enhancer by the oral mucosa. Our clinical study indicated that, the combined epi-THG and epi-second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising imaging tool for in vivo noninvasive optical virtual biopsy and disease diagnosis in human mucosa.

Tsai, Ming-Rung; Chen, Szu-Yu; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Lou, Pei-Jen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

2011-01-01

53

The color of human gingiva and mucosa: visual measurement and description of distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

No soft tissue shade guide is available for matching the color of denture resins to human intraoral soft tissues. To determine\\u000a the color of both the gingiva and the alveolar mucosa, intraoral soft tissue colors of 150 men and women were assessed under\\u000a standardized lighting conditions. Colors of the papilla, attached gingiva, and alveolar mucosa in the central incisor region

Guido Heydecke; Stefan Schnitzer; Jens C. Türp

2005-01-01

54

In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa.  

PubMed

It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal restrictions on the removal of human tissue and changing surgical techniques have led to a lack of fresh human mucosa for culturing. Most of the animals that have been used as donors up to now are genetically not very close to human beings and must all be sacrificed for such studies. We, therefore, established a modified system of culturing mucosa cells from the trachea of pigs, which is available as a regular by-product after slaughtering. With respect to the possibility of developing "beating" cilia, it could be shown that the speed of cell proliferation until adhesion to the coated culture dishes, the formation of conjunctions of cell clusters and the proliferation of cilia were comparable for porcine and human mucosa. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the porcine cilia beat frequency of 7.57 +/- 1.39 Hz was comparable to the human mucosa cells beat frequency of 7.3 +/- 1.4 Hz and that this beat frequency was absolutely constant over the investigation time of 360 min. In order to prove whether the reaction to different drugs is comparable between the porcine and human cilia, we initially tested benzalkonium chloride, which is known to be toxic for human cells, followed by naphazoline, which we found in previous studies on human mucosa to be non-toxic. The results clearly showed that the functional and morphological reactions of the porcine ciliated cells to these substances were similar to the reaction we found in the in vitro cultured human mucosa. PMID:18458926

Stennert, Eberhard; Siefer, Oliver; Zheng, Meihua; Walger, Martin; Mickenhagen, Axel

2008-09-01

55

In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa  

PubMed Central

It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal restrictions on the removal of human tissue and changing surgical techniques have led to a lack of fresh human mucosa for culturing. Most of the animals that have been used as donors up to now are genetically not very close to human beings and must all be sacrificed for such studies. We, therefore, established a modified system of culturing mucosa cells from the trachea of pigs, which is available as a regular by-product after slaughtering. With respect to the possibility of developing “beating” cilia, it could be shown that the speed of cell proliferation until adhesion to the coated culture dishes, the formation of conjunctions of cell clusters and the proliferation of cilia were comparable for porcine and human mucosa. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the porcine cilia beat frequency of 7.57 ± 1.39 Hz was comparable to the human mucosa cells beat frequency of 7.3 ± 1.4 Hz and that this beat frequency was absolutely constant over the investigation time of 360 min. In order to prove whether the reaction to different drugs is comparable between the porcine and human cilia, we initially tested benzalkonium chloride, which is known to be toxic for human cells, followed by naphazoline, which we found in previous studies on human mucosa to be non-toxic. The results clearly showed that the functional and morphological reactions of the porcine ciliated cells to these substances were similar to the reaction we found in the in vitro cultured human mucosa.

Siefer, Oliver; Zheng, Meihua; Walger, Martin; Mickenhagen, Axel

2008-01-01

56

New concepts of neural regulation in human nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient receptor potential and voltage and calcium gated ion channels, and combinations of neurotransmitters that can be modulated during inflammation by neurotrophic factors has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and subtlety of nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants ("aromatherapy"), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as idiopathic nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19623876

Baraniuk, James N; Merck, Samantha J

2009-03-01

57

Comparison of receptor binding characteristics of commonly used muscarinic antagonists in human bladder detrusor and mucosa.  

PubMed

Recent studies have described muscarinic receptors on the mucosa and the detrusor of the human urinary bladder. Muscarinic receptor antagonists are effective in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), but their site(s) of action and actual therapeutic target are unclear. Our aim was to compare, in human bladder mucosa and detrusor, the radioligand binding characteristics of newer, clinically effective agents: darifenacin, its hydroxylated metabolite UK-148,993, fesoterodine, solifenacin, tolterodine, and trospium. Specimens were collected from asymptomatic patients (50-72 years old) undergoing open bladder surgery. Radioligand binding studies with the muscarinic antagonist [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) were performed separately on detrusor and mucosal membranes. All antagonists displayed high affinity when competing for [3H]QNB binding in both detrusor and mucosa. Inhibition constants were also obtained for all antagonists against individual muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Here, fesoterodine showed anomalous binding results, suggesting that some conversion to its metabolite had occurred. Global nonlinear regression analysis of bladder binding data with five antagonists demonstrated 82% low-affinity sites in mucosa and 78% low-affinity sites in detrusor, probably representing M(2)/M(4) receptors. There was an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.99) of low-affinity global estimates between detrusor and mucosa, whereas the corresponding high-affinity estimates ( approximately 20% of sites) were dissimilar. In conclusion, commonly used and clinically effective muscarinic receptor antagonists bind to receptors located on the bladder mucosa and the detrusor, providing support for the hypothesis that muscarinic receptors in the mucosa may represent an important site of action for these agents in OAB. PMID:19029429

Mansfield, Kylie J; Chandran, Jonathan J; Vaux, Kenneth J; Millard, Richard J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Mitchelson, Frederick J; Burcher, Elizabeth

2009-03-01

58

Parvovirus B19 Infection Localized in the Intestinal Mucosa and Associated with Severe Inflammatory Bowel Disease?  

PubMed Central

Infection by human parvovirus B19 is widespread and can be associated with a wide range of different pathologies and clinical manifestations. We provide the first evidence of localization of an active parvovirus B19 infection in the intestinal mucosa and its association with a severe inflammatory bowel disease, characterized by duodenal villous atrophy with increased intraepithelial lymphocytes and inflammatory infiltrates in the colonic mucosa. Virus in the intestinal mucosa was detected in cells of the inflammatory infiltrate, identified as T lymphocytes and selectively localized in sites of active tissue degeneration.

Pironi, Loris; Bonvicini, Francesca; Gionchetti, Paolo; D'Errico, Antonia; Rizzello, Fernando; Corsini, Catia; Foroni, Laura; Gallinella, Giorgio

2009-01-01

59

Evaluation of immunohistochemical staining of human duodenal endocrine cells after microwave antigen retrieval.  

PubMed

The effect of microwave antigen retrieval on the immunostaining of human duodenal endocrine cells in formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded material was investigated. The sections were immunostained by the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) and immunogold-silver autometallography (IGSS) methods with and without prior microwave treatment. Dilutions of up to 1:30,000 of the following antisera/antibodies were used: anti-chromogranin A, anti-chromogranin AB, anti-secretin, anti-gastrin, anti-gastric inhibitory polypeptide, anti-somatostatin and anti-serotonin. The detection threshold for all the antibodies was lower after antigen retrieval, and the primary antibody could be used in higher dilutions. The dilutions varied for different antibodies and were between two and ten times the optimal dilution without antigen retrieval. At extremely high dilutions of, or without, the primary antibody, non-specific staining of some lymphocytes and the mucus of some goblet cells was observed when the avidin method was applied, but not with the immunogold technique. This phenomenon was not observed when optimal dilution or a lower dilution was used. This seems to have been caused by the binding of the avidin-biotin complex to epitopes in these structures unmasked by microwave treatment when competition with specific binding sites was absent. PMID:9147074

Nyhlin, N; el-Salhy, M; Sandström, O; Suhr, O

1997-02-01

60

The Columnar-lined Mucosa at the Gastroesophageal Junction in Non-Human Primates  

PubMed Central

Despite that anatomists consider the cardia as a portion of the stomach, there is disagreement in the literature over whether the cardia mucosa, described as columnar-lined with mucus-producing glands (CLMMG) with or without occasional interspersed oxyntic cells, is part of the stomach, part of the esophagus or a distinct entity. For some authors this mucosa phenotype is a metaplastic glandular change of the distal esophagus caused by protracted gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). In this survey, the presence of CLMMG mucosa was searched for at the esophagus-gastric junction in 50 non-human primates (NHP). The length of the CLMMG (between the squamous epithelium of the esophagus and the first oxyntic fundic gastric gland) was assessed by the aid of an ocular microscale. In all three foetuses, all four stillborn baboons and one 4 day old baboon, the columnar-lined mucosa showed depressions that corresponded to early epithelial pits without glands. In the remaining 45 post-natal NHP, the length of the CLMMG mucosa varied from 0.8 mm to 25.2 mm, and the CLMMG mucosa had replaced the distal esophageal squamous epithelium. The size was neither influenced by the post-natal age nor by the gender of the animals. In NHP, regurgitation with rumination is a natural physiological process leading to GER. The present investigation substantiates the notion that the columnar-lined mucosa with mucus-producing glands is a post-natal developmental process in NHP. These animals seem to offer an excellent spontaneous model to study the series of histological events that take place in the distal esophagus of NHP, most likely under the influence of protracted GER.

Rubio, Carlos A.; Dick, Edward J.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.; Orrego, Abiel; Hubbard, Gene B.

2009-01-01

61

Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Recombinant Human Pancreatic Duodenal Homeobox-1 Protein in Pichia Pastoris  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic duodenal hemeodomain protein-1 (PDX1) is essential for the development of the embryonic pancreas and plays a key role in pancreatic ?-cell differentiation, maturation, regenration, and maintenance of normal pancreatic ?-cell insulin-producing function. Purified recombinant PDX1 (rPDX1) may be a useful tool for many research and clinical applications, however, using the E. coli expression system has several drawbacks for producing quality PDX1 protein. To explore the yeast expression system for generating rPDX1 protein, the cDNA coding for the full length human PDX1 gene was cloned into the secreting expression organism Pichia pastoris. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis of culture medium from methanol-induced expression yeast clones demonstrated that the rPDX1 was secreted into the culture medium, had a molecular weight by SDS-PAGE of 50 kDa, and was glycosylated. The predicted size of the mature unmodified PDX1 polypeptide is 31 kDa, suggesting that eukaryotic post-translational modifications are the result of the increased molecular weight. The recombinant protein was purified to greater than 95% purity using a combined ammonium sulfate precipitation with heparin-agarose chromatography. Finally, 120 ?g of the protein was obtained in high purity from 1 L of the culture supernatant. Bioactivity of the rPDX1 was confirmed by the ability to penetrate cell membranes and activation of an insulin-luciferase reporter gene. Our results suggest that the P. pastoris expression system can be used to produce a fully functional human rPDX1 for both research and clinical application.

Li, Shi-Wu; Sun, Yuping; Donelan, William; Tang, Dongqi; Yu, Hongfang; Scian, Joanna; Yang, Li-Jun

2012-01-01

62

In vitro metabolism of dexamethasone cipecilate, a novel synthetic corticosteroid, in human liver and nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Dexamethasone cipecilate (DX-CP, 9-fluoro-11?,17,21-trihydroxy-16?-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 21-cyclohexanecarboxylate 17-cyclopropanecarboxylate) is a novel synthetic corticosteroid used to treat allergic rhinitis. The pharmacological effect of DX-CP is considered to be mainly due to its active de-esterified metabolite (DX-17-CPC). To investigate the in vitro metabolism of DX-CP in human liver, DX-CP was incubated with human liver microsomes and S9. In addition, a metabolism study of DX-CP with human nasal mucosa was carried out in order to elucidate whether DX-17-CPC is formed in nasal mucosa, the site of action of DX-CP. DX-17-CPC was the major metabolite in both liver microsomes and S9. Two new epoxide metabolites, UK1 and UK2, were detected in liver S9, while only UK1 was detected in liver microsomes. This suggests that cytosol enzymes are responsible for the formation of UK2. In human nasal mucosa, DX-CP was mainly transformed into DX-17-CPC. By using recombinant human carboxylesterases (CESs), the reaction was shown to be catalyzed by CES2. These results provide the evidence that the active metabolite DX-17-CPC is the main contributor to the pharmacological action after the intranasal administration of DX-CP to humans. PMID:21657966

Sasagawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Tetsuhiro; Nakagawa, Takashi; Tsujioka, Tomoo; Takahashi, Yousuke; Kawakita, Naoko; Nonaka, Kiyoko; Nakamura, Akio

2011-10-01

63

Functional properties of low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents in the human labial mucosa.  

PubMed

We used microneurography to investigate the functional properties of low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the oral mucosa of the inside of the lower lip. Impulse responses were recorded from the inferior alveolar nerve of four human subjects. The threshold force and receptive field boundaries were identified for 19 single mechanoreceptive afferents using thin filaments (von Frey hairs) that applied known forces to the mucosa. Most of the receptive fields were located close to the corners of the mouth. Twelve of the afferents were slowly adapting (SA) and the remaining seven units were fast adapting (FA). Two types of slowly adapting responses were observed, SA I and SA II. Four of the six SA II units were spontaneously active. The geometric mean value of the receptive field sizes was 4.20 mm(2) for the SA I units, 5.65 mm(2) for the SA II units, and 5.60 mm(2) for the FA I units. None of the FA afferents showed response properties characteristic of Pacinian-corpuscle type afferents (FA II units). All afferents showed low force threshold between 0.06 and 1 mN. The properties of the mechanoreceptors supplying the human labial mucosa appear more similar to those of the vermilion and facial skin of the lower lip than those supplying the mucosa of the dorsal tongue. PMID:19771421

Bukowska, M; Essick, G K; Trulsson, Mats

2010-02-01

64

Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in normal and neoplastic human gastrointestinal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background Human gastrointestinal mucosa regenerates vigorously throughout life, but the factors controlling cell fate in mature mucosa are poorly understood. GATA transcription factors direct cell proliferation and differentiation in many organs, and are implicated in tumorigenesis. GATA-4 and GATA-6 are considered crucial for the formation of murine gastrointestinal mucosa, but their role in human gastrointestinal tract remains unexplored. We studied in detail the expression patterns of these two GATA factors and a GATA-6 down-stream target, Indian hedgehog (Ihh), in normal human gastrointestinal mucosa. Since these factors are considered important for proliferation and differentiation, we also explored the possible alterations in their expression in gastrointestinal neoplasias. The expression of the carcinogenesis-related protein Indian hedgehog was also investigated in comparison to GATA factors. Methods Samples of normal and neoplastic gastrointestinal tract from children and adults were subjected to RNA in situ hybridization with 33P labelled probes and immunohistochemistry, using an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase system. The pathological tissues examined included samples of chronic and atrophic gastritis as well as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum. Results GATA-4 was abundant in the differentiated epithelial cells of the proximal parts of the gastrointestinal tract but was absent from the distal parts. In contrast, GATA-6 was expressed throughout the gastrointestinal epithelium, and in the distal gut its expression was most intense at the bottom of the crypts, i.e. cells with proliferative capacity. Both factors were also present in Barrett's esophagus and metaplasia of the stomach. GATA-6 expression was reduced in colon carcinoma. Ihh expression overlapped with that of GATA-6 especially in benign gastrointestinal neoplasias. Conclusion The results suggest differential but overlapping functions for GATA-4 and GATA-6 in the normal gastrointestinal mucosa. Furthermore, GATA-4, GATA-6 and Ihh expression is altered in premalignant dysplastic lesions and reduced in overt cancer.

Haveri, Hanna; Westerholm-Ormio, Mia; Lindfors, Katri; Maki, Markku; Savilahti, Erkki; Andersson, Leif C; Heikinheimo, Markku

2008-01-01

65

An engineered 3D human airway mucosa model based on an SIS scaffold.  

PubMed

To investigate interrelations of human obligate airway pathogens, such as Bordetella pertussis, and their hosts test systems with high in vitro/in vivo correlation are of urgent need. Using a tissue engineering approach, we generated a 3D test system of the airway mucosa with human tracheobronchial epithelial cells (hTEC) and fibroblasts seeded on a clinically implemented biological scaffold. To investigate if hTEC display tumour-specific characteristics we analysed Raman spectra of hTEC and the adenocarcinoma cell line Calu-3. To establish optimal conditions for infection studies, we treated human native airway mucosa segments with B. pertussis. Samples were processed for morphologic analysis. Whereas our test system consisting of differentiated epithelial cells and migrating fibroblasts shows high in vitro/in vivo correlation, hTEC seeded on the scaffold as monocultures did not resemble the in vivo situation. Differences in Raman spectra of hTEC and Calu-3 were identified in distinct wave number ranges between 720 and 1662 cm(-1) indicating that hTEC do not display tumour-specific characteristics. Infection of native tissue with B. pertussis led to cytoplasmic vacuoles, damaged mitochondria and destroyed epithelial cells. Our test system is suitable for infection studies with human obligate airway pathogens by mimicking the physiological microenvironment of the human airway mucosa. PMID:24912816

Steinke, Maria; Gross, Roy; Walles, Heike; Gangnus, Rainer; Schütze, Karin; Walles, Thorsten

2014-08-01

66

134 Expression and Localization of CYSLT2 Receptor in Human Nasal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously reported the localization of CysLT1 receptor by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (Shirasaki H et al. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002;32:1007–1012). Methods To clarify the expression of CysLT2 receptor in human nasal mucosa, we investigated CysLT2 receptor mRNA expression and its protein localization in human nasal mucosa, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry.Human turbinates were obtained after turbinectomy from 6 patients with nasal obstruction refractory to medical therapy. Total RNA was isolated from human nasal mucosa, and CysLT2 receptor mRNA was detected in these tissues by using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. To identify the cells expressing CysLT2 receptor protein, double immunostaining was performed using anti-CysLT2 receptor antibody and anti-CD31 (endothelial cell) antibody. Results Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of total nasal RNA demonstrated the expression of CysLT2 receptor mRNA. The immunohistochemical studies revealed that anti-CysLT2 receptor antibody mainly labeled blood vessels. Conclusions The results suggest a primary role for CysLT2 receptor as the vascular responses in upper respiratory tract.

Hideaki, Shirasaki; Kanaizumi, Etsuko; Fujita, Manabu; Himi, Tetsuo

2012-01-01

67

Hydrolysis of ester-type drugs by the purified esterase from human intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

Esterase from human intestinal mucosa was purified 210 fold by solubilization with Triton X-100, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-100 and hydroxylapatite, and isoelectric focusing. The purified esterase showed a single band by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the purified esterase was estimated to be about 55,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150, and the isoelectric point was 5.02. The purified esterase was strongly inhibited by diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (E-600) and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), and was not inhibited by eserine sulfate and p-chloromercuribenzoate. The purified esterase from human intestinal mucosa was found to be one of the carboxylesterases. The purified esterase hydrolyzed ester-type drugs, i.e., aspirin, clofibrate, indanyl carbenicillin and procaine, but did not hydrolyze amide-type drugs and choline-type drugs. PMID:459153

Inoue, M; Morikawa, M; Tsuboi, M; Yamada, T; Sugiura, M

1979-02-01

68

Long Chain Fatty Acid Uptake by Human Intestinal Mucosa in vitro: Mechanisms of Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a carrier-mediated membrane transport for long chain fatty acid (LCFA) exists in the human intestinal mucosa. Methods: Biopsies obtained from the small intestine of patients, during routine endoscopies, were incubated for different periods in the presence of [3H]oleic acid complexed to albumin, and lipid fractions were separated and quantified. Biopsies

Célia Regina M. Chaves; Paulo Roberto P. Elias; Wanli Cheng; Cyrla Zaltman; Antônio Carlos R. Iglesias; Valeria B. Braulio

2003-01-01

69

Comparative Study of Plasminogen Activators in Cancers and Normal Mucosae of Human Urinary Bladder1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a highly sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for determination of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen levels in extracts of human tissues. We determined antigen levels of PAs in extracts of 31 primary cancers and 15 normal mucosa! tissues of the urinary bladder using this method. U-PA antigen levels in extracts of bladder cancers

Yoshihiro Hasui; Junji Suzumiya; Kousuke Marutsuka; Akinobu Sumiyoshi; Seiichi Hashida; Eiji Ishikawa

1989-01-01

70

Human Papillomavirus in the Lesions of the Oral Mucosa According to Topography  

PubMed Central

Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) types and oral lesions has been shown in many studies. Considering the significance that HPV has in the development of malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa, the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in different oral lesions. In addition, we wanted to elucidate whether the HPV infection is associated predominantly with either the lesion or a particular anatomic site of the oral cavity. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 246 subjects with different oral lesions, and 73 subjects with apparently healthy oral mucosa (controls). The oral lesions were classified according to their surface morphology and clinical diagnosis. The epithelial cells were collected with a cytobrush from different topographic sites in the oral cavity of the oral lesions and controls. The presence of HPV DNA was evaluated by consensus and type-specific primer-directed polymerase chain reaction. The HPV positivity was detected in 17.7% of oral lesions, significantly more than in apparently healthy mucosa (6.8%), with a higher presence in benign proliferative mucosal lesions (18.6%). High-risk HPV types were predominantly found in potentially malignant oral disorders (HPV16 in 4.3% and HPV31 in 3.4%), while benign proliferative lesions as well as healthy oral mucosa contained mainly undetermined HPV type (13.6 and 6.8%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance The distribution of positive HPV findings on the oral mucosa seems to be more associated with a particular anatomical site than the diagnosis itself. Samples taken from the vermilion border, labial commissures, and hard palate were most often HPV positive. Thus, topography plays a role in HPV prevalence findings in oral lesions. Because of the higher prevalence of the high-risk HPV types in potentially malignant oral disorders, these lesions need to be continuously controlled and treated.

Mravak-Stipetic, Marinka; Sabol, Ivan; Kranjcic, Josip; Knezevic, Marjana; Grce, Magdalena

2013-01-01

71

Profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa.  

PubMed

Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the expressed olfactory receptors gene set. PMID:24800820

Verbeurgt, Christophe; Wilkin, Françoise; Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Françoise; Dumont, Jacques E; Chatelain, Pierre

2014-01-01

72

Profiling of Olfactory Receptor Gene Expression in Whole Human Olfactory Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the expressed olfactory receptors gene set.

Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Francoise; Dumont, Jacques E.; Chatelain, Pierre

2014-01-01

73

EVects of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide on antro-pyloro-duodenal motility in the interdigestive state and with duodenal lipid perfusion in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Glucagon-like peptide-1(7- 36)amide (GLP-1) is a gut hormone released postprandially. Synthetic GLP-1 strongly inhibits gastric emptying in healthy subjects and in patients with diabetes mellitus. Aims—To investigate the eVects of GLP-1 on antro-pyloro-duodenal motility in hu- mans. Methods—Eleven healthy male volunteers were studied on two separate days. On the interdigestive study day, a basal period was followed by a 60

J Schirra; P Houck; U Wank; R Arnold; M Katschinski

2010-01-01

74

Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

Lee, Kang Kyoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyang Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Joon Pio [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: lsw@amc.seoul.kr; Sohn, Jung Sook [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Department of Radiology, Iksan General Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung-Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Rock [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

2008-07-15

75

Endoscopic Treatment of Duodenal Neuroendocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms. In this study, the medical records of 14 patients with duodenal NETs diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from July 2001 to August 2011 were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Four patients were diagnosed in the first 5 years, and 10 patients were diagnosed in the latter 5 years of the study. Ten of 12 patients (83.3%) who underwent endoscopic biopsy were confirmed to have NET before resection. Endoscopic resection was performed in 12 patients, surgical resection in one patient, and regular follow-up in one patient who refused resection. None of the patients showed recurrence or distant metastasis. Duodenal NETs are increasingly observed and are mostly detected during screening upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Careful endoscopic examination and biopsy can improve the diagnostic yield of NETs. Most well-differentiated, nonfunctional duodenal NETs that are limited to the mucosa/submucosa can be treated effectively with endoscopic resection.

Kim, Sang Ho; Ki, Ho Seok; Jun, Chung Hwan; Park, Seon Young; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

2013-01-01

76

Solitary chemosensory cells and bitter taste receptor signaling in human sinonasal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background Solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) are specialized cells in the respiratory epithelium that respond to noxious chemicals including bacterial signaling molecules. SCCs express components of bitter taste transduction including the TAS2R bitter taste receptors and downstream signaling effectors: ?-Gustducin, PLC?2, and TRPM5. When activated, SCCs evoke neurogenic reflexes, resulting in local inflammation. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence SCCs in human sinonasal epithelium, and to test for a correlation with inflammatory disease processes such as allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods Patient demographics and biopsies of human sinonasal mucosa were obtained from control patients (n=7) and those with allergic rhinitis and/or chronic rhinosinusitis (n=15). RT-PCR, qPCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine whether expression of signaling effectors was altered in diseased patients. Results RT-PCR demonstrated that bitter taste receptors TAS2R4, TAS2R14 and TAS2R46 and downstream signaling effectors ?-Gustducin, PLC?2, and TRPM5 are expressed in the inferior turbinate, middle turbinate, septum and uncinate of both control and diseased patients. PLC?2/TRPM5-immunoreactive SCCs were identified in the sinonasal mucosa of both control and diseased patients. qPCR showed similar expression of ?-Gustducin and TRPM5 in the uncinate process of control and diseased groups, and there was no correlation between level of expression and SNOT-22 or pain scores. Conclusion SCCs are present in human sinonasal mucosa in functionally relevant areas. Expression level of signaling effectors was similar in control and diseased patients and did not correlate with measures of pain and inflammation. Further study into these pathways may provide insight into nasal inflammatory diseases and may offer potential therapeutic targets.

Barham, HP; Cooper, SE; Anderson, CB; Tizzano, M; Kingdom, TT; Finger, TE; Kinnamon, SC; Ramakrishnan, VR

2013-01-01

77

Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis in Human Small Intestinal Mucosa. Acyl-CoA: Monoglyceride Acyltransferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acyl-CoA: monoglyceride acyltransferase (MGAT; EC 2.3.1.22) has been studied in human small intestinal mucosa by means of a spectrophotometric method based on the detection of liberated CoA employing 5,5´-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). With optimal assay conditions available the pH optimum was spread between 7.0 and 7.7 with a maximum at a pH of 7.4. Dependent on its concentration one of the substrates,

Hartmut Bierbach

1983-01-01

78

Olfactory Mucosa Autografts in Human Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Clinical Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Olfactory mucosa is a readily accessible source of olfactory ensheathing and stem-like progenitor cells for neural repair. To determine the safety and feasibility of transplanting olfactory mucosa autografts into patients with traumatically injured spinal cords, a human pilot clinical study was conducted. Methods: Seven patients ranging from 18 to 32 years of age (American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] class A) were treated at 6 months to 6.5 years after injury. Olfactory mucosa autografts were transplanted into lesions ranging from 1 to 6 cm that were present at C4–T6 neurological levels. Operations were performed from July 2001 through March 2003. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electromyography (EMG), and ASIA neurological and otolaryngological evaluations were performed before and after surgery. Results: MRI studies revealed moderate to complete filling of the lesion sites. Two patients reported return of sensation in their bladders, and one of these patients regained voluntary contraction of anal sphincter. Two of the 7 ASIA A patients became ASIA C. Every patient had improvement in ASIA motor scores. The mean increase for the 3 subjects with tetraplegia in the upper extremities was 6.3 ± 1.2 (SEM), and the mean increase for the 4 subjects with paraplegia in the lower extremities was 3.9 ± 1.0. Among the patients who improved in their ASIA sensory neurological scores (all except one patient), the mean increase was 20.3 ± 5.0 for light touch and 19.7 ± 4.6 for pinprick. Most of the recovered sensation below the initial level of injury was impaired. Adverse events included sensory decrease in one patient that was most likely caused by difficulty in locating the lesion, and there were a few instances of transient pain that was relieved by medication. EMG revealed motor unit potential when the patient was asked to perform movement. Conclusion: This study shows that olfactory mucosa autograft transplantation into the human injured spinal cord is feasible, relatively safe, and potentially beneficial. The procedure involves risks generally associated with any surgical procedure. Long-term patient monitoring is necessary to rule out any delayed side effects and assess any further improvements.

Lima, Carlos; Pratas-Vital, Jose; Escada, Pedro; Hasse-Ferreira, Armando; Capucho, Clara; Peduzzi, Jean D

2006-01-01

79

[Efficacy of SMC-electrophoresis of peat mud in primary chronic duodenitis].  

PubMed

Sinusoidal modulated current (SMC) electrophoresis of peat mud was used as monotherapy of primary chronic duodenitis in Uva sanatorium. A total of 65 patients with primary chronic duodenitis received SMC electrophoresis of peat mud diluted with distilled water. The effect was followed up with fibrogastroduodenoscopy and target biopsy of duodenal mucosa with further study of its morphological structure and element composition, acid-producing function of the stomach, hormonal profile, collagen metabolism. Positive changes were observed in clinical-endoscopic and morphological picture of the disease which is explained by favourable shifts in hormonal status and normalization of collagen metabolism in duodenal mucosa. PMID:16989205

Gorbunov, Iu V; Subbotin, S P; Shkliaev, A E

2006-01-01

80

Detection of malignant lesions in human colonic mucosa by digital imaging of laser-induced autofluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of feasibility studies on using digital imaging of the laser-induced autofluorescence of colonic tissues for a detection of premalignant and malignant lesions of human colon. Images of the autofluorescence excited with 325 nm line of He-Cd laser were recorded in vitro in six regions of a visible spectrum using a CCD camera. A total of 126 areas on 30 tissue specimens was examined. At all the spectral bands selected the intensity of the fluorescence of the neoplastic tissues was lower than that of the normal mucosa. The ratio R of the intensities of the autofluorescence of normal and abnormal tissues measured with the 440 nm filter was found to be a sensitive diagnostic parameter for detecting adenocarcinomas. This parameter is less sensitive in detecting adenomatous polyps and does not differentiate polyps with different degrees of dysplasia.

Chwirot, B. W.; Chwirot, S.; Jedrzejczyk, W.; Michniewicz, Z.; Raczynska, A. M.; Modrak, M.

2001-07-01

81

Helicobacter pylori represses proton pump expression and inhibits acid secretion in human gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric mucosa causes gastritis and transient hypochlorhydria, which may provoke emergence of a mucosal precancer phenotype; H pylori strains containing a cag pathogenicity island (PAI) augment cancer risk. Acid secretion is mediated by the catalytic ? subunit of parietal cell H,K-ATPase (HK?). In AGS gastric epithelial cells, H pylori induces nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) binding to and repression of transfected HK? promoter activity. This study sought to identify bacterial genes involved in HK? repression and to assess their impact on acid secretion. Methods and results AGS cells transfected with an HK? promoter construct or human gastric body biopsies were infected with wild-type (wt) or isogenic mutant (IM) H pylori strains. AGS cell HK? promoter activity, and biopsy HK? mRNA, protein and H+ secretory activity were measured by luminometry, reverse transcription—PCR, immunoblotting and extracellular acidification, respectively. Wt H pylori and ?vacA, ?ureA, ?slt and ?flaA IM strains repressed HK? promoter activity by ~50%, a ?cagA IM strain repressed HK? by ~33%, and ?cagE, ?cagM and ?cagL IM strains elicited no HK? repression. Wt H pylori-infected biopsies had markedly reduced HK? mRNA and protein compared with IM strain infections or mock-infected controls. Histamine-stimulated, SCH28080-sensitive biopsy acid secretion was significantly inhibited by wt but not by ?cagL IM H pylori infection compared with vehicle-only controls. Conclusions It is concluded that H pylori cag PAI gene products CagE, CagM, CagL and, possibly, CagA are mechanistically involved in repression of HK? transcription. Further, acute H pylori infection of human gastric mucosa downregulates parietal cell H,K-ATPase expression, significantly inhibiting acid secretion.

Saha, Arindam; Hammond, Charles E; Beeson, Craig; Peek, Richard M; Smolka, Adam J

2010-01-01

82

Differential expression of laminin chains and their integrin receptors in human gastric mucosa.  

PubMed Central

The proliferating cells of the gastric mucosa are found among the pit and mucous neck cells. These cells migrate upward to renew the surface epithelium and downward to restitute the glandular cells. As the epithelial basement membranes (BMs) function as substrate for cell adhesion and migration as well as signals for their differentiation, we studied, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, the distribution of different laminin chains and their integrin receptors in adult human stomach. The immunoreactivity for laminin alpha 2 chain localized to the BMs of glands and the lower parts of the gastric pits whereas the laminin alpha 3 chain (laminin-5/kalinin) immunoreactivity was strictly confined to BMs underneath the surface epithelium and the upper parts of the pits. Proliferating mucosal epithelial cells, identified by Ki-67 antibodies, were confined to the areas containing both alpha 2 and alpha 3 laminin chains. The alpha 1, beta 1, and gamma 1 laminin chains were found in all BMs of the mucosa whereas the beta 2 chain was prominent in mucosal blood vessels and also detectable in some glands. Among the laminin integrin receptors, the alpha 3 and beta 4 subunits were seen to be expressed in cells along the BMs with the alpha 3 laminin chain. The alpha 6 integrin, on the other hand, was seen in all gastric epithelia. The present results demonstrate that in the adult human stomach laminin alpha 2 and alpha 3 chains show zonal distribution in BM underlying gastric mucosal epithelium whereas other laminin chains show a more general distribution. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Virtanen, I.; Tani, T.; Back, N.; Happola, O.; Laitinen, L.; Kiviluoto, T.; Salo, J.; Burgeson, R. E.; Lehto, V. P.; Kivilaakso, E.

1995-01-01

83

A case of a duodenal duplication cyst presenting as melena  

PubMed Central

Duodenal duplication cysts are benign rare congenital anomalies reported mainly in the pediatric population, but seldom in adults. Symptoms depend on the type and location and can present as abdominal pain, distension, dysphagia or dyspepsia. They have been reported to be responsible for duodenal obstruction, pancreatitis and, in rare cases, gastrointestinal bleeding. We present a case of a duodenal duplication cyst in a 43-year-old man presenting as melena. Initial gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding focus. However, the patient began passing melena after 3 d, with an acute decrease in hemoglobin levels. Subsequent studies revealed a duplication cyst in the second portion of the duodenum which was surgically resected. Histology revealed a duodenal duplication cyst consisting of intestinal mucosa. There was no further bleeding and the patient recovered completely. In rare cases, duodenal duplication cysts might cause gastrointestinal bleeding and should be included in the differential diagnosis.

Ko, Seung Yeon; Ko, Sun Hye; Ha, Sungeun; Kim, Mi Sung; Shin, Hyang Mi; Baeg, Myong Ki

2013-01-01

84

Hyperspectral hybrid method classification for detecting altered mucosa of the human larynx  

PubMed Central

Background In the field of earth observation, hyperspectral detector systems allow precise target detections of surface components from remote sensing platforms. This enables specific land covers to be identified without the need to physically travel to the areas examined. In the medical field, efforts are underway to develop optical technologies that detect altering tissue surfaces without the necessity to perform an excisional biopsy. With the establishment of expedient classification procedures, hyperspectral imaging may provide a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows determination of pathological tissue with high reliability. In this study, we examined the performance of a hyperspectral hybrid method classification for the automatic detection of altered mucosa of the human larynx. Materials and methods Hyperspectral Imaging was performed in vivo and 30 bands from 390 to 680?nm for 5 cases of laryngeal disorders (2x hemorrhagic polyp, 3x leukoplakia) were obtained. Image stacks were processed with unsupervised clustering (linear spectral unmixing), spectral signatures were extracted from unlabeled cluster maps and subsequently applied as end-members for supervised classification (spectral angle mapper) of further medical cases with identical diagnosis. Results Linear spectral unmixing clearly highlighted altered mucosa as single spectral clusters in all cases. Matching classes were identified, and extracted spectral signatures could readily be applied for supervised classifications. Automatic target detection performed well, as the considered classes showed notable correspondence with pathological tissue locations. Conclusions Using hyperspectral classification procedures derived from remote sensing applications for diagnostic purposes can create concrete benefits for the medical field. The approach shows that it would be rewarding to collect spectral signatures from histologically different lesions of laryngeal disorders in order to build up a spectral library and to prospectively allow non-invasive optical biopsies.

2012-01-01

85

Characterization and localization of thromboxane A2 receptor in human and guinea-pig nasal mucosa using radiolabelled (+)-S-145.  

PubMed

1. TxA2 receptor (TP-receptor) antagonists such as S-1452 and Bay u 3405 have been shown to be effective in alleviating nasal blockage in patients with allergic rhinitis as well as guinea-pig allergic rhinitis models. The present study was conducted to examine the existence and localization of the TP-receptor in human and guinea-pig nasal mucosa by in vitro receptor binding autoradiography using radiolabelled (+)-S-145, which is a potent and specific TP-receptor antagonist with an extremely slow dissociation rate. 2. We ascertained the binding specificity of [3H]-(+ )-S-145 in human and guinea-pig platelet membranes by comparing the ability of four TP-receptor ligands of U-46619, (+)-S-145, I-(+)-S-145 and Bay u 3405 to displace the specific binding of [3H]-(+)-S-145 and [3H]-U-46619. The rank order of potency (Ki) for the displacement was correlated highly with that determined from [3H]-U-46619 binding to the same preparations. 3. Quantitative autoradiography using a radioluminographic imaging plate system, in which the radioactivity of [3H]-(+)-S-145 is expressed as photostimulated luminescence (PSL) per area (mm2), revealed that specific binding of [3H]-(+)-S-145 to human and guinea-pig nasal mucosa was saturable. Scatchard analysis showed about three fold higher affinity and two fold greater maximal binding to the nasal mucosa of humans than that of guinea-pigs: the KD and Bmax values in human mucosa were 2.82+/-0.35 nM and 6.47+/-0.33 PSL mm(-2) and those in guinea-pig mucosa were 8.23+/-1.93 nM and 3.37+/-0.66 PSL mm(-2), respectively. 4. Specific [3H]-(+)-S-145 binding to cryostat sections of human and guinea-pig nasal mucosa was displaced by another TP-receptor antagonist, Bay u 3405, and a TP-receptor agonist, U-46619. The order of potency (Ki value: nM) was (+)-S-145 (2.5) > Bay u 3405 (15.4) > > U-46619 (359.6) in human nasal mucosa and (+)-S-145 (22.8) > U-46619 (49.8) approximately Bay u 3405 (62.1) in guinea-pig nasal mucosa. These rank orders showed rather good correlation with those obtained for the respective platelet membranes. 5. Autoradiographs of human nasal mucosa demonstrated that specific [125I]-(+)-S-145 binding sites mainly exist on the smooth muscle layers of venous sinusoids and arterioles in the lamina propria, with few or no binding sites in the epithelium and nasal gland. 6. We concluded that radiolabelled (+)-S-145 can be used as a TP-receptor ligand for autoradiographic study, and that the TP-receptor is exclusively located on smooth muscle layers of venous sinusoids and arterioles in the nasal mucosa. The potent vasoconstrictive activity of TxA2 may cause reduction of local blood flow followed by mucosal oedema probably through mechanisms of vascular injury such as ischaemia-reperfusion. PMID:9690873

Arimura, A; Miwa, M; Hasegawa, H; Kishino, J; Notoya, M; Yasui, K; Komori, M; Iwata, S

1998-06-01

86

[Human olfactory mucosa biopsy with endoscopic technique: clinical and structural observations on neurosensory epithelium rearrangement].  

PubMed

Optical and electron microscopy have been widely used to study the structural features of olfactory epithelium in several Vertebrate species. To date, however, understanding of histopathological alterations in the human olfactory neuroepithelium has been quite limited due to the difficulty in obtaining well preserved, intact fragments of mucosa. The recent introduction of endoscopic biopsy techniques has made it possible to analyze this epithelium in greater detail. In the present work, endoscopic biopsy has been performed on samples from 10 rhinologically healthy subjects. The technique used proved quite simple and did not present any risks or complications. Moreover, all samples were well preserved, as confirmed by histology. In addition, the histological pictures suggest that normal rearrangement of neuroepithelium is not an uniform process but takes place following a zone pattern with distinct dynamics between neurosensorial and support cells. Greater diffusion of this technique would not only make it possible to use different techniques to gain more detailed knowledge of tissue structure, ultrastructure and dynamics in human neuroepithelium, but it would also provide improved diagnostic and forensic evaluation in cases of anosmia, disosmia and hyposmia. PMID:10992600

Miani, C; Bracale, A M; Staffieri, A; Ortolani, F; Marchini, M

2000-04-01

87

Nitric oxide detoxification systems enhance survival of Neisseria meningitidis in human macrophages and in nasopharyngeal mucosa.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to mammalian host defense by direct microbicidal activity and as a signaling molecule of innate immune responses. Macrophages produce NO via the inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The genome of Neisseria meningitidis includes two genes, norB (encoding nitric oxide reductase) and cycP (encoding cytochrome c'), both of which detoxify NO in pure cultures of N. meningitidis. We show here that norB, and to a lesser extent cycP, enhance survival of N. meningitidis within primary human macrophages. Furthermore, accumulation of lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) is modified in phagosomes containing an isogenic norB mutant of N. meningitidis compared to the wild type. The survival enhancement conferred by norB and cycP is ablated by pretreatment of macrophages with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Despite this evidence that NO detoxification confers advantage, we find, using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence technique, that human macrophage-associated [NO] is low even after activation by lipopolysaccharide and interferon alpha. Furthermore, wild-type N. meningitidis further depletes cell-associated NO during phagocytosis by an active mechanism and survives relatively poorly in the presence of L-NMMA, suggesting that the wild-type organism may utilize NO for optimal survival during intracellular life. The natural habitat of N. meningitidis is the human nasopharynx. Using a nasopharyngeal mucosa organ culture system, we show that mutants lacking norB and cycP also survive poorly in nasopharyngeal tissue compared to wild-type N. meningitidis. These findings indicate that the meningococcus requires active NO detoxification systems for optimal survival during experimental nasopharyngeal colonization and processing by human phagocytic cells. PMID:15908358

Stevanin, Tânia M; Moir, James W B; Read, Robert C

2005-06-01

88

A comparison of the association of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with human and guinea-pig genital mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

Organ cultures of human and guinea-pig genital mucosa were inoculated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and the association of the bacteria with the epithelial surface of each tissue was studied by light microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Gonococci attached to the mucosa of human fallopian tube, adhering specifically to the surface of non-ciliated epithelial cells. In contrast, gonococci rarely attached to the mucosal surface of guinea-pig uterine horn, vagina or bladder, although organisms were occasionally seen associated with the submucosal tissue in areas where the epithelium had sloughed, and in extracellular mucus secretions. There is no evidence from this study that gonococci adhere to guinea-pig tissue in a manner analogous to that seen with human genital tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 2 Fig. 4

Johnson, A. P.; Clark, J. B.; Osborn, M. F.; Taylor-Robinson, D.

1980-01-01

89

The ex vivo response of human intestinal mucosa to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection  

PubMed Central

Summary In vitro organ culture (IVOC) represents a gold standard model to study enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) infection of human intestinal mucosa. However, the optimal examination of the bacterial - host cell interaction requires a directional epithelial exposure, without serosal or cut surface stimulation. A polarised IVOC system (pIVOC) was developed in order to overcome such limitations: apical EPEC infection produced negligible bacterial leakage via biopsy edges, resulted in enhanced colonisation compared to standard IVOC, and showed evidence of bacterial detachment, as in natural rabbit EPEC infections. Examination of mucosal innate immune responses in pIVOC showed both interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased after apical EPEC infection. Increased IL-8 levels mainly depended on flagellin expression as fliC-negative EPEC did not elicit a significant IL-8 response despite increased mucosal colonisation compared to wild type EPEC. In addition, apical application of purified flagella significantly increased IL-8 protein levels over non-infected controls. Immunofluorescence staining of EPEC-infected small intestinal biopsies revealed apical and basolateral distribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 on epithelium suggesting that EPEC can trigger mucosal IL-8 responses by apical flagellin/TLR5 interaction ex vivo and does not require access to the basolateral membrane as postulated in cell culture models.

Schuller, Stephanie; Lucas, Mark; Kaper, James B.; Giron, Jorge A.; Phillips, Alan D.

2009-01-01

90

Targeting the vaginal mucosa with human papillomavirus pseudovirion vaccines delivering simian immunodeficiency virus DNA.  

PubMed

The majority of HIV infections occur via mucosal transmission. Vaccines that induce memory T and B cells in the female genital tract may prevent the establishment and systemic dissemination of HIV. We tested the immunogenicity of a vaccine that uses human papillomavirus (HPV)-based gene transfer vectors, also called pseudovirions (PsVs), to deliver SIV genes to the vaginal epithelium. Our findings demonstrate that this vaccine platform induces gene expression in the genital tract in both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Intravaginal vaccination with HPV16, HPV45, and HPV58 PsVs delivering SIV Gag DNA induced Gag-specific Abs in serum and the vaginal tract, and T cell responses in blood, vaginal mucosa, and draining lymph nodes that rapidly expanded following intravaginal exposure to SIV(mac251.) HPV PsV-based vehicles are immunogenic, which warrant further testing as vaccine candidates for HIV and may provide a useful model to evaluate the benefits and risks of inducing high levels of SIV-specific immune responses at mucosal sites prior to SIV infection. PMID:22174446

Gordon, Shari N; Kines, Rhonda C; Kutsyna, Galyna; Ma, Zhong-Min; Hryniewicz, Anna; Roberts, Jeffery N; Fenizia, Claudio; Hidajat, Rachmat; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Cuburu, Nicolas; Buck, Christopher B; Bernardo, Marcelino L; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Miller, Christopher J; Graham, Barney S; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T; Franchini, Genoveffa

2012-01-15

91

Fibroblasts Isolated from Human Middle Turbinate Mucosa Cause Neural Progenitor Cells to Differentiate into Glial Lineage Cells  

PubMed Central

Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) is a potential therapy for repair of spinal cord injury (SCI). Autologous transplantation of OECs has been reported in clinical trials. However, it is still controversial whether purified OECs or olfactory mucosa containing OECs, fibroblasts and other cells should be used for transplantation. OECs and fibroblasts were isolated from olfactory mucosa of the middle turbinate from seven patients. The percentage of OECs with p75NTR+ and GFAP+ ranged from 9.2% to 73.2%. Fibroblasts were purified and co-cultured with normal human neural progenitors (NHNPs). Based on immunocytochemical labeling, NHNPs were induced into glial lineage cells when they were co-cultured with the mucosal fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that OECs can be isolated from the mucosa of the middle turbinate bone as well as from the dorsal nasal septum and superior turbinates, which are the typical sites for harvesting OECs. Transplantation of olfactory mucosa containing fibroblasts into the central nervous system (CNS) needs to be further investigated before translation to clinical application.

Wu, Xingjia; Bolger, William E.; Anders, Juanita J.

2013-01-01

92

[Use of autogenous fibroblasts of human oral mucosa for gum recession treatment].  

PubMed

Minimally invasive soft tissue augmentation is a challenging problem for dentists. Use of autogenous fibroblast of oral mucosa is a promising method. The paper represents the results of preclinical, clinical and laboratory studies on the use of autogenous oral mucosa fibroblasts (AOMF) for gum recession correction. The results confirm statistically significant gum thickness augmentation and gum recession decrease after three weekly AOMF injections. The effect lasted for at least 9 months. PMID:23528396

Grudianov, A I; Stepanova, I I; Zorin, V L; Zorina, A I; Kopnin, P B; Cherkasov, V R

2013-01-01

93

Eicosanoid synthesis in duodenal ulcer disease: decrease in leukotriene C4 by colloidal bismuth subcitrate.  

PubMed Central

The release of immunoreactive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) from antral and duodenal mucosal biopsy specimens taken from 20 patients with duodenal ulcer disease was measured by radioimmunoassay before and four weeks after treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate. Gastroscopic and histological examination showed complete ulcer healing in 15/18 patients and duodenal histology looked normal (n = 15) or improved (n = 3): two patients failed to attend for a second endoscopy. Analysis of the supernatant from incubations of biopsy tissue in vitro showed that unstimulated antral release of PGE2 was significantly more than that from the duodenal mucosa (p less than 0.05), whereas basal release of LTC4 was significantly lower from antral biopsy specimens (p less than 0.05). Subsequent incubation of specimens with calcium ionophore A23187 caused an increase in LTC4 but not in PGE2 generation. The ability of antral and duodenal mucosa to form ionophore mediated LTC4 in patients with duodenal ulcer disease was significantly greater (p less than 0.05; p less than 0.01 respectively) than that of normal gastroduodenal mucosa. After colloidal bismuth subcitrate treatment, basal synthesis of PGE2 was unchanged in duodenal and antral specimens. In contrast, basal duodenal LTC4 was reduced (p less than 0.05), and the capacity for ionophore mediated duodenal LTC4 formation was substantially and significantly reduced after treatment (p less than 0.001). These results indicate that after therapeutic healing of duodenal ulcer (accompanied by clearance of inflammatory cell infiltrate), there is a reduced ability of duodenal mucosa to generate proinflammatory peptidoleukotrienes.

Ahmed, A; Salmon, P R; Cairns, C R; Hobsley, M; Hoult, J R

1992-01-01

94

Concentrations of H1-Receptor Antagonist in the Human Nasal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Aims. To measure blood and tissue concentrations of the H1-receptor antagonist, bepotastine besilate (BB). Methods. Participants included 14 men and six women, whose age ranged from 13 to 76 years, with chronic rhinosinusitis, who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery at our university hospital. Among them, 10 participants had allergic rhinitis (AR) (Group I), and others did not have AR (Group II). Nasal mucosa and blood were collected 55 to 130 minutes after oral administration of BB 10 mg. Concentrations of the agent in the serum and nasal mucosa were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results. Concentrations of BB of the serum in Group I and II were 98 ± 32?ng/mL and 112 ± 39?ng/mL. Those of the nasal mucosa tissue in Groups I and II were 101 ± 36?ng/g and 132 ± 44?ng/g. There was no significant difference in the values of concentration of BB between the serum and the nasal mucosa in either Group I or II (P = .757 and P = .2662, resp., Paired t-test). Conclusion. This preliminary study is considered the first report on the concentration of H1-receptor antagonists in nasal mucosa. The prompt absorption and transition to the nasal mucosa of BB seems to have an effect on allergic rhinitis.

Takasaki, Kenji; Enatsu, Kaori; Kumagami, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Haruo

2009-01-01

95

Concentrations of h1-receptor antagonist in the human nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Aims. To measure blood and tissue concentrations of the H1-receptor antagonist, bepotastine besilate (BB). Methods. Participants included 14 men and six women, whose age ranged from 13 to 76 years, with chronic rhinosinusitis, who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery at our university hospital. Among them, 10 participants had allergic rhinitis (AR) (Group I), and others did not have AR (Group II). Nasal mucosa and blood were collected 55 to 130 minutes after oral administration of BB 10 mg. Concentrations of the agent in the serum and nasal mucosa were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results. Concentrations of BB of the serum in Group I and II were 98 +/- 32 ng/mL and 112 +/- 39 ng/mL. Those of the nasal mucosa tissue in Groups I and II were 101 +/- 36 ng/g and 132 +/- 44 ng/g. There was no significant difference in the values of concentration of BB between the serum and the nasal mucosa in either Group I or II (P = .757 and P = .2662, resp., Paired t-test). Conclusion. This preliminary study is considered the first report on the concentration of H1-receptor antagonists in nasal mucosa. The prompt absorption and transition to the nasal mucosa of BB seems to have an effect on allergic rhinitis. PMID:20130774

Takasaki, Kenji; Enatsu, Kaori; Kumagami, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Haruo

2009-01-01

96

Bioactivation of the nasal toxicant 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile: an assessment of metabolic activity in human nasal mucosa and identification of indicators of exposure and potential toxicity.  

PubMed

The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) is a potent nasal toxicant in rodents; however, it is not known whether DCBN causes similar nasal toxicity in humans. The tissue-selective toxicity of DCBN in mouse nasal mucosa is largely dependent on target tissue bioactivation by CYP2A5. The human orthologues of CYP2A5, CYP2A6 and CYP2A13, are both expressed in nasal mucosa and are capable of activating DCBN. In this study, we directly determined the ability of human nasal mucosa to bioactivate DCBN. We also tested the suitability of a glutathione conjugate of DCBN (GS-DCBN) or its derivatives as biomarkers of DCBN exposure and nasal toxicity in mouse models. We found that human fetal nasal mucosa microsomes catalyze the formation of GS-DCBN, with a Km value comparable to that of adult mouse nasal mucosa microsomes. The activity of the human nasal mucosa microsomes was inhibited by 8-methoxypsoralen, a known CYP2A inhibitor. GS-DCBN and its metabolites were detected in the nasal mucosa and nasal-wash fluid obtained from DCBN-treated mice, in amounts that increased with escalations in DCBN dose, and they were all still detectable at 24 h after a DCBN treatment (at 10 mg/kg). Further studies in Cyp2a5-null mice indicated that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid were generated in the nasal mucosa, rather than in other organs. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that the human nasal mucosa is capable of bioactivating DCBN and that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid may collectively serve as indicators of DCBN exposure and potential nasal toxicity in humans. PMID:23360412

Xie, Fang; D'Agostino, Jaime; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Xinxin

2013-03-18

97

Bioactivation of the Nasal Toxicant 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile: An Assessment of Metabolic Activity in Human Nasal Mucosa and Identification of Indicators of Exposure and Potential Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) is a potent nasal toxicant in rodents; however it is not known whether DCBN causes similar nasal toxicity in humans. The tissue-selective toxicity of DCBN in mouse nasal mucosa is largely dependent on target tissue bioactivation by CYP2A5. The human orthologs of CYP2A5, CYP2A6 and CYP2A13, are both expressed in nasal mucosa, and are capable of activating DCBN. In this study, we directly determined the ability of human nasal mucosa to bioactivate DCBN. We also tested the suitability of a glutathione conjugate of DCBN (GS-DCBN) or its derivatives as biomarkers of DCBN exposure and nasal toxicity in mouse models. We found that human fetal nasal-mucosa microsomes catalyze the formation of GS-DCBN, with a Km value comparable to that of adult mouse nasal-mucosa microsomes. The activity of the human nasal-mucosa microsomes was inhibited by 8-methoxypsoralen, a known CYP2A inhibitor. GS-DCBN and its metabolites were detected in the nasal mucosa and nasal-wash fluid obtained from DCBN-treated mice, in amounts that increased with escalations in DCBN dose, and they were all still detectable at 24 h after a DCBN treatment (at 10 mg/kg). Further studies in Cyp2a5-null mice indicated that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid were generated in the nasal mucosa, rather than in other organs. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that the human nasal mucosa is capable of bioactivating DCBN, and that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid may collectively serve as indicators of DCBN exposure and potential nasal toxicity in humans.

Xie, Fang; D'Agostino, Jaime; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Xinxin

2013-01-01

98

Effect of bismuth subcitrate and sucralfate on rat duodenal and human gastric bicarbonate secretion in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid and alkali secretion have been examined together with prostaglandin E2 production in response to two mucosal protective drugs, colloidal bismuth subcitrate and sucralfate. Doses of colloidal bismuth subcitrate in the therapeutic range (120 and 1200 mg) had no effect on alkali secretion or luminal PGE2 output when perfused into the stomach of human volunteers. Similarly, in the anaesthetised rat,

C J Shorrock; A Garner; A H Hunter; J R Crampton; W D Rees

1990-01-01

99

[Reflex responses of human perioral muscles to mechanical stimulation of the vestibular oris mucosa].  

PubMed

To investigate the effects on perioral muscles with mechanical stimulation to the mucosa electromyograms were recorded in nine subjects. Results were as follows: 1. Tonic excitatory reflex of m. orbicularis oris and m. mentalis was evoked by the non-painful pressure stimulation to lower lip mucosa. These responses were increased, as the stimulus strength was increased. 2. Reflex responses to stimulation of the corner of the mouth and lower lip mucosa were greater than that of buccal mucosa. The response in m. orbicularis oris superior (O.O.S.) to stimulation of upper lip mucosa was greater than in m. orbicularis oris inferior (O.O.I.). And the response in O.O.I. to stimulation of lower lip mucosa was greater than the response in O.O.S. 3. Tonic excitatory reflex was abolished after local anesthesia of the stimulation area. 4. Excitatory reflex was reversed to inhibitory reflex, when background activity of three muscles was changed by voluntary lip closure. When background activity was weak, excitatory reflex was induced by pressure stimulation. On the contrary, when background activity was strong, inhibitory reflex was induced by the same stimulation. When background activity was moderate, excitatory reflex in O.O.I. and inhibitory one in O.O.S. was easily induced by lower lip stimulation. On the other hand, by upper stimulation, excitatory reflex in O.O.S. and inhibitory one in O.O.I. was easily induced. These results suggest that the orthodontic appliance placed on the vestibular oris gives mechanical stimulation to oral mucosa, which induce reflex contraction in perioral muscles. PMID:2133876

Saito, T

1990-04-01

100

Testicular seminoma presenting with duodenal perforation: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Testicular neoplasms metastasizing to the retroperitoneum rarely involve the upper gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal tract metastases usually present with complications including intestinal obstruction, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and rarely ulceration of the bowel mucosa. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an unusual case of duodenal perforation as the presenting manifestation of metastatic classic type seminoma in a 45-year-old man. CONCLUSION: Germ cell tumor diagnosis

Ranko Miocinovic; Ronney Abaza

2008-01-01

101

Betaine reduces the irritating effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on human oral mucosa in vivo.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate whether betaine has a protective effect during exposure of the human oral mucosa in vivo to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or cocoamidopropylbetaine (CAPB) as measured with a multifrequency electrical impedance spectrometer (EI). Both detergents were used at the concentration of 2.0% w/v with and without 4.0% w/v betaine in distilled water in 20 volunteers, and 0.5% and 1.0% w/v SLS combined with 4.0% w/v betaine in 5 volunteers. EI measurements were taken before application of the test solutions, after their removal, and every 15 min up to 45 min. Both 0.5% and 1% SLS solutions showed a significant reduction in 3 of the 4 indices, indicating mucosal irritation after the 15-min exposure (P < 0.05), whereas 2% SLS did so in all 4 indices (P < 0.001). Betaine had no effect on the detergent-induced decline with either the 2% or the 0.5% SLS solutions. However, when combined with the 1% SLS solution, betaine significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mucosal irritation by abolishing decreases in indices MIX (magnitude index) and IMIX (imaginary part index) and lowering it for PIX (phase index). The 2% CAPB solution showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all 4 indices after the 15-min exposure, but the effect was significantly weaker than that of 2% SLS (P < 0.05). Betaine did not reduce the irritating effect of 2% CAPB. These findings can be used in the development of less irritating products for oral health care. PMID:12418722

Rantanen, Irma; Nicander, Ingrid; Jutila, Kirsti; Ollmar, Stig; Tenovuo, Jorma; Söderling, Eva

2002-10-01

102

Histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan released by cultured human colonic mucosa: indication for possible presence of E mast cells  

SciTech Connect

An association between the release of histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan (PG) was demonstrates in human colonic mucosa (HCM). Colonic biopsy samples incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into PG, which was partially released into the culture medium during the incubation period. Ascending thin-layer chromatography of the released /sup 35/S-labeled PG after its digestion by chondroitin ABC lyase (chondroitinase, EC 4.2.2.4) followed by autoradiography yielded three products that migrated in the position of monosulfated disaccharides of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate and N-acetylgalactosoamine 6-sulfate and of an oversulfated disaccharide possessing N-acetylgalatosamine 4,6-disulfate. Cultured colonic mucosa released 23.6 +/- 3.7ng of histamine per mg of wet tissue without any special trigger. Comparison by linear regression analysis of the release of histamine and chondroitin (/sup 35/S)sulfate E PG revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.7. Histological examination of the colonic biopsies revealed the presence of many mast cells in various degrees of degranulation in the mucosa and submucosa. The above correlation, the observation that most of the mast cells showed various degrees of degranulation, and the lack of heparin synthesis as opposed to the synthesis and immunological release of chondroitin sulfate E strongly suggest that the E mast cell exists in the human colon.

Eliakim, R.; Gilead, L.; Ligumsky, M; Okon, E.; Rachmilewitz, D.; Razin, E.

1986-01-01

103

Suppression of Thyroarytenoid Muscle Responses During Repeated Air Pressure Stimulation of the Laryngeal Mucosa in Awake Humans  

PubMed Central

Repeated stimulation of the laryngeal mucosa occurs during speech. Single stimuli, however, can elicit laryngeal adductor responses (LAR). Our hypothesis was that the LAR to repeated rapid air pressure stimuli are centrally suppressed in humans. Hooked wire electrodes were inserted into the thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles bilaterally and into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle on one side. Pairs of air puff stimuli were presented to the mucosa over the arytenoids at pressure levels three times threshold with inter-stimulus intervals from 250 to 5000 ms. Bilateral thyroarytenoid responses occurred at around 150 ms to over 70% of initial stimuli. With repeated presentation at intervals of 2 seconds or less, the percent occurrence decreased to less than 40% and response amplitudes were reduced by 50%. Central suppression of adductor responses to repeated air puff stimuli may allow speakers to produce voice without eliciting reflexive spasms which could disrupt speech.

Kearney, Pamela Reed; Poletto, Christopher J.; Mann, Eric A.; Ludlow, Christy L.

2008-01-01

104

A Comparative Study of Clinicopathological Features between Chronic Cholecystitis Patients with and without Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gallbladder Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori has been isolated from 10%–20% of human chronic cholecystitis specimens but the characteristics of “Helicobacter pylori positive cholecystitis” remains unclear. This study aims to compare the clinicopathological features between chronic cholecystitis patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa. Methods Three hundred and twenty-six chronic cholecystitis patients were divided into two groups according to whether Helicobacter pylori could be detected by culture, staining or PCR for Helicobacter 16s rRNA gene in gallbladder mucosa. Positive samples were sequenced for Helicobacter pylori-specific identification. Clinical parameters as well as pathological characteristics including some premalignant lesions and the expression levels of iNOS and ROS in gallbladder were compared between the two groups. Results Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa was detected in 20.55% of cholecystitis patients. These patients had a higher prevalence of acid regurgitation symptoms (p?=?0.001), more histories of chronic gastritis (p?=?0.005), gastric ulcer (p?=?0.042), duodenal ulcer (p?=?0.026) and higher presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach as compared to patients without Helicobacter pylori infection in the gallbladder mucosa. Helicobacter pylori 16s rRNA in gallbladder and gastric-duodenal mucosa from the same individual patient had identical sequences. Also, higher incidences of adenomyomatosis (p?=?0.012), metaplasia (p?=?0.022) and higher enhanced expressions of iNOS and ROS were detected in Helicobacter pylori infected gallbladder mucosa (p<0.05). Conclusions Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori existed in stomach. Helicobacter pylori is also correlated with gallbladder premalignant lesions including metaplasia and adenomyomatosis. The potential mechanism might be related with higher ROS/RNS production but needs further investigation.

Wang, Jian-dong; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Wei; Quan, Zhi-wei

2013-01-01

105

Ozone-Induced Release of Neuropeptides from Human Nasal Mucosa Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies examining the effect of pharmacological agents on respiratory responses to ozone support the concept that the effects are mediated, at least in part, by neural mechanisms, including neuropeptide release. Using a special tissue culture system the influence of ozone (0.1 ppm\\/24 h) on nasal mucosa from allergic and nonallergic patients undergoing surgery for chronic nasal obstruction was examined. Substance

Katrin Schierhorn; Gerald Hanf; Axel Fischer; Beate Umland; Heidi Olze; Gert Kunkel

2002-01-01

106

The chemopreventive effects of tea on human oral precancerous mucosa lesions.  

PubMed

A double-blind intervention trial was conducted in patients with oral mucosa leukoplakia using a mixed tea product developed by the authors. Fifty-nine oral mucosa leukoplakia patients, diagnosed by established clinical and pathological criteria, were randomly divided into a treated group (3 g mixed tea oral administration and topical treatment) and a control group (placebo and glycerin treatment). After the 6-month trial, the size of oral lesion was decreased in 37.9% of the 29 treated patients and increased in 3.4%; whereas the oral lesion was decreased in 10.0% of the 30 control patients and increased in 6.7%. At the same time, the incidence of micronucleated exfoliated oral mucosa cells in the treated group (5. 4 per 1000 cells) was lower than that in the control group (11.3 per 1000 cells)(P < 0.01); whereas it was 1.4 per 1000 cells in 20 healthy subjects. The micronuclei and chromosome aberration rate in the peripheral blood lymphocytes showed the same results. In pathological examination, there were significant differences (P < 0. 05) in the number and total volume of the silver-stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR) and the proliferating index of Proliferation Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) in oral mucosa cell nuclei between the treated group and the control group which indicates that cell proliferation was decreased in the treated patients. The overall results provide some direct evidence on the protective effects of tea on oral cancer. PMID:10202392

Li, N; Sun, Z; Han, C; Chen, J

1999-04-01

107

Histologic analysis of the oral mucosa lining osseointegrated implant cover screws: a study in humans.  

PubMed

Osseointegrated dental implants are inserted into the alveolar ridge, and for them to function as tooth replacements, the surrounding tissues need to adapt to them. Just as with teeth, dental implants traverse the oral mucosa and have access to the contaminated environment of the oral cavity. Therefore, periodontal and peri-implant tissues are important for establishing a protective barrier. The aim of the present study was to perform a histologic analysis of the mucosa surrounding osseointegrated implant cover screws. For this study, 17 mucosal specimens were obtained from 12 patients during the second surgical session for implant exposure to the oral environment. After histologic preparation, specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to the mucosal surface to a thickness of about 3 microm, stained with 1% toluidine blue, and examined under light microscopy. All specimens showed a keratinized, stratified, squamous epithelium with well-defined strata. In the lamina propria, unorganized dense connective tissue was noted in the reticular layer, and in 4 samples, a chronic inflammatory infiltrate was seen in this region. The papillary layer presented tall connective papillae consisting of loose connective tissue. The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that the mucosa that conceals osseointegrated implant cover screws has the same morphologic characteristics as the alveolar masticatory mucosa. Furthermore, clinical conditions of normality in peri-implant tissues may not coincide with situations of histologic normality. PMID:20218865

Nahas, André Alan; Dechichi, Paula; de Magalhães, Denildo; Vieira, Andreia Espíndola

2010-01-01

108

Parallel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Specific CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Responses in Blood and Mucosa during Chronic Infection  

PubMed Central

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue is the major reservoir of lymphocytes and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vivo, yet little is known about HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses in this compartment. Here we assessed the breadth and magnitude of HIV-1-specific CTL in the peripheral blood and sigmoid colon mucosa of infected subjects not on antiretroviral therapy by enzyme-linked immunospot analysis with 53 peptide pools spanning all viral proteins. Comparisons of blood and mucosal CTL revealed that the magnitude of pool-specific responses is correlated within each individual (mean r2 = 0.82 ± 0.04) and across all individuals (r2 = 0.75; P < 0.001). Overall, 85.1% of screened peptide pools yielded concordant negative or positive results between compartments. CTL targeting was also closely related between blood and mucosa, with Nef being the most highly targeted (mean of 2.4 spot-forming cells [SFC[/106 CD8+ T lymphocytes/amino acid [SFC/CD8/aa]), followed by Gag (1.5 SFC/CD8/aa). Finally, comparisons of peptide pool responses seen in both blood and mucosa (concordant positives) versus those seen only in one but not the other (discordant positives) showed that most discordant results were likely an artifact of responses being near the limit of detection. Overall, these results indicate that HIV-1-specific CTL responses in the blood mirror those seen in the mucosal compartment in natural chronic infection. For protective or immunotherapeutic vaccination, it will be important to determine whether immunity is elicited in the mucosa, which is a key site of initial infection and subsequent HIV-1 replication in vivo.

Ibarrondo, F. Javier; Anton, Peter A.; Fuerst, Marie; Ng, Hwee L.; Wong, Johnson T.; Matud, Jose; Elliott, Julie; Shih, Roger; Hausner, Mary Ann; Price, Charles; Hultin, Lance E.; Hultin, Patricia M.; Jamieson, Beth D.; Yang, Otto O.

2005-01-01

109

DNA adduct formation in the human nasal mucosa as a biomarker of exposure to environmental mutagens and carcinogens.  

PubMed Central

Human exposure to chemical compounds, often termed xenobiotics, has been linked to a number of enhanced incidences of various neoplasias. A majority of these enter the human body through inhalation. Most xenobiotics are metabolized in the body to more hydrophilic metabolites before excretion in the urine and bile. During this process, promutagens and procarcinogens could be activated and could interact with proteins as well as DNA to form adducts. DNA adducts formed by chemical carcinogens can, therefore, be used as biomarkers of exposure and other host factors. This study that DNA adduct analysis can be performed on cells from human nasal mucosa. Using the nasal lavage procedure performed on 20 healthy volunteers, 5 x 10(5) to 5 x 10(6) cells were obtained from which 5 to 40 micrograms DNA was isolated. DNA adducts were analyzed by the 32-P-postlabeling assay. The DNA adduct levels ranged between 1.4 and 6 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. In addition to its simplicity, the nasal lavage procedure is an inexpensive, noninvasive procedure that requires no anesthetics or special equipment. Moreover, the cells obtained are the first to come in contact with air pollutants. DNA adduct analysis from human nose mucosa cells could therefore be used to develop a technique suitable for the assessment of exposure to chemical carcinogens through inhalation. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1.

Flato, S; Hemminki, K; Thunberg, E; Georgellis, A

1996-01-01

110

Histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan released by cultured human colonic mucosa: indication for possible presence of E mast cells.  

PubMed Central

An association between the release of histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan (PG) was demonstrated in human colonic mucosa (HCM). Colonic biopsy samples incorporated [35S]sulfate (2.7 X 10(6) +/- 188 X 10(3) cpm/mg of wet tissue; mean +/- SEM, n = 5) into PG, which was partially released into the culture medium during the incubation period. Ascending thin-layer chromatography of the released 35S-labeled PG after its digestion by chondroitin ABC lyase (chondroitinase, EC 4.2.2.4) followed by autoradiography yielded three products that migrated in the position of monosulfated disaccharides of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate and of an oversulfated disaccharide possessing N-acetylgalactosamine 4,6-disulfate. Cultured colonic mucosa released 23.6 +/- 3.7 ng of histamine per mg of wet tissue (mean +/- SEM, n = 16) without any specific trigger. Comparison by linear regression analysis of the release of histamine and chondroitin [35S]sulfate E PG revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.7 (n = 16; P less than 0.005). Histological examination of the colonic biopsies revealed the presence of many mast cells in various degrees of degranulation in the mucosa and submucosa, most of which were found in the submucosa. Incubation of the HCM biopsies in the presence of anti-human IgE revealed 58% +/- 12% (mean +/- SEM, n = 3) enhancement in the release of chondroitin [35S]sulfate E PG and 64% +/- 10% (mean +/- SEM, n = 4) of histamine release. The above correlation, the observation that most of the mast cells showed various degrees of degranulation, and the lack of heparin synthesis as opposed to the synthesis and immunological release of chondroitin sulfate E strongly suggest that the E mast cell exists in the human colon. Images

Eliakim, R; Gilead, L; Ligumsky, M; Okon, E; Rachmilewitz, D; Razin, E

1986-01-01

111

T-lymphocyte subsets in the duodenal lamina propria of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and influence of high-dose immunoglobulin therapy.  

PubMed

T-lymphocyte subsets in duodenal biopsies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients were studied by immunocytochemical staining to determine the alterations of CD4- and CD8-cell subsets in comparison with HIV-1 antibody-negative controls and to examine the association with stage, gastrointestinal symptoms, and peripheral lymphocyte subsets and the influence of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins. A significant decrease in duodenal CD4 cells (p less than 0.001) and CD4/CD8 ratio (p less than 0.001) follows HIV-1 infection when compared to HIV-1-negative controls, more accentuated both in patients of stage WR6 and suffering from diarrhea than in those of stages WR1-5 or without diarrhea. In addition, a significant increase in CD8 cells (p less than 0.01) could be found in HIV-1-infected patients, again with lower levels in patients of stages WR6 than WR1-5. A strong correlation was found between the intestinal and peripheral CD4/CD8 ratio (R = 0.80), but the correlation was weak if HIV-1-negative persons were excluded from analysis (R = 0.29). Treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins improved diarrhea in four of five patients; two patients gained weight. Diffuse lymphocytic infiltration of the lamina propria, villous atrophy, CD4- and CD8-cell percentage, and CD4/CD8 ratio were not influenced. PMID:1968095

Schrappe-Bächer, M; Salzberger, B; Fätkenheuer, G; Franzen, C; Koch, B; Krueger, G R; Kaufmann, W

1990-01-01

112

Induction of peripheral lymph node addressin in human gastric mucosa infected by Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori infects over half the world's population and is a leading cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. H. pylori infection results in chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa, and progression of chronic inflammation leads to glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. However, how this chronic inflammation is induced or maintained is not well known. Here, we show that chronic inflammation caused by H. pylori infection is highly correlated with de novo synthesis of peripheral lymph node addressin (PNAd) presented on high-endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels. The number of HEV-like vessels dramatically increases as chronic inflammation progresses. We found that the PNAd is bound by L-selectin·IgM chimeric protein, and decorated by NCC-ST-439 antibody, which is suggested to recognize both nonsulfated and 6-sulfated sialyl Lewis X on core 2 branched O-glycans, and MECA-79 antibody, which reacts with 6-sulfo N-acetyllactosamine on extended core 1 O-glycans. These results indicate that PNAd on HEV-like vessels present in the gastric mucosa subsequent to H. pylori infection is similar to those on HEVs present in the secondary lymphoid organs, which are essential for lymphocyte circulation. Moreover, eradication of H. pylori is associated with the disappearance of HEV-like vessels in the gastric mucosa. By contrast, very few PNAd were found in the gastric mucosa of patients with chemical gastritis caused by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. These results strongly suggest that PNAd in HEV-like vessels plays a critical role in lymphocyte recruitment during chronic inflammation induced by H. pylori infection.

Kobayashi, Motohiro; Mitoma, Junya; Nakamura, Naoshi; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Jun; Fukuda, Minoru

2004-01-01

113

Duodenal epithelial thymidine uptake in patients with duodenal ulcer or endoscopic duodenitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the relationship between duodenal ulcer disease and duodenitis, duodenal epithelial cell renewal was measured\\u000a in mucosal biopsies by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine. When 14 patients with duodenal ulcer were compared to 13 control subjects or 7 with endoscopic duodenitis alone,\\u000a the crypt size was the same in all groups. Similar to other inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract,

Fred S. Gorelick; Vincent A. Deluca; Daniel G. Sheahan; Pierluigi Marignani; Robert S. Goldblatt; Jerry Winnan; Elliot M. Livstone

1983-01-01

114

The histopathology of human gastric mucosa inhabited by Helicobacter heilmannii-like (Gastrospirillum hominis) organisms, including the first culturable case.  

PubMed

The aim was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms in human gastric biopsies and the associated histology compared with that of Helicobacter pylori-bearing gastric biopsies. Furthermore, the feasibility of culturing H. heilmannii was examined. A consecutive series of 727 gastric biopsies from 650 patients were prospectively scrutinized for H. heilmannii. Their distribution pattern was recorded as well as the affiliated morphology of the gastric mucosa. Additional biopsies from some of the patients were examined microbiologically. Four cases (0.6%)(95% confidence intervals: 0.01-1.2%) of the examined material harboured H. heilmannii. The bacterial burden was graded as sparse in three cases, moderate in one case. The distribution pattern was patchy; thus, in no case did all biopsies from one endoscopy comprise H. heilmannii. Adhesion to epithelial cells was infrequent. A mild gastritis, active in three cases, characterized all biopsies. Lymphoid aggregates occurred in biopsies from three patients. Micropapillary tufting of the epithelial layer and intestinal metaplasia were not apparent. Culture studies proved successful in the one of the four cases assayed. In conclusion the morphology of H. heilmannii-bearing mucosa deviates from that of H. pylori-associated mucosa by the absence of epithelial damage in the former. This observation can in part be explained by the predominant location of H. heilmannii at a distance from the epithelium in contrast to the conspicuous H. pylori adhesion to epithelial cells, coupled with a usually low bacterial burden and patchy occurrence of H. heilmannii as opposed to the generally more heavy infestation with H. pylori. PMID:9368589

Holck, S; Ingeholm, P; Blom, J; Nørgaard, A; Elsborg, L; Adamsen, S; Andersen, L P

1997-10-01

115

[Functional state of the gastro-duodenal area in gastro-esophageal reflux disease].  

PubMed

The complex study of stomach and duodenal function was performed in 150 patients with GERD. It was revealed that 84,3% of patients had increased stomach acid-production. In GERD exacerbation we found the disturbance of gastric mucosa decreasing protective properties of esophageal, stomach and duodenal mucosa. The patients had increased intragastral and intraduodenal pressure leading to decreasing of closing function of pylorus. Due to dynamic gastroscintigraphy the slowing of stomach evacuation was revealed in 69,2% patients, the acceleration - in 7,7% patients. The prevalence of bradyperistalsis was found in elecrogastromyography. The role of hormones (gastrin, insulin, cortisol, thyrotrophin, thyroxin) in disorders of gastro-duodenal complex function was shown. The complex investigation of gastro-duodenal complex function opens the pathophysiologic base of GERD and these data may be used in the choice of adequate therapy. PMID:17937002

Vakhrushev, Ia M; Potapova, L O

2007-01-01

116

[Cystic dystrophy on an aberrant duodenal pancreas. Apropos of a case].  

PubMed

Cystic dystrophy of the aberrant pancreas is a rare poorly understood condition which is difficult to diagnose and treat. The primary clinical signs are epigastralgia associated with poor general health and complications due to stenosis of the duodenum. Endoscopy gives the most information on tissue lesions and cystic formations in the duodenal mucosa. Although the condition is benign, and due to the lack of sufficient history in endoscopically treated cases, cystic dystrophy of the aberrant duodenal pancreas appears to require duodenopancreatectomy. PMID:8815063

Barsotti, P; Schloegel, M; Ollier, J C; Ghnassia, J P; Potet, F; Adloff, M

1995-12-01

117

[Actovegin treatment of duodenal ulcer associated with ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

Actovegin, a deproteinized hemoderivative, was used to correct bioenergetic defects of duodenal mucosa, to reduce inflammatory-cell infiltration, to stimulate blood supply of patients with duodenal ulcer associated with ischemic heart disease or diabetes mellitus. As shown by the results obtained in 194 patients (119 males and 75 females), adjuvant actovegin in patients with duodenal ulcer associated with ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus stimulates the ulcer healing, prolongs the recurrence-free interval. It can be used both in outpatient departments and specialized hospitals. PMID:10900865

Smolianinov, A B

2000-01-01

118

[Clinico-radiographic evaluation of the state of the spine in stomach and duodenal diseases].  

PubMed

Data are given on the condition of the thoracic spine of 465 patients with certain gastric and duodenal diseases. Degenerative-dystrophic lesions (spondylosis deformans and intervertebral osteochondrosis) of the thoracic spine together with osteoarthritis deformans of the costovertebral and costotransverse articulations lead to neurodystrophy of the gastric and duodenal mucosa through chronic stimulation by osteophytes of the thoracic sympathetic ganglia. Disorders of gastric and duodenal motor activity are also important. The attendant reflux gastritis is stipulated by reflux of the intestinal contents into the gastric lumen. Condition of the stomach and duodenum can be improved by relieving changes in the spine. PMID:2716242

Dmitriev, A E; Arapov, N A

1989-01-01

119

Duodenal ESD: conquering difficulties.  

PubMed

Duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is technically difficult due to the unique anatomic features. The risks include intraprocedural complications, delayed bleeding, and perforation. A small-caliber-tip transparent hood is useful. Mechanical stretching of the submucosal tissue allows safe dissection and effective prevention of bleeding with minimum muscle injury under direct visualization of the submucosal tissue and blood vessels. A short double-balloon endoscope is useful to stabilize control of the endoscope tip in distal duodenal ESD. Selection of ESD in the duodenum should be made cautiously considering both benefits and risks of the procedure. PMID:24679234

Yamamoto, Hironori; Miura, Yoshimasa

2014-04-01

120

Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on Neisseria gonorrhoeae invasion of and IgA secretion by human fallopian tube mucosa.  

PubMed

The possible effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the mucosal immune response and susceptibility of the fallopian tube mucosa to invasion by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) was investigated in the fallopian tube organ culture (FTOC) model. Immunohistochemical and radioreceptor assay techniques showed specific high affinity binding of hCG in vitro to the apices of non-ciliated fallopian tube cells (Kd approximately 10(-9) M). Continuous exposure of the FTOC mucosa to hCG during infection with gonococci resulted in a marked increase (6- to 15-fold) in IgA secretion and significantly reduced gonococcal invasion (invasion score range 0.7 to 1.75) compared to infected control tissue which was not exposed to hCG (invasion score range 2.9 to 4.95, P less than or equal to 0.01). By contrast, exposure of the mucosa to hCG during the 24 h preceding gonococcal infection followed by the removal of hCG from the system at the time of infection resulted in enhanced gonococcal invasion (invasion score range 7.95 to 9.7, P less than 0.001). We conclude that hCG can modulate the mucosal immune response and susceptibility of fallopian tube epithelium to gonococcal invasion. PMID:1753877

Gorby, G L; Clemens, C M; Barley, L R; McGee, Z A

1991-05-01

121

Testicular seminoma presenting with duodenal perforation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Testicular neoplasms metastasizing to the retroperitoneum rarely involve the upper gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal tract metastases usually present with complications including intestinal obstruction, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and rarely ulceration of the bowel mucosa. Case presentation We describe an unusual case of duodenal perforation as the presenting manifestation of metastatic classic type seminoma in a 45-year-old man. Conclusion Germ cell tumor diagnosis should be considered when an ulcerating small bowel mass is identified in a young man.

Miocinovic, Ranko; Abaza, Ronney

2008-01-01

122

Helicobacter pylori downregulates expression of human ?-defensin 1 in the gastric mucosa in a type IV secretion-dependent fashion  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori establishes a chronic lifelong infection in the human gastric mucosa, which may lead to peptic ulcer disease or gastric adenocarcinoma. The human beta-defensins (h?Ds) are antimicrobial peptides, h?D1 being constitutively expressed in the human stomach. We hypothesized that H.?pylori may persist, in part, by downregulating gastric h?D1 expression. We measured h?D1 and h?D2 expression in vivo in relation to the presence, density and severity of H.?pylori infection, investigated differential effects of H.?pylori virulence factors, and studied underlying signalling mechanisms in vitro. Significantly lower h?D1 and higher h?D2 mRNA and protein concentrations were present in gastric biopsies from infected patients. Those patients with higher-level bacterial colonization and inflammation had significantly lower h?D1 expression, but there were no differences in h?D2. H.?pylori infection of human gastric epithelial cell lines also downregulated h?D1. Using wild-type strains and isogenic mutants, we showed that a functionalcag pathogenicity island-encoded type IV secretion system induced this downregulation. Treatment with chemical inhibitors or siRNA revealed that H.?pylori usurped NF-?B signalling to modulate h?D1 expression. These data indicate that H.?pylori downregulates h?D1 expression via NF-?B signalling, and suggest that this may promote bacterial survival and persistence in the gastric niche.

Patel, SR; Smith, K; Letley, DP; Cook, KW; Memon, AA; Ingram, RJM; Staples, E; Backert, S; Zaitoun, AM; Atherton, JC; Robinson, K

2013-01-01

123

Analysis of Human Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Expression in Extrathyroidal Tissues and Cloning of Its Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acids from Salivary Gland, Mammary Gland, and Gastric Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to concentrate iodide is a fundamental property of normally functioning thyroid tissue and represents the first step in the production of thyroid hormones. Iodide uptake has been demon- strated in various extrathyroidal tissues, including salivary gland, gastric mucosa, and lactating mammary gland. Recently, cloning and molecular characterization of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) have been reported; however,

C. Spitzweg; W. JOBA; W. EISENMENGER; A. E. HEUFELDER

1998-01-01

124

Human ethmoid sinus mucosa: a promising novel tissue source of mesenchymal progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction The identification of new progenitor cell sources is important for cell-based tissue engineering strategies, understanding regional tissue regeneration, and modulating local microenvironments and immune response. However, there are no reports that describe the identification and isolation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) from paranasal sinus mucosa, and compare the properties of MPCs between tissue sources within the sinonasal cavity. We report here the identification of MPCs in the maxillary sinus (MS) and ethmoid sinus (ES). Furthermore, we contrast these MPCs in the same individuals with MPCs from two additional head and neck tissue sources of the inferior turbinate (IT) and tonsil (T). Methods These four MPC sources were exhaustively compared for morphology, colony-forming potential, proliferation capability, immunophenotype, multilineage differentiation potential, and ability to produce soluble factors. Results MS-, ES, IT-, and T-MPCs showed similar morphologies and surface phenotypes, as well as adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation capacity by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR for defined lineage-specific genes. However, we noted that the colony-forming potential and proliferation capability of ES-MPCs were distinctly higher than other MPCs. All MPCs constitutively, or upon stimulation, secrete large amounts of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-?, and TGF-?. After stimulation with TNF-? and IFN-?, ES-MPCs notably demonstrated significantly higher secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 than other MPCs. Conclusions ES-MPCs may be a uniquely promising source of MPCs due to their high proliferation ability and superior capacity toward secretion of immunomodulatory cytokines.

2014-01-01

125

Tissue-Engineered Constructs of Human Oral Mucosa Examined by Raman Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

A noninvasive quality monitoring of tissue-engineered constructs is a required component of any successful tissue-engineering technique. During a 2-week production period, ex vivo produced oral mucosa-equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs) may encounter adverse culturing conditions that might compromise their quality and render them ineffective. We demonstrate the application of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to in vitro monitoring of EVPOMEs during their manufacturing process, with the ultimate goal of applying this technology in situ to monitor the grafted EVPOMEs. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for less-than optimal EVPOMEs that are stressed by higher temperature and exposure to higher than normal concentration of calcium ions. Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal and calcium stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We compared these results to histology and glucose consumption measurements, demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy is more sensitive and specific to changes in proteins' secondary structure not visible by H&E histology. We also exposed the EVPOMEs to rapamycin, a cell growth inhibitor and cell proliferation capacity preserver, and distinguished between EVPOMEs pretreated with 2?nM rapamycin and controls, using the ratio of the Amide III envelope to the phenylalanine band as an indicator.

Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kainkaryam, Raghu; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Izumi, Kenji; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.

2013-01-01

126

Chromosome division figures reveal genomic instability in tumorigenesis of human colon mucosa.  

PubMed Central

A variety of chromosomal gains and losses has been detected with comparative genomic hybridization during tumorigenesis in the colon mucosa. The aim of this investigation was to corroborate increasing genomic instability and to elucidate those lesions in which the record from comparative genomic hybridization has remained unexpectedly negative. Replicate paraffin-embedded samples were investigated in detail using image microphotometry. Crucial to the recent approach was the fact that the histological compartments were exactly matched and that the single-cell measurements were highly accurate (CV at 0.05). Feulgen DNA was quantified in interphase nuclei and chromosome division figures, which were found in all cases of high-grade dysplasia and, with increased frequency, of colon carcinoma. The genomic imbalance in chromosome division figures was quantified by the sensitive 4.5 c exceeding rate (where c is the haploid genome equivalent), which was also positive in cases with a negative record from comparative genomic hybridization. The DNA content of chromosome division figures was measured with a mean 4.5 c exceeding rate of 25.8 +/- 4.4% standard error in 12 cases of high-grade dysplasia and of 62.1 +/- 7.1% in colon carcinoma (16 cases). The chromosome division figures were considered to be the first morphological manifestation of genomic instability attending precancerous conditions in the colon. Telophase-like chromosome division figures with unequal amounts of DNA in their hemispheres revealed gross somatic mutations before clonal selection. Images Figure 4

Steinbeck, R. G.

1998-01-01

127

In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

2006-03-01

128

Homocysteine, Cysteine, and Glutathione in Human Colonic Mucosa: Elevated Levels of Homocysteine in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was performed to evaluate the levels of the amino thiols cysteine, homocysteine, and glutathione in the colonic mucosa of patients with various intestinal diseases, especially chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Colonic biopsies of macroscopically normal mucosa out of a proximal and distal segment were collected from 187 patients with various intestinal diseases. Protein was assayed in duplicate by

I. Morgenstern; M. T. M. Raijmakers; W. H. M. Peters; H. Hoensch; W. Kirch

2003-01-01

129

A Case of Duodenal Duplication Cyst Manifested by Duodenal Polyp  

PubMed Central

Duodenal duplication cyst is a rare anomaly, totaling only 4% to 12% of gastrointestinal duplications, and is usually encountered during infancy or in early childhood. Most are commonly located posterior to the first or second portion of the duodenum. Presenting signs and symptoms include vomiting, decreased oral intake, periumbilical tenderness, abdominal distention, obstructive jaundice, acute pancreatitis, and gastrointestinal bleeding. The traditional treatment of a duodenal duplication cyst has been complete surgical resection, but very few cases of endoscopic treatment have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of duodenal duplication cyst that was manifested by a duodenal polyp.

Park, Su Bin; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Jang, Seong Pil; Kim, Gwang Ha; Song, Geun Am

2012-01-01

130

Gastrinoma (Duodenal and Pancreatic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrinomas are neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), usually located in the duodenum or pancreas, that secrete gastrin and cause a clinical syndrome known as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). ZES is characterized by gastric acid hypersecretion resulting in severe acid-related peptic disease (peptic ulcer disease, PUD; gastro-esophageal reflux disease, GERD) [1–3] and diarrhea. In this section ZES, due to both duodenal and pancreatic gastrinomas,

Robert T. Jensen; Bruno Niederle; Emmanuel Mitry; John K. Ramage; Thomas Steinmüller; V. Lewington; Aldo Scarpa; Anders Sundin; Aurel Perren; David Gross; Juan M. O’Connor; Stanislas Pauwels; Günter Klöppel

2006-01-01

131

Multiple Adenomatous Duodenal Polyposis  

PubMed Central

Multiple duodenal polyps are a relatively rare finding, usually co-occurrent with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).We report a patient with multiple duodenal adenomas and a negative examination for FAP: multiple flat polyps were detected endoscopically in a 37-year-old male patient, extending from the apex of the bulb to the end of the descending part of the duodenum. In terms of histology, they were tubular adenomas with moderate dysplasia. Colonoscopy and enteroclysis were normal. Both push and capsule enteroscopy only showed multiple polyps in the area of the descending duodenum. DNA analysis of the APC gene was as follows: DGGE, exon 1–15, deletion at codons 1309 and 1061 by means of PCR for attenuated APC were negative. Afterwards we screened the patient for germline MYH mutations using the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) in combination with sequencing. No novel pathogenic mutation has been identified. Large polyps were removed by means of endoscopic polypectomy and mucosectomy, while small polyps were removed by means of argon plasma coagulation.We conduct yearly checkups, removing only sporadic polyps. The rare finding of duodenal polyposis not co-occurrent with FAP proves that multiple adenomas in the digestive tube need not necessarily co-occur with FAP.

Zadorova, Zdena; Mandys, Vaclav

2013-01-01

132

Antioxidative enzymes in human nasal mucosa after exposure to ozone. Possible role of GSTM1 deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and design: Epithelial antioxidative enzymes (AOEs) are thought to be a first line of defense against reactive oxygen species as they are upregulated after exposure to ozone according to animal studies. We analysed the activities of the AOEs catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in a tissue culture of human nasal

R. Otto-Knapp; K. Jurgovsky; K. Schierhorn; G. Kunkel

2003-01-01

133

Lymphocytes in the human gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori have a T helper cell 1 phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Studies have shown that gastric T cells are increased during Helicobacter pylori infection. The purpose of this study was to characterize the human gastric T-cell responses in the presence or absence of H. pylori. Methods: T-cell surface antigens were examined by immunohistochemistry or after isolation for evaluation of surface antigens and cytoplasmic cytokines using flow cytometry. Results:

Kathleen B. Bamford; Xuejun Fan; Sheila E. Crowe; James F. Leary; William K. Gourley; Gurinder K. Luthra; Edward G. Brooks; David Y. Graham; Victor E. Reyes; Peter B. Ernst

1998-01-01

134

In vitro colonization ability of human colon mucosa by exogenous Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested five Lactobacillus strains for their in vitro colonization ability in a human colon epithelium culture model. Positive colonization occurred in different degrees in the presence of four Lactobacillus strains. We have found that L. casei GG and L. acidophilus NCFB 1748 induce an intermediate colonization. These two strains, largely investigated by others, have been reported to be

Leila-ouassila Sarem-Damerdji; Farzin Sarem; Luc Marchal; Jean-Pierre Nicolas

1995-01-01

135

Proteomic analysis of a decellularized human vocal fold mucosa scaffold using 2D electrophoresis and high-resolution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Natural biologic scaffolds for tissue engineering are commonly generated by decellularization of tissues and organs. Despite some preclinical and clinical success, in vivo scaffold remodeling and functional outcomes remain variable, presumably due to the influence of unidentified bioactive molecules on the scaffold-host interaction. Here, we used 2D electrophoresis and high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses to evaluate decellularization effectiveness and identify potentially bioactive protein remnants in a human vocal fold mucosa model. We noted proteome, phosphoproteome and O-glycoproteome depletion post-decellularization, and identified >200 unique protein species within the decellularized scaffold. Gene ontology-based enrichment analysis revealed a dominant set of functionally-related ontology terms associated with extracellular matrix assembly, organization, morphology and patterning, consistent with preservation of a tissue-specific niche for later cell seeding and infiltration. We further identified a subset of ontology terms associated with bioactive (some of which are antigenic) cellular proteins, despite histological and immunohistochemical data indicating complete decellularization. These findings demonstrate the value of mass spectrometry-based proteomics in identifying agents potentially responsible for variation in host response to engineered tissues derived from decellularized scaffolds. This work has implications for the manufacturing of biologic scaffolds from any tissue or organ, as well as for prediction and monitoring of the scaffold-host interaction in vivo. PMID:23102991

Welham, Nathan V; Chang, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L

2013-01-01

136

Transcriptome Profiling of Human Ulcerative Colitis Mucosa Reveals Altered Expression of Pathways Enriched in Genetic Susceptibility Loci  

PubMed Central

Human colonic mucosa altered by inflammation due to ulcerative colitis (UC) displays a drastically altered pattern of gene expression compared with healthy tissue. We aimed to understand the underlying molecular pathways influencing these differences by analyzing three publically-available, independently-generated microarray datasets of gene expression from endoscopic biopsies of the colon. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that all three datasets share 87 gene sets upregulated in UC lesions and 8 gene sets downregulated (false discovery rate <0.05). The upregulated pathways were dominated by gene sets involved in immune function and signaling, as well as the control of mitosis. We applied pathway analysis to genotype data derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of UC, consisting of 5,584 cases and 11,587 controls assembled from eight European-ancestry cohorts. The upregulated pathways derived from the gene expression data showed a highly significant overlap with pathways derived from the genotype data (33 of 56 gene sets, hypergeometric P?=?1.49×10–19). This study supports the hypothesis that heritable variation in gene expression as measured by GWAS signals can influence key pathways in the development of disease, and that comparison of genetic susceptibility loci with gene expression signatures can differentiate key drivers of inflammation from secondary effects on gene expression of the inflammatory process.

Li, Jin; Zhu, Junfei; Gu, Mengnan; Baldassano, Robert N.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon

2014-01-01

137

Comparison of divided and full pupil configurations for line-scanning confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal point-scanning microscopy has been showing promise in the detection, diagnosing and mapping of skin lesions in clinical settings. The noninvasive technique allows provides optical sectioning and cellular resolution for in vivo diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma and pre-operative and intra-operative mapping of margins. The imaging has also enabled more accurate "guided" biopsies while minimizing the otherwise large number of "blind" biopsies. Despite these translational advances, however, point-scanning technology remains relatively complex and expensive. Line-scanning technology may offer an alternative approach to accelerate translation to the clinic. Line-scanning, using fewer optical components, inexpensive linear-array detectors and custom electronics, may enable smaller, simpler and lower-cost confocal microscopes. A line is formed using a cylindrical lens and scanned through the back focal plane of the objective with a galvanometric scanner. A linear CCD is used for detection. Two pupil configurations were compared for performance in imaging human tissue. In the full-pupil configuration, illumination and detection is made through the full objective pupil. In the divided pupil approach, half the pupil is illuminated and the other half is used for detection. The divided pupil configuration loses spatial and axial resolution due to a diminished NA, but the sectioning capability and rejection of background is improved. Imaging in skin and oral mucosa illustrate the performance of the two configurations.

Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Glazowski, Chris; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

2012-02-01

138

Lectin staining patterns in human gastric mucosae with and without exposure to Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate qualitative changes in the glycoconjugate expression in human gastric tissue of positive and negative patients for Helicobacter pylori, through lectins: Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) and Concanavalin A (Con A). The lectins recognized differently the glycoconjugates in the superficial mucous layer at the gastric tissues. The results suggest a significant change in the carbohydrate moieties present on the surface of the gastric cells during infection.

Melo-Junior, Mario R.; Cavalcanti, Carmelita L.B.; Pontes-Filho, Nicodemos T.; Carvalho Jr, Luiz B.; Beltrao, Eduardo I. C.

2008-01-01

139

Alternative types of duodenal ulcer induced in mice by partial x irradiation of the thorax  

SciTech Connect

The present study extends our earlier observations on gastrointestinal pathology in thorax-irradiated female CFLP mice. It shows that exposure of the lower mediastinum to single doses of 14 to 30 Gy x rays results in the formation of the proximal duodenal ulcer accompanied frequently by erosion of the antral gastric mucosa. X irradiation of the lateral thoracic fields is responsible for single ulcers in the proximity of duodenal papilla, often associated with a circumscribed area of degeneration of the fundic mucosa of the stomach. In view of the small amount of radiation received by the subdiaphragmatic parts of the alimentary tract, these gastro-duodenal lesions represent abscopal effects of thoracic irradiation.

Michalowski, A.; Uehara, S.; Yin, W.B.; Burgin, J.; Silvester, J.A.

1983-07-01

140

Production of Ectopic Gastric Intrinsic Factor in Gastric Mucosa of Humans with Chronic Gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Ectopic expression of gastric intrinsic factor (IF) has been described in rodent models of chronic gastritis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  The current study undertook to determine if ectopic IF was also present in chronic gastritis in humans and might identify\\u000a the process of ectopic protein expression as part of the response to chronic injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Archived biopsies from mid-body, angularis and prepylorus of 9 patients

J. S. Shao; R. Carmel; D. H. Alpers

141

Release of Satiety Hormones in Response to Specific Dietary Proteins Is Different between Human and Murine Small Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: High protein diets are the most effective to stimulate cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) release; however, which proteins are the most potent is not known. Here, the effects of specific dietary proteins on intestinal CCK and GLP-1 release were examined. Methods: Duodenal biopsies of 10 healthy male subjects and 10 male rats were taken and placed in

Maartje C. P. Geraedts; Freddy J. Troost; Rik Tinnemans; Johan D. Söderholm; Robert-Jan Brummer; Wim H. M. Saris

2010-01-01

142

Inhibition of HIV-1 Infection by Human ?-Defensin-5, a Natural Antimicrobial Peptide Expressed in the Genital and Intestinal Mucosae  

PubMed Central

Background ?-defensin-5 (HD5) is a key effector of the innate immune system with broad anti-bacterial and anti-viral activities. Specialized epithelial cells secrete HD5 in the genital and gastrointestinal mucosae, two anatomical sites that are critically involved in HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis. We previously found that human neutrophil defensins (HNP)-1 and -2 inhibit HIV-1 entry by specific bilateral interaction both with the viral envelope and with its primary cellular receptor, CD4. Despite low amino acid identity, human defensin-5 (HD5) shares with HNPs a high degree of structural homology. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we demonstrate that HD5 inhibits HIV-1 infection of primary CD4+ T lymphocytes at low micromolar concentration under serum-free and low-ionic-strength conditions similar to those occurring in mucosal fluids. Blockade of HIV-1 infection was observed with both primary and laboratory-adapted strains and was independent of the viral coreceptor-usage phenotype. Similar to HNPs, HD5 inhibits HIV-1 entry into the target cell by interfering with the reciprocal interaction between the external envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and CD4. At high concentrations, HD5 was also found to downmodulate expression of the CXCR4 coreceptor, but not of CCR5. Consistent with its broad spectrum of activity, antibody competition studies showed that HD5 binds to a region overlapping with the CD4- and coreceptor-binding sites of gp120, but not to the V3 loop region, which contains the major determinants of coreceptor-usage specificity. Conclusion/Significance These findings provide new insights into the first line of immune defense against HIV-1 at the mucosal level and open new perspectives for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

Furci, Lucinda; Tolazzi, Monica; Sironi, Francesca; Vassena, Lia; Lusso, Paolo

2012-01-01

143

Electron immunocytochemical localization of pepsinogen I (PgI) in chief cells, mucous-neck cells and transitional mucous-neck\\/chief cells, of the human fundic mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific PgI antibodies devoid of PgII cross reactivity have been applied to aldehyde-osmium fixed human, fundic-type, gastric mucosa investigated with the protein A-immunogold technique. PgI immunoreactivity has been detected in the homogeneous secretory granules of glandular chief cells, in bipartite granules of mucous-neck cells, in the granules of cells showing intermediate patterns and topography in between chief and mucous-neck cells

M. Cornaggia; C. Capella; C. Riva; G. Finzi; E. Solcia

1986-01-01

144

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of ?-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone in Celiac Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The peptide ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) possesses potent anti-inflammatory activities and has been previously implicated in the endogenous control of inflammatory reactions. The aim of the present research was to determine whether ?-MSH and its receptors participate in a localized anti-inflammatory response in the duodenal mucosa of celiac patients. Methods: Three series of experiments were performed, using duodenal biopsy pairs

Gualtiero Colombo; Roberto Buffa; Maria Teresa Bardella; Letizia Garofalo; Andrea Carlin; James M. Lipton; Anna Catania

2002-01-01

145

The carbohydrate diversity of human respiratory mucins: a protection of the underlying mucosa?  

PubMed

Human respiratory mucins consist of a family of glycoproteins with different peptides in which glycosylation, the major post-translational phenomenon, is responsible for about 70 to 80% of the weight of these molecules. This glycosylation generates a remarkable diversity of O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains, which are expressed as several hundreds of different chains in a single person. These chains, which can vary from one to about 20 sugars, may be neutral, sialylated, or sulfated. They bear multiple epitopes. Some antigenic determinants such as ABO, Leb antigens in secretor individuals, Lea, or X or Y antigens have been identified. There is increasing evidence that, among other functions, this diversity of chains allows many interactions with microorganisms and may be an important factor in maintaining the sterility of the respiratory tree. In certain pathologic situations such as cystic fibrosis, which is associated with colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the hypothesis of an alteration of this interaction is open. PMID:1892321

Lamblin, G; Lhermitte, M; Klein, A; Houdret, N; Scharfman, A; Ramphal, R; Roussel, P

1991-09-01

146

Immunohistochemical localization of the bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in human nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Bradykinin (BK) has been tobe thought a potent mediator involved in allergic rhinitis because BK was recovered from the nasal lavage fluid of allergic rhinitis patients after allergen provocation and BK receptor antagonists relief nasal allergic symptoms. Two mammalian BK receptor subtypes, B1 and B2, have been defined based on their pharmacological properties. We investigated the localization of these receptors by immunohistochemistry. Human turbinates were obtained after turbinectomy from 12 patients with nasal obstruction refractory to medical therapy. The immunohistochemical study revealed that epithelial cells, submucosal glands, fibroblast, vascular smooth muscle, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages showed immunoreactivity for both B1 and B2 receptors. The B2 receptor expression was found in peripheral nerve fibers, whereas the B1 expression was not observed in nerves. The results may have an important clinical implication for understanding the differential roles of BK receptor subtypes on upper airway diseases such as allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis. PMID:19404481

Shirasaki, Hideaki; Kanaizumi, Etsuko; Himi, Tetsuo

2009-01-01

147

Measurement of in vivo proliferation in human colorectal mucosa using bromodeoxyuridine.  

PubMed Central

In vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) labelling of the human large bowel was performed and a detailed histochemical localisation of label in sections of crypts was undertaken using a monoclonal antibody to BrdUrd containing DNA. Flow cytometric studies on extracted nuclei were also performed (data presented elsewhere). The average crypt in the human large bowel (excluding the rectum) was 82 cells in height and 41 cells in circumference, with a total of about 2000 cells (assuming a topographical correction factor of 0.6). Ten per cent of the cells were replicating their DNA--that is, were in the S phase of the cell cycle--and 0.4% were in mitosis. The median position for the labelling index versus cell position frequency plot is at the 20th cell position--at a quarter of the crypt height. The lower and upper limits of the cell proliferation are given by the 5th and 95th percentiles at cell positions 4 and 43 respectively. The peak labelling index is about 30% and it occurs at cell position 15. The labelling index at the crypt base, the probable stem cell zone, is about 14%, suggesting that these cells have a longer cell cycle. Taking a value of 8.6 hours for the duration of the S phase (deduced from the flow cytometric data) and assuming a growth fraction of 1.0 for the mid-crypt, these data provide an estimate of about 30 hours for the cell cycle time. The rectal crypts are about the same size but contain about 30% fewer S phase cells. The data also yielded a per cent BrdUrd labelled mitosis curve. Images Figure 1

Potten, C S; Kellett, M; Roberts, S A; Rew, D A; Wilson, G D

1992-01-01

148

From cysteamine to MPTP: structure-activity studies with duodenal ulcerogens  

SciTech Connect

Cysteamine is the first chemical identified that induces acute and chronic duodenal ulcers in rodents. Structure-activity studies with cysteamine, propionitrile and their derivatives, as well as with analogues of toluene, revealed numerous alkyl and aryl duodenal ulcerogens. Among these, one of the most interesting from an etiologic and pathogenetic point of view is the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP, which shows structural similarities with toluene. The chemically-induced duodenal ulcers are similar and localized on the anterior and posterior wall of the duodenal bulb. Both cysteamine and MPTP affect endogenous dopamine; MPTP is especially potent in depleting central dopamine and inducing lesions in the substantia nigra. MPTP given in high doses induces Parkinson's disease-like syndrome and gastric ulcers. Cysteamine and propionitrile also cause dyskinesia in large and multiple doses. The motility disorders and duodenal ulcers are abolished by dopamine agonists. Cysteamine and MPTP have been known to increase and decrease gastric acid secretion, respectively. However, both compounds induced duodenal dysmotility, decreased bicarbonate production, and reduced its delivery from distal to proximal duodenum. These factors decrease acid neutralization in the duodenal bulb and contribute to duodenal ulceration. Thus, studies with animal models may reveal endogenous mediators and specific receptors which might be involved in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. Specific structure-activity studies in toxicology may lead to new insights in the pathogenesis and pharmacology of a poorly understood human disorder such as duodenal ulceration. 39 references.

Szabo, S.; Cho, C.H.

1988-01-01

149

Vitamin D and its metabolites inhibit cell proliferation in human rectal mucosa and a colon cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Like calcium, vitamin D may protect against colorectal neoplasia as it reduces epithelial cell proliferation and induces differentiation. Although its therapeutic use is limited by its effects on calcium metabolism, analogues such as calcipotriol produce little hypercalcaemia. Stathmokinetic and immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the effect of 1,25 (OH)2 D3 and its analogues on cell proliferation in human rectal mucosa and a colon cancer cell line. Paired sigmoidoscopic biopsy specimens were obtained from 17 control patients and five patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Explants were established in organ culture, with or without the addition of vitamin D. Proliferation was assessed using (1) metaphase arrest to determine the crypt cell production rate (CCPR) and (2) Ki-67 monoclonal antibody directed against an antigen present in proliferating cells. 1,25 (OH)2 D3 in concentrations of 1 microM-100 pM (10(-6)-10(-10) M) reduced the CCPR (cells/crypt/hour) from 4.74 to 2.15-2.67 (p < 0.001), and the Ki-67 labelling index from 7.28-3.74 (p < 0.01). Likewise, vitamin D2, 10 nM (10(-8) M) reduced the CCPR from 4.74-2.74 (p < 0.05) and calcipotriol from 4.86-2.38 (p < 0.05). In familial adenomatous polyposis patients 1,25 (OH)2 D3 100 pM (10(-10) M) halved the CCPR from 8.75-4.22. Calcipotriol (10(-5) M to 10(-9) M) produced a clearcut dose response inhibition of HT-29 cell growth. Thus, vitamin D and its metabolites inhibit proliferation in normal and premalignant rectal epithelium and suppress growth in a colorectal cancer cell line. PMID:1336758

Thomas, M G; Tebbutt, S; Williamson, R C

1992-12-01

150

Duodenal Ulcer in Children  

PubMed Central

Forty-nine cases of duodenal ulcer in children are presented. Strict radiological and clinical criteria were observed in making this diagnosis. The children came from a population of approximately 100,000 children over a 10-year period. Upper abdominal pain was the commonest presenting symptom, and exacerbations and remissions of the disease were observed to be shorter than is expected in the adult. Haemorrhage occurred as a complication in 24% and there were no cases of perforation or stenosis. A family history of duodenal ulcer was found to be highly significant, and it was found that in 55% of patients there was an important element of stress. Treatment was conservative in all but 2 cases, in both of which a vagotomy and pyloroplasty were performed. These operations were judged to have been successful. 6 cases had appendicectomy in the hope of relieving undiagnosed abdominal pain, in which it was unsuccessful. A plea is made for keeping this diagnosis in mind when dealing with abdominal pain in children.

Robb, J. D. A.; Thomas, P. S.; Orszulok, J.; Odling-Smee, G. W.

1972-01-01

151

Determination of alpha-amylase activity in duodenal contents with the blue starch polymer.  

PubMed

The use of the blue starch polymer (Phadebas tablets) for the determination of duodenal alpha-amylase is described. 0.05% bovine or human albumin solutions are necessary for dissolution of substrate tablets as well as for dilution of duodenal contents. Concentration and output values of duodenal amylase before and after cholecystokinin-pancreozymin and secretin stimulation display a close correlation of the chromogenic and saccharogenic method. The average error of duodenal alpha-amylase in parallel examinations is low with both methods and their relative accuracy is practically the same. The chromogenic method is considered more simple and rapid. PMID:209677

Fric, P; Roth, Z

1977-01-01

152

Tissue-engineered oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as cancer, Candida, and bacterial invasion have been developed as alternatives to animal models for investigation of disease phenomena, their progression, and treatment, including evaluation of drug delivery systems. The introduction of 3D oral mucosal reconstructs has had a significant impact on the approaches to biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials and oral healthcare products as well as the study of implant-soft tissue interfaces. This review article discusses the recent advances in tissue engineering and applications of tissue-engineered human oral mucosa. PMID:22266525

Moharamzadeh, K; Colley, H; Murdoch, C; Hearnden, V; Chai, W L; Brook, I M; Thornhill, M H; Macneil, S

2012-07-01

153

[Our experience with duodenal tumors].  

PubMed

The authors report 3 cases of benign duodenal tumors and one case of duodenal cancer. In two cases the benign tumors were adenomatous polyps, in one case with signs of dysplasia. One case of benign tumor was a lipoma. All the three benign tumors were removed through a duodenotomy, in one case associated with a sphincteroplasty. The case of duodenal cancer, arisen in a patient operated since 24 years with a gastric resection, was treated with a Whipple technique but for the very old age and the bad health conditions, the patient died in 11th post-operative day for myocardium infarct. PMID:11014015

Napolitano, L; D'Aulerio, A; Gargano, E; Angelucci, D

2000-01-01

154

Administration of different Lactobacillus strains in fermented oatmeal soup: in vivo colonization of human intestinal mucosa and effect on the indigenous flora.  

PubMed Central

In vivo colonization by different Lactobacillus strains on human intestinal mucosa of healthy volunteers was studied together with the effect of Lactobacillus administration on different groups of indigenous bacteria. A total of 19 test strains were administered in fermented oatmeal soup containing 5 x 10(6) CFU of each strain per ml by using a dose of 100 ml of soup per day for 10 days. Biopsies were taken from both the upper jejunum and the rectum 1 day before administration was started and 1 and 11 days after administration was terminated. The administration significantly increased the Lactobacillus counts on the jejunum mucosa, and high levels remained 11 days after administration was terminated. The levels of streptococci increased by 10- to 100-fold in two persons, and the levels of sulfite-reducing clostridia in the jejunum decreased by 10- to 100-fold in three of the volunteers 1 day after administration was terminated. In recta, the anaerobic bacterium counts and the gram-negative anaerobic bacterium counts decreased significantly by the end of administration. Furthermore, a decrease in the number of members of the Enterobacteriaceae by 1,000-fold was observed on the rectal mucosa of two persons. Randomly picked Lactobacillus isolates were identified phenotypically by API 50CH tests and genotypically by the plasmid profiles of strains and by restriction endonuclease analysis of chromosomal DNAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images

Johansson, M L; Molin, G; Jeppsson, B; Nobaek, S; Ahrne, S; Bengmark, S

1993-01-01

155

[Hyperplastic polyps arising in islands of gastric mucosa in the duodenum].  

PubMed

Hyperplastic polyps originating from islands of gastric mucosa can be observed in the duodenum. We report 3 cases of duodenal hyperplastic polyps on antral or fully developed fundic mucosa. They macroscopically presented as small confluent polyps or as large villous polyps. Their microscopic features were the same as those observed in hyperplastic gastric polyps. This type of polyp must be added to the list of tumor like lesions of the duodenum that may endoscopically present as polyps. PMID:9296581

Couvelard, A; Schweizer-Lapeyre, L; Carle, J P; Marsault, S; Le Blaye, O; Marche, C; Potet, F

1997-07-01

156

Myb Expression Is Higher in Malignant Human Colonic Carcinoma and Premalignant Adenomatous Polyps than in Normal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the protooncogene c-Myb protein was assessed in normal mucosa and in tumor samples resected from six patients. We found that the tumor samples always expressed higher levels of full length Myb protein than the normal tissue. This contrasts with the situation in c-myb-associated hemopoietic malignancies of the mouse and chicken, in which Myb proteins are generally amino or

R. G. Ramsay; M. A. Thompson; J. A. Hayman; G. Reid; T. J. Gonda; R. H. Whitehead

157

Gene expression of markers associated with proliferation and differentiation in human keratinocytes cultured from epidermis and from buccal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal keratinocytes from epidermis and from buccal mucosa underwent dissimilar stages of differentiation in the same culture medium and responded differently to changes in the composition of the medium. Manifestations of these variations were examined in terms of the expression at the mRNA level (as measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) of three regulatory genes (cdc2, c-myc, and p53) and

Miriam M. Brysk; Istvan Arany; Henry Brysk; San-Hwan Chen; Karen H. Calhoun; Stephen K. Tyring

1995-01-01

158

Blocking of integrins inhibits HIV-1 infection of human cervical mucosa immune cells with free and complement-opsonized virions.  

PubMed

The initial interaction between HIV-1 and the host occurs at the mucosa during sexual intercourse. In cervical mucosa, HIV-1 exists both as free and opsonized virions and this might influence initial infection. We used cervical explants to study HIV-1 transmission, the effects of opsonization on infectivity, and how infection can be prevented. Complement opsonization enhanced HIV-1 infection of dendritic cells (DCs) compared with that by free HIV-1, but this increased infection was not observed with CD4(+) T cells. Blockage of the ?4-, ?7-, and ?1-integrins significantly inhibited HIV-1 infection of both DCs and CD4(+) T cells. We found a greater impairment of HIV-1 infection in DCs for complement-opsonized virions compared with that of free virions when ?M/?2- and ?4-integrins were blocked. Blocking the C-type lectin receptor macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) inhibited infection of emigrating DCs but had no effect on CD4(+) T-cell infection. We show that blocking of integrins decreases the HIV-1 infection of both mucosal DCs and CD4(+) T cells emigrating from the cervical tissues. These findings may provide the basis of novel microbicidal strategies that may help limit or prevent initial infection of the cervical mucosa, thereby reducing or averting systemic HIV-1 infection. PMID:23686382

Tjomsland, Veronica; Ellegård, Rada; Kjölhede, Preben; Wodlin, Ninni Borendal; Hinkula, Jorma; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Larsson, Marie

2013-09-01

159

Gene expression of markers associated with proliferation and differentiation in human keratinocytes cultured from epidermis and from buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Normal keratinocytes from epidermis and from buccal mucosa underwent dissimilar stages of differentiation in the same culture medium and responded differently to changes in the composition of the medium. Manifestations of these variations were examined in terms of the expression at the mRNA level (as measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) of three regulatory genes (cdc2, c-myc, and p53) and five that encode structural proteins (keratins K5, K10 and K13, involucrin, and filaggrin), in three growth-medium formulations. The culture conditions enhanced or retarded maturation; the observed alterations in gene expression correlated with these changes. Except for the proliferation genes, the non-keratinizing buccal mucosa generally responded more weakly than the orthokeratotic epidermis to culture-medium supplementation favouring differentiation. Gene expression in cultured keratinocytes reflected their ability to differentiate in vivo; genes were expressed even when the corresponding protein was not seen in vitro. Although keratin K10 is not prevalent in the buccal mucosa nor keratin K13 in the epidermis, the genes for both were found to be expressed in both tissues. PMID:8651890

Brysk, M M; Arany, I; Brysk, H; Chen, S H; Calhoun, K H; Tyring, S K

1995-09-01

160

[Relationship of intracellular concentration and duration of contamination of pirarubicin and adriamycin in human bladder cancer cell lines and human bladder normal mucosa cell line].  

PubMed

To establish a method for reasonable clinical use of adriamycin (ADM) and pirarubicin (THP) in the intravesical chemotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, intracellular concentrations of these drugs were examined in culture cell lines (T-24, T-24/ADM and FHS736b1) with variable durations of contamination. The intracellular concentration of THP showed a plateau at 15-30 min. contamination in T-24, and in T-24/ADM, and showed the time dependence of contamination in FHS736b1, human normal bladder mucosa cell line. The intracellular concentration of ADM showed the time dependence of contamination in T-24, T-24/ADM and FHS736b1. And these concentrations of THP were 20 times higher than those of ADM. In conclusion, it seems better that THP was retained for 5-15 min. in the bladder in the intravesical chemotherapy, from the point of view of drug efficacy and preventing side effects. And it seems good that ADM was retained for more than 30 min. in the case with drug sensitive tumors. PMID:8678540

Saika, T; Tsushima, T; Nasu, Y; Akebi, N; Ohmori, H

1996-06-01

161

Duodenal perforations after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

Duodenal perforations after laparoscopic cholecystectomies are rarely reported. The aim of this study is to focus on this complication and to suggest ways to reduce its occurrence and avoid diagnostic mistakes and therapeutical delays that could be fatal. We reviewed four personal cases and a number of others reported in the literature. Duodenal perforations are caused by improper use of the irrigator-aspirator device when retracting the duodenum, or by electrosurgical and laser burns. A duodenal perforation should be suspected in cases of bile leakage, peritonitis, intraabdominal or retroperitoneal collections, high serum or drainage amylase concentration, absence of bile leakage from the biliary tree, and the existence of a retroduodenal mass. Diagnosis requires a gastrografin upper GI series. Differential diagnosis is mainly with biliary lesions and other causes of peritonitis. Relaparoscopy may require intraoperative upper GI endoscopy or Kocher's duodenal mobilization to detect the perforation. Early diagnosis allows primary repair, usually by laparoscopy. Perforations of the duodenal cap are easier to diagnose and have a better prognosis than those of the descending duodenum. A lumbar abscess is a frequent complication. PMID:10227957

Croce, E; Golia, M; Russo, R; Azzola, M; Olmi, S; De Murtas, G

1999-05-01

162

Percutaneous Transhepatic Duodenal Diversion for the Management of Duodenal Fistulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to determine the success of the nonoperative management of persistent duodenal fistulae (DF) with\\u000a percutaneous transhepatic duodenal diversion (PTDD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective chart review identified six patients with DF managed by PTDD from 2006 to 2007. Patient outcomes and complications\\u000a were assessed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The etiology of DF included pancreatic surgery (three patients), gastrectomy (two patients), and Crohn’s

Jessica G. Zarzour; John D. Christein; Ernesto R. Drelichman; Rachel F. Oser; Mary T. Hawn

2008-01-01

163

Differential expression of CD44 splice variants in intestinal- and diffuse-type human gastric carcinomas and normal gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Immunohistochemical screening of gastric adenocarcinomas from 42 different patients revealed variant CD44 expression in all specimens tested. Adenocarcinomas of the intestinal type were strongly positive for epitopes encoded by variant exons v5 and v6, whereas diffuse-type adenocarcinomas predominantly expressed only exon v5. Normal stomach mucosa was stained by an exon v5-specific monoclonal antibody within the foveolar proliferation zone and on mucoid surface epithelium. Areas of intestinal metaplasia reacted positively with monoclonal antibodies specific for exons v5 and v6. Analysis of RNA expression revealed dramatic differences between normal mucosa and adenocarcinomas. Whereas in normal epithelium only two CD44 variant RNAs containing exons v5 and/or v6 could be detected, intestinal-type tumors yielded a much more complex pattern of amplification products which hybridized to exons v5 and v6. A similar complex expression pattern of CD44 variants was observed in three cell lines established from intestinal-type tumors. In a sample of a diffuse-type tumor, expression of exon v5, but not v6, could be detected, confirming the data obtained with immunohistochemistry. These differences in variant exon v6 expression observed between diffuse-type and intestinal-type stomach adenocarcinomas establish variant CD44-specific antibodies as a tool in gastric cancer diagnosis and also support the theory of different origins for these tumor types. PMID:7689929

Heider, K H; Dämmrich, J; Skroch-Angel, P; Müller-Hermelink, H K; Vollmers, H P; Herrlich, P; Ponta, H

1993-09-15

164

Highly tissue substructure-specific effects of human papilloma virus in mucosa of HIV-infected patients revealed by laser-dissection microscopy-assisted gene expression profiling.  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus (HPV) causes focal infections of epithelial layers in skin and mucosa. HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) appear to be at increased risk of developing HPV-induced oral warts. To identify the mechanisms that allow long-term infection of oral epithelial cells in these patients, we used a combination of laser-dissection microscopy (LDM) and highly sensitive and quantitative, non-biased, two-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR to study pathogen-induced alterations of specific tissue subcompartments. Expression of 166 genes was compared in three distinct epithelial and subepithelial compartments isolated from biopsies of normal mucosa from HIV-infected and non-infected patients and of HPV32-induced oral warts from HIV-infected patients. In contrast to the underlying HIV infection and/or HAART, which did not significantly elaborate tissue substructure-specific effects, changes in oral warts were strongly tissue substructure-specific. HPV 32 seems to establish infection by selectively enhancing epithelial cell growth and differentiation in the stratum spinosum and to evade the immune system by actively suppressing inflammatory responses in adjacent underlying tissues. With this highly sensitive and quantitative method tissue-specific expression of hundreds of genes can be studied simultaneously in a few cells. Because of its large dynamic measurement range it could also become a method of choice to confirm and better quantify results obtained by microarray analysis. PMID:15331396

Baumgarth, Nicole; Szubin, Richard; Dolganov, Greg M; Watnik, Mitchell R; Greenspan, Deborah; Da Costa, Maria; Palefsky, Joel M; Jordan, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Greenspan, John S

2004-09-01

165

Foveolar gastric metaplasia of the duodenum: a frequent, so far neglected type of duodenal polyp.  

PubMed

Foveolar gastric metaplasia of the duodenum (FGM) is considered as imperfect mucosal healing in the context of H. pylori gastritis and intake of NSAIDs or ASS.? Typical endoscopic findings are redness of the mucosa, erosion/ulcer and loss of mucosal folds. During diagnostic histological examinations we observed a frequent so far not described association of FGM with endoscopically observed duodenal polyps. The archives of two institutes of pathology with high gastroenterological workload (approximately 100?000 patients per year) were investigated for an association between "duodenal polyp" and "foveolar gastric metaplasia". In Institute 1, of 481 duodenal polyps 41?% were classified as FGM, 9?% as adenoma and 2?% as heterotopic gastric mucosa. In 48?% no histological correlate was present. In Institute 2, 217 cases of FGM were diagnosed. Of these, in 69 cases the endoscopic finding was "polyp" (32?%). In the other cases, the endoscopic findings were mucosal defect (18?%), redness/inflammation (16?%), suspicion for gastric heterotopia (5?%) and scar (3?%). In 26?% of cases no pathologic endoscopic finding was reported. Both groups of patients with FGM showed a similar distribution of age ranges (24?-?83 years and 16?-?88 years), median age (62 years and 61 years, respectively) and a dominance of male sex (both 1.5:1). In conclusion, foveolar gastric metaplasia is a frequent, so far neglected correlate of endoscopically detected duodenal polyps. PMID:24718939

Sarbia, M; Sauer, G; Karimi, D; Berndt, R

2014-04-01

166

Duodenal calcium-binding-protein (CaBP) in the sodium deficient growing rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Sodium deficiency imposed for one week on growing rats with adequate vitamin D and calcium intake led to:—a decrease of fractional\\u000a calcium absorption,—an increase of intracellular calcium from duodenal mucosa (S100),—the maintenance of peak B (CaBP) and an enhancement of its calcium binding activity.\\u000a \\u000a According to our results, the increase of calcium binding activity could be interpreted as one physiologic

M. Thomasset; P. Cuisinier-Gleizes; H. Mathieu

1975-01-01

167

Frequency of different human mollicutes species in the mucosa of the oropharynx, conjunctiva, and genitalia of free-ranging and captive capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.).  

PubMed

This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of several Mollicutes species in Brazilian capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.). Mollicutes were detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in samples of the oropharyngeal, conjuctiva, and genital mucosae of 58 monkeys. In the oropharynx, Mollicutes in general (generic PCR to the Class), and those of the genus Ureaplasma (genus PCR), were detected in 72.4% and 43.0% of the samples, respectively. The identified species in this site included: Mycoplasma arginini (43.1%), M. salivarium (41.4%), and M. pneumoniae (19.0%). Both Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma are genera of the order Mycoplasmatales. In the preputial/vaginal mucosa, PCR detected Mollicutes in general in 27.58% of the samples, the genus Ureaplasma in 32.7%, the species M. arginini in 8.6%, and Acholeplasma laidlawii of the order Acholeplasmatales in 1.7% In the conjunctiva, Mollicutes in general were detected in 29.3% of the samples, with 1.7% being identified as A. laidlawii. Culturing was difficult due to contamination, but two isolates were successfully obtained. The Mollicutes species of this study provided new insights into these bacteria in Brazilian Cebus. Studies are lacking of the actual risk of Mollicutes infection or the frequency at which primates serve as permanent or temporary reservoirs for Mollicutes. In the present study, the samples were collected from monkeys without clinical signs of infection. The mere presence of Mollicutes, particularly those also found in humans, nevertheless signals a need for studies to evaluate the impact of these microorganisms on the health of non-human primates (NHPs) and the possibility of cross-species transmission between NHPs and humans. PMID:23677636

Neto, Renata L; Marques, Lucas M; Guimarães, Ana Márcia S; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Medina, Aziz O; Sanfilippo, Luis F; Timenetsky, Jorge

2013-10-01

168

Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in normal human buccal mucosa cells of oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy: a field effect.  

PubMed

Abstract We evaluated micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in exfoliated epithelial cells of the oral cavity on the side opposite the lesion targeted by radiotherapy and correlated them with radiation doses. Buccal smears were obtained from oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy with a cumulative dose of at least 1000 rad for 3 weeks and from controls matched for age, gender and habits. The exfoliated cells from the mucosa were collected using a cytobrush; smears were prepared, fixed in 80% methanol and stained using the Feulgen plus fast green method. The mean number of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies/1000 cells was significantly greater in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment, but the differences were not significant compared to radiation doses. It appears that radiotherapy has a potent clastogenic effect on buccal mucosal cells of oral cancer patients. PMID:24799093

Tak, A; Metgud, R; Astekar, M; Tak, M

2014-08-01

169

Gastrokine 1 Expression in the Human Gastric Mucosa Is Closely Associated with the Degree of Gastritis and DNA Methylation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gastrokine 1 plays an important role in gastric mucosal defense. Additionally, the Gastrokine 1-miR-185-DNMT1 axis has been shown to suppress gastric carcinogenesis through regulation of epigenetic alteration. Here, we investigated the effects of Gastrokine 1 on DNA methylation and gastritis. Materials and Methods Expression of Gastrokine 1, DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc proteins, and the presence of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein were determined in 55 non-neoplastic gastric mucosal tissue samples by western blot analysis. The CpG island methylation phenotype was also examined using six markers (p16, hMLH1, CDH1, MINT1, MINT2 and MINT31) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Histological gastritis was assessed according to the updated Sydney classification system. Results Reduced Gastrokine 1 expression was found in 20 of the 55 (36.4%) gastric mucosal tissue samples and was closely associated with miR-185 expression. The Gastrokine 1 expression level was inversely correlated with that of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc, and closely associated with the degree of gastritis. The H. pylori CagA protein was detected in 26 of the 55 (47.3%) gastric mucosal tissues and was positively associated with the expression of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc. In addition, 30 (54.5%) and 23 (41.9%) of the gastric mucosal tissues could be classified as CpG island methylation phenotype-low and CpG island methylation phenotype-high, respectively. Reduced expression of Gastrokine 1 and miR-185, and increased expression of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc were detected in the CpG island methylation phenotype-high gastric mucosa. Conclusions Gastrokine 1 has a crucial role in gastric inflammation and DNA methylation in gastric mucosa.

Choi, Won Suk; Seo, Ho Suk; Song, Kyo Young; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Olga; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Yong

2013-01-01

170

Duodenal atresia in dizygotic twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report duodenal atresia occurring in both members of dizygotic twins who showed no signs of Down's syndrome, and both had normal chromosomal constitutions. They both had the two unlinked end type of atresia in the second portion of the duodenum, and direct end-to-end duodenoduodenostomy was carried out. Their postoperative courses were smooth, and both babies were discharged 32

Takahide Yokoyama; Shinpachi Ishizone; Yoshitaka Momose; Masaru Terada; Shuuichirou Kitahara; Seiji Kawasaki

1997-01-01

171

Suppression of SLC11A2 Expression Is Essential to Maintain Duodenal Integrity During Dietary Iron Overload  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for the survival of mammals, but iron overload causes fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Reduced iron absorption and regulated release into circulation in duodenal mucosa constitute two major mechanisms of protection against dietary iron overload; however, their relative contribution remains elusive. To study the significance of the former process, we generated SLC11A2 transgenic mice (TGs) under the control of the chicken ?-actin promoter. TGs were viable and fertile, and displayed no overt abnormalities up to 20 months. No significant difference in iron concentration was observed in major solid organs between TGs and their wild-type littermates, suggesting that increased number of iron transporters does not lead to increased iron absorption. To test the sensitivity to iron overload, TGs and wild-type mice were fed with an iron-rich diet containing 2% ferric citrate. Iron supplementation caused suppression of endogenous duodenal SLC11A2 expression, down-regulation of duodenal ferroportin, and overexpression of hepatic hepcidin, precluding excessive iron uptake both in the TGs and wild-type mice. However, iron-treated TGs revealed increased mortality, resulting from oxidative mucosal damage leading to hemorrhagic erosion throughout the whole intestinal area. These findings suggest that reduced iron release from duodenal cells into circulation plays a role in mitigating excessive iron uptake from the diet and that finely regulated duodenal absorption is essential to protect intestinal mucosa from iron-induced oxidative damage.

Shirase, Tomoyuki; Mori, Kiyoshi; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Kishi, Fumio; Jiang, Li; Akatsuka, Shinya; Nakao, Kazuwa; Toyokuni, Shinya

2010-01-01

172

CD4+CD45RBHi Interleukin-4 Defective T Cells Elicit Antral Gastritis and Duodenitis  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the gastrointestinal inflammation which develops following adoptive transfer of IL-4 gene knockout (IL-4?/?) CD4+CD45RBHi (RBHi) T cells to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) or to T cell-deficient, T cell receptor ? and ? double knockout (TCR?/?) mice. Transfer of IL-4?/? RBHi T cells induced a similar type of colitis to that seen in SCID or TCR?/? recipients of wild-type (wt) RBHi T cells as reported previously. Interestingly, transfer of both wt and IL-4?/? RBHi T cells to TCR?/? but not to SCID mice induced inflammation in the gastric mucosa. Notably, TCR?/? recipients of IL-4?/? RBHi T cells developed a more severe gastritis with erosion, apoptosis of the antral epithelium, and massive infiltration of macrophages. This gastritis was partially dependent on the indigenous microflora. Recipients of both wt and IL-4?/? RBHi T cells developed duodenitis with multinuclear giant cells, expansion of mucosal macrophages, and dendritic cells. Full B cell responses were reconstituted in TCR?/? recipients of RBHi T cells; however, anti-gastric autoantibodies were not detected. We have now developed and characterized a novel model of chronic gastroduodenitis in mice, which will help in our understanding of the mechanisms involved in chronic inflammation in the upper gastrointestinal tract of humans.

Dohi, Taeko; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Koga, Toshiya; Etani, Yuri; Yoshino, Naoto; Kawamura, Yuki I.; McGhee, Jerry R.

2004-01-01

173

Autoantibodies to duodenal gastric-inhibitory-peptide (GIP) cells and to secretin (S) cells in patients with coeliac disease, tropical sprue and maturity-onset diabetes.  

PubMed Central

The presence of autoantibodies detected by immunofluorescence to single endocrine cells, of human duodenum is described in three groups of patients and two control groups. Of 173 coeliac cases, four had GIP cell antibodies, one had secretin cell antibodies and twenty-one reacted with both cell types. Of twelve tropical sprue sera, four reacted with the same two cells. Among fifty elderly diabetics treated with hypoglycaemic drugs, seven sera gave a positive cytoplasmic IFL on duodenal substrate. Four were identified as GIP cells by use of the appropriate hormone antiserum and three reactions were against cells distinct from those stained by anti-GIP, -secretin, -somatostatin, -glucagon and -gastrin. Additional gut hormone antisera will have to be tested to identify these APUD cells. Thirty blood donors and seventy-three sera from autoimmune endocrine patients gave entirely negative results on unfixed cryostat sections of duodenal mucosa. Although impaired GIP and secretin responses have been reported in coeliac disease, and abnormal GIP values were found in Type II diabetes, there is as yet no data to correlate these metabolic dificiencies with the presence of endocrine cell antibodies in the serum. These studies are in progress. Images p39-a p39-b p39-c

Mirakian, R; Bottazzo, G F; Doniach, D

1980-01-01

174

Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, and glycolysis in the uninvolved gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer patients.  

PubMed

Uninvolved gastric mucosa from duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer patients was incubated with [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose in order to assess the relative contributions of the pentose phosphate pathway and Krebs cycle to glucose metabolism. [14C]Glucose counts retained by the tissue, glycolysis, and pyruvate formation were also measured. Tumor tissue from the cancer patients was included in the study. Less than 1.2% of the glucose entering the tissues was metabolized via the pentose phosphate pathway; suggesting that this pathway plays a minor role in energy production from glucose. The major determinant of energy production was the Krebs cycle. Its contribution to glucose metabolism was greatest in the body mucosa of duodenal ulcer patients, less in the uninvolved body mucosa of gastric ulcer patients, and lower still in the corresponding body mucosa of gastric cancer patients. The low levels of Krebs cycle activity seen in the latter tissue resembled those of uninvolved antral mucosa. The smallest Krebs cycle contribution was seen in tumor tissue. [14C]Glucose counts retained by the tissue and glycolysis both tended to vary inversely with Krebs cycle activity among the tissues studied. Thus, both were small in the body mucosa of noncancer patients and somewhat larger in the body mucosa of cancer patients, in uninvolved antral mucosa and in tumor tissue. PMID:913974

Orwell, R L; Piper, D W

1977-12-01

175

Traumatic perforation of duodenal diverticulum.  

PubMed

A fragile 72-year-old female with previous coronary artery disease sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle crash. A ruptured duodenum was identified by computed tomography scanning. Exploratory laparotomy revealed that the duodenal rupture was caused by perforation of a diverticulum in the second portion of the duodenum. The surgical management of the injury to the duodenum is described in detail. PMID:9291392

Poostizadeh, A; Gow, K W; Al-Mahmeed, T; Allardyce, D B

1997-08-01

176

Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa  

PubMed Central

The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors.

Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R.; Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Baliga, M. S.; Gaikwad, Rahul N.

2012-01-01

177

Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors. PMID:22629049

Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R; Bahadure, Rakesh N; Baliga, M S; Gaikwad, Rahul N

2012-04-01

178

Somatostatin depletion by cysteamine: mechanism and implication for duodenal ulceration  

SciTech Connect

Cysteamine (CSH) and its close derivatives deplete immunoreactive somatostatin (SS) in rat organs. The effect of CSH is dose and time dependent and reversible. Structural requirements of the analogs are the presence of either -SH or -NH2 on a two- or three-carbon alkyl molecule; both radicals together increase, whereas insertion of carboxyl abolishes potency. The duodenal ulcerogenic potency of CSH derivatives is correlated significantly with their SS-depleting activity in the gastric mucosa. The mechanism of this action of CSH is poorly understood, but it is not caused by increased release, enhanced degradation of the peptide, or selective necrosis of SS cells. It is likely that in the intracellular environment CSH causes a conformational change in the peptide that affects the antigenic and functional properties of SS.

Szabo, S.; Reichlin, S.

1985-06-01

179

Amoxicillin plus omeprazole versus triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer disease: a prospective, randomized, and controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole resulted in encouraging Helicobacter pylori eradication rates in pilot studies that included medium term follow up. These results were evaluated in a prospective, randomised and controlled study. Forty patients with active duodenal ulcer disease and H pylori colonisation of the gastric mucosa were randomly assigned to receive either omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) and amoxicillin

J Labenz; E Gyenes; G H Rühl; G Börsch

1993-01-01

180

Expression of DC-SIGN by Dendritic Cells of Intestinal and Genital Mucosae in Humans and Rhesus Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission at mucosal surfaces, we examined the expressions of the HIV adhesion molecule, dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), its closely related homologue DC-SIGNR, and HIV coreceptors by distinct DC populations in the intestinal and genital tracts of humans and rhesus macaques. We also developed monoclonal antibodies

Brian Jameson; Frédéric Baribaud; Stefan Pöhlmann; Darlene Ghavimi; Frank Mortari; Robert W. Doms; Akiko Iwasaki

2002-01-01

181

Specific Detection and Prevalence of Helicobacter heilmannii-Like Organisms in the Human Gastric Mucosa by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Partial 16S Ribosomal DNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Gastric infection with Helicobacter heilmannii (previously known as Gastrospirillum hominis) is invariably linked with the presence of chronic gastritis and the risk of developing low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. In contrast to Helicobacter pylori, various H. heilmannii species colonize the stomachs of domestic animals, which might be a reservoir for transmission to humans (zoonosis). To identify the number and prevalence of different H. heilmanni types in humans, we analyzed 89 gastric biopsy samples histologically identified as H. heilmannii positive by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of these gastric specimens, 84 (94.4%) contained a single H. heilmannii type. In five samples, however, two different H. heilmannii types were detected. The most prevalent species in monoinfected samples is H. heilmannii type 1, found in 78.5% (66 of 84) of the specimens, followed by a novel H. heilmannii-like organism (HHLO), HHLO type 4, identified in 9.6% (8 of 84) of tissue sections. H. heilmannii type 2 and a further HHLO type not described before, type 3, were found in 8.3% (7 of 84) and 1.2% (1 of 84) of the monoinfected samples, respectively. Additionally, HHLO type 5 with a 16S ribosomal DNA sequence identical to that of Helicobacter salomonis was found with a prevalence of 2.4% (2 of 89). Thirteen of these biopsy samples were also investigated by a PCR approach developed for this study that allows a Helicobacter-specific amplification of a variable portion of the 16S rRNA gene and subsequent sequencing. In total, five different types of HHLOs could be identified within these samples. We conclude that humans can be infected by at least five different HHLO types, which presumably have their origin in animal species like dogs, cats, and pigs.

Trebesius, K.; Adler, K.; Vieth, M.; Stolte, M.; Haas, R.

2001-01-01

182

Specific detection and prevalence of Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms in the human gastric mucosa by fluorescent in situ hybridization and partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Gastric infection with Helicobacter heilmannii (previously known as Gastrospirillum hominis) is invariably linked with the presence of chronic gastritis and the risk of developing low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. In contrast to Helicobacter pylori, various H. heilmannii species colonize the stomachs of domestic animals, which might be a reservoir for transmission to humans (zoonosis). To identify the number and prevalence of different H. heilmanni types in humans, we analyzed 89 gastric biopsy samples histologically identified as H. heilmannii positive by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of these gastric specimens, 84 (94.4%) contained a single H. heilmannii type. In five samples, however, two different H. heilmannii types were detected. The most prevalent species in monoinfected samples is H. heilmannii type 1, found in 78.5% (66 of 84) of the specimens, followed by a novel H. heilmannii-like organism (HHLO), HHLO type 4, identified in 9.6% (8 of 84) of tissue sections. H. heilmannii type 2 and a further HHLO type not described before, type 3, were found in 8.3% (7 of 84) and 1.2% (1 of 84) of the monoinfected samples, respectively. Additionally, HHLO type 5 with a 16S ribosomal DNA sequence identical to that of Helicobacter salomonis was found with a prevalence of 2.4% (2 of 89). Thirteen of these biopsy samples were also investigated by a PCR approach developed for this study that allows a Helicobacter-specific amplification of a variable portion of the 16S rRNA gene and subsequent sequencing. In total, five different types of HHLOs could be identified within these samples. We conclude that humans can be infected by at least five different HHLO types, which presumably have their origin in animal species like dogs, cats, and pigs. PMID:11283079

Trebesius, K; Adler, K; Vieth, M; Stolte, M; Haas, R

2001-04-01

183

High Transcript Levels of Vitamin D Receptor Are Correlated with Higher mRNA Expression of Human Beta Defensins and IL-10 in Mucosa of HIV-1-Exposed Seronegative Individuals  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D (VitD) is an endogenous immunomodulator that could protect from HIV-1 infection reducing immune activation and inducing the expression of anti-HIV-1 peptides. To establish a correlation between VitD and natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, a case-control study using blood and mucosa samples of 58 HIV-1-exposed but seronegative (HESN) individuals, 43 HIV-1 seropositives (SPs) and 59 non-exposed healthy controls (HCs) was carried out. The VitD concentration in plasma was determined by ELISA, and mRNA relative units (RU) of VDR, IL-10, TGF-?, TNF-? and IL-1? in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), oral and genital mucosa was quantified by qRT-PCR. mRNA levels of human beta-defensin (HBD) -2 and -3 were previously reported and used for correlations. Significantly higher levels of VitD were found in plasma as well as higher mRNA RU of VDR in PBMCs, and in genital mucosa from HESN compared to HCs. In addition, higher mRNA RU of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-10, and lower mRNA RU of TGF-? were found in PBMC from HESNs compared to HCs. We also observed higher IL-10 mRNA RU in genital mucosa of HESNs compared to HCs, and the mRNA levels of TNF-? in oral and genital mucosa of SPs were higher compared to HESNs. Furthermore, positive correlations between VDR and IL-10 mRNA RU in PBMCs and genital mucosa of HESNs were found. Finally, HBD-2 and HBD-3 mRNA RU were positively correlated with VDR mRNA expression in oral mucosa from HESNs. These results suggest that high levels of VitD and its receptor are associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. Up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory IL-10, and the induction of anti-HIV-1 defensins in mucosa might be part of the mechanisms involved in this association. However, further studies are required to define causal associations.

Aguilar-Jimenez, Wbeimar; Zapata, Wildeman; Caruz, Antonio; Rugeles, Maria T.

2013-01-01

184

[SMC-electrophoresis of peat mud in the treatment of patients with duodenal ulcer in outpatient care unit].  

PubMed

To study collagen metabolism in reparative regeneration of duodenal ulcer in response to peat mud electrophoresis of Uva sanatorium using sinusoidal modulated currents (SMC) as monotherapy in a day hospital, 82 duodenal ulcer patients in exacerbation or attenuation were examined. They received SMC-electrophoresis of peat mud diluted by sulfate sodium-calcium mineral water Uvinskaya of moderate mineralization. The dynamics of clinico-endoscopic and morphological picture of the disease was controlled with fibrogastroduodenoscopy with target biopsy of the periulcer zone and antral stomach, investigation of secretory and acid-producing function of the stomach, hormone profile and collagen metabolism. Positive changes were found attributed to favourable shifts in the hormone status and normalization of collagen metabolism in duodenal mucosa. PMID:14650129

Korepanov, A M; Zhukova, M A; Chernysheva, N G; Shkliaev, A E; Vetitnev, A M; Subbotin, S P

2003-01-01

185

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on aspirin-induced damage and potential difference changes in human gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two aspirin tablets in 100 ml fluid will produce microscopical damage to the human stomach. A study was performed to determine whether a small amount of sodium bicarbonate (equivalent to one-third of a teaspoonful of baking soda) could protect against this damage. Sequential gastric biopsy specimens were taken from 15 healthy subjects before, during, and after intragastric instillation of one

Bruce K Bowen; William J Krause; Kevin J Ivey

1977-01-01

186

Vitamin D and its metabolites inhibit cell proliferation in human rectal mucosa and a colon cancer cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like calcium, vitamin D may protect against colorectal neoplasia as it reduces epithelial cell proliferation and induces differentiation. Although its therapeutic use is limited by its effects on calcium metabolism, analogues such as calcipotriol produce little hypercalcaemia. Stathmokinetic and immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the effect of 1,25 (OH)2 D3 and its analogues on cell proliferation in human rectal

M G Thomas; S Tebbutt; R C Williamson

1992-01-01

187

Differentiation between human normal colon mucosa and colon cancer tissue using ToF-SIMS imaging technique and principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human normal colon mucosa and colon cancer tissue were studied using the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques. The surfaces of the tissues were successfully cleaned by C 602+ cluster-ion beams before the ToF-SIMS images were obtained. A PCA on the spectra and images were performed to compare differences in the peaks and images of normal and cancer tissues. Significant differences in principal component 1 (PC 1) score values for normal and cancer tissues were observed, and each PC 1 loadings had a specific peak profile of proteins. In addition, the PC images obtained from the ToF-SIMS images for normal and cancer tissues were clearly distinguishable, and the amino acid fragments associated with normal and cancer tissues were found to have originated from the lamina propria region and the epithelium cells, respectively. Based on the PCA results, structural distortion of the crypts in the cancer colon tissue could be attributed to the proliferation of the cancerous epithelium cells. This work shows that the application of the ToF-SIMS imaging technique with PCA could be a useful method of obtaining valuable information for cancer analysis.

Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, In Hoo; Moon, Dae Won; Lee, Tae Geol

2008-12-01

188

Duodenal ferritin synthesis in genetic hemochromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The molecular defect of genetic hemochromatosis (GH) is unknown. It is believed that low expression of duodenal ferritin in GH is caused by tissue or cell specific defect of ferritin synthesis. Our study was designed to ascertain whether the control of duodenal ferritin synthesis in GH was defective. Methods: Expression at the single cell level of H and L

Antonello Pietrangelo; Giovanna Casalgrandi; Daniela Quaglino; Rossana Gualdi; Dario Conte; Stefano Milani; Giuliana Montosi; Lucia Cesarini; Ezio Ventura; Gaetano Cairo

1995-01-01

189

Determination of p185 and adenylosuccinate lyase (ASL) activity in preneoplastic colon lesions and intestinal mucosa of human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The HER2 gene has been found amplified in a number of human adenocarcinoma leading to elevated levels of expression of its encoded product, p185 protein. Because little information is available on the tissue and tumor specificity of this gene product, we studied the expression of p185 protein in preneoplastic colon lesions. Adenylosuccinate lyase (ASL, EC 4.3.2.2) is known to

Lucia Terzuoli; Filippo Carlucci; Antonio De Martino; Barbara Frosi; Brunetta Porcelli; Chiara Minacci; Remo Vernillo; Lucia Baldi; Enrico Marinello; Roberto Pagani; Antonella Tabucchi

1998-01-01

190

High-grade B-cell lymphoma arising in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the duodenum.  

PubMed

Duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a rare neoplasm. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma located in the descending duodenum that was not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. A surgical resection due to obstruction of the bowel lumen above the ligament of Treitz was performed. No invasion into the adjacent structure was confirmed at surgery. The pathological examination showed an infiltration of the duodenal mucosa and submucosa with B lymphocytes. Monoclonal proliferation of the lymphoid tissue was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction. The histological appearance and the demonstration of monoclonality fulfilled the criteria for malignant high-grade B-cell lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. PMID:12172414

Leone, Nicola; Brunello, Franco; Baronio, Monica; Giordanino, Chiara; Morgando, Anna; Marchesa, Pierenrico; Delsedime, Luisa; Rizzetto, Mario

2002-08-01

191

Continuous duodenal infusions of levodopa.  

PubMed

Infusion of carbidopa/levodopa or levodopa through a duodenal tube can facilitate increased mobility and functional ability in individuals with Parkinson's disease when conventional drug therapy is unsuccessful in achieving desired outcomes. Therapy requires appropriate patient selection, ongoing assessment of the patient's physical and emotional needs and collaboration between the patient, nurses and physicians. Determining the amount of medication required to achieve the desired outcomes takes time. Implantable pumps may be a future strategy. Future research should focus on patient and family coping throughout hospitalization and at home so the emotional needs of this specific population can be met. PMID:8270813

Fowler, S B; Bergen, M

1993-10-01

192

Appearance of compound cilia in the nasal mucosa of normal human subjects following acute, in vivo exposure to sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Electron microscopic examination of ultrathin sections of ciliated nasal epithelium obtained from seven normal, healthy human volunteers indicated increases in the prevalence of compound cilia following controlled, acute exposure to 0.75 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Morphometric analyses of the specimens confirmed a statistically significant association between SO/sub 2/ exposure and compounding of nasal epithelial cilia in four of the seven subjects. Concomitant freeze-fracture replicas prepared from these samples also revealed the occurrence of compound cilia with accompanying evidence of abnormal ciliary membrane ultrastructure in the nasal epithelium. These studies indicate that SO/sub 2/ may be implicated as a causative agent in ciliary compounding in the upper respiratory tract and that compound cilia represent a form of acquired ciliary defect which may serve as a readily quantifiable marker of epithelial injury.

Carson, J.L.; Collier, A.M.; Hu, S.C.; Smith, C.A.; Stewart, P.

1987-02-01

193

Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

2012-02-01

194

Bleeding renal angiomyolipoma presenting as duodenal obstruction.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 60-year-old woman who had a delayed presentation of duodenal obstruction as a result of a bleeding right renal angiomyolipoma (AML) with retroperitoneal hematoma. Her duodenal obstruction did not improve upon conservative management, and a computed tomography (CT)-guided drainage of the retroperitoneal hematoma was subsequently performed. Post-intervention, CT scan confirmed hematoma resolution, and she was able to resume normal diet afterwards. We present this first reported case of a bleeding renal AML with retroperitoneal hematoma causing duodenal obstruction and discuss on the management of such condition. PMID:23775707

Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Chan, Ning Hong; Cheung, Ho Yuen; Hou, Simon See Ming; Ng, Chi-Fai

2013-08-01

195

Duodenal carcinoid tumor - a case report.  

PubMed

Carcinoid tumors are well differentiated neuroendochrine tumors which most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract; however duodenal carcinoid tumors are rare. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. A 52 years old lady presented with the symptoms of recurrent upper abdominal pain, burning sensation of whole body and passage of loose stool. On endoscopy of upper GIT, there was a duodenal polyp. Polyp was removed by endoscopic resection and tissue was taken for biopsy. Histological findings of biopsy specimen shows carcinoid tumor. As duodenal carcinoid tumor is a rare presentation so we are going to present this case in this article. PMID:24584389

Debnath, C R; Debnath, M R; Haque, M A; Das, S N; Moshwan, M M; Karim, R; Uddoula, M S

2014-01-01

196

Massive dissecting intramural duodenal haematoma following endoscopic haemostasis of a bleeding duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed

Intramural duodenal haematoma is a rare injury of the duodenum. Most reported cases are secondary to blunt trauma to the abdomen. Such injury following endoscopic intervention is even rarer, and there are no definite guidelines for its management. We report a case where endoscopic haemostasis of a bleeding duodenal ulcer resulted in a massive dissecting intramural duodenal haematoma with gastric outlet obstruction and obstructive jaundice. PMID:16644511

Lukman, Mohd Rashid; Jasmi, Ali Yaakub; Niza, S Shahrun

2006-04-01

197

Laparoscopic duodenoduodenostomy for duodenal atresia.  

PubMed

A 3,220-g newborn baby with trisomy 21 presented with duodenal atresia. No other congenital malformations were diagnosed. Informed consent for a laparoscopic approach was obtained. The child was placed in a supine, head-up position slightly rotated to the left at the end of a shortened operating table. The surgeon stood at the bottom end with the cameraperson to his left and the scrub nurse to his right. The screen was at the right upper end. Open insertion of a cannula for a 5-mm 30 degrees telescope through the inferior umbilical fold was performed. A carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum with a pressure of 8 mmHg and a flow of 2l/min was established. Two 3.3-mm working cannulas were inserted; one in the left hypogastrium and one pararectally on the right at the umbilical level. Two more such cannulas were inserted; one under the xyphoid for a liver elevator and one in the right hypogastrium for a sucker. Mobilization of the dilated upper and collapsed lower duodenum was easy. After transverse enterotomy of the upper duodenum and longitudinal enterotomy of the distal duodenum, a diamond-shaped anastomosis with interrupted 5 zero Vicryl sutures were performed. The absence of air in the bowel beyond the atresia increased the working space and greatly facilitated the procedure. The technique proved to be easy, and the child did very well. Laparoscopic bowel anastomosis in newborn babies had not been described previously. Recently, a diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy for duodenal atresia was performed. The technique proved to be simple and is described in detail. The child did very well. PMID:12200660

Bax, N M; Ure, B M; van der Zee, D C; van Tuijl, I

2001-02-01

198

Review of Duodenal and Gastric Ulcer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Duodenal and gastric ulcer are chronic often recurring conditions that in the past were grouped together as peptic ulcer. Many diverse environmental and genetic factors, which create an imbalance between secretion of acid and pepsin by by the stomach and ...

F. C. Garland E. D. Gorham

1985-01-01

199

Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

1986-07-01

200

Duodenal-mucosal bacteria associated with celiac disease in children.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor; Sanz, Yolanda

2013-09-01

201

Duodenal-Mucosal Bacteria Associated with Celiac Disease in Children  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota.

Sanchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernandez-Murga, Maria Leonor

2013-01-01

202

Pre duodenal portal vein as a cause of duodenal obstruction in an adult.  

PubMed

Pre duodenal portal vein (PDPV) has not been reported as a cause of duodenal obstruction in adults. We describe a 60 year old man who presented with symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction caused by PDPV, and was diagnosed at laparotomy and treated by gastrojejunostomy. PMID:15550110

John, Ajo K; Gur, Ufuk; Aluwihare, Arjuna; Cade, David

2004-11-01

203

Occlusion and subsequent re-canalization in early duodenal development of human embryos: integrated organogenesis and histogenesis through a possible epithelial-mesenchymal interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histogenesis of the duodenum, especially changes in the epithelium in relation to temporal occlusion and re-canalization of\\u000a the lumen, was investigated by light microscopy together with morphometric analysis, as well as by scanning and transmission\\u000a electron microscopy of 133 externally normal human embryos ranging from Carnegie stage 12 to 23. A series of morphogenetic\\u000a events passed the duodenum in a

Akihiro Matsumoto; Koji Hashimoto; Takafumi Yoshioka; Hiroki Otani

2002-01-01

204

Canalicular adenoma of buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Canalicular adenoma is a benign tumor which comprises 1% of salivary gland neoplasms and 4% of minor salivary gland tumors. It occurs in the upper lip mucosa in about 90% of cases. The next most common location is the buccal mucosa (9.5% of tumors). We present herein a new case of canalicular adenoma of buccal mucosa involving a 74-year-old man. He was suffering of a slowly growing and painless nodule of the right buccal mucosa. The treatment was surgery and histological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of canalicular adenoma. No recurrence was noted one year later. PMID:17987725

Maamouri, F; Bellil, K; Bellil, S; Chelly, I; Mekni, A; Kchir, N; Haouet, S; Zitouna, M

2007-06-01

205

Duodenal duplication in the adult: its relationship with pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Seven cases of duodenal duplication in the adult are reported. The ultrasound and computed tomographic findings are analyzed. The relationship between duodenal duplication and pancreatitis is discussed. PMID:3049208

Procacci, C; Portuese, A; Fugazzola, C; Pederzoli, P; Caudana, R; Gallo, E; Bergamo Andreis, I A; Spiller, M; Zonta, L; Graziani, R

1988-10-01

206

Increased expression of IL-10 and IL-12 (p40) mRNA in Helicobacter pylori infected gastric mucosa: relation to bacterial cag status and peptic ulceration.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To investigate interleukin (IL)-12 (p40) and IL-10 mRNA expression levels in the gastric mucosa in relation to H pylori cag status, peptic ulceration, and histopathology. METHODS: In 81 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histology. G3PDH (control) and IL-10 and IL-12 were coamplified in a duplex PCR and the ratios of cytokines to G3PDH were determined. Bacterial ureA and cagA status was determined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: IL-10 mRNA expression in both the antral and corpus mucosa was greater (p < 0.01) in cagA positive infection than in H pylori negative patients with histologically normal mucosa. No increase in IL-10 mRNA expression was observed in cagA negative infection. Both in the antral and corpus mucosa, IL-12 mRNA expression was greater (p < 0.05) in cagA positive than in cagA negative infection and uninfected patients with normal gastric mucosa. In cagA positive infection, there was a correlation between IL-10 and IL-12 mRNA expression in both the antral mucosa (r = 0.515, p < 0.01) and the corpus mucosa (r = 0.6, p < 0.005). IL-12 mRNA expression in the antral mucosa was significantly more frequent in H pylori positive patients with duodenal ulcer than in those with gastric ulcer or nonulcer dyspepsia. No difference was observed in IL-10 mRNA expression in relation to endoscopic diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: CagA positive H pylori infection is associated with increased IL-10 and IL-12 mRNA expression. The increased expression of IL-12 mRNA in the majority of patients with duodenal ulcer suggests that Th1 responses may predominate and play a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. Images

Hida, N; Shimoyama, T; Neville, P; Dixon, M F; Axon, A T; Shimoyama, T; Crabtree, J E

1999-01-01

207

Respective hydrolysis and esterification of esterified and free plant stanols occur rapidly in human intestine after their duodenal infusion in triacyl- or diacylglycerol.  

PubMed

Esterification of dietary phytosterols and glycerols may affect intestinal absorption of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols. We infused plant stanol esters in triacylglycerol (TAG) (F1) and diacylglycerol (DG) (F2) oils, and free plant stanols in F1 and F2 (F3) to the duodenum of healthy human subjects and sampled the contents from the proximal jejunum (PJ). Free and ester sterols were analysed from the infusates, and intestinal contents before and after ultracentrifuge separation of oil, micelle and sediment phases. During the 60-cm intestinal passage, over 40% of plant stanol esters were hydrolysed (P < 0.05) but around 30% of the infused free plant stanols (P < 0.05) and up to 40% of cholesterol (P < 0.05) were esterified in PJ after infusions. TAG in F1 favoured accumulation of plant stanol esters in the oil phase of the PJ aspirates as compared with respective values of F2 and F3 (P < 0.05 for both). About one third of free plant stanols of F3 had been esterified (P < 0.05) and 17% precipitated mainly in free form in the PJ aspirates (P < 0.05 compared with F1 and F2). In conclusion, DG- and TAG-oils had no profound superiority over each other as intestinal carriers regarding hydrolysis/esterification of administered plant stanol esters and cholesterol and their partition in oil, micellar and sediment phases in the PJ. The unesterified plant stanols experienced partial esterification and sedimentation during their intestinal passage, which might influence their biochemical properties in that segment of the gut where cholesterol is absorbed. PMID:17551763

Nissinen, Markku J; Vuoristo, Matti; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A

2007-07-01

208

Helicobacter pylori infection induces duodenitis and superficial duodenal ulcer in Mongolian gerbils  

PubMed Central

Background: There is no direct evidence for an animal model of Helicobacter pylori induced duodenal ulcer. Aim: In this study we evaluated the roles of bacterial strain and age of experimental animals in induction of duodenitis and duodenal ulcer in Mongolian gerbils after H pylori infection. Methods: Specific pathogen free Mongolian gerbils were inoculated orally with three bacterial strains (H pylori ATCC 43504, TN2GF4, and K-6, a clinical isolate from a patient with gastric cancer in our clinic). These strains have both the cagA gene and VacA. Five week old gerbils were used to emulate prematurity infection and 14 week old animals were used as mature test subjects. Animals were observed for 12 weeks after inoculation. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) production in gastric epithelial cells (MKN74) after coculture with the H pylori strains was measured by ELISA. Results: Gastritis and gastric ulcers were found in all gerbils infected with the three strains. However, duodenitis and gastric metaplasia were seen more frequently in gerbils infected with TN2GF4 and K-6 strains than in the ATCC 43504 infected or control groups (p<0.05). Superficial duodenal ulcers with severe duodenitis and gastric metaplasia were found in two gerbils inoculated at 14 weeks with the TN2GF4 strain but none at five weeks. The TN2GF4 strain stimulated significantly higher levels of IL-8 than ATCC 43504 and K6 strains (p=0.0039). Conclusions: When injected into adult Mongolian gerbils, a specific strain (TN2GF4) of H pylori can induce duodenitis with gastric metaplasia and superficial duodenal ulcers. Induction of duodenal ulcer in an animal model fulfills the requirements of Koch’s postulates for establishing a role for H pylori as a causative agent.

Ohkusa, T; Okayasu, I; Miwa, H; Ohtaka, K; Endo, S; Sato, N

2003-01-01

209

Duodenal rupture following trauma in a child.  

PubMed

We present a case of delayed presentation of a traumatic duodenal rupture in a 15-year-old boy. He presented 12 hours after falling six feet and sustaining blunt trauma to his anterior abdominal wall. On arrival in the Emergency Department he was shocked and peritonitic. After initial resuscitation he was stable and transferred to computed tomography where free retroperitoneal air and duodenal rupture was found. He was transferred to theatre where he underwent laparotomy and successful repair of the rupture. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged nine days later. Duodenal rupture is a rare but serious complication of blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnosis is difficult but missed diagnosis and delayed presentation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A high index for suspicion must be kept when dealing with blunt abdominal trauma to ensure this is not missed. PMID:21680305

McWhirter, Derek

2011-05-01

210

Duodenal bacterial overgrowth during treatment in outpatients with omeprazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of duodenal bacterial overgrowth during the pronounced inhibition of acid secretion that occurs with omeprazole treatment is unknown. The bacterial content of duodenal juice of patients treated with omeprazole was therefore examined in a controlled prospective study. Duodenal juice was obtained under sterile conditions during diagnostic upper endoscopy. Aspirates were plated quantitatively for anaerobic and aerobic organisms. Twenty

M Fried; H Siegrist; R Frei; F Froehlich; P Duroux; J Thorens; A Blum; J Bille; J J Gonvers; K Gyr

1994-01-01

211

Impact of familial amyloid associated polyneuropathy on duodenal endocrine cells.  

PubMed Central

Duodenal endocrine cells in 11 patients with familial amyloid associated polyneuropathy (FAP) were compared with those in 12 healthy volunteers by means of immunohistochemistry and morphometry. The total endocrine cell content, determined by the argyrophilic reaction and chromogranin A immunoreactivity, was significantly reduced in FAP patients compared with controls. There was a significant reduction in the serotonin, cholecystokinin/gastrin, and secretin immunoreactive cell content. A decreased cell content was also noted for somatostatin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide immunoreactive cells but this was not statistically significant. Amyloid deposits were noted in seven of the 11 biopsy specimens from FAP patients, but otherwise the duodenum was histologically normal in both groups. The reduction in endocrine cell content was not correlated with the degree of amyloid deposit in the duodenum. These findings indicate that patients with FAP have reduced intestinal endocrine cells. This does not seem to be related to amyloid deposits in the mucosa or to villous or crypt abnormalities. The observed changes in endocrine cells may contribute to the development of intestinal motility dysfunction and maldigestion in these patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

el-Salhy, M; Suhr, O; Stenling, R; Wilander, E; Grimelius, L

1994-01-01

212

Mini-loop ligation of a bleeding duodenal Dieulafoy's lesion  

PubMed Central

Two percent of gastrointestinal hemorrhages are caused by Dieulafoy’s lesions, which are located in duodenum in only 15% of cases. There are no recommendations regarding the prime endoscopic treatment technique for this condition. A 61-year-old woman presented with melena without signs of hemodynamic instability. During an urgent upper endoscopy, blood oozing from the normal mucosa of the duodenum was seen and this was classified as a Dieulafoy’s lesion. A mini-loop was opened at the rim of a transparent ligation chamber, at the end of the endoscope, and after aspiration of the lesion, closed and detached. Complete hemostasis was achieved without early or postponed complications. In every day clinical practice, mini-loop ligation is rarely used because of possible complications, such as site ulceration, organ perforation, re-bleeding and possible inexperience of the operator. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of successful treatment of bleeding duodenal Dieulafoy’s lesion by mini-loop ligation.

Gomercic Palcic, Marija; Ljubicic, Neven

2013-01-01

213

Localisation of vitamin D receptor in normal human duodenum and in patients with coeliac disease.  

PubMed

Immunocytochemistry using a specific monoclonal antibody 9A7 gamma was used to identify receptors for calcitriol (1,25 (OH)2 D3), the active metabolite of vitamin D, in sections of duodenal mucosa. Specific staining for vitamin D receptors was largely restricted to nuclei of enterocytes lining crypts in duodenal biopsy specimens from normal mucosa. Vitamin D receptors were also abundant in crypts from duodenal mucosa in coeliac disease patients with mucosal damage and villous atrophy. In contrast, alkaline phosphatase, a vitamin D regulated protein, was absent from crypts but present on brush borders of normal villi, and on surface enterocytes in coeliac disease. Oestrogen receptor could not be identified in duodenal mucosa. These findings suggest that calcium malabsorption in coeliac disease does not result from the absence of vitamin D receptors, but rather from reduction in vitamin D regulated proteins and functions essential for active calcium absorption that are located in the enterocytes of the villi. PMID:7959227

Colston, K W; Mackay, A G; Finlayson, C; Wu, J C; Maxwell, J D

1994-09-01

214

Disruption of the ECM33 Gene in Candida albicans Prevents Biofilm Formation, Engineered Human Oral Mucosa Tissue Damage and Gingival Cell Necrosis/Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

In this study we demonstrated that ?Caecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida.

Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

2012-01-01

215

Human duodenum responses to vitamin D metabolites of TRPV6 and other genes involved in calcium absorption  

PubMed Central

Calcium absorption by the intestine is necessary for bone mineralization. Much has been learned about this process and the role of vitamin D metabolites in gene transcription from animal studies, but the molecular mechanisms in humans are less well understood. We have used samples of normal human duodenal mucosa, obtained at endoscopy, to investigate the effects of the vitamin D metabolites, 1?-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), on transcripts on genes involved in calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism. TRPV6 transcripts were significantly higher after incubation for 6 h with 1,25(OH)2D3 (10?9 mol/l) than after control incubations (median difference 3.1-fold, P < 0.001). Unexpectedly, TRPV6 expression was also higher (2.4-fold, P < 0.02) after incubation with 25OHD (10?7 mol/l). Transcripts for the calcium-ATPase, PMCA1, were significantly higher with 1,25(OH)2D3; CYP24 transcripts were reliably detected after incubation with either metabolite, but calbindin-D9k transcripts were unaffected. The response of TRPV6 to 25OHD and the expression of transcripts for CYP27B1, the 25OHD-1?-hydroxylase, were significantly correlated (r = 0.82, P < 0.02). Basal duodenal expression of TRPV6 and CYP27B1 were significantly associated (r = 0.72, P < 0.001) in a separate previously reported series of subjects. Multiple regression analysis of the associations with basal duodenal TRPV6 expression identified CYP27B1 expression and serum 1,25(OH)2D as major factors. Expression of the CYP27B1 protein was demonstrated immunohistochemically in duodenal mucosa. This study has shown that human duodenal TRPV6, PMCA1, and CYP24 transcripts respond rapidly to 1,25(OH)2D3 and provides evidence suggesting that local duodenal production of 1,25(OH)2D3 by 25OHD-1?-hydroxylase may have a role in human calcium absorption.

Balesaria, Sara; Sangha, Sonia

2009-01-01

216

Human proximal duodenal ion and water transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal ion transport is mediated by the interaction of enterocyte function, the enteric nervous system, humoral agents, and mucosal production of carbonic anhydrase. Our purpose was to examine the effect of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide and inhibition of the enteric nervous system with the topical anesthetic lidocaine on basal and prostaglandin E2-stimulated ion and water transport and transmucosal electrical

Tina W. Knutson; Lars F. Knutson; Daniel L. Hogan; Michael A. Koss; Jon I. Isenberg

1995-01-01

217

Endoscopic treatment of duodenal fistula after incomplete closure of ERCP-related duodenal perforation.  

PubMed

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality for various pancreatic and biliary diseases. The most common ERCP-induced complication is pancreatitis, whereas hemorrhage, cholangitis, and perforation occur less frequently. Early recognition and prompt treatment of these complications may minimize the morbidity and mortality. One of the most serious complications is perforation. Although the incidence of duodenal perforation after ERCP has decreased to < 1.0%, severe cases still require prolonged hospitalization and urgent surgical intervention, potentially leading to permanent disability or mortality. Surgery remains the mainstay treatment for perforations of the luminal organs of the gastrointestinal tract. However, evidence from case reports and case series support a beneficial role of endoscopic clipping in the closure of these defects. Duodenal fistulas are usually a result of sphincterotomies, perforated duodenal ulcers, or gastrectomy. Other causative factors include Crohn's disease, trauma, pancreatitis, and cancer. The majority of duodenal fistulas heal with nonoperative management. Those that fail to heal are best treated with gastrojejunostomy. Recently proposed endoscopic approaches for managing gastrointestinal leaks caused by fistulas include fibrin glue injection and positioning of endoclips. Our patient developed a secondary persistent duodenal fistula as a result of previous incomplete closure of duodenal perforation with hemoclips and an endoloop. The fistula was successfully repaired by additional clipping and fibrin glue injection. PMID:24932379

Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Man Yong; Hong, Seung Goun

2014-06-16

218

Endoscopic treatment of duodenal fistula after incomplete closure of ERCP-related duodenal perforation  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality for various pancreatic and biliary diseases. The most common ERCP-induced complication is pancreatitis, whereas hemorrhage, cholangitis, and perforation occur less frequently. Early recognition and prompt treatment of these complications may minimize the morbidity and mortality. One of the most serious complications is perforation. Although the incidence of duodenal perforation after ERCP has decreased to < 1.0%, severe cases still require prolonged hospitalization and urgent surgical intervention, potentially leading to permanent disability or mortality. Surgery remains the mainstay treatment for perforations of the luminal organs of the gastrointestinal tract. However, evidence from case reports and case series support a beneficial role of endoscopic clipping in the closure of these defects. Duodenal fistulas are usually a result of sphincterotomies, perforated duodenal ulcers, or gastrectomy. Other causative factors include Crohn’s disease, trauma, pancreatitis, and cancer. The majority of duodenal fistulas heal with nonoperative management. Those that fail to heal are best treated with gastrojejunostomy. Recently proposed endoscopic approaches for managing gastrointestinal leaks caused by fistulas include fibrin glue injection and positioning of endoclips. Our patient developed a secondary persistent duodenal fistula as a result of previous incomplete closure of duodenal perforation with hemoclips and an endoloop. The fistula was successfully repaired by additional clipping and fibrin glue injection.

Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Man Yong; Hong, Seung Goun

2014-01-01

219

Duodenal PEComa: A review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perivascular Epitheliod cell tumours (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal tumours characterised by co-expression of melanocytic and myocytic markers. These tumours rarely occur in the gastrointestinal tract. The authors present a case of duodenal PEComa in a 34-year-old man.

Srikanth Narayanaswamy; Nanda Venkatanarasimha; David Buckley; Mark Puckett

2008-01-01

220

Gastric and Duodenal Safety of Daily Alendronate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Isolated case reports of gastric ulcers af- ter alendronate sodium use raised concern about the gas- troduodenal safety of daily alendronate. This study was conducted to estimate the excess risk of hospitaliza- tions for gastric or duodenal perforations, ulcers, and bleeding associated with alendronate use. Participants and Methods: Study subjects were 6432 men and women, 35 years or older.

James G. Donahue; K. Arnold Chan; Susan E. Andrade; Arne Beck; Myde Boles; Diana S. M. Buist; Vincent J. Carey; Julie M. Chandler; Gary A. Chase; Bruce Ettinger; Paul Fishman; Michael Goodman; Harry A. Guess; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Andrea Z. LaCroix; T. R. Levin; Richard Platt

2002-01-01

221

[The parietal cell mass and acid secretion: Helicobacter pylori does not induce changes in the course of a duodenal ulcer].  

PubMed

Some studies have postulated that Helicobacter pylori (HP) itself might be responsible for hypergastrinemia and acid secretion in duodenal ulcer (DU). In each DU patient parietal cell mass (expressed by a parietal index) and stimulated acid secretion (expressed by maximal acid output) were evaluated. The study has been conducted grouping DU patients in relation to HP infection in antral mucosa. HP infection does not modify parietal cell mass and stimulated acid secretion. Therefore, mild chronic hypergastrinemia induced by HP infection is not sufficient to justify any increase of parietal index and acid secretion. In fact, parietal cells and acid secretion remain higher in DU subjects independently from HP infection. PMID:8684678

Testino, G; Sumberaz, A; Cornaggia, M

1995-12-01

222

Active and Passive Intranasal Immunizations with Streptococcal Surface Protein C5a Peptidase Prevent Infection of Murine Nasal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue, a Functional Homologue of Human Tonsils  

PubMed Central

C5a peptidase, also called SCPA (surface-bound C5a peptidase), is a surface-bound protein on group A streptococci (GAS), etiologic agents for a variety of human diseases including pharyngitis, impetigo, toxic shock, and necrotizing fasciitis, as well as the postinfection sequelae rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. This protein is highly conserved among different serotypes and is also expressed in human isolates of group B, C, and G streptococci. Human tonsils are the primary reservoirs for GAS, maintaining endemic disease across the globe. We recently reported that GAS preferentially target nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in mice, a tissue functionally analogous to human tonsils. Experiments using a C5a peptidase loss-of-function mutant and an intranasal infection model showed that this protease is required for efficient colonization of NALT. An effective vaccine should prevent infection of this secondary lymphoid tissue; therefore, the potential of anti-SCPA antibodies to protect against streptococcal infection of NALT was investigated. Experiments showed that GAS colonization of NALT was significantly reduced following intranasal immunization of mice with recombinant SCPA protein administered alone or with cholera toxin, whereas a high degree of GAS colonization of NALT was observed in control mice immunized with phosphate-buffered saline only. Moreover, administration of anti-SCPA serum by the intranasal route protected mice against streptococcal infection. These results suggest that intranasal immunization with SCPA would prevent colonization and infection of human tonsils, thereby eliminating potential reservoirs that maintain endemic disease.

Park, Hae-Sun; Cleary, P. Patrick

2005-01-01

223

Management of Isolated Blunt Duodenal Injury  

PubMed Central

Five cases of duodenal injuries were treated in our hospital between January 1, 1975 and June 18, 1979. They belonged to the Class II and early Class III of duodenal injuries. They were treated with simple closure of the perforation in a single or double layer with external drainage. Only in one case were gastrojejunostomy and bilateral vagotomy added because the patient had a history of ulcer disease. The delay in operative treatment ranged between five and 48 hours. All responded well to the surgical treatment. In the instance of the longest operative delay, a purulent drainage occurred and it responded promptly to a selective antibiotic therapy. The average hospitalization stay was nine days for the patients operated upon early, whereas it was 15 days for the two delayed cases. No mortality was recorded. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Nasr, Elias N.; Bhatti, Muhammad A. K.; Warner, Errol

1981-01-01

224

[Duodenal perforation after blunt abdominal trauma].  

PubMed

Duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a woman who had a perforation of the duodenum after a supposed mild blunt abdominal trauma. Unremarkable at the initial presentation, the patient presented with acute abdominal pain and a retroperitoneal abscess five days after the initial trauma. The duodenal repair was performed with a Roux-Y anastomosis. Difficulties in diagnosis are very common, but the early recognition of the rupture is essential. The contrast-enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for diagnosis. Surgical management depends on the severity of the trauma and must be chosen on an individual basis. PMID:20020392

Schneider, R; Moebius, C; Thelen, A; Jonas, S

2009-12-01

225

Management of Simultaneous Biliary and Duodenal Obstruction: The Endoscopic Perspective  

PubMed Central

Obstructive jaundice often develops in patients with unresectable malignancy in and around the head of the pancreas. Duodenal obstruction can also occur in these patients, and usually develops late in the disease course. Palliation of both malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction is traditionally performed with surgical diversion of the bile duct and stomach, respectively. With the advent of nonsurgical palliation of biliary obstruction using endoscopic transpapillary expandable metal stent placement, a similar approach can be used to palliate duodenal obstruction by placement of expandable metal gastroduodenal stents. Endoscopic palliation can be achieved in patients who require relief of both biliary obstruction and duodenal obstruction, although this can be technically difficult to achieve depending on the level of duodenal obstruction in relation to the major papilla. This article reviews the endoscopic approaches for combined palliative relief of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction.

2010-01-01

226

Well-Differentiated Duodenal Tumor\\/Carcinoma (Excluding Gastrinomas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are located in the duodenum and may or may not be associated with a functional clinical syndrome. The term duodenal NET includes all duodenal tumors with neuroendocrine (NE) features as determined by histological\\/immunohistochemical methods including positivity for NET cytosolic markers [neuron-specific enolase (NSE), PGP 9.5] or secretory vesicle proteins [chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin] and also frequently

Robert T. Jensen; Guido Rindi; Rudolf Arnold; José M. Lopes; Maria Luisa Brandi; Wolf O. Bechstein; Emanuel Christ; Babs G. Taal; Ulrich Knigge; Hakan Ahlman; Dik J. Kwekkeboom; Dermot O’Toole

2006-01-01

227

Leptin Promotes Wound Healing in the Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Results Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Conclusion Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa.

Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito

2014-01-01

228

[Glycoproteins of mucus of gastric and duodenal wall surface during ulcerogenesis and the impact of fenugreek].  

PubMed

The comparative evaluation of qualitative and quantitative composition of glycoproteins of gastric and duodenal wall surface layer of protective mucus in the normal, at the modeling of ulcers in rats and at the introduction to animals with ulcerative lesions of fenugreek extract carried out. It was shown in control (normally) the general level of glycosylation of glycoproteins gastric mucus is 1.7 times more than the duodenum. Under acute stress model ulceration in the stomach mucus decrease in hexosamine (1.4 times), galactose (2.2 times), fucose (1.3-fold) and an increase in NANA (3.6 times) observed. Under cysteamine model ulceration in duodenal mucus increase galactose (2.7 times), NANA (2.4 times), fucose (1.8-fold) but significant decrease in the amount of hexosamines 3 times compared to the control occurred. It was proved the protective effect of fenugreek extract to the wall surface mucus of the stomach and duodenum mucosa under conditions modeling ulceration in rats. PMID:24175480

Khil'ko, T D; Iakubtsova, I V; Preobrazhens'ka, T D; Ostapchenko, L I

2013-01-01

229

Embryologic and anatomic basis of duodenal surgery.  

PubMed

The following points should be remembered by surgeons (Table 1). In writing about the head of the pancreas, the common bile duct, and the duodenum in 1979, the authors stated that Embryologically, anatomically and surgically these three entities form an inseparable unit. Their relations and blood supply make it impossible for the surgeon to remove completely the head of the pancreas without removing the duodenum and the distal part of the common bile duct. Here embryology and anatomy conspire to produce some of the most difficult surgery of the abdominal cavity. The only alternative procedure, the so-called 95% pancreatectomy, leaves a rim of pancreas along the medial border of the duodenum to preserve the duodenal blood supply. The authors had several conversations with Child, one of the pioneers of this procedure, whose constant message was to always be careful with the blood supply of the duodenum (personal communication, 1970). Beger et al popularized duodenum-preserving resection of the pancreatic head, emphasizing preservation of endocrine pancreatic function. They reported that ampullectomy (removal of the papilla and ampulla of Vater) carries a mortality rate of less than 0.4% and a morbidity rate of less than 10.0%. Surgeons should not ligate the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries because such ligation may cause necrosis of the head of the pancreas and of much of the duodenum. The accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini passes under the gastrointestinal artery. For safety, surgeons should ligate the artery away from the anterior medial duodenal wall, where the papilla is located, thereby avoiding injury to or ligation of the duct. "Water under the bridge" applies not only to the relationship of the uterine artery and ureter but also to the gastroduodenal artery and the accessory pancreatic duct. In 10% of cases, the duct of Santorini is the only duct draining the pancreas, so ligation of the gastroduodenal artery with accidental inclusion of the duct is catastrophic. With the Kocher maneuver, surgeons reconstruct the primitive mesoduodenum and achieve mobilization of the duodenum, which is useful for some surgical procedures. Surgeons should not skeletonize more than 2 cm of the first part of the duodenum. If more than 2 cm of skeletonization is done, a duodenostomy using a Foley catheter may be necessary to avoid blow-up of the stump secondary to poor blood supply. Proximal duodenojejunostomy is advised for the safe management of patients with difficult duodenal stumps. Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy and duodenojejunostomy divert bile and food in the treatment of the complicated duodenal diverticulum. The suspensory ligament may be transected with impunity. It should be ligated before being sectioned so that bleeding from small vessels contained within can be avoided. Failure to sever the suspensory muscle completely, which is possible if the insertion is multiple, fails to relieve the symptoms of vascular compression of the duodenum (Fig. 18). Mobilization, resection, and end-to-end anastomosis of the duodenal flexure have been performed as a uniform surgical procedure, avoiding the conventional gastrojejunostomy. With a large, penetrating posterior duodenal or pyloric ulcer, surgeons should remember that The proximal duodenum shortens because of the inflammatory process (duodenal shortening) The anatomic topography of the distal common bile duct and the opening of the duct of Santorini and the ampulla of Vater is distorted Leaving the ulcer in situ is wise Careful palpation for or visualization of the location of the ampulla of Vater or common bile duct exploration with a catheter insertion into the common bile duct and the duodenum are useful procedures In most cases, the common bile duct is located to the right of the gastroduodenal artery at the posterior wall of the first part of the duodenum. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:10685148

Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, P N; Skandalakis, L J; Skandalakis, J E

2000-02-01

230

A study of changes in stomach wall at sites other than the ulcer in chronic duodenal ulcer patients.  

PubMed

It is known that at least 90% of duodenal ulcers are caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Eradicating this organism usually results in complete resolution of the disease (Rosengren, Br J Gen Pract 46(409):491-492, 1996). To study the different changes if any in stomach wall at sites other than the ulcer in chronic duodenal ulcer patients by upper Gastro-Intenstinal Endoscopy followed by histopathological examination of different parts of stomach. This study was a retrospective study conducted in the Department of General surgery, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla, Sambalpur, odisha during the period of June 2007 to May 2009. Subjects were patients with chronic duodenal ulcer who underwent endoscopic examination, gastric biopsy and rapid urease test. Chronic gastritis of antrum, followed by erythematous pangastritis was the prominent feature both in endoscopy and histopathological examination. The Inflammatory change affected the mucosa and submucosa of the stomach wall. The prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori was 84%, the antrum being the most common affected part (84%) followed by gastric fundus (41%). Chronic superficial atrophic gastritis of antrum, followed by pangastritis is the most common pathological abnormality in stomach wall in CDU cases. Gastric antrum is the most common site for H. pylori colonization followed by fundus. Presence of H. pylori in stomach wall is associated with active on chronic gastritis. PMID:22851838

Mishra, Jagmohan; Panigrahi, Souvagya

2011-08-01

231

Inter-relationship between Gasterophilus larvae and the horse's gastric and duodenal wall with special reference to penetration.  

PubMed

The degree of penetration into the stomach and duodenum of the horse by bot fly larvae, Gasterophilus intestinalis (De Geer) and G. nasalis (Linnaeus) (Diptera : Gasterophilidae) was evaluated. Evidence of larval perforation of the stomach or duodenum was not found on gross inspection. Palpation of the intact stomach and duodenum was not effective in establishing the existence of Gasterophilus larvae within the organs. Findings suggest that larvae of both species produce an ulcer of similar depth within the gastrointestinal wall. The ulcer depth produced by larvae did not correlate with the normal, unaffected thickness of the particular stomach or duodenum. Tissue proliferation beneath ulcers of the stomach and duodenum was not correlated with the depth of the ulcer. Proliferation of the tissue beneath the ulcers of the stomach generally exceeded that found under duodenal ulcers. Gastric wall beneath the G. intestinalis ulcer frequently attained a thickness equal to or greater than the normal stomach wall. Histopathological examinations below the ulcer revealed intense fibrosis. Duodenal thickness below the G. nasalis ulcer was typically less than normal and resulted in an attenuated wall. Histopathological analysis of the affected duodenum revealed severe loss of submucosal glands in a sharply demarcated area below and surrounding the lesion. Fibrosis of the underlying lamina propria mucosae and tunica submucosa was appreciable but failed to restore the original thickness of the duodenal wall. Host tissue response and moderation of the parasite' s behavior reduce the chances of direct perforation of the gastrointestinal tissue. PMID:10496697

Cogley, T P; Cogley, M C

1999-09-30

232

Investigation of phosphatidylcholine enhancing FITC-insulin across buccal mucosa by confocal laser scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim was to characterize the transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran and insulin with different resoluble compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. The penetration rate of insulin molecules through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the rabbit buccal mucosa epithelium, using confocal laser scanning microscopy for visualizing permeation pathways. The confocal images of the distribution pattern of FITC-dextran and FITC-insulin showed that the paracellular route is the major pathway of FITC-dextran through buccal mucosa epithelium, the intra-cellular route is the major pathway of FITC-insulin through buccal mucosa epithelium. The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC).

Tian, Weiqun; Su, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Gao, Qiuhua; Xu, Huibi

2002-04-01

233

Parallel expression of macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) in duodenal and skin lesions of patients with dermatitis herpetiformis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a specific dermatological manifestation of coeliac disease and 80% of DH patients have gluten sensitive enteropathy manifested by crypt hyperplasia and villous atrophy. Matrix degradation mediated by collagenase 1 (MMP-1) and stromelysin 1 (MMP-3) has previously been implicated in the pathobiology of coeliac intestine and cutaneous DH blisters.?AIMS—To study expression of stromelysin 2, metalloelastase, collagenase 3, and matrilysin in the intestine and skin of DH patients.?METHODS—In situ hybridisation using 35S labelled cRNA probes was performed on duodenal biopsies of 15 DH patients, three samples each of control duodenal or jejunal mucosa, fetal ileal explants, lesional DH skin, and 19 serial biopsies of experimental DH blisters. Immunostaining was used to examine type IV collagen, macrophages (CD68), and 92 kDa gelatinase (MMP-9) in the specimens.?RESULTS—Metalloelastase (MMP-12) was abundantly expressed by subepithelial macrophages in both coeliac intestine and spontaneous and induced DH rash. It was also upregulated in the experimental model of coeliac disease (staphylococcal endotoxin B stimulated fetal explants). The only other MMP detected was MMP-9 which did not colocalise with MMP-12.?CONCLUSIONS—Upregulation of metalloelastase is associated with T cell mediated immune responses both in the intestine and skin. In addition to modulating macrophage migration, it may contribute to degradation of proteoglycans or basement membrane components in the subepithelial mucosa.???Keywords: coeliac disease; metalloproteinase; dermatitis herpetiformis

Salmela, M; Pender, S; Reunala, T; MacDonald, T; Saarialho-Kere, U

2001-01-01

234

True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Benign fibrous overgrowths are often found in the oral cavity, almost always being reactive/irritational in nature. However, benign mesenchymal neoplasms of the fibroblasts are extremely uncommon. Here we report a case of “True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa” for its rarity.

Rao, Roopa S.; Sharath, Sanketh

2014-01-01

235

[Diagnostics and surgical treatment of traumatic intramural duodenal haematomes].  

PubMed

The duodenal trauma amounts 1,2% of all the abdominal trauma and does not exceed 10,0% in traumatic lesions of gastrointestinal organs. Authors represent analysis of surgical treatment of 8 patients with intramural duodenal hematomes. The optimal ways of diagnosis and surgical treatment of patients are suggested. PMID:18577968

Chirkov, R N; Abakumov, M M; Blokhin, V N

2008-01-01

236

Management of Descending Duodenal Injuries Secondary to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To report our experience of managing patients affected by descending duodenal injuries secondary to laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to review the literature. Methods: Analysis of 5 cases of descending duodenal injury as a consequence of laparoscopic cholecystectomy managed between June 1992 and September 2006. Results: The median age was 59 (range 49–67) years.In all cases an emergency laparotomy showed an

Mario Testini; Giuseppe Piccinni; Germana Lissidini; Beatrice Di Venere; Angela Gurrado; Elisabetta Poli; Nicola Brienza; Antonio Biondi; Luigi Greco; Michele Nacchiero

2008-01-01

237

[Malignant duodenal neoplasia: clinical-pathological profile].  

PubMed

The main purpose of the study was to learn about the clinical-pathological profile of the malignant duodenal neoplasia in our country. To that effect, a descriptive and prospective study was performed, involving the examination of 25 cases diagnosed between April 2000 and March 2002 in the Department of Digestive System Diseases of the "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" National Hospital (Lima-Peru). Malignant duodenal neoplasia accounted for 1.6% of malignant gastro-intestinal neoplasias, with 86.2% endoscopic - histologic correlation. The average age was 64.9 years, with predominance of males (64%). The average period of the symptoms until diagnosis was reached, was of 6.2 months, the most frequent being: weight loss (84%) paleness (84%) abdominal pain (64%) and hyporexia (60%). The obstructive picture prevailed in the inframpullary lesions, high digestive hemorrhage in the suprampullary lesions and obstructive jaundice in the periampullary lesions. Metastases was evident in 64.7% of primary malignant neoplasias. The most frequent type of lesion was mixed (40%) prevailing the proliferative-ulcerated type and most had a suprampullary location (44%). The most frequent histological variation was the adenocarcinoma (52%) followed by metastatic lesions (32%), lymphoma (12%) and carcinoid tumor (4%). The treatment administered was merely supportive in 14 cases (56%), palliative in seven cases (28%) and curative in three cases (12%). Global survival by the end of the six months was of 12.5%.Conclusion: Malignant duodenal neoplasia is an unusual incident, with delayed and non-specific clinical symptoms and it is therefore diagnosed in advanced stages. A curative treatment is seldom possible, hence global survival after six months is very low. PMID:12853985

Rosas Marcos, Edith; Frisancho Velarde, Oscar; Yábar Berrocal, Alejandro

2003-01-01

238

Prudence is necessary in the application of the new ESPGHAN criteria for celiac disease omitting duodenal biopsy: a case report.  

PubMed

New guidelines for celiac disease (CD) diagnosis from the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) propose the option to omit the duodenal biopsy in the diagnosis of CD. For this option, all four of the following criteria have to apply in children and adolescents: signs and symptoms suggestive of CD, anti-transglutaminase type 2 antibody (anti-TG2) levels more than 10 times the upper limit of normal, positive confirmation tests of anti-endomysium-IgA antibodies (EMA), and at-risk HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8. Here, we report the case of a female patient, 2 years old, with chronic diarrhea that started after an acute viral gastroenteritis. The patient had anti-TG2 levels of more than 10 times the upper limit of normal, positivity for EMA, antigliadin IgA, and IgG (AGA-IgA, AGA-IgG, respectively), and the at-risk HLA-DRB1*0301, DQB1*0201/DRB1*10, DQB1*0501 genotype, thus fulfilling all criteria for the diagnosis of CD. Although the diarrhea disappeared after about 5 weeks, anti-TG2, EMA, and AGA-IgG remained positive. Therefore, a duodenal biopsy was performed and evidenced a normal mucosa (Marsh 0). After about 18 months, the antibody titer for AGA-IgG, anti-TG2, and EMA became negative. The patient was all the time on a normal, gluten-containing diet. This clinical case represents an exception to the new ESPGHAN guidelines for CD diagnosis. During 5 weeks, the new ESPGHAN criteria were all fulfilled, allowing to propose for this patient the diagnosis of CD without performing a duodenal biopsy. Therefore, a prudent approach is suggested when the pediatric gastroenterologist makes a diagnosis of CD without duodenal biopsy. PMID:24694761

Schirru, Enrico; Jores, Rita-Désirée; Congia, Mauro

2014-06-01

239

Cholelith causing duodenal obstruction in a horse.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old Appaloosa stallion was referred for evaluation of colic. At admission, the heart rate, capillary refill time, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were high. Fifteen liters of reflux was obtained by nasogastric intubation. Palpation of an abdominal mass per rectum elicited signs of pain. At exploratory laparotomy, a mass was palpated in the ascending portion of the duodenum. The small intestine ruptured at the site of obstruction during manipulation. The horse was euthanatized. A large cholelith was the cause of the duodenal obstruction. At necropsy, multiple choleliths of various sizes were found in the pancreatic and common bile ducts and in the stomach. PMID:1399780

Laverty, S; Pascoe, J R; Williams, J W; Funk, K A

1992-09-01

240

[Applications of laparoscopy for duodenal ulcer perforation].  

PubMed

Experience of treatment of 142 patients, operated on in clinic in 2001 yr for duodenal perforative ulcer was summarized. In 130 patients operation was performed by an open access method and in 12--by laparoscopic one. Laparoscopy was applied for the perforative aperture closure (in 5 patients) and for excision of ulcer with duodenoplasty (in 7). The operation duration have constituted (78 +/- 4.2) min at average. Postoperative complications were absent, all the patients survived. Duration of the patient treatment conducted in stationary after performance of laparoscopic operation have constituted (6.4 +/- 0.6) days at average and after application of open method--(9.6 +/- 5) days. PMID:12145856

Tutchenko, N I; Svetlichny?, E V; Slonetski?, B I; Shchur, I V; Lysenko, V I

2002-04-01

241

Endoscopic Treatments of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography-Related Duodenal Perforations  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic duodenal perforation associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a very uncommon complication that is often lethal. Perforations during ERCP are caused by endoscopic sphincterotomy, placement of biliary or duodenal stents, guidewire-related causes, and endoscopy itself. In particular, perforation of the medial or lateral duodenal wall usually requires prompt diagnosis and surgical management. Perforation can follow various clinical courses, and management depends on the cause of the perforation. Cases resulting from sphincterotomy or guidewire-induced perforation can be managed by conservative treatment and biliary diversion. The current standard treatment for perforation of the duodenal free wall is early surgical repair. However, several reports of primary endoscopic closure techniques using endoclip, endoloop, or newly developed endoscopic devices have recently been described, even for use in direct perforation of the duodenal wall.

Han, Joung-Ho; Park, Sang-Heum

2013-01-01

242

Endoscopic treatments of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related duodenal perforations.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic duodenal perforation associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a very uncommon complication that is often lethal. Perforations during ERCP are caused by endoscopic sphincterotomy, placement of biliary or duodenal stents, guidewire-related causes, and endoscopy itself. In particular, perforation of the medial or lateral duodenal wall usually requires prompt diagnosis and surgical management. Perforation can follow various clinical courses, and management depends on the cause of the perforation. Cases resulting from sphincterotomy or guidewire-induced perforation can be managed by conservative treatment and biliary diversion. The current standard treatment for perforation of the duodenal free wall is early surgical repair. However, several reports of primary endoscopic closure techniques using endoclip, endoloop, or newly developed endoscopic devices have recently been described, even for use in direct perforation of the duodenal wall. PMID:24143315

Lee, Tae Hoon; Han, Joung-Ho; Park, Sang-Heum

2013-09-01

243

Two-dimensional gel proteome reference map of human small intestine  

PubMed Central

Background The small intestine is an important human organ that plays a central role in many physiological functions including digestion, absorption, secretion and defense. Duodenal pathologies include, for instance, the ulcer associated to Helicobacter Pylori infection, adenoma and, in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease. Alterations in the bowel reduce its capability to absorb nutrients, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins. Anemia and osteopenia or osteoporosis may develop as a consequence of vitamins malabsorption. Adenoma is a benign tumor that has the potential to become cancerous. Adult celiac disease patients present an overall risk of cancer that is almost twice than that found in the general population. These disease processes are not completely known. To date, a two dimensional (2D) reference map of proteins expressed in human duodenal tissue is not yet available: the aim of our study was to characterize the 2D protein map, and to identify proteins of duodenal mucosa of adult individuals without duodenal illness, to create a protein database. This approach, may be useful for comparing similar protein samples in different laboratories and for the molecular characterization of intestinal pathologies without recurring to the use of surgical material. Results The enrolled population comprised five selected samples (3 males and 2 females, aged 19 to 42), taken from 20 adult subjects, on their first visit at the gastroenterology unit for a suspected celiac disease, who did not turn to be affected by any duodenal pathology after gastrointestinal and histological evaluations. Proteins extracted from the five duodenal mucosal specimens were singly separated by 2D gel electrophoresis. After image analysis of each 2D gel, 179 protein spots, representing 145 unique proteins, from 218 spots tested, were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF ms analysis. Normalized volumes, for each protein, have been reported for every gel. Proteins have been grouped according to their biological/metabolic functions. Conclusion This study represents to date the first detailed and reproducible 2D protein map of human duodenum. Spots identifications, reported in a database, will be helpful to identify the variability in protein expression levels, in isoforms expression, or in post-translational modifications associated to pathology or to a therapy.

Simula, Maria Paola; Cannizzaro, Renato; Marin, Maria Dolores; Pavan, Alessandro; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; De Re, Valli

2009-01-01

244

Acute Bleeding In Duodenal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The biological pattern of these tumors ranges from benign-appearing small lesions to malignant sarcomas. Only 3%–5% of GISTs are found in the duodenum. A duodenal GIST is a rare source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A remarkable percentage of duodenal GISTs are localized in the third and fourth part of the duodenum and may not be noticed on standard upper endoscopy. Push enteroscopy is sometimes advisable to find these lesions. Surgical resection either limited or pancreaticoduodenectomy can be the treatment of choice. In general, adjuvant therapy with imatinib has been proved to extend survival in patients with GIST.The current case, a 24-year-old male, presented with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a submucosal ulcerated tumor located in the distal third part of the duodenum, 3 cm distal from the papilla of Vater. After primary care and blood transfusion in a local hospital, partial resection of the duodenum was performed as a definitive surgical therapy. Histopathology showed a GIST with a diameter of 3 cm and moderately malignant according to tumor grade, and <5 mitoses/10 high power field (HPF).

Mokhtare, Marjan; Taghvaei, Tarang; Tirgar Fakheri, Hafez

2013-01-01

245

Characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in bovine small intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

The intestinal mucosa plays a capital role in dictating the bioavailability of a large array of orally ingested drugs and toxicants. The activity and the expression of several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes were measured in subcellular fractions from the duodenal mucosa of male veal calves and beef cattle displaying a functional rumen but differing in both age (about 8 months vs. 18 to 24 months) and dietary regimens (i.e., milk replacer plus hay and straw vs. corn and concentrated meal). Intestinal microsomes showed cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B, 2C- and 3A-mediated activities and the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins, but no proof of CYP1A expression and/or functions could be provided. Intestinal microsomes were also active in performing reactions typically mediated by carboxylesterases (indophenylacetate hydrolysis), flavin-containing monooxygenases (methimazole S-oxidation), and uridindiphosphoglucuronyltransferases (1-naphthol glucuronidation), respectively. Cytosolic fractions displayed the glutathione S-transferase (GST)-dependent conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; besides, the GST-mediated conjugation of ethacrinic acid (GSTpi) or cumene hydroperoxide (GSTalpha) was matched by the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins. Conversely, despite the lack of measurable activity with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, a protein cross reacting with anti-rat GSTmu antibodies could be clearly detected. Although, as detected by densitometry, CYPs and GST isoenzymes tended to be more expressed in beef cattle than in veal calf preparations, there was a general poor correlation with the rate of the in vitro metabolism of the selected diagnostic probes. PMID:20557447

Virkel, G; Carletti, M; Cantiello, M; Della Donna, L; Gardini, G; Girolami, F; Nebbia, C

2010-06-01

246

Luminal l-glutamate enhances duodenal mucosal defense mechanisms via multiple glutamate receptors in rats  

PubMed Central

Presence of taste receptor families in the gastrointestinal mucosa suggests a physiological basis for local and early detection of a meal. We hypothesized that luminal l-glutamate, which is the primary nutrient conferring fundamental umami or proteinaceous taste, influences mucosal defense mechanisms in rat duodenum. We perfused the duodenal mucosa of anesthetized rats with l-glutamate (0.1–10 mM). Intracellular pH (pHi) of the epithelial cells, blood flow, and mucus gel thickness (MGT) were simultaneously and continuously measured in vivo. Some rats were pretreated with indomethacin or capsaicin. Duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) was measured with flow-through pH and CO2 electrodes. We tested the effects of agonists or antagonists for metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 or 4 or calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on defense factors. Luminal l-glutamate dose dependently increased pHi and MGT but had no effect on blood flow in the duodenum. l-glutamate (10 mM)-induced cellular alkalinization and mucus secretion were inhibited by pretreatment with indomethacin or capsaicin. l-glutamate effects on pHi and MGT were mimicked by mGluR4 agonists and inhibited by an mGluR4 antagonist. CaSR agonists acidified cells with increased MGT and DBS, unlike l-glutamate. Perfusion of l-glutamate with inosinate (inosine 5?-monophosphate, 0.1 mM) enhanced DBS only in combination, suggesting synergistic activation of the l-glutamate receptor, typical of taste receptor type 1. l-leucine or l-aspartate had similar effects on DBS without any effect on pHi and MGT. Preperfusion of l-glutamate prevented acid-induced cellular injury, suggesting that l-glutamate protects the mucosa by enhancing mucosal defenses. Luminal l-glutamate may activate multiple receptors and afferent nerves and locally enhance mucosal defenses to prevent subsequent injury attributable to acid exposure in the duodenum.

Watanabe, Chikako; Mizumori, Misa; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

2009-01-01

247

Stress proteins in colorectal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress (heat shock) proteins are ubiquitous intracellular proteins that can be inducedin vitro by physiological stress events that occur during inflammation. We have used an indirect immunoperoxidase method to locate 60-kDa stress proteins in biopsies taken from normal and inflamed colorectal mucosa. An anti-60-kDa monoclonal antibody (ML30) produced specific staining of surface epithelial cells localized to the site of the

V. R. Winrow; G. M. Mojdehi; S. D. Ryder; J. M. Rhodes; D. R. Blake; D. S. Rampton

1993-01-01

248

Cytochrome P4502A6 stability in a mini organ culture model of human nasal mucosa for genotoxicology studies as detected by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three dimensional mini organ cultures (MOCs) of human nasal turbinate epithelia have been shown to be a relevant tool in genotoxicology\\u000a studies. MOCs allow repetitive or chronic exposure of cells in an organ specific mucosal architecture for an extended period\\u000a of time and monitoring of possible adverse effects with, e.g., the comet assay. It is the aim to demonstrate whether

Norbert H. Kleinsasser; Ulrich A. Harréus; Fernando Gamarra; Oliver Driemel; Rudolf Hagen; Michael Buehrlen

2009-01-01

249

Regulation of 14 C-cholesterol uptake from mixed micelles by organ culture of the mucosa epithelium from human small intestine: Effects of selective ACAT inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial rate of14C-cholesterol uptake from mixed micelles is studied using organ culture of mucosal epithelium from human small intestine obtained\\u000a during surgery. Intense, reproducible, and ACAT-regulated level of specific14C-cholesterol uptake is monitored during the first 3 h of culturing. The specific14C-cholesterol uptake is assessed by the difference between the total uptake of14C-cholesterol and nonspecific uptake of14C-sitosterol from the micelles.

V. S. Repin; A. V. Bocharov; T. G. Vishnyakova; I. N. Baranova; L. Kornelius; M. A. Kornyushin; A. G. Talalaev; L. N. Kask; O. V. Mironyuk; A. V. Pokrovskii; A. E. Zotikov

1997-01-01

250

Therapeutic angiography for giant bleeding gastro-duodenal artery pseudoaneurysm  

PubMed Central

We present the case of an 18-year-old female transferred to our center from an outside hospital due to persistent gastrointestinal bleeding. Two weeks prior to her transfer she underwent duodenal omentopexy for a perforated duodenal peptic ulcer. The patient underwent a computed tomography angiogram which identified the source of bleeding as a giant gastro-duodenal artery (GDA) pseudoaneurysm. The patient was taken to interventional radiology where successful microcoil embolization was performed. We present this rare case of a giant GDA pseudoaneurysm together with imaging and a review of the medical literature regarding prevalence, etiology and treatment options for visceral arterial aneurysms.

Elazary, Ram; Abu-Gazala, Mahmoud; Schlager, Avraham; Shussman, Noam; Rivkind, Avraham I; Bloom, Allan I

2010-01-01

251

Mimicking the biological olfactory system: a Portable electronic Mucosa.  

PubMed

In this study the authors report on the development of a new type of electronic nose (e-nose) instrument, which the authors refer to as the Portable electronic Mucosa (PeM) as a continuation of previous research. It is designed to mimic the human nose by taking significant biological features and replicating them electronically. The term electronic mucosa or simply e-mucosa was used because our e-nose emulates the nasal chromatographic effect discovered in the olfactory epithelium, located within the upper turbinate. The e-mucosa generates spatio-temporal information that the authors believe could lead to improved odour discrimination. The PeM comprises three large sensor arrays each containing a total of 576 sensors, with 24 different coatings, to increase the odour selectivity. The nasal chromatographic effect provides temporal information in the human olfactory system, and is mimicked here using two-coated retentive channels. These channels are coated with polar and non-polar compounds to enhance the selectivity of the instrument. Thus, for an unknown sample, the authors have both the spatial information (as with a traditional e-nose) and the temporal information. The authors believe that this PeM may offer a way forward in developing a new range of low-cost e-noses with superior odour specificity. PMID:22559706

Che Harun, F K; Covington, J A; Gardner, J W

2012-06-01

252

Essential role of the electroneutral Na+-HCO3? cotransporter NBCn1 in murine duodenal acid-base balance and colonic mucus layer build-up in vivo  

PubMed Central

Duodenal epithelial cells need efficient defence strategies during gastric acidification of the lumen, while colonic mucosa counteracts damage by pathogens by building up a bacteria-free adherent mucus layer. Transport of HCO3? is considered crucial for duodenal defence against acid as well as for mucus release and expansion, but the transport pathways involved are incompletely understood. This study investigated the significance of the electroneutral Na+–HCO3? cotransporter NBCn1 for duodenal defence against acid and colonic mucus release. NBCn1 was localized to the basolateral membrane of duodenal villous enterocytes and of colonic crypt cells, with predominant expression in goblet cells. Duodenal villous enterocyte intracellular pH was studied before and during a luminal acid load by two-photon microscopy in exteriorized, vascularly perfused, indicator (SNARF-1 AM)-loaded duodenum of isoflurane-anaesthetized, systemic acid–base-controlled mice. Acid-induced HCO3? secretion was measured in vivo by single-pass perfusion and pH-stat titration. After a luminal acid load, NBCn1-deficient duodenocytes were unable to recover rapidly from intracellular acidification and could not respond adequately with protective HCO3? secretion. In the colon, build-up of the mucus layer was delayed, and a decreased thickness of the adherent mucus layer was observed, suggesting that basolateral HCO3? uptake is essential for optimal release of mucus. The electroneutral Na+–HCO3? cotransporter NBCn1 displays a differential cellular distribution in the murine intestine and is essential for HCO3?-dependent mucosal protective functions, such as recovery of intracellular pH and HCO3? secretion in the duodenum and secretion of mucus in the colon.

Singh, Anurag Kumar; Xia, Weiliang; Riederer, Brigitte; Juric, Marina; Li, Junhua; Zheng, Wen; Cinar, Ayhan; Xiao, Fang; Bachmann, Oliver; Song, Penghong; Praetorius, Jeppe; Aalkjaer, Christian; Seidler, Ursula

2013-01-01

253

Milk feeding and xylazine treatment induce increased antroduodenal motility in young cattle with opposite effects on duodenal digesta flow rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antroduodenal myoelectrical activity and duodenal digesta flow rate in young cattle were assessed by implanted nichrome wire electrodes and reentrant duodenal cannulation with interposed flow-meter. In addition, a small glass electrode was inserted through a duodenal cannula to continuously measure the pH of duodenal contents. When eating only hay ad libitum, the duodenal myoelectrical activity showed the usual migrating myoelectrical

A. M. Merritt; Y. Ruckebusch

1988-01-01

254

Human Calmodulin-Like Protein CALML3: A Novel Marker for Normal Oral Squamous Mucosa That Is Downregulated in Malignant Transformation.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is often diagnosed only at advanced stages due to a lack of reliable disease markers. The purpose of this study was to determine if the epithelial-specific human calmodulin-like protein (CALML3) could be used as marker for the various phases of oral tumor progression. Immunohistochemical analysis using an affinity-purified CALML3 antibody was performed on biopsy-confirmed oral tissue samples representing these phases. A total of 90 tissue specimens were derived from 52 patients. Each specimen was analyzed in the superficial and basal mucosal cell layers for overall staining and staining of cellular subcompartments. CALML3 was strongly expressed in benign oral mucosal cells with downregulation of expression as squamous cells progress to invasive carcinoma. Based on the Cochran-Armitage test for trend, expression in the nucleus and at the cytoplasmic membrane significantly decreased with increasing disease severity. Chi-square test showed that benign tissue specimens had significantly more expression compared to dysplasia/CIS and invasive specimens. Dysplasia/CIS tissue had significantly more expression than invasive tissue. We conclude that CALML3 is expressed in benign oral mucosal cells with a statistically significant trend in downregulation as tumorigenesis occurs. CALML3 may thus be a sensitive new marker for oral cancer screening. PMID:23935623

Brooks, Michael D; Bennett, Richard D; Weaver, Amy L; Sebo, Thomas J; Eckert, Steven E; Strehler, Emanuel E; Carr, Alan B

2013-01-01

255

Malrotation causing duodenal chronic obstruction in an adult  

PubMed Central

Congenital duodenal obstruction is rare in adulthood. An unusual presentation of this condition has led to difficult preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of proximal jejunal obstruction by a congenital band in an adult and review the literature.

Gong, Jun; Zheng, Zhen-Jiang; Mai, Gang; Liu, Xu-Bao

2009-01-01

256

Induction of DMBT1 expression by reduced ERK activity during a gastric mucosa differentiation-like process and its association with human gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in the expression of DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) have been implicated in the development of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers of the alimentary tract, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, using the gastric cell line AGS, we identified two intracellular signaling molecules protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK). They mediated both the phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) downregulation of DMBT1 expression and the initiation of cell differentiation, which was measured by cell cycle withdrawal and the induction of the tissue-specific marker trefoil factor 1 (TFF1). A time-course study showed that following the PMA activation of ERK kinase, the induction of TFF1 and the reduction of DMBT1 were detected at the same time point. We then demonstrated a minimal level of DMBT1 in proliferating AGS cells seeded at low density, where ERK activity was high. Reduction of ERK activity, either by an ERK inhibitor PD98059 or by high-density seeding, significantly reduced AGS cell growth judged by CFSE labeling. This cellular effect was elicited by cyclin D/p21 (Cip/Waf1) and G(0)/G(1) arrest, and was accompanied by a marked increase in DMBT1-expressing cells. Finally, we showed that siRNA directed against DMBT1 had no effect on the induction of a cell growth arrest marker, gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor (GKLF), but reduced the PMA induction of TFF1. Along with its upregulation coinciding with G(0)/G(1) arrest, and its attenuation in differentiated cells, these results suggest that the transient induction of DMBT1 is apparently specific at an early stage of gastric epithelial differentiation-like process, when it may play a role in cell fate decision. Consistent with such a potential function, we detected frequent abnormalities of the DMBT1 expression in the specimens of human gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:15760920

Kang, Weiqun; Nielsen, Ole; Fenger, Claus; Leslie, Graham; Holmskov, Uffe; Reid, Kenneth B M

2005-06-01

257

Duodenal Perforation and Right Hydronephrosis Due to Toothpick Ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a 36-year-old man who was admitted to the Emergency Department with right flank pain. The clinical presentation was suggestive of renal colic. However, a computed tomography scan showed the presence of a foreign body in the inferior duodenal flexure. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy demonstrated a 6.5-cm wooden toothpick deeply embedded in the duodenal wall; this was

Giuseppe R. Nigri; Emilio Di Giulio; Raffaella Di Nardo; Francesca Pezzoli; Francesco D’Angelo; Paolo Aurello; Matteo Ravaioli; Giovanni Ramacciato

2008-01-01

258

[Cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall in aberrant pancreas].  

PubMed

Cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall developing in heterotopic pancreas is rare. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is usually advocated in cases of symptomatic cystic dystrophy without chronic pancreatitis but little is known about long-term results. We report a case of cystic dystrophy of the duodenum wall developing in heterotopic pancreas responsible for abdominal pain and duodenal obstruction associated with chronic pancreatitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy allowed complete relief of symptoms. Chronic pancreatitis associated with cystic dystrophy may complicate the choice of appropriate therapy. PMID:10089671

Wind, P; Pardies, P; Roullet, M H; Rouzier, R; Zinzindohoué, F; Cugnenc, P H

1999-01-01

259

Preduodenal portal vein: a cause of prenatally diagnosed duodenal obstruction.  

PubMed

Preduodenal portal vein is a rare congenital anomaly that causes high intestinal obstruction. The authors report on a newborn who was diagnosed as having duodenal obstruction at 30 weeks' gestation. During surgery the patient was found to have duodenal obstruction caused by a preduodenal portal vein. Malrotation was an associated finding. Treatment consisted of Ladd's procedure and a diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy performed anterior to the portal vein. PMID:8786512

Choi, S O; Park, W H

1995-10-01

260

Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to Duodenoduodenal Intussusception in Duodenal Adenoma  

PubMed Central

Duodenoduodenal intussusception is a rare condition that is in general caused by a tumor. We describe duodenoduodenal intussusception secondary to a tubulovillous adenoma that caused acute pancreatitis in a 31-year-old female. We resected a duodenal tumor from the submucosal layer and then simply closed the duodenal wall. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of acute pancreatitis secondary to duodenoduodenal intussusception by tubulovillous adenoma in the second part of the duodenum in an adult.

Watanabe, Fumiaki; Noda, Hiroshi; Okamura, Jun; Toyama, Nobuyuki; Konishi, Fumio

2012-01-01

261

[Treatment of duodenal ulcer associated with chronic gastric erosions].  

PubMed

Three groups of patients received chemotherapy for duodenal ulcer and associated chronic gastric erosion. Group I was treated by the drugs combination (methacin, almagel, gastrofarm, solcoseryl, tazepam, rudotel), group II received gastrocepin, group III venter. The results of duodenal ulcer healing were similar in all the groups, yet epigastric and/or pyloroduodenal pain was relieved more rapidly in groups II and III. The latter groups were also characterized by accelerated disappearance of fibrinous patches on the surface of the erosion. PMID:1942976

Vasil'ev, Iu V; Rishi, K M

1991-07-01

262

Bleeding duodenal hemangioma: Morphological changes and endoscopic mucosal resection  

PubMed Central

Recently, the development of endoscopic procedures has increased the availability of minimally invasive treatments; however, there have been few case reports of duodenal hemangioma treated by endoscopic mucosal resection. The present report describes a case of duodenal hemangioma that showed various endoscopic changes over time and was treated by endoscopic mucosal resection. An 80-year-old woman presented with tarry stools and a loss of appetite. An examination of her blood revealed severe anemia, and her hemoglobin level was 4.2 g/dL. An emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed. A red, protrusive, semipedunculated tumor (approximately 20 mm in diameter) with spontaneous bleeding on its surface was found in the superior duodenal angle. Given the semipedunculated appearance of the tumor, it was suspected to be an epithelial tumor with a differential diagnosis of hyperplastic polyp. The biopsy results suggested a telangiectatic hemangioma. Because this lesion was considered to be responsible for her anemia, endoscopic mucosal resection was performed for diagnostic and treatment purposes after informed consent was obtained. A histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed dilated and proliferated capillary lumens of various sizes, which confirmed the final diagnosis of duodenal hemangioma. Neither anemia nor tumor recurrence has been observed since the endoscopic mucosal resection (approximately 1 year). Duodenal hemangiomas can be treated endoscopically provided that sufficient consideration is given to all of the possible treatment strategies. Interestingly, duodenal hemangiomas show morphological changes that are influenced by various factors, such as mechanical stimuli.

Nishiyama, Noriko; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintarou; Nomura, Takako; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

263

Duodenal web associated with malrotation and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Intestinal obstruction due to midgut malrotation in neonates is well known. The incidence of malrotation in newborns is around 1:500 and the symptomatic incidence is 1:6000 births. Duodenal web as a cause of intestinal obstruction is less common and is reported to be 1:10 000–1:40 000. Malrotation is known to be associated with other congenital obstructive anomalies including duodenal atresia, stenosis and duodenal web. But, intestinal obstruction due to malrotation associated with duodenal web has been reported only rarely with a few published cases in our literature review. We present a case of intestinal obstruction diagnosed in the prenatal period via sonogram. A plain X-ray of the abdomen after birth showed a distended duodenum with paucity of air distally suggesting duodenal obstruction. An exploratory laparotomy showed a duodenal web proximal to the sphincter of oddi. The patient also had an associated malrotation and underwent Ladd's procedure and appendectomy. The post-operative period was uneventful.

Eksarko, Polikseni; Nazir, Sharique; Kessler, Edmund; LeBlanc, Patrick; Zeidman, Michael; Asarian, Armand P.; Xiao, Philip; Pappas, Peter J.

2013-01-01

264

Diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis by examination of stool and duodenal aspirate with Weber's modified trichrome and Uvitex 2B strains.  

PubMed Central

Severe, chronic diarrhea is a frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus disease, and intestinal microsporidiosis is being recognized with increasing frequency in patients with AIDS. Noninvasive, cost-effective techniques are needed to optimize its diagnosis. Weber's modified trichrome stain (MTS) and the fluorochrome Uvitex 2B stain were used to detect microsporidial spores in smears of stool and duodenal aspirate (DA) samples received from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients for examination for ova and parasites. Of 305 samples (292 stool and 13 DA samples) from 140 patients examined by MTS, 83 samples from 26 (18.6%) of the patients were positive for microsporidia (23 patients diagnosed initially and 3 diagnosed upon review). A subset of the samples studied by MTS consisting of 108 smears of stool and DA specimens from 60 patients was examined by Uvitex 2B. All 44 samples positive by MTS were also positive by Uvitex 2B. In addition, seven specimens and three patients were initially detected as positive by Uvitex 2B only (all three patients were positive also by MTS upon review). Confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained for 24 of 26 smear-positive patients by duodenal biopsy and/or stool transmission electron microscopy. Of 114 patients with stained smears negative for microsporidia, 23 had duodenal biopsies which showed no microsporidia. For the 43 patients who underwent duodenal biopsy, the sensitivity of both the MTS and the Uvitex 2B methods compared with biopsy results was 100%. Of six patients with negative duodenal biopsies and positive stained smears, four had microsporidia demonstrated by stool transmission electron microscopy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

DeGirolami, P C; Ezratty, C R; Desai, G; McCullough, A; Asmuth, D; Wanke, C; Federman, M

1995-01-01

265

Spiral bacteria in the human stomach: the gastric helicobacters.  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, Helicobacter pylori has become recognized as one of the most common human pathogens, colonizing the gastric mucosa of almost all persons exposed to poor hygienic conditions from childhood. It also is often found, albeit with a lower frequency, in groups of high socioeconomic status. H. pylori causes chronic active gastritis and is a major factor in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcers and, to a lesser extent, gastric ulcers. In addition, the presence of this bacterium is now recognized as a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. Nevertheless, most infections appear without clinical consequences. In this second decade of intensive research, it is important to understand why H. pylori is sometimes a dangerous pathogen, and to determine how it can be eradicated in those at highest risk for severe disease.

Dubois, A.

1995-01-01

266

Laser treatment of oral mucosa tattoo.  

PubMed

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-12-01

267

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

PubMed Central

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit.

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

268

Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease.  

PubMed

H. pylori is undoubtedly the dominant factor in the multifactorial peptic ulcer diathesis. We should not ignore the other contributing factors but rather try to identify how they interact with the organism and initiate the ulcerative process. The interplay of acid attack and mucosal defence is modulated by genetics, gender, blood group, smoking, age, and various physiologic considerations, which include acid output. These and other considerations probably explain the discrepancy between the high frequency of H. pylori infection in the population and the comparatively small proportion of individuals who develop a DU. Most agents used in DU are aimed at reducing acid secretion and achieve healing by minimizing acid attack. Such treatments, however, have no effect on H. pylori status and do not remedy the underlying gastroduodenitis. The mucosa therefore remains ill and vulnerable. After cessation of acid suppressive therapy, ulcer relapse is likely. Goodwin has likened the inflamed mucosa to a leaking roof, in which temporary dryness (healing) is assured if the rain (acid) is removed but permanent protection can be achieved only by mending the roof through healing of the mucosa. Therefore, therapy that fails to address the role of H. pylori in the causation of the mucosal inflammation, which predisposes to ulceration, is likely to confer only short-term benefit. Eradication of the infection has been shown beyond doubt to markedly alter the natural history of the disease, a number of series showing no recurrence at the end of 1 year, compared with a natural recurrence of > 70%. The economic savings after not only eradication but even suppression of H. pylori in DU disease have been estimated to be enormous. Despite these striking findings indicating H. pylori inflammation as the dominant factor in the DU diathesis and the possibilities of cure after H. pylori eradication, a large proportion of the medical community is still not willing to accept the consequences. There are presumably several reasons for this skeptical attitude. First, it takes time before physicians are willing to accept such drastic changes in their conventional way of thinking about DU disease, because it has been stressed during decades that DU disease is dominated by excessive acid as the main culprit. Second, current acid-suppressive therapy is highly efficacious in healing DU and in keeping those ulcers healed with maintenance therapy. These drugs are well tolerated and have a low side effect profile.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8449562

Tytgat, G N; Noach, L A; Rauws, E A

1993-03-01

269

Surface studies of duodenal lesions induced by thoracic irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Acute duodenal ulcers are produced in mice as a remote (abscopal) effect of irradiation to the lower mediastinum. Such lesions have been examined with scanning electron microscopy at 5, 8 and 28 days after irradiation with 18 Gy of X-rays. All the ulcers occur within the first 1 cm long segment of the duodenum which is endowed with Brunner's glands. The single lesions vary in size, shape and position. The damaged area often includes much of the duodenal circumference and is distinguished by conical or rudimentary villi, or even by the complete absence of villi. In contrast, around the periphery of the ulcer the villi are mostly vertical. Although the floor of these lesions appears to be covered with a continuous epithelial layer, during the first 4 weeks after irradiation the severity of the focal duodenal damage seems to increase gradually with time. The lesions have been compared with specimens from unirradiated mice and also with samples taken 3 days after partial thoracic irradiation when little damage is seen. The pattern of fully developed duodenal lesions differs greatly from that seen after direct irradiation where damage has not included localised ulceration in the samples of jejunum so far examined. The lesions induced by partial thoracic irradiation may be related to radiation injury to vascular or autonomic nerve targets in the lower mediastinum. Such injury could result in malfunction of the pyloric sphincter or could alter the secretion by Brunner's glands and thus lead to duodenal ulceration.

Carr, K.E.; Ellis, S.; Michalowski, A.

1986-01-01

270

Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

Oh, Jung Suk, E-mail: oj-cumc@daum.net; Lee, Hae Giu, E-mail: hgleehfh@catholic.ac.kr; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil [Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai [Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Ohm, Joon Young [Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)] [Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

271

Laparoscopic partial cystectomy with mucosal stripping of extraluminal duodenal duplication cysts.  

PubMed

Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital anomalies. Duodenal duplication should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with abdominal symptoms with cystic structures neighboring the duodenum. Here, we present an 8-year-old girl with a duodenal duplication cyst treated with partial cystectomy with mucosal stripping performed laparoscopically. Laparoscopic surgery can be considered as a treatment option for duodenal duplication cysts, especially in extraluminal locations. PMID:24574788

Byun, Jeik; Oh, Hyoung-Min; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun; Park, Kwi-Won; Kim, Woo-Sun

2014-01-28

272

Effects of intraduodenal administration of tarazepide on pancreatic secretion and duodenal EMG in neonatal calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of CCK-A receptor antagonism on pancreatic exocrine secretion and duodenal EMG, and the mechanism(s) involved in CCK-induced pancreatic secretion were studied in conscious calves. Seven 1-week-old calves were fitted with a pancreatic duct catheter, duodenal cannula and duodenal electrodes. Pancreatic exocrine secretion and duodenal EMG were studied following intraduodenal CCK-A receptor antagonist (Tarazepide), intravenous atropine, and intravenous or

Romuald Zabielski; Violetta Le?niewska; Jürgen Borlak; Peter C Gregory; Pawe? Kiela; Stefan G Pierzynowski; Wies?aw Barej

1998-01-01

273

Proximal duodenal perforation in three dogs following deracoxib administration.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and gross pathological findings, treatment, and outcome in three dogs receiving deracoxib that developed proximal duodenal perforation and subsequent septic peritonitis. Clinical findings were acute vomiting and anorexia following initiation of deracoxib therapy. Deracoxib dosages ranged from 2 to 3 mg/kg per os q 24 hours. In each dog, exploratory laparotomy revealed duodenal perforations approximately 1 cm orad to the major duodenal papilla. Two out of three dogs survived following exploratory laparotomy. Two of three dogs in the present case series received the approved deracoxib dosage. Dogs receiving deracoxib, even at labeled dosages, should be monitored judiciously for signs of gastrointestinal disease. PMID:20610698

Case, J Brad; Fick, Jennifer L; Rooney, Matthew B

2010-01-01

274

Laparoscopic repair of a right para duodenal hernia.  

PubMed

Para duodenal hernia is among the uncommon and rare causes of intestinal obstruction, but it is the most common type of internal hernia in abdomen and accounts for more than half of cases that do occur. Here, we are reporting a case of right Para duodenal hernia, reduced and repaired laparoscopically. This thirteen year old girl presented to us with features of small bowel obstruction of two days duration. Plain abdominal X-ray showed multiple fluid levels confined to right side of abdomen. A diagnostic laparoscopy was done under General Anaesthesia. Right Para duodenal hernia was found with small bowel confined to the right side between the ascending colon and hepatic flexure of colon. Laparoscopic reduction of contents of the hernia was done starting from the Ileocaecal junction. Hernial opening was closed laparoscopically with nonabsorbable suture. Patient is quite well till date and has had no recurrence of symptoms. PMID:20407574

Bhartia, Vishnu; Kumar, Anil; Khedkar, Indira; Savita, K S; Goel, N

2009-10-01

275

Laparoscopic repair of a right para duodenal hernia  

PubMed Central

Para duodenal hernia is among the uncommon and rare causes of intestinal obstruction, but it is the most common type of internal hernia in abdomen and accounts for more than half of cases that do occur. Here, we are reporting a case of right Para duodenal hernia, reduced and repaired laparoscopically. This thirteen year old girl presented to us with features of small bowel obstruction of two days duration. Plain abdominal X-ray showed multiple fluid levels confined to right side of abdomen. A diagnostic laparoscopy was done under General Anaesthesia. Right Para duodenal hernia was found with small bowel confined to the right side between the ascending colon and hepatic flexure of colon. Laparoscopic reduction of contents of the hernia was done starting from the Ileocaecal junction. Hernial opening was closed laparoscopically with nonabsorbable suture. Patient is quite well till date and has had no recurrence of symptoms

Bhartia, Vishnu; Kumar, Anil; Khedkar, Indira; Savita, K S; Goel, N

2009-01-01

276

Patient profile, indications, efficacy and safety of duodenal levodopa infusion in advanced Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies of duodenal infusion of a levodopa on small groups of parkinsonian patients have reported beneficial effects on motor complications. However, little is known about the patient profile and indications for duodenal levo- dopa infusion. The purpose of this study is to exhaustively investigate the clinical characteristics of the population and indication, efficacy and tolerability of duodenal levodopa infusion

David Devos

2009-01-01

277

Helicobacter pylori augments the pH-increasing effect of omeprazole in patients with duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Omeprazole is less effective in healthy subjects than in patients with duodenal ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine whether Helicobacter pylori augments the pH-increasing effect of omeprazole in patients with duodenal ulcers. METHODS: In 16 patients with duodenal ulcers, baseline intragastric acidity was measured before and 4-6 weeks after the cure of H. pylori

J Labenz; B Tillenburg; U Peitz; JP Idstrom; EF Verdu; M Stolte; G Borsch; AL Blum

1996-01-01

278

Duodenal bacterial overgrowth during treatment in outpatients with omeprazole.  

PubMed Central

The extent of duodenal bacterial overgrowth during the pronounced inhibition of acid secretion that occurs with omeprazole treatment is unknown. The bacterial content of duodenal juice of patients treated with omeprazole was therefore examined in a controlled prospective study. Duodenal juice was obtained under sterile conditions during diagnostic upper endoscopy. Aspirates were plated quantitatively for anaerobic and aerobic organisms. Twenty five outpatients with peptic ulcer disease were investigated after a 5.7 (0.5) weeks (mean (SEM)) treatment course with 20 mg (nine patients) or 40 mg (16 patients). The control group consisted of 15 outpatients referred for diagnostic endoscopy without prior antisecretory treatment. No patient in the control group had duodenal bacterial overgrowth. In the omeprazole group bacterial overgrowth (> or = 10(5) cfu/ml) was found in 14 (56%) patients (p = 0.0003). The number of bacteria (log10) in duodenal juice in patients treated with omeprazole was distinctly higher (median 5.7; range < 2-8.7) when compared with the control group (median < 2; range < 2-5.0; p = 0.0004). As well as orally derived bacteria, faecal type bacteria were found in seven of 14 and anaerobic bacteria in three of 14 patients. Bacterial overgrowth was similar with the two doses of omeprazole. These results indicate that duodenal bacterial overgrowth of both oral and faecal type bacteria occurs often in ambulatory patients treated with omeprazole. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings, particularly in high risk groups during long term treatment with omeprazole.

Fried, M; Siegrist, H; Frei, R; Froehlich, F; Duroux, P; Thorens, J; Blum, A; Bille, J; Gonvers, J J; Gyr, K

1994-01-01

279

Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective effects of proglumide in rats  

SciTech Connect

Proglumide has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect the gastroduodenal mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, cysteamine and the cytodestructing agents: 80% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and 30 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in 0.35 M HCl in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that proglumide has both prophylactic and curative effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rats and reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, mucosal damaging agents and that of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The intensity of gastric lesions induced by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and reserpine was also reduced significantly by proglumide. Cimetidine, which was used as a standard antiulcer drug for comparison, also produced a similar protective effect in most of the models used by us. It was found to have a more potent antisecretory effect but failed to protect the rats against the gastric mucosal damage induced by hyperthermic restraint stress and 0.2 M NaOH. Our findings suggest that proglumide exerts these antiulcer effects by its antisecretory, gastric mucosal resistance increasing and cytoprotective activities. Further studies are required to find out its exact mechanism of action and therapeutic usefulness.

Tariq, M.; Parmar, N.S.; Ageel, A.M.

1987-05-01

280

Duodenal histoplasmosis presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in an AIDS patient.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis (GIH) is common in patients with disseminated disease but only rarely comes to clinical attention due to the lack of specific signs and symptoms. We report the unusual case of a 33-year-old Caucasian male with advanced AIDS who presented with upper GI bleeding from diffuse erosions throughout the duodenum. Biopsy of the lesions revealed small bowel mucosa with granulomatous inflammation and macrophages with small intracellular yeasts consistent with disseminated histoplasmosis. The patient demonstrated significant clinical improvement following a two-week course of liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of duodenal histoplasmosis leading to clinically significant bleeding, manifesting with worsening anemia and melanotic stools. Given our findings, we maintain that GIH should be considered on the differential diagnosis for GI bleeding in AIDS patients at risk, specifically those with advanced immunosuppression (i.e., CD4(+) cell counts <100?cells/mm(3)) who reside in endemic areas (Ohio or Mississippi river valleys) and/or have a prior history of histoplasmosis. For diagnostic evaluation, we recommend checking a urine Histoplasma quantitative antigen EIA as well as upper and/or lower endoscopy with biopsy. We recommend treatment with a two-week course of liposomal amphotericin B followed by indefinite itraconazole. PMID:23091745

Spinner, Michael A; Paulin, Heather N; Wester, C William

2012-01-01

281

[Bismuth preparations in the treatment of patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer disease].  

PubMed

Studies of the role of H. pylori (Hp) in etiopathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract changed traditional approaches to their management with emphasis on antibiotic therapy. Positive effect of Hp eradication was confirmed in numerous randomized clinical studies. Bismuth-containing drugs have been used for a long time to treat gastrointestinal disorders. To-day, bismuth tri-potassium di-citrate (de---nol) is considered to be an optimal tool for different schemes of eradication therapy (triple and quadruple therapy of the first and second lines) and recommended to improve its efficiency by overcoming resistance of Hp to antibiotics. The overall efficacy of anti-helicobacterial therapy using bismuth tri-potassium di-citrate amounts to 81-98%. This compound has cytoprotective effect on gastric and duodenal mucosa, besides antibacterial action. All these properties characterize de-nol as a single universal preparation for the treatment of erosive ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19048841

Maev, I V; Samsonov, A A; Golubev, N N

2008-01-01

282

Cimetidine decreases indomethacin induced duodenal mucosal damage in patients with acute musculoskeletal disorders.  

PubMed Central

The effect of two doses of cimetidine, 400 mg at night and 400 mg bd, on the protection of indomethacin (50 mg tid) induced mucosal damage was evaluated in a double blind study in patients with acute musculoskeletal disorders. Endoscopic mucosal lesions were scored before and after five to seven days of treatment. One hundred and ninety one patients were endoscoped before the trial, 34 (17.8%) had greater than one erosion and were not recruited. Forty patients were excluded for non-compliance, or lost to follow up. At the second endoscopy, oesophageal, and fundic damage was negligible. Gastric and duodenal lesion score in patients treated with cimetidine 400 mg bd: 2.7 (0.5) (SE); n = 42) was significantly lower (p less than 0.0122) than in placebo treated patients: 6.1 (0.9) (n = 50) or in patients treated with cimetidine 400 mg at night 7.1 (0.8) (n = 21). Cimetidine 400 mg bd provided significant protection for the duodenum, but its protection of antral mucosa did not reach statistical significance. There was no correlation between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings.

Stalnikowicz, R; Pollak, D; Eliakim, A; Wengrower, D; Fich, A; Goldin, E; Ligumsky, M; Rachmilewitz, D

1988-01-01

283

Neural regulation of duodenal alkali secretion: Effects of electrical field stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The role of transmitters released from enteric neurons in regulating bicarbonate secretion by the proximal duodenum has been studied using electrical field stimulation (EFS). Stripped duodenal mucosa from Rana catesbeiana was mounted as an intact tube over circular platinum electrode,s and luminal alkalinization was measured by pH stat titration before, during, and after EFS. Transmucosal potential difference (PD) was simultaneously measured before and after EFS by paired electrodes. Square-wave pulses 50 V, 2 ms in duration, at 10 Hz were delivered in trains of 0.5 s at 1 Hz for periods of 15 min after stable basal secretion. This resulted in a 63 {plus minus} 27% increase in alkalinization that returned to basal values after cessation of the stimulus, without change in transmucosal PD. Serosal-to-lumen ({sup 3}H)mannitol flux was not affected. Repetition of the stimulus resulted in a similar responses for as long as the tissue remained viable. The response to EFS was abolished by tetrodotoxin and veratrine indicating that intrinsic neurons were responsible for mediating the effect. In addition, the effect was blocked by serosal dinitrophenol, indicating that the secretory response occurred by a metabolically dependent process. These results indicate that alkalinization by proximal duodenum may be controlled by neurotransmitter release from local enteric neurons.

Crampton, J.R.; Gibbons, L.G.; Rees, W.D.W. (Univ. of Manchester School of Medicine, Salford (England))

1988-02-01

284

Fungal infections of the oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa. PMID:23422613

Krishnan, P Anitha

2012-01-01

285

Gastric Outlet Obstruction from Duodenal Lipoma in an Adult  

PubMed Central

The duodenum is a rare site for gastrointestinal lipoma with less than 230 cases reported in the literature. Although, peptic ulcer disease remains the most common benign cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), duodenal lipomas remain a rare, but possible cause of GOO and could pose a diagnostic challenge, especially in countries where access to endoscopy and modern imaging techniques poses a challenge. The authors present a case of GOO in a 40-year-old male, secondary to a duodenal lipoma. It was successfully treated by a transduodenal resection through a midline laparotomy. The histology report confirmed it was a submucosal lipoma.

Wichendu, Promise N; Dodiyi-Manuel, Amabra

2013-01-01

286

Effect of antisecretory agents and vagotomy on healing of chronic cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats  

SciTech Connect

Penetrated cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats have a very prolonged course of healing. In this study, it was investigated how much the healing of these ulcers is accelerated by some treatments. The treatments included omeprazole, cimetidine, and truncal vagotomy. In addition, the effect of omeprazole and cimetidine on gastric acid secretion was investigated in chronic gastric fistula rats. After 25 days of treatment, significantly more rats in the treated groups had healed ulcers than in the control group. There was little further improvement up to 100 days of treatment, and the difference between treated and untreated groups decreased. The morphology of healing ulcers in treated and untreated rats was also compared. In controls, there was a simultaneous regeneration of mucosa and the submucosal Brunner's glands from the edges of the ulcer, the slow proliferation rate of the latter probably being decisive for the prolonged healing. In the treated rats, the mucosa first regenerated with formation of crypts and low villi and subsequently, the Brunner's glands were formed by proliferation from the bottom of the crypts.

Poulsen, S.S.; Raaberg, L.; Therkelsen, K.; Skov Olsen, P.; Kirkegaard, P.

1986-07-01

287

Zur Fortpflanzung des Polychaeten Anaitides mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1974, spawning polychaetes, Anaitides mucosa (Oersted, 1843), appeared in great numbers (up to 148 individuals\\/m2) at the surface of an intertidal flat in the German Waddensea from mid-February until 10th April. A. mucosa forms mucous bags which usually contain more than 10,000 green eggs. The eggs measure 113.4±5.4 µm in diameter, including the fructification membrane (18 measurements). Production if

G. Sach

1975-01-01

288

Novel deployment of a covered duodenal stent in open surgery to facilitate closure of a malignant duodenal perforation  

PubMed Central

Background Its a dilemma to attempt a palliative procedure to debulk the tumour and/or prevent future obstructive complications in a locally advanced intra abdominal malignancy. Case presentation A 38 year old Vietnamese man presented with a carcinoma of the colon which had invaded the gallbladder and duodenum with a sealed perforation of the second part of the duodenum. Following surgical exploration, it was evident that primary closure of the perforated duodenum was not possible due to the presence of unresectable residual tumour. Conclusion We describe a novel technique using a covered duodenal stent deployed at open surgery to aid closure of a malignant duodenal perforation.

Lung, Philip F; Cresswell, Adrian B; Psaila, Josephine; Patel, Ameet G

2009-01-01

289

Helicobacter pylori-Induced Activation of Human Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori infection causes active chronic inflammation with a continuous recruitment of neutrophils to the inflamed gastric mucosa. To evaluate the role of endothelial cells in this process, we have examined adhesion molecule expression and chemokine and cytokine production from human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with well-characterized H. pylori strains as well as purified proteins. Our results indicate that endothelial cells actively contribute to neutrophil recruitment, since stimulation with H. pylori bacteria induced upregulation of the adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin as well as the chemokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and growth-related oncogene alpha (GRO-?) and the cytokine IL-6. However, there were large variations in the ability of the different H. pylori strains to stimulate endothelial cells. These interstrain variations were seen irrespective of whether the strains had been isolated from patients with duodenal ulcer disease or asymptomatic carriers and were not solely related to the expression of known virulence factors, such as the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island, vacuolating toxin A, and Lewis blood group antigens. In addition, one or several unidentified proteins which act via NF-?B activation seem to induce endothelial cell activation. In conclusion, human endothelial cells produce neutrophil-recruiting factors and show increased adhesion molecule expression after stimulation with certain H. pylori strains. These effects probably contribute to the continuous recruitment of neutrophils to H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa and may also contribute to tissue damage and ulcer formation.

Innocenti, M.; Thoreson, A.-C.; Ferrero, R. L.; Stromberg, E.; Bolin, I.; Eriksson, L.; Svennerholm, A.-M.; Quiding-Jarbrink, M.

2002-01-01

290

Investigation of mycobacterial colonisation and invasion of the respiratory mucosa  

PubMed Central

Methods: The interaction of M avium complex, M tuberculosis, and M smegmatis with human respiratory tissue was investigated in an organ culture model with an air interface. Tissue was infected for intervals up to 14 days and assessed by scanning electron microscopy for adherent bacteria or cultured for recoverable bacteria. Results: The mean number of adherent bacteria/mm2 (and the viable count of macerated tissue, cfu/ml) at 15 minutes, 3 and 24 hours, 7 and 14 days were: M avium complex 168 (153), 209 (136), 289 (344), 193 (313), 14140 (16544); M tuberculosis 30 (37), 39 (23), 48 (53), 1 (760), 76 (2186); M smegmatis 108 (176), 49 (133), 97 (81), 114 (427), 34 (58), (n=6). There was no significant change in morphology between infected and uninfected tissue or tissue infected with the different species over 14 days. The number of M avium complex on the mucosa and recovered from tissue increased over time (p=0.03). M tuberculosis decreased on the surface, but recoverable bacteria increased (p=0.01). M smegmatis numbers on the mucosa and recovered from tissue decreased. Sectioned tissue showed M avium complex and M tuberculosis in submucosal mucus glands and M tuberculosis penetrating epithelial cells in one experiment. Conclusions: The initial adherence to the mucosa of the three species was similar, but after 14 days they varied in their interaction with the tissue in a manner compatible with their pathogenicity.

Middleton, A; Chadwick, M; Nicholson, A; Dewar, A; Feldman, C; Wilson, R

2003-01-01

291

Treating bilio-duodenal obstruction: Combining new endoscopic technique with 6 Fr stent introducer  

PubMed Central

Periampullary cancer may cause not only biliary but also duodenal obstructions. In patients with concomitant duodenal obstructions, endoscopic biliary stenting remains technically difficult and may often require percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. We describe a method of metal stent placement via a thin forward-viewing endoscope in patients with simultaneous biliary and duodenal obstruction. In two consecutive patients with biliary and duodenal obstruction due to pancreatic cancer, a new biliary metal stent mounted in a slim delivery catheter was placed via a thin forward viewing endoscope after passage across the duodenal stenosis without balloon dilation. In both patients, with our new placement technique, metallic stents were successfully placed in a short time without adverse events. After biliary stenting, one patient received curative resection and the other received duodenal stenting for palliation. Metallic stent placement with a forward-viewing thin endoscope is a beneficial technique, which can avoid percutaneous drainage in patients with bilio-duodenal obstructions due to periampullary cancer.

Maetani, Iruru; Nambu, Tomoko; Omuta, Shigefumi; Ukita, Takeo; Shigoka, Hiroaki

2010-01-01

292

Treating bilio-duodenal obstruction: combining new endoscopic technique with 6 Fr stent introducer.  

PubMed

Periampullary cancer may cause not only biliary but also duodenal obstructions. In patients with concomitant duodenal obstructions, endoscopic biliary stenting remains technically difficult and may often require percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. We describe a method of metal stent placement via a thin forward-viewing endoscope in patients with simultaneous biliary and duodenal obstruction. In two consecutive patients with biliary and duodenal obstruction due to pancreatic cancer, a new biliary metal stent mounted in a slim delivery catheter was placed via a thin forward viewing endoscope after passage across the duodenal stenosis without balloon dilation. In both patients, with our new placement technique, metallic stents were successfully placed in a short time without adverse events. After biliary stenting, one patient received curative resection and the other received duodenal stenting for palliation. Metallic stent placement with a forward-viewing thin endoscope is a beneficial technique, which can avoid percutaneous drainage in patients with bilio-duodenal obstructions due to periampullary cancer. PMID:20533606

Maetani, Iruru; Nambu, Tomoko; Omuta, Shigefumi; Ukita, Takeo; Shigoka, Hiroaki

2010-06-14

293

Duodenal perforation caused by an inferior vena cava filter.  

PubMed

The inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is known as an effective and safe method for preventing fatal pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with deep vein thrombosis. Usually, the remaining IVC filters are asymptomatic and do not cause clinical problems. We report a case of duodenal perforation caused by a remaining IVC filter. PMID:22363914

Bae, Mi Ju; Chung, Sung Woon; Lee, Chung Won; Kim, Sangpil; Song, Seunghwan

2012-02-01

294

Pellagra revealing a congenital duodenal diaphragm in an adult.  

PubMed

Pellagra is a nutritional disease caused by the deficiency of niacin. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by four "D's": diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and ultimately death. We describe a case of pellagra as the initial presentation of congenital duodenal diaphragm. PMID:23168227

Khouloud, Bouslama; Haykel, Bedioui; Ahmed, Saidani; Houcine, Maghrebi; Yacine, Ben Safta; Farah, Jokho; Zoubeir, Ben Safta

2013-12-01

295

Quadruple therapy for symptomatic spontaneous duodenal ulcer disease  

PubMed Central

AIM—To investigate Helicobacter pylori eradication in duodenal ulcer patients with a new regimen, lansoprazole 30 mg daily for one or four weeks plus twice daily tetracycline 500 mg, clarithromycin 250 mg, and metronidazole 400 mg.?BACKGROUND—Spontaneous duodenal ulcer is regularly associated with H pylori, and permanent cure follows eradication of this bacterium. Numerous treatments have been proposed and none is ideal, possibly because of primary or acquired antibiotic resistance. Quadruple regimens with proton pump inhibitor therapy and three antibiotics offer promise as the most effective therapy.?METHODS—From November 1995 all patients with spontaneous duodenal ulcer were offered quadruple therapy. A month after completion a carbon 14 urea breath test (UBT) was performed. Sensitivity of H pylori to the antibiotics used was tested in 1992-3, 1996, and 1999.?RESULTS—A total of 331 patients were treated; 313 attended for a UBT, of which 299 were negative (95.5%). Of those patients who had an endoscopy with positive urease test immediately before treatment, 95/101 (94.0%) on lansoprazole for one week and 116/121 (95.8%) on lansoprazole for four weeks had a negative UBT. H pylori antibiotic sensitivity did not change.?CONCLUSION—This regimen produced some of the best results yet seen and may be generally recommended as first line therapy.???Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; duodenal ulcer

Bateson, M

2001-01-01

296

DUODENAL CYTOCHROME B: A NOVEL FERRIREDUCTASE IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Catalytically active iron in the lung causes oxidative stress and promotes microbial growth that can be limited by intracellular sequestration of iron within ferritin. Because cellular iron uptake requires membrane ferrireductase activity that in the gut can be provided by duoden...

297

Pyloric atresia associated with duodenal and jejunal atresia and duplication.  

PubMed

A case of congenital pyloric atresia associated with duodenal atresia, jejunal atresia, and a duplication is described. A review of the literature revealed nine previously reported cases of congenital pyloric atresia and multiple intestinal atresias, but this is the first report of such an association and a duplication. PMID:10525913

Al-Salem, A H

1999-01-01

298

Maintenance Therapy with Colloidal Bismuth Subcitrate in Duodenal Ulcer Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various investigators have reported that relapses after healing of duodenal ulcers with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS, De-Nol®) occur less frequently than after healing with H2- antagonists. To date, treatment with CBS has been limited to 8 weeks. After a volunteer study showed that prolonged administration of CBS did not cause safety problems, a trial was undertaken in which the effects

Bianchi Porro; M. Lazzaroni; W. R. E. Cortvriendt

1987-01-01

299

Duodenal Toxicity After Fractionated Chemoradiation for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Improving local control is critical to improving survival and quality of life for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, previous attempts at radiation dose escalation have been limited by duodenal toxicity. In order to guide future studies, we analyzed the clinical and dosimetric factors associated with duodenal toxicity in patients undergoing fractionated chemoradiation for LAPC. Methods and Materials: Medical records and treatment plans of 106 patients with LAPC who were treated with chemoradiation between July 2005 and June 2010 at our institution were reviewed. All patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy. Seventy-eight patients were treated with conventional radiation to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions; 28 patients received dose-escalated radiation therapy (range, 57.5-75.4 Gy in 28-39 fractions). Treatment-related toxicity was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess prognostic influence of clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results: Twenty patients had treatment-related duodenal toxicity events, such as duodenal inflammation, ulceration, and bleeding. Four patients had grade 1 events, 8 had grade 2, 6 had grade 3, 1 had grade 4, and 1 had grade 5. On univariate analysis, a toxicity grade ?2 was associated with tumor location, low platelet count, an absolute volume (cm{sup 3}) receiving a dose of at least 55 Gy (V{sub 55} {sub Gy} > 1 cm{sup 3}), and a maximum point dose >60 Gy. Of these factors, only V{sub 55} {sub Gy} ?1 cm{sup 3} was associated with duodenal toxicity on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 6.7; range, 2.0-18.8; P=.002). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a duodenal V{sub 55} {sub Gy} >1 cm{sup 3} is an important dosimetric predictor of grade 2 or greater duodenal toxicity and establishes it as a dosimetric constraint when treating patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer with concurrent chemoradiation.

Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Beddar, Sam; Briere, Tina; Pham, Mary; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H., E-mail: ccrane@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-03-01

300

Spontaneous secretion of interferon ? and interleukin 4 by human intraepithelial and lamina propria gut lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Background—Cytokines secreted by intestinal T lymphocytes probably play a critical role in regulation of the gut associated immune responses. ?Aims—To quantify interferon ? (IFN-?) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) secreting cells (SC) among human intraepithelial (IEL) and lamina propria (LPL) lymphocytes from the duodenum and right colon in non-pathological situations and in the absence of in vitro stimulation. ?Patients—Duodenal and right colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with no inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. ?Methods—Intraepithelial and lamina propria cell suspensions were assayed for numbers of cells spontaneously secreting IFN-? and IL-4 by a two site reverse enzyme linked immunospot technique (ELISPOT). ?Results—The relatively high proportion of duodenal lymphocytes spontaneously secreting IFN-? (IEL 3.6%; LPL 1.9%) and IL-4 (IEL 1.3%; LPL 0.7%) contrasted with the very low numbers of spontaneously IFN-? SC and the absence of spontaneously IL-4 SC among peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In the basal state, both IFN-? and IL-4 were mainly produced by CD4+ cells. Within the colon, only 0.2% of IEL and LPL secreted IFN-? in the basal state, and 0.1% secreted IL-4. ?Conclusions—Compared with peripheral lymphocytes substantial proportions of intestinal epithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes spontaneously secrete IFN-? and/or IL-4. These cytokines are probably involved in the normal homoeostasis of the human intestinal mucosa. Disturbances in their secretion could play a role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases. ?? Keywords: intestinal lymphocytes; ELISPOT; interferon ?; interleukin 4

Carol, M; Lambrechts, A; Van Gossum, A; Libin, M; Goldman, M; Mascart-Lemone, F

1998-01-01

301

An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.  

PubMed

The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. PMID:24813111

Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Alvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

2014-08-18

302

The role of SOX9 transcription factor in pancreatic and duodenal development.  

PubMed

Progenitor expansion during development is a highly regulated process dictating the final organ size, while expansion of specific progenitor populators can adjust the final cellular composition of the organ. Understanding factors involved in these pathways is required to develop cell-based therapies such as ?-cell transplantation for conditions such as diabetes mellitus. One versatile factor controlling both processes as well as a network of other proteins involved in pancreatic and duodenal development is the transcription factor SOX9. This review will focus on a comparison of SOX9 function during progenitor expansion and differentiation in the developing pancreas and duodenum with specific focus on endocrine development. During human pancreatic development, SOX9 functions in a dose-dependent manner to regulate epithelial progenitor expansion and endocrine differentiation. SOX9 expression is eventually limited to a subset of ductal and centroacinar cells, hypothesized to be the pancreatic stem cell compartment. Similarly, during duodenal development, SOX9 is expressed in most early epithelial progenitors and becomes gradually restricted to proliferative progenitors in the lower crypts, as well as mature Paneth and enteroendocrine cells indicating some differences in functional roles. However, in both developmental contexts, SOX9 is involved in pathways responsible for cellular proliferation and differentiation, such as Notch and Wnt. With its adaptable and central function in progenitor control, SOX9 represents an attractive target for manipulation for in vitro progenitor expansion and differentiation meriting further investigation. PMID:23806070

Belo, Jamie; Krishnamurthy, Mansa; Oakie, Amanda; Wang, Rennian

2013-11-15

303

Identification of a selective inhibitor of murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ML260) by concurrent ultra-high throughput screening against human and mouse isozymes.  

PubMed

Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes are present in a wide range of species from bacteria to man and are capable of dephosphorylation and transphosphorylation of a wide spectrum of substrates in vitro. In humans, four AP isozymes have been identified-one tissue-nonspecific (TNAP) and three tissue-specific-named according to the tissue of their predominant expression: intestinal (IAP), placental (PLAP) and germ cell (GCAP) APs. Modulation of activity of the different AP isozymes may have therapeutic implications in distinct diseases and cellular processes. For instance, changes in the level of IAP activity can affect gut mucosa tolerance to microbial invasion due to the ability of IAP to detoxify bacterial endotoxins, alter the absorption of fatty acids and affect ectopurinergic regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion. To identify isozyme selective modulators of the human and mouse IAPs, we developed a series of murine duodenal IAP (Akp3-encoded dIAP isozyme), human IAP (hIAP), PLAP, and TNAP assays. High throughput screening and subsequent SAR efforts generated a potent inhibitor of dIAP, ML260, with specificity for the Akp3-, compared to the Akp5- and Akp6-encoded mouse isozymes. PMID:24412070

Ardecky, Robert J; Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Brown, Brock; Ganji, Santhi; Zou, Jiwen; Pass, Ian; Narisawa, Sonoko; Iano, Flávia Godoy; Rosenstein, Craig; Cheltsov, Anton; Rascon, Justin; Hedrick, Michael; Gasior, Carlton; Forster, Anita; Shi, Shenghua; Dahl, Russell; Vasile, Stefan; Su, Ying; Sergienko, Eduard; Chung, Thomas D Y; Kaunitz, Jonathan; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Millán, José Luis

2014-02-01

304

Rapid repair of injured gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

The morphology of the rat gastric mucosa superficially damaged by a 30-45 sec exposure to 100% ethanol caused over 99% of the luminal surface to be necrotic without extensive hemorrhage or hyperemia. However, this damaged area restituted or rapidly healed and the process was described. These findings were compared with in vitro gastric mucosae of bullfrogs and guinea pigs which were damaged with 1 or 1.25 M NaCl and allowed to restitute. The rat gastric mucosa showed evidence of cell migration within 5 min after ethanol damage and after 15 min as much as 50% of the denuded basement membrane was restituted. After 30 min about 75% of the mucosa was covered with cells and by 1 h there were only minor epithelial discontinuities. The in vitro frog mucosal restitution after hypertonic injury was slower and required 1-2 h to show appreciable cell migration and 4-6 h for completion of the repair process. Using chambered guinea pig gastric mucosa damaged with hypertonic NaCl restituted the necrotic surface almost as rapidly as the intact rat stomach necrotized with absolute ethanol. Since prostaglandin treatment did not prevent ethanol or hypertonic salt injury or affect the restitution process it was proposed that the term cytoprotection as it is generally used is not appropriate. PMID:6336239

Ito, S; Lacy, E R; Rutten, M J; Critchlow, J; Silen, W

1984-01-01

305

A study of the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori negative chronic duodenal ulceration.  

PubMed Central

In the past five years 12 patients have been identified presenting with chronic duodenal ulcer (DU) disease and with no evidence of current or recent Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. Four of them were taking regular non-steroidal anti inflammatory agents, one was subsequently found to have Crohn's disease of the duodenum, and one to have the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The remaining six patients with idiopathic DU disease were remarkable for their absence of the A1 blood antigen gene. Detailed studies of gastric function were performed in these six patients and compared with H pylori positive patients with DU and with healthy volunteers. The median integrated gastrin response in the patients with idiopathic DU (2810 (range 750-8750) ng/l min) was similar to that of the H pylori positive patients with DU (3355 (550-8725)) and higher than that of the H pylori negative healthy volunteers (560 (225-1125)). The median peak acid output in the patients with idiopathic DU (37 mmol/h, range 17-52) was similar to that of the H pylori positive patients with DU (40 (15-57)) and higher than that of the non-ulcer controls (22 (16-29)). The median percentage of a liquid meal retained in the stomach at 60 minutes was less in the patients with idiopathic DU (23 (15-33)) than in H pylori negative healthy volunteers (34 (30-53) p < 0.01). The median percentage of a solid meal retained at 60 minutes was less in the patients with idiopathic DU (54 (9-83)) than in either H pylori negative healthy volunteers (87 (49-95) p<0.01) or H pylori positive patients with DU (79 (51-100) p<0.01). In conclusion, three abnormalities of gastric function are prevalent in patients with H pylori negative idiopathic DU disease - hypergastrinaemia, increased acid secretion, and the one feature distinguishing them from H pylori positive patients with DU - rapid gastric emptying of both liquids and solids. Each of these abnormalities will increase the exposure of the duodenal mucosa to acid and thus explain its ulceration. The absence of the blood group A1 antigen gene is consistent with a genetic basis for the disturbed gastric function linked to the ABO blood group antigen genes.

McColl, K E; el-Nujumi, A M; Chittajallu, R S; Dahill, S W; Dorrian, C A; el-Omar, E; Penman, I; Fitzsimons, E J; Drain, J; Graham, H

1993-01-01

306

Laparoscopic omental patch repair for perforated duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed

A retrospective review was carried out on 33 consecutive patients with omental patch repair for perforated duodenal ulcer; 13 had laparoscopic repair, and 20 had open repair. Laparoscopic repair was successful in 12 patients, with only one postoperative complication (8%). The morbidity rate for open repair was 15 per cent (3 of 20), and there was one postoperative death in the open group (5%). Overall, it did not take longer to perform the operation laparoscopically than the open method. Patients in the laparoscopic group required less postoperative analgesia (mean doses, 0.2 vs 0.9; P = 0.02). There was no difference in terms of hospital stay and resumption of diet after operation between the two groups. Laparoscopic omental patch repair offers a safe alternative to the open method in the treatment of perforated duodenal ulcer. PMID:9915527

Kok, K Y; Mathew, V V; Yapp, S K

1999-01-01

307

Controlled trial of carbenoxolone sodium vs. cimetidine in duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed

The healing-rate of duodenal ulcer after short-term treatment with carbenoxolone was not significantly different from that after treatment with cimetidine. There seems to be no evidence of a significant difference in the tendency of duodenal ulceration to relapse following successful short-term therapy with either treatment. In the case of cimetidine treatment the rate of 58% relapse within 12 months after withdrawal of the drug corresponds well to the data of other authors (3, 19) and does not exceed the relapse rate during placebo medication. The post-treatment relapse study was markedly hampered by a low compliance of patients to cooperate in the long-term follow-up. The drop-out rate was greater in patients previously treated with carbenoxolone than in those of the cimetidine group. PMID:7010527

Schenk, J; Schmack, B; Rösch, W; Domschke, W

1980-01-01

308

[Minimal resections in surgical treatment of perforative duodenal ulcers].  

PubMed

289 patients were operated on the reason of perforative duodenal ulcer. Omental tamponade of the ulcer after Oppel-Policarpov was performed in 260 (90%) cases; traditional ulcer closure with omental support - in 13 (4,5%); excision of the ulcer - in 4 (1,4%); truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty - in 9 (3,1%) and gastric resection was performed in 3 (1%) patients. After 277 operations "of minimal volume" major complications were registered in 21 (7,6%) patients with lethal outcomes in 9 cases. All patients received adequate antiulcer drug treatment. Follow-up results, obtained in 153 patients, demonstrated good results of the operation and nonrecurrent course in 133 (86,9%) cases. The omental tamponade of the ulcer after Oppel-Policarpov proved to be the method of choice in treatment of the perforative duodenal ulcer. Early beginning of antiulcer conservative treatment after the operation provide excellent results and stable recovery. PMID:21423108

Kurbanov, F S; Baloglanov, D A; Sushko, A N; Asadov, S A

2011-01-01

309

Endoscopic mucosal resection with circumferential mucosal incision of duodenal carcinoid tumors  

PubMed Central

Duodenal carcinoids are a rare form of neuroendocrine tumors, and tend to invade the submucosa during the early stage. Endoscopic treatment is generally recommended for duodenal carcinoids less than 10 mm in diameter. Although a few reports have described the use of endoscopic resection of duodenal carcinoids, there are no published studies on endoscopic mucosal resection with circumferential mucosal incision (EMR-CMI). We performed EMR-CMI for 5 cases of duodenal carcinoids in the duodenal bulb. The mean tumor diameter was 4.6 ± 1.8 mm. Although all of the tumors were located in the submucosa, R0 resection was performed without complication in each case. EMR-CMI may thus be a safe and effective treatment for duodenal carcinoids less than 10 mm in diameter.

Otaki, Yuzo; Homma, Kiyoaki; Nawata, Yoshitakata; Imaizumi, Kazuomi; Arai, Shigeru

2013-01-01

310

P2X receptors in the rat duodenal villus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunohistochemical techniques were performed on freshly frozen sections of the duodenum of the rat using specific polyclonal antibodies to unique peptide sequences of P2X1-7 receptors. Of the antibodies to the seven known P2X receptor subtypes that mediate extracellular signalling by nucleotides, three reacted with discrete structures in the duodenal villus of the rat. Anti-P2X1 reacted with the capillary plexus in

Ute Gröschel-Stewart; Michelle Bardini; Tim Robson; Geoffrey Burnstock

1999-01-01

311

Duodenal Perforation: Unusual Complication of Gastrostomy Tube Replacement  

PubMed Central

Feeding gastrostomy is widely used for children with feeding impairment. The replacement of gastrostomy tube is known as an easy and safe procedure. However, various complications associated with replacement of gastrostomy tube were reported, including fistula disruption and colo-cutaneous fistula. For replacement of gastrostomy tube in small children with small stomach, special cautions are needed. Here, we report a rare case of duodenal perforation as an acute complication after the replacement of gastrostomy tube for a 33-month-old girl.

Kim, Soo-Hong; Min, Sa-Hong; Jung, Sung-Eun

2014-01-01

312

Duodenal atresia: associated anomalies, prenatal diagnosis and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The diagnosis of duodenal atresia is commonly made prenatally, either as an isolated lesion or due to its association with\\u000a other chromosomal abnormalities (Robertson et al. in Semin Perinatol 18:182–195, 1994; Hemming and Rankin in J Prenat Diagn 27:1205–1211, 2007). The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of associated anomalies, prenatal diagnostic accuracy and survival\\u000a of cases

M. S. Choudhry; N. Rahman; P. Boyd; K. Lakhoo

2009-01-01

313

New spiral bacterium in gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new spiral bacterium, distinct from Campylobacter pylori, was found in the gastric mucosa of six patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. All patients had chronic active type B gastritis and four had oesophagitis. Culture and microscopy for C pylori infection was negative. These unculturable spiral organisms were probably an incidental finding in patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but it is

C A McNulty; J C Dent; A Curry; J S Uff; G A Ford; M W Gear; S P Wilkinson

1989-01-01

314

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in salivary glands of head and neck region. Here we present a case report of a 50 year old male who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:22190804

Singh, Sanjay; Gokkulakrishnan; Jain, Jinendra; Pathak, Sachin; Singh, Kumar Tathagat

2010-09-01

315

Lupus vulgaris of the Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 cases of lupus vulgaris of the oral mucosa were found to be associated with asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. The patients presented with single or multiple ulcerations of the mouth with an irregular periphery and a granular vegetative fundus. The diagnosis was established histologically and by the favorable and rapid response of the oral lesions to the antituberculosis therapy.Copyright © 1981

George C. Laskaris; George D. Nicolis

1981-01-01

316

The Modified Kimura's Technique for the Treatment of Duodenal Atresia  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose. Kimura's diamond-shaped-duodenoduodenostomy (DSD) is a known technique for the correction of congenital intrinsic duodenal obstruction. We present a modification of the technique and review the advantages of this new technique. Methods. From 1992 to 2006, 14 newborns were treated for duodenal atresia. We inverted the direction of the duodenal incisions: a longitudinal incision was made in the proximal duodenum while the distal was opened by transverse incision. Results. Our “inverted-diamond-shaped-duodenoduodenostomy” (i-DSD) allowed postoperative oral feeding to start on days 2 to 3, peripheral intravenous fluids discontinuity on days 3 to 8 (median values 3.6); time to achieve full oral feeds on days 8 to 12 (median values 9.4); the length of hospitalisation ranged from 10 and 14 days (median value 11.2). No complications related to the anastomosis, by Viz leakage, dehiscence, biliary stasis, or stenosis were observed. Conclusions. The i-DSD provides a safe procedure to protect the ampulla of Vater from injury and avoids any formation of a blind loop. The results show that patients who have i-DSD achieve full oral feeds in a very short time period and, consequently, the length of hospitalisation is also significantly reduced.

Zuccarello, Biagio; Spada, Antonella; Centorrino, Antonio; Turiaco, Nunzio; Chirico, Maria Rosaria; Parisi, Saveria

2009-01-01

317

Silymarin attenuates mycophenolate mofetil-induced duodenal disorders in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The protective effect of silymarin (SMN) on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)–induced duodenal disorders was investigated. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Wistar rats were assigned to seven groups including control and test groups. The control animals received saline and the test animals were treated with MMF (30 mg/kg, orally) and saline, MMF and SMN (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, orally), MMF and Celecoxib (CLX, 50 mg/kg, orally), and MMF and SMN plus CLX for 14 consecutive days. The antioxidant status and myeloperoxidase activity were determined and the histopathological examinations on duodenal section also were performed. Results: Biochemical analyses revealed that SMN and CLX individually and in combination therapy could reduce the MMF-increased nitric oxide (NO) content, myeloperoxidase (MPA) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, while the MMF-reduced level of total thiol molecules (TTM) was increased significantly (p<0.05) by given compounds. Concurrent administration of SMN and CLX resulted in a synergistic effect on the reduction of MDA level and MPO activity. SMN and CLX were able to improve the MMF-induced histopathological damages including the villus atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the MMF-induced duodenal disorders may attribute to the elevated NO and MDA levels and myeloperoxidase activity that resulted in pathological injuries. Moreover, the biochemical alterations and histopathological injuries due to MMF administration were reduced by SMN alone or in combination with CLX indicating its protective effect.

Malekinejad, Hassan; Sheikhzadeh, Sanaz; Hobbenaghi, Rahim

2014-01-01

318

Placebo effect in the treatment of duodenal ulcer  

PubMed Central

Aims To assess whether frequency of placebo administration is associated with duodenal ulcer healing. Methods A systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials was undertaken. 79 of 80 trials that met the inclusion criteria. The pooled 4 week placebo healing rate of all duodenal ulcer trials that employed a four times a day regimen was compared with the rate obtained from trials with a twice a day regimen. Results The pooled 4 week healing rate of the 51 trials with a four times a day regimen was 44.2% (805 of 1821 patients) compared with 36.2% (545 of 1504 patients) in the 28 trials with a twice a day regimen (difference, 8.0% [equal effects model]; 95% confidence interval, 4.6% to 11.3%). Depending on the statistical analysis, the rate difference ranged from 6.0% (multivariable random effects model) to 8.0% (equal effects model). A number of sensitivity analyses showed comparable differences between the two regimens. Most of these sensitivity analyses were not significant, probably because a number of trials were excluded resulting in a loss of power. Conclusions We found a relation between frequency of placebo administration and healing of duodenal ulcer. We realize that the comparison was based on nonrandomized data. However, we speculate that the difference between regimens was induced by the difference in frequency of placebo administration. A better knowledge of various placebo effects is required in order to make clinically relevant assessments of treatment effects derived from placebo-controlled trials.

de Craen, Anton J M; Moerman, Daniel E; Heisterkamp, Simon H; Tytgat, Guido N J; Tijssen, Jan G P; Kleijnen, Jos

1999-01-01

319

Mechanism of action of Trolox on duodenal contractility.  

PubMed

Trolox is a hydrophilic analogue of vitamin E. The aim of this work was to study the mechanism of action of Trolox on rabbit duodenal spontaneous motility and contractility. The duodenal contractility studies in vitro were carried out in an organ bath. Trolox (12 mM) reduced the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and the acetylcholine-induced contractions in the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle of rabbit duodenum. Quinine reverted the Trolox-induced (12 mM) reduction on the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions in the longitudinal and circular muscle. Charibdotoxin and glibenclamide reverted only the amplitude of spontaneous contractions in circular muscle of the duodenum. The decrease of ACh-induced contractions evoked by Trolox 12 mM in the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle of the duodenum was antagonized by quinine in longitudinal and circular muscle and by Bay K8644, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo [4, 3-?]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and nimesulide in circular muscle. We conclude that in the decrease of duodenal contractility induced by Trolox participate K(+) and Ca(2+) channels, adenylyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase and cyclooxygenase-2. PMID:24388884

Fagundes, D S; Grasa, L; Gonzalo, S; Martinez de Salinas, F; Arruebo, M P; Plaza, M A; Murillo, M D

2013-12-01

320

Endoscopic duodenal perforation: surgical strategies in a regional centre  

PubMed Central

Background Duodenal perforation is an uncommon complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) and a rare complication of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Most are minor perforations that settle with conservative management. A few perforations however result in life-threatening retroperitoneal necrosis and require surgical intervention. There is a relative paucity of references specifically describing the surgical interventions required for this eventuality. Methods Five cases of iatrogenic duodenal perforation were ascertained between 2002 and 2007 at Cairns Base Hospital. Clinical features were analyzed and compared, with reference to a review of ERCP at that institution for the years 2005/2006. Results One patient recovered with conservative management. Of the other four, one died after initial laparotomy. The other three survived, undergoing multiple procedures and long inpatient stays. Conclusions Iatrogenic duodenal perforation with retroperitoneal necrosis is an uncommon complication of endoscopy, but when it does occur it is potentially life-threatening. Early recognition may lead to a better outcome through earlier intervention, although a protracted course with multiple procedures should be anticipated. A number of surgical techniques may need to be employed according to the individual circumstances of the case.

2014-01-01

321

INCREASING DIETARY HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER OIL AFFECTS DUODENAL FLOW OF ESTERIFIED LINOLEATE IN WETHERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that lambs fed a high- concentrate diet with high-linoleate safflower oil will have increased duodenal flow of 18:2c9,c12 (18:2, linoleic acid) due primarily to flow of esterified 18:2. Four crossbred wethers (BW = 44.3 ± 15.7 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to determine duodenal fatty acid

R. L. Atkinson; E. J. Scholljegerdes; S. L. Lake; V. Nayigihugu; B. W. Hess

2003-01-01

322

Rapid switch from oral antiparkinsonian combination drug therapy to duodenal levodopa infusion.  

PubMed

Six patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with severe motor complications were directly switched from their oral antiparkinsonian combination drug regime to nasoduodenal levodopa infusion without previously recommended transient treatment with levodopa alone. Duodenal levodopa infusion reduced motor complications to a considerable extent. We have shown that a prior change to an oral levodopa monotherapy and a slow titration of duodenal levodopa infusion may be skipped and a direct switch to duodenal levodopa is a safe option. PMID:17987653

Meiler, Birgit; Andrich, Jürgen; Müller, Thomas

2008-01-01

323

Eicosanoid synthesis in duodenal ulcer disease: decrease in leukotriene C4 by colloidal bismuth subcitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of immunoreactive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) from antral and duodenal mucosal biopsy specimens taken from 20 patients with duodenal ulcer disease was measured by radioimmunoassay before and four weeks after treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate. Gastroscopic and histological examination showed complete ulcer healing in 15\\/18 patients and duodenal histology looked normal (n = 15) or

A Ahmed; P R Salmon; C R Cairns; M Hobsley; J R Hoult

1992-01-01

324

Localisation of vitamin D receptor in normal human duodenum and in patients with coeliac disease.  

PubMed Central

Immunocytochemistry using a specific monoclonal antibody 9A7 gamma was used to identify receptors for calcitriol (1,25 (OH)2 D3), the active metabolite of vitamin D, in sections of duodenal mucosa. Specific staining for vitamin D receptors was largely restricted to nuclei of enterocytes lining crypts in duodenal biopsy specimens from normal mucosa. Vitamin D receptors were also abundant in crypts from duodenal mucosa in coeliac disease patients with mucosal damage and villous atrophy. In contrast, alkaline phosphatase, a vitamin D regulated protein, was absent from crypts but present on brush borders of normal villi, and on surface enterocytes in coeliac disease. Oestrogen receptor could not be identified in duodenal mucosa. These findings suggest that calcium malabsorption in coeliac disease does not result from the absence of vitamin D receptors, but rather from reduction in vitamin D regulated proteins and functions essential for active calcium absorption that are located in the enterocytes of the villi. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8

Colston, K W; Mackay, A G; Finlayson, C; Wu, J C; Maxwell, J D

1994-01-01

325

Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: The mechanisms and clinical implications  

PubMed Central

This review updates the current views on aging gastric mucosa and the mechanisms of its increased susceptibility to injury. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that gastric mucosa of aging individuals-“aging gastropathy”-has prominent structural and functional abnormalities vs young gastric mucosa. Some of these abnormalities include a partial atrophy of gastric glands, impaired mucosal defense (reduced bicarbonate and prostaglandin generation, decreased sensory innervation), increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), impaired healing of injury and reduced therapeutic efficacy of ulcer-healing drugs. Detailed analysis of the above changes indicates that the following events occur in aging gastric mucosa: reduced mucosal blood flow and impaired oxygen delivery cause hypoxia, which leads to activation of the early growth response-1 (egr-1) transcription factor. Activation of egr-1, in turn, upregulates the dual specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) resulting in activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 and reduced expression of the anti-apoptosis protein, survivin. The imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptosis mediators results in increased apoptosis and increased susceptibility to injury. This paradigm has human relevance since increased expression of PTEN and reduced expression of survivin were demonstrated in gastric mucosa of aging individuals. Other potential mechanisms operating in aging gastric mucosa include reduced telomerase activity, increase in replicative cellular senescence, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and importin-?-a nuclear transport protein essential for transport of transcription factors to nucleus. Aging gastropathy is an important and clinically relevant issue because of: (1) an aging world population due to prolonged life span; (2) older patients have much greater risk of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastrointestinal complications (e.g., NSAIDs-induced gastric injury) than younger patients; and (3) increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury can be potentially reduced or reversed pharmacologically.

Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

2014-01-01

326

Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: the mechanisms and clinical implications.  

PubMed

This review updates the current views on aging gastric mucosa and the mechanisms of its increased susceptibility to injury. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that gastric mucosa of aging individuals-"aging gastropathy"-has prominent structural and functional abnormalities vs young gastric mucosa. Some of these abnormalities include a partial atrophy of gastric glands, impaired mucosal defense (reduced bicarbonate and prostaglandin generation, decreased sensory innervation), increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), impaired healing of injury and reduced therapeutic efficacy of ulcer-healing drugs. Detailed analysis of the above changes indicates that the following events occur in aging gastric mucosa: reduced mucosal blood flow and impaired oxygen delivery cause hypoxia, which leads to activation of the early growth response-1 (egr-1) transcription factor. Activation of egr-1, in turn, upregulates the dual specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) resulting in activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 and reduced expression of the anti-apoptosis protein, survivin. The imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptosis mediators results in increased apoptosis and increased susceptibility to injury. This paradigm has human relevance since increased expression of PTEN and reduced expression of survivin were demonstrated in gastric mucosa of aging individuals. Other potential mechanisms operating in aging gastric mucosa include reduced telomerase activity, increase in replicative cellular senescence, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and importin-?-a nuclear transport protein essential for transport of transcription factors to nucleus. Aging gastropathy is an important and clinically relevant issue because of: (1) an aging world population due to prolonged life span; (2) older patients have much greater risk of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastrointestinal complications (e.g., NSAIDs-induced gastric injury) than younger patients; and (3) increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury can be potentially reduced or reversed pharmacologically. PMID:24782600

Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

2014-04-28

327

A new endoscopic metallic stenting method for duodenal stenosis: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Palliative duodenal stenting was attempted in three patients with severe duodenal stenosis due to tumor invasion. Two methods were applied for duodenal stenting: the conventional method, which inserts the Ultraflex (stent for esophageal stenosis) along the guidewire under fluoroscopy, and a new method that uses a snare and an endoscope to guide the esophageal stent. The conventional method is often unsuccessful, because the delivery tube is too short, but the latter method appears to be a safe and effective duodenal stenting technique. PMID:10535484

Hyodo, T; Yoshida, Y; Imawari, M

1999-10-01

328

Duodenal delivery of levodopa for on-off fluctuations in parkinsonism: preliminary observations.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of on-off motor fluctuations in parkinsonism remains incompletely understood, but slowed or erratic gastric emptying of orally administered levodopa may be involved. In 3 patients with resistant on-off fluctuations, direct duodenal continuous infusion of levodopa via a nasoduodenal tube resulted in a heightened therapeutic effect, including a reduction in motor fluctuations. In 1 of these patients, continuous duodenal levodopa infusion produced greater benefit than did intermittent duodenal levodopa administration. Direct duodenal delivery of levodopa lessens the problems with gastric emptying and may be suitable for long-term therapy in selected patients with resistant on-off motor fluctuations. PMID:3752968

Kurlan, R; Rubin, A J; Miller, C; Rivera-Calimlim, L; Clarke, A; Shoulson, I

1986-08-01

329

Duodenal duplication cyst in a 52-year-old man: A challenging diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Duodenal duplication is a rare congenital malformation. Although more frequent in childhood, it may rarely be observed in adulthood. Pre-operative diagnosis can be difficult. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 52-year-old man with a duodenal duplication cyst, who was misdiagnosed even after a primary surgery. Definitive treatment needed an extensive diagnostic workup and a second delicate operation. DISCUSSION This article discusses the incidence of duodenal duplications, their types, their clinical presentations, the radiologic and diagnostic features along with different therapeutic options. CONCLUSION Duodenal duplication should always be one of the differential diagnoses proposed when approaching upper abdominal cystic formations.

Al-Harake, Ali; Bassal, Ahmad; Ramadan, Mohamad; Chour, Mohomad

2013-01-01

330

Duodenal Hemorrhage from Pancreatic Cancer Infiltration Controlled through Combination Therapy with Gemcitabine and S-1  

PubMed Central

2.6% of pancreatic cancer patients have the primary manifestation of gastrointestinal bleeding. It is not feasible to stop the duodenal hemorrhage caused by the pancreatic cancer infiltration. A 43-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer with multiple hepatic metastases and duodenal infiltration was administered gemcitabine and S-1 combination therapy. During the chemotherapy, initially, bleeding occurred due to duodenal infiltration. However, we continued the chemotherapy and duodenal infiltration was markedly reduced in size and did not rebleed. Aggressive chemotherapy contributed to maintenance of performance status as well as improvement of quality of life for the patient.

Takada, Ryoji; Ioka, Tatsuya; Sueyoshi, Hironari; Ishida, Nobuko; Yamai, Takuo; Fukutake, Nobuyasu; Ashida, Reiko; Uehara, Hiroyuki; Takenaka, Akemi; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Kazuhiro

2014-01-01

331

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided double stenting for biliary and duodenal obstruction  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic biliary stenting for malignant biliary obstruction is currently the gold standard for biliary drainage. Biliary cancer treatment is crucial. Cases of gastric outlet obstruction that includes the duodenum because of cancer invasion and biliary obstruction are seldom observed. The required treatment for such cases is simple biliary stenting and a different treatment for duodenal obstruction. Hence, double stenting for bile duct and duodenal obstruction has drawn attention. In the present review, we state different treatment strategies for malignant duodenal obstruction and then describe double stenting in biliary obstruction that also includes non-biliary cancer malignant lesions and duodenal obstruction.

Itoi, Takao; Itokawa, Fumihide; Sofuni, Atsushi; Kurihara, Toshio; Ishii, Kentaro; Tsuji, Shujiro; Ikeuchi, Nobuhito; Umeda, Junko; Tanaka, Rena; Tonozuka, Ryosuke; Moriyasu, Fuminori

2012-01-01

332

Glycophenotypic Alterations Induced by Pteridium aquilinum in Mice Gastric Mucosa: Synergistic Effect with Helicobacter pylori Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with

Joana Gomes; Ana Magalhães; Ana S. Carvalho; Gilberto E. Hernandez; Suzanne L. Papp; Steven R. Head; Valérie Michel; Leonor David; Fátima Gärtner; Eliette Touati; Celso A. Reis

2012-01-01

333

Caco-2 Cell Monolayers as a Model for Drug Transport Across the Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, when grown on semipermeable filters, spontaneously differentiate in culture to form confluent monolayers which both structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. Because of this property they show promise as a simple, in vitro model for the study of drug absorption and metabolism during absorption in the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, the

Allen R. Hilgers; Robert A. Conradi; Philip S. Burton

1990-01-01

334

Optical detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa: autofluorescence characteristics of healthy mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous clinical results demonstrate the potential of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy for early detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. For reliable diagnosis, it is necessary to study autofluorescence spectra of healthy mucosa first. We measured excitation-emission maps in healthy subjects and subjects with a history of cancer in the head -neck region. Our results show that different anatomical locations produce distinct autofluorescence spectra. Influences of, among others, smoking and drinking habits require further investigation.

de Veld, Diana C. G.; Witjes, Max; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Hericus J. C. M.

2001-10-01

335

Helicobacter pylori associated with a high prevalence of duodenal ulcer disease and a low prevalence of gastric cancer in a developing nation.  

PubMed Central

This study examines the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer--in particular, the presence or absence of bacteria, the grading of gastritis, and the degree of inflammation in the antral and oxyntic mucosae. The grading of gastritis and the detection of H pylori were determined by histology using the Sydney system. Of the 1006 patients examined, 34.5% had duodenal ulcer disease, 3.5% gastric ulcer disease, and 2% with coexistent ulceration. Most patients (50.2%) were classified as having non-ulcer dyspepsia. Altogether 2.4% of patients had gastric cancer and two further patients had carcinoma in the gastric stump. Of the ulcer disease patients, 87.2% had histological evidence of H pylori infection. After patients who had taken antibiotics or bismuth compounds in the preceding four weeks were excluded, 98.9% of the duodenal ulcer disease, 100% of the gastric ulcer disease, and 100% of the coexistent ulcer disease patients had evidence of H pylori infection. In patients with gastric cancer who had not taken antimicrobial agents in the four weeks before endoscopy, 83.3% had evidence of H pylori infection. Thus, there was a high rate of duodenal ulcer disease and a low rate of gastric ulcer disease in southern China, an area of low gastric cancer mortality. There was a specific topographical relationship between H pylori, the histological response, and gastroduodenal disease. Our data suggest that the status of a nation as either 'developed' or 'developing' can not be used to predict the upper gastrointestinal disease profile of its population.

Hu, P J; Li, Y Y; Zhou, M H; Chen, M H; Du, G G; Huang, B J; Mitchell, H M; Hazell, S L

1995-01-01

336

Determination of cholesterol esterase activity in human duodenal contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholesterol esters are known to be hydrolyzed in the small intestine to cholesterol and fatty acids [4, 5]. This process is catalyzed by cholesterol esterase (ChE), which is synthesized in the acinar cells of the pancreas and is secreted as a component of the pancreatic juice into the lumen of the duodenum [2, 3]. ChE is present in the pancreatic

Academician A. S. Loginov; L. O. Shibaeva; K. S. Planutis; V. M. Sadokov

1988-01-01

337

Case report of bacteremia due to Neisseria mucosa.  

PubMed

Neisseria mucosa, a Gram-negative diplococcus, is part of normal nasopharyngeal flora. We report a case of bacteremia caused by N. mucosa in a 50-year-old neutropenic patient suffering from non-secretory multiple myeloma stage IIIA. This case underscores that mostly nonpathogenic N. mucosa can cause bacteremia in neutropenic patients who developed mucositis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23905778

Mechergui, Arij; Achour, Wafa; Baaboura, Rekaya; Ouertani, Hela; Lakhal, Amal; Torjemane, Lamia; Othman, Tarek Ben; Hassen, Assia Ben

2014-04-01

338

Micropropagation of Rollinia mucosa (JACQ.) baill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A protocol for in vitro propagation of Rollinia mucosa, an important medicinal plant, was developed. The presence of 500 mg l?1 polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) during explant excision was important to avoid browning. Axillary buds, adventitious buds, and\\u000a shoot cluster proliferation were achieved from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants from nursery-grown seedlings. The highest direct\\u000a organogenesis percentage from hypocotyl explants was obtained upon

Solange Faria Lua Figueiredo; Norma Albarello; Vera Regina Campos Viana

2001-01-01

339

The influence of trisomy 21 on the incidence and severity of congenital heart defects in patients with duodenal atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenal atresia is associated with a wide variety of congenital malformations. Trisomy 21 occurs in approximately one-thirds\\u000a of infants with duodenal atresia. Congenital heart disease in patients with trisomy 21 and duodenal atresia is well known.\\u000a However, the frequency and spectrum of congenital heart defects in infants with duodenal atresia and a normal karyotype has\\u000a not been outlined in the

Scott J. Keckler; Shawn D. St. Peter; Troy L. Spilde; Daniel J. Ostlie; Charles L. Snyder

2008-01-01

340

Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.

1985-10-01

341

Penetration of cefaclor into bronchial mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Bronchial mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained during fibreoptic bronchoscopy in 30 patients receiving a new oral cephalosporin antibiotic, cefaclor (10 had 250 mg, 10 had 500 mg, and 10 had 1000 mg every eight hours). In 10 patients (from all dosage groups) cefaclor was undetectable in the bronchial mucosa but in every case the serum concentration was low, suggesting incomplete absorption. The mean (SD) bronchial mucosal concentration after 250 mg was 3.78 (1.77) micrograms/g (range 2.1-5.8 micrograms/g, n = 4), after 500 mg 4.43 (2.04) micrograms/g (range 2.0-7.1 micrograms/g, n = 8), and after 1000 mg 7.73 (2.76) micrograms/g (range 5.0-12.7 micrograms/g, n = 6). A significantly higher concentration in the bronchial mucosa was achieved with 1000 mg than with 250 mg (p less than 0.05) or 500 mg (p less than 0.025). These concentrations should be effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae, most strains being inhibited below 1.0 microgram/ml. The concentrations were within one dilution of the minimal inhibitory concentration for Haemophilus influenzae, most strains being inhibited below 4.0 micrograms/ml. Some strains of H influenzae will not be inhibited by the concentrations of cefaclor found in the bronchial mucosa, particularly those that are ampicillin resistant.

Marlin, G E; Nicholls, A J; Funnell, G R; Bradbury, R

1984-01-01

342

Changes in nocturnal and peak acid outputs after duodenal ulcer healing with sucralfate or ranitidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in basal and stimulated acid secretion after duodenal ulcer healing have been previously shown to be influenced by the nature of the treatment. This study aimed to determine possible changes in nocturnal acid secretion on duodenal ulcer healing in patients treated with sucralfate or ranitidine. Nocturnal acid output and peak acid output in response to pentagastrin stimulation were studied

A F Kummer; D A Johnston; I N Marks; G O Young; N A Tigler-Wybrandi; S A Bridger

1992-01-01

343

High prevalence of adenomatous polyps of the duodenal papilla in familial adenomatous polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen consecutive asymptomatic patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (both familial polyposis coli and Gardner's syndrome) were studied over a 12-month period; side-viewing upper endoscopy and biopsy were used to assess the frequency of adenomatous polyps of the duodenal papilla. Nine of the 18 patients demonstrated adenomatous polyps of the papilla, varying in size and appearance from microadenomas in normalappearing duodenal

James R. Alexander; John M. Andrews; Kenneth N. Buchi; Randall G. Lee; James M. Becker; Randall W. Burt

1989-01-01

344

Adjuvant antibiotic therapy in duodenal ulcers treated with colloidal bismuth subcitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistence of Helicobacter pylori after duodenal ulcer healing is associated with high rates of ulcer relapse. We compared colloidal bismuth subcitrate alone with CBS combined with one of four antibiotic regimens in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. Endoscopy and antral biopsies were performed before treatment and four weeks afterwards. Biopsy specimens were examined for histological evidence of gastritis and by

T ORiordan; E Mathai; E Tobin; D McKenna; C Keane; E Sweeney; C OMorain

1990-01-01

345

Duodenal calcium absorption in vitamin D receptor-knockout mice: Functional and molecular aspects  

PubMed Central

Rickets and hyperparathyroidism caused by a defective vitamin D receptor (VDR) can be prevented in humans and animals by high calcium intake, suggesting that intestinal calcium absorption is critical for 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3] action on calcium homeostasis. We assessed the rate of serum 45Ca accumulation within 10 min of oral gavage in two strains of VDR-knockout (KO) mice (Leuven and Tokyo KO) and observed a 3-fold lower area under the curve in both KO strains. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of intestinal candidate genes involved in transcellular calcium transport. The calcium transport protein1 (CaT1) was more abundantly expressed at mRNA level than the epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) in duodenum, but both were considerably reduced (CaT1>90%, ECaC>60%) in the two VDR-KO strains on a normal calcium diet. Calbindin-D9K expression was decreased only in the Tokyo KO, whereas plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA1b) expression was normal in both VDR-KOs. In Leuven wild-type mice, a high calcium diet inhibited (>90%) and 1,25(OH)2D3 injection or low calcium diet induced (6-fold) duodenal CaT1 expression and, to a lesser degree, ECaC and calbindin-D9K expression. In Leuven KO mice, however, high or low calcium intake decreased calbindin-D9K and PMCA1b expression, whereas CaT1 and ECaC expression remained consistently low on any diet. These results suggest that the expression of the novel duodenal epithelial calcium channels (in particular CaT1) is strongly vitamin D-dependent, and that calcium influx, probably interacting with calbindin-D9K, should be considered as a rate-limiting step in the process of vitamin D-dependent active calcium absorption.

Van Cromphaut, Sophie J.; Dewerchin, Mieke; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.; Stockmans, Ingrid; Van Herck, Erik; Kato, Shigeaki; Bindels, Rene J. M.; Collen, Desire; Carmeliet, Peter; Bouillon, Roger; Carmeliet, Geert

2001-01-01

346

Laparoscopic resection of antenataly identified duodenal duplication cyst.  

PubMed

We report the first case of complete laparoscopic resection of a duodenal duplication cyst (DDC) in an 8-mo-old patient. The cyst was diagnosed by routine antenatal ultrasound performed at 3 mo of gestational age. Although the baby was born asymptomatic without any congenital abnormalities, the cyst had continued to increase on serial sonographic examinations. Previous reports have described treatment of DDC by surgical resection (laparotomy) or endoscopic marsupialization; we describe here, the first report of laparoscopic approach to resect DDC in a pediatric patient with a favorable outcome. PMID:24018086

Ballehaninna, Umashankar K; Nguyen, Tin; Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad C

2013-01-01

347

Intraoperative methods to stage and localize pancreatic and duodenal tumors.  

PubMed

Intraoperative methods to stage and localize tumors have dramatically improved. Advances include less invasive methods to obtain comparable results and precise localization of previously occult tumors. The use of new technology including laparoscopy and ultrasound has provided some of these advances, while improved operative techniques have provided others. Laparoscopy with ultrasound has allowed for improved staging of patients with pancreatic cancer and exclusion of patients who are not resectable for cure. We performed laparoscopy with ultrasound on 50 consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or liver who appeared to have resectable tumors based on preoperative computed tomography. 22 patients (44%) were found to be unresectable because of tumor nodules on the liver and/or peritoneal surfaces or unsuspected distant nodal or liver metastases. The site of disease making the patient unresectable was confirmed by biopsy in each case. Of the 28 remaining patients in whom laparoscopic ultrasound predicted to be resectable for cure, 26 (93%) had all tumor removed. Thus laparoscopy with ultrasound was the best method to select patients for curative surgery. Intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) has been a critical method to identify insulinomas that are not palpable. Nonpalpable tumors are most commonly in the pancreatic head. Because the pancreatic head is thick and insulinomas are small, of 9 pancreatic head insulinomas only 3 (33%) were palpable. However, IOUS precisely identified each (100%). Others have recommended blind distal pancreatectomy for individuals with insulinoma in whom no tumor can be identified. However, our data suggest that this procedure is contraindicated as these occult tumors are usually within the pancreatic head. Recent series suggest that previously missed gastrinomas are commonly in the duodenum. IOUS is not able to identify these tumors, but other methods can. Of 27 patients with 31 duodenal gastrinomas, palpation identified 19 (61%). IOUS did not image a single tumor that was not palpable. Endoscopy with duodenal transillumination found an additional 7 tumors (84%), and duodenotomy identified an additional 5 (100%). Thus duodenotomy (opening the duodenum) is indicated in all patients with gastrinoma as duodenal tumors are missed by other means including ultrasound, palpation and transillumination. In conclusion, laparoscopy with ultrasound is useful for selecting patients with pancreatic cancer for curative surgery. Ultrasound is critical for operative identification of insulinomas especially in the pancreatic head, and duodenotomy can identify duodenal wall gastrinomas that are missed by other methods. PMID:10436817

Norton, J A

1999-01-01

348

Laparoscopic Resection of Antenataly Identified Duodenal Duplication Cyst  

PubMed Central

We report the first case of complete laparoscopic resection of a duodenal duplication cyst (DDC) in an 8-mo-old patient. The cyst was diagnosed by routine antenatal ultrasound performed at 3 mo of gestational age. Although the baby was born asymptomatic without any congenital abnormalities, the cyst had continued to increase on serial sonographic examinations. Previous reports have described treatment of DDC by surgical resection (laparotomy) or endoscopic marsupialization; we describe here, the first report of laparoscopic approach to resect DDC in a pediatric patient with a favorable outcome.

Ballehaninna, Umashankar K.; Nguyen, Tin

2013-01-01

349

Broad MICA/B Expression in the Small Bowel Mucosa: A Link between Cellular Stress and Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

The MICA/B genes (MHC class I chain related genes A and B) encode for non conventional class I HLA molecules which have no role in antigen presentation. MICA/B are up-regulated by different stress conditions such as heat-shock, oxidative stress, neoplasic transformation and viral infection. Particularly, MICA/B are expressed in enterocytes where they can mediate enterocyte apoptosis when recognised by the activating NKG2D receptor present on intraepithelial lymphocytes. This mechanism was suggested to play a major pathogenic role in active celiac disease (CD). Due to the importance of MICA/B in CD pathogenesis we studied their expression in duodenal tissue from CD patients. By immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we established that MICA/B was mainly intracellularly located in enterocytes. In addition, we identified MICA/B+ T cells in both the intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments. We also found MICA/B+ B cells, plasma cells and some macrophages in the lamina propria. The pattern of MICA/B staining in mucosal tissue in severe enteropathy was similar to that found in in vitro models of cellular stress. In such models, MICA/B were located in stress granules that are associated to the oxidative and ER stress response observed in active CD enteropathy. Our results suggest that expression of MICA/B in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients is linked to disregulation of mucosa homeostasis in which the stress response plays an active role.

Allegretti, Yessica L.; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Chopita, Nestor; Fuertes, Mercedes; Zwirner, Norberto W.; Chirdo, Fernando G.

2013-01-01

350

Effects of intraduodenal administration of tarazepide on pancreatic secretion and duodenal EMG in neonatal calves.  

PubMed

The influence of CCK-A receptor antagonism on pancreatic exocrine secretion and duodenal EMG, and the mechanism(s) involved in CCK-induced pancreatic secretion were studied in conscious calves. Seven 1-week-old calves were fitted with a pancreatic duct catheter, duodenal cannula and duodenal electrodes. Pancreatic exocrine secretion and duodenal EMG were studied following intraduodenal CCK-A receptor antagonist (Tarazepide), intravenous atropine, and intravenous or intraduodenal CCK-8 administrations. Tarazepide decreased duodenal electric activity, reduced interdigestive pancreatic secretion, especially protein; reduced cephalic and early postprandial (milk) induced secretion of bicarbonate and protein. Pancreatic protein secretion to intravenous CCK-8 was little affected by atropine, but was significantly reduced by Tarazepide+/-atropine; in contrast, protein secretion to intraduodenal CCK-8 was abolished by Tarazepide or atropine. We conclude that pre- and especially early postprandial pancreatic secretion are partly controlled via CCK-A (mainly mucosal) mediated mechanisms. PMID:9879754

Zabielski, R; Le?niewska, V; Borlak, J; Gregory, P C; Kiela, P; Pierzynowski, S G; Barej, W

1998-11-30

351

Effects of propofol and fentanyl on duodenal motility activity in pigs  

PubMed Central

Abstract To investigate the effects of propofol and fentanyl on the postprandial duodenal motility the intraluminal impedance technique was used. Six pigs were instrumented with a central venous catheter, a percutaneous enterogastrostomy (PEG), and an impedance catheter, which was introduced via the PEG into the duodenum through endoscopy. Over the following 3 d, duodenal motility was measured for 8-hour periods. Measurements were taken on each subject under 3 different sets of conditions: in the conscious unrestrained pig, during propofol sedation, and during sedation with propofol-fentanyl. Both, after morning feeding and during gastric nutrition via the PEG, duodenal feeding patterns and duodenal phase II of the migrating motor cycle were shortened during propofol and propofol-fentanyl sedation. In contrast, the duration of phase I was prolonged by propofol and propofol-fentanyl. In conclusion, either propofol or propofol-fentanyl sedation shortens duodenal feeding patterns, as well as phase II of the migrating motor cycle.

2005-01-01

352

Obstructive Jaundice Secondary to Primary Duodenal Lymphoma with CMV Duodenitis Causing Upper GI Bleed in Retro-Positive Patient: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the most common site of extranodal lymphoma. Primary GI lymphoma constitutes a small amount of all lymphomas. Primary duodenal lymphoma presenting initially with obstructive jaundice is very rare. Primary B-cell lymphoma of the duodenum was shown to be the cause of biliary obstruction in a retropositive male, which was proved by endoscopic biopsy. Histopathology also showed cytomegalovirus inclusion bodies with duodenitis. PMID:24426393

Patil, Basavaraj B; Kumar P, Sampath; Suresh, B P; Dinesh, B V; Geetha, V; Sabasis, B

2013-02-01

353

Glucose transporters and enzymes related to glucose synthesis in small intestinal mucosa of mid-lactation dairy cows fed 2 levels of starch.  

PubMed

Diets containing corn starch may improve glucose supply by providing significant amounts of intestinal starch and increasing intestinal glucose absorption in dairy cows. Glucose absorption in the small intestine requires specific glucose transporters; that is, sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitated glucose transporter (GLUT2), which are usually downregulated in the small intestine of functional ruminants but are upregulated when luminal glucose is available. We tested the hypothesis that mRNA and protein expression of intestinal glucose transporters and mRNA expression of enzymes related to gluconeogenesis are affected by variable starch supply. Dairy cows (n=9/group) were fed for 4 wk total mixed rations (TMR) containing either high (HS) or low (LS) starch levels in the diet. Feed intake and milk yield were measured daily. After slaughter, tissue samples of the small intestinal mucosa (mid-duodenum and mid-jejunum) were taken for determination of mRNA concentrations of SGLT1 and GLUT2 as well as pyruvate carboxylase, cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase by real-time reverse transcription PCR relative to a housekeeping gene. Protein expression of GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in brush-border membrane vesicles was quantified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and immunoblot. A mixed model was used to examine feeding and time-related changes on feed intake and milk yield and to test feeding and gut site effects on gene or protein expression of glucose transporters and enzymes in the intestinal mucosa. Dry matter intake, but not energy intake, was higher in cows fed HS compared with LS. Abundance of SGLT1 mRNA tended to be higher in duodenal than in jejunal mucosa, and mRNA abundances of pyruvate carboxylase tended to be higher in jejunal than in duodenal mucosa. In brush-border membrane vesicles, SGLT1 and GLUT2 protein expression could be demonstrated. No diet-dependent differences were found concerning mRNA and protein contents of glucose transporter or mRNA level of gluconeogenic enzymes. In conclusion, our investigations on glucose transporters and gluconeogenic enzymes in the small intestinal mucosa of dairy cows did not show significant diet regulation when TMR with different amounts of intestinal starch were fed. Therefore, predicted intestinal glucose absorption after enhanced starch feeding is probably not supported by changes of intestinal glucose transporters in dairy cows. PMID:21854927

Lohrenz, A-K; Duske, K; Schönhusen, U; Losand, B; Seyfert, H M; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

2011-09-01

354

Ruminal protozoal contribution to the duodenal flow of fatty acids following feeding of steers on forages differing in chloroplast content.  

PubMed

Ruminant products are criticised for their SFA content relative to PUFA, although n-6:n-3 PUFA is desirable for human health ( < 4). Rumen protozoa are rich in unsaturated fatty acids due to engulfment of PUFA-rich chloroplasts. Increasing the chloroplast content of rumen protozoa offers a potentially novel approach to enhance PUFA flow to the duodenum and subsequent incorporation into meat and milk. We evaluated protozoal contribution to duodenal n-3 PUFA flow due to intracellular chloroplast content. A total of six Holstein × Friesian steers were fed, in a two-period changeover design, either straw:concentrate (S:C, 60:40; DM basis; S:C, low chloroplast) or fresh perennial ryegrass (PRG; high chloroplast). Following 12 d adaptation to diet, ruminal protozoal and whole duodenal samples were obtained. N and fatty acid content of whole duodenum and rumen protozoal samples were assessed and protozoal 18S rDNA quantitative PCR performed, enabling calculation of protozoal N flow. The ratio of individual fatty acids:N in rumen protozoal samples was calculated to obtain protozoal fatty acid flows. Based on total fatty acid flow, contribution (%) of protozoa to individual fatty acid flows was calculated. Protozoal fatty acid data and microscopical observations revealed that protozoa were enriched with 18 : 3n-3 following PRG feeding, compared with the S:C diet, due to increased intracellular chloroplast content. However, duodenal protozoal 18S rDNA concentration post PRG feeding was low, indicating rumen retention of the protozoa. Nutrition influences the 18 : 3n-3 content of protozoa; the challenge is to increase protozoal flow to the small intestine, while maintaining sustainable rumen densities. PMID:22377337

Huws, S A; Lee, M R F; Kingston-Smith, A H; Kim, E J; Scott, M B; Tweed, J K S; Scollan, N D

2012-12-28

355

Duodenal and gastric delivery of levodopa in parkinsonism.  

PubMed

To clarify the influence of gastric emptying on levodopa-related motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease, we assessed mobility and plasma levodopa concentrations in 10 patients during five modes of levodopa administration: (1) standard intermittent oral (SIO), (2) intermittent duodenal (ID), (3) continuous duodenal infusion (CDI), (4) continuous gastric infusion (CGI), and (5) controlled-release Sinemet (CR-4). The rank order from greatest to least for both percentage of time "on" and average mobility score was CDI, CGI, ID, CR-4, and SIO. The rank order for variance of means, a measure of fluctuation, from least to greatest for mobility was CDI, CGI, CR-4, ID, SIO, and for plasma levodopa concentrations was CDI, CGI, ID, SIO, and CR-4. The results demonstrate that it is possible to produce very steady plasma concentrations of levodopa with a corresponding reduction in motor fluctuations by continuous intraduodenal administration of the drug. This mode of delivery is an ideal model for the development of optimal continuous-release preparations of levodopa. Other enteral routes have produced a more variable plasma levodopa concentration and clinical response. PMID:3408240

Kurlan, R; Nutt, J G; Woodward, W R; Rothfield, K; Lichter, D; Miller, C; Carter, J H; Shoulson, I

1988-06-01

356

Patient-specific finite element analysis of viscoelastic masticatory mucosa  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress and strain inside of the oral mucosa in partially-edentulous patients. The patient-specific finite element models of the mucosa and the bone were constructed using the CT images and in-vivo surface measurement during a continuous load. The mean initial shear modulus of 8.3 × 10–5 (GPa) and the mean relaxation time of 503 (s) were determined as the viscoelastic properties of the mucosa. The increase of the highest maximum compressive strain during the continuous loading was observed in all the patients, however; the intensity of strain was not in accordance with the thickness of the mucosa. It is suggested that the variations of the morphology and the initial modulus of the mucosa should be considered in the mathematical approaches to detect the mechanical responses of the oral mucosa.

Suzuki, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

357

Relationship between buccal mucosa ridging and viscoelastic behaviour of oral mucosa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the buccal mucosa ridging (BMR), which has been mentioned to be a clinical sign of clenching, and the viscoelastic behaviour of oral mucosa. Twenty-three people with BMR and 21 people without BMR participated as volunteers in this study. Measurements of viscoelastic behaviour were performed using a suction viscoelastic meter on central part of lower labial mucosa. A suction pressure of 300 hPa was applied for 2 s and then released for 2 s, and the time-dependent changes in the deformation of the mucosa over this 4 s were recorded as a deformation curve. Distensibility, remaining deformation and elastic recovery, which describe viscoelastic behaviour, were calculated by the deformation curve. These parameters were compared between groups with and without BMR. No significant difference was found in distensibility between the two groups (P=0·349). There were significant differences for the remaining deformation (P=0·012) and the elastic recovery (P=0·032), and the group with BMR showed higher remaining deformation and lower elastic recovery than the group without BMR. Based on these results, it clarified that the BMR is related to the mucosal viscoelastic behaviour, in particular remaining deformation and elastic recovery. PMID:21054483

Kumakura, S; Sakurai, K; Tahara, Y; Nakagawa, K

2011-06-01

358

Duodenal bulb control of the flow rate of digesta in the fasted and fed dog.  

PubMed Central

1. Continuous measurement of the flow of digesta near the pylorus, and 5 cm aborally, was assessed in the conscious dog using a chronically implanted flowmeter. The patterns of flow were related to motor activity of the gastroduodenal junction. 2. Electromagnetic measurement of the flow was calibrated in vitro by means of a pulsatile pump. Validation was obtained in vivo by direct evaluation of the amount of chyme collected from an open duodenal cannula and indirectly by a dye-dilution technique. 3. After a 12 h fast, only small amounts of gastric contents were delivered into the duodenum. This transfer occurred during periods of irregular motor activity recorded along the gastroduodenal junction, which occupied less than 25% of the recording time. The patterns of flow near the pylorus and beyond the duodenal bulb were correlated to antral and duodenal contractions respectively. 4. After a meal, gastric emptying occurred intermittently and was related to enhanced antral motor activity beyond the duodenal bulb; digesta flowed in clusters of gushes which were related to the duodenal contractions. 5. It is concluded that the mechanical role of the duodenal bulb is to change the intermittent juxtapyloric flow of digesta into a uniform flow at the duodenal level.

Malbert, C H; Ruckebusch, Y

1989-01-01

359

Identification of pannexins in rat nasal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Pannexins are a second family of gap-junction proteins in vertebrates, classified as pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3. Pannexin-1 is one of the candidates for channel-mediated ATP release into the extracellular space. In airway epithelia, ATP signaling modulates multiple cellular functions such as mucus/ion secretion and mucociliary clearance systems. However, the expression of pannexins in the upper airway has not been investigated. Nasal septal mucosae were collected from adult male Wistar rats aged 20–24 weeks. The expression of pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3 was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by whole-mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Transcripts for pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3 were detected in nasal septal mucosae of adult rats by RT-PCR. Distinct immunohistochemical fluorescence for pannexin-1 was observed in the epithelial layer, whereas there was no immunoreactivity for pannexin-2 or pannexin-3. This is the first article establishing the existence of pannexins (predominantly pannexin-1) in the upper airway, suggesting their possible participation in the physiological functions of ATP release and signaling in this tissue.

Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Hohchi, Nobusuke; Ohkubo, Jun-ichi; Hashida, Koichi; Koizumi, Hiroki; Wakasugi, Tetsuro; Takenaga, Fumiko

2013-01-01

360

Culture and successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori from heterotopic gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of humans and can cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer or mucosa-associated-lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Here, we report the case of a 61-year-old male patient who presented with tickle of the throat, globus sensation and heartburn. In an esophagogastroduodenoscopy subpharyngeal localized heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM), reflux esophagitis and a chronic gastritis were diagnosed. HGM and stomach were H. pylori positive as proven by culture and histopathological examination. After eradication therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin and clarithromycin followed by PPI treatment, the patient reported clinical improvement and the histopathological changes in the HGM due to H. pylori infection improved, too. This case report demonstrates that culture and susceptibility testing of H. pylori using established protocols succeeds not only from tissue samples of the stomach but also from heterotopic gastric mucosa. Eradication therapy may not only improve typical H. pylori associated discomforts of the stomach but also extragastric signs and symptoms of H. pylori infection. PMID:22760679

Wüppenhorst, N; Viebahn, B; Theile, A; Radü, H J; Kist, M

2012-07-01

361

Involvement of glutamate-cystine/glutamate transporter system in aspirin-induced acute gastric mucosa injury.  

PubMed

Large-dose or long-term use of aspirin tends to cause gastric mucosa injury, which is recognized as the major side effect of aspirin. It has been demonstrated that glutamate exerts a protective effect on stomach, and the level of glutamate is critically controlled by cystine/glutamate transporter (Xc(-)). In the present study, we investigated the role of glutamate-cystine/glutamate transporter system in aspirin-induced acute gastric mucosa injury in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that in human gastric epithelial cells, aspirin incubation increased the activity of LDH and the number of apoptotic cells, meanwhile down-regulated the mRNA expression of Xc(-) accompanied with decreased glutamate release. Similar results were seen in a rat model. In addition, exogenous l-glutamate attenuated the gastric mucosa injury and cell damage induced by aspirin both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that acute gastric mucosa injury induced by aspirin is related to reduction of glutamate-cystine/glutamate transporter system activity. PMID:24866234

Du, Jie; Li, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Wang; Yang, Yong-Mei; Wu, Yue-Han; Li, Wen-Qun; Peng, Jun; Li, Yuan-Jian

2014-07-18

362

Duodenal epithelial transport in functional dyspepsia: Role of serotonin  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate functional duodenal abnormalities in functional dyspepsia (FD) and the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in mucosal ion transport and signalling. METHODS: Duodenal mucosal biopsies were obtained from 15 patients with FD and 18 healthy controls. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the number of 5-HT-containing cells and real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of 5-HT receptors 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, 3E, 4 and 7, as well as expression of the serotonin re-uptake transporter (SERT) gene SLC6A4 and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Biopsies were mounted in Ussing chambers for evaluation of basal and 5-HT-stimulated short-circuit current (SCC). RESULTS: Conductance was lower in FD [42.4 ± 4.7 mS/cm2 (n = 15) vs 62.5 ± 4.5 mS/cm2 (n = 18), P = 0.005]. 5-HT induced a dose dependent rise in SCC in both FD (n = 8) and controls (n = 9), the rise was lower in FD (P < 0.001). Mean number of 5-HT stained cells per high power field was the same [34.4 ± 8.4 in FD (n = 15) and 30.4 ± 3.7 in controls (n = 18), P = 0.647]. The following genes were highly expressed: 5-HT receptor HTR3E, HTR4, HTR7, SERT gene (SLC6A4) and TPH1. Differences in expression levels were observed for HTR3E (higher expression in FD, P = 0.008), HTR7 (lower expression in FD, P = 0.027), SLC6A4 (higher expression in FD, P = 0.033) and TPH1 (lower expression in FD, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Duodenal ion transport in response to exogenous 5-HT is abnormal in FD patients and associated with high expression of the HTR3E receptor and the serotonin transporter.

Witte, Anne-Barbara; D'Amato, Mauro; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Laurent, Agneta; Knuhtsen, Svend; Bindslev, Niels; Hansen, Mark Berner; Schmidt, Peter Thelin

2013-01-01

363

Isolated Duodenal Crohn's Disease: A Case Report and a Review of the Surgical Management  

PubMed Central

Crohn's disease may affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract; however, isolated duodenal involvement is rather rare. It still remains a complex clinical entity with a controversial management of the disease. Initially, patients with duodenal Crohn' s disease (DCD) are managed with a combination of antiacid and immunosuppressive therapy. However, medical treatment fails in the majority of DCD patients, and surgical intervention is required in case of complicated disease. Options for surgical management of complicated DCD include bypass, resection, or stricturoplasty procedures. In this paper, we reported a 33-year-old male patient, who was diagnosed with isolated duodenal Crohn's diseases, and reviewed the surgical options in the literature.

Karateke, Faruk; Menekse, Ebru; Das, Koray; Ozyazici, Sefa; Demirturk, Pelin

2013-01-01

364

A Case of Duodenal Atresia with Apple Peel Appearance: Challenging the Current Embryology  

PubMed Central

Classically, embryology of duodenal atresia has been linked to defect in recanalization process, while apple-peal atresia of small bowel has been considered as due to vascular accident during embryonic life. We present a 33 week preterm neonate with duodenal atresia with the apple-peal appearance of proximal jejunum for which resection of the jejunum with apple-peal configuration, plication of the duodenum, and duodono-jejunal anastomosis was done. Thus, this rare case of ours questions the embryology of duodenal atresia with the apple-peal appearance suggesting it to be due to a vascular disruption phenomenon during embryonic life.

Pathak, Manish; Narula, Dipanshu

2014-01-01

365

[Intramural duodenal hematoma after blunt abdominal injury in childhood. Case report].  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal injuries after blunt abdominal trauma in childhood are seldom. In 30% of the patients, the site of injury is the duodenum. In 60% associated injuries including other abdominal or extraabdominal lesions are found. Most frequently duodenal damage consists in parietal haematoma, seldom in duodenal laceration. Duodenal haematoma can be resolved non-operatively in 50%. Operation is recommended for children in whom there is no evidence of partial resolution of the obstruction after 10-14 days or in cases with development of a parietal laceration with peritonitis and/or retroperitonitis. For diagnostic computed tomography is the examination of choice. PMID:7960916

Fasolini, F; Lichtenhahn, P; Aeberhard, P

1994-07-01

366

Isolated duodenal duplication cyst presenting as a complex solid and cystic mass in the upper abdomen  

PubMed Central

Duodenal duplication cysts are a rare subtype of gastrointestinal duplications cysts. Approximately 5% of gastrointestinal duplication cysts occur in the duodenum. An 18-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and a subjective abdominal bulge. A computed tomography scan was subsequently performed and showed a solid and cystic mass with wall calcifications in the lesser sac of the upper abdomen. A duodenal duplication cyst was found unexpectedly on histopathologic analysis. This was also an unusual case as there was no evidence of malignancy. Four years after surgery, the patient remains asymptomatic. We present a brief literature review on duodenal duplication cysts and discuss its differential diagnosis.

Tsai, Salina D.; Sopha, Sabrina C.; Fishman, Elliot K.

2013-01-01

367

Pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum following argon plasma coagulation for a bleeding duodenal diverticulum: a case report.  

PubMed

Duodenal diverticula are usually asymptomatic, with an incidence of 0.16% to 22%. Symptomatic bleeding from a duodenal diverticulum is an even rarer event. The management of such a hemorrhage is almost entirely surgically based. Since the first reported case of endoscopic therapy for duodenal diverticular bleeding (DDB) by Sim et al, only two case series have been reported in the literature regarding endoscopic therapy for DDB. Hence, the optimal therapy modality for DDB remains unclear. A rare case involving massive pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum following argon plasma coagulation treatment for DDB is presented. A short discussion of the optimal endoscopic therapy for this rare disease is provided. PMID:20065903

Su, Pei-Yuan; Yen, Hsu-Heng

2010-02-01

368

Duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytes of children with cow milk allergy preferentially bind the glycan-binding protein galectin-3.  

PubMed

A breakdown in intestinal homeostasis results in inflammatory bowel diseases including coeliac disease and allergy. Galectins, evolutionarily conserved beta-galactoside-binding proteins, can modulate immune-epithelial cell interactions by influencing immune cell fate and cytokine secretion. In this study we investigated the glycosylation signature, as well as the regulated expression of galectin-1 and -3 in human duodenal samples of allergic and non-allergic children. Whereas galectin-1 was predominantly localized in the epithelial compartment (epithelial cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes) and the underlying lamina propria (T cells, macrophages and plasma cells), galectin-3 was mainly expressed by crypt epithelial cells and macrophages in the lamina propria. Remarkably, expression of these galectins was not significantly altered in allergic versus non-allergic patients. Investigation of the glycophenotype of the duodenal inflammatory microenvironment revealed substantial alpha2-6-linked sialic acid bound to galactose in lamina propria plasma cells, macrophages and intraepithelial lymphocytes and significant levels of asialo core 1 O-glycans in CD68+ macrophages and enterocytes. Galectin-1 preferentially bound to neutrophils, plasma cells and enterocytes, while galectin-3 binding sites were mainly distributed on macrophages and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Notably, galectin-3, but not galectin-1 binding, was substantially increased in intraepithelial gut lymphocytes of allergic patients compared to non-allergic subjects, suggesting a potential role of galectin-3-glycan interactions in shaping epithelial-immune cell connections during allergic inflammatory processes. PMID:19309568

Mercer, N; Guzman, L; Cueto Rua, E; Drut, R; Ahmed, H; Vasta, G R; Toscano, M A; Rabinovich, G A; Docena, G H

2009-01-01

369

Gastroesophageal reflux in duodenal ulcer patients before and after vagotomy.  

PubMed Central

Gastroesophageal reflux was investigated in 80 patients with duodenal ulcer by analysis of symptomatology and the acid reflux test. Resting gastroesophageal sphincter pressure (GESP) and postvagotomy reduction in basal and pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid secretion were also studied. Reflux symptoms were present in 40% of the patients, and this incidence was significantly reduced two months after vagotomy. In patients studied late after operation reflux symptoms were still less frequent than before operation, but not significant. After vagotomy, no significant changes in the fasting GESP or in gastroesophageal reflux as determined by the pH glass electrode were demonstrated. Thus, the decrease in reflux symptoms may be explained by the significant reduction in gastric acid secretion. Denervation of the cardia and the lower esophagus does not influence GESP or gastroesophageal reflux.

Csendes, A; Oster, M; M?ller, J T; Flynn, J; Funch-Jensen, P; Overgaard, H; Amdrup, E

1978-01-01

370

The vagus, the duodenal brake, and gastric emptying.  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that an intact vagal supply is essential for the normal function of the recptors in the duodenum and proximal small bowel, which influence the rate of gastric emptying. This paper reports the effect of vagal denervation on gastric emptying and also examines the site and mode of action of receptors in the proximal small bowel.It has been demonstrated in the dog that most, if not all, the receptors controlling gastric emptying lie in the proximal 50 cm of the small bowel. Following truncal vagotomy the emptying time of each instillation increased significantly and the differential rate of emptying of different instillations remained unchanged. The proximal 50 cm of small bowel was capable to differentiating between different instillates even after selective extragastric vagotomy, in which the duodenum was vagally denervated and, therefore, duodenal braking receptors function independently of vagal innervation.

Shahidullah, M; Kennedy, T L; Parks, T G

1975-01-01

371

Experience with 53 portal-duodenal drained solitary pancreas transplants.  

PubMed

Systemic-enteric drainage is currently the most common technique for pancreas transplantation (PT). A novel alternative technique, portal-duodenal drainage (PDD), has potential physiological benefits and provides improved monitoring of the pancreatic graft. The current study describes 53 solitary PT procedures (43 pancreas after kidney and 10 pancreas transplant alone) using the PDD technique over the last three yr. This method resulted in one-yr patient survival at 96% and 83% graft survival. There were five cases (9.4%) of thrombosis, in which transplantectomy and two-layer closure of the native duodenum were performed. No fistulas were observed. Here, we demonstrate that the PDD technique in PT was as safe and effective as current techniques in clinical use. PMID:24382212

Perosa, Marcelo; Noujaim, Huda; Ianhez, Luiz E; Oliveira, Rodrigo A; Mota, Leonardo T; Branez, Juan R; Paredes, Marcio M; Giacaglia, Luciano; Genzini, Tercio

2014-02-01

372

Parietal cell vagotomy and dilatation for peptic duodenal stricture.  

PubMed Central

Gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic duodenal stricture (pyloric stenosis) was treated with parietal cell vagotomy and dilatation of the stricture in 32 patients. Follow-up is in the range of 5 years in 37.4% of the patients, while 6 to 10 years follow-up is available in 62.4% of the patients. At their last follow-up, 74.9% of the patients were in either Visick 1 or 2 clinical status. Recurrence rates have been 3.1% at 1 year, 9.3% at 5 years, and 21.8% after 6 to 10 years follow-up. There has been only one instance (3.1%) of restenosis. Two patients required reoperation because of recurrence and one of them died.

Mentes, A S

1990-01-01

373

Effect of olive oil and barley diets on the caecal mucosa histomorphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition is an environmental factor of major importance in human health. Barley is a cereal, rich in dietary fibres (DF)\\u000a such as ?-glucan, arabinoxylans and cellulose. DF is rapidly fermented by the intestinal microflora, with the formation of\\u000a short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). High levels of SCFA, particularly of butyrate, are important for a healthy large intestine mucosa.\\u000a SCFA are rapidly

Mouna Belkhiria-El Haj Amor; Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi; Sirine El Kaouther Sakli; Lamia Lahouar; Amina Bakhrouf; Habib Ahmed Quershi; Lotfi Achour

2011-01-01

374

[Endoscopic resection of intestinal mucosa for colorectal neoplasia].  

PubMed

The results of endoscopic resection of intestinal mucosa for colorectal neoplasia were analyzed. There were excised 148 colorectal lesions in 116 patients.The operation was performed, using submucosal injection of adrenaline solution with indigocarmine and the loop resection technique. Endoscopic resection of intestinal mucosa together with pathologic lesion constitute a safe and effective method of treatment of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:24502004

Iakovenko, V O; Kuryk, O H

2013-12-01

375

Oral Mucosa and Skin Reactions Related to Amalgam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documented cases of oral mucosa and skin affections related to amalgam restorations are rare, although the exact incidence is unknown. Lesions of the oral mucosa may be due to specific immunologic or non-specific toxic reactions toward products generated from restorations. The immunologic reaction most probably involved in mucosal affections related to amalgam is the delayed or cell-mediated (type IV) reaction.

P. Holmstrup

1992-01-01

376

Retrograde jejunal-duodenal intussusception associated with a jejunal duplication cyst in a newborn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrograde intussusception is a rare occurrence. We report a retrograde jejunal-duodenal intussusception associated with a jejunal duplication cyst, which presented as intermittent biliary and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) obstruction and a mobile abdominal mass in a newborn infant.

K. I. Norton; K. C. Luhlnann; S. E. Dolgin

1993-01-01

377

Triple-Tube-Ostomy: A Novel Technique for the Surgical Treatment of Iatrogenic Duodenal Perforation  

PubMed Central

Although duodenal perforation is currently an infrequent complication of medical procedures, its incidence in the future predictably will increase as endoscopic treatment of duodenal neoplasms becomes more frequently used. In some cases, duodenal perforation is difficult to treat even surgically. We report here a novel technique called ‘triple-tube-ostomy’ for the treatment of iatrogenic duodenal perforation. Since November 2009, there have been three cases of iatrogenic perforation of the duodenum, due to various causes, which we have treated with our novel technique. The main principles of the technique are biliary diversion, decompression of the duodenum, and early enteral nutrition. All patients who underwent the triple-tube-ostomy procedure had good postoperative courses, with few complications. The novel surgical technique we describe in this report is safe, reliable, easy to learn and perform, and led to a good postoperative course in all cases where we performed it.

Fujikuni, Nobuaki; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Hideki; Suzuki, Takahisa; Tokumoto, Noriaki; Ohdan, Hideki

2011-01-01

378

Veiled right kidney sign in retroperitoneal duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.  

PubMed

Retropneumoperitoneum due to duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is rare. Recognizing the presence of free air, which outlines the right kidney, is essential for its early diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:21256547

Banerji, John Samuel

2011-08-01

379

Aberrant gene expression in mucosa adjacent to tumor reveals a molecular crosstalk in colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background A colorectal tumor is not an isolated entity growing in a restricted location of the body. The patient’s gut environment constitutes the framework where the tumor evolves and this relationship promotes and includes a complex and tight correlation of the tumor with inflammation, blood vessels formation, nutrition, and gut microbiome composition. The tumor influence in the environment could both promote an anti-tumor or a pro-tumor response. Methods A set of 98 paired adjacent mucosa and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 50 colon mucosa from healthy donors (246 samples in total) were included in this work. RNA extracted from each sample was hybridized in Affymetrix chips Human Genome U219. Functional relationships between genes were inferred by means of systems biology using both transcriptional regulation networks (ARACNe algorithm) and protein-protein interaction networks (BIANA software). Results Here we report a transcriptomic analysis revealing a number of genes activated in adjacent mucosa from CRC patients, not activated in mucosa from healthy donors. A functional analysis of these genes suggested that this active reaction of the adjacent mucosa was related to the presence of the tumor. Transcriptional and protein-interaction networks were used to further elucidate this response of normal gut in front of the tumor, revealing a crosstalk between proteins secreted by the tumor and receptors activated in the adjacent colon tissue; and vice versa. Remarkably, Slit family of proteins activated ROBO receptors in tumor whereas tumor-secreted proteins transduced a cellular signal finally activating AP-1 in adjacent tissue. Conclusions The systems-level approach provides new insights into the micro-ecology of colorectal tumorogenesis. Disrupting this intricate molecular network of cell-cell communication and pro-inflammatory microenvironment could be a therapeutic target in CRC patients.

2014-01-01

380

Initiation of migrating myoelectric complex in sheep by duodenal acidification and hyperosmolarity: role of vagus nerves.  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal motility was studied in conscious sheep by X-radiography and by electromyography from chronically implanted electrodes before and after total thoracic vagotomy. Duodenal infusion of 0.5-3 mmol HCl (0.035-0.1 M-HCl) induced premature duodenal regular spiking activity (r.s.a.) within 1-7 min in fifteen of seventeen sheep studied when infused at 20 min after a natural r.s.a. There was no correlation between abomasal pH and any phase of the migrating myoelectric complex (m.m.c.). Duodenal alkalinization by infusion of 0.3 M-Tris buffer (pH 10.2) or 0.1 M-NaHCO3 had no influence on the occurrence of the m.m.c. Duodenal infusion of 20-50 ml 0.5 M-NaCl induced a premature duodenal r.s.a. within 1-5 min in seven of eight sheep. Vagotomy did not prevent the initiation or migration of the m.m.c., but reduced the rate of propagation of the r.s.a. from 40.5 +/- 7.2 (mean +/- S.E. of mean) to 16.7 +/- 0.1 cm/min in the duodenum, from 27.3 +/- 4.1 to 16.6 +/- 0.8 cm/min in the jejunum, and from 21.4 +/- 1.1 to 13.7 +/- 0.7 cm/min in the proximal ileum. Initially the frequency of r.s.a. increased, especially in the duodenum where they recurred at an interval of 98.4 +/- 6.8 min before vagotomy; and at 23.4 +/- 1.8 min in the first 24 h after vagotomy; the interval had lengthened to 86.7 +/- 5.2 min 2-3 weeks after vagotomy. Premature duodenal r.s.a. was not induced by duodenal infusion of HCl in five, or by duodenal infusion of hyperosmolar NaCl in three chronically vagotomized sheep. It is concluded that the vagus nerves contribute to the regulation of the frequency and propagation of the m.m.c. in sheep; duodenal acidification is not essential nor is it the normal stimulus for initiation of r.s.a., but duodenal infusion of HCl or hyperosmolar NaCl can initiate a premature duodenal r.s.a. via the vagus nerves.

Gregory, P C; Rayner, D V; Wenham, G

1984-01-01

381

Effects of tea from Turnera ulmifolia L. on mouse gastric mucosa support the Turneraceae as a new source of antiulcerogenic drugs.  

PubMed

Turnera ulmifolia is a plant belonging to the family Turneraceae, popularly known in Brazil as chanana. This species is distributed from Guyana to southern Brazil where it is considered a weed. The plant occurs in tropical rain forest, fields, and gardens. Chanana tea is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric dysfunction including gastric and duodenal ulcers. In this study, the ability of a lyophilized infusion, as an aqueous fraction (AqF) of the aerial parts of T. ulmifolia, was investigated for its ability to prevent ulceration of the gastric and duodenal mucosa was examined in mice and rats, respectively. The AqF significantly reduced the formation of lesions associated with HCl/ethanol administration by 39% and 46%, respectively, at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. The AqF also significantly reduced the incidence of gastric lesions induced by a combination of indomethacin and bethanechol by 58% and 72% at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. In stress-induced gastric ulcer, the inhibition by the AqF was 48%, 57%, and 58% at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively (p<0.05). A pyloric ligature experiment showed that the highest dose of the AqF significantly affected the gastric juice parameters by increasing the pH from 2.5 (control) to 5.3 and decreasing the acid output from 11.3 (control) to 3.7 mEq/ml/4 h. The AqF had no significant effect on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Preliminary phytochemical screening confirmed that flavonoids were the major constituents of the AqF of T. ulmifolia. These results indicate that this extract has a significant antiulcerogenic effect, as popularly believed. PMID:11995930

Gracioso, Juliano de Souza; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

2002-04-01

382

Glycosphingolipids of fetal and adult sheep colonic mucosa.  

PubMed

The ganglioside and neutral glycosphingolipid composition of fetal and adult sheep colonic mucosa were characterized and compared. Mono- and tetrahexosylceramide were the major neutral glycolipids of both fetal and adult colons. Adult, but not fetal, mucosa also possessed di- and trihexosylceramide. Similarly, GD1a, GM3 and GM2 were found to be the principal gangliosides in fetal and adult tissue. Adult colonic mucosa possessed significant amounts of GT1a not present in fetal tissue. Analysis of the hydroxy and nonhydroxy fatty acids as well as of the long chain bases of the major glycosphingolipids revealed differences between these lipophilic components of glycolipids in fetal and adult colonic mucosa. The present results, therefore, indicate that both quantitative and qualitative differences in glycosphingolipid composition exist between fetal and adult sheep colonic mucosa. PMID:4021741

Dahiya, R; Brasitus, T A

1985-06-01

383

CT evaluation of hepatic paragonimiasis with simultaneous duodenal or splenic involvement.  

PubMed

Paragonimiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the genus Paragonimus and usually leads to pulmonary disease. Hepatic paragonimiasis is rare, but duodenal and splenic involvement of this disease has not yet been reported in the literature. Herein, we report two rare cases of hepatic paragonimiasis with simultaneous duodenal or splenic involvement, respectively, and described their CT features. Both patients were lifelong residents of an endemic area of paragonimiasis and were confirmed clinicopathologically. PMID:22726983

Li, Xue-Ming; Yu, Jian-Qun; He, Du; Peng, Li-Qing; Chu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Dong-Dong; Luo, Yi

2012-01-01

384

Duodenal duplication cyst manifested by duodeno-jejunal intussusception and hyperbilirubinemia.  

PubMed

A rare case of duodenal duplication cyst containing stones in a 17-year-old patient is presented. The cyst, acting as a leading point for duodeno-jejunal intussusception caused proximal small bowel obstruction and hyperbilirubinemia. Preoperative diagnosis was based on abdominal computerized tomography. At operation, the cyst wall was unroofed creating free drainage into the duodenal lumen without damaging the biliary and pancreatic ducts with resolution of symptoms. PMID:10466620

Zamir, G; Gross, E; Shmushkevich, A; Bar-Ziv, J; Durst, A L; Jurim, O

1999-08-01

385

Duodenal duplication cyst manifested by duodeno-jejunal intussusception and hyperbilirubinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare case of duodenal duplication cyst containing stones in a 17-year-old patient is presented. The cyst, acting as a leading point for duodeno-jejunal intussusception caused proximal small bowel obstruction and hyperbilirubinemia. Preoperative diagnosis was based on abdominal computerized tomography. At operation, the cyst wall was unroofed creating free drainage into the duodenal lumen without damaging the biliary and pancreatic

Gideon Zamir; Eitan Gross; Alex Shmushkevich; Jacob Bar-Ziv; Arie L Durst; Oded Jurim

1999-01-01

386

Filariasis of the buccal mucosa: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Filariasis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Filarial nematodes can infect humans through vectors, commonly mosquitoes. Human infection can manifest as lymphatic filariasis, subcutaneous or pulmonary nodules and with eye involvement. Intra-oral presentation is very rare and often poses a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist. We report a case of intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection in a 54-year-old female patient, involving the buccal mucosa. History was unremarkable and on clinical examination, a diffuse swelling with no significant signs and symptoms was seen. Laboratory investigations and radiographs were non-contributory to diagnosis. Ultrasound findings revealed a hypo-echoic lesion in the muscular layer of the left cheek. Differential diagnoses considered were minor salivary gland tumor, parotid sialolith, and cysticercosis among others. The presence of a Dirofilaria worm in the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. Medical awareness of the risk of intra-oral nematode infection is essential. A detailed travel history, awareness of endemic status of certain diseases, proper diagnosis and management helps in better prognosis for the patient.

Kurup, Seema; Veeraraghavan, Ravi; Jose, Renju; Puthalath, Ushass

2013-01-01

387

Biomarkers of leukocyte traffic and activation in the vaginal mucosa.  

PubMed

Development of novel vaginal spermicides and anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) microbicides requires careful assessment of their potential to recruit and activate CD4+ HIV-1 host cells in the female genital tract mucosa, two events that facilitate HIV-1 infection. Leukocyte traffic and activation are mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, e.g. interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and IL-8, which have been detected in vaginal secretions in association with epithelial damage and infections. These proinflammatory mediators, however, have bidirectional, destructive as well as beneficial, effects on the mucosal barrier, and may be counterbalanced by endogenous inhibitors. Here we propose additional biomarkers for the evaluation of compound-induced cervicovaginal mucosal inflammation. Displaying different temporal patterns of detection, the levels of soluble E-selectin, vascular adhesion molecule-1, CD14 and myeloperoxidase in vaginal secretions reflected the mucosal leukocyte reaction to proinflammatory compounds being evaluated for safety in an improved rabbit vaginal irritation model. These biomarkers, which were also detected in human vaginal secretions, may be used to enhance the characterization of mucosal safety of vaginally applied compounds, both in animal as well as clinical studies. PMID:17852080

Trifonova, Radiana T; Bajpai, Malini; Pasicznyk, Jenna-Malia; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F; Fichorova, Raina N

2007-01-01

388

Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophageal bicarbonate secretion and thus contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of the drug in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In nine healthy volunteers, oesophageal "steady state" perfusion of a 10 cm open segment of distal oesophagus was performed twice in random order. The volunteers were pretreated with either 60 mg/day omeprazole for three days and 80 mg intravenous omeprazole before perfusion or 600 mg/day ranitidine for three days and 50 mg/h intravenously during the perfusion. Saliva and samples of aspirate from the perfused oesophagus and stomach were collected and bicarbonate concentrations were measured. RESULTS: The median rates (95% confidence intervals) of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203) mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate contaminating the oesophagus accounted for 14% and 3%, respectively, of total oesophageal bicarbonate output. CONCLUSIONS: Bicarbonate secretory capacity of the human oesophagus is less than previously assumed, and the clinical relevance of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate for mucosal defence may be overestimated. As omeprazole and ranitidine did not affect bicarbonate secretion differently there was no evidence that omeprazole acts on bicarbonate secretory cells in the oesophageal mucosa.

Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillings?, J; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

1997-01-01

389

Ex vivo permeation characteristics of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Venlafaxine, a dual acting antidepressant is a new therapeutic option for chronic depression. Depression is a common mental disorder associated with the abnormalities in neuronal transport in the brain. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we analyzed the transport of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa. Transmucosal permeation kinetics of venlafaxine were examined using sheep nasal mucosa mounted onto static vertical Franz diffusion cells. Nasal mucosa was treated with venlafaxine in situ gel (100 ?l; 1% w/v) for 7h. Amount of venlafaxine diffused through mucosa was measured using validated RP-HPLC method. After the completion of the study histopathological investigation of mucosa was carried out. Ex vivo studies through sheep nasal mucosa showed sustained diffusion of venlafaxine with 66.5% permeation in 7h. Transnasal transport of venlafaxine followed a non-Fickian diffusion process. Permeability coefficient and steady state flux were found to be 21.11×10(-3) cmh(-1) and 21.118 ?g cm(-2)h(-1) respectively. Cumulative amount permeated through mucosa at 7h was found to be 664.8 ?g through an area of 3.14 cm(2). Total recovery of venlafaxine at the end of the permeation study was 87.3% of initial dose distributed (i) at the mucosal surface (208.4 ?g; 20.8%) and (ii) through mucosa (664.8 ?g; 66.5%). Histopathological examinations showed no significant adverse effects confirming that the barrier function of nasal mucosa remains unaffected even after treatment with venlafaxine in situ gel. Permeation through sheep nasal mucosa using in situ gel demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery of venlafaxine, providing new dimension to the treatment of chronic depression. PMID:23159662

Pund, Swati; Rasve, Ganesh; Borade, Ganesh

2013-01-23

390

Effect of tyrosine administration on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Duodenal ulcers were produced by administering cysteamine to rats. Pretreatment with the catecholamine precursor, L-tyrosine (40 mg/100 g i.p. for 5 days), decreased the intensity of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Equimolar doses of tyrosine methyl ester (51.2 mg/100 g i.p. or s.c.) were equally effective in reducing ulcer intensity. Other amino acids (i.e., alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, lysine, tryptophan and valine) did not prevent experimental duodenal ulcers. Coadministration of other large neutral amino acids (e.g., leucine and valine) that compete with tyrosine for uptake into the brain did not inhibit the effect of tyrosine on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Gastric, duodenal and brain dopamine concentrations were increased 1 hr after the injection of tyrosine methyl ester (25.6 mg/100 g s.c.). These results suggest that the effect of tyrosine on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine may be mediated by changes in gastrointestinal dopamine metabolism.

Oishi, T.; Szabo, S.

1987-03-01

391

Patient profile, indications, efficacy and safety of duodenal levodopa infusion in advanced Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The studies of duodenal infusion of a levodopa on small groups of parkinsonian patients have reported beneficial effects on motor complications. However, little is known about the patient profile and indications for duodenal levodopa infusion. The purpose of this study is to exhaustively investigate the clinical characteristics of the population and indication, efficacy and tolerability of duodenal levodopa infusion in natural care settings. Of the 102 patients treated with duodenal levodopa infusion since 2003, 91 were enrolled in a multicentre retrospective study. The mean age was 72.7 years, with average disease duration of 17 years. Patients were at advanced stage: 91% had gait disorders, 65% had visual hallucinations, and 50% were demented (MMSE: 23). Duodenal levodopa infusion was the last line of treatment for motor complications in 98% of the patients, due to failure of or contraindication for apomorphine pump and neurosurgical treatments. Long-term treatment was observed by 73% of the population. Of these, >90% reported an improvement in motor fluctuations, quality of life, and autonomy. There were few severe adverse events. Technical problems were commonplace. Duodenal levodopa infusion seems to be an effective last-line therapy for motor complications in Parkinson's disease. Hence, technical improvements and earlier introduction should be considered. PMID:19253412

Devos, David

2009-05-15

392

The release of biologically active secretin-like immunoreactivity into duodenal lumen of dogs.  

PubMed Central

1. Immunoreactive secretin in the duodenal contents was determined in four conscious and four anaesthetized dogs in which hydrochloric acid (0.1 N) was infused into the duodenum at 2.2 ml./min. In the conscious dogs, immunoreactive secretin concentration in duodenal juice increased from 5-7 to 40-60 ng/ml. after infusion of HCl. In anaesthetized dogs, luminal immunoreactive secretin concentration increased from 2-3 to 12-16 ng/ml. after acid infusion. In both groups of dogs, a 20- to 30-fold increase in the total output of luminal immunoreactive secretin was observed. 2. Duodenal juice collected from anaesthetized dogs after diversion of both bile and exocrine pancreatic secretion was found to be the only source of luminal immunoreactive secretin. No immunoreactive secretin was found in either bile or pancreatic juice. 3. Gel filtration of the duodenal juice on a Sephadex G-50 column indicated that the immunoreactive secretin-like material in the duodenal juice possesses a molecular size similar to that of natural porcine secretin. 4. Immunoreactive secretin was partially purified from dog duodenal juice by chromatography on a SP-Sephadex column and found to be capable of stimulating pancreatic bicarbonate and water secretion in dogs.

Chang, T M; Chey, W Y; Kim, M S; Lee, K Y

1981-01-01

393

TTF-1 is useful for primary site determination in duodenal metastasis.  

PubMed

We report here on a case of duodenal metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma. A 69-year old man was diagnosed with primary lung adenocarcinoma. Four courses of combined chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel associated with irradiation of 60 Gy shrunk the lung tumor. However, soon after,the para-aortic lymph node became swollen. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed three duodenal tumors. Differential diagnosis between malignant lymphoma and metastatic duodenal cancer was endoscopically difficult. The histology of biopsied specimens was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a positive reaction for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). Thus, we concluded that these were metastatic duodenal tumors from lung adenocarcinoma. Two courses of gemcitabine led to a complete remission in this duodenal metastasis and para-aortic lymph node swelling with only scarring remaining in computed tomography. He is now on the continuous generalized chemotherapy. In conclusion, duodenal metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma is rare and hard to diagnose. In such an instance, TTF-1 immunostaining is crucial to obtain the correct diagnosis. PMID:21160807

Miura, Tomofumi; Shimaoka, Yuichi; Nakamura, Junichiro; Yamada, Satoshi; Miura, Tsutomu; Yanagi, Masahiko; Sato, Kazuhiro; Usuda, Hiroyuki; Emura, Iwao; Takahashi, Toru

2010-09-15

394

Absence of amosite asbestos in airway mucosa of non-smoking long term workers with occupational exposure to asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable experimental evidence that asbestos fibres are taken up by epithelial cells, and that uptake of fibres is associated with various deleterious, particularly mutagenic, effects. It is not known, however, if asbestos fibres are taken up by human bronchial epithelial cells in vivo. To investigate this question, the amosite asbestos content of the mucosa of seven different airways

A Churg; B Stevens

1993-01-01

395

Genome Sequence of Helicobacter heilmannii Sensu Stricto ASB1 Isolated from the Gastric Mucosa of a Kitten with Severe Gastritis  

PubMed Central

Here we report the genome sequence of Helicobacter heilmannii sensu stricto ASB1 isolated from the gastric mucosa of a kitten with severe gastritis. Helicobacter heilmannii sensu stricto has also been associated with gastric disease in humans. Availability of this genome sequence will contribute to the identification of genes involved in the pathogen’s virulence and carcinogenic properties.

Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Ledesma, Jessica; Flahou, Bram; Deforce, Dieter; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

2013-01-01

396

Topography and morphometry of the common bile duct and major duodenal papilla of man and principal domesticated animals.  

PubMed

A comparative topography and morphometry of the common bile duct and major duodenal papilla was studied on the extrahepatic biliary apparatus of human and major domesticated animals such as horse, ox, Black Bengal (BB) goat, sheep, dog and cat of local breed. In Black Bengal goat, sheep, dog and cat, the extrahepatic biliary system seemed to be the continuation of the cystic duct, which was found to continue as the common hepatic/common bile duct into which all the hepatic/lobar ducts open. In man, the mean length and the mean diameter of the common bile duct were 7.67+/-0.58 cm. and 7.27+/-0.77 mm. respectively. In the ox, these values were 1.57+/-0.72 cm. and 11.82+/-0.79 mm. respectively; in the Black Bengal goat, 7.23+/-0.74 cm. and 4.45+/-0.72 mm. respectively; in the sheep, 5.27+/-0.66 cm. and 3.75+/-0.79 mm. respectively; in the dog, 4.72+/-0.67 cm. and 6.43+/-0.55 mm. respectively and in the cat, 3.26+/-0.87 cm. and 5.63+/-0.43 mm. respectively. In man, the mean length and the mean diameter at the base of the MDP were 4.37+/-0.56 mm. and 3.97+/-0.72 mm. respectively. In horse, these were 52.36+/-0.67 mm. and 12.47+/-0.63 mm. respectively; in ox, 12.53+/-0.73 mm. and 8.83+/-0.68 mm. respectively; in Black Bengal goat, 14.36+/-0.55 mm. and 5.23+/-0.57 mm. respectively; in sheep, 11.27+/-0.69 mm. and 4.51+/-0.74 mm. respectively; in dog, 17.43+/-0.82 mm. and 6.72+/-0.64 mm. respectively and in cat, these values were 12.36+/-0.47 mm. and 7.12+/-0.87 mm. The distance of the Major Duodenal Papilla (MDP) form the pyloric end of the stomach was proportionately shorter in the meat-eaters, i.e., the omnivorous man (9.76+/-0.88 cm), and the carnivores, dog (6.37+/-0.73 cm) and cat (2.75+/-0.87 cm.) when compared to that of the herbivores, i.e., ox (55.37+/-0.68 cm.), BB goat (23.27+/-0.89 cm.) and sheep (25.62+/-0.77 cm.). In the horse, the major duodenal papilla was perpendicular to the duodenal mucosal surface with the largest mean length and the mean diameter. In all other animals, it was obliquely placed on the duodenal surface with its opening directed aborally. PMID:15695944

Khalil, M M; Islam, M N; Khalil, M M; Khan, Z I; Adiluzzaman, A A; Hossain, M I

2005-01-01

397

Natural defense by saliva and mucosa against oral infection by Leptospira.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis caused by drinking water has not been as frequently reported as percutaneous infection. Resistance to oral infection by pathogenic Leptospira was examined in an experimental hamster infection model. The results suggested some natural defenses against oral infection by Leptospira. First, we found that characteristic linear agglutination of Leptospira rapidly occurs when mixed with human saliva. That human saliva attenuated the infectivity of the treated leptospires by its agglutination activity suggested saliva to be the first line of defense against oral infection by leptospires. Second, only 10(1) Leptospira organisms caused death after submucosal injection into oral mucosa in hamsters, but oral infection with drinking water containing 10(5) organisms/mL did not cause death. This result showed that the mucosa plays the role of a physical barrier. Third, hamsters intragastrically infected by leptospires, with doses lethal to hamsters in oral infection, showed no signs of illness, which suggested that gastric acid plays an important role in preventing oral infection. Based on these results, saliva, mucosa, and gastric acid make up a natural defense, which confers high resistance to hosts against oral infection by leptospires. PMID:24861456

Asoh, Tatsuma; Saito, Mitsumasa; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

2014-06-01

398

vacA Genotypes in Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Children with and without Duodenal Ulcer in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data concerning the association between vacA genotypes and disease in children in both developed and de- veloping countries are scarce, especially because of the small number of children with a duodenal ulcer studied. The vacA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori strains obtained from 65 children (24 with a duodenal ulcer and 41 without a duodenal ulcer; 33 girls; mean age, 10.2

VALQUIRIA RIBEIRO DE GUSMAO; EDILBERTO NOGUEIRA MENDES; MARIA DE MAGALHAES QUEIROZ; GIFONE AGUIAR ROCHA; ANDREIA MARIA CAMARGOS ROCHA; ABDUSSALAM ALI; RAMADAN ASHOUR; ANFRISINA SALES; TELES CARVALHO

2000-01-01

399

Role of parietal and principal gastric mucosa cells in the phenomenon of concentration of aluminum and indium.  

PubMed

The subcellular behavior of aluminum and indium, used in medical and industrial fields, was studied in the gastric mucosa and the liver after their intragastric administration to rats, using, two of the most sensitive methods of observation and microanalysis, the transmission electron microscopy, and the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The ultrastructural study showed the presence of electron dense deposits, in the lysosomes of parietal and principal gastric mucosa cells but no loaded lysosomes were observed in the different studied hepatic territories. The microanalytical study allowed the identification of the chemical species present in those deposits as aluminum or indium isotopes and the cartography of their distribution. No modification was observed in control rats tissues. In comparison to previous studies describing the mechanism of aluminum concentration in the gastric mucosa and showing that this element was concentrated in the lysosomes of fundic and antral human gastric mucosa, our study provided additional informations about the types of cells involved in the phenomenon of concentration of aluminum and indium, which are the parietal and the principal cells of the gastric mucosa. Our study demonstrated that these cells have the ability to concentrate selectively aluminum and indium in their lysosomes, as a defensive reaction against intoxication by foreign elements. PMID:21761500

Maghraoui, Samira; Ayadi, Ahlem; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Jaafoura, Mohamed-Habib; El Hili, Ali; Migeon, Henri-Noël; Tekaya, Leila

2012-02-01

400

HIV Target Cells in Schistosoma haematobium-Infected Female Genital Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The parasite Schistosoma haematobium frequently causes genital lesions in women and could increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. This study quantifies the HIV target cells in schistosome-infected female genital mucosa. Cervicovaginal biopsies with and without schistosomiasis were immunostained for quantification of CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD3, CD8), macrophages (CD68), and dendritic Langerhans cells (S100 protein). We found significantly higher densities of genital mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages surrounding schistosome ova compared with cervicovaginal mucosa without ova (P = 0.034 and P = 0.018, respectively). We found no increased density of Langerhans cells (P = 0.25). This study indicates that S. haematobium may significantly increase the density of HIV target cells (CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages) in the female genitals, creating a beneficial setting for HIV transmission. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to evaluate the effect of anti-schistosomal treatment on female genital schistosomiasis.

Jourdan, Peter Mark; Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

2011-01-01

401

Collagen fibril arrangement and size distribution in monkey oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

Collagen fibre organisation and fibril size were studied in the buccal gingival and hard palate mucosa of Macacus rhesus monkey. Light and electron microscopy analysis showed connective papillae exhibiting a similar inner structure in the different areas examined, but varying in distribution, shape and size. Moving from the deep to surface layers of the buccal gingival mucosa (free and attached portions), large collagen fibril bundles became smaller and progressively more wavy with decreasing collagen fibril diameter. This gradual diameter decrease did not occur in the hard palate mucosa (free portion, rugae and interrugal regions) where the fibril diameter remained constant. A link between collagen fibril diameter and mechanical function is discussed.

OTTANI, V.; FRANCHI, M.; DE PASQUALE, V.; LEONARDI, L.; MOROCUTTI, M.; RUGGERI, A.

1998-01-01

402

Acute effects of irradiation on middle ear mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Single field, fixed irradiation of bilateral tympanic cavities using 200-kV x-rays was administered to five guinea pigs. The irradiation dose was 30 Gy. They were killed immediately after irradiation, and bilateral middle ear mucosa was examined for ciliary activity and epithelial structure. Significant deterioration of the ciliary activity in the middle ear mucosa was observed, proximal as well as distal to the eustachian tube. Electron microscopy showed various changes in the irradiated middle ear mucosa. The most conspicuous findings were hyperreactivity in secretion, vacuolation of ciliated cells, and stomal edema.

Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Esaki, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Onoyama, Y.

1988-03-01

403

Spectrotypic analysis of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in patients with antral gastritis and duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To investigate the anti Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) spectrotype associated with (a) antral gastritis and duodenal ulcer; (b) the H pylori eradicating treatment. METHODS--Spectrotypic analysis was performed by isoelectric focusing and reverse blotting (IEFRB) in a cross sectional study on sera from 70 patients with antral gastritis and duodenal ulcer. In addition, a longitudinal study was performed on 40 of these patients (20 with antral gastritis and 20 with duodenal ulcer) who underwent eradicating trea