Sample records for human endometriosis relation

  1. Endometriosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more than 5 million American women, including teen girls, are affected. It's not always diagnosed right away ... severe endometriosis can make it harder for a girl to have children in the future, it's a ...

  2. Endometriosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains endometriosis. It reviews the anatomy of the female reproductive system, the causes, diagnosis, treatments, and management of endometriosis. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  3. Endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felice R. Zwas; David T. Lyon

    1991-01-01

    Endometriosis, a condition defined by the presence of ectopic endometrium, is a disorder of increasing incidence and a significant cause of gastroenterologic distress in young women. Although clinical manifestations vary considerably depending upon the anatomic extent of disease, characteristic abdominal complaints and typical physical findings continue to be associated with misdiagnosis and delayed recognition of gastrointestinal involvement. The authors of

  4. Genome-wide enrichment analysis between endometriosis and obesity-related traits

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    Genome-wide enrichment analysis between endometriosis and obesity-related traits reveals novel & Endometriosis CaRe Centre, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK Received April 4, 2014; Revised and Accepted October 6, 2014 Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory condition in women

  5. Increased telomerase activity and human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA expression in the endometrium of patients with endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Kim; Y. J. Oh; S. H. Cho; D. J. Chung; J. Y. Hwang; K. H. Park; D. J. Cho; Y M. Choir; B. S. Lee

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is considered a frequent, benign disease with the ability to undergo neoplastic processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the limitless replication potential of the endometrium in patients with endometriosis by examining human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA expression and telomerase activity. METHODS: Endometrium samples from 30 endometriosis patients and 30 patients without endometriosis were obtained

  6. Endometriosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources for press Selected Profiles & Interviews Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related to NICHD research About NICHD Institute ...

  7. Effect of Letrozole on endometriosis-related pelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Almassinokiani, Fariba; Almasi, Alireza; Akbari, Peyman; Saberifard, Mahboubeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: To determine the role of Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, in the treatment of endometriotic pain. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial in minimally invasive surgery research center, 51 women with pelvic endometriosis and endometriotic pain (dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain) score of 5 or more (for at least one of these endometriotic pain), after laparoscopic diagnosis and conservative laparoscopic surgery were treated with either Letrozole plus OCP (n=25) or only OCP (n=26) for 4 months continuously. Results: Using VAS test, the score of dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain 4 months after the laparoscopic surgery declined significantly in both groups but the difference between results of the two groups was not significant. Conclusion: Both treatment modalities showed comparable effectiveness in the treatment of pains related to endometriosis and in comparison with OCP, Letrozole did not affect the outcome. PMID:25664308

  8. Aromatase inhibition for refractory endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Abushahin, Fadi; Goldman, Kara N.; Barbieri, Elizabeth; Milad, Magdy; Rademaker, Alfred; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of an aromatase inhibitor for the treatment of endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain. Design Retrospective analysis. Setting Academic medical center outpatient reproductive endocrinology clinic. Patient (s) Sixteen patients with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain who previously failed conventional medical and/or surgical therapy. Intervention (s) Treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (2.5 mg/d) plus a gonadotropin suppressor (norethindrone acetate, 2.5 mg/d, or a combination oral contraceptive [OC]) for an average of 6 months. Main Outcome Measure (s) Pain scores were reported at each visit using a visual analogue scale from 0 to 10 (0: no pain, 10: maximum pain). Result (s) Sixteen patients were treated with an aromatase inhibitor for 180 ± 31days. The median pain score at the start of therapy was 7, and at the end of therapy it was 1.5. In the nine patients who were evaluated after discontinuing therapy, pain scores returned to pretreatment levels. We did not find any correlation between the length of treatment and the overall improvement in pain score. Conclusion (s) Letrozole plus a gonadotropin suppressor substantially improved pain symptoms in patients with endometriosis refractory to conventional therapies; however, pain recurred after treatment was completed. PMID:21868006

  9. [Laparoscopic studies of pelvic endometriosis in relation to sterility].

    PubMed

    Hoshiai, H

    1989-08-01

    Six hundred and eighteen endometriosis patients out of 2,966 cases diagnosed with laparoscopy were statistically analyzed. The incidence of pelvic endometriosis was 28.3% of infertile cases, 47.2% of infertile cases of etiology unknown sterility, and 53.6% of cases of dysmenorrhea. Initial onset was most common in the sacrouterine ligament and the pouch of Douglas, followed by the ovaries. It was also seen in the vesicouterine pouch. The progress after the initial onset was considered to be due mainly to ovarian lesions, and the progressive rate appeared to be 0.3 point per month according to the R-AFS point system. Cases with stage 3 ovarian lesions were seen up to 7 years after menarche, and there were almost no cases of endometriosis 10 years after menopause. No differences in the average age were seen by stage of clinical progress or R-AFS, and the average age was around 31. The period of infertility showed no definite relation with the stage of the disease in cases of primary sterility, but stage 1 cases were common in patients with secondary sterility. The incidence of dysmenorrhea did not differ depending on the stage of the disease, but severe menstrual pain was common in stage 4 cases. The frequency associated with sterility did not differ in accordance with the stage. Severe pain at the time of endoscopy and induration of Douglas' pouch were common in stage 4 cases, but 31.9% of stage 4 cases showed no abnormal findings in pelvic examination. There was no significant difference between R-AFS points and the incidence of abnormal findings in HSG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2530292

  10. Polymorphic variants in the dopamine receptor D2 in women with endometriosis-related infertility.

    PubMed

    Szczepa?ska, Malgorzata; Mostowska, Adrianna; Wirstlein, Przemyslaw; Skrzypczak, Jana; Misztal, Matthew; Jagodzi?ski, Pawe? P

    2015-08-01

    Data suggests that dopamine receptor DRD2 gene variants may contribute to hyperprolactinemia and that they may be risk factors for endometriosis?related infertility. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether nucleotide variants of the DRD2 gene may be associated with infertility related to endometriosis. Five DRD2 SNPs, rs1800497, rs6277, rs2283265, rs4245146 and rs4648317, which are located in different blocks of linkage disequilibrium, were studied in 151 cases and 381 controls. No significant differences between DRD2 rs1800497, rs6277, rs2283265, rs4245146 and rs4648317 genotype, allele nor haplotype frequencies were observed in women with endometriosis?related infertility compared with the control group. The present results did not confirm DRD2 gene variants to be genetic risk factors for endometriosis-related infertility. PMID:25955176

  11. Endometriosis still a challenge

    PubMed Central

    Mehedintu, C; Plotogea, MN; Ionescu, S; Antonovici, M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Endometriosis is a debilitating disease with features of chronic inflammation. Endometriosis appears to be one of the most common benign gynecological proliferations in premenopausal women since it is estimated that 10–15% of reproductive aged women suffer from pelvic endometriosis. The biology of endometriosis is unclear. Despite its prevalence, this disease remains poorly understood and current studies prove that there is no relationship between the extent of the disease and its symptomatology. There is no blood test available for the diagnosis of endometriosis. Up to this point, there is no single very successful option for the treatment of endometriosis. Due to the relatively poor efficacy of hormonal therapy for endometriosis, several other experimental therapies are currently undergoing clinical trial. PMID:25408753

  12. Novel three-dimensional in vitro models of ovarian endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. It affects 1 in 10 women of reproductive age. This chronic condition commonly leads to consequences such as pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, infertility and an elevated risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Despite the prevalence of endometriosis and its impact on women’s lives, there are relatively few in vitro and in vivo models available for studying the complex disease biology, pathophysiology, and for use in the preclinical development of novel therapies. The goal of this study was to develop a novel three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model of ovarian endometriosis and to test whether it is more reflective of endometriosis biology than traditional two dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. Methods A novel ovarian endometriosis epithelial cell line (EEC16) was isolated from a 34-year old female with severe endometriosis. After characterization of cells using in vitro assays, western blotting and RNA-sequencing, this cell line and a second, already well characterized endometriosis cell line, EEC12Z, were established as in vitro 3D spheroid models. We compared biological features of 3D spheroids to 2D cultures and human endometriosis lesions using immunohistochemistry and real-time semi-quantitative PCR. Results In comparison to normal ovarian epithelial cells, EEC16 displayed features of neoplastic transformation in in vitro assays. When cultured in 3D, EEC16 and EEC12Z showed differential expression of endometriosis-associated genes compared to 2D monolayer cultures, and more closely mimicked the molecular and histological features of human endometriosis lesions. Conclusions To our knowledge, this represents the first report of an in vitro spheroid model of endometriosis. 3D endometriosis models represent valuable experimental tools for studying EEC biology and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24502583

  13. Unique Transcriptome, Pathways, and Networks in the Human Endometrial Fibroblast Response to Progesterone in Endometriosis1

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanova, L.; Tatsumi, K.; Horcajadas, J.A.; Zamah, A.M.; Esteban, F.J.; Herndon, C.N.; Conti, M.; Giudice, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Eutopic endometrium in endometriosis has molecular evidence of resistance to progesterone (P4) and activation of the PKA pathway in the stromal compartment. To investigate global and temporal responses of eutopic endometrium to P4, we compared early (6-h), intermediate (48-h), and late (14-Day) transcriptomes, signaling pathways, and networks of human endometrial stromal fibroblasts (hESF) from women with endometriosis (hESFendo) with hESF from women without endometriosis (hESFnonendo). Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained from subjects with and without mild peritoneal endometriosis (n = 4 per group), and hESF were isolated and treated with P4 (1 ?M) plus estradiol (E2) (10 nM), E2 alone (10 nM), or vehicle for up to 14 days. Total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis using a Gene 1.0 ST (Affymetrix) platform and analyzed by using bioinformatic algorithms, and data were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. Results revealed unique kinetic expression of specific genes and unique pathways, distinct biological and molecular processes, and signaling pathways and networks during the early, intermediate, and late responses to P4 in both hESFnonendo and hESFendo, although a blunted response to P4 was observed in the latter. The normal response of hESF to P4 involves a tightly regulated kinetic cascade involving key components in the P4 receptor and MAPK signaling pathways that results in inhibition of E2-mediated proliferation and eventual differentiation to the decidual phenotype, but this was not established in the hESFendo early response to P4. The abnormal response of this cell type to P4 may contribute to compromised embryonic implantation and infertility in women with endometriosis. PMID:20864642

  14. Endometriosis: alternative methods of medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Hernando, Leticia; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Jose L; Marqueta-Marques, Laura; Alvarez-Conejo, Carmen; Tejerizo-García, Álvaro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Villegas-Muñoz, Emilia; Martin-Jimenez, Angel; Jiménez-López, Jesús S

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an inflammatory estrogen-dependent disease defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine sites. The main purpose of endometriosis management is alleviating pain associated to the disease. This can be achieved surgically or medically, although in most women a combination of both treatments is required. Long-term medical treatment is usually needed in most women. Unfortunately, in most cases, pain symptoms recur between 6 months and 12 months once treatment is stopped. The authors conducted a literature search for English original articles, related to new medical treatments of endometriosis in humans, including articles published in PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Library. Keywords included “endometriosis” matched with “medical treatment”, “new treatment”, “GnRH antagonists”, “Aromatase inhibitors”, “selective progesterone receptor modulators”, “anti-TNF ?”, and “anti-angiogenic factors”. Hormonal treatments currently available are effective in the relief of pain associated to endometriosis. Among new hormonal drugs, association to aromatase inhibitors could be effective in the treatment of women who do not respond to conventional therapies. GnRH antagonists are expected to be as effective as GnRH agonists, but with easier administration (oral). There is a need to find effective treatments that do not block the ovarian function. For this purpose, antiangiogenic factors could be important components of endometriosis therapy in the future. Upcoming researches and controlled clinical trials should focus on these drugs.

  15. Effects of Simvastatin on Retinoic Acid System in Primary Human Endometrial Stromal Cells and in a Chimeric Model of Human Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Sokalska, Anna; Anderson, MariaPia; Villanueva, Jesus; Ortega, Israel; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Retinoic acid (RA) may promote survival or apoptosis of cells, depending on the levels of binding proteins: apoptosis-inducing cellular RA binding protein 2 (CRABP2), and cell survival-promoting fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5). Increased cellular uptake of retinol and altered actions of RA related to reduced expression of CRABP2 may contribute to the development of endometriosis. Recently statins have been shown to inhibit growth of human endometrial stromal (HES) cells and to reduce the number and size of endometriotic implants in experimental models of this disorder. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether effects of simvastatin on HES cells and experimental endometriotic implants are related to the modulation of the RA system. Methods: Effects of simvastatin and RA on proliferation and apoptosis of HES cells were evaluated. Expression of stimulated by RA 6 (STRA6), CRABP2, and FABP5 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Effects of simvastatin were also evaluated in a nude mouse model of human endometriosis. Results: Simvastatin potentiated an inhibitory effect of RA on growth of HES cells. In HES cells, simvastatin induced expression of STRA6 and CRABP2 but not FABP5. Similarly, simvastatin treatment of nude mice bearing human endometrial xenografts led to an increased expression of CRABP2 and STRA6 proteins in ectopic lesions. Conclusions: Simvastatin interacts with the RA system, inducing the expression of the key protein regulating the uptake of retinol (STRA6) and the expression of apoptosis-promoting CRABP2. These effects may contribute to cooperative apoptosis-inducing effects of simvastatin and RA and support the examination of these compounds in the treatment of endometriosis. PMID:23337719

  16. Medical treatment of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, benign and chronic gynecological disorder. It is also an estrogen-dependent disorder that can result in substantial morbidity, including pelvic pain, pro gressive dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, infertility and repeat surgeries. Endometriosis is often treated surgically upon diag nosis but with a higher rate of recurrence, suggesting that a combination of surgical and medical management might provide better outcomes. The primary goal of medical treatment for endometriosis is to halt the growth and activity of endometriosis lesions. The most widely utilized medical treat ment for endometriosis involves use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and oral contraceptives. Conventional agents also include androgen derivates and progestins. Due to the chronic nature of this disease, long-term or Dr. Hong-Yuan Huang repeated courses of medication may be required to control its related symptoms. Increasing knowledge about the pathogenesis of endometriosis at the cellular and molecular levels may give us the opportunity to use new, specific agents for treatment, including aromatase inhibitors, progesterone antagonists, selective progesterone receptor modulators, GnRH antagonists, intrauterine releasing systems with progestin and new pharmaceutical agents affecting inflammation, angiogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Many of these promising new agents may prevent or inhibit the development of endometriosis. Further clinical trials may determine if these new therapies are superior to current medical treatment strategies for endometriosis. PMID:19097589

  17. [Endometriosis and malignoma].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, U; Richter, O; Wardelmann, E; Valter, M; Schmutzler, R; Sillem, M; Possover, M; Mallmann, P

    2003-01-01

    Malignant tumors arising from endometriosis are rare. A frequency of about 1% has been reported with in 80% the ovary, and in 20% extragonadal sites being affected. The most common extragonadal manifestations are the rectosigmoid and the rectovaginal septum. For extragonadal malignant tumors arising from endometriosis, complete resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy, possibly plus adjuvant progestin therapy, is the treatment of choice. Endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinomas are likely to present with lower stage disease and predominantly lower grade tumors. While their treatment follows that of common ovarian cancer, a poorer response to chemotherapy must be considered. As unopposed estrogen replacement therapy has been identified as a risk factor for the development of endometriosis-associated cancer, it is not recommended for hormone replacement therapy in women with a history of endometriosis. Loss of heterozygosity and mutations of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene may be early events of tumorigenesis. Endometriosis and its malignant transformation, perhaps, may serve as a suitable model in this regard. According to recent studies, endometriosis is associated with an increased relative risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:14505256

  18. Relation between pain symptoms and the anatomic location of deep infiltrating endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnaud Fauconnier; Charles Chapron; Jean-Bernard Dubuisson; Marco Vieira; Bertrand Dousset; Gérard Bréart

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether specific types of pelvic pain are correlated with the anatomic locations of deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE).Design: Retrospective data analysis.Setting: University tertiary referral center.Patient(s): Two hundred and twenty-five women with pelvic pain symptoms and DIE.Intervention(s): During surgery, we recorded the anatomic locations of DIE implants and associated endometriosis.Main Outcome Measure(s): We studied the incidence of pelvic pain

  19. Combining oral contraceptives with a natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain.

    PubMed

    Maia, Hugo; Haddad, Clarice; Casoy, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease in which a persistent state of heightened inflammation is maintained by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation. The progestins present in oral contraceptives are potent inhibitors of NF-?B translocation to cell nuclei, while Pycnogenol® (Pinus pinaster) acts by blocking post-translational events. In this study, the effects of Pycnogenol on pain scores were investigated in patients with endometriosis using oral contraceptives containing either gestodene or drospirenone in extended regimens. Pain scores were determined using a visual analog scale before and after 3 months of treatment. Oral contraceptives, used alone (groups 1 and 3) or in association with Pycnogenol (groups 2 and 4), resulted in significant decreases in pain scores after 3 months of treatment; however, this reduction was significantly greater in the groups using oral contraceptives + Pycnogenol (groups 2 and 4) compared with those using oral contraceptives alone (groups 1 and 3). In the groups using oral contraceptives alone, 50% of patients became pain-free by the end of the third month of treatment. These results suggest that Pycnogenol increases the efficacy of oral contraceptives for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain. PMID:24379702

  20. Combining oral contraceptives with a natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Hugo; Haddad, Clarice; Casoy, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease in which a persistent state of heightened inflammation is maintained by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation. The progestins present in oral contraceptives are potent inhibitors of NF-?B translocation to cell nuclei, while Pycnogenol® (Pinus pinaster) acts by blocking post-translational events. In this study, the effects of Pycnogenol on pain scores were investigated in patients with endometriosis using oral contraceptives containing either gestodene or drospirenone in extended regimens. Pain scores were determined using a visual analog scale before and after 3 months of treatment. Oral contraceptives, used alone (groups 1 and 3) or in association with Pycnogenol (groups 2 and 4), resulted in significant decreases in pain scores after 3 months of treatment; however, this reduction was significantly greater in the groups using oral contraceptives + Pycnogenol (groups 2 and 4) compared with those using oral contraceptives alone (groups 1 and 3). In the groups using oral contraceptives alone, 50% of patients became pain-free by the end of the third month of treatment. These results suggest that Pycnogenol increases the efficacy of oral contraceptives for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain. PMID:24379702

  1. A novel mouse model of endometriosis mimics human phenotype and reveals insights into the inflammatory contribution of shed endometrium.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Erin; Cousins, Fiona L; Murray, Alison; Esnal-Zufiaurre, Arantza; Fassbender, Amelie; Horne, Andrew W; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2014-07-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Patients experience chronic pelvic pain and infertility, with the most likely origin of the tissue deposits (lesions) being endometrial fragments shed at menses. Menstruation is an inflammatory process associated with a dramatic increase in inflammatory mediators and tissue-resident immune cells. In the present study, we developed and validated a mouse model of endometriosis using syngeneic menstrual endometrial tissue introduced into the peritoneum of immunocompetent mice. We demonstrate the establishment of endometriotic lesions that exhibit similarities to those recovered from patients undergoing laparoscopy. Specifically, in both cases, lesions had epithelial (cytokeratin(+)) and stromal (vimentin/CD10(+)) cell compartments with a well-developed vasculature (CD31(+) endothelial cells). Expression of estrogen receptor ? was increased in lesions compared with the peritoneum or eutopic endometrium. By performing experiments using mice with green fluorescent protein-labeled macrophages (MacGreen) in reciprocal transfers with wild-type mice, we obtained evidence that macrophages present in the peritoneum and in menses endometrium can contribute to the inflammatory microenvironment of the lesions. In summary, we developed a mouse model of endometriosis that exhibits similarities to human peritoneal lesions with respect to estrogen receptor expression, inflammation, and macrophage infiltration, providing an opportunity for further studies and the possible identification of novel therapies for this perplexing disorder. PMID:24910298

  2. Basal and Steroid Hormone-Regulated Expression of CXCR4 in Human Endometrium and Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Abigail; Salvo, Virgilio A.; Ruiz, Lynnette A.; Báez, Perla; García, Miosotis; Flores, Idhaliz

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is associated with activation of local and systemic inflammatory mechanisms, including increased levels of chemokines and other proinflammatory cytokines. We have previously reported increased gene expression of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), the receptor for CXCL12, in lesions of the rat model of endometriosis. The CXCR4-CXCL12 axis has been shown to have both immune (HIV infection, lymphocyte chemotaxis) and nonimmune functions, including roles in tissue repair, angiogenesis, invasion, and migration. There is evidence indicating that these mechanisms are also at play in endometriosis; therefore, we hypothesized that activation of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis could be responsible, at least in part, for the survival and establishment of endometrial cells ectopically. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that CXCR4 protein levels were significantly higher in endometriotic lesions compared to the endometrium of controls. Next, we determined basal gene and protein expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 and regulation by estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) in endometrial cell lines using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and Western blots. Basal CXCR4 gene expression levels were higher in epithelial versus stromal cells; conversely, CXCL12 was expressed at higher levels in stromal vs epithelial cells. CXCR4 gene expression was significantly downregulated by ovarian steroid hormones in endometrial epithelial. These data suggest that steroid modulation of CXCR4 is defective in endometriosis, although the specific mechanism involved remains to be elucidated. These findings have implications for future therapeutic strategies specifically targeting the inflammatory component in endometriosis. PMID:20720261

  3. Endometriosis: hormone regulation and clinical consequences of chemotaxis and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Fernando M.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The recruitment of immune cells by chemokines and the regulation of endometrial cell apoptosis are critical aspects of endometriosis biology. Here, we review the local (paracrine) and systemic hormone (endocrine) modulation of these two specific, but highly related phenomena. METHODS We searched Pubmed for items published in English between September 1991 and September 2011 and selected the studies evaluating the effects of hormones on chemokines or apoptosis in normal human endometrium and endometriosis. RESULTS Estradiol has proinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects in endometrial cells, and these effects appear to be exacerbated in women with endometriosis. In these women, physiological estradiol concentrations are able to induce an enhanced inflammatory response mediated by local chemokine production and to reinforce mechanisms of cell survival mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases and Bcl-2. The main effect of progestogens is to inhibit interleukin-8 and other chemokines in stromal cells from both eutopic and ectopic endometrium. Progesterone is also effective in inducing apoptosis in endometrial and endometriotic cells through the inhibition of Bcl-2 and nuclear factor-?B. CONCLUSIONS Estrogens and progestogens modulate chemotaxis and apoptosis in human endometrium and endometriotic cells and tissues. These endocrine and paracrine pathways are perturbed in women with endometriosis, contributing to inflammatory responses, abnormal tissue remodeling, therapeutic refractoriness and disease persistence. Ultimately, they promote adhesion formation and the clinical symptoms of pelvic pain and infertility. A more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved will offer new opportunities for novel pharmacological strategies to diagnose and treat endometriosis. PMID:23539633

  4. Art and Endometriosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berstein, Jane C.

    1995-01-01

    Relation of an art therapist's personal story concerning her struggle to overcome endometriosis, and how her artwork has played a vital role in coping with the disease. Illustrated with a chronology of artwork produced during a bout with the illness. (JPS)

  5. Molecular profiling of experimental endometriosis identified gene expression patterns in common with human disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Idhaliz; Rivera, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Lynnette A.; Santiago, Olga I.; Vernon, Michael W.; Appleyard, Caroline B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate a rat model of endometriosis using cDNA microarrays by identifying common gene expression patterns beween experimental and natural disease. DESIGN Autotransplantation rat model. SETTING Medical school department. ANIMALS Female Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Endometriosis was surgically-induced by suturing uterine horn implants next to the small intestine’s mesentery. Control rats received sutures with no implants. After 60 days, endometriotic implants and uterine horn were obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Gene expression levels determined by cDNA microarrays and QRT-PCR. METHODS Cy5-labeled cDNA was synthesized from total RNA obtained from endometriotic implants. Cy3-labeled cDNA was synthesized using uterine RNA from a control rat. Gene expression levels were analyzed after hybridizing experimental and control labeled cDNA to PIQOR™ Toxicology Rat Microarrays (Miltenyi Biotec) containing 1,252 known genes. Cy5/Cy3 ratios were determined and genes with >2-fold higher or <0.5-fold lower expression levels were selected. Microarray results were validated by QRT-PCR. RESULTS We observed differential expression of genes previously shown to be upregulated in patients, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines/receptors, tumor invasion/metastasis factors, adhesion molecules, and anti-apoptotic factors. CONCLUSIONS This study presents evidence in support of using this rat model to study the natural history of endometriosis and test novel therapeutics for this incurable disease. PMID:17478174

  6. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was developed ... endometriosis is through a surgical procedure called laparoscopy. Does endometriosis cause infertility? If you have endometriosis, it ...

  7. Systematic enrichment analysis of microRNA expression profiling studies in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shiyang; Xu, Hong; Kuang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on human microRNAs (miRNAs) expression data of endometriosis tissue profiles versus those of normal controls and to identify novel putative diagnostic markers. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Ovid Medline were used to search for endometriosis miRNA expression profiling studies of endometriosis. The miRNAs expression data were extracted, and study quality of each article was assessed. The frequently reported miRNAs with consistent regulation were screened out by a meta-profiling algorithm. The putative targets of consistently expressed miRNAs were predicted by using four target prediction tools (TargetScan, PicTar, miRanda, miRDB), and gene ontology pathway enrichment analysis (KEGG and Panther pathways) of the miRNA targets were carried out with GeneCodis web tool. Results: A total of 194 related literatures were retrieved in four databases. One hundred and thirty four differentially expressed miRNAs were found in the 12 microRNA expression profiling studies that compared endometriosis tissues with normal tissues, with 28 miRNAs reported in at least two studies, and 9882 candidate genes retrieved for 13 consistently expressed miRNAs. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) and Panther pathways enrichment analysis showed that endometriosis related differently expressed miRNA targets were mainly enriched in cancer, endocytosis, Wnt signalling pathway, and angiogenesis. It showed that these differently expressed miRNAs and gene are potential biomarkers of endometriosis. Conclusion: miRNAs appear to be potent regulators of gene expression in endometriosis and its associated reproductive disorders, raising the prospect of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic agent in endometriosis.

  8. Letrozole and norethisterone acetate versus letrozole and triptorelin in the treatment of endometriosis related pain symptoms: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When aromatase inhibitors are used to treat premenopausal women with endometriosis, additional drugs should be used to effectively down-regulate gonadal estrogen biosynthesis. This randomized prospective open-label study compared the efficacy in treating pain symptoms and the tolerability of letrozole combined with either norethisterone acetate or triptorelin. Methods Women with pain symptoms caused by rectovaginal endometriosis were treated with letrozole (2.5 mg/day) and were randomized to also receive either oral norethisterone acetate (2.5 mg/day; group N) or intramuscular injection of triptorelin (11.25 mg every 3 months; group T). The scheduled length of treatment was 6 months. A visual analogue scale and a multidimensional categorical rating scale were used to assess the severity of pain symptoms. The volume of the endometriotic nodules was estimated by ultrasonography using virtual organ computer-aided analysis. Adverse effects of treatment were recorded. Results A total of 35 women were randomized between the two treatment protocols. Significantly more patients in group N rated their treatment as satisfactory or very satisfactory (64.7%) as compared to group T (22.2%; p = 0.028). The intensity of both non-menstrual pelvic pain and deep dyspareunia significantly decreased during treatment in both study groups, though no statistically meaningful difference between the two groups was apparent. Reduction in the volume of endometriotic nodules was significantly greater in group T than in group N. Interruption of treatment due to adverse effects significantly differed between the groups, with 8 women in group T (44.4%) and 1 woman in group N (5.9%) interrupting treatment (p = 0.018). Similarly, 14 women included in group T (77.8%) and 6 women included in group N (35.3%) experienced adverse effects of treatment (p = 0.018). During treatment, mineral bone density significantly decreased in group T but not in group N. Conclusions Aromatase inhibitors reduce the intensity of endometriosis-related pain symptoms. Combining letrozole with oral norethisterone acetate was associated with a lower incidence of adverse effects and a lower discontinuation rate than combining letrozole with triptorelin. PMID:21693037

  9. A baboon model for endometriosis: implications for fertility

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Julie M; Fazleabas, Asgerally T

    2006-01-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain and infertility in women in the reproductive age group. Although the existence of this disease has been known for over 100 years our current knowledge of its pathogenesis and the pathophysiology of its related infertility remains unclear. Several reasons contribute to our lack of knowledge, the most critical being the difficulty in carrying out objective long-term studies in women. Thus, we and others have developed a model of this disease in the non-human primate, the baboon (Papio anubis). Intraperitoneal inoculation of autologous menstrual endometrium results in the development of endometriotic lesions with gross morphological characteristics similar to those seen in the human. Multiple factors have been implicated in endometriosis-associated infertility. We have described aberrant levels of factors involved in multiple pathways important in the establishment of pregnancy, in the endometrium of baboons induced with endometriosis. Specifically, we have observed dysregulation of proteins involved in invasion, angiogenesis, methylation, cell growth, immunomodulation, and steroid hormone action. These data suggest that, in an induced model of endometriosis in the baboon, an increased angiogenic capacity, decreased apoptotic potential, progesterone resistance, estrogen hyper-responsiveness, and an inability to respond appropriately to embryonic signals contribute to the reduced fecundity associated with this disease. PMID:17118171

  10. Is aromatase expression in the endometrium the cause of endometriosis and related infertility?

    PubMed

    Maia, Hugo; Casoy, Julio; Valente Filho, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    Aromatase expression in the endometrium seems to play a pivotal role in the development of endometriotic lesions. Because inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 appear to activate aromatase in the cells of the endometrial stroma, it was hypothesised that the ensuing inflammation caused by the arrival of aromatase-positive cells in the peritoneal cavity would stimulate local estrogen production, which would in turn facilitate the development of endometriotic lesions by suppressing macrophage phagocytosis. Aromatase expression in the eutopic endometrium will also hamper ovum nidation, thus causing infertility. Progestins, such as gestodene and danazol, are potent inhibitors of aromatase expression in the endometrium, and the use of vaginal rings with danazol in doses that do not block ovulation is associated with the occurrence of pregnancy in patients with severe endometriosis without the need for surgery. A local effect on the endometrium suppressing aromatase expression has been suggested as a possible mechanism of action for the danazol ring. PMID:19340622

  11. Endometriosis Behavioural tests

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Endometriosis Behavioural tests Reproduction Primates » Prof. Dr. Almuth Einspanier Endometriosis is not only a pain- ful chronic disease, but also one of the common causes of infertility sys- tems to define the health status and the stage of endometriosis of these animals

  12. Transcriptional expression of type-I interferon response genes and stability of housekeeping genes in the human endometrium and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Anna L; Knudsen, Ulla B; Munk, Torben; Rosbach, Hanne; Martensen, Pia M

    2011-04-01

    Endometriosis is a painful chronic female disease defined by the presence of endometrial tissue implants in ectopic (Ec) locations. The pathogenesis is much debated, and type-I interferons (IFNs) could be involved. The expression of genes of the type-I IFN response were profiled by a specific PCR array of RNA obtained from Ec and eutopic (Eu) endometrium collected from nine endometriosis patients and nine healthy control women. Transcriptional expression levels of selected IFN-regulated and housekeeping genes (HKGs) were investigated by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Stably expressed HKGs for valid normalization of transcriptional studies of endometrium and endometriosis have not yet been published. Here, seven HKGs were evaluated for stability using the GeNorm and NormFinder software. A normalization factor based on HMBS, TBP and YWHAZ expression was suitable for normalization of qRT-PCR studies of Eu versus Ec endometrium. In the endometrial cell lines HEC1A, HEC1B, Ishikawa and RL95-2, HMBS and HPRT1 were the most stably expressed. The IFN-specific PCR array indicated significantly different expression of the genes BST2, COL16A1, HOXB2 and ISG20 between the endometrial tissue types. However, by correctly normalized qRT-PCR, levels of BST2, COL16A1 and the highly type-I IFN-stimulated genes ISG12A and 6-16 displayed insignificant variations. Conversely, HOXB2 and ISG20 transcriptions were significantly reduced in endometriosis lesions compared with endometrium from endometriosis patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, appropriate HKGs for normalization of qRT-PCR studies of endometrium and endometriosis have been identified here. Abolished expression of ISG20 and HOX genes could be important in endometriosis. PMID:21156832

  13. Risk factors associated with endometriosis among infertile Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Farideh; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Saei, Maryam; Mirbolok, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Endometriosis is defined as overgrowth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis may be asymptomatic or associated with dysmenorrheal symptoms, dyspareunia, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding and infertility. The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors related to endometriosis among infertile Iranian women. Material and methods In this case control study, infertile women referred for laparoscopy and infertility workup to two referral infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran were studied. According to the laparoscopy findings, women were divided into case (women who had pelvic endometriosis) and control (women with normal pelvis) groups. The case group was divided into two subgroups: stage I and II of endometriosis were considered as mild while stage III and IV were categorized as severe endometriosis. A questionnaire was completed for each patient. Results Logistic regression showed that age, duration of infertility, body mass index (BMI), duration of menstrual cycle, abortion history, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and family history of endometriosis are independent predictive factors for any type of endometriosis. In addition, it was shown that education, duration of infertility, BMI, amount and duration of menstrual bleeding, menstrual pattern, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and family history of endometriosis are independent predictive factors of severe endometriosis. The AUCs for these models were 0.781 (0.735-0.827) and 0.855 (0.810-0.901) for any type of endometriosis and severe endometriosis, respectively. Conclusions It seems that any type of endometriosis and severe ones could be predicted according to demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of infertile women. PMID:23847674

  14. Initial endometriosis showing direct morphologic evidence of metaplasia in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenxin; Li, Ning; Wang, Jun; Ulukus, E Cagnur; Ulukus, Murat; Arici, Aydin; Liang, Sharon X

    2005-04-01

    It is believed that ovarian endometriosis may be generated by a celomic metaplastic process from existing epithelium in the ovary. However, no morphologic evidence of metaplastic process has been described. In this study, we intended to identify the earliest morphologic changes of endometriosis within the ovary to examine if evidence of metaplasia exists. Included in this study were 110 ovarian endometriosis cases and 30 benign ovaries without endometriosis but with ovarian epithelial inclusions (OEIs). Among the 110 well-established ovarian endometriosis cases, 34 cases showed areas of initial endometriosis (IE), which is defined as lesions showing direct transitions from normal-looking ovarian tissue to areas of minimal formation of endometriosis and/or to areas of full-blown endometriosis. We further divided IE into two types: type I IE was present on the ovarian surface, which was associated with ovarian surface epithelia; type II was located within the ovarian cortex, which was associated with OEIs. Sections containing IE, OEIs, and well-formed endometriosis were subject to CD10 and aromatase immunostaining. In IE lesions, the number of CD10-positive cells were significantly higher than the number of that in OEIs, but lower than that of well-formed endometriosis areas (p < 0.05). Aromatase expression was detected in both epithelial and stromal components of the IE lesions, indicating that estrogen local production may be involved in this initial process of endometriosis. Microvessel density was higher in IE lesions than in areas of OEI (p < 0.05). Based on the morphologic characteristics of IE, we believe that IE represent a spectrum of the earliest morphologic changes of endometriosis identifiable by routine microscopy. The morphologic transitions from ovarian surface epithelium or OEI to IE lesions provide direct metaplastic evidence for the pathogenesis of ovarian endometriosis. This metaplastic process may not only involve the ovarian epithelial cells, but also stromal components. Local production of estrogen, probably in high-levels, may be related to the initial process of endometriosis, although detailed mechanisms remain to be clarified. PMID:15782073

  15. Endometriosis in the groin.

    PubMed

    Clausen, I; Nielsen, K T

    1987-12-01

    Recently we found one case of endometriosis in the extraperitoneal part of the round ligament (EERL). We found 30 cases previously described in the literature. A comparison showed that 90% were right-sided and often associated with an inguinal hernia. Fertility seemed to be below normal. In four of the cases a laporotomy was done. All had intraperitoneal endometriosis. In cases of EERL and claimed sterility therefore, the presence of intraperitoneal endometriosis should also be considered. PMID:2892706

  16. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G. (USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, TX (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively.

  17. Laparoscopic intraperitoneal injection of human interferon-?2b in the treatment of pelvic endometriosis: a new modality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Farid Mohamed Ali; Baha Fateen; Ahmed Ezzet; Hoda Badawy; Asherf Ramadan; Alaa El-tobge

    2000-01-01

    Background: Some reports have stated that an immunologic alteration plays a role in the development and progression of endometriosis. Once endometrial cells are implanted ectopically, they may produce additional changes through a defect in cellular or humoral immunity. Natural killer cell, cytokines, and peritoneal macrophages could determine the role of progression of the disease. Therapeutic manipulation of the immune system

  18. Thoracic Endometriosis Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Areti Augoulea; Irene Lambrinoudaki; George Christodoulakos

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity and is usually confined to the pelvis. Thoracic endometriosis syndrome (TES) is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of functioning endometrial tissue in the pleura, the lung parenchyma and the airways. TES may present with hemoptysis, due to the shedding of endometrial tissue in

  19. Biomarkers of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Fassbender, Amelie; Vodolazkaia, Alexandra; Saunders, Philippa; Lebovic, Dan; Waelkens, Etienne; De Moor, Bart; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2013-03-15

    A noninvasive test for endometriosis would be useful for the early detection of endometriosis in symptomatic women who have pelvic pain and/or subfertility with normal ultrasound results. This would include nearly all cases of minimal-to-mild endometriosis, some cases of moderate-to-severe endometriosis without a clearly visible ovarian endometrioma, and cases with pelvic adhesions and/or other pelvic pathology that might benefit from surgery to improve pelvic pain and/or subfertility. This overview discusses the diagnostic performance of noninvasive or semi-invasive tests for endometriosis, including panels of known peripheral blood biomarkers, protein/peptide markers discovered by proteomics, miRNA, and endometrial nerve fiber density. Tests with high sensitivity and acceptable specificity have been developed; some have been validated in independent populations and are therefore promising. To make real progress, international agreement on biobank development is needed for standard operating procedures for the collection, treatment, storage, and analysis of tissue samples and for detailed clinical phenotyping of these samples. Furthermore, it is necessary to validate the diagnostic accuracy of any promising test prospectively in an independent symptomatic patient population with subfertility and/or pain without clear ultrasound evidence of endometriosis and with a clinical indication for surgery, divided into cases with laparoscopically and histologically confirmed endometriosis and controls with laparoscopically confirmed absence of endometriosis. PMID:23414923

  20. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. As observed in this case, when performing laparoscopic surgery in order to excise malignant tumors of intra-abdominal or pelvic organs, it can be difficult for surgeons to distinguish the metastatic tumors from benign nodular pelvic wall lesions, including endometriosis, based on the gross findings only. Therefore, an intraoperative frozen section biopsy of the pelvic wall nodules should be performed to evaluate the peritoneal involvement by malignant tumors. Moreover, this report implies that peritoneal endometriosis, as well as rectovaginal endometriosis, can clinically present as nodular lesions if obvious smooth muscle metaplasia is present. The pathological investigation of smooth muscle cells in peritoneal lesions can contribute not only to the precise diagnosis but also to the structure and function of smooth muscle cells and related cells involved in the histogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis.

  1. Endometriosis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Králí?ková, Milena; Losan, Petr; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2014-11-01

    Endometriosis is manifested by the presence of both endometrial glandular and stromal cells outside the uterine cavity. It is characterized by ectopic implantation of endometrial cells with elevated proliferation and migration. Endometriosis is the leading cause of morbidity among premenopausal women and the complex pathogenesis of this disease remains controversial despite extensive research. This rather complex disease has a significant impact on quality of life of many women as none of the current treatments represent a cure. Based on the current knowledge, one can conclude that the histological and genetic alterations in endometriosis might explain why and how endometriosis can change into several types of cancer. However, the exact mechanisms of this conversion are still not fully established. PMID:25482486

  2. [Endometriosis. Potential mechanism of sterility. Management of patients with endometriosis. Review and reflections].

    PubMed

    Gómez Arzapalo, E; Gorozpe Calvillo, J I

    1999-02-01

    Endometriosis is an ailment which has no exact etiology due to its uncertain genesis, its inception can develop unnoticed, its silent evolution makes it difficult to identify it until a cardinal symptom appears and its semeiology provides us facts to integrate a diagnosis, it is an entity that does not have relation while and/or with the reproductive stage, neither with the parity, but we are aware it occurs in its different stages, varying from 9% to 33% in the reproductive cycle, it can be recurring after being medically or surgically treated, appearing endometriomas in it or in the infundibulum stump in the latter case. It is characterized by a collagenosis, endometrio abnormal implant out of the uterus cavity, thereby generating and inflammatory process in the zone of implant, increasing the cytokines production (polypeptide secreted by the lymphocytes and macrophages playing an important role in the immunological response), involving a dysfunction in the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian, altering the endocrinos physiology; regarding the genetic aspect, alterations in the chromosomes 4.9 in the Endometriosis frames have been found. The human semen preparation with half Ham F 10 enriched with ascorbic acid is described. In cases of permeable tubes or FIVTE. PMID:10327766

  3. Immunobiology of endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan I Lebovic; Michael D Mueller; Robert N Taylor

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To provide a review of the humoral and cellular immunology of endometriosis and to discuss the rationale for future approaches to diagnosis and treatment.Design: Literature survey.Result(s): Defective immunosurveillance in women who are destined to develop endometriosis may allow for the survival of ectopic endometrial tissue. The evidence includes endometrial cell resistance to apoptosis, perhaps through the secretion of proteins

  4. Cadmium, lead and endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Heilier; J. Donnez; V. Verougstraete; O. Donnez; F. Grandjean; V. Haufroid; F. Nackers; D. Lison

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) have been demonstrated to exert endocrine disrupting activities. Their possible role in endometriosis, an oestrogen-dependent disease, is unknown. Methods: We compared cadmium urinary excretion (CdU) and blood concentration of cadmium (CdB) and lead (PbB) in 119 patients with peritoneal endometriosis and\\/or deep endometriotic (adenomyotic) nodules of the rectovaginal septum and 25 controls. Results: The

  5. Perinatal Environment and Endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgardo Somigliana; Paola Vigano; Annalisa Abbiati; Alessio Paffoni; Laura Benaglia; Paolo Vercellini; Luigi Fedele

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Perinatal environmental exposure may affect fetal development and reprogram the developing organism for adult-onset disease. In this case-control study, we aimed at assessing this pathogenetic model in endometriosis. Methods: Consecutive patients with a first laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis were selected as cases. Controls were women who underwent laparoscopy during the same study period, but who were found to be

  6. Vascular development in endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Groothuis; A. W. Nap; E. Winterhager; R. Grümmer

    2005-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is an estrogen-dependent disease which causes\\u000a pelvic pain and subfertility in women of reproductive age. The condition has a dramatic impact on the professional, social\\u000a and marital life of sufferers. Direct and indirect evidence suggests that angiogenesis is required for the development and\\u000a persistence of endometriosis. In this review

  7. The history of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Brosens, Ivo; Lippi, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    A dispute has recently emerged whether early descriptions exist of the condition we name endometriosis. A first question is: 'Who identified endometriosis?' To respond, two non-complementary methods have been employed: searching for ancient descriptions of symptoms associated with endometriosis or, alternatively, identifying researchers who described pathological features we associate with the presence of endometriosis in its various forms. We opted for the latter and found no evidence that in older times anyone delineated the macroscopic features of endometriosis; descriptions of menstrual or cyclic pain cannot be taken as proof of knowledge of what caused it. During the mid-part of the 19th century, Rokitansky had a great intuition: endometrial glands and stroma can be present in ovarian and uterine neoplasias. However, using histological parameters of endometrial structure and activity, the first scientist to delineate peritoneal endometriosis under the name 'adenomyoma' was Cullen. On the other hand, Rokitansky was the first to describe a form of adenomyosis (an adenomatous polyp). Early descriptions of ovarian endometrioma as 'haematomas of the ovary' or 'chocolate cysts' date back to the end of the 19th century. The first mention of an 'ovary containing uterine mucosa' was published in 1899 by Russel, but Sampson was the first to demonstrate specific endometrial activities, such as desquamation at the time of menstruation and decidualization in pregnancy; subsequently, he presented a theory on its pathogenesis. PMID:24853333

  8. [Proteomics in endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Marianowski, Piotr; Szymusik, Iwona; Hibner, Micha?; Barcz, Ewa; Wielgo?, Miros?aw

    2013-10-01

    Despite significant scientific progress, etiology of endometriosis remains enigmatic. New advances in molecular biology have allowed the use of proteomics in demystifying this puzzling disease. Proteomics is a technology that permits the visualization of thousands of proteins inside a cell, tissue, or organism, and simultaneous observation of any alterations in protein expression and post-translational modification that may have important, clinical implications. Owing to its capacity to reveal the structural and functional properties of proteins, proteomics might illuminate the biology of the disease much better than genomics can. This state-of-the-art technology allows us to globally compare the expression and regulation profiles of proteins found in endometriosis with normal eutopic tissues (endometrium and peritoneum), as well as to compare those found in the different forms of endometriosis (i.e., peritoneal endometriosis, endometrioma, and adenomyoma). Proteomic analysis has been employed in endometriosis research in hope of discovering endometriosis-specific proteins, pathways, and potential biomarkers for precise, early detection. In recent years, several published studies have compared serum and peritoneal fluid protein content in women with and without endometriosis, as well as protein composition in endometrial implants, eutopic endometrium, endometriomas, menstrual blood and urine. It appears that use of proteomics could revolutionize our understanding of etiopathogenesis of the disease. Some of the identified proteins could indeed be responsible for the onset and progression of endometriotic implants. Because early stages of endometriosis may be difficult to diagnose, it would be of the utmost importance to identify specific biological markers of the disease. Additionally specific implant proteins could become targets for molecular treatment of endometriosis. It is very challenging, however to draw clear conclusions from the analysis of the obtained samples. First of all, the samples are usually pathologically confirmed to be endometriotic, but from a molecular stand point, the particular portion of the sample that is analyzed may matter greatly; none of the methods allow us to gain information about the molecular and pathological pattern of the same sample. Secondly it is very difficult to define an 'unaffected peritoneum' as a control for the endometriotic lesions. Thirdly the variety of options in each individual makes it difficult to see the molecular picture of the diseased area (such as the ovary or peritoneum) clearly ideally the samples would be of greater value if obtained at an early age, that is, before puberty in each individual and then again when endometriosis occurs later in reproductive age. Such a project cannot be performed prospectively although it may be considered as retrospective analysis of obtained material in some patients after successful chemotherapy due to oncological conditions. PMID:24273911

  9. Treating endometriosis as an autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren B Nothnick

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the role of autoimmunity in the etiology of endometriosis, compare the similarities in the pathophysiologies between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases, and discuss the use of immunomodulators currently used to treat autoimmune diseases as potential therapies for endometriosis.Design: The literature on endometriosis and other autoimmune diseases was reviewed, and summary data are presented.Results: Endometriosis shares

  10. Priorities for endometriosis research: recommendations from an international consensus workshop.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter A W; D'Hooghe, Thomas M; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Gargett, Caroline E; Giudice, Linda C; Montgomery, Grant W; Rombauts, Luk; Salamonsen, Lois A; Zondervan, Krina T

    2009-04-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disorder where endometrial tissue forms lesions outside the uterus. Endometriosis affects an estimated 10% of women in the reproductive-age group, rising to 30% to 50% in patients with infertility and/or pain, with significant impact on their physical, mental, and social well-being. There is no known cure, and most current medical treatments are not suitable long term due to their side-effect profiles. Endometriosis has an estimated annual cost in the United States of $18.8 to $22 billion (2002 figures). Although endometriosis was first described more than 100 years ago, current knowledge of its pathogenesis, spontaneous evolution, and the pathophysiology of the related infertility and pelvic pain, remain unclear. A consensus workshop was convened following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis to establish recommendations for priorities in endometriosis research. One major issue identified as impacting on the capacity to undertake endometriosis research is the need for multidisciplinary expertise. A total of 25 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 5 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) treatment and outcome, (4) epidemiology, and (5) pathophysiology. Endometriosis research is underfunded relative to other diseases with high health care burdens. This may be due to the practical difficulties of developing competitive research proposals on a complex and poorly understood disease, which affects only women. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:19196878

  11. GPs have key role in early diagnosis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Laura; Overton, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus. Deposits are commonly distributed on the ovaries, uterosacral ligaments, pouch of Douglas, rectum and sigmoid colon, bladder and ureter. Endometriosis is common, affecting 10% of the female adult population and up to 50% of women with infertility. Risk factors include early menarche, late menopause, delayed childbearing, vaginal outflow obstruction and a first-degree relative affected. Women commonly present to their GP with pelvic pain, painful intercourse or subfertility. Classically the pain starts several days before the period which is extremely painful. After the period, symptoms tend to improve until mid-cycle when the pattern repeats again. Patients also complain of fatigue. Abdominal palpation, bimanual and speculum examination are important to identify signs of endometriosis, but also to exclude alternative diagnoses such as fibroid uterus, infection or pregnancy. However, a normal examination does not exclude a diagnosis of endometriosis. Serum CA125 can be raised in endometriosis but is not specific or sensitive for the condition and is therefore not recommended as a screening test. A normal pelvic ultrasound scan does not exclude a diagnosis of endometriosis. The gold standard investigation for endometriosis is laparoscopy and biopsy with histological confirmation. Referral should be considered if pain is not controlled with simple analgesia or the diagnosis is suspected in a woman who is actively trying to conceive. Early referral should be considered in women with abnormal examination findings, or an abnormal ultrasound result. PMID:26062268

  12. How to Evaluate Adenomyosis in Patients Affected by Endometriosis?

    PubMed Central

    Seracchioli, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study is to evaluate adenomyosis in patients undergoing surgery for different type of endometriosis. It is an observational study including women with preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis. Demographic data and symptoms were recorded (age, body mass index, parity, history of previous surgery, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dyschezia, dysuria, and abnormal uterine bleeding). Moreover a particular endometrial shape “question mark sign” linked to the presence of adenomyosis was assessed. Results. From 217 patients with ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis, we found 73 with ovarian histological confirmation of endometriosis, 92 with deep infiltrating endometriosis, and 52 patients who underwent surgery for infertility. Women with adenomyosis alone represented the oldest group of patients (37.8 ± 5.18 years, P = 0.02). Deep endometriosis patients were nulliparous more frequently (P < 0.0001), had history of previous surgery (P = 0.004), and complained of more intense pain symptoms than other groups. Adenomyosis alone was significantly associated with abnormal uterine bleeding (P < 0.0001). The question mark sign was found to be strongly related to posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis (P = 0.01). Conclusion. Our study confirmed the strong relationship between adenomyosis and endometriosis and evaluated demographic aspects and symptoms in patients affected by different type of endometriosis. PMID:25197569

  13. Bisphenol A and Phthalates and Endometriosis, The ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Peterson, C. Matthew; Chen, Zhen; Croughan, Mary; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Stanford, Joseph; Varner, Michael W.; Kennedy, Anne; Giudice, Linda; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Sun, Liping; Wang, Lei; Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between bisphenol A and 14 phthalate metabolites and endometriosis. Design Matched cohort design. Setting 14 clinical centers in Salt Lake City, Utah or San Francisco, California, 2007–2009. Patients The operative cohort comprised 495 women undergoing laparoscopy/laparotomy, while the population cohort comprised 131 women matched on age and residence. Interventions None Main Outcome Measure(s) Surgically visualized or pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosed endometriosis in the two cohorts, respectively. Results Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index and creatinine. In the population cohort, six phthalate metabolites (mBP, mCMHP, mECPP, mEHP, mEHHP, and mEOHP) were significantly associated with approximately a twofold increase in the odds of an endometriosis diagnosis. Two phthalates were associated with endometriosis in the operative cohort when restricting to visualized and histologic endometriosis (mOP; OR=1.38; 95% CI 1.10, 1.72), or when restricting comparison women to those with a postoperative diagnosis of a normal pelvis (mEHP; OR=1.35; 95% CI 1.03, 1.78). Conclusions Select phthalates were associated with higher odds of an endometriosis diagnosis for women with MRI diagnosed endometriosis. The lack of consistency of findings across cohorts underscores the impact of methodology on findings. PMID:23579005

  14. [Endometriosis and basal temperature].

    PubMed

    Köhler, G; Lober, R

    1988-01-01

    Basal body temperature of 168 cycles have been measured in 20 infertile women (age 21-31 years) with endometriosis. There were 10.1% anovulatory cycles, and in 22.5% of the 151 biphasic cycles the hyperthermic phase lasted less than 11 days. A late decline of basal body temperature after the onset of menstruation was recorded in 34.5% and may be only limitedly indicative of endometriosis. In 64.9% of all cycles basal body temperature was somewhat elevated and/or proved one or more temperature peaks in the follicular phase. Perhaps this may be indicative of endometriosis. Nevertheless the so-called endocrinologic infertility requires endoscopy for accurate diagnosis. PMID:3394441

  15. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    Female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was 7 years after exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event, leading to the conclusion that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crewmembers.

  16. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    It was found that female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was determined to be 7 years after the proton exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received by the experimental animals were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event. It is concluded that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crew members. 15 references.

  17. Impact of Medical and Surgical Treatment of Endometriosis on the Cure of Endometriosis and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mettler, Liselotte; Ruprai, R.; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This endometriosis study evaluates three different treatment strategies (hormonal medication, surgical, or combined treatment) and discusses the influence of endometriosis on the cure of this disease and pain relief. Four hundred and fifty patients with genital endometriosis, aged 18–44 years, were randomly distributed to three treatment groups at the first laparoscopy. They were reevaluated at a second-look laparoscopy (D 426/10), one to two months after the three-month hormonal therapy for groups 1 and 3 and five to six months later for group 2 (surgical treatment alone). Outcome data focussed on the recurrence of symptoms and pain. The three treatment options independent of the initial endoscopic endometriosis classification (EEC) stage including deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) achieved an overall cure rate of 50% or higher. The highest cure rate of 60% was achieved by the combined treatment, 55% by the exclusively hormonal therapy, and 50% by the exclusively surgical treatment. An overall pregnancy rate between 55% and 65% was achieved with no significant difference in relation to the therapeutical option. PMID:25580428

  18. Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Maureen A.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Hediger, Mary L.; Vexler, Albert; Kostyniak, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Limited study of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and endometriosis has been conducted. One hundred women aged 18-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy provided 20 cc of blood for toxicologic analysis and surgeons completed operative reports regarding the presence of endometriosis. Gas chromatography with electron-capture was used to quantify (ng/g serum) six OCPs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual pesticides and groups based on chemical structure adjusting for current cigarette smoking and lipids. The highest tertile of aromatic fungicide was associated with a five-fold risk of endometriosis (aOR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6) compared to the lowest tertile. Similar results were found for t-nonachlor and HCB. These are the first such findings in a laproscopic cohort that suggest an association between OCP exposure and endometriosis. More prospective studies are necessary to ensure temporal ordering and confirm these findings. PMID:20580667

  19. Pathophysiology and management of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Damewood, M D

    1993-07-01

    Endometriosis is a common disease that affects up to 5 million women in the United States. Specifically the prevalence of endometriosis is 1 in 15 (7%) women of reproductive age, and there is an associated incidence of infertility in as many as 30% to 40% of cases. The precise physiologic mechanism for the development of endometriosis lesions in the pelvis and abdominal cavity has not been elucidated. Substantial evidence exists, however, that endometriosis is dependent on estrogen for continued growth and proliferation. Therefore, suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis with analogues of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone is being increasingly undertaken. Since the most effective resolution of endometriosis occurs after oophorectomy or onset of menopause, the hypoestrogenic state induced by GnRH analogues is of major significance for patients with active disease. Medical therapy for endometriosis is often used as primary therapy for symptomatic disease or as an adjunct to surgical management of pelvic pain or infertility. PMID:8345342

  20. Role of cytokines in endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tasuku Harada; Tomio Iwabe; Naoki Terakawa

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and endometriosis-associated infertility.Design: Pertinent studies were identified by a computer search of MEDLINE. References of selected articles were hand-searched for additional citations.Result(s): Recent studies suggest that the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis contains an increased number of activated macrophages that secrete various local products,

  1. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis: an electronic guideline implementability appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines are intended to improve healthcare. However, even if guidelines are excellent, their implementation is not assured. In subfertility care, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) guidelines have been inventoried, and their methodological quality has been assessed. To improve the impact of the ESHRE guidelines and to improve European subfertility care, it is important to optimise the implementability of guidelines. We therefore investigated the implementation barriers of the ESHRE guideline with the best methodological quality and evaluated the used instrument for usability and feasibility. Methods We reviewed the ESHRE guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis to assess its implementability. We used an electronic version of the guideline implementability appraisal (eGLIA) instrument. This eGLIA tool consists of 31 questions grouped into 10 dimensions. Seven items address the guideline as a whole, and 24 items assess the individual recommendations in the guideline. The eGLIA instrument identifies factors that influence the implementability of the guideline recommendations. These factors can be divided into facilitators that promote implementation and barriers that oppose implementation. A panel of 10 experts from three European countries appraised all 36 recommendations of the guideline. They discussed discrepancies in a teleconference and completed a questionnaire to evaluate the ease of use and overall utility of the eGLIA instrument. Results Two of the 36 guideline recommendations were straightforward to implement. Five recommendations were considered simply statements because they contained no actions. The remaining 29 recommendations were implementable with some adjustments. We found facilitators of the guideline implementability in the quality of decidability, presentation and formatting, apparent validity, and novelty or innovation of the recommendations. Vaguely defined actions, lack of facilities, immeasurable outcomes, and inflexibility within the recommendations formed barriers to implementation. The eGLIA instrument was generally useful and easy to use. However, assessment with the eGLIA instrument is very time-consuming. Conclusions The ESHRE guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis could be improved to facilitate its implementation in daily practice. The eGLIA instrument is a helpful tool for identifying obstacles to implementation of a guideline. However, we recommend a concise version of this instrument. PMID:21247418

  2. Urine, peritoneal fluid and omental fat proteomes of reproductive age women: Endometriosis-related changes and associations with endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Katherine E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Johansen, Eric B.; Niles, Richard K.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Albertolle, Matthew; Zhou, Yan; Prasad, Namrata; Drake, Penelope M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Hall, Steven C.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Louis, Germaine M. Buck; Fisher, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis, ectopic growth of the uterine lining (endometrium), which affects 6–11% of reproductive age women, is associated with pelvic pain and infertility. We investigated the peritoneal fluid (PF), urine and omental fat (OF) proteomes of women with endometriosis vs. individuals with no surgically visualized endometriosis. All participants were enrolled in the NICHD-funded ENDO Study. A two-step proteomic study was performed. The first, a broad survey, employed a semi-quantitative gel LC-mass spectrometry (MS) workflow: SDS PAGE fractionation, trypsin digestion and LC–MS/MS. The results showed sample integrity but failed to detect any differences between women with and without endometriosis. The second step was a quantitative analysis of OF samples. We employed another sample set (n = 30) from women ± disease and isobaric mass-tag (iTRAQ) chemistry to label peptides and 2D LC–MS/MS for protein identification and quantification. Three proteins—matrix metalloproteinase-9, neutrophil elastase, and FAM49B—were significantly lower in abundance in samples from women with endometriosis. Interestingly, neutrophil elastase and FAM49B levels were associated with higher levels of a subset of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that were previously measured in the same samples. The results of these experiments showed the feasibility of associating endometriosis with changes in the OF protein repertoire and EDC levels. Biological significance Endometriosis, pathological growth of the uterine lining, is associated with significant morbidities, including pain and infertility. However, the causes of this common condition are poorly understood. This study determined whether endometriosis was associated with changes in the protein composition of peritoneal fluid, urine and/or omental fat. A protein of unknown function (FAM49B) and two proteinases (metalloproteinase-9, neutrophil elastase) were down regulated in OF samples from women with versus without endometriosis. These findings suggested proteinase imbalances at sites that were distant from the endometriotic lesions. Additionally, FAM49B and neutrophil elastase levels were associated with higher levels of a subset of environmental chemicals that were quantified in the same samples, suggesting other possible associations. Thus, this work generated hypotheses that will be tested in further studies. PMID:25284053

  3. Prevalence of fibromyalgia and quality of life in women with and without endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fabiana R; Ferreira, Jessica M; Bahamondes, Luis

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to assessed if there is any difference in the prevalence of fibromyalgia and in quality of life (QoL) between women with and without endometriosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011-2013, involving 257 women with surgically and histopathologically confirmed endometriosis and 253 women with no history of endometriosis and no endometriosis-related symptoms. Women were recruited both at the family planning and endometriosis clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Campinas, Brazil. The Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) was used to assess QoL, while the 1990 and 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria were used to evaluate fibromyalgia. According to the 1990 ACR criteria, there were no cases of fibromyalgia in either group. Nevertheless, according to the 2010 ACR criteria, four women, two with endometriosis and two without the disease, were diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Scores were significantly lower in all the domains of the QoL questionnaire for the women with endometriosis compared to those without the disease. This study reports no difference in the prevalence of fibromyalgia between women with and without endometriosis; however QoL was poorer among women with endometriosis when compared to women without the disease. PMID:24410333

  4. The role of inflammation and matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Benali, Silvia; Giannuzzi, Diana; Mantovani, Roberto; Castagnaro, Massimo; Falomo, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Equine endometriosis is a multifactorial disease considered to be a major cause of equine infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of histomorphological grading for biopsy-like samples compared to entire uterine wall samples, to examine the association between the degree of endometriosis with animal age, and to investigate the role of inflammation in endometriosis and the expression of different matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometrium. Histomorphological lesions in 35 uterine samples were examined while comparing biopsy-like samples and entire-wall samples. Seventeen uterine samples were stained with antibodies against MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and TIMP-2. The morphologic evaluation results of the biopsy-like tissue and entire-wall samples were significantly correlated. Endometriosis in older mares (>12 years of age) was more severe than in young mares (2~4 years of age), confirming the positive correlation between animal age and disease severity, while inflammation was poorly related to the degree of endometriosis. MMP-2 and MMP-14 were detected in stromal cells, while MMP-9 and TIMP-2 were both found in stromal and glandular epithelial cells. There were no significant differences in MMPs expression between the two groups (young vs. old mares). Additional studies on the activity of MMPs could further define the role of these enzymes in equine endometriosis. PMID:22705739

  5. Angiogenesis and Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Ana Luiza L.; Reis, Fernando M.; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review was performed to survey the role of angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. This is a multifactorial disease in which the development and maintenance of endometriotic implants depend on their invasive capacity and angiogenic potential. The peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis is a complex suspension carrying inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, steroid hormones, proangiogenic factors, macrophages, and endometrial and red blood cells. These cells and their signaling products concur to promote the spreading of new blood vessels at the endometriotic lesions and surroundings, which contributes to the endometriotic implant survival. Experimental studies of several antiangiogenic agents demonstrated the regression of endometriotic lesions by reducing their blood supply. Further studies are necessary before these novel agents can be introduced into clinical practice, in particular the establishment of the safety of anti-angiogenic medications in women who are seeking to become pregnant. PMID:23766765

  6. Endometriosis of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Monrad-Hansen, Peter Wiel; Buanes, Trond; Young, Victoria Solveig; Langebrekke, Anton; Qvigstad, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Endometrial cyst of the pancreas was first described in 1984. The condition is extremely rare, and only a few case reports have been described. Herein we present a case report of a peripancreatic endometriosis cyst in a perimenopausal woman. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and regression of the cyst during an observation period of a few months made the diagnosis most likely before laparoscopic surgery. Awareness of the condition, optimal preoperative imaging, and clinical features are discussed. PMID:22748958

  7. Bowel resection for intestinal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Urbach; Michael Reedijk; Carole S. Richard; Kay I. Lie; Theodore M. Ross

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study contained herein was undertaken to evaluate which factors predict a good outcome following intestinal resection for endometriosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing bowel resection for severe (American Fertility Society Stage IV) endometriosis at one institution between the years 1992 and 1996 was conducted using systematic chart review and follow-up by telephone interview. RESULTS: Twenty-nine

  8. Genome-wide association study link novel loci to endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Hans M; Chettier, Rakesh; Farrington, Pamela; Ward, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition with complex etiology defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the womb. Endometriosis is a common cause of both cyclic and chronic pelvic pain, reduced fertility, and reduced quality-of-life. Diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis is, on average, delayed by 7-10 years from the onset of symptoms. Absence of a timely and non-invasive diagnostic tool is presently the greatest barrier to the identification and treatment of endometriosis. Twin and family studies have documented an increased relative risk in families. To identify genetic factors that contribute to endometriosis we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a European cohort including 2,019 surgically confirmed endometriosis cases and 14,471 controls. Three of the SNPs we identify associated at P<5×10(-8) in our combined analysis belong to two loci: LINC00339-WNT4 on 1p36.12 (rs2235529; P?=?8.65×10(-9), OR?=?1.29, CI?=?1.18-1.40) and RND3-RBM43 on 2q23.3 (rs1519761; P?=?4.70×10(-8), OR?=?1.20, Cl?=?1.13-1.29, and rs6757804; P?=?4.05×10(-8), OR?=?1.20, Cl?=?1.13-1.29). Using an adjusted Bonferoni significance threshold of 4.51×10(-7) we identify two additional loci in our meta-analysis that associate with endometriosis:, RNF144B-ID4 on 6p22.3 (rs6907340; P?=?2.19×10(-7), OR?=?1.20, Cl?=?1.12-1.28), and HNRNPA3P1-LOC100130539 on 10q11.21 (rs10508881; P?=?4.08×10(-7), OR?=?1.19, Cl?=?1.11-1.27). Consistent with previously suggested associations to WNT4 our study implicate a 150 kb region around WNT4 that also include LINC00339 and CDC42. A univariate analysis of documented infertility, age at menarche, and family history did not show allelic association with these SNP markers. Clinical data from patients in our study reveal an average delay in diagnosis of 8.4 years and confirm a strong correlation between endometriosis severity and infertility (n?=?1182, P<0.001, OR?=?2.18). This GWAS of endometriosis was conducted with high diagnostic certainty in cases, and with stringent handling of population substructure. Our findings broaden the understanding of the genetic factors that play a role in endometriosis. PMID:23472165

  9. Jack in the box: inguinal endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Deeksha; Coondoo, Ambika; Shetty, Jyothi; Mathew, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman with a left-sided inguinal swelling was referred to us with a diagnosis of inguinal hernia. On asking leading questions, the patient gave a typical history of cyclical pain and increased swelling during menstruation. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed endometrial glands. Preoperatively, the extent of the endometriotic lesion was delineated using MRI. The lesion was approached through the patient's caesarean scar for cosmetic reasons and excised in toto. Final diagnosis was round ligament endometriosis. The patient was asymptomatic at 3, 6 and 12?months' follow-up. This case re-emphasises the fact that endometriosis is an enigmatic disease and can be found anywhere in the body. Thus, a woman of reproductive age presenting with any cyclical symptom should be asked about its relation to her menstrual cycle. PMID:25827916

  10. Activated AKT Pathway Promotes Establishment of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Yu, Yanni; Luo, Lily; Lydon, John P.; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of endometriosis remains unclear, and relatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote establishment and survival of the disease. Previously, we demonstrated that v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) activity was increased in endometriosis tissues and cells from ovarian endometriomas and that this increase promoted cell survival as well as decreased levels of progesterone receptor. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a role for AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions. First, a dose-dependent inhibition of AKT in stromal cells from human ovarian endometriomas (OSIS) as well as endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients (ESC) with the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206 was demonstrated by decreased levels of phosphorylated (p)(Ser473)-AKT. Levels of the AKT target protein, p(Ser256)-forkhead box O1 were increased in OSIS cells, which decreased with MK-2206 treatment, whereas levels of p(Ser9)-glycogen synthase kinase 3? did not change in response to MK-2206. Although MK-2206 decreased viability of both OSIS and ESC in a dose-dependent manner, proliferation of OSIS cells was differentially decreased significantly compared with ESC. Next, the role of hyperactive AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions was studied using the bigenic, PRcre/+Ptenf/+ heterozygous mouse. Autologous implantation of uterine tissues was performed in these mice. After 4 weeks, an average of 4 ± 0.33 lesions per Ptenf/+ mouse and 7.5 ± 0.43 lesions in the PRcre/+Ptenf/+ mouse were found. Histological examination of the lesions showed endometrial tissue-like morphology, which was similar in both the Ptenf/+ and PRcre/+Ptenf/+ mice. Treatment of mice with MK-2206 resulted in a significantly decreased number of lesions established. Immunohistochemical staining of ectopic lesions revealed decreased p(Ser473)-AKT and the proliferation marker Ki67 from MK-2206–treated mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Furthermore, levels of FOXO1 and progesterone receptor increased in lesions of mice receiving MK-2206. These results demonstrate that heightened AKT activity plays an active role in the establishment of ectopic endometrial tissues. PMID:24605828

  11. Sexual activity, contraception, and reproductive factors in predicting endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Darrow, S L; Selman, S; Batt, R E; Zielezny, M A; Vena, J E

    1994-09-15

    To examine the belief that women with endometriosis have "voluntarily" delayed childbirth, the authors used a case-control approach to assess the relation between sexual, contraceptive, and reproductive factors and endometriosis. A total of 104 laparoscopically confirmed newly diagnosed cases of endometriosis were identified from a gynecologic specialty clinic in western New York state in 1987. Two control groups were used: 1) 100 friend controls, and 2) 98 medical controls. No differences were found between study groups on use of reliable birth control, use of birth control before a first pregnancy, age at first intercourse, frequency of intercourse, decisions to delay pregnancy, age at first pregnancy, or measures of body size. Cases were older than medical controls by about 1 year when they first began using birth control (19.8 vs. 18.6 years, p < 0.05). Cases were also 1 year older than friend controls when they began regular intercourse (20.9 vs. 19.5 years, p < 0.005) and at first marriage (22.8 vs. 21.7 years, p < 0.05). A larger percentage of cases than friend controls were never pregnant (p < 0.0001) and were more likely to have problems becoming pregnant (p < 0.0001). Results, overall, do not support simplistic assumptions that characterize endometriosis patients as career women who voluntarily delay pregnancy. Rather, the results point to a complex relation between endometriosis and reproductive, sexual activity, and fertility-related factors. PMID:8067343

  12. Laparoscopic management of colorectal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Jerby; H. Kessler; T. Falcone; J. W. Milsom

    1999-01-01

    Background: In the past, intestinal endometriosis diagnosed at laparoscopy has generally required conversion to conventional surgery.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to describe the laparoscopic management of colorectal endometriosis at a tertiary referral center.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: From November 1994 to March 1998, 509 consecutive patients with endometriosis requiring laparoscopic intervention were prospectively\\u000a evaluated. Those with colorectal involvement were analyzed for

  13. Cytotoxic T-Cells in Peripheral Blood in Women with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Slabe, N.; Meden-Vrtovec, H.; Verdenik, I.; Kosir-Pogacnik, R.; Ihan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The etiology of endometriosis remains unknown, but increasing evidence suggests that immune regulation may be important. Our study aimed to evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations during the menstrual cycle in women with peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis relative to healthy women. Methods: In this study, 65 women with endometriosis (37 in the follicular phase and 28 in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and 61 healthy women (33 in the follicular phase and 28 in the luteal phase) were enrolled. Flow cytometric analysis measured peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations. The serum levels of cortisol were also determined. Results: In healthy controls, we detected an increased concentration of cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells and activated (HLA-DR) T cells in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (p?=?0.020 and p?=?0.045), whereas no such fluctuation was detected in endometriosis. However, a marked increase in regulatory T-cell concentration in the luteal phase was detected only in endometriosis patients (p?=?0.005). Women with endometriosis had higher levels of serum cortisol (p?=?0.022), which correlated with the concentration of regulatory T cells (p?=?0.048). Conclusions: Women with endometriosis do not exhibit fluctuations in the concentrations of cytotoxic and activated peripheral blood lymphocytes during the menstrual cycle. The marked fluctuation of regulatory T cells detected in endometriosis could be attributed to altered immune response. PMID:24771894

  14. Somatic Stem Cells and Their Dysfunction in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Djokovic, Dusan; Calhaz-Jorge, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that somatic stem cells (SSCs) of different types prominently contribute to endometrium-associated disorders such as endometriosis. We reviewed the pertinent studies available on PubMed, published in English language until December 2014 and focused on the involvement of SSCs in the pathogenesis of this common gynecological disease. A concise summary of the data obtained from in vitro experiments, animal models, and human tissue analyses provides insights into the SSC dysregulation in endometriotic lesions. In addition, a set of research results is presented supporting that SSC-targeting, in combination with hormonal therapy, may result in improved control of the disease, while a more in-depth characterization of endometriosis SSCs may contribute to the development of early-disease diagnostic tests with increased sensitivity and specificity. Key message: Seemingly essential for the establishment and progression of endometriotic lesions, dysregulated SSCs, and associated molecular alterations hold a promise as potential endometriosis markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:25593975

  15. [Animal models in endometriosis experimental research].

    PubMed

    Colette, S; Donnez, J

    2012-09-01

    Sampson's menstrual reflux theory is commonly used to explain the origin of endometriotic lesions in women. However, their pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Validated research models need to be developed with the aim of studying mechanisms by which endometrial cells from menstrual reflux implant and grow, and investigating if potential new markers or molecules could be envisaged as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. The present review looks at the different existing murine and non-human primate models of endometriosis, and evaluates their principal uses. PMID:22901780

  16. Noninvasive Imaging of the Meiotic Spindle of In Vivo Matured Oocytes From Infertile Women With Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Luciana A.; Araújo, Maria C. P. M.; Giorgenon, Roberta Cristina; Romão, Gustavo S.; Ferriani, Rui A.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective study were to evaluate the nuclear maturation stage and the presence and location of meiotic spindles of in vivo matured oocytes from infertile women with and without endometriosis (male or tubal causes of infertility) undergoing stimulated cycles for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We also compared the ICSI outcomes among groups. We analyzed the meiotic spindles of oocytes from 36 patients with endometriosis I/II, 24 with endometriosis III/IV, and 60 without endometriosis (male or tubal causes of infertility). The oocytes were imaged using polarization microscopy. There were no differences in the number of oocytes in telophase I (mean [standard deviation]: 0.1 [0.5], 0.2 [0.4], and 0.2 [0.5], respectively, in the endometriosis I/II, endometriosis III/IV, and control groups), in metaphase II with visible spindles (4.2 [2.5], 3.1 [2.0], and 3.6 [2.2], respectively, in the endometriosis I/II, endometriosis III/IV, and control groups), and in spindle location among groups. We can conclude from this study that noninvasive analysis of spindles from in vivo matured oocytes of infertile patients with endometriosis did not demonstrate significant differences in terms of the nuclear maturation stage, the percentage of oocytes in metaphase II with visible spindles, and the spindle localization when compared to the control group. However, it is important to state that there are no studies evaluating the accuracy of polarization microscopy for the detection of meiotic anomalies in human oocytes, which would need to be better evaluated in future studies using an appropriate methodology. PMID:22991379

  17. Increased leptin expression in endometriosis cells is associated with endometrial stromal cell proliferation and leptin gene up-regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Hsing Wu; Pei-Ching Chuang; Hsiu-Mei Chen; Chen-Chung Lin; Shaw-Jenq Tsai

    2002-01-01

    Endometriosis is a polygenic disease with complex, multifactorial aetiologies affecting ~10% of women of reproductive age. Leptin is the product of the ob gene, which is related to reproductive function and immunological alteration. The angiogenic and mitogenic action of leptin may influence the formation of endometriosis. This study was aimed at determining whether leptin and leptin receptor expression differs in

  18. Endometriosis of the cecum and appendix: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Ardies, P; Vanwambeke, K; Hanssens, M; Knockaert, D; Penninckx, F; Lauwereyns, J; Ponette, E

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of endometriosis of the cecal area are reported. In one case, the endometriosis was located in the appendix causing intussusception into the cecum. Both cases were associated with localizations of endometriosis in the rectosigmoid. PMID:2341003

  19. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) in human endometrial stromal cells induces macrophage tolerance through interleukin-33 in the progression of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Jie; Xie, Xue-Xin; Li, Ming-Qing; Wei, Chun-Yan; Jin, Li-Ping; Li, Da-Jin; Zhu, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    In the peritoneal fluid, macrophages and their secretory cytokines are essential for endometriosis, but the factors that favor their involvement in the endometriosis-associated inflammatory response are still elusive. Given the anomalous expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and its potentially important roles in immune modulation, we aimed to determine the effects of IDO1 in ESCs on macrophages and the mechanism of those effects. Normal ESCs and ectopic ESCs transfected with the SD11-IDO1 shRNA (short hairpin RNA) or vector-only plasmid SD11 were subsequently co-cultured with peripheral blood (PB)-derived monocytes (PBMC)-driven macrophages directly and indirectly. Cytokine production was determined by analyzing the supernatant of the co-culture unit by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The phenotypes and the phagocytic ability of the macrophages were determined by flow cytometry. Compared to normal ESCs, the PBMC-driven macrophages co-cultured with ectopic ESCs displayed lower phagocytic ability. Additionally, macrophages co-cultured with ectopic ESCs exhibited higher levels of CD163 and CD209 and lower levels of HLA-DR and CD11c. Moreover, both the intracellular expression and extracellular secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) were significantly increased, while that of IL-12p70 was decreased in macrophages after being co-cultured with ectopic ESCs. However, there was no significant difference in macrophage phagocytic ability, immunophenotype or cytokine secretion between the direct and indirect co-culture units. Reversely, SD11-IDO1 shRNA transfection of ectopic ESCs could abrogate the decreased phagocytic ability and alternative activation of macrophages in ectopic ESC-macrophage co-culture unit, suggesting that higher IDO1 in ectopic ESCs was indispensable for the induction of macrophage tolerance. Furthermore, the decrease in phagocytic macrophages and alternatively activated macrophages induced by IDO1 in ectopic ESCs was reversed by the addition of an IL-33 inhibitor, that is, soluble ST2 (sST2). Therefore, through the activation of IL-33, the increased expression of IDO1 in ectopic ESCs contributed to the truncated phagocytic ability of macrophages in endometriosis. PMID:25031694

  20. Cecal Endometriosis Presenting as Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Otaghvar, Hamidreza; Hosseini, Mostafa; Shabestanipour, Ghazaal; Tizmaghz, Adnan; Sedehi Esfahani, Gandom

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our paper is to show the diagnosis of Coecal endometriosis as an infrequent reason of right iliac fossa pain. cecal endometriosis manifesting with right lower quadrant pain is difficult to diagnose, and it may even sometimes require laparotomy for diagnosis and treatment. We report here a case of cecal endometriosis causing clinically resembled acute appendicitis. In our patient, a diagnosis of cecal endometriosis was made postoperatively by microscopic examination of excised right colon, and the patient symptoms and general condition were improved after the surgery (open right hemicolectomy and ileocolic anastomosis). PMID:25126441

  1. Epigenetic dysregulation of endometriosis susceptibility genes (Review).

    PubMed

    Koike, Natsuki; Higashiura, Yumi; Akasaka, Juria; Uekuri, Chiharu; Ito, Fuminori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present review was to illustrate how dysregulation of hormonal signaling regulates expressional changes of spatially associated genes in endometriosis. From a multi?platform endometriosis dataset, an integrated analysis was performed of epigenomic changes of several biologically relevant genes that have been validated in the literature. Estrogen receptor (ER) may act as a direct epigenetic driver for endometriosis establishment, maintenance and progression. A majority of endometriosis susceptibility genes may be present in functional downstream targets of ER and located near the known imprinting genes. Previous studies have shed light on the overlapping genetic signatures between endometriosis development and the defective decidualization process. The steroid hormone?mediated decidualization signaling pathway was shown to be frequently dysregulated in endometriosis. DNA methylation is associated with various intragenic or intergenic epigenetic modifications of chromatin. Chromatin architecture may be established in temporal and spatial orchestration of the recruitment of genes specifically downregulated in endometriosis. In conclusion, defective chromatin architecture at the ER target locus may have a key role in endometriosis. Endometriosis represents an interesting model to explore the variation of expression of spatially associated genes. PMID:25891066

  2. A case of abdominal wall scar endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Saha, K; Shahida, S M; Mostafa, G; Ahmed, M

    2014-04-01

    Endometriosis is presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can sometimes occur in a previous surgical scar. Scar endometriosis is rare and difficult to diagnose. It mostly follows obstetrical and gynecological surgeries. This condition is often confused with other surgical conditions. We are reporting a case of scar endometriosis following caesarean section, which was being treated as stitch granuloma for long time. Medical treatment was not helpful. The patient required wide surgical excision of the lesion. Now the patient is under regular follow up, because there is chance of recurrence. PMID:24858173

  3. Effects of estrogen, progesterone, and methoxychlor on surgically induced endometriosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Cummings, A M; Metcalf, J L

    1995-09-01

    Endometriosis is a disease of women where endometrial tissue is found growing at ectopic sites. While evidence suggesting a role for the ovarian hormones in endometriosis exists, no complete studies of the roles of estrogen and progesterone have heretofore been performed. Also, if estrogen has a role in the growth and/or maintenance of endometriosis, it is likely that the proestrogenic pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC), might also have such an effect. Sixty rats underwent surgery on Day 0 to induce endometriosis. On Day 21, all rats were ovariectomized. During surgery, the diameters of all endometriotic implants (which were fully developed) were measured. Starting on Day 21, groups of rats were treated daily, for 3 weeks, with (a) vehicle (b) estrone, 1 micrograms/rat, E;(c) progesterone, 2 mg/rat, P; (d) E + P, 1 micrograms + 2 mg; (e) MXC, 250 mg/kg; or (f) MXC + P, 250 mg/kg + 2 mg/rat. On Day 42, all rats were killed, and the diameters of all endometriotic sites were measured. While no differences in diameter were found across groups prior to ovariectomy, ovariectomy plus treatment altered the growth of endometriosis tissue. Progesterone and vehicle treatments produced results that were identical: regression of endometriotic sites. Both estrogen and MXC treatments maintained endometriotic site size at a level greater than that in the vehicle-treated group. The combination of progesterone with either estrone or MXC did not alter the effect of either chemical. We conclude that while estrogen promotes the growth of endometriosis, progesterone either produces regression or fails to maintain the sites. MXC, at a relatively high dose, supports the development of endometriosis. Concurrent progesterone treatment does not modulate the effects of estrone or MXC. These results suggest that exposure of women to high doses of MXC may exacerbate the development of endometriosis or contribute to its recurrence. PMID:8529825

  4. Endometriosis of abdominal and pelvic wall scars: multimodality imaging findings, pathologic correlation, and radiologic mimics.

    PubMed

    Gidwaney, Rita; Badler, Ruth L; Yam, Benjamin L; Hines, John J; Alexeeva, Vlada; Donovan, Virginia; Katz, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Implantation of an endometriotic lesion within a pelvic or abdominal wall scar is an uncommon but well-described condition that may be the underlying cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal or pelvic pain, especially after cesarean section. Radiologists may not consider scar endometriosis when it is encountered at cross-sectional imaging. Cesarean section scars are the most common site of extraovarian or extrauterine endometriosis. The condition also has been identified in other uterine surgery-related scars and in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and abdominal and pelvic wall musculature adjacent to these scars. The most plausible cause of scar endometriosis is implantation of endometrial stem cells at the surgical site at the time of uterine surgery. Patients with scar endometriosis may be asymptomatic or present with cyclical pain corresponding to the menstrual cycle. Cross-sectional imaging findings vary from the nonspecific to those suggestive of the diagnosis when combined with clinical history. In particular, the presence of blood products in an anterior abdominal wall mass at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with no other explanation is strongly suggestive of scar endometriosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and MR imaging may be used to depict an endometriotic lesion, exclude endometriosis, or provide evidence for an alternative diagnosis. PMID:23150856

  5. Pleiotrophin (PTN) and midkine (MK) mRNA expression in eutopic and ectopic endometrium in advanced stage endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye Won; Wen, Yan; Choi, Eun A; Hao-Li; Moon, Hye Sung; Yu, Han-Ki; Polan, Mary Lake

    2002-04-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by the ectopic implantation of endometrium on peritoneal surfaces. Angiogenic and growth factors may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Midkine (MK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are two related peptides associated with carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. To test the hypothesis that a higher expression of MK and PTN in ectopic and eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis might favour increased angiogenesis and growth with subsequent ectopic implantation, we investigated PTN and MK expression by quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) in endometrium from 30 women with severe, stages III and IV endometriosis and from 30 women without endometriosis. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into cDNA, and QC-PCR was performed to evaluate PTN and MK mRNA expression. Results were analysed by analysis of variance. Eutopic endometrium from endometriosis patients showed increased expression of MK and PTN mRNA compared with endometrium from normal women in the luteal phase (P < 0.05). MK and PTN mRNA expression in ectopic endometrium was significantly lower than that in eutopic endometrium from women with and without endometriosis (P < 0.05). Our results suggest increased MK and PTN expression may be related to the initiation of ectopic endometrial implants and peritoneal invasion. PMID:11912283

  6. Severe endometriosis: laparoscopic rectum resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingolf Juhasz-Böss; Claus Lattrich; Alois Fürst; Eduard Malik; Olaf Ortmann

    2010-01-01

    Aim  Endometriosis is a frequent benign disease of women in reproductive age. An infiltration of the spatium rectovaginal is rare,\\u000a but if it occurs, in up to 73% the rectum is involved. If there is the indication for surgery, a partial resection of the\\u000a rectum might be necessary. This can be performed by a laparoscopic approach. It is the aim of

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Donnez; Pierre Smoes; Stephane Gillerot; Francoise Casanas-Roux; Michelle Nisolle

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. According to the transplantation theory, when the exfoliated endometrium is attached to the periton- eal layer, the establishment of a new blood supply is essential for the survival of the endometrial implant and development of endometriosis. From the known angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has emerged as

  8. Aggressive surgical management for advanced colorectal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Randolph Bailey; Michael T. Ott; Paul Hartendorp

    1994-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of aggressive surgical management in patients with advanced colorectal endometriosis. METHODS: The medical records of 130 women who had undergone aggressive surgical management of advanced colorectal endometriosis were reviewed. They were then interviewed a mean of 60 months following surgery and asked to rank relief of their symptoms. RESULTS:

  9. Angiongenesis: a new theory for endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Healy; P. A. W. Rogers; L. Hii; M. Wingfield

    1998-01-01

    739 Excessive endometrial angiogenesis is proposed as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of endome- triosis. Evidence is reviewed for the hypothesis that the endometrium of women with endometriosis has an in- creased capacity to proliferate, implant and grow in the peritoneal cavity. Data is summarized indicating that the endometrium of patients with endometriosis shows enhanced endothelial cell proliferation. Results

  10. Theories on the pathogenesis of endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Q. van der Linden

    1996-01-01

    Although endometriosis has been known for over 100 years, its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. In this overview the literature regarding the pathogenesis of endometriosis is reviewed. The implantation or transplantati on theory, that suggests implantation and subsequent growth of retrogradely shed viable endomet- rial cells, still remains the most widely accepted theory to explain the pathogenesis. The conditions that

  11. A prospective cohort study of Vitamins B, C, E, and multivitamin intake and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Anne Marie; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Malspeis, Susan; Harris, Holly R.; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Diet is a potentially modifiable risk factor for endometriosis. It has been hypothesized that vitamins C, E, and the B vitamins may influence factors involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, such as oxidative stress and steroid hormone metabolism. In this large, prospective cohort study, we examined the relation between intake of vitamins C, E, the B vitamins, and the use of multivitamin supplements and diagnosis of endometriosis. Methods Data were collected from women in the Nurses’ Health Study II between 1991 and 2005. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using time-varying Cox proportional hazards models. Results A total of 1383 incident cases of laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis were observed among 70,617 women during 735,286 person years of follow-up. Intakes of thiamine (B1) (RR = 0.84, CI = 0.72–0.99; P-value, test for linear trend [P] = 0.04), folate (B9) (RR = 0.79, CI = 0.66–0.93; P = 0.003), vitamin C (RR = 0.81, CI = 0.68–0.95; P = 0.02), and vitamin E (RR = 0.70, CI = 0.59–0.83; P<0.0001) solely from food sources were inversely related to endometriosis diagnosis. However, intakes of these nutrients from supplements alone were unrelated to endometriosis. Conclusion Thiamine, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin E from food sources are inversely related to endometriosis risk. Our results suggest that the protective mechanism may not be related to the nutrients themselves but rather other components of foods rich in these micronutrients or factors correlated with diets high in these vitamin-rich foods. PMID:24511373

  12. [Aromatase inhibitors--theoretical concept and present experiences in the treatment of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Ebert, A D; Bartley, J; David, M; Schweppe, K-W

    2003-01-01

    The medical treatment of endometriosis needs to be optimized. Therapeutic management strategies of endometriosis-associated pain or recurrent disease is primarily aimed at downregulating the ovarian function or at antagonizing the effect of estrogen in ectopic endometrial implants. In this context, basic research is delivering powerful tools for the possible development of new, specific treatment modalities. Recently, aromatase overexpression has been detected in endometriotic tissue. Aromatase (p450arom) is responsible for conversion of C19 androgens to estrogen in several human tissues. Aromatase activity gives rise to local estrogen biosynthesis, which, in turn, stimulates prostaglandin E(2) production by upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thus establishing a positive feedback cycle. Another abnormality in endometriosis, i. e. the deficiency in 17 beta-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase type-II (17 beta-HSD-Type-II) expression, impairs the inactivation of estradiol to estrone. In contrast to the eutopic endometrium, these molecular aberrations collectively favour accumulation of increasing amounts of local estradiol and prostaglandin E(2) in endometriosis. In several human cell lines, prostaglandin and estrogen concentrations are associated with proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis resistance, and even invasiveness. Consequently, aromatase and COX-2 are promising new therapeutic targets. In summary, specific aromatase inhibitors (such as Letrozole, Anastrozol or Exemestan) or selective COX-2 inhibitors (e.g. Celecoxib, Rofecoxib) are of great interest to be studied in clinical trials in premenopausal woman with endometriosis to extend the spectrum of currently available treatment options. PMID:14505258

  13. Genetic polymorphisms and endometriosis: contribution of genes that regulate vascular function and tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Trovó de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecological disease characterized by the presence and growth of endometrial cells outside the uterus. Genetic, endocrine, immunological, and environmental factors have been suggested in its pathogenesis. A great number of studies have related genetic polymorphisms as a factor that contributes to the development of endometriosis. This review presents a detailed description of the contribution of genetic polymorphisms in genes that regulate vascular function and tissue remodeling in endometriosis (alpha 2-HS glycoprotein [AHSG], epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], endostatin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 [PAI-1], angiotensin I-converting enzyme [ACE], and matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs]). Some polymorphisms of the VEGF (-460 C/T, +405 G/C, +936 C/T), PAI, MMP-1, 2, and 3 genes were widely studied, while polymorphisms of the AHSG, EGF, endostatin, and VEGF (-1154 G/A, -2578 A/C) genes were not. In this latter case, additional studies are required to confirm the findings of the few studies that have analyzed these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Additionally, studies that found a positive or negative association of SNP with endometriosis emphasize the relevance of studies with a large number of control cases to confirm their findings. The haplotype analysis was performed only for the VEGF (-460, +405, -1154 and -2578), ACE (-240/2350) and MMP-1, 2, 3, and 9 genes, and in most of them, there was no association with endometriosis. Of the eight works that analyzed haplotypes of the VEGF gene, five did not associate them with endometriosis. Haplotypes of ACE and MMP-2 genes were not associated with endometriosis, while those of MMP-1, 3, and 9 genes were related to a high risk for the disease. PMID:23090236

  14. Air Pollution Exposures During Adulthood and Risk of Endometriosis in the Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Aschengrau, Ann; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter and proximity to large roadways may promote disease mechanisms, including systemic inflammation, hormonal alteration, and vascular proliferation, that may contribute to the development and severity of endometriosis. Objective: Our goal was to determine the association of air pollution exposures during adulthood, including distance to road, particulate matter < 2.5 ?m, between 2.5 and 10 ?m, and < 10 ?m, (PM2.5, PM10–2.5, PM10), and timing of exposure with risk of endometriosis in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Methods: Proximity to major roadways and outdoor levels of PM2.5, PM10–2.5, and PM10 were determined for all residential addresses from 1993 to 2007. Multivariable-adjusted time-varying Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relation between these air pollution exposures and endometriosis risk. Results: Among 84,060 women, 2,486 incident cases of surgically confirmed endometriosis were identified over 710,230 person-years of follow-up. There was no evidence of an association between endometriosis risk and distance to road or exposure to PM2.5, PM10–2.5, or PM10 averaged over follow-up or during the previous 2- or 4-year period. Conclusions: Traffic and air pollution exposures during adulthood were not associated with incident endometriosis in this cohort of women. Citation: Mahalingaiah S, Hart JE, Laden F, Aschengrau A, Missmer SA. 2014. Air pollution exposures during adulthood and risk of endometriosis in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Environ Health Perspect 122:58–64;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306627 PMID:24225723

  15. Pro-inflammatory cytokines for evaluation of inflammatory status in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Malutan, Andrei M.; Costin, Nicolae; Ciortea, Razvan; Bucuri, Carmen; Rada, Maria P.; Mihu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study The aim of the study was to investigate the serum pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in patients with diagnosed endometriosis. Material and methods The study included 160 women, who were divided in two study groups (Group I – endometriosis; Group 2 – healthy). We evaluated the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, and IL-12, and of tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) with the use of Human Multiplex Cytokine Panels. Results The serum level of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? is significantly higher in women with endometriosis compared to women free of disease, from the control group (mean 10.777, 183.027, and 131.326, respectively, compared to 3.039, 70.043, and 75.285, respectively; p = 0.002, p < 0.001, and p = 0.015, respectively). No significant differences in the serum levels of IL-5 and IL-12 were observed between the studied groups, and IL-7 had a very low detection rate. Conclusions Women with endometriosis have elevated levels of key pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e. IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?. At the same time, IL-1? and IL-6 could be used as predictors for endometriosis.

  16. Ecto-nucleotidases Activities in the Contents of Ovarian Endometriomas: Potential Biomarkers of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Texidó, Laura; Romero, Claudia; García-Valero, José; Fernández Montoli, M. Eulalia; Baixeras, Núria; Condom, Enric; Ponce, Jordi; García-Tejedor, Amparo; Martín-Satué, Mireia

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is a common gynecologic condition affecting millions of women worldwide. It is an inflammatory, estrogen-dependent complex disorder, with broad symptomatic variability, pelvic pain, and infertility being the main characteristics. Ovarian endometriomas are frequently developed in women with endometriosis. Late diagnosis is one of the main problems of endometriosis; thus, it is important to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the ecto-nucleotidases activities in the contents of endometriomas. These enzymes, through the regulation of extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, are key enzymes in inflammatory processes, and their expression has been previously characterized in human endometrium. To achieve our objective, the echo-guided aspirated fluids of endometriomas were analyzed by evaluating the ecto-nucleotidases activities and compared with simple cysts. Our results show that enzyme activities are quantifiable in the ovarian cysts aspirates and that endometriomas show significantly higher ecto-nucleotidases activities than simple cysts (5.5-fold increase for ATPase and 20-fold for ADPase), thus being possible candidates for new endometriosis biomarkers. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of ecto-nucleotidases bearing exosomes in these fluids. These results add up to the knowledge of the physiopathologic mechanisms underlying endometriosis and, open up a promising new field of study. PMID:25276049

  17. The Human Relations Area Files

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Human Relations Area Files, Inc. (HRAF) is an internationally recognized organization in the field of cultural anthropology. The mission of HRAF is to encourage and facilitate worldwide comparative studies of human behavior, society, and culture. HRAF produces two major collections (the HRAF Collection of Ethnography and the HRAF Collection of Archaeology), encyclopedias, as well as other resources for teaching and research. The most useful of these is most likely the �teaching eHRAF�, which provides web-based teaching resources for anthropology and archaeology. These resources include homework exercises, papers, classroom assignments, and group projects. Updated frequently, this site would be a valuable resource for instructors as well as students in any related field.

  18. A case of multisystem endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Athwal, Pardeep; Patel, Krishna; Hassani, Cameron; Bahadori, Shapour; Nardi, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare complication secondary to pleural endometriosis. We present a case of a 37-year-old-female with a history of recurrent pneumothoraces with an associated temporal relationship to the onset of her menses. In addition to her recurrent pneumothoraces, on further evaluation, she was found to have multiple nodular masses within the omentum. A thoracoscopic biopsy was subsequently performed, which showed endometrial implants within the pleural space and within the omental cavity. The radiological features and pathogenesis of this rare disease are reviewed and discussed with reference to relevant literature. PMID:24421917

  19. Bladder endometriosis, a remarkable resemblance in a monozygotic twin.

    PubMed

    van Beek, J J

    2010-11-01

    It is known for many years that heritability plays a role in the development of endometriosis in many patients. Deep endometriosis of the bladder is a rare presentation of the disease and bladder endometriosis was not reported in monozygotic twin studies so far. Since monozygotic twins share the same genes, concordance and differences in presentation of endometriosis may help to discriminate between genetic and environmental determinants. The remarkable resemblance in the presentation of bladder endometriosis in this monozygotic twin seems to indicate that genetic factors are of importance in the arising of deep endometriosis in the bladder too. PMID:21125001

  20. Bladder endometriosis, a remarkable resemblance in a monozygotic twin

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    It is known for many years that heritability plays a role in the development of endometriosis in many patients. Deep endometriosis of the bladder is a rare presentation of the disease and bladder endometriosis was not reported in monozygotic twin studies so far. Since monozygotic twins share the same genes, concordance and differences in presentation of endometriosis may help to discriminate between genetic and environmental determinants. The remarkable resemblance in the presentation of bladder endometriosis in this monozygotic twin seems to indicate that genetic factors are of importance in the arising of deep endometriosis in the bladder too. PMID:21125001

  1. Estrogen Receptor-?, Estrogen Receptor-?, and Progesterone Resistance in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Bulun, Serdar E.; Cheng, You-Hong; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Xue, Qing; Attar, Erkut; Trukhacheva, Elena; Tokunaga, Hideki; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Yin, Ping; Luo, Xia; Lin, Zhihong; Imir, Gonca; Thung, Stephen; Su, Emily J.; Kim, J. Julie

    2011-01-01

    Loss of progesterone signaling in the endometrium may be a causal factor in the development of endometriosis, and progesterone resistance is commonly observed in women with this disease. In endometriotic stromal cells, the levels of progesterone receptor (PR), particularly the PR-B isoform, are significantly decreased, leading to a loss of paracrine signaling. PR deficiency likely underlies the development of progesterone resistance in women with endometriosis who no longer respond to progestin therapy. Here we review the complex epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms leading to PR deficiency. The initial event may involve deficient methylation of the estrogen receptor (ER)? promoter resulting in pathologic overexpression of ER? in endometriotic stromal cells. We speculate that alterations in the relative levels of ER? and ER? in endometrial tissue dictate E2-regulated PR expression, such that a decreased ER?--ER? ratio may result in suppression of PR. In this review, we propose a molecular model that may be responsible for changes in ER? and ER? leading to PR loss and progesterone resistance in endometriosis. PMID:20104427

  2. Endometriosis: A New Cellular and Molecular Genetic Approach for Understanding the Pathogenesis and Evolutivity

    PubMed Central

    Bouquet De Jolinière, Jean; Ayoubi, Jean Marc Bernard; Gianaroli, Luca; Dubuisson, Jean Bernard; Gogusev, Jean; Feki, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign disease with high prevalence in women of reproductive age estimated between 10 and 15% and is associated with considerable morbidity. Its etiology and pathogenesis are controversial but it is believed to involve multiple genetic, environmental, immunological, angiogenic, and endocrine processes. Altered expressions of growth factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, and enzymes for estrogen synthesis and metabolism have been frequently observed in this condition. The possibility of genetic basis of endometriosis is demonstrated in studies of familial disease, in which the incidence of endometriosis is higher for first-degree relatives of probands as compared to controls. This review describes mainly the cellular, cytochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features of endometriotic lesions and cultured endometriotic cells. In attempts to identify candidate gene (s) involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, a tissue-based approaches including conventional cytogenetics (RHG-banding), loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were employed. In addition to the karyotypic anomalies, consistent chromosome instability was confirmed by CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The nature and significance of the molecular genetic aberrations in relation to the locations and function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes will be discussed. At last, a possible pathogenic role of embryonic duct remnants was observed in seven female fetal reproductive tract in endometriosis and may induce a discussion about the beginning of ovarian tumors and malignant proliferations. PMID:25593940

  3. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Endometriosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose endometriosis? Skip sharing on social media ... under a microscope, to confirm the diagnosis. 1 Health care providers may also use imaging methods to produce ...

  4. Endometriosis and Infertility: Can Surgery Help?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mild (Stage 2), moderate (Stage 3), or severe (Stage 4). This scoring system correlates with pregnancy success. With ... is a new problem. With more advanced endometriosis (Stages 3 or 4), surgery can help restore your normal pelvic anatomy ...

  5. Endometriosis: Survey of Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Options and Latest Research Work

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz-Böss, I.; Laschke, M. W.; Müller, F.; Rosenbaum, P.; Baum, S.; Solomayer, E. F.; Ulrich, U.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most frequent benign diseases in women of child-bearing age. The main symptoms are chronic upper abdominal pain and infertility. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis are as yet insufficiently clarified. Thus, therapy is mainly symptomatic with laparoscopic surgery being the gold standard. The aim of drug therapy is to achieve a hypo-oestrogenic condition. In cases of severe endometriosis and a desire to have children there is often an indication for assisted reproduction. The present article illustrates almost all current aspects on the diagnosis of and therapy of endometriosis. From the clinical viewpoint, emphasis is placed on the rare cases of deeply infiltrating endometriosis that are, however, accompanied with a high morbidity. Current therapeutic options in cases of infertility are also presented in more detail. Furthermore, special attention is paid to the latest research results from both clinical and basic research fields in order to demonstrate our current knowledge on the pathogenesis and, where possible, potentially related therapeutic options. PMID:25221341

  6. Extragenital endometrial stromal sarcoma arising in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Juan Luis; Guerriero, Stefano; Ajossa, Silvia; Parodo, Giuseppina; Piras, Bruno; Peiretti, Michele; Jurado, Matías; Idoate, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis rate of deep pelvic endometriosis is increasing. Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a rare neoplasm. Extragenital ESS is an extremely uncommon event. Very few cases of extragenital ESS have been reported to date. The diagnosis of this entity is very difficult in some instances. Knowledge about its management is also limited. In this paper, we review the current literature on the clinical management, histology, immunohistochemistry, treatment and outcome of ESS arising in pelvic endometriosis. PMID:22538201

  7. Atypical retroperitoneal endometriosis and use of tamoxifen*

    PubMed Central

    Naufel, Daniel Zambuzzi; Penachim, Thiago José; de Freitas, Leandro Luiz Lopes; Cardia, Patricia Prando; Prando, Adilson

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of the retroperitoneum by endometriosis occurs only sporadically. In the present report, emphasis will be given to the magnetic resonance imaging findings which raised the diagnostic suspicion of periureteral lesion in a patient undergoing tamoxifen therapy, presenting with left upper quadrant pain and hydronephrosis. Histopathological findings obtained by means of computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy revealed the diagnosis of periureteral endometriosis. PMID:25741109

  8. Endometriosis and physical exercises: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical exercise seems to have protective effects against diseases that involve inflammatory processes since it induces an increase in the systemic levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also acts by reducing estrogen levels. Evidence has suggested that the symptoms associated with endometriosis result from a local inflammatory peritoneal reaction caused by ectopic endometrial implants. Thus, the objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between physical exercise and the prevalence and/or improvement of the symptoms associated with endometriosis. To this end, data available in PubMed (1985–2012) were surveyed using the terms “endometriosis and physical exercises”, “endometriosis and life style and physical exercises” in the English language literature. Only 6 of the 935 articles detected were included in the study. These studies tried establish a possible relationship between the practice of physical exercise and the prevalence of endometriosis. The data available are inconclusive regarding the benefits of physical exercise as a risk factor for the disease and no data exist about the potential impact of exercise on the course of the endometriosis. In addition, randomized studies are necessary. PMID:24393293

  9. Metal status in human endometrium: relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions.

    PubMed

    Rzymski, Piotr; Rzymski, Pawe?; Tomczyk, Katarzyna; Niedzielski, Przemys?aw; Jakubowski, Karol; Poniedzia?ek, Barbara; Opala, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. PMID:24834829

  10. [ENZIAN-score, a classification of deep infiltrating endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Tuttlies, F; Keckstein, J; Ulrich, U; Possover, M; Schweppe, K W; Wustlich, M; Buchweitz, O; Greb, R; Kandolf, O; Mangold, R; Masetti, W; Neis, K; Rauter, G; Reeka, N; Richter, O; Schindler, A E; Sillem, M; Terruhn, V; Tinneberg, H R

    2005-10-01

    The ENZIAN-Score is presented as a new instrument to classify the deep infiltrating endometriosis. Especially the retroperitoneal part of the severe endometriosis is focussed on. In analogy to an oncological staging four different stages are pronounced. The localisation and the expansion of the endometriosis nodule was indicated to different subgroups. The still used rAFS-score is of no clinical evidence, as we pointed out in a retrospective study of our patients with severe intestinal endometriosis. PMID:16195969

  11. [The clinical and pathological characters of malignant neoplasms arising from endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Q C

    1993-06-01

    Eight cases of malignant tumors arising from endometriosis were reported; the ovary was the primary site in 7, whereas extragonadal site (rectum) in 1. The histologic classification was as follows: endometrioid carcinoma in 1. Clear cell carcinoma in 2, mixed clear cell carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma in 2, mixed papillary cystadenocarcinoma in 1 and serous tumor of borderline malignancy in 1. The histologic pattern arising from endometriosis of the rectal wall was endometrioid adenocarcinoma with benign endometriosis contiguous to it. It was found that the ectopic endometrial tissue may undergo malignant change when they were under stimulation by some factors. One of which may be intrinsic or extrinsic estrogen, which may be related to the high incidence rate in this age group. Laparotomy should be done for assessing malignant change when ovarian mass was greater than 10 cm or grew rapidly. Five year survival rate will be expected to improved with postoperative progestin or irradiation. Preventive measures were also suggested. PMID:8243157

  12. Pregnancy outcome in pre-operative danazol treatment followed by laparoscopic correction in infertility associated with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Dey, Sandip; Chowdhury, Rajib Gon; Ganguly, Debi Das

    2012-10-01

    Probably, more has been written and less has been agreed upon, regarding the pathogenesis of the enigmatic disorder--endometriosis, which is the leading cause of disability in women of reproductive age group, resulting in infertility and pelvic pain. It is an accepted fact that the medical treatment of endometriosis does not help in infertility management, except certain situations like pain, limiting the attempt of pregnancy, or endometriosis presenting with cornual block, due to endosalpingiosis. The usual treatment of infertility being either surgical correction, or assisted reproductive technology procedures. In our patient population, the acceptance of In-vitro fertilisation or embryo transfer is much less, because of its high cost and social taboo. In this series, the improved pregnancy outcome is observed with medical treatment of endometriosis with danazol before and after the laparoscopic correction of the tubo-ovarian relation due to endometriosis or in certain cases of minimal to mild endometriosis, not requiring correction. Out of 722 suspected cases of endometriosis, 576 cases were subjected to prelaparoscopic treatment with danazol, and the result was compared with 424 cases of only laparoscopic treatment, and 216 cases of postlaparoscopic danazol treatment, during the years 2004 to 2008. A total of 1216 cases were included in the study. The initiation of medical treatment in the pre-operative period gives better pregnancy outcome, as compared to only surgical or postsurgical medical treatment. The experience proves that the adjuvant medical treatment with danazol, initiated before laparoscopy in suspected endometriosis cases is useful treatment procedure, to increase the pregnancy rate. PMID:23738401

  13. Genetic variants underlying risk of endometriosis: insights from

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    variants underlying risk of endometriosis: insights from meta-analysis of eight genome-wide association; accepted on February 26, 2014 table of contents Introduction GWAS of endometriosis Sources-wide significant results across the studies Investigation of other reported GWAS associations in endometriosis loci

  14. Proteomics Analysis of Plasma for Early Diagnosis of Endometriosis

    E-print Network

    Proteomics Analysis of Plasma for Early Diagnosis of Endometriosis Amelie Fassbender, PhD, Etienne with or without pelvic pain to predict the presence of laparoscopically and histologically confirmed endometriosis on 254 plasma samples obtained from 89 women without endometriosis and 165 women with endometri- osis

  15. Chemokines and human reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan A Garc??a-Velasco; Aydin Arici

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To review the available information regarding chemotactic cytokines and their possible implications in human reproduction.Design: A thorough literature and MEDLINE search was conducted to identify studies relating to the role of chemokines in ovulation, menstruation, implantation, cervical ripening and preterm labor, and endometriosis.Result(s): Chemokines mediate leukocyte traffic through their specific receptors in various tissues. Although four families have been

  16. Altered Gene Expression Profile in Vaginal Polypoid Endometriosis Resembles Peritoneal Endometriosis and Is Consistent with Increased Local Estrogen Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Syrcle; K. E. Pelch; A. L. Schroder; B. M. Nichols; M. P. Mills; B. F. Barrier; A. D. Havey; S. C. Nagel

    2011-01-01

    Background: In a university hospital setting, a 25-year-old woman presented with large vaginal and cervical polyps. Past medical history was significant for stage IV endometriosis. Polypectomy was performed and the polyps were histologically consistent with endometriosis. Gene expression was compared with control vaginal tissue to assess if the altered gene expression profile was similar to peritoneal endometriosis. Methods and Results:

  17. Krüppel-Like Factor 9 and Progesterone Receptor Coregulation of Decidualizing Endometrial Stromal Cells: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Pabona, John Mark P.; Simmen, Frank A.; Nikiforov, Mikhail A.; Zhuang, DaZhong; Shankar, Kartik; Velarde, Michael C.; Zelenko, Zara; Giudice, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Endometriosis is characterized by progesterone resistance and associated with infertility. Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) is a progesterone receptor (PGR)-interacting protein, and mice null for Klf9 are subfertile. Whether loss of KLF9 expression contributes to progesterone resistance of eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis is unknown. Objective: The aims were to investigate 1) KLF9 expression in eutopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis, 2) effects of attenuated KLF9 expression on WNT-signaling component expression and on WNT inhibitor Dickkopf-1 promoter activity in human endometrial stromal cells (HESC), and 3) PGR and KLF9 coregulation of the stromal transcriptome network. Methods: Transcript levels of KLF9, PGR, and WNT signaling components were measured in eutopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis. Transcript and protein levels of WNT signaling components in HESC transfected with KLF9 and/or PGR small interfering RNA were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. KLF9 and PGR coregulation of Dickkopf-1 promoter activity was evaluated using human Dickkopf-1-luciferase promoter/reporter constructs and by chromatin immunoprecipitation. KLF9 and PGR signaling networks were analyzed by gene expression array profiling. Results: Eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis had reduced expression of KLF9 mRNA together with those of PGR-B, WNT4, WNT2, and DKK1. KLF9 and PGR were recruited to the DKK1 promoter and modified each other's transactivity. In HESC, KLF9 and PGR coregulated components of the WNT, cytokine, and IGF gene networks that are implicated in endometriosis and infertility. Conclusion: Loss of KLF9 coregulation of endometrial stromal PGR-responsive gene networks may underlie progesterone resistance in endometriosis. PMID:22259059

  18. Subcutaneous endometriosis: a rare cause of deep dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity which is responsive to hormonal stimulation. Extrapelvic endometriosis is less common of which skin is the most common site. The patient presents with mass, pain and cyclic symptoms. Subcutaneous endometriosis is very rare and has been reported only thrice in the literature. We report a case where the patient with lower abdominal pain and dyspareunia. Dyspareunia due to subcutaneous endometriosis has not been reported before when there is no evidence of intrapelvic endometriosis on laparoscopy. PMID:24395879

  19. Diet and endometriosis risk: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Parazzini, Fabio; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Fedele, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    A connection between dietary factors and endometriosis onset has become a topic of interest mostly due to the observation that physiological and pathological processes of the disease can be influenced by diet. This paper systematically reviews prior publications dealing with this aspect in order to identify potentially modifiable risk factors. Comprehensive searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded were conducted to identify published studies evaluating the association between food intake (nutrients and food groups) and endometriosis. Eleven studies were identified: 10 case-control and one cohort study. Information on diet was collected using food frequency questionnaires in seven studies, while in one study the questionnaire focused on caffeine and alcohol intake. Women with endometriosis seem to consume fewer vegetables and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and more red meat, coffee and trans fats but these findings could not be consistently replicated. Most data have also been discussed herein in light of the available experimental and animal model results. At present, evidence supporting a significant association between diet and endometriosis is equivocal. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of diet on endometriosis risk and progression. PMID:23419794

  20. Peritoneal endometriosis is an inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Lousse, Jean-Christophe; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Defrere, Sylvie; Ramos, Reinaldo Gonzalez; Colette, Sebastien; Donnez, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Peritoneal endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased numbers of peritoneal macrophages and their secreted products. Inflammation plays a major role in pain and infertility associated with endometriosis, but is also extensively involved in the molecular processes that lead to peritoneal lesion development. Peritoneal oxidative stress is currently thought to be a major constituent of the endometriosis-associated inflammatory response. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species, secondary to peritoneal influx of pro-oxidants such as heme and iron during retrograde menstruation, may induce cellular damage and increased proinflammatory gene expression through nuclear factor-kappa B activation. In particular, prostaglandin biosynthetic enzyme expression is regulated by this transcriptional factor, and increased peritoneal prostaglandin concentrations have been demonstrated in endometriosis. In the light of available data collected from patient biopsies, as well as in vitro and in vivo studies, the respective involvement and potential molecular interactions of iron, nuclear factor-kappa B and prostaglandins in the pathogenesis of endometriosis are explored and discussed. The key role of peritoneal macrophages is emphasized and potential therapeutic targets are examined. PMID:22201853

  1. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonization Project: III. Fluid biospecimen collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research

    PubMed Central

    Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Fassbender, Amelie; Vitonis, Allison F.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hummelshoj, Lone; D'Hooghe, Thomas M.; Adamson, G. David; Giudice, Linda C.; Becker, Christian M.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Adamson, G.D.; Allaire, C.; Anchan, R.; Becker, C.M.; Bedaiwy, M.A.; Buck Louis, G.M.; Calhaz-Jorge, C.; Chwalisz, K.; D'Hooghe, T.M.; Fassbender, A.; Faustmann, T.; Fazleabas, A.T.; Flores, I.; Forman, A.; Fraser, I.; Giudice, L.C.; Gotte, M.; Gregersen, P.; Guo, S.-W.; Harada, T.; Hartwell, D.; Horne, A.W.; Hull, M.L.; Hummelshoj, L.; Ibrahim, M.G.; Kiesel, L.; Laufer, M.R.; Machens, K.; Mechsner, S.; Missmer, S.A.; Montgomery, G.W.; Nap, A.; Nyegaard, M.; Osteen, K.G.; Petta, C.A.; Rahmioglu, N.; Renner, S.P.; Riedlinger, J.; Roehrich, S.; Rogers, P.A.; Rombauts, L.; Salumets, A.; Saridogan, E.; Seckin, T.; Stratton, P.; Sharpe-Timms, K.L.; Tworoger, S.; Vigano, P.; Vincent, K.; Vitonis, A.F.; Wienhues-Thelen, U.-H.; Yeung, P.P.; Yong, P.; Zondervan, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of fluid biospecimens relevant to endometriosis. Design An international collaboration involving 34 clinical/academic centers and 3 industry collaborators from 16 countries on 5 continents. Setting In 2013, 2 workshops were conducted, followed by global consultation, bringing together 54 leaders in endometriosis research and sample processing worldwide. Patient(s) None. Intervention(s) Consensus SOPs were based on: [1] systematic comparison of SOPs from 18 global centers collecting fluid samples from women with and without endometriosis on a medium/large scale (publication on >100 cases), [2] literature evidence where available, or consultation with laboratory experts otherwise, and [3] several global consultation rounds. Main Outcome Measure(s) Standard recommended and minimum required SOPs for biofluid collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research. Result(s) We developed recommended standard and minimum required SOPs for the collection, processing, and storage of plasma, serum, saliva, urine, endometrial/peritoneal fluid, and menstrual effluent, and a biospecimen data-collection form necessary for interpretation of sample-derived results. Conclusion(s) The Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project SOPs allow endometriosis research centers to decrease variability in biofluid sample results, facilitating between-center comparisons and collaborations. The procedures are also relevant to research into other female conditions involving biofluid samples subject to cyclic reproductive influences. The consensus SOPs are based on the best available evidence; areas with limited evidence are identified as requiring further pilot studies. The SOPs will be reviewed based on investigator feedback, and through systematic tri-annual follow-up. Updated versions will be made available at: endometriosisfoundation.org/ephect. PMID:25256929

  2. Endometriosis

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... GnRH analogs are another type of therapy. These drugs work by decreasing the amount of estrogen in ... analog given by injection. Side effects of these drugs are similar to those of menopause and include ...

  3. Endometriosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bleeding, bleeding between periods, and problems getting pregnant ( infertility ). ... Brown J, Pan A, Hart RJ. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues for ... pathophysiology and management. Lancet . 2010 Aug 28;376( ...

  4. Differential proteome profiling of eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis to understand etiology of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Priyanka; Kota, Venkatesh; Deendayal, Mamata; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2010-09-01

    The identification of molecular differences in the endometrium of women with endometriosis is an important step toward understanding the pathogenesis of this condition and for developing novel strategies for the treatment of associated infertility and pain. In this study, we investigated protein expression analysis of eutopic endometrium from women with and without endometriosis. The proteomic analysis revealed molecular dysregulation of more than 70 proteins in the proliferative phase of eutopic endometrium in stage IV and secretory phase of stage II, III and IV endometriosis. Using mass spectrometry, 48 proteins spots which were consistently differentially expressed from stage II to IV endometriosis were identified. The differentially expressed proteins include structural proteins, proteins involved in stress response, protein-folding and protein-turnover, immunity, energy production, signal transduction, RNA biogenesis, protein biosynthesis, and nuclear proteins. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the observed changes in eight representative proteins. The present study provides identification of new players that have a potential role in the initiation and progression of endometriosis and also sets a framework for further investigations on mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:20690674

  5. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis: an electronic guideline implementability appraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lotte JEW van Dijk; Willianne LDM Nelen; Thomas M D’Hooghe; Gerard AJ Dunselman; Rosella PMG Hermens; Christina Bergh; Karl G Nygren; Arnold HM Simons; Petra de Sutter; Catherine Marshall; Jako S Burgers; Jan AM Kremer

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines are intended to improve healthcare. However, even if guidelines are excellent, their implementation is not assured. In subfertility care, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) guidelines have been inventoried, and their methodological quality has been assessed. To improve the impact of the ESHRE guidelines and to improve European subfertility care, it is important to

  6. Dienogest was effective in treating hemorrhagic ascites caused by endometriosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryoko; Nakazawa, Tsuneo; Hirahara, Fumiki; Sakakibara, Hideya

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic ascites caused by endometriosis is extremely rare, and its treatment is under discussion. We report a case of recurrent endometriosis-related ascites treated with dienogest (DNG). A 35-year-old nulliparous Japanese woman with a history of infertility presented with worsening dysmenorrhea and abdominal distention caused by massive ascites. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, and hemorrhagic ascites (5500 mL) was drained. She had a normal-sized uterus, and the bilateral ovaries could not be observed because of extensive adhesion in the abdominal cavity. Endometriosis was diagnosed by histopathological evaluation of the omental biopsy, and this was considered to be the cause of ascites. After laparotomy, she had recurrence of ascites. For the next 8 years, the patient was treated conservatively with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy and drainage during the intermittent periods followed by DNG administration. She has been treated continuously with DNG for 1 year with no recurrence of ascites. DNG could be an effective treatment for recurrent ascites associated with endometriosis, especially when surgical therapy is undesirable. PMID:24780384

  7. Cytopathological features of scar endometriosis mimicking an adenocarcinoma: A diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Rekhi, Bharat; Sugoor, Pawan; Patil, Asawari; Shylasree, T S; Kerkar, Rajendra; Maheshwari, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Scar endometriosis can be a diagnostic challenge in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears that at times, is the first diagnostic modality in such cases. The challenge is amplified when the clinical details are limited and cytopathological features reveal nuclear atypia. A 33-year-old lady presented with an abdominal swelling that she noticed after she met with a scald. Clinically, the swelling was located lateral to her 3-year-old pfannenstiel incision scar. The initial diagnosis on FNAC was metastatic adenocarcinoma. On review, smears were hypercellular, comprising epithelial cells in groups and focally, regular glandular arrangements, imperceptibly admixed with numerous, relatively smaller, short spindly cells. Epithelial cells exhibited mild to focally, moderate nuclear enlargement/atypia. Subsequent biopsy and excision revealed endometrial glands exhibiting focal nuclear atypia with adjacent stroma. Diagnosis of endometriosis was offered. The results were reinforced with positive estrogen receptor staining in the glands and stroma, along with CD10 positivity in the stroma. The patient was recommended gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs and is presently free of disease a year after her diagnosis. FNAC can be a pitfall in the diagnosis of endometriosis. Correct diagnosis has significant therapeutic implications. Although presence of atypia in such cases should not delude the diagnosing cytopathologist for consideration of endometriosis, it should be documented. The value of clinical history in such cases cannot be overemphasized. PMID:24648677

  8. Raf-1 levels determine the migration rate of primary endometrial stromal cells of patients with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yotova, Iveta; Quan, Ping; Gaba, Aulona; Leditznig, Nadja; Pateisky, Petra; Kurz, Christine; Tschugguel, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis is a disease characterized by the localization of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The differences observed in migration of human endometrial stromal cells (hESC) obtained from patients with endometriosis versus healthy controls were proposed to correlate with the abnormal activation of Raf-1/ROCKII signalling pathway. To evaluate the mechanism by which Raf-1 regulates cytoskeleton reorganization and motility, we used primary eutopic (Eu-, n = 16) and ectopic (Ec-, n = 8; isolated from ovarian cysts) hESC of patients with endometriosis and endometriosis-free controls (Co-hESC, n = 14). Raf-1 siRNA knockdown in Co- and Eu-hESC resulted in contraction and decreased migration versus siRNA controls. This phenotype was reversed following the re-expression of Raf-1 in these cells. Lowest Raf-1 levels in Ec-hESC were associated with hyperactivated ROCKII and ezrin/radixin/moesin (E/R/M), impaired migration and a contracted phenotype similar to Raf-1 knockdown in Co- and Eu-hESC. We further show that the mechanism by which Raf-1 mediates migration in hESC includes direct myosin light chain phosphatase (MYPT1) phosphorylation and regulation of the levels of E/R/M, paxillin, MYPT1 and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation indirectly via the hyperactivation of ROCKII kinase. Furthermore, we suggest that in contrast to Co-and Eu-hESC, where the cellular Raf-1 levels regulate the rate of migration, the low cellular Raf-1 content in Ec-hESC, might ensure their restricted migration by preserving the contracted cellular phenotype. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cellular levels of Raf-1 adjust the threshold of hESC migration in endometriosis. PMID:22225925

  9. Genetic, epigenetic and stem cell alterations in endometriosis: new insights and potential therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Forte, Amalia; Cipollaro, Marilena; Galderisi, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Human endometrium is a highly dynamic tissue, undergoing periodic growth and regression at each menstrual cycle. Endometriosis is a frequent chronic pathological status characterized by endometrial tissue with an ectopic localization, causing pelvic pain and infertility and a variable clinical presentation. In addition, there is well-established evidence that, although endometriosis is considered benign, it is associated with an increased risk of malignant transformation in approximately 1.0% of affected women, with the involvement of multiple pathways of development. Increasing evidence supports a key contribution of different stem/progenitor cell populations not only in the cyclic regeneration of eutopic endometrium, but also in the pathogenesis of at least some types of endometriosis. Evidence has arisen from experiments in animal models of disease through different kinds of assays (including clonogenicity, the label-retaining cell approach, the analysis of undifferentiation markers), as well as from descriptive studies on ectopic and eutopic tissue samples harvested from affected women. Changes in stem cell populations in endometriotic lesions are associated with genetic and epigenetic alterations, including imbalance of miRNA expression, histone and DNA modifications and chromosomal aberrations. The present short review mainly summarizes the latest observations contributing to the current knowledge regarding the presence and the potential contribution of stem/progenitor cells in eutopic endometrium and the aetiology of endometriosis, together with a report of the most recently identified genetic and epigenetic alterations in endometriosis. We also describe the potential advantages of single cell molecular profiling in endometrium and in endometriotic lesions. All these data can have clinical implications and provide a basis for new potential therapeutic applications. PMID:24059589

  10. Laparoscopically assisted vaginal resection of rectovaginal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Possover; Herbert Diebolder; Karin Plaul; Achim Schneider

    2000-01-01

    Background: We wanted to establish a technique of laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal surgery for deep endometriosis of the rectovaginal septum with extensive rectal involvement.Technique: The procedure is started by vaginally excising the involved area which is left on the rectum, followed by bilateral dissection of the pararectal and retrorectal spaces. Para- and retrosigmoido-rectal spaces are developed laparoscopically along the coccygeosacral

  11. Diagnosis of endometriosis with imaging: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Kinkel; Kathrin A. Frei; Corinne Balleyguier; Charles Chapron

    2006-01-01

    Endometriosis corresponds to ectopic endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Clinical symptoms include dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia, infertility, painful defecation or cyclic urinary symptoms. Pelvic ultrasound is the primary imaging modality to identify and differentiate locations to the ovary (endometriomas) and the bladder wall. Characteristic sonographic features of endometriomas are diffuse low-level internal echos, multilocularity and hyperchoic foci in the

  12. Intrauterine exposures and risk of endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Germaine M. Buck Louis; Mary L. Hediger; Josefa B. Pena

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intrauterine environmental exposures have been adversely associated with male reproductive health in contrast to limited investigation of such exposures and female reproductive health. METHODS: To address this research gap, a cohort comprising 84 women aged 18-40 years undergoing laparoscopy was recruited prior to surgery and followed through the post-operative period for endometriosis diagnosis. Women were inter- viewed about environmental

  13. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: A PLAUSIBLE HYPOTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A potential connection exists between the increasing prevalence of endometriosis and exposure to organochlorine chemicals. There is evidence that dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) can increase the incidence and severity of the disease in monkeys and can promote the growth or survival of end...

  14. Complications Associated With Two Laparoscopic Procedures Used in the Management of Rectal Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Rozsnayi, Francisc; Puscasiu, Lucian; Resch, Benoit; Belhiba, Hend; Lefebure, Benoit; Scotte, Michel; Michot, Francis; Marpeau, Loïc; Tuech, Jean Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Background: To evaluate intra- and postoperative complications associated with laparoscopic management of rectal endometriosis by either colorectal segmental resection or nodule excision. Methods: During 39 consecutive months, 46 women underwent laparoscopic management of rectal endometriosis and were included in a retrospective comparative study. The distinguishing feature of the study is that the choice of the surgical procedure is not related to the characteristics of the nodule. Results: Colorectal segmental resection with colorectal anastomosis was carried out in 15 patients (37%), while macroscopically complete rectal nodule excision was performed in 31 women (63%). No intraoperative complications were recorded. In the colorectal resection group, 3 women (18%) had a bladder atony (spontaneously regressive in 2 women), 4 women (24%) experienced chronic constipation, one had an anastomosis leakage (6%), while 2 women (13%) had acute compartment syndrome with peripheral sensory disturbance. In the nodule excision group, 1 woman (4%) developed transitory right obturator nerve motor palsy. Based on both postoperative pain and improvement in quality of life, all 29 women in the excision group (100%) and 14 women in the colorectal resection group (82%) would recommend the surgical procedure to a friend suffering from the same disease. Conclusion: Our study suggests that carrying out colorectal segmental resection in rectal endometriosis is associated with unfavourable postoperative outcomes, such as bladder and rectal dysfunction. These outcomes are less likely to occur when rectal nodules are managed by excision. Information about complications related to both surgical procedures should be provided to patients managed for rectal endometriosis and should be taken into account when a decision is being made about the most appropriate treatment of rectal endometriosis in each case. PMID:20932363

  15. Hormonal Treatment for Severe Hydronephrosis Caused by Bladder Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Efe, Erkan; Serin, Salih; Kolus, Eyüp; Ercan, Önder; Resim, Sefa

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of endometriosis cases involving the urinary system has recently increased, and the bladder is a specific zone where endometriosis is most commonly seen in the urinary system. In the case presented here, a patient presented to the emergency department with the complaint of side pain and was examined and diagnosed with severe hydronephrosis and bladder endometriosis was determined in the etiology. After the patient was pathologically diagnosed, Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) was administered to the uterine cavity. At the 12-month follow-up, endometriosis was not observed in the cystoscopy and symptoms had completely regressed. Hydronephrosis may be observed after exposure of the ureter, and silent renal function loss may develop in patients suffering from endometriosis with bladder involvement. For patients with moderate or severe hydronephrosis associated with bladder endometriosis, LNG-IUS application may be separately and successfully used after conservative surgery. PMID:25506035

  16. A rare cyclic recurrent hematuria case; bladder endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Akp?nar, Süha; Çelebio?lu, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecological disease that is characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Although the ovaries and uterine ligaments are the most common locations, urinary tract involvement especially the bladder endometriosis is a rare entity in women of reproductive age with clinical symptoms of cyclical urgency, hematuria and suprapubic pain. We herein present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of spontaneous bladder endometriosis case with cyclical hematuria symptoms. PMID:26029655

  17. Introduction: new tools for enhancing collaborative endometriosis research.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    This issue of Fertility and Sterility contains four articles by the World Endometriosis Research Foundation whose present objective is global standardization of the collection of phenotypic data and biological samples, designated as the Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project. The aim is to facilitate large-scale international, multicenter trials that are robust, and will result in biomarker and treatment targets to advance research in endometriosis. PMID:25154678

  18. Thoracic endometriosis syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Azizad-Pinto, Parisa; Clarke, David

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic endometriosis syndrome is the presence of endometrial tissue in or around the lung. Thoracic endometriosis syndrome consists of four distinct clinical entities: catamenial pneumothorax, catamenial hemothorax, hemoptysis, and pulmonary nodules. Thoracic endometriosis syndrome is a rare and complex condition, and diagnosis is often delayed or missed by clinicians, which can result in recurrent hospitalizations and other complications. Current treatments include hormone therapy and, where warranted, surgical intervention. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with endometriosis causing bowel obstruction and concurrent catamenial pneumothorax. PMID:25102519

  19. Strategic Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall S. Schuler

    1989-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the potentially dynamic and proactive role of employers in industrial relations be recognized (Kochan, McKersie, & Cappelli, 1984). Because incorporating the notion of strategic human resource management appears consistent with that suggestion, it is done here integrating frameworks of competitive strategy and human resource management practices using the rationale of needed employee role behaviors

  20. A cross-study gene set enrichment analysis identifies critical pathways in endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongbo Zhao; Qishan Wang; Chunyan Bai; Kan He; Yuchun Pan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is an enigmatic disease. Gene expression profiling of endometriosis has been used in several studies, but few studies went further to classify subtypes of endometriosis based on expression patterns and to identify possible pathways involved in endometriosis. Some of the observed pathways are more inconsistent between the studies, and these candidate pathways presumably only represent a fraction of

  1. Müllerian Adenosarcoma Arising From Rectal Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunseok; Oh, Hoon Kyu

    2014-01-01

    A Müllerian adenosarcoma is an extremely rare tumor characterized by a stromal component of usually low-grade malignancy and by a benign glandular epithelial component. A Müllerian adenosarcoma occurs mainly in the uterus, but also in extrauterine locations. Extrauterine Müllerian adenosarcomas are thought to arise from endometriotic deposits. A 36-year-old female presented to Daegu Catholic University Medical Center with a symptom of loose stool for several months. The imaging studies revealed a rectal mass, so she underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection. Although extemporary pathology revealed an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, the final histologic diagnosis was a Müllerian adenosarcoma arising from rectal endometriosis. To our knowledge, except a concomitant rectal villotubular adenoma, cases of Müllerian adenosarcomas arising the rectal wall are rare. An adenosarcoma arising from endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass, even one appearing in rectal wall, because ectopic endometrial tissue exists everywhere. PMID:25360431

  2. Surgical Therapy of Endometriosis: Challenges and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, S.; Ulrich, U.; Schweppe, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common disorders encountered in surgical gynaecology. The laparoscopic technique, the planning of the surgical intervention, the extent of information provided to patients and the interdisciplinary coordination make it a challenging intervention. Complete resection of all visible foci of disease offers the best control of symptoms. However, the possibility of achieving this goal is limited by the difficulty of detecting all foci and the risks associated with radical surgical strategies. Thus, the excision of ovarian endometrioma can result in a significant impairment of ovarian function, while damage to nerve structures during resection of the uterosacral ligaments, the parametrium, the rectovaginal septum or the vaginal cuff to treat deep infiltrating endometriosis can lead to serious functional impairments such as voiding disorders. A detailed risk-benefit analysis is therefore necessary, and patients must be treated using an individual approach. PMID:24771943

  3. Surgical Therapy of Endometriosis: Challenges and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, S; Ulrich, U; Schweppe, K W

    2013-09-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common disorders encountered in surgical gynaecology. The laparoscopic technique, the planning of the surgical intervention, the extent of information provided to patients and the interdisciplinary coordination make it a challenging intervention. Complete resection of all visible foci of disease offers the best control of symptoms. However, the possibility of achieving this goal is limited by the difficulty of detecting all foci and the risks associated with radical surgical strategies. Thus, the excision of ovarian endometrioma can result in a significant impairment of ovarian function, while damage to nerve structures during resection of the uterosacral ligaments, the parametrium, the rectovaginal septum or the vaginal cuff to treat deep infiltrating endometriosis can lead to serious functional impairments such as voiding disorders. A detailed risk-benefit analysis is therefore necessary, and patients must be treated using an individual approach. PMID:24771943

  4. Spontaneous endometriosis in a mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S; Ochiai, K; Ochi, A; Ito, M; Kamiya, T; Yamamoto, H

    2012-01-01

    A 25-year-old female mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) died after exhibiting weakness and recumbency with serosanguineous ascites. Gross findings included haemoperitoneum and multifocal to diffuse serosal thickening with petechiae and ecchymoses throughout the peritoneum. The uterus was covered entirely with large blood clots and was adherent to the ovaries and pelvic wall. Microscopical and immunohistochemical examination revealed extra- and intra-uterine growth of ectopic endometrial tissue with marked fibrosis. The ectopic endometrial tissues predominantly consisted of stromal cells expressing CD10 and progesterone receptor and variably-sized glands lined by the epithelium with occasional slight expression of oestrogen receptor ?. A diagnosis of endometriosis was made. This is the first report of naturally occurring endometriosis in a mandrill. PMID:22520805

  5. Review: luminescence as a tool to assess pelvic endometriosis development in murine models.

    PubMed

    Defrère, Sylvie; Colette, Sébastien; Lousse, Jean-Christophe; Donnez, Jacques; Van Langendonckt, Anne

    2009-12-01

    Classic murine endometriosis models may be insufficient to evaluate the effect of therapeutic agents on endometriosis development, because the process of identification and measurement of induced lesions is often impeded, as implants are small and embedded in murine tissue. In this context, as summarized in the current review, luminescence techniques have proved useful for identifying and visualizing or quantifying endometriotic transplants. They are also a valuable tool for endometrial cell tracking in live animals, yielding further information by adding spatial and temporal dimensions to biological processes in vivo. Such approaches involve transplanting luminescently labeled murine or human endometrium into animals. Two main strategies are applied to label endometrium before injection: use of genetically modified tissue or tissue labeled with a fluorescent dye. Each model has its advantages and disadvantages, the choice of model depends on the study objectives/design (long- or short-term studies, homologous or heterologous model). PMID:19380902

  6. Transrectal ultrasonography in the assessment of rectovaginal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Fedele; S. Bianchi; A. Portuese; F. Borruto; M. Dorta

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the validity of transrectal ultrasonography in the assessment of rectovaginal endometriosis.Methods: We compared the findings of transrectal ultrasonographic examination performed before surgery with the operative and pathologic findings in 140 women who underwent laparoscopy or laparotomy for suspected endometriosis. The ultrasonographer was asked to investigate whether any deep endometriotic lesions were present in the rectovaginal septum and

  7. Spontaneous External Endometriosis in a Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)

    PubMed Central

    Doré, Monique; Lagacé, Andre

    1985-01-01

    The present report describes a case of external endometriosis in a 28 year old female gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). Microscopical examination of a pelvic mass observed at necropsy revealed ovarian tissue together with uterine glands and stroma, fibrous tissue and many siderophages. Theories of pathogenesis of external endometriosis are briefly reviewed. ImagesFigure 1 and 2. PMID:17422589

  8. Extrapelvic endometriosis: a rare entity or an under diagnosed condition?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is a clinical entity characterized by the presence of normal endometrial mucosa abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can be either endopelvic or extrapelvicdepending on the location of endometrial tissue implantation. Despite the rarity of extrapelvic endometriosis, several cases of endometriosis of the gastrointestinal tract, the urinarytract, the upper and lower respiratory system, the diaphragm, the pleura and the pericardium, as well as abdominal scars loci have been reported in the literature. There are several theories about the pathogenesis and the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Depending on the place of endometrial tissue implantation, endometriosis can be expressed with a wide variety of symptoms. The diagnosis of this entity is neither easy nor routine. Many diagnostic methods clinical and laboratory have been used, but none of them is the golden standard. The multipotent localization of endometriosis in combination with the wide range of its clinical expression should raise the clinical suspicion in every woman with periodic symptoms of extrapelvic organs. Finally, the therapeutic approach of this clinical entity is also correlated with the bulk of endometriosis and the locum that it is found. It varies from simple observation, to surgical treatment and treatment with medication as well as a combination of those. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1968087883113362. PMID:24294950

  9. Expression profiling of endometrium from women with endometriosis reveals candidate genes for disease-based implantation failure and infertility.

    PubMed

    Kao, L C; Germeyer, A; Tulac, S; Lobo, S; Yang, J P; Taylor, R N; Osteen, K; Lessey, B A; Giudice, L C

    2003-07-01

    Endometriosis is clinically associated with pelvic pain and infertility, with implantation failure strongly suggested as an underlying cause for the observed infertility. Eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis provides a unique experimental paradigm for investigation into molecular mechanisms of reproductive dysfunction and an opportunity to identify specific markers for this disease. We applied paralleled gene expression profiling using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate differentially regulated genes in endometrium from women with vs. without endometriosis. Fifteen endometrial biopsy samples (obtained during the window of implantation from eight subjects with and seven subjects without endometriosis) were processed for expression profiling on Affymetrix Hu95A microarrays. Data analysis was conducted with GeneChip Analysis Suite, version 4.01, and GeneSpring version 4.0.4. Nonparametric testing was applied, using a P value of 0.05, to assess statistical significance. Of the 12,686 genes analyzed, 91 genes were significantly increased more than 2-fold in their expression, and 115 genes were decreased more than 2-fold. Unsupervised clustering demonstrated down-regulation of several known cell adhesion molecules, endometrial epithelial secreted proteins, and proteins not previously known to be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, as well as up-regulated genes. Selected dysregulated genes were randomly chosen and validated with RT-PCR and/or Northern/dot-blot analyses, and confirmed up-regulation of collagen alpha2 type I, 2.6-fold; bile salt export pump, 2.0-fold; and down-regulation of N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase (important in synthesis of L-selectin ligands), 1.7-fold; glycodelin, 51.5-fold; integrin alpha2, 1.8-fold; and B61 (Ephrin A1), 4.5-fold. Two-way overlapping layer analysis used to compare endometrial genes in the window of implantation from women with and without endometriosis further identified three unique groups of target genes, which differ with respect to the implantation window and the presence of disease. Group 1 target genes are up-regulated during the normal window of implantation but significantly decreased in women with endometriosis: IL-15, proline-rich protein, B61, Dickkopf-1, glycodelin, N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase, G0S2 protein, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Group 2 genes are normally down-regulated during the window of implantation but are significantly increased with endometriosis: semaphorin E, neuronal olfactomedin-related endoplasmic reticulum localized protein mRNA and Sam68-like phosphotyrosine protein alpha. Group 3 consists of a single gene, neuronal pentraxin II, normally down-regulated during the window of implantation and further decreased in endometrium from women with endometriosis. The data support dysregulation of select genes leading to an inhospitable environment for implantation, including genes involved in embryonic attachment, embryo toxicity, immune dysfunction, and apoptotic responses, as well as genes likely contributing to the pathogenesis of endometriosis, including aromatase, progesterone receptor, angiogenic factors, and others. Identification and validation of selected genes and their functions will contribute to uncovering previously unknown mechanism(s) underlying implantation failure in women with endometriosis and infertility, mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of endometriosis and providing potential new targets for diagnostic screening and intervention. PMID:12810542

  10. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer: clinical and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, A; Vlahos, N F

    2014-09-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most commonly encountered benign problems in gynecology. Even though endometriosis appears to predispose to ovarian cancer the progression from atypical epithelial proliferation (atypical endometriosis and metaplasia), to the formation of well-defined borderline tumors and finally to endometrioid ovarian cancer will take several years. To elaborate on the concept of endometriosis as a precursor of some types of ovarian cancer, we present an overview of the pathophysiological and genetic characteristics, common in those two conditions. Furthermore, we present the genetic mutations found in ovarian cancers and we outline the common genetic alterations of endometriosis and ovarian cancer, focusing on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-signaling pathway. PMID:25003226

  11. Umbilical endometriosis: report of a case and its dermoscopic features*

    PubMed Central

    Jaime, Thais Jerez; Jaime, Tatiana Jerez; Ormiga, Patrícia; Leal, Fabiano; Nogueira, Osvania Maris; Rodrigues, Nilton

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous endometriosis is a rare manifestation of endometriosis, representing 0.5% to 1% of all endometriosis cases. It can be divided into primary and secondary, when appearing spontaneously or after a surgical procedure, when it is mostly found on surgical scar tissue. Some etiologies were proposed, but none of them could entirely explain the appearance of the tumor. Differential diagnosis includes melanoma, metastatic nodule, keloid and pyogenic granuloma. Dermoscopic features are not yet well established, but there are some characteristics that suggest the diagnosis. Treatment is surgical in larger sized lesions. Malignization can occur. The screening for endometriosis is mandatory by means of gynecologic, imaging and marked-tumor evaluation. We report a case of primary umbilical endometriosis and discuss its dermoscopic aspects. PMID:23539017

  12. Scar endometriosis in a patient with bladder exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Takahito; Inoue, Mikihiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Otake, Kohei; Kusunoki, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is an ectopic occurrence of tissue morphologically and functionally resembling endometrial tissue in regions outside the uterine cavity. Although scar endometriosis after surgery has been shown to be most common among all the extrapelvic forms of endometriosis, endometriosis after bladder exstrophy surgery has not been reported, and here we present the first known case. A 26-year-old woman with a history of bladder exstrophy was aware of a painful induration at the operative scar located in the left lower abdominal wall, and presented at our hospital. Although the symptoms resolved, recurring exacerbation was observed after 9 months. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging showed a heterogeneous mass 16 mm in diameter in the left abdominal wall with high signal intensity on T1W1 and T2W1 images. She underwent excisional biopsy of the lesion under general anesthesia. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis. Eighteen months after surgery, she was well and free from recurrence. PMID:23701150

  13. Cutaneous decidualized endometriosis in a nonpregnant female: a potential pseudomalignancy.

    PubMed

    DeClerck, Brittney K; Post, Miriam D; Wisell, Joshua A

    2012-07-01

    Endometriosis is a disease process characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue. Involvement most commonly occurs in the lower pelvis, outside the uterine cavity, but can occur elsewhere, including the skin. Cutaneous endometriosis is a rare manifestation of this disease, with decidualization occurring in a very small minority of cases, almost always seen in pregnant females. Cutaneous involvement of endometriosis may present a diagnostic problem for the pathologist, particularly in the event of decidualization. Decidualization may mimic a malignancy and as a result may result in unnecessary diagnostic studies for the patient. We present a case of a nonpregnant patient with decidualized cutaneous endometriosis, discuss the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of this entity, and review the pertinent literature on this subject. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of cutaneous decidualized endometriosis in a nonpregnant female. PMID:22534633

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Endometriosis: Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis Does Not Originate from the Rectovaginal Septum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Chapron; Etienne Liaras; Patricia Fayet; Christine Hoeffel; Arnaud Fauconnier; Marco Vieira; Habib Barakat; Bertrand Dousset; Paul Legmann; André Bonnin; Jean-Bernard Dubuisson

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging signs of deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) lesions and above all to find out if MR imaging can pinpoint the location of these lesions. We made a retrospective study of 8 patients presenting with histologically proven DIE lesions. The MR imaging results were compared with intraoperative findings. Nodules

  15. [Transmural rectal endometriosis as a cause of chronic constipation. A case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Hernández Magro, Paulino Martínez; Barrón Vega, Raúl; Rivas Larrauri, Eduardo; Godínez Guerrero, Mario Alberto; Pérez González, Matías; López Patiño, Salvador

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of intestinal endometriosis is reported between 5.3 and 12% of cases and of these, between 70 and 93% are located in the rectum and sigmoid. We report the case of a 32-year-old with constipation and bloating and cramping pain during the last 2 years. The pain increased in frequency during the past 6 months. From the data obtained from physical examination and imaging studies may be suspected pelvic endometriosis with infiltration of anterior rectal wall. Resection of the low anterior rectum with colo-rectal anastomosis was performed, with adequate surgical outcome and resolution of symptoms. In patients of childbearing age with abdominal or pelvic pain, constipation of recent onset or occlusive bowel, which may or may not be related to the menstrual cycle should be considered transmural infiltration by endometrial tissue. PMID:21966840

  16. Endometriosis as a neurovascular condition: estrous variations in innervation, vascularization, and growth factor content of ectopic endometrial cysts

    E-print Network

    Berkley, Karen J.

    Endometriosis as a neurovascular condition: estrous variations in innervation, vascularizationGinty KA, Berkley KJ. Endometriosis as a neurovascular condition: estrous variations in innervation severity. The findings also encourage consideration of endometriosis as a neurovascular condition

  17. Human RAS Superfamily Proteins and Related GTPases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Colicelli (University of California Los Angeles; Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology Institute REV)

    2004-09-14

    Proteins that bind and hydrolyze GTP (guanosine triphosphate), known as GTPases, are pervasive mediators of intracellular signal transduction. Among the first human GTPases studied were the RAS proteins, which are often found in mutated, hyperactive forms in cancer cells. Over the past 25 years, a family of RAS-related proteins has been identified. This review considers recent progress in understanding the biochemical properties and biological function of RAS family proteins. Analysis of the human genome was used to identify novel members of this family. In addition, comparisons with the completed genomes of fly and worm revealed new insights into evolution and structural conservation, with implications for predicting function. An overview of the full complement of human RAS superfamily proteins, and how they fit within a larger group of human GTPases, is presented.

  18. Serial analysis of gene expression reveals differential expression between endometriosis and normal endometrium. Possible roles for AXL and SHC1 in the pathogenesis of endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Honda; Fermin F Barrueto; Jean Gogusev; Dwight D Im; Patrice J Morin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a clinical condition that affects up to 10% of the women of reproductive age. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissues outside the uterine cavity and can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility and, in some cases, to ovarian cancer. METHODS: In order to better understand the pathogenesis of endometriosis, we have used Serial Analysis

  19. Endometriosis After Surgical Menopause Mimicking Pelvic Malignancy: Surgeons’ Predicament

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Rani A.; Teo, Melissa; Bhat, Akhil Krishnanand

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of persistent endometriosis in women after menopause without any hormonal replacement therapy is very rare. This is a case of a woman with previous history of total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for endometriosis who presented with hemoperitoneum, vaginal bleeding, pelvic mass, and pulmonary thromboembolism mimicking as rectovaginal septum carcinoma. This is the first case report with a unique mode of presentation wherein the patient presented with hemoperitoneum requiring emergency embolization of the vessel to stabilize the patient. She underwent en bloc resection of the tumor with high anterior resection of the rectum. Histopathology confirmed endometriosis. PMID:24936277

  20. Colonoscopic tattoo dye spillage mimics endometriosis on laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, Shlomo M; Shurshalina, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Rare adverse effects of India ink injection spillage during colonoscopy have been reported. We present a case report in which prior colonoscopic India ink tattooing was found to mimic intraperitoneal endometriosis in a 48 year-old woman undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Multiple black lesions suspicious for endometriosis involving the anterior and posterior cul-de-sac, left ovary, and omentum were found. A pathological assessment showed peritoneal tissue with focal dark pigment associated with mild chronic inflammation and deposition of tattoo pigment; there was no evidence of endometriosis in the specimens. Surgical recognition of tattoo ink spillage in the peritoneum is very important to prevent misinterpretation of peritoneal findings. PMID:24473152

  1. Clinical Prediction of Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis before Surgery: Is It Feasible? A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça Carneiro, Márcia; de Sousa Filogônio, Ivone Dirk; Pyramo Costa, Luciana Maria; de Ávila, Ivete; França Ferreira, Márcia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Background. Endometriosis is a chronic benign gynecologic disease that can cause pelvic pain and infertility affecting almost 10% of reproductive-age women. Deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) is a specific entity responsible for painful symptoms which are related to the anatomic location of the lesions. Definitive diagnosis requires surgery, and histological confirmation is advisable. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the possibility of diagnosing DIE accurately before surgery. Despite its low sensitivity and specificity, vaginal examination and evaluation of specific symptoms should not be completely omitted as a basic diagnostic tool in detecting endometriosis and planning further therapeutic interventions. Recently, transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) has been reported as an excellent tool to diagnose DIE lesions in different locations (rectovaginal septum, retrocervical and paracervical areas, rectum and sigmoid, and vesical wall) with good accuracy. Conclusion. There are neither sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms nor diagnostic tests for the clinical diagnosis of DIE, resulting in a great delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Digital examination, in addition to TVS, may help to gain better understanding of the anatomical extent and dimension of DIE which is of crucial importance in defining the best surgical approach. PMID:24089684

  2. Relational and Transcendental Humanism: Exploring the Consequences of a Thoroughly Pragmatic Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The relational and transcendental elements of humanism are considered. Although the relational component of humanism is extraordinarily valuable, the author argues that the transcendental portion of humanism should be abandoned. The implications of a thoroughly pragmatic humanism are explored.

  3. Decorin induced by progesterone plays a crucial role in suppressing endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yoshihiro Joshua; Terai, Yoshito; Tanabe, Akiko; Hayashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Masami; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Kyo, Satoru; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2014-11-01

    Dienogest, a synthetic progestin, has been shown to be effective against endometriosis, although it is still unclear as to how it affects the ectopic endometrial cells. Decorin has been shown to be a powerful endogenous tumor repressor acting in a paracrine fashion to limit tumor growth. Our objectives were to examine the direct effects of progesterone and dienogest on the in vitro proliferation of the human ectopic endometrial epithelial and stromal cell lines, and evaluate as to how decorin contributes to this effect. We also examined DCN mRNA expression in 50 endometriosis patients. The growth of both cell lines was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both decorin and dienogest. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, it was noted that progesterone and dienogest directly induced the binding of the decorin promoter in the EMOsis cc/TERT cells (immortalized human ovarian epithelial cells) and CRL-4003 cells (immortalized human endometrial stromal cells). Progesterone and dienogest also led to significant induced cell cycle arrest via decorin by promoting production of p21 in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Decorin also suppressed the expression of MET in both cell lines. We confirmed that DCN mRNA expression in patients treated with dienogest was higher than that in the control group. In conclusion, decorin induced by dienogest appears to play a crucial role in suppressing endometriosis by exerting anti-proliferative effects and inducing cell cycle arrest via the production of p21 human ectopic endometrial cells and eutopic endometrial stromal cells. PMID:25244916

  4. Human relational memory requires time and sleep.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Hu, Peter T; Payne, Jessica D; Titone, Debra; Walker, Matthew P

    2007-05-01

    Relational memory, the flexible ability to generalize across existing stores of information, is a fundamental property of human cognition. Little is known, however, about how and when this inferential knowledge emerges. Here, we test the hypothesis that human relational memory develops during offline time periods. Fifty-six participants initially learned five "premise pairs" (A>B, B>C, C>D, D>E, and E>F). Unknown to subjects, the pairs contained an embedded hierarchy (A>B>C>D>E>F). Following an offline delay of either 20 min, 12 hr (wake or sleep), or 24 hr, knowledge of the hierarchy was tested by examining inferential judgments for novel "inference pairs" (B>D, C>E, and B>E). Despite all groups achieving near-identical premise pair retention after the offline delay (all groups, >85%; the building blocks of the hierarchy), a striking dissociation was evident in the ability to make relational inference judgments: the 20-min group showed no evidence of inferential ability (52%), whereas the 12- and 24-hr groups displayed highly significant relational memory developments (inference ability of both groups, >75%; P < 0.001). Moreover, if the 12-hr period contained sleep, an additional boost to relational memory was seen for the most distant inferential judgment (the B>E pair; sleep = 93%, wake = 69%, P = 0.03). Interestingly, despite this increase in performance, the sleep benefit was not associated with an increase in subjective confidence for these judgments. Together, these findings demonstrate that human relational memory develops during offline time delays. Furthermore, sleep appears to preferentially facilitate this process by enhancing hierarchical memory binding, thereby allowing superior performance for the more distant inferential judgments, a benefit that may operate below the level of conscious awareness. PMID:17449637

  5. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Achach, Thouraya; Rammeh, Soumaya; Trabelsi, Amel; Ltaief, Rached; Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Mokni, Moncef; Korbi, Sadok

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated. PMID:19266089

  6. Neuroendocrine–immune disequilibrium and endometriosis: an interdisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Tariverdian, Nadja; Theoharides, Theoharis C.; Siedentopf, Friederike; Gutiérrez, Gabriela; Jeschke, Udo; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Blois, Sandra M.

    2007-01-01

    Endometriosis, a chronic disease characterized by endometrial tissue located outside the uterine cavity, affects one fourth of young women and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. However, an in-depth understanding of the pathophysiology and effective treatment strategies of endometriosis is still largely elusive. Inadequate immune and neuroendocrine responses are significantly involved in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, and key findings are summarized in the present review. We discuss here the role of different immune mechanisms particularly adhesion molecules, protein–glycan interactions, and pro-angiogenic mediators in the development and progression of the disease. Finally, we introduce the concept of endometrial dissemination as result of a neuroendocrine-immune disequilibrium in response to high levels of perceived stress caused by cardinal clinical symptoms of endometriosis. PMID:17621704

  7. Umbilical endometriosis: A rare diagnosis in plastic and reconstructive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Malebranche, A Daniel; Bush, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical endometriosis infrequently presents to the plastic surgeon. As such, the diagnosis is difficult to make because it is often overlooked. The current report presents a 35-year-old nulligravid woman with a six-month history of a firm, cyclically swelling lesion in her umbilical region. None of the signs characteristic of pelvic endometriosis except dysmenorrhea and a one-year history of infertility were present. Biopsy of the lesion revealed umbilical endometriosis (grade IV), and laparoscopy uncovered extensive disease. Monopolar cautery with coagulating current umbilical excision and reconstruction with a purse-string suture was used. The results underscore the importance of a broad differential diagnosis for an umbilical lesion in a middle-age woman. They also highlight the importance of early recognition and appropriate surgical intervention to minimize morbidity and mortality associated with umbilical endometriosis. PMID:22131844

  8. Multiple endometrial antigens are targeted in autoimmune endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Gajbhiye; A Suryawanshi; S Khan; P Meherji; N Warty; V Raut; N Chehna; V Khole

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the growth of endometrial glands and stroma in ectopic locations. Its aetiology is multifactorial, but autoimmunity has been shown to play a role in its onset and development. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of both IgG and IgM anti-endometrial antibodies in sera of endometriosis patients in comparison with age-matched controls, and to also

  9. Peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis, and adenomyotic nodules of the rectovaginal septum are three different entities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Nisolle; Jacques Donnez

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To review the histogenesis of peritoneal, ovarian, and rectovaginal endometriotic lesions.Design: The comparison of morphologic, morphometric, and histochemical data observed in each type of lesion.Setting: A university hospital department of gynecology.Patient(s): Patients complaining of infertility or pelvic pain with laparoscopically proved endometriosis.Intervention(s): Laparoscopy was performed, and biopsy specimens from the endometriotic lesions were histologically studied.Result(s): Three types of endometriotic

  10. Multiple endometrial antigens are targeted in autoimmune endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Gajbhiye, R; Suryawanshi, A; Khan, S; Meherji, P; Warty, N; Raut, V; Chehna, N; Khole, V

    2008-06-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the growth of endometrial glands and stroma in ectopic locations. Its aetiology is multifactorial, but autoimmunity has been shown to play a role in its onset and development. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of both IgG and IgM anti-endometrial antibodies in sera of endometriosis patients in comparison with age-matched controls, and to also investigate the cognate endometrial proteins involved. Sera from these groups were screened by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Thirteen out of the 40 sera tested were positive for IgG isotype, and 10/27 IgG negative patients were positive for IgM isotype. These findings indicate that endometrial antibodies of IgG and IgM classes could be detected in almost 60% of endometriosis patients. Of the various identified endometrial antigens, 30 and 45 kDa antigens were immunodominant in both IgG and IgM positive endometriosis patients. With immunohistochemistry, positive sera showed reactivity in luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium and stroma. These anti-endometrial antibodies might be partially responsible for failure of implantation leading to infertility. Identification of specific targets would be a help in understanding the pathophysiology of endometriosis, and would also help in setting up a non-invasive test for the diagnosis of endometriosis. PMID:18549691

  11. Defining future directions for endometriosis research: workshop report from the 2011 World Congress of Endometriosis In Montpellier, France.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter A W; D'Hooghe, Thomas M; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C; Montgomery, Grant W; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N

    2013-05-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.(1) A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  12. An unusual case of asymptomatic spontaneous umbilical endometriosis treated with skin-sparing excision.

    PubMed

    Arkoulis, Nikolaos; Chew, Ben K

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous umbilical endometriosis is a rare extrapelvic manifestation of endometriosis. Very few such cases have been previously reported, almost always associated with a variety of symptoms, usually during menstruation. We present a case of asymptomatic umbilical endometriosis treated with skin-sparing excision. Differential diagnoses relevant to the clinician, as well as treatment options, are also presented. Surgeons should always consider umbilical endometriosis in their diagnostic approach when confronted with atypical umbilical nodules, regardless of whether they are symptomatic or not. PMID:25770141

  13. Bronchial Artery Embolization in the Management of Pulmonary Parenchymal Endometriosis with Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kervancioglu, Selim, E-mail: skervancioglu@yahoo.com; Andic, Cagatay [Gaziantep University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Bayram, Nazan [Gaziantep University Medical Faculty, Department of Pulmonary Diseases (Turkey); Telli, Cumali; Sarica, Akif; Sirikci, Akif [Gaziantep University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    Pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis is extremely rare and usually manifests itself with a recurrent hemoptysis associated with the menstrual cycle. The therapies proposed for women with endometriosis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization has become a well-established and minimally invasive treatment modality for hemoptysis, and to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in pulmonary endometriosis. We report a case of pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis treated with embolotheraphy for hemoptysis.

  14. Ovarian endometriosis: a marker for more extensive pelvic and intestinal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Byron Redwine

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To describe a computerized pelvic mapping system for pelvic and intestinal endometriosis and preliminary insights gained from it with respect to the effects of ovarian disease.Design: Contemporaneous computerized tabulation of pelvic and intestinal sites of biopsy-proved endometriosis.Setting: Tertiary referral center for the surgical treatment of endometriosis.Patient(s): One thousand nine hundred seventy-nine patients with endometriosis, 547 of whom had intestinal

  15. Cytochrome P450c17? 5?-untranslated region *T\\/C polymorphism in endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao-Yuan Hsieh; Chi-Chen Chang; Fuu-Jen Tsai; Cheng-Chieh Lin; Chang-Hai Tsai

    2004-01-01

    Estrogen plays a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The CYP17 gene codes for the cytochrome P450c17? enzyme that is\\u000a involved in the estrogen biosynthesis. We aimed to investigate if CYP17 polymorphism could be used as marker to predict the\\u000a susceptibility of endometriosis. Women were divided into two groups: (1) severe endometriosis (n=119); (2) non-endometriosis\\u000a groups (n=128). A 169-bp fragment

  16. Variants in EMX2 and PTEN do not contribute to risk of endometriosis

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    Variants in EMX2 and PTEN do not contribute to risk of endometriosis Susan A. Treloar1,5, Zhen Zhen-7-33620229; Fax: þ61-7-33620101; E-mail: susan.treloar@qimr.edu.au Endometriosis has a genetic component, implicated in both endometriosis and endometrial cancer, lie on chromosome 10q. We hypothesized

  17. Polymorphisms in the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and the risk of familial endometriosis

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    Polymorphisms in the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and the risk of familial endometriosis) is an endothelial cell-specific angiogenic protein suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis between the SNPs in the VEGF region and endometriosis. To further investigate the reported association

  18. Genetic variation in tumour necrosis factor and lymphotoxin is not associated with endometriosis in an

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    Genetic variation in tumour necrosis factor and lymphotoxin is not associated with endometriosis lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) gene might be associ- ated with endometriosis. METHODS: We examined the association between endometriosis and common single-nucleo- tide polymorphisms (SNPs) or haplotypes in the TNF

  19. Significant evidence of one or more susceptibility loci for endometriosis with near-Mendelian inheritance

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    Significant evidence of one or more susceptibility loci for endometriosis with near, Gary Dawson, Vicki Smith, Alisoun Carey, and Simon T.Bennett; Queensland Endometriosis Research@well.ox.ac.uk BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a common disease with a heritable component. The collaborative International

  20. Effects of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Methoxychlor on Surgically Induced Endometriosis in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey M. Cummings; Joan L. Metcalf

    1995-01-01

    Effects of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Methoxychlor on Surgically Induced Endometriosis in Rats. Cummings, A. M., and Metcalf, J. L. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 27, 287-290.Endometriosis is a disease of women where endometrial tissue is found growing at ectopic sites. While evidence suggesting a role for the ovarian hormones in endometriosis exists, no complete studies of the roles of estrogen and

  1. Quasi-resonance enhancement of laser-induced-fluorescence diagnosis of endometriosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Ralph H., Jr.; Vancaillie, Thierry G.

    1990-05-01

    Endometriosis, a common disease in women in the reproductive age group, is defined pathologically by the presence of endometrial tissue (inner lining of the uterus) outside the uterus. The displaced tissue is histologically identical to endometrium. In addition to being a highly prevalent disease, this disease is associated with many distressing and debilitating symptoms. Motivated by the need to improve diagnosis by endoscopic imaging instrumentation, we have previously used several drugs to cause selective laser-induced fluorescence of active surgically induced endometriosis in the rabbit model in vivo using ultraviolet-wavelength (351.1 and 363.8 nm) excitation from an argon-ion laser. In the present study we have investigated methods of enhancing differentiation between normal and abnormal tissue by using other excitation wavelengths. In addition to an enhanced capability for detecting abnormal tissue, there are several other advantages associated with using visible-wavelength excitation, such as deeper penetration into the tissue, as well as increased equipment performance, reliability, versatility, and availability. The disadvantage is that because only wavelengths longer than the excitation wavelength can be used for detection, some of the spectral information is lost. Because human endomeiriosis samples were somewhat limited in quantity, as well as specimen size, we used normal ovarian tissue for the laser-induced-fluorescence differentiation-enhancement studies. Positive enhancement of the laser-induced- fluorescence differentiation was found in human ovarian tissue in vitro utilizing 514.5-nm excitation from an argonion laser. Additionally, preliminary verification of this concept was accomplished in active surgically induced endometriosis in the rabbit model in vivo with visible argon-ion laser excitation of two tetracycline-based drugs. Future experiments with other drug treatments and excitation/detection parameters are planned.

  2. Potential role of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Abu Hashim, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory disease affecting 5%–10% of reproductive-age women, with a prevalence of 5%–50% in infertile women and >33% of women with chronic pelvic pain. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are approved adjuvants for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Molecular studies have revealed the presence of aromatase P450, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ovarian estradiol, inside the endometriotic tissue, indicating local synthesis of estradiol. Thereby, AIs represent an appealing medical option for the management of different aspects of this enigmatic disease, especially pelvic pain and infertility. Accordingly, this review aims to evaluate the potential role of AIs in the treatment of endometriosis-associated symptoms, mainly pain and infertility. Notably, several studies have demonstrated that the combination of AIs with conventional therapy as oral contraceptive pills, progestins, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be used to control endometriosis-associated pain and pain recurrence in premenopausal women, particularly those with pain due to rectovaginal endometriosis refractory to other medical or surgical treatment. Some case reports have shown promising results in the treatment of postmenopausal endometriosis as first-line treatment, when surgery is contraindicated, or as second-line treatment in the case of postoperative recurrence. Third-generation AIs, especially letrozole, have challenged clomiphene citrate as an ovulation-induction agent in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and in cases of unexplained infertility. However, few studies are available regarding the use of AIs to treat endometriosis-associated infertility. Therefore, larger multicenter randomized trials using AIs for the treatment of endometriosis-associated infertility are needed to clarify its effect. The safety of AIs for ovulation induction or superovulation has generated a lively discussion. Data from recent retrospective and prospective studies have supported its safety. PMID:25092998

  3. Menstrual endometrial supernatant may induce stromal endometriosis in baboons.

    PubMed

    Kyama, Cleophas Mutinda; Falconer, Henrik; Cuneo, Silvio; Chai, Daniel; Mihalyi, Attila; Mwenda, Jason; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that endometriosis can be induced in baboons more successfully by intra-pelvic injection of the pellet of menstrual endometrium when compared to its supernatant. Menstrual endometrium, separated into pellet (n = 5) and supernatant fractions ( n = 8), or phosphate buffered saline (1 ml, n = 7, controls) was injected laparoscopically into the pelvis. During laparoscopy 25 days later, the number (? = 0.027) and surface area (? <0.0001) of endometriosis-like lesions were significantly higher in the pellet group, than in the supernatant group, or in the control group. Histological typical endometriosis was present only in the endometrial pellet group (1/15), whereas stromal endometriosis was observed in both the pellet group (6/15), and the supernatant group (6/20). Peritoneal endometrial like glands were observed in both the endometrial pellet group (3/15), and in the supernatant group (1/20). In conclusion, we confirmed our hypothesis that endometriosis can be induced in baboons more successfully by intrapelvic injection of the pellet of menstrual endometrium when compared to its supernatant. PMID:24389257

  4. Ovarian endometriosis associated with carcinoma and sarcoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Boruban, M C; Jaishuen, A; Sirisabya, N; Li, Y; Zheng, H G; Deavers, M T; Kavanagh, J J

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common clinical disorder that shares certain characteristics, metastasis and recurrence, with malignant neoplasms. Most malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis are clear cell carcinoma or endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Few reports exist of sarcoma associated with endometriosis, and even fewer exist of multiple types of malignancies occurring simultaneously. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with infertility and a pelvic mass. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She was then referred to our institution for treatment recommendation. The pathologic findings revealed bilateral endometrioid adenofibroma of low malignant potential, which was associated with endometrioid intraepithelial carcinoma in the left ovary and high-grade sarcoma in the right ovary. Both tumors seemed to have arisen from endometriosis. She was treated with 75 mg/m2 of doxorubicin and 10 g/m2 of ifosfamide every three weeks for eight courses. She was later found to have bilateral brain metastases, which were resected and treated by whole-brain irradiation. She was again treated with doxorubicin and ifosfamide. The optimal treatment for endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer depends on the type of malignancy; simultaneously occurring multiple tumor types should be treated individually. PMID:18714578

  5. Medical Treatments for Endometriosis-Associated Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Luppi, Stefania; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The main sequelae of endometriosis are represented by infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain causes disability and distress with a very high economic impact. In the last decades, an impressive amount of pharmacological agents have been tested for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. However, only a few of these have been introduced into clinical practice. Following the results of the controlled studies available, to date, the first-line treatment for endometriosis associated pain is still represented by oral contraceptives used continuously. Progestins represent an acceptable alternative. In women with rectovaginal lesions or colorectal endometriosis, norethisterone acetate at low dosage should be preferred. GnRH analogues may be used as second-line treatment, but significant side effects should be taken into account. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used, but there is inconclusive evidence for their efficacy in relieving endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Other agents such as GnRH antagonist, aromatase inhibitors, immunomodulators, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors seem to be very promising, but there is not enough evidence to support their introduction into routine clinical practice. Some other agents, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-? ligands, antiangiogenic agents, and melatonin have been proven to be efficacious in animal studies, but they have not yet been tested in clinical studies. PMID:25165691

  6. Medical treatments for endometriosis-associated pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Zito, Gabriella; Luppi, Stefania; Giolo, Elena; Martinelli, Monica; Venturin, Irene; Di Lorenzo, Giovanni; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The main sequelae of endometriosis are represented by infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain causes disability and distress with a very high economic impact. In the last decades, an impressive amount of pharmacological agents have been tested for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. However, only a few of these have been introduced into clinical practice. Following the results of the controlled studies available, to date, the first-line treatment for endometriosis associated pain is still represented by oral contraceptives used continuously. Progestins represent an acceptable alternative. In women with rectovaginal lesions or colorectal endometriosis, norethisterone acetate at low dosage should be preferred. GnRH analogues may be used as second-line treatment, but significant side effects should be taken into account. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used, but there is inconclusive evidence for their efficacy in relieving endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Other agents such as GnRH antagonist, aromatase inhibitors, immunomodulators, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors seem to be very promising, but there is not enough evidence to support their introduction into routine clinical practice. Some other agents, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-? ligands, antiangiogenic agents, and melatonin have been proven to be efficacious in animal studies, but they have not yet been tested in clinical studies. PMID:25165691

  7. RUNX3 is inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cuishan; Ren, Fang; Wang, Danbo; Li, Yan; Liu, Kuiran; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Peng

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of epigenetic inactivation of the runt-related transcription factor 3 gene (RUNX3) in the malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis. Samples obtained by microdissection and scraping included 30 malignant ovarian endometriotic cyst tissues and 30 corresponding eutopic endometrium tissues from the endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC) group, 19 benign ovarian endometriotic cyst tissues and 22 corresponding eutopic endometrium tissues from the endometriosis (EM) group and 22 normal eutopic endometrium tissues from the control endometrium (CE) group. RUNX3 methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing, while levels of RUNX3 and ER? protein expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The percentage of RUNX3 methylation and negative RUNX3 protein expression in the malignant ovarian endometriotic cysts from the EAOC group was significantly higher than that in the benign ovarian endometriotic cysts from the EM group. The percentage of RUNX3 methylation and negative RUNX3 protein expression in the eutopic endometrium from the EAOC group was significantly higher than that in the EM and CE groups. An inverse correlation between positive RUNX3 protein expression and methylation was observed and a positive correlation was shown between RUNX3 methylation and ER? protein expression. In the malignant ovarian endometriotic cysts from the EAOC group, there was no significant correlation between methylation frequency of the RUNX3 gene and histological type. However, the percentage of RUNX3 gene methylation was significantly higher in the tissue samples from patients with surgical stage IC EAOC than the percentage in patients with stage IA and IB disease. These results suggest that RUNX3 inactivation by promoter hypermethylation plays a role in the progression of malignant transformation of ovarian EM and is closely related to estrogen metabolism. Negative protein expression and abnormal RUNX3 methylation in the eutopic endometrium could be used as diagnostic markers in patients with ovarian EM who may be at an increased risk of developing EAOC. PMID:25333219

  8. Endometriosis presenting with hemorrhagic ascites, severe anemia, and shock.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Trent L; Tomich, Eric B; Heiner, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic ascites due to endometriosis is an exceedingly uncommon diagnosis rarely reported in the medical literature. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department for flank and neck pain and was found to be hypotensive with massive hemorrhagic ascites and severe anemia. After emergency department resuscitation and hospitalization, her condition was found to be due to complications of endometriosis. A paracentesis of more than 4000 mL of bloody ascitic fluid revealed no evidence of cancer, and she was discharged on hospital day 3 with hormone therapy and no recurrence of symptoms upon outpatient follow-up. This case illustrates the clinical management, diagnostic approach, and underlying etiology of an infrequent but life-threatening complication of endometriosis. PMID:22809773

  9. Pathogenesis of Endometriosis: Roles of Retinoids and Inflammatory Pathways.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert N; Kane, Maureen A; Sidell, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Endometriosis is a nonmalignant, but potentially metastatic, gynecological condition manifested by the extrauterine growth of inflammatory endometrial implants. Ten percent of reproductive-age women are affected and commonly suffer pelvic pain and/or infertility. The theories of endometriosis histogenesis remain controversial, but retrograde menstruation and metaplasia each infer mechanisms that explain the immune cell responses observed around the ectopic lesions. Recent findings from our laboratories and others suggest that retinoic acid metabolism and action are fundamentally flawed in endometriotic tissues and even generically in women with endometriosis. The focus of our ongoing research is to develop medical therapies as adjuvants or alternatives to the surgical excision of these lesions. On the basis of concepts put forward in this review, we predict that the pharmacological actions and anticipated low side-effect profiles of retinoid supplementation might provide a new treatment option for the long-term management of this chronic and debilitating gynecological disease. PMID:26132929

  10. Primary umbilical endometriosis - Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Hilda; Marla, Nisha J; Pailoor, Kirana; Kini, Reshma

    2011-01-01

    Primary (spontaneous) umbilical endometriosis is very rare with an estimated incidence of 0.5-1% of all patients with endometrial ectopia. Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition, the pelvis being the most common site of the disease. Extrapelvic site is less common and even more difficult to diagnose due to the extreme variability in presentation. A 38-year-old woman presented with a blackish nodule over the umbilicus of 3 years duration. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the lesion showed cells in clusters and sheets with background of scant stromal fragment, hemosiderin laden macrophages and RBCs, leading to a suggestion of umbilical endometriosis. Histopathological examination of the excised lesion confirmed the same. PMID:22090700

  11. Clinical features of thoracic endometriosis: A single center analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sun Mi; Lee, Chung Won; Lee, Byung Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the diagnostic profiles and treatment outcomes of patients with thoracic endometriosis at a university hospital. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was performed for patients diagnosed with thoracic endometriosis at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, between January 2007 and January 2014. Results Fifteen patients (median age, 35 years; range, 23-48 years) were evaluated. Patients presented with catamenial hemoptysis (n=8), or catamenial pneumothorax (n=7). Patients with catamenial pneumothorax were significantly older than those presenting with hemoptysis (P=0.0002). Only 3 patients (20%) had coexisting pelvic endometriosis. All patients underwent chest computed tomography; lesions were shown to predominantly affect the right lung (right lung, n=13, 86.7%; left lung, n=2, 13.3%), and were mainly distributed on the right upper lobe (n=9, 60%). Ten patients underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, and 1 patient underwent a thoracotomy. Intraoperatively, endometriosis-specific findings were observed in 8/11 patients (72.7%); a further 5/11 patients (45.4%) had histologically detectable endometriosis. Over the follow-up period (mean, 18.4 months; range, 2-65 months) 5/15 patients (33%) had clinical signs of recurrence. Recurrence was not detected in any of the 5 catamenial pneumothorax patients that received adjuvant hormonal therapy after surgery. Conclusion The diagnosis and management of thoracic endometriosis requires a multidisciplinary approach, based upon skillful differential diagnosis, and involving careful gynecologic evaluation and assessment of the cyclicity of pulmonary symptoms. Imaging findings are non-specific, though there may be laterality towards the right lung. Since symptom recurrence is more common in those with presenting with pneumothorax, post-operative adjuvant medical therapy is recommended. PMID:26023672

  12. Relating Superhuman Virtuosity to Human Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Collins

    2002-01-01

    An exciting field of compositional endeavour is outlined in this paper. We focus upon transitions from human to beyond human performance ability founded in psychoacoustic measurement data. The challenge is to make such changes perceptually smooth and acoustically plausible. The point of greatest ambiguity and hence compositional tension is around the limits of what is humanly possible. Virtuosity contextualised accurately

  13. Association of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms with endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis Georgiou; Maria Syrrou; Ioanna Bouba; Nikolaos Dalkalitsis; Minas Paschopoulos; Iordanis Navrozoglou; Dimitrios Lolis

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To explore the association of the estrogen receptor two-allele (point) polymorphism and multiallele (microsatellite) polymorphism with endometriosis.Design: Case-control study.Setting: Genetics and Endoscopy Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ioannina University Hospital, Ioannina, Greece.Patient(s): Fifty-seven women with surgically and histologically diagnosed endometriosis of stages I–IV.Intervention(s): Diagnostic laparoscopy.Main Outcome Measure(s): Frequency and distribution of the estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms.Result(s): There was

  14. The pathophysiology of endometriosis and adenomyosis: tissue injury and repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Leyendecker; L. Wildt; G. Mall

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  This study presents a unifying concept of the pathophysiology of endometriosis and adenomyosis. In particular, a physiological\\u000a model is proposed that provides a comprehensive explanation of the local production of estrogen at the level of ectopic endometrial\\u000a lesions and the endometrium of women affected with the disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In women suffering from endometriosis and adenomyosis and in normal controls, a critical

  15. [Interest of selective progesterone receptor modulators in endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Merviel, P; Lourdel, E; Sanguin, S; Gagneur, O; Cabry, R; Nasreddine, A

    2013-09-01

    The SPRM (selective progesterone receptor modulators) are agonists and/or antagonists of progesterone receptor. They are responsible for anovulation, amenorrhea and a lower prostaglandin levels, which leads to an improvement in pain and regression of lesions in endometriosis. On the endometrium, a particular aspect, the progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes (PAEC), raises additional studies to verify its harmlessness. However, due to the lack of hypoestrogenism and metabolic effects with these drugs, it is very likely that the SPRM will in the near future an important place in the treatment of endometriosis. PMID:23972920

  16. Rapid peptidomic profiling of peritoneal fluid by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the identification of biomarkers of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Rosa Anna; Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Spada, Valentina; Facchiano, Angelo; d'Acierno, Antonio; Stocchero, Matteo; De Franciscis, Pasquale; Colacurci, Nicola; Sannolo, Nicola; Miraglia, Nadia

    2014-08-11

    Abstract Peptidomic profiling of peritoneal fluid by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) may represent a promising, suitable, rapid method for early diagnosis and staging of endometriosis. In a case-control study, peritoneal fluid was collected from 23 patients affected by endometriosis (eight minimal/mild endometriosis and 15 moderate/severe endometriosis) and six "endometriosis free" women undergoing laparoscopy. MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the peptide fraction extracted from peritoneal fluid samples lead to identify biomarkers potentially suitable for discriminating between peritoneal fluid samples from women affected by minimal/mild endometriosis and those from women affected by moderate/severe endometriosis. Peptidomic analysis of peritoneal fluid samples may define putative peptide biomarkers suitable for staging endometriosis and improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:25111755

  17. Structural and molecular features of the endomyometrium in endometriosis and adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Brosens, Ivo; Habiba, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adenomyosis and endometriosis were initially described as 'adenomyoma'. When the retrograde menstruation theory became widely accepted to explain the pathogenesis of endometriosis, since it does not explain adenomyosis, the two conditions came to be seen as distinct entities. However, emerging evidence suggests that both diseases may be linked to changes in the inner portion of the myometrium. In addition, similar anomalies were found in the eutopic endometrium of the two conditions and the debate has re-opened. A common origin for both adenomyosis and endometriosis would have relevance not only for understanding uterine function and pathophysiology, but also for clinical management and treatment. METHODS The Scopus and Medline databases were searched for all original articles published in English up to the end of 2012. Search terms included 'adenomyosis'; 'endometriosis'; 'endometrium'; 'eutopic endometrium'; 'inner myometrium'; 'junctional zone'. Special attention was paid to articles comparing features of eutopic endometrium in the two conditions. RESULTS A number of similarities exist between adenomyosis and endometriosis and, by using magnetic resonance and laparoscopy, it was found that, at least in some subgroups, the two conditions often coexist. In both situations the inner myometrium (or junctional zone) is altered, although alterations are much more marked in adenomyosis where a thickness >12 mm is today considered sufficient for diagnosis. Research has shown differences between the eutopic endometrium of women with both diseases when compared with controls. There is an immune dysfunction and there are alterations of adhesion molecules, cell proliferation and apoptosis. An increase in cytokines and inflammatory mediators has also been observed. Finally, the presence of oxidative stress and anomalies in free-radical metabolism may alter uterine receptivity. When the two conditions were compared, dissimilarities were also observed in the extent of apoptosis inhibition and in the expression of some inflammatory mediators. It is not clear if observed differences are primarily related to presenting symptoms. Finally, both conditions are steroid dependent and research suggests a role for epigenetic mechanisms. The analysis indicates that much of the published research may have been influenced by the method of diagnosis and/or has not been controlled for the presenting symptoms, the concomitant presence of both diseases or full consideration of fluctuations within cycle phase. CONCLUSIONS It is difficult to draw firm conclusions from existing evidence since major diagnostic limitations still exist and there is a systematic bias in clinical presentation. In addition, scanty information is available on the natural history of endometriosis and no studies exist on the natural history of adenomyosis. Notwithstanding these limitations, a number of similarities, but also some differences have been found between the eutopic endometrium in the two diseases. These findings need to be taken with considerable caution as the few instances where the research was repeated yielded conflicting results. PMID:24140719

  18. Endometriosis Impairs Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cell Recruitment to the Uterus Whereas Bazedoxifene Treatment Leads to Endometriosis Regression and Improved Uterine Stem Cell Engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Sharif; Naqvi, Hanyia; Komm, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a disease defined by the ectopic growth of uterine endometrium. Stem cells contribute to the generation of endometriosis as well as to repair and regeneration of normal endometrium. Here we demonstrate that the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA), administered with conjugated estrogens (CEs), leads to regression of endometriosis lesions as well as reduction in stem cell recruitment to the lesions. Female mice underwent transplantation of male bone marrow. Endometrium was transplanted in the peritoneal cavity of half to create experimental endometriosis. Mice with or without experimental endometriosis were randomized to BZA/CE or vehicle treatment. Endometriosis lesions, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell engraftment of the lesions, and eutopic endometrium as well as ovarian stimulation were assessed. BZA treatment significantly reduced lesion size, gland number, and expression of proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Ovarian weight was not affected. Stem cells were recruited to the endometriosis lesions, and this recruitment was dramatically reduced by BZA/CE treatment. Stem cell engraftment was reduced in the uterus of animals with endometriosis; however the number of stem cells engrafting the uterus was completely restored by treatment with BZA/CE. Competition between endometriosis and the eutopic endometrium for a limited supply of stem cells and depletion of normal stem cells flux to the uterus is a novel mechanism by which endometriosis interferes with endometrial function and fertility. BZA/CE not only treats lesions of endometriosis, it also dramatically reduces stem cell recruitment to the lesions and restores stem cell engraftment of the uterine endometrium. PMID:24484171

  19. Endometriosis impairs bone marrow-derived stem cell recruitment to the uterus whereas bazedoxifene treatment leads to endometriosis regression and improved uterine stem cell engraftment.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Sharif; Naqvi, Hanyia; Komm, Barry; Taylor, Hugh S

    2014-04-01

    Endometriosis is a disease defined by the ectopic growth of uterine endometrium. Stem cells contribute to the generation of endometriosis as well as to repair and regeneration of normal endometrium. Here we demonstrate that the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA), administered with conjugated estrogens (CEs), leads to regression of endometriosis lesions as well as reduction in stem cell recruitment to the lesions. Female mice underwent transplantation of male bone marrow. Endometrium was transplanted in the peritoneal cavity of half to create experimental endometriosis. Mice with or without experimental endometriosis were randomized to BZA/CE or vehicle treatment. Endometriosis lesions, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell engraftment of the lesions, and eutopic endometrium as well as ovarian stimulation were assessed. BZA treatment significantly reduced lesion size, gland number, and expression of proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Ovarian weight was not affected. Stem cells were recruited to the endometriosis lesions, and this recruitment was dramatically reduced by BZA/CE treatment. Stem cell engraftment was reduced in the uterus of animals with endometriosis; however the number of stem cells engrafting the uterus was completely restored by treatment with BZA/CE. Competition between endometriosis and the eutopic endometrium for a limited supply of stem cells and depletion of normal stem cells flux to the uterus is a novel mechanism by which endometriosis interferes with endometrial function and fertility. BZA/CE not only treats lesions of endometriosis, it also dramatically reduces stem cell recruitment to the lesions and restores stem cell engraftment of the uterine endometrium. PMID:24484171

  20. A Novel Noninvasive Model of Endometriosis for Monitoring the Efficacy of Antiangiogenic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christian M.; Wright, Renee D.; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Funakoshi, Tae; Folkman, Judah; Kung, Andrew L.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Endometriosis, the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue, is a common disease associated with high morbidity and socioeconomic problems. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, plays an important role in the formation and growth of endometriotic lesions. We have created a novel, noninvasive model to monitor the growth of these lesions and the associated angiogenesis in vivo. First, we generated luciferase-expressing transgenic mice by inserting the human ubiquitin C promoter coupled to the firefly luciferase reporter. Injection of luciferin in these mice causes full-body bioluminescence, which can be detected using a low-light CCD camera. Endometrial tissue from these transgenic mice was surgically implanted into nonluminescent recipients. Bioluminescence of lesions was noninvasively imaged after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of luciferin. Transabdominal luminescence compared well with the location of the transgenic endometriotic lesions, and lesion size correlated with the intensity of luminescence. Systemic treatment with the angiogenesis inhibitors caplostatin and endostatin peptide mP-1 delayed and suppressed the onset and intensity of the luminescent signal. Caplostatin suppressed the growth of endometriotic lesions by 59% compared with controls. This novel, noninvasive model of endometriosis provides a means to study early angiogenesis in vivo and to monitor endometriotic growth and the efficacy of systemic antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:16723720

  1. Human-Data Relations and the Lifeworld Trevor Hogan

    E-print Network

    Hornecker, Eva

    Human-Data Relations and the Lifeworld Trevor Hogan Dept. of Computer and Information Sciences experience of the world. In doing so we will use the concept of human-technology relations as developed- technology relations, each is then developed in the context of specific data visualization technologies

  2. Galectin-1 Overexpression in Endometriosis and Its Regulation by Neuropeptides (CRH, UCN) Indicating Its Important Role in Reproduction and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vergetaki, Aikaterini; Jeschke, Udo; Vrekoussis, Thomas; Taliouri, Eirini; Sabatini, Luca; Papakonstanti, Evangelia A.; Makrigiannakis, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease of women of reproductive age featured by the presence of ectopic endometrium and is strongly related to infertility. Galectins, carbonhydrate-binding proteins, have been found to have pro- or anti-inflammatory roles in the reproductive tract and in pathological conditions concerning infertility. Galectin-1, which is expressed at endometrium and decidua, plays a major role in implantation and trophoblast invasion. Also, the neuropeptides, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortin (UCN) and their receptors are expressed in eutopic and ectopic endometrium showing a differential expression pattern in endometriotic women compared to healthy ones. The aim of this study was to examine the galectin-1 expression in endometriotic lesions and compare its expression in eutopic endometrium of endometriotic and healthy women. Furthermore, we examined the effect of CRH and UCN in galectin-1 expression in Ishikawa cell line and macrophages and investigated the implication of CRHR1 in these responses. Eutopic and ectopic endometrium specimens, Ishikawa cell line and mice macrophages were used. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were performed in order to identify galectin-1 expression in ectopic and eutopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis and the regulatory effect of CRH and UCN on galectin-1 expression. This study presents for the first time that galectin-1 is overexpressed in endometriotic lesions compared to eutopic endometrium of endometriotic women and is more abundantly expressed in eutopic endometrium of disease women compared to healthy ones. Furthermore, it is shown that CRH and UCN upregulate galectin-1 expression in Ishikawa cell line and macrophages and this effect is mediated through CRHR1. These results suggest that galectin-1 might play an important role in endometriosis pathology and infertility profile of women suffering from endometriosis by being at the same time regulated by CRH and UCN interfering in the immune disequilibrium which characterizes this pathological condition. PMID:25473847

  3. Clear cell carcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis: a unique case with bladder and lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The malignant transformation of abdominal wall endometriosis is a rare event and poorly understood. Less than 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of the reported cases have a solitary tumor in the abdominal scar. A few cases have metastasis. Here we report a case of clear cell carcinoma in abdominal wall endometriosis with bladder and lymph system metastasis. The patient had a history of abdominal wall endometriosis and recently developed symptoms of urgent urination and inguinal mass. Physical examination and a computed tomography (CT) scan detected lymph node metastasis. CT and cystoscopy confirmed bladder involvement. The patient underwent extensive surgery and chemotherapy. Pathological analysis made a diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma with bladder and lymph node metastasis. The patient was followed up and died of the disease. Symptoms of bladder invasion and lymph node spread could be a sign of malignant transformation. Local invasion and lymph node spread are two important forms of tumor metastasis. Extensive lymph nodes metastasis might be related with poor prognosis. PMID:24597651

  4. Molecular biology of endometriosis: from aromatase to genomic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bulun, Serdar E; Monsivais, Diana; Kakinuma, Toshiyuki; Furukawa, Yuichi; Bernardi, Lia; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Dyson, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Endometriosis has been initially described as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue on pelvic organs or in extrapelvic sites; and this has been used as its key pathologic feature ever since. Endometriosis responds to fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone by growth and inflammation, leading to pain aggravated by menses. It was proposed that pelvic endometriosis primarily originate from retrograde menstruation of a critical number of eutopic endometrial cells with stem characteristics. This postulate is supported by the molecular defects found in ectopic endometriotic tissue. Genome-wide differences in CpG methylation between eutopic endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells are present. Defective CpG methylation affecting several genes that encode key transcription factors such as GATA6, steroidogenic factor-1, and estrogen receptor-? in endometriosis gives rise to overproduction of local estrogen and prostaglandins and suppression of progesterone receptor. Progesterone receptor deficiency leads to progesterone resistance, resulting in decreased retinol uptake and retinoic acid production and altered retinoic acid action. These molecular defects collectively give rise to poor cellular differentiation, enhanced survival, and increased inflammation, which are the biological hallmarks of endometriotic tissue. PMID:26036904

  5. Laparoscopic treatment of deep endometriosis located on the uterosacral ligaments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Chapron; Jean-Bernard Dubuisson

    The goal of this study was to assess the efficiency of laparo- scopic surgical treatment of pain for patients presenting deep endometriosis located on the uterosacral ligaments. To this end we analysed a continuous series of 21 patients treated by laparoscopic surgery between January 1993 and June 1994. In all these cases treatment consisted of resection of all the uterosacral

  6. Correlation of histological and macroscopic findings in peritoneal endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Strehl, Johanna D; Hackl, Janina; Wachter, David L; Klingsiek, Peter; Burghaus, Stefanie; Renner, Stefan P; Fasching, Peter A; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W

    2014-01-01

    Context: In the last two decades, a color based concept of disease activity in peritoneal endometriosis has been in use in the clinical context, with red lesions being considered active and black or white lesions being interpreted as less active or dormant. Objective: Our aim was to analyze 4 main color categories of peritoneal endometriosis (black, white, red and brown) in one single patient group using histomorphological and immunohistochemical methods. Design: 65 endometriosis lesions (30 black, 17 white, 11 brown, 7 red) were resected from 47 premenopausal, nulliparous women which had not received exogenous hormones for at least six months prior to the operation. Specimen workup, histomorphological analysis and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in a standardized manner. Results: The color categories showed a broad overlap in proliferative activity and hormone receptor expression. Differences were found in lesion morphology. Adjacent stromal reaction in particular showed a marked increase from red through brown and black to white lesions. Differences were also seen in gland pattern and gland content. Conclusions: Lesion colors in peritoneal endometriosis seem to be determined by gland content and a varying adjacent stromal reaction and more likely reflect an aging process than different levels of disease activity. PMID:24427335

  7. Endometriosis in a scarless abdominal wall with underlying umbilical hernia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ramsanahie; S. K. Giri; S. Velusamy; G. T. Nessim

    2000-01-01

    Introductionis a gynaecological entity in women of child bearing age which may present with symptoms and signs of general surgical conditions. Abdominal wall involvement usually occurs in a scar, and rarely in the intact rectus abdominis muscle. I We report a case where the endometriosis occurred in the umbilicus of a scarless abdominal wall associated with an umbilical hernia. Case

  8. Increased frequency of migraine among women with endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ferrero; S. Pretta; S. Bertoldi; P. Anserini; V. Remorgida; M. Del Sette; C. Gandolfo; N. Ragni

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our aim is to assess the prevalence and characteristics of headache in patients with endo- metriosis compared with women without this disease. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three women with histologically proven endometriosis and 166 controls were interviewed by a neurologist experienced in headache diagnosis; the headache disorders were classified according to the 1988 International Headache Society criteria. RESULTS: The

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Reproductive genetics Association between endometriosis and

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    with endometriosis at a nominal P , 0.05 in our independent Japanese sample. Fixed-effect meta-analysis of the eight (odds ratio ¼ 1.21; 95% confidence interval ¼ 1.13­1.29; P ¼ 3.43 � 1028 ). limitations, reasons

  10. Detection of aromatase in human endometrial tissue cultured in three-dimensional fibrin matrix in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jafar Ai; Navid Esfandiari; Robert Casper

    Background: Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial glandular and stromal cells outside of the uterine cavity. Our previous study showed that in vitro culture of human endometrial tissue in a three-dimensional (3D) fibrin matrix could mimic the early stages of endometriosis with invasion, gland and stroma formation and sprouting of new vessels. Objective: The objective of the present study was

  11. Circulating Micro-RNAs as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Endometriosis: Privation and Promise.

    PubMed

    Nothnick, Warren B; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Lue, John R

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis represents a major medical concern in women of reproductive age. One of the remaining major hurdles for successful treatment of endometriosis is the limitation of the process of timely disease diagnosis. A simple blood test for endometriosis-specific biomarkers would offer a more timely accurate diagnosis for the disease, thus allowing for earlier treatment intervention. Although there have been considerable efforts to identify such biomarkers, no clear choice for such noninvasive diagnostic tools has been identified. Micro-RNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been evaluated intensively as biomarkers for several diseases, and they may hold promise for a diagnosis of endometriosis. In this review, we highlight the need for noninvasive testing for endometriosis, discuss the potential use of micro-RNAs as diagnostic tools for this disease, and consider potential limitations in the use of these small RNA molecules as diagnostic markers for endometriosis. PMID:25757811

  12. Deep Infiltrating Colorectal Endometriosis Treated With Robotic-Assisted Rectosigmoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schraibman, Vladimir; Okazaki, Samuel; Maccapani, Gabriel; Chen, Winston Jenning; Domit, Cassia Danielle; Kaufmann, Oskar Grau; Advincula, Arnold P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Deep infiltrating pelvic endometriosis with bowel involvement is one of the most aggressive forms of endometriosis. Nowadays, robotic technology and telemanipulation systems represent the latest developments in minimally invasive surgery. The aim of this study is to present our preliminary results and evaluate the feasibility of robotic-assisted laparoscopic colorectal resection for severe endometriosis. Methods: Between September 2009 and December 2011, 10 women with colorectal endometriosis underwent surgery with the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). We evaluated the following parameters: short-term complications, clinical outcomes and long-term follow-up, pain relief recurrence rate, and fertility outcomes. Results: Extensive ureterolysis was required in 8 women (80%). Ovarian cystectomy with removal of the cystic wall was performed in 7 women (70%). Torus resection was performed in all women, with unilateral and bilateral uterosacral ligament resection in 1 woman (10%) and 8 women (80%), respectively. In addition to segmental colorectal resection in all cases, partial vaginal resection was necessary in 2 women (20%). An appendectomy was performed in 2 patients (20%). The mean operative time with the robot was 157 minutes (range, 90–190 minutes). The mean hospital stay was 3 days. Six patients had infertility before surgery, with a mean infertility time of 2 years. After a 12-month follow-up period, 4 women (67%) conceived naturally and 2 (33%) underwent in vitro fertilization. Conclusion: We show that robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of deep infiltrating bowel endometriosis is feasible, effective, and safe. PMID:23925016

  13. Catamenial pneumothorax due to solitary localization of diaphragmatic endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Stefano; De Felice, Laura; Varvaras, Dimitrios; Sorrenti, Giuseppe; Mauriello, Alessandro; Petrella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Catamenial pneumothorax (CP) is a spontaneous recurrent pneumothorax occurring in women in reproductive age. The etiology of CP has been associated with thoracic endometriosis and is its most common presentation. Presentation of case A case of right catamenial pneumothorax in a 38 year old woman is presented in which three episodes of CP occurred within 72 h of menses in a 6 month period. The patient underwent videothoracoscopy that revealed a solitary localization of diaphragmatic endometriosis. After surgical pleurodesis and based on final pathology of resected lesion, hormonal treatment was started. The outcome was uneventful and the patients is symptom-free at 6 months. Discussion Catamenial pneumothorax (CP) is a rare clinical entity characterized by lung collapse during menstruation, believed to be secondary to pleural endometriosis. Nearly all catamenial pneumothorax occur on the right side as pleural lesions are almost exclusively right-sided. Diagnostic imaging is based on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and, preferably, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is able to detect the blood products in the endometrial deposits. However the lack of macroscopic findings at surgery makes this condition still under-diagnosed. Based on the solitary diaphragmatic localization of endometriosis in our case we preferred to limit surgery to videothoracoscopic pleurodesis and start hormonal treatment with successful outcome. Conclusion Catamenial pneumothorax is the most common presentation of thoracic endometriosis syndrome and should always be suspected in women in childbearing age. Treatment option are still debated but best results are achieved by videothoracoscopic pleurodesis combined with hormonal therapy. PMID:25981153

  14. Photodynamic treatment (PDT) of endometrium primary cultures serving as an in-vitro-model for endometriosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werter, Wiebke; Viereck, Volker; Keckstein, J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Rueck, Angelika C.

    1994-05-01

    As a new treatment model for endometriosis, photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied to endometrium cultures. Endometriosis is a benign disease. Therefore primary cultures were used instead of cell lines. Endometrium is composed of epithelial and stromal cells which can also be found in primary culture. While stromal cells take a polygonal shape in culture, epithelial cells form cell colonies. PSIII (Photasan III), which is similar to hematorporphyrin derivate (HpD), meso-tetra (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TPPS4), which posses a high fluorescence quantum yield and may be useful in fluorescence diagnosis of subtle endometriotic spots, and methylene blue (MB), a vital dye with phototoxic properties, were used as photosensitizers. Different sensitizer concentrations and incubation times were applied. The highest phototoxicity was observed for PSIII; TPPS4 and MB were less phototoxic. We compared our results with the sensitivity of cell lines described in the literature. The necessary irradiation to destroy stromal cells was relatively high but still in the same dimension as for cell lines. However they were even more sensitive than epithelial cells. This was true for all sensitizers used.

  15. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of endometrium primary cultures serving as an in-vitro model for endometriosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herter, Wiebke; Viereck, Volker; Keckstein, J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Rueck, Angelika C.

    1994-05-01

    As a new treatment model for endometriosis, photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied to endometrium cultures. Endometriosis is a benign disease. Therefore primary cultures were used instead of cell lines. Endometrium is composed of epithelial and stromal cells which can also be found in primary culture. While stromal cells take a polygonal shape in culture, epithelial cells form cell colonies. PSIII (Photasan III), which is similar to hematorporphyrin derivate (HpD), meso-tetra (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TPPS4), which posses a high fluorescence quantum yield and may be useful in fluorescence diagnosis of subtle endometriotic spots, and methylene blue (MB), a vital dye with phototoxic properties, were used as photosensitizers. Different sensitizer concentrations and incubation times were applied. The highest phototoxicity was observed for PSIII; TPPS4 and MB were less phototoxic. We compared our results with the sensitivity of cell lines described in the literature. The necessary irradiation to destroy stromal cells was relatively high but still in the same dimension as for cell lines. However they were even more sensitive than epithelial cells. This was true for all sensitizers used.

  16. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial bladder resection for the treatment of infiltrating endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Connie; Perisic, Dusan; Peresic, Dusan; Samadi, David; Nezhat, Farr

    2008-01-01

    This article reveals our surgical approach for treatment of a patient with severe pelvic and infiltrative bladder endometriosis with mucosal involvement using robotic-assisted laparoscopic excision and cystotomy repair. To our knowledge, this is the first case of total robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial bladder resection for the treatment of endometriosis. This article also discusses the pros and cons of robotic-assisted surgery and the current literature on infiltrative bladder endometriosis. PMID:18971140

  17. Use of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in the treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Fedele; Stefano Bianchi; Giovanni Zanconato; Antonella Portuese; Ricciarda Raffaelli

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD as therapy for endometriosis of the rectovaginal septum.Design: Prospective therapeutic non-randomized, self-controlled clinical trial analyzing changes in pain symptoms and size of lesions induced by the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD over 12 months.Setting: Tertiary referral center for treatment of deep endometriosis.Patient(s): Eleven symptomatic patients with rectovaginal endometriosis.Intervention(s): A levonorgestrel-releasing IUD was inserted and

  18. Assessment of cadmium impregnation in women suffering from endometriosis: a preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Heilier; Violaine Verougstraete; Fabienne Nackers; René Tonglet; Jacques Donnez; Dominique Lison

    2004-01-01

    Environmental chemicals with oestrogen-like activity are suspected aetiological factors of endometriosis. In animal experiments, cadmium was recently shown to possess oestrogen-like properties. In the frame of a case-control study designed to investigate environmental risk factors for endometriosis, we compared cadmium urinary excretion (CdU) and blood concentration in 59 patients with peritoneal endometriosis, deep endometriotic (adenomyotic) nodules of the recto-vaginal septum

  19. Scar endometriosis: a rare skin lesion presenting to the plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Marsden, N J; Wilson-Jones, N

    2013-04-01

    Endometriosis is the presence or growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, most commonly affecting the ovaries, uterine ligaments and the peritoneum. Cutaneous endometriosis is much rarer, and is mostly found at the sites of surgical scars, such as laparoscopies, hysterectomies and caesarean sections. We present a rare case of scar endometriosis in a 33 year-old women presenting to the plastic surgeon as a possible skin malignancy and review the literature. PMID:23369738

  20. The Peritoneum Is Both a Source and Target of TGF-? in Women with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Vicky J.; Brown, Jeremy K.; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Duncan, W. Colin; Horne, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is believed to play a major role in the aetiology of peritoneal endometriosis. We aimed to determine if the peritoneum is a source of TGF-? and if peritoneal TGF-? expression, reception or target genes are altered in women with endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid, peritoneal bushings and peritoneal biopsies were collected from women with and without endometriosis. TGF-?1, 2 and 3 protein concentrations were measured in the peritoneal fluid. TGF-?1 was measured in mesothelial cell conditioned media. Control peritoneum and peritoneum prone to endometriosis (within Pouch of Douglas) from women without disease (n?=?16) and peritoneum distal and adjacent to endometriosis lesions in women with endometriosis (n?=?15) and were analysed for TGF-? expression, reception and signalling by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and a TGF-? signalling PCR array. TGF-?1 was increased in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis compared to those without disease (P<0.05) and peritoneal mesothelial cells secrete TGF-?1 in-vitro. In women with endometriosis, peritoneum from sites adjacent to endometriosis lesions expressed higher levels of TGFB1 mRNA when compared to distal sites (P<0.05). The TGF-?-stimulated Smad 2/3 signalling pathway was active in the peritoneum and there were significant increases (P<0.05) in expression of genes associated with tumorigenesis (MAPK8, CDC6), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (NOTCH1), angiogenesis (ID1, ID3) and neurogenesis (CREB1) in the peritoneum of women with endometriosis. In conclusion, the peritoneum, and in particular, the peritoneal mesothelium, is a source of TGF-?1 and this is enhanced around endometriosis lesions. The expression of TGF-?-regulated genes is altered in the peritoneum of women with endometriosis and this may promote an environment favorable to lesion formation. PMID:25207642

  1. A Human Relations Model for a Desegregated Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nathan E.; Bash, James H.

    The human relation model discussed in this booklet serves the dual purpose of facilitating the development of equal human relations and the myriad aspects associated with desegregation. This is not considered a scientific report, but a guide to group discussion. Although the model presented is based on the most advanced findings from interaction…

  2. Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-type UV Filters in US Women and Their Association with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Chen, Zhen; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Hediger, Mary L.; Sun, Liping; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-01-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in a variety of personal care products for the protection of skin and hair from UV irradiation. Despite the estrogenic potencies of BP derivatives, few studies have examined the occurrence of these compounds in human matrices. Furthermore, associations among exposure to these compounds and estrogen-dependent diseases (such as endometriosis) have not been examined previously. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (2OH-4MeO-BP), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (2,4OH-BP), 2,2’-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (2,2’OH-4MeO-BP), 2,2’,4,4’-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (2,2’,4,4’OH-BP) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4OH-BP), in urine collected from 625 women in Utah and California, using liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The association of urinary concentrations of BP derivatives with an increase in the odds of a diagnosis of endometriosis was examined in 600 women who underwent laparoscopy/laparotomy (n = 473: operative cohort) or pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (n = 127: population cohort), during 2007-2009. 2OH-4MeO-BP, 2,4OH-BP, and 4OH-BP, respectively, were detected in 99.0%, 93.3%, and 83.8% of the urine samples analyzed, whereas the detection rates for 2,2’,4,4’OH-BP and 2,2’OH-4MeO-BP were below 6.0%. Significant regional differences (higher concentrations in California) and monthly variations (higher concentrations in July and August) were found for urinary concentrations of 2OH-4Me O-BP and 2,4OH-BP. In addition, urinary concentrations of 2OH-4MeO-BP and 2,4OH-BP tended to be higher in more affluent, older, and leaner women. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the urinary concentrations of BP derivatives and the odds of an endometriosis diagnosis; ORs increased across quartiles of 2OH-4MeO-BP and 2,4OH-BP concentrations, but a significant trend was observed only between 2,4OH-BP and the odds of an endometriosis diagnosis in the operative cohort (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.41). When women in the highest quartile of 2,4OH-BP concentrations were compared with women in the first three quartiles, the OR increased considerably (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.53). Given that 2,4OH-BP possesses an estrogenic activity higher than that of 2OH-4MeO-BP, our results invite the speculation that exposure to elevated 2,4OH-BP levels may be associated with endometriosis. PMID:22417702

  3. Cyborg intentionality: Rethinking the phenomenology of human–technology relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter-Paul Verbeek

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the types of intentionality involved in human–technology relations. It aims to augment Don Ihde’s\\u000a analysis of the relations between human beings and technological artifacts, by analyzing a number of concrete examples at\\u000a the limits of Ihde’s analysis. The article distinguishes and analyzes three types of “cyborg intentionality,” which all involve\\u000a specific blends of the human and the

  4. Study of experimental endometriosis using fluorescence of eosin-tamoxifen association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogniez, A.; Mordon, Serge R.; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Querleu, Denis; Brunetaud, Jean Marc

    1993-08-01

    The main problem of endometriosis is the detection of microscopic and atypical lesions. The successful destruction of these endometriotic sites depends on their detection. This study aimed to develop a spectrofluorometric method to increase the sensitivity of detection of endometriosis. A surgical-induced endometriosis was performed in ten rabbits. Five weeks later, the fluorescence of these endometriotic lesions was studied after injection of tamoxifen and local application of eosin. This fluorescence was compared with that of healthy broad ligament and that obtained without tamoxifen and without eosin. A spectral analysis showed a specific fluorescence of eosin-tamoxifen association, more intense than autofluorescence and selectively observed within endometriosis.

  5. [Bladder endometriosis. Apropos of 4 cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Deval, B; Danoy, X; Buy, J N; Daraï, E; Hugol, D; Gompel, A; Poitout, P

    2000-05-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude toward endometriosis of the bladder. We have analysed four observations treated in the gynecologic service of Hotel-Dieu in Paris between January 1989 and January 1998, which represents 1.3% of all endometriosis operated during this period. Every patient underwent echography, RMN, UIV and cystoscopy. In all for cases a surgical treatment by laparotomy was realised. The choice of this way is explained by the multiple localisations of endometriosis in three cases and the impossibility of a coelioscopic treatment in the forth. The anatomopathologic exam found endometriosis in all of the cases. PMID:10893882

  6. Relational Human Ecology: Reconciling the Boundaries of Humans and Nature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. McNiel; V. L. Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Global change is transforming the planet at unprecedented rates. Global warming, massive species extinction, increasing land degradation, overpopulation, poverty and injustice, are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. What do we have to do and how much do we have to change to allow a transition to a more ecologically-conscious and just society? While these

  7. Serum Levels of TCDD and Dioxin-like Chemicals in Rhesus Monkeys Chronically Exposed to Dioxin: Correlation of Increased Serum PCB Levels with Endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherry E. Rier; Wayman E. Turner; Dan C. Martin; Richard Morris; George W. Lucier; George C. Clark

    2001-01-01

    Humans and animals are exposed daily to a complex mixture of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). Previous work has shown that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is associated with a dose-dependent increase in the inci- dence and severity of endometriosis in the rhesus monkey. Dioxin- like chemicals can also exert effects in combination with TCDD via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This study

  8. Follicular-fluid anti-Müllerian hormone concentration is similar in patients with endometriosis compared with non-endometriotic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Campos; D. Vaamonde; C. Andreoli; A. C. Martins; V. K. Genro; C. A. Souza; R. Chapon; J. S. L. Cunha-Filho

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional prospective study assessed follicular-fluid anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in infertile patients with mild\\/minimal endometriosis during natural IVF. Thirty-two women participated in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: tubal obstruction without endometriosis (control group) and minimal\\/mild endometriosis (study group). All patients underwent laparoscopy for assessment of infertility; at the same time, any foci of endometriosis found were

  9. The search for genes contributing to endometriosis risk Grant W. Montgomery1,7, Dale R. Nyholt1, Zhen Zhen Zhao1, Susan A. Treloar1,

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    The search for genes contributing to endometriosis risk Grant W. Montgomery1,7, Dale R. Nyholt1 to the risk of developing endometriosis. This review summarizes gene mapping studies in endometriosis: To identify candidate-gene association studies of endometriosis, a systematic lit- erature search

  10. Unsolved issues related to human mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Lombès, Anne; Auré, Karine; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Gilleron, Mylène; Jardel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Human mitochondrial diseases, defined as the diseases due to a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect, represent a large group of very diverse diseases with respect to phenotype and genetic causes. They present with many unsolved issues, the comprehensive analysis of which is beyond the scope of this review. We here essentially focus on the mechanisms underlying the diversity of targeted tissues, which is an important component of the large panel of these diseases phenotypic expression. The reproducibility of genotype/phenotype expression, the presence of modifying factors, and the potential causes for the restricted pattern of tissular expression are reviewed. Special emphasis is made on heteroplasmy, a specific feature of mitochondrial diseases, defined as the coexistence within the cell of mutant and wild type mitochondrial DNA molecules. Its existence permits unequal segregation during mitoses of the mitochondrial DNA populations and consequently heterogeneous tissue distribution of the mutation load. The observed tissue distributions of recurrent human mitochondrial DNA deleterious mutations are diverse but reproducible for a given mutation demonstrating that the segregation is not a random process. Its extent and mechanisms remain essentially unknown despite recent advances obtained in animal models. PMID:23973280

  11. Chromosome 1 in relation to human disease.

    PubMed Central

    Povey, S; Parrington, J M

    1986-01-01

    Chromosome 1 is thought to represent about 6% of the total human genome and the 85 loci so far identified may constitute about 1% of the genes present on this chromosome. The existence of at least 22 loci sufficiently polymorphic in Europeans to be useful as genetic markers has allowed the construction of an elementary genetic map. This permits comparisons with physical and chiasma maps and has demonstrated striking homologies between different regions of chromosome 1 and mouse chromosomes 1, 3, and 4. The existence of a map should be of great help in developing a more systematic approach to further mapping studies. A wide range of disease can be attributed to allelic variation on chromosome 1 and the homologies with the mouse may be useful in predicting the position of other genes involved in human disease. Rearrangements of this chromosome are a common finding in many different types of malignancy. Loss of material from the short arm and activation of one or more of the four oncogenes in this region may play an important role in the later stages of tumour development. Polymorphic markers of all kinds will be useful in the future for investigating the somatic events which have occurred during the malignant process. PMID:3519970

  12. Human milk and related oligosaccharides as prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Barile, Daniela; Rastall, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are believed to have a range of biological activities beyond providing nutrition to the infant. Principal among these is that they may act as prebiotics. Prebiotics are dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides that provide a health benefit to the host mediated by the modulation of the human gut microbiota. While it is clear that such oligosaccharides may have potential applications in infants and adults alike, this potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing HMO. Consequently functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are under investigation. GOS are produced enzymatically from lactose for commercial use in food applications--including addition to infant formulae--as similar to breast milk oligosaccharides, they encourage a gut bacteria population that promotes health and reduces the incidence of intestinal infections. New methods for separation and concentration of complex, breast milk-like oligosaccharides from bovine milk industrial streams that contain only low amounts of these valuable oligosaccharides are providing the opportunity to investigate other viable sources of specific oligosaccharides for use as prebiotics in supplements or food products. PMID:23434179

  13. Colonic obstruction caused by endometriosis solved with a colonic stent as a bridge to surgery.

    PubMed

    Navajas-Laboa, Maria; Orive-Calzada, Aitor; Landaluce, Aitor; Zabalza-Estevez, Iñaki; Larena, Jose Alejandro; Arévalo-Serna, Juan Antonio; Bridet, Lionel; López-López, Maria; Torres-Burgos, Soraya; Bernal-Martínez, Antonio; Cabriada-Nuño, Jose Luis

    2015-03-01

    Self-expanding metal stents are an established treatment for malignant colon strictures, either as palliative treatment or as a bridge to later surgery. Little data exist regarding the use of stents for benign obstructions and the rate of subsequent complications related to the procedure is high. After reviewing the existing literature, we found only one case of stent placement in an intestinal obstruction caused by endometriosis, as a bridge to surgery. The use of prostheses in benign disease has a higher rate of complications such as stent migration and gut perforation. Such complications are even more likely to happen when the stent has been placed as a bridge to surgery and it is delayed for more than 7days. This is the case of a young woman presenting an acute intestinal obstruction related to endometrioma. Stent placement was used in this case as a bridge to surgery with successful results. PMID:25791032

  14. Progestins for symptomatic endometriosis: a critical analysis of the evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Vercellini; Ilenia Cortesi; Pier Giorgio Crosignani

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To obtain estimates of the effects of progestin treatment for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis.Data Identification: Information from studies published in the English-language literature between 1966 and 1996 was pooled. Articles were identified through hand and computerized searches using MEDLINE.Study Selection: A total of 27 trials that were published in peer-reviewed journals were identified, and 13 of these were

  15. Danazol in the management of ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, M.E.; Krueger, R.P.; Wiser, W.L.

    1985-08-01

    A case is reported in which a woman was diagnosed with ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis after cystourethrogram, retrograde pyelogram and a renal scan. After unsuccessful treatment with danazol, a retroperitoneal ureteroneocystotomy was performed. The ureter was found to be obstructed by dense fibrous tissue that contained endometrial glands. It was concluded that danazol is unlikely to relieve endometriotic ureteric obstruction once dense fibrosis has occurred. 8 references, 2 figures.

  16. Decidualization of intranodal endometriosis in a postmenopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an unusual case of decidualized endometriosis detected in pelvic lymph nodes. The presence of intranodal ectopic decidua in pregnant women has been described. A few cases of decidualization of endometriotic foci in the pelvic or para-aortic lymph nodes have also been associated with pregnancy. However, decidualized intranodal endometriosis occurring in a postmenopausal woman has not been described. A 52-year-old woman presented with a very large adnexal mass. Menopause occurred at the age of 47, and she had been treated with hormone replacement therapy. She received a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for clear cell carcinoma of the right ovary. Histological examination revealed the presence of ectopic decidua in several pelvic lymph nodes. The deciduas consisted of sheets of loosely cohesive, large, uniform, round cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Typical of decidualization of intranodal endometriosis, a few irregularly shaped, inactive endometrial glands lined by single layers of columnar to cuboidal epithelium were present within the decidua. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the decidual cells were positive for CD10, vimentin, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, which indicated that progestin-induced decidualization had occurred in the intranodal endometriotic stroma. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of decidualized intranodal endometriosis occurring in association with hormone replacement therapy in a postmenopausal woman. Misdiagnosis of this condition as a metastatic tumor can be avoided by an awareness of these benign inclusions, supported by immunohistochemical staining results. PMID:25755813

  17. Modified Virtual Colonoscopy in the Diagnosis and Quantification of Bowel and Disseminated Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Wat, Johan van der; Kaplan, Mitch D

    2015-05-01

    This article describes the basic technology and technique behind modified virtual colonoscopy (MVC). It is accompanied by images illustrating the possibility of MVC to advance the imaging for endometriosis beyond the current modalities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound. A quantification system is described that will ultimately make staging and multicenter prospective scientific studies possible for rectogenital and disseminated endometriosis. PMID:26054986

  18. Effect of palmitoylethanolamide–polydatin combination on chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis: Preliminary observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ugo Indraccolo; Fabrizio Barbieri

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveEndometriosis is a chronic oestrogen-dependent gynaecological disorder, the most common symptom of which is pain. Inflammation can be considered one of the major causes of pain in endometriosis. In particular, degranulating mast cells have been found in significantly greater quantities in endometriotic lesions than in unaffected tissues. The increase in activated and degranulating mast cells is closely associated with nerve

  19. Chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis: translational evidence of the relationship and implications

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Pamela; Berkley, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many clinicians and patients believe that endometriosis-associated pain is due to the lesions. Yet causality remains an enigma, because pain symptoms attributed to endometriosis occur in women without endometriosis and because pain symptoms and severity correlate poorly with lesion characteristics. Most research and reviews focus on the lesions, not the pain. This review starts with the recognition that the experience of pain is determined by the central nervous system (CNS) and focuses on the pain symptoms. METHODS Comprehensive searches of Pubmed, Medline and Embase were conducted for current basic and clinical research on chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis. The information was mutually interpreted by a basic scientist and a clinical researcher, both in the field of endometriosis. The goal was to develop new ways to conceptualize how endometriosis contributes to pain symptoms in the context of current treatments and the reproductive tract. RESULTS Endometriotic lesions can develop their own nerve supply, thereby creating a direct and two-way interaction between lesions and the CNS. This engagement provides a mechanism by which the dynamic and hormonally responsive nervous system is brought directly into play to produce a variety of individual differences in pain that can, in some women, become independent of the disease itself. CONCLUSIONS Major advances in improving understanding and alleviating pain in endometriosis will likely occur if the focus changes from lesions to pain. In turn, how endometriosis affects the CNS would be best examined in the context of mechanisms underlying other chronic pain conditions. PMID:21106492

  20. In vitro fertilization outcome in women with endometriosis & previous ovarian surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Trajkovic, Sonja; Kopitovi?, Vesna; Popovi?, Jasmina; Anti?, Vladimir; Radovi?, Dragana; Živadinovi?, Radomir

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Women with endometriosis often need in vitro fertilization (IVF) to concieve. There are conflicting data on the results of IVF in patients with endometriosis. This study was undertaken to elucidate the influence of endometriosis on IVF outcome to give the best counselling for infertile patient with this problem. Methods: The outcome measures in 78 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis were compared with 157 patients with tubal factor infertility, all of whom have undergone IVF. The groups were matched for age and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Outcome measures included number of follicles, number of ocytes, peak oestradiol (E2) concentrations and mean number of ampoules of gonadotropins. Cumulative pregnancy, miscarriage and live birth rates were calculated in both the groups. Results: Higher cancelation rates, higher total gonadotropin requirements, lower peak E2 levels and lower oocyte yield were found in women with endometriosis and previous surgery compared with those with tubal factor infertility. However, no differences were found in fertilization, implantation, pregnancy, miscarriage, multiple births and delivery rates between the endometriosis and tubal factor infertility groups. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings showed that women with endometriosis and previous surgery responded less well to gonadotropins during ovarian stimulation and hence the cost of treatment to achieve pregnancy was higher in this group compared with those with tubal factor infertility. However, the outcome of IVF treatment in patients with endometriosis was as good as in women with tubal factor infertility. PMID:25366206

  1. Pharmacologic, but Not Dietary, Genistein Supports Endometriosis in a Rat Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle S. Cotroneo; Coral A. Lamartiniere

    2001-01-01

    Endometriosis is a disease in which uterine tissue proliferates in extrauterine sites. Using a surgical model to simulate endometri- osis, we explored the potential for the phytoestrogen genistein, by injection and diet, to sustain endometriosis in rats. Uterine tissue was attached to intestinal mesentery of 8-week-old Sprague Daw- ley rats. After 3 weeks, the rats were ovariectomized and the implants

  2. ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Personal History of Endometriosis and Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Personal History of Endometriosis and Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma in a Large: An association between melanoma and endometriosis has been reported, but most findings relied on case-control studies or a limited number of melanoma cases, and therefore the available evidence is weak. Moreover

  3. The Use of Thermal Biofeedback in the Treatment of Pain Associated with Endometriosis: Preliminary Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca S. Hawkins; Archibald D. Hart

    2003-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease that causes marked physical and emotional distress in lives of women, resulting in dysmenorrhea, pain, or both throughout the menstrual cycle in over 96% of cases. A multiple case study design (N = 5) was employed to investigate the use of thermal biofeedback in the treatment of pain associated with endometriosis. The majority of

  4. Genetics and infertility II Affected sib-pair analysis in endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Kennedy; Simon Bennett

    2001-01-01

    This paper (i) reviews the current clinical and molecular genetic data which strongly suggest that endometriosis has a genetic basis; (ii) outlines the general principles of affected-sib pair analysis; and (iii) describes the Oxford Endometriosis Gene (OXEGENE) Study which aims, using a positional cloning approach, to identify susceptibility genes involved in the development of the disease.

  5. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer: links, risks, and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, Mary Ellen; Lyttle, Brianna M

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecological condition characterized by specific histological, molecular, and clinical findings. It affects 5%–10% of premenopausal women, is a cause of infertility, and has been implicated as a precursor for certain types of ovarian cancer. Advances in technology, primarily the ability for whole genome sequencing, have led to the discovery of new mutations and a better understanding of the function of previously identified genes and pathways associated with endometriosis associated ovarian cancers (EAOCs) that include PTEN, CTNNB1 (?-catenin), KRAS, microsatellite instability, ARID1A, and the unique role of inflammation in the development of EAOC. Clinically, EAOCs are associated with a younger age at diagnosis, lower stage and grade of tumor, and are more likely to occur in premenopausal women when compared with other ovarian cancers. A shift from screening strategies adopted to prevent EAOCs has resulted in new recommendations for clinical practice by national and international governing bodies. In this paper, we review the common histologic and molecular characteristics of endometriosis and ovarian cancer, risks associated with EAOCs, clinical challenges and give recommendations for providers.

  6. Colorectal endometriosis and pregnancy wish: why doing primary surgery.

    PubMed

    Roman, Horace

    2015-01-01

    One of the most interesting debates surrounding deep endometriosis concerns the management of patients with colorectal lesions and pregnancy intention, for which no strong first level of evidence data exists to recommend performing surgical excision of colorectal endometriosis or ART. Studies assessing the policy of primary IVF have recorded pregnancy rates inferior to 45% and estimated cumulative pregnancy rates after up to 3 cycles or IVF as high as 68%. Other authors have reported pregnancy rates over 60% in patients undergoing primary surgery for colorectal endometriosis, with spontaneous conception representing up to 60% of pregnancies. Although overall pregnancy rates appear roughly comparable in patients undergoing either IVF followed by surgery or surgery followed if required by IVF, questions remain as to whether delaying surgery for months or years impairs health. Delaying surgery may lead to bowel occlusion, higher rates of radical colorectal procedures, increased postoperative morbidity and prolonged painful complaints. To provide definitive answers requires a randomized trial on an international scale with a sample size exceeding 400 patients and follow up averaging 4 years. PMID:25961688

  7. Effect of Helixor A on Natural Killer Cell Activity in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeung, In-Cheul; Chung, Youn-Jee; Chae, Boah; Kang, So-Yeon; Song, Jae-Yen; Jo, Hyun-Hee; Lew, Young-Ok; Kim, Jang-Heub; Kim, Mee-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: NK cells are one of the major immune cells in endometriosis pathogenesis. While previous clinical studies have shown that helixor A to be an effective treatment for endometriosis, little is known about its mechanism of action, or its relationship with immune cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of helixor A on Natural killer cell (NK cell) cytotoxicity in endometriosis Materials and Methods: We performed an experimental study. Samples of peritoneal fluid were obtained from January 2011 to December 2011 from 50 women with endometriosis and 50 women with other benign ovarian cysts (control). Peritoneal fluid of normal control group and endometriosis group was collected during laparoscopy. Baseline cytotoxicity levels of NK cells were measured with the peritoneal fluid of control group and endometriosis group. Next, cytotoxicity of NK cells was evaluated before and after treatment with helixor A. NK-cell activity was determined based upon the expression of CD107a, as an activation marker. Results: NK cells cytotoxicity was 79.38±2.13% in control cells, 75.55±2.89% in the control peritoneal fluid, 69.59±4.96% in endometriosis stage I/II endometriosis, and 63.88±5.75% in stage III/IV endometriosis. A significant difference in cytotoxicity was observed between the control cells and stage III/IV endometriosis, consistent with a significant decrease in the cytotoxicity of NK cells in advanced stages of endometriosis; these levels increased significantly after treatment with helixor A; 78.30% vs. 86.40% (p = 0.003) in stage I/II endometriosis, and 73.67% vs. 84.54% (p = 0.024) in stage III/IV. The percentage of cells expressing CD107a was increased significantly in each group after helixor A treatment; 0.59% vs. 1.10% (p = 0.002) in stage I/II endometriosis, and 0.79% vs. 1.40% (p = 0.014) in stage III/IV. Conclusions: Helixor A directly influenced NK-cell cytotoxicity through direct induction of CD107a expression. Our results open new role of helixor A as an imune modulation therapy, or in combination with hormonal agents, for the treatment of endometriosis. PMID:25552917

  8. Compatibility of a Novel Thrombospondin-1 Analog with Fertility and Pregnancy in a Xenograft Mouse Model of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Diane S.; Edwards, Andrew K.; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Thomas, Richard; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological disease defined by the growth of endometrium outside of the uterus. Although endometriosis contributes to 50% of female infertility cases, medical treatments are incompatible with pregnancy. Angiogenesis, the growth of blood vessels from existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in endometriotic lesion growth and survival. Previously, we demonstrated the effectiveness of thrombospondin-1 analog, ABT-898 (Abbott Laboratories) to inhibit endometriotic lesion vascularization in mice. We have now evaluated the trans-generational implications of ABT-898 treatment before and during mouse pregnancy. We hypothesized that ABT-898 would target lesion vasculature without affecting pregnancy, offspring development, or ovarian and uterine vascularity in mice. Endometriosis was induced using human endometrium in ?-estradiol-primed BALB/c-Rag-2-/-Il2r?-/- mice receiving intraperitoneal injections of ABT-898 (25 mg/kg) or 5% dextrose control for 21 days. Ultrasound assessment of lesion vascularization revealed a reduction in blood flow supplying treated lesions. Excised ABT-898 treated lesions stained for CD31+ endothelial cells exhibited a decrease in microvessel density. Following confirmation of estrous cycling, mice were bred and treated with ABT-898 on gestation days 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19. ABT-898 did not affect estrous cycling or pregnancy parameters including litter size across generations and offspring weight gain. Quantification of angiogenic cytokine plasma levels revealed no significant differences between treatment groups. Vimentin staining of the uterus and ovary revealed no observable effects of ABT-898. Similarly, no obvious histological anomalies were observed in the kidney, liver, ovary, or uterus following ABT-898 treatment. These results suggest that ABT-898 effectively inhibit endometriotic lesion vascularization without affecting trans-generational pregnancy outcomes in mice. PMID:25811892

  9. Genetic burden associated with varying degrees of disease severity in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Yadav; Attia, John; Gordon, Scott D; Henders, Anjali K; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; MacGregor, Stuart; Martin, Nicholas G; McEvoy, Mark; Morris, Andrew P; Scott, Rodney J; Zondervan, Krina T; Montgomery, Grant W; Nyholt, Dale R

    2015-07-01

    Endometriosis is primarily characterized by the presence of tissue resembling endometrium outside the uterine cavity and is usually diagnosed by laparoscopy. The most commonly used classification of disease, the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) system to grade endometriosis into different stages based on disease severity (I to IV), has been questioned as it does not correlate well with underlying symptoms, posing issues in diagnosis and choice of treatment. Using two independent European genome-wide association (GWA) datasets and top-level classification of the endometriosis cases based on rAFS [minimal or mild (Stage A) and moderate-to-severe (Stage B) disease], we previously showed that Stage B endometriosis has greater contribution of common genetic variation to its aetiology than Stage A disease. Herein, we extend our previous analysis to four endometriosis stages [minimal (Stage I), mild (Stage II), moderate (Stage III) and severe (Stage IV) disease] based on the rAFS classification system and compared the genetic burden across stages. Our results indicate that genetic burden increases from minimal to severe endometriosis. For the minimal disease, genetic factors may contribute to a lesser extent than other disease categories. Mild and moderate endometriosis appeared genetically similar, making it difficult to tease them apart. Consistent with our previous reports, moderate and severe endometriosis showed greater genetic burden than minimal or mild disease. Overall, our results provide new insights into the genetic architecture of endometriosis and further investigation in larger samples may help to understand better the aetiology of varying degrees of endometriosis, enabling improved diagnostic and treatment modalities. PMID:25882541

  10. Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human origins

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Courtney C.; Warner, Lisa R.; Fedrigo, Olivier; Wall, Christine E.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    There are numerous anthropological analyses concerning the importance of diet during human evolution. Diet is thought to have had a profound influence on the human phenotype, and dietary differences have been hypothesized to contribute to the dramatic morphological changes seen in modern humans as compared with non-human primates. Here, we attempt to integrate the results of new genomic studies within this well-developed anthropological context. We then review the current evidence for adaptation related to diet, both at the level of sequence changes and gene expression. Finally, we propose some ways in which new technologies can help identify specific genomic adaptations that have resulted in metabolic and morphological differences between humans and non-human primates. PMID:21177690

  11. Haloperidol Impairs Learning and Error-related Negativity in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Zirnheld; Christine A. Carroll; Paul D. Kieffaber; Brian F. O'Donnell; Anantha Shekhar; William P. Hetrick

    2004-01-01

    Humans are able to monitor their actions for behavioral conflicts and performance errors. Growing evidence suggests that the error-related negativity (ERN) of the event-related cortical brain potential (ERP) may index the functioning of this response monitoring system and that the ERN may depend on dopaminergic mechanisms. We examined the role of dopamine in ERN and behavioral indices of learning by

  12. Baboons, like humans, solve analogy by categorical abstraction of relations.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Timothy M; Thompson, Roger K R; Fagot, Joël

    2013-05-01

    Reasoning by analogy is one of the most complex and highly adaptive cognitive processes in abstract thinking. For humans, analogical reasoning entails the judgment and conceptual mapping of relations-between-relations and is facilitated by language (Gentner in Cogn Sci 7:155-170, 1983; Premack in Thought without language, Oxford University Press, New York, 1986). Recent evidence, however, shows that monkeys like "language-trained" apes exhibit similar capacity to match relations-between-relations (Fagot and Thompson in Psychol Sci 22:1304-1309, 2011; Flemming et al. in J Exp Psychol: Anim Behav Process 37:353-360, 2011; Truppa et al. in Plos One 6(8):e23809, 2011). Whether this behavior is driven by the abstraction of categorical relations or alternatively by direct perception of variability (entropy) is crucial to the debate as to whether nonhuman animals are capable of analogical reasoning. In the current study, we presented baboons (Papio papio) and humans (Homo sapiens) with a computerized same/different relational-matching task that in principle could be solved by either strategy. Both baboons and humans produced markedly similar patterns of responding. Both species responded different when the perceptual variability of a stimulus array fell exactly between or even closer to that of a same display. Overall, these results demonstrate that categorical abstraction trumped perceptual properties and, like humans, Old World monkeys can solve the analogical matching task by judging the categorical abstract equivalence of same/different relations-between-relations. PMID:23334572

  13. Oocyte quality is decreased in women with minimal or mild endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Guo, Nan; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Shi, Wei; Tong, Xian-Hong; Iqbal, Furhan; Liu, Yu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis, a pathological condition in which the endometrium grows outside the uterus, is one of the most common causes of female infertility; it is diagnosed in 25-40% of infertile women. The mechanism by which endometriosis affects the fertility of females remains largely unknown. We examined the ultrastructure of oocytes from patients with minimal or mild endometriosis and control females undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the physiological significance of oocyte quality for patients with minimal or mild endometriosis. The TEM results revealed that the oocytes from women with minimal or mild endometriosis exhibited abnormal mitochondrial structure and decreased mitochondria mass. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that the mitochondrial DNA copy number was significantly reduced in the oocytes from women with minimal or mild endometriosis compared with those of the control subjects. Our results suggest that decreased oocyte quality because of impaired mitochondrial structure and functions probably an important factor affecting the fertility of endometriosis patients. PMID:26022105

  14. Oocyte quality is decreased in women with minimal or mild endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Guo, Nan; Zhang, Xiao-min; Shi, Wei; Tong, Xian-hong; Iqbal, Furhan; Liu, Yu-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis, a pathological condition in which the endometrium grows outside the uterus, is one of the most common causes of female infertility; it is diagnosed in 25–40% of infertile women. The mechanism by which endometriosis affects the fertility of females remains largely unknown. We examined the ultrastructure of oocytes from patients with minimal or mild endometriosis and control females undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the physiological significance of oocyte quality for patients with minimal or mild endometriosis. The TEM results revealed that the oocytes from women with minimal or mild endometriosis exhibited abnormal mitochondrial structure and decreased mitochondria mass. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that the mitochondrial DNA copy number was significantly reduced in the oocytes from women with minimal or mild endometriosis compared with those of the control subjects. Our results suggest that decreased oocyte quality because of impaired mitochondrial structure and functions probably an important factor affecting the fertility of endometriosis patients. PMID:26022105

  15. Potential involvement of the immune system in the development of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kyama, Cleophas M; Debrock, Sophie; Mwenda, Jason M; D'Hooghe, Thomas M

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an overview of immunological factors and their role in the development of endometriosis, with emphasis on inflammatory cytokines, growth and adhesion factors. Although retrograde menstruation is a common phenomenon among women of reproductive age, not all women who have retrograde menstruation develop endometriosis. The development of endometriosis is hypothesised to be a complex process, which may be facilitated by several factors, including the quantity and quality of endometrial cells in peritoneal fluid (PF), increased inflammatory activity in PF, increased endometrial-peritoneal adhesion and angiogenesis, reduced immune surveillance and clearance of endometrial cells, and increased production of autoantibodies against endometrial cells. Potential biomarkers like cytokines and autoantibodies upregulated during development of endometriosis may be useful in the development of a non-surgical diagnostic tool. Although endometriosis can be treated using hormonal suppression, there is need for non-hormonal drugs, which can inhibit the development of endometriosis and alleviate pain or infertility without inhibition of ovulation. New molecules that modulate immune function in endometriosis should be the targets for future research. PMID:14651748

  16. Soluble ST2 and IL-33: Potential markers of endometriosis in the Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Mbarik, Maroua; Kaabachi, Wajih; Henidi, Balkis; Sassi, Faycal Haj; Hamzaoui, Kamel

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-33 is an IL-1 family cytokine which signals via its T1/ST2 receptor, and acts as a key regulator of inflammation. This study aims to measure the expression of soluble ST2 (sST2) and IL-33 in endometriosis. We investigated thirty women with laparoscopic and histopathological confirmed endometriosis and 20 control women without pelvic pathology. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peritoneal fluid (PF) were assessed for sST2 and IL-33 levels that are measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peritoneal fluid IL-33 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. We found that IL-33 levels in PF and in serum were significantly higher in patients with endometriosis compared to women without endometriosis (P<0.05). IL-33 increased levels were significantly more important in PF [10.45±14.33ng/mL] than in serum [2.68±1.54ng/mL] from endometriosis patients. Higher levels of IL-33 mRNA expression were detected in PF from patients with endometriosis. Soluble ST2 levels in PF were significantly different between patients [2.96±0.98ng/mL; P<0.0001] and controls [0.88±0.076ng/mL]. Serum sST2 levels were similarly expressed in endometriosis patients and in controls (P>0.05). Significant correlation was observed between IL-33 and sST2 levels in PF. In conclusion, IL-33 and sST2 values observed in PF were found to correlate with endometriosis severity. Elevated and correlated PF IL-33 and sST2 levels from patients with endometriosis suggested a potential role as surrogate markers of disease activity. PMID:25977120

  17. Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Arising in Colorectal Endometriosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiao; Zhao, Xia; Han, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) arising in endometriosis is extremely rare, particularly in the colorectum. It should always be included in the differential diagnosis of primary tumors originating from gastrointestinal tract in females, given that preoperative endoscopical biopsy may reveal no specific changes. We reported a case of ESS arising in colorectal endometriosis and reviewed the previous 7 cases reported in the English literature. Our patient, who was unavailable for tumor resection and refused further adjuvant therapy, played a role in representing the natural history of low-grade extragenital ESS. This case was the only death from ESS arising in colorectal endometriosis. PMID:25648532

  18. [A case of digestive occlusion on an endometriosis lesion after treatment by GnRH agonist].

    PubMed

    Vieille, P; Masia, F; Donici, I; Laporte, S; Mares, P; de Tayrac, R

    2012-11-01

    Endometriosis concerns 10% of childbearing age women and frequently affects the digestive tract. We report here the case of a 31-year-old patient presenting a severe occlusive syndrome while being treated with GnRH agonist, within the framework of an in vitro fertilization. The surgical treatment will find a deep endometriosis affecting the sigmoid and colorectal junction and leading to a colorectal resection. These endometriosis lesion recurrences during ovarian stimulation or by GnRH flare up effect is rare and often debated. The surgical treatment of the lesions, before the medically assisted procreation, seems to prevent these complications. PMID:22771074

  19. Evaluation of the endometriosis treatment success rate by the laparoscopic-pharmacological method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutrynowski, Andrzej; Zabielska, Renata; Smolarczyk, Roman

    1996-03-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the success rate of the operative laparoscopy assisted by electrocoagulation and laser as well as danazol and lynestrenol in the endometriosis treatment. One-hundred-ninety women with the recognized endometriosis were included into the study. In the I degree(s) endometriosis the operative or hormonal therapy was applied, in the II-IV degree(s) the combined therapy was used. The complete cure was achieved in 159 of the patients (84%): 28 women conceived, in 131 of the cases remission was recognized during the second laparoscopy. Eighteen women found improvement (9%) while 13 women (7%) reported the lack of improvement.

  20. The Impact of Endometriosis across the Lifespan of Women: Foreseeable Research and Therapeutic Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, C. L.; Foster, W. G.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to estrogen dependence, endometriosis is characterized by chronic pelvic inflammation. The impact of the chronic pelvic inflammatory state on other organ systems and women's health is unclear. Endometriosis associated chronic inflammation and potential adverse health effects across the lifespan render it imperative for renewed research vigor into the identification of novel biomarkers of disease and therapeutic options. Herein we propose a number of opportunities for research and development of new therapeutics to address the unmet needs in the treatment of endometriosis per se and its ancillary risks for other diseases in women across the lifespan.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related heart disease: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud U. Sani; Basil N. Okeahialam; Sani H. Aliyu; David A. Enoch

    2005-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in the knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and transmission as well as the emergence of effective antiretroviral therapies are leading to longer survival times for HIV- infected individuals. As a result, organ-related manifestations of late-stage HIV infection, including HIV-related heart diseases have emerged. It is now clear that cardiac involvement in HIV seropositive patients is

  2. Human Factors Related to a Virtual Reality Surgical Simulator: The

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    Human Factors Related to a Virtual Reality Surgical Simulator: The Sheffield Knee Arthroscopic for a Virtual Reality based surgical simulator and describes the advances made to the Sheffield Knee Arthroscopy more challenging alternative to current arthroscopic training methods. Keywords: virtual reality

  3. Effects of Human Relations Training on Intellectual and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redman, George L.

    An assessment is made of selected outcomes of an undergraduate human relations course in the teacher education program at Hamline University (St. Paul, Minnesota). The program was comprised of two basic structural elements: 35 hours of large-group instruction and 25 hours of field experience in a public school. Course content was designed to…

  4. Wearable environments: reconfiguring human-machine-environment relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Baki Kocaballi

    2010-01-01

    Motivation -- The main motivation of this research is to gain a better understanding of dynamic agency between human, machine and environment relations mediated by a synthesis of wearable computing and smart environments technologies. Research approach -- The study follows a research through design approach. There are two main stages of the study involving a series of workshops involving designed

  5. Analysis of Human Relations Problem Situations: The Group Process Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, Paul G.

    Human relations problem situations for Army senior non-commissioned officers (NCOs) were identified and analyzed using group problem solving methods. Then, using an analysis summary prepared for each case study problem situation as the basis, candidate performance exercises were developed. (These exercises specify terminal performance objectives…

  6. Double circular stapler technique for bowel resection in rectosigmoid endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Pinho; Crispi, Claudio P; Oliveira, Flavio M; Junior, Paulo S; Raymundo, Thiers S; Pereira, Thiago D

    2014-01-01

    To reduce bladder function impairment and avert the serious complications of anastomotic leakage after segmental rectosigmoidectomy and to minimize the persistence of endometriotic lesions associated with discoid resection, we used the double circular stapling (DCS) technique. This technique enables excision of bowel endometriosis nodules larger than those that can be removed with the single-load technique of the circular stapler. Of 120 patients who underwent surgery to treat bowel endometriosis, intestinal shaving was performed in 24, discoid resection with single circular stapling in 40, and rectosigmoidectomy in 55. Eleven patients (9.2%) underwent the DCS technique. In the DCS group, the size of the rectosigmoid lesion ranged from 2.2 cm to 4.2 cm. Median operative time for the DCS technique was 100 minutes, compared with 150 minutes for rectosigmoidectomy (p = .04). Only 1 of 11 patients (9%) had urinary retention, compared with postoperative urinary retention in 14 of 55 patients (25%) who had undergone rectosigmoidectomy (difference not significant). Only 1 patient, with a 4.2-cm nodule, had a positive margin in the specimen obtained at the second stapling. DCS is a promising technique and may avert rectosigmoidectomy in selected patients. PMID:23969140

  7. Influence of endometriosis on visceromotor and cardiovascular responses induced by vaginal distention in the rat

    E-print Network

    Berkley, Karen J.

    Influence of endometriosis on visceromotor and cardiovascular responses induced by vaginal; accepted 30 April 2007 Abstract This study examined pseudoaffective responses elicited by vaginal. Distendable latex balloons were inserted into the vaginal canal. While an increasing series of vaginal

  8. Extracellular matrix remodelling in the endometrium and its possible relevance to the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Sillem, M; Prifti, S; Neher, M; Runnebaum, B

    1998-01-01

    Essential features of endometrial physiology involve the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the pathogenesis of endometriosis, interactions of endometriosis cells with ECM can be postulated. Two systems of secreted proteases in the endometrium, the plasmin(ogen) activator/inhibitor and the matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors were examined in cell cultures of uterine endometrial cells from women with and without endometriosis. Soluble urokinase receptor secretion is increased, and mRNA transcription of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) is upregulated by progestin in endometriosis. These findings are compatible with an altered ECM turnover in the endometrium of these patients that may explain a higher invasive potential of retrogradely menstruated endometrial fragments. PMID:10027627

  9. Assessment of cadmium impregnation in women suffering from endometriosis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Heilier, Jean-François; Verougstraete, Violaine; Nackers, Fabienne; Tonglet, René; Donnez, Jacques; Lison, Dominique

    2004-12-01

    Environmental chemicals with oestrogen-like activity are suspected aetiological factors of endometriosis. In animal experiments, cadmium was recently shown to possess oestrogen-like properties. In the frame of a case-control study designed to investigate environmental risk factors for endometriosis, we compared cadmium urinary excretion (CdU) and blood concentration in 59 patients with peritoneal endometriosis, deep endometriotic (adenomyotic) nodules of the recto-vaginal septum and controls. After standardisation for age (30 years) and smoking status, the mean levels of cadmium in urine were (geometric mean [geometric S.D.]) 0.25 [1.50], 0.29 [1.76] and 0.26 [1.46] microg/g creatinine, respectively. Cadmium concentrations in blood did not differ among the three groups. These data, therefore, do not support a role for cadmium in the onset or the growth of endometriosis or deep endometriotic (adenomyotic) nodules of the recto-vaginal septum. PMID:15475182

  10. Cutaneous inguinal scar endosalpingiosis and endometriosis: case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Martina; Brasanac, Dimitrije; Stojicic, Milan

    2013-04-01

    Endosalpingiosis and endometriosis represent ectopic growth of the fallopian tube epithelium and endometrial glands and stroma, respectively. Cutaneous endometriosis is a well-known entity, most often presented on scars after gynecological procedures. Cutaneous endosalpingiosis, however, appears to be a rare condition, with only 5 cases described in medical literature thus far. The authors report an unusual case of a woman with combined inguinal endosalpingiosis and endometriosis occurring in the cutaneous scar at the site of previously placed surgical drain, 10 years after myomectomy had been performed. The authors also provide an extensive review of medical literature in English regarding cutaneous endosalpingiosis and endometriosis and discuss their clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features. PMID:23249836

  11. Medical Management of Endometriosis: Emerging Evidence Linking Inflammation to Disease Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Herington, Jennifer L.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone action normally mediates the balance between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory processes throughout the female reproductive tract. However, in women with endometriosis, endometrial progesterone resistance, characterized by alterations in progesterone responsive gene and protein expression, is now considered a central element in disease pathophysiology. Recent studies additionally suggest that the peritoneal microenvironment of endometriosis patients exhibits altered physiological characteristics that may further promote inflammation-driven disease development and progression. Within this review, we summarize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis with an emphasis on the role that inflammation plays in generating not only the progesterone-resistant eutopic endometrium but also a peritoneal microenvironment that may contribute significantly to disease establishment. Viewing endometriosis from the emerging perspective that a progesterone resistant endometrium and an immunologically compromised peritoneal microenvironment are biologically linked risk factors for disease development provides a novel mechanistic framework to identify new therapeutic targets for appropriate medical management. PMID:23598784

  12. What Are the Symptoms of Endometriosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources for press Selected Profiles & Interviews Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related to NICHD research About NICHD Institute ...

  13. Pathogenetic Significance of Increased Levels of Interleukin8 in the Peritoneal Fluid of Patients with Endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomio Iwabe; Tasuku Harada; Toshiyuki Tsudo; Masahiro Tanikawa; Yoshimasa Onohara; Naoki Terakawa

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.Design: Peritoneal fluid was collected by laparoscopy. Endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells were obtained from normal endometrium and from chocolate cyst linings of the ovary.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Tottori University Hospital, Yonago, Japan.Patient(s): Forty women who underwent either

  14. Implementation of certified endometriosis centers: 5-year experience in German-speaking Europe.

    PubMed

    Ebert, A D; Ulrich, U; Keckstein, J; Müller, M; Schindler, A E; Sillem, M; Tinneberg, H-R; De Wilde, R L; Schweppe, K-W

    2013-01-01

    The idea of quality improvement in the management of endometriosis has been brought to attention throughout Europe. This - first and foremost - includes the implementation of centers specialized in treating endometriosis. This leads to qualification of both physicians and other medical staff, enforcement of research efforts, and informing the patients, the public, politicians, healthcare providers, and industry. Given limited budgets, focusing on the existing national commitment may be the first step. PMID:23391712

  15. Pelvic Endometriosis is Rarely Associated with Ovarian Borderline Tumours, Cytologic and Architectural Atypia: A Clinicopathologic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Ali Bedaiwy; Mahmoud Rezk Abd-Elwahed Hussein; Charles Biscotti; Tommaso Falcone

    2009-01-01

    Endometriotic foci, especially ovarian ones, with epithelial cytologic atypia may be precursors of cancer. This study presents\\u000a an overview of the atypical cytological and histopathological findings associated with endometriosis. Six cases of endometriosis,\\u000a with atypical histological and cytological changes, were obtained from the archives of the Department of Pathology at Cleveland\\u000a Clinic Foundation between year 2000 and 2003. The size

  16. Endometriosis of the round ligament: description of a clinical case and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Licheri; G. Pisano; E. Erdas; S. Ledda; B. Casu; M. V. Cherchi; M. Pomata; G. M. Daniele

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of endometriosis of the round ligament in a 29-year-old woman, who complained of a lump with a diameter of\\u000a about 2.5 cm in the right inguinal region, which increased in bulk and was accompanied by intense pain during the menstrual\\u000a period. The clinical suspicion of inguinal endometriosis, supported by ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance (MR), was confirmed\\u000a by

  17. Detection of aromatase cytochrome P-450 in endometrial biopsy specimens as a diagnostic test for endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo Kitawaki; Izumi Kusuki; Hisato Koshiba; Katsumi Tsukamoto; Shinji Fushiki; Hideo Honjo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of examining endometrial biopsy specimens for aromatase cytochrome P-450 as a diagnostic test for endometriosis.Design: Retrospective, case-controlled study.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.Patient(s): One hundred five women of reproductive age with normal menstrual cycles underwent endometrial biopsy laparotomy or laparoscopy, and examination of their tissue revealed endometriosis,

  18. Surgical treatment of ureteral obstruction from endometriosis: our experience with thirteen cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Antonelli; Claudio Simeone; Ezio Frego; Gianfranco Minini; Umberto Bianchi; Sergio Cosciani Cunico

    2004-01-01

    Endometriosis is a biologically benign albeit aggressive pathology marked by high local recurrences. Ureteral involvement accounts for only a minority of cases (0.1–0.4%) with often non-specific symptoms at clinical presentation and difficult preoperative diagnosis. Thirteen cases of severe ureteral endometriosis (i.e. causing significant obstruction to the urinary flow) were observed and surgically treated, out of 17 ureteral units affected (three

  19. Ectopic endometrium-derived leptin produces estrogen-dependent chronic pain in a rat model of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, P; Bogen, O; Chen, X; Giudice, L C; Levine, J D

    2014-01-31

    Endometriosis pain is a very common and extremely disabling condition whose mechanism is still poorly understood. While increased levels of leptin have been reported in patients with endometriosis, their contribution to endometriosis pain has not been explored. Using a rodent model of endometriosis we provide evidence for an estrogen-dependent contribution of leptin in endometriosis-induced pain. Rats implanted with autologous uterine tissue onto the gastrocnemius muscle developed endometriosis-like lesions and local chronic pain. Compared to eutopic uterine tissue, leptin mRNA and protein were up-regulated in the endometriosis-like lesions. Intramuscular injection of recombinant leptin in naive rats produced dose-dependent local mechanical hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization to mechanical stimulation. Ovariectomy attenuated the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by recombinant leptin, in rats treated with vehicle compared to those treated with 17?-estradiol replacement, at 1 and 24 h after leptin injection. Finally, intralesional injections of a pegylated leptin receptor (Ob-R) antagonist or of an inhibitor of Janus kinase2, which transduces the Ob-R signal, markedly attenuated pain in the endometriosis model. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that leptin, generated in ectopic endometrial lesions produces mechanical hyperalgesia by acting on nociceptors innervating the lesion. This sensitivity to leptin is dependent on estrogen levels. Thus, interventions targeting leptin signaling, especially in combination with interventions that lower estrogen levels, might be useful for the treatment of endometriosis pain. PMID:24239717

  20. VCAM-1 on peritoneum and ?4?1 integrin in endometrium and their implications in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Schutt, Amy K; Atkins, Kristen A; Slack-Davis, Jill K; Stovall, Dale W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on peritoneal mesothelial cells and ?4?1 integrin on eutopic endometrium as possible mechanisms in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. It is a case-control study carried out at an academic medical center. Participants are patients with (n=9) and without (n=15) endometriosis. The main outcome measures included VCAM-1 expression on peritoneal mesothelial cells and ?4?1 expression on eutopic endometrium using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. Patients with endometriosis were more likely to express VCAM-1 on peritoneal mesothelial cells, both in areas with and without macroscopic disease, compared with patients without endometriosis (9/9 vs. 3/15, P<0.001). No differences were found between cases and controls in regards to eutopic endometrial expression of ?4?1 integrin. The presence of VCAM-1 on peritoneal mesothelial cells is associated with endometriosis. This field effect, in addition to the similarity found with regards to the expression of ?4?1 integrin in eutopic endometrium between cases and controls, may implicate the expression of VCAM-1 in the peritoneum, and not changes in the eutopic endometrium, as a contributor to the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:25473757

  1. A case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the rectum treated by laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Okazawa, Yu; Takahashi, Rina; Mizukoshi, Kosuke; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Ishiyama, Shun; Sugimoto, Kiichi; Takahashi, Makoto; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Okuzawa, Atsushi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Yao, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Malignant transformation of intestinal endometriosis occurring in the extraovarian sites is extremely rare. We report a very rare case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the rectum. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 83-year-old woman was admitted with the complaint of hematochezia. Colonoscopy revealed a tumor around about half of the rectal circumference. Biopsy of the tumor revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Low anterior resection was undergone laparoscopically under the diagnosis of rectal carcinoma. Histopathological examination revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma, invading the sub-serosa of the rectum, but no metastasis of the lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical staining showed strong positivity for cytokeratin 7, but no staining for cytokeratin 20 and CDX2. The tumor existed adjacent to the endometrial glands, which were stained positive for Estrogen receptor. Ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis. Eighteen months after surgery, there are no signs of tumor recurrence. DISCUSSION Clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from intestinal endometriosis has been reported in 7 cases, including our case. Careful observation is required because the prognosis of endometriosis after malignant transformation remains poor. CONCLUSION We report a very rare case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the rectum treated by laparoscopic surgery. PMID:25460452

  2. FOXO1 and c-jun transcription factors mRNA are modulated in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Shazand, K; Baban, S; Privé, C; Malette, B; Croteau, P; Lagacé, M; Racine, J-B; Hugo, P

    2004-12-01

    Endometriosis is a polygenic gynaecological condition affecting 5-15% of women of childbearing age. Major symptoms of the disease are pelvic pain and infertility. No clear link has been established between symptoms and the stage of the disease. Although some aspects have begun to be clarified, clinical understanding of endometriosis remains partial at the molecular level. In this perspective, we targeted isolation of differentially expressed genes in the eutopic endometrial tissue. Our assumption was that the endometrial cells of patients presented an unusual gene expression profile, allowing their implantation and survival in an ectopic site, leading to endometriotic lesions. Here, we report that mRNA steady-state levels of two key transcription factors are modulated in endometriosis. FOXO1 (also known as FKHR) levels were 1.6-fold lower in endometriosis compared to the control group at the onset of the secretory phase (day 15-21), while c-jun mRNA was present at higher amounts in endometriosis (1.5-fold) at the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. These results were derived from a large sample composed of 157 control subjects and 209 patients with endometriosis. Gene profiling was conducted by real-time quantitative PCR, and data were quality controlled before statistical analysis. Whether protein levels are affected as well remains to be investigated. PMID:15501904

  3. Various anatomic locations of surgically proven endometriosis: A single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Park, Ye Mi; Kim, Yong Beom; Suh, Chang Suk

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the various anatomic locations of surgically and pathologically proven endometriosis. Methods Pathologic reports (n=1,376) of women who underwent surgeries at a single center between April 2005 and March 2013 were retrieved from the electronic medical record system of the hospital. Pathologic reports were included after performing a search by using the key-words "endometrial cyst," "endometriotic cyst," "endometriosis," or "endometrioma." Only reports dealing with female patients were selected, and the pathologic reports of 1,350 women (1,374 surgery cases) were included in the analysis. Results The predominant location of endometriosis was the ovaries (96.4%), followed by the soft tissue (2.8%), gastrointestinal tract (0.3%) and urinary tract (0.2%). Laparoscopic surgery was the major surgical technique used for the pelvic endometriosis (89.2%). Adrenal gland endometriosis was found in a 55-year-old woman. Conclusion We established the various anatomic locations of surgically and pathologically proven endometriosis in Korean women. PMID:25629019

  4. Rapidly quantifying the relative distention of a human bladder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (inventor); Heyman, Joseph S. (inventor); Mineo, Beth A. (inventor); Cavalier, Albert R. (inventor); Blalock, Travis N. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device and method was developed to rapidly quantify the relative distention of the bladder of a human subject. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned on the human subject near the bladder. A microprocessor controlled pulser excites the transducer by sending an acoustic wave into the human subject. This wave interacts with the bladder walls and is reflected back to the ultrasonic transducer where it is received, amplified, and processed by the receiver. The resulting signal is digitized by an analog to digital converter, controlled by the microprocessor again, and is stored in data memory. The software in the microprocessor determines the relative distention of the bladder as a function of the propagated ultrasonic energy. Based on programmed scientific measurements and the human subject's past history as contained in program memory, the microprocessor sends out a signal to turn on any or all of the available alarms. The alarm system includes and audible alarm, the visible alarm, the tactile alarm, and the remote wireless alarm.

  5. A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, M; Enders, G H; Wu, C L; Su, L K; Gorka, C; Nelson, C; Harlow, E; Tsai, L H

    1992-01-01

    The p34cdc2 protein kinase is known to regulate important transitions in the eukaryotic cell cycle. We have identified 10 human protein kinases based on their structural relation to p34cdc2. Seven of these kinases are novel and the products of five share greater than 50% amino acid sequence identity with p34cdc2. The seven novel genes are broadly expressed in human cell lines and tissues with each displaying some cell type or tissue specificity. The cdk3 gene, like cdc2 and cdk2, can complement cdc28 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that all three of these protein kinases can play roles in the regulation of the mammalian cell cycle. The identification of a large family of cdc2-related kinases opens the possibility of combinatorial regulation of the cell cycle together with the emerging large family of cyclins. Images PMID:1639063

  6. Gender-related differences in rectal temperature in human neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emese Nagy

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the gender-related differences in human neonates' body temperature. Rectal temperatures of 101 newborns (52 girls and 49 boys) were measured using a calibrated glass-mercury thermometer five times during their first 5 days of life. Results show that the temperature of males, averaged over 5 days, was significantly lower (37.068°C) than that of

  7. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries to human...

  8. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries to human...

  9. Associations between patients with endometriosis and HLA class II; the analysis of HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DPB1 genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Ishii; Koichi Takakuwa; Katsunori Kashima; Masaki Tamura; Kenichi Tanaka

    BACKGROUND: Although the aetiology of endometriosis remains unclear, many immunological abnormalities involving changes in cell-mediated and humoral immunity may be associated with endometriosis. Several disorders are thought to be associated with particular HLA antigen types. This study examines the possible association between HLA-DQ and DP. METHODS: A total of 83 patients diagnosed with endometriosis following laparoscopic examination were typed for

  10. Dienogest reduces HSD17?1 expression and activity in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Taisuke; Ito, Fumitake; Matsushima, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Osamu; Koshiba, Akemi; Tanaka, Yukiko; Kusuki, Izumi; Kitawaki, Jo

    2015-05-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease. Abnormally biosynthesized estrogens in endometriotic tissues induce the growth of the lesion and worsen endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Dienogest (DNG), a selective progesterone receptor agonist, is widely used to treat endometriosis and efficiently relieves the symptoms. However, its pharmacological action remains unknown. In this study, we elucidated the effect of DNG on enzymes involved in local estrogen metabolism in endometriosis. Surgically obtained specimens of 23 ovarian endometriomas (OE) and their homologous endometrium (EE), ten OE treated with DNG (OE w/D), and 19 normal endometria without endometriosis (NE) were analyzed. Spheroid cultures of stromal cells (SCs) were treated with DNG and progesterone. The expression of aromatase, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD17?1), HSD17?2, HSD17?7, HSD17?12, steroid sulfatase (STS), and estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. The activity and protein level of HSD17?1 were measured with an enzyme assay using radiolabeled estrogens and immunohistochemistry respectively. OESCs showed increased expression of aromatase, HSD17?1, STS, and EST, along with decreased HSD17?2 expression, when compared with stromal cells from normal endometria without endometriosis (NESCs) (P<0.01) or stromal cells from homologous endometrium (EESCs) (P<0.01). In OESCs, DNG inhibited HSD17?1 expression and enzyme activity at 10(-7) M (P<0.01). Results of immunohistochemical analysis displayed reduced HSD17?1 staining intensity in OE w/D (P<0.05). In conclusion, DNG exerts comprehensive inhibition of abnormal estrogen production through inhibition of aromatase and HSD17?1, contributing to a therapeutic effect of DNG on endometriosis. PMID:25767055

  11. Role of K-ras and Pten in the development of mouse models of endometriosis and endometrioid ovarian cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela M Dinulescu; Tan A Ince; Bradley J Quade; Sarah A Shafer; Denise Crowley; Tyler Jacks

    2004-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian tumors present a complex clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because of the difficulty of early detection, lack of known precursor lesions and high mortality rates. Endometrioid ovarian carcinomas are frequently associated with endometriosis, but the mechanism for this association remains unknown. Here we present the first genetic models of peritoneal endometriosis and endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma in mice, both

  12. The effects and effectiveness of laparoscopic excision of endometriosis: a prospective study with 2-5 year follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Abbott; J. Hawe; R. D. Clayton; R. Garry

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the outcomes for women up to 5 years after laparoscopic excision of endo- metriosis. METHODS: In this prospective observational cohort study, 254 women with chronic pelvic pain were referred to two units specializing in minimal access surgical management of endometriosis. Of these, 216 women underwent surgical assessment and 176 were confirmed to have endometriosis. Questionnaires and

  13. Endometriosis coexisting with mature cystic teratoma in the same ovary and ectopic pregnancy of left fallopian tube: a rare coexistence.

    PubMed

    Chae, Heesuk; Rheu, Chulhee

    2015-05-01

    A coexistence of endometriosis and mature cystic teratoma in the same ovary is a rare occurrence although such tumors of ovaries are said to be common in the reproductive age group. We report a case of fimbrial ectopic pregnancy combined with simultaneous ipsilateral ovarian presentation of endometriosis and mature teratoma. PMID:25984312

  14. Pericardial, pleural and diaphragmatic endometriosis in association with pelvic peritoneal and bowel endometriosis: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Roviglione, Giovanni; Rosenberg, Piergiorgio; Pesci, Anna; Clarizia, Roberto; Bruni, Francesco; Zardini, Claudio; Ruffo, Giacomo; Placci, Angelo; Crippa, Stefano; Minelli, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Diaphragmatic endometriosis is a rare entity, often asymptomatic, which has been described only in small series. It is almost always associated with severe pelvic involvement. The most plausible theory about this condition is based on retrograde menstruation and subsequent transportation of viable cells in peritoneal fluid from the pelvis up the right gutter to the right hemidiaphragm, thus demonstrating its asymmetric distribution on the diaphragm. Pre-operative diagnosis is poorly supported by imaging techniques. In most cases, it is an incidental finding because the lesions may hide behind the right hepatic lobe. In that case it cannot be easily demonstrated with a laparoscope from an umbilical port. Symptomatic diaphragmatic endometriosis is associated with deep lesions which can involve the entire thickness of the diaphragm. In these cases, treatment is more difficult with possible incomplete pain relief and a considerable possibility of recurrence. In this subset, abdominal surgery is recommended. Surgical treatment must be individualized on the basis of the patient's age, fertility desires, type and location of disease and symptoms. We report the surgical treatment of a patient with synchronous pericardial, pleural and diaphragmatic endometriosis associated with pelvic peritoneal and bowel involvement. A review of the literature regarding pericardial and diaphragmatic endometriosis focusing on anatomical and surgical aspects of its management is undertaken. PMID:23256014

  15. Structural studies of human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Koski, Raymond A.; Bonafé, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) is a membrane protein that is highly upregulated in brain cancers but is barely detectable in normal brain tissue. GLIPR1 is composed of a signal peptide that directs its secretion, a conserved cysteine-rich CAP (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins) domain and a transmembrane domain. GLIPR1 is currently being investigated as a candidate for prostate cancer gene therapy and for glioblastoma targeted therapy. Crystal structures of a truncated soluble domain of the human GLIPR1 protein (sGLIPR1) solved by molecular replacement using a truncated polyalanine search model of the CAP domain of stecrisp, a snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), are presented. The correct molecular-replacement solution could only be obtained by removing all loops from the search model. The native structure was refined to 1.85?Å resolution and that of a Zn2+ complex was refined to 2.2?Å resolution. The latter structure revealed that the putative binding cavity coordinates Zn2+ similarly to snake-venom CRISPs, which are involved in Zn2+-dependent mechanisms of inflammatory modulation. Both sGLIPR1 structures have extensive flexible loop/turn regions and unique charge distributions that were not observed in any of the previously reported CAP protein structures. A model is also proposed for the structure of full-length membrane-bound GLIPR1. PMID:21931216

  16. Structural studies of human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1.

    PubMed

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Koski, Raymond A; Bonafé, Nathalie

    2011-10-01

    Human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) is a membrane protein that is highly upregulated in brain cancers but is barely detectable in normal brain tissue. GLIPR1 is composed of a signal peptide that directs its secretion, a conserved cysteine-rich CAP (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins) domain and a transmembrane domain. GLIPR1 is currently being investigated as a candidate for prostate cancer gene therapy and for glioblastoma targeted therapy. Crystal structures of a truncated soluble domain of the human GLIPR1 protein (sGLIPR1) solved by molecular replacement using a truncated polyalanine search model of the CAP domain of stecrisp, a snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), are presented. The correct molecular-replacement solution could only be obtained by removing all loops from the search model. The native structure was refined to 1.85?Å resolution and that of a Zn2+ complex was refined to 2.2?Å resolution. The latter structure revealed that the putative binding cavity coordinates Zn2+ similarly to snake-venom CRISPs, which are involved in Zn2+-dependent mechanisms of inflammatory modulation. Both sGLIPR1 structures have extensive flexible loop/turn regions and unique charge distributions that were not observed in any of the previously reported CAP protein structures. A model is also proposed for the structure of full-length membrane-bound GLIPR1. PMID:21931216

  17. Expression of focal adhesion kinase in endometrial stromal cells of women with endometriosis was adjusted by ovarian steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Mu, Lin; Ma, Yan-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of ovarian steroid hormones on focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression in ESCs and whether there is alteration in women with endometriosis. FAK expression was assessed by western blotting analysis. Elevated expression of FAK was seen in the cultured ESCs treated with estrogen (P < 0.05). Expression of FAK protein was not changed in ESCs after treated by progesterone or treated by estrogen and progesterone. The level of up-regulation by estrogen in endometriosis is significantly higher than that from women without endometriosis (P < 0.05). FAK expression in endometrial stromal cells from endometriosis was more sensitive to estrogen, which might contribute to the pathogenesis and progress of endometriosis. PMID:25973072

  18. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1? and its physiological importance in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    AKASAKA, JURIA; UEKURI, CHIAKI; SHIGETOMI, HIROSHI; KOIKE, MATSUKI; KOBAYASHI, HIROSHI

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is associated with pelvic pain and female infertility. Endometriosis induces inflammation and is vulnerable to oxidative stress damage. To update and summarize the literature concerning the mechanisms that serve to protect genomic DNA from the oxidative damage, the present study reviews the English-language literature for biochemical studies on the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1? target genes. Findings demonstrated that retrograde flow of the menstrual blood might give rise to endometriosis. Iron may have a significant impact on endometriosis gene expression. HNF-1? regulates tissue-specific gene expression in endometriosis, as well as the expression of several genes, including CD44v9, which binds several molecules, including hyaluronan, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), leukemia-associated Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG), IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), major histocompatibility complex, class II invariant chain (CD74), cystine transporter subunit (xCT), Fas and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The CD44v9 system is involved in cell migration, growth, survival, anti-apoptosis, immune response and anti-oxidative stress through maintaining higher levels of antioxidants. HNF-1? may serve to alleviate damage and promote survival of cells experiencing stress by upregulating antioxidant protein expression. This review expands current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the oxidative stress protection provided by HNF-1? and provides evidence that elevated HNF-1? activity might be associated with the CD44v9-dependent signaling cascades. PMID:24648885

  19. Endometriosis – A Chameleon: Patients? Perception of Clinical Symptoms, Treatment Strategies and Their Impact on Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wimberger, P.; Grübling, N.; Riehn, A.; Furch, M.; Klengel, J.; Goeckenjan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Endometriosis is a chronic disease with differing clinical presentations. Treatment strategies depend mainly on clinical presentation and patient lifestyle. In women newly diagnosed with endometriosis, it is often difficult to understand the pathophysiologic origin, the potential individual impairment due to disease and the different treatment options. Compliance with the selected treatment is therefore often not optimal. Material and Methods: In a descriptive study, data of 51 women with endometriosis (mean age 36.2?years ±?11.3) were analyzed according to the predominant clinical presentation: asymptomatic disease, disease with typical symptoms, ovarian cysts or infertility. Results: More than 50?% of patients ascribed a therapeutic benefit to surgical intervention or endocrine treatment, especially women in the subgroup with dysmenorrhea who received combined treatment. It should be noted that in the group of women facing infertility, more than half stated that they could not decide on the value of diagnostic and therapeutic reproductive medicine. Nevertheless, more than half of the women in this group became pregnant within two years after the initial diagnosis. Discussion: When deciding on the best treatment strategy for endometriosis, it is important to take account of potential pain and infertility. Women?s perception of endometriosis will vary depending on their symptoms, the time of diagnosis and their lifestyle. Offering continuous information on clinical aspects and manifestations of the disease may improve treatment outcomes. Personalized counseling is an essential part of the clinical management of the disease. PMID:25364034

  20. Putting the pieces together: endometriosis blogs, cognitive authority, and collaborative information behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Diane M; McKenzie, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A discourse analysis was conducted of peer-written blogs about the chronic illness endometriosis to understand how bloggers present information sources and make cases for and against the authority of those sources. Methods: Eleven blogs that were authored by endometriosis patients and focused exclusively or primarily on the authors' experiences with endometriosis were selected. After selecting segments in which the bloggers invoked forms of knowledge and sources of evidence, the text was discursively analyzed to reveal how bloggers establish and dispute the authority of the sources they invoke. Results: When discussing and refuting authority, the bloggers invoked many sources of evidence, including experiential, peer-provided, biomedical, and intuitive ones. Additionally, they made and disputed claims of cognitive authority via two interpretive repertoires: a concern about the role and interests of the pharmaceutical industry and an understanding of endometriosis as extremely idiosyncratic. Affective authority of information sources was also identified, which presented as social context, situational similarity, or aesthetic or spiritual factors. Conclusions: Endometriosis patients may find informational value in blogs, especially for affective support and epistemic experience. Traditional notions of authority might need to be revised for the online environment. Guidelines for evaluating the authority of consumer health information, informed by established readers' advisory practices, are suggested. PMID:21464850

  1. Patients’ and physicians’ descriptions of occurrence and diagnosis of endometriosis: a qualitative study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of endometriosis is considerable but its diagnosis is a dilemma. The aim of this study was to explore the perception and experiences of endometriosis patients and physicians about occurrence and diagnosis of endometriosis. Methods A qualitative research using content analysis was used to obtain data from purposely selected endometriosis patients (12 participants) and gynecologists (6 participants) from January to September 2013 in Tehran. Data were coded and analyzed using a thematic approach. Results Seven themes emerged: 1) pain localization, 2) Severity of pain and struggle for pain relief, 3) Feeling inability to play the role of femininity, 4) Reducing physical health, 5) Disruption of social life, 6) Looking for a reliable diagnostic indicator, 7) Uncertainty of physical examination. The results highlighted that patients with the disease can experience different feelings that interfere with their wellbeing and their lives, and sometimes could be disabling. Conclusion Patients and physicians are looking for a certain, noninvasive and inexpensive diagnostic method. This study helps to promote clinical diagnostic view and knowledge development about description of endometriosis diagnosis to decrease diagnostic delay and mismanagement. PMID:25174639

  2. Inference of Distant Genetic Relations in Humans Using “1000 Genomes”

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khudhair, Ahmed; Qiu, Shuhao; Wyse, Meghan; Chowdhury, Shilpi; Cheng, Xi; Bekbolsynov, Dulat; Saha-Mandal, Arnab; Dutta, Rajib; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence differences on the whole-genome scale have been computed for 1,092 people from 14 populations publicly available by the 1000 Genomes Project. Total number of differences in genetic variants between 96,464 human pairs has been calculated. The distributions of these differences for individuals within European, Asian, or African origin were characterized by narrow unimodal peaks with mean values of 3.8, 3.5, and 5.1 million, respectively, and standard deviations of 0.1–0.03 million. The total numbers of genomic differences between pairs of all known relatives were found to be significantly lower than their respective population means and in reverse proportion to the distance of their consanguinity. By counting the total number of genomic differences it is possible to infer familial relations for people that share down to 6% of common loci identical-by-descent. Detection of familial relations can be radically improved when only very rare genetic variants are taken into account. Counting of total number of shared very rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome sequences allows establishing distant familial relations for persons with eighth and ninth degrees of relationship. Using this analysis we predicted 271 distant familial pairwise relations among 1,092 individuals that have not been declared by 1000 Genomes Project. Particularly, among 89 British and 97 Chinese individuals we found three British–Chinese pairs with distant genetic relationships. Individuals from these pairs share identical-by-descent DNA fragments that represent 0.001%, 0.004%, and 0.01% of their genomes. With affordable whole-genome sequencing techniques, very rare SNPs should become important genetic markers for familial relationships and population stratification. PMID:25573959

  3. Relative clock verifies endogenous bursts of human dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Changsong

    2012-01-01

    Temporal bursts are widely observed in many human-activated systems, which may result from both endogenous mechanisms like the highest-priority-first protocol and exogenous factors like the seasonality of activities. To distinguish the effects from different mechanisms is thus of theoretical significance. This letter reports a new timing method by using a relative clock, namely the time length between two consecutive events of an agent is counted as the number of other agents' events appeared during this interval. We propose a model, in which agents act either in a constant rate or with a power-law inter-event time distribution, and the global activity either keeps unchanged or varies periodically vs. time. Our analysis shows that the bursts caused by the heterogeneity of global activity can be eliminated by setting the relative clock, yet the bursts from real individual behaviors still exist. We perform extensive experiments on four large-scale systems, the search engine by AOL, a social bookmarking system —Delicious, a short-message communication network, and a microblogging system —Twitter. Seasonality of global activity is observed, yet the bursts cannot be eliminated by using the relative clock.

  4. Age-related Changes in Eosinophil Function in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sameer K.; Schwantes, Elizabeth A.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Busse, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aging results in changes in immune cell function which have been described for T-cells, macrophage, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, but not yet for eosinophils. We sought to define age-related changes in eosinophil function and their potential implications for asthma. Methods. We recruited human subjects with asthma in two age groups, a younger group (20–40 years old) and older group (55–80 years old). Lung function, induced sputum, and peripheral blood were obtained from each subject. Eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood were examined for in vitro functional activities including degranulation, superoxide anion production, adhesion, and chemotaxis. Results Eosinophil degranulation in response to IL-5 stimulation was significantly decreased in the older group (p=0.025). Eosinophil production of superoxide anions in response to phorbol myristate acetate was lower in the older group, but did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.097). Eosinophil adhesion, eosinophil chemotaxis, lung function, and the percentage of sputum eosinophils were similar in the two groups. Conclusion Airway eosinophilia is comparable in younger and older asthma subjects. However, there are age-related changes in peripheral blood eosinophil “effector” functions. Diseases such as asthma, in which eosinophils are thought to play a pathophysiological role, may exhibit important clinical differences in the elderly due to age-related changes in inflammatory cell function that affect the manifestations of the disease and/or responsiveness to specific classes of medications. PMID:18252914

  5. HLA-G: A human pregnancy-related immunomodulator

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Joan S.; Langat, Daudi L.

    2009-01-01

    In human pregnancies mothers and their embryo/fetuses are invariably genetically different. Thus, attenuation of the adaptive maternal immune response, which is programmed to reject “foreign” entities, is required for pregnancy to be initiated and maintained. Unexpectedly, given the propensity of the immune system to dispose of non-self entities, at least 50% of expected human pregnancies reliably go forward. This indicates that to a large extent, effective systems of tolerance have evolved. Although overlapping and redundant mechanisms of tolerance have been identified, production of HLA-G by trophoblast cells derived from the external trophectoderm layer of the blastocyst appears to be of major importance. At this point in time, no pregnancies in which all of the proteins derived from the HLA-G gene are absent have as yet been reported. Many studies have shown that both membrane-bound and soluble isoforms of the proteins derived from this HLA class Ib gene are produced by placental trophoblast cells, with consequences that include but are not restricted to immune suppression at the maternal-fetal interface. Here we report new studies that are leading to a better understanding of the HLA-G proteins, their unique structures, unusual modes of regulation, diverse functions and potential for use in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures related to suboptimal fertility in women. PMID:19570712

  6. Human serum albumin and its relation with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sitar, Mustafa Erinç; Aydin, Seval; Cakatay, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    Human serum albumin, a negative acute phase reactant and marker of nutritive status, presents at high concentrations in plasma. Albumin has always been used in many clinical states especially to improve circulatory failure. It has been showed that albumin is involved in many bioactive functions such as regulation of plasma osmotic pressure, binding and transport of various endogenous or exogenous compounds, and finally extracellular antioxidant defenses. Molecules like transferrin, caeruloplasmin, haptoglobin, uric acid, bilirubin, alpha-tocopherol, glucose, and albumin constitute extracellular antioxidant defenses in blood plasma but albumin is the most potent one. Most of the antioxidant properties of albumin can be attributed to its unique biochemical structure. The protein possesses antioxidant properties such as binding copper tightly and iron weakly, scavenging free radicals, e.g., hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and Peroxynitrite (ONOOH) and providing thiol group (-SH). Whether it is chronic or acute, during many pathological conditions, biomarkers of oxidative protein damage increase and this observation continues with considerable oxidation of human serum albumin. There is an important necessity to specify its interactions with Reactive Oxygen Species. Generally, it may lower the availability of pro-oxidants and be preferentially oxidized to protect other macromolecules but all these findings make it necessary that researchers give a more detailed explanation of albumin and its relations with oxidative stress. PMID:24273915

  7. Periclitoral endometriosis: the dilemma of a chronic disease invading a rare location.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, Frances W; Carey, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis affects 6% to 10% of women of reproductive age; extrapelvic endometriosis is considered a rare event with perineal endometriosis being even rarer still (only a few cases of spontaneous episodes described, the majority being from episiotomy scars). We present a unique case of periclitoral endometriosis, which to the best of our knowledge is the first in the literature. It is a 29-year-old nulligravida female with a painful fluctuant right periclitoral mass that had been growing with no response to antibiotic therapy. At the initial removal, pathology reported the lesion as endometriosis. The patient was placed on oral contraceptives, and she was noted to have monthly swelling and shrinking of the site with her menstrual cycles. When she went off hormonal contraception, she represented with the growing lesion 3.5 weeks after her last menses; she underwent re-excision. Because of the extension of the lesion medially and its adherence to the clitoral body, the decision was made to evacuate only as much of the capsule that could be safely identified to minimize the risk of damaging the clitoris. Complete excision in this case was difficult without sacrificing a portion of the clitoris and potentially resulting in decreased sexual function and persistent clitoral pain. In a patient in whom complete excision is not possible, there is potential for mass recurrence in the setting of residual tissue. Reviewing the literature suggests that there are risks with both recurrence and clitoral excision. We found that in-depth patient counseling, hormonal suppression, and close follow-up are necessary when dealing with periclitoral endometriosis postexcision. PMID:25680686

  8. Melatonin, human aging, and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Karasek, M

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide prolongation of the mean life expectancy has resulted in a rapid increase of the size of the elderly population (over the age of 60), both in numbers and as a proportion of the whole. As a consequence, increasing the number of potential beneficiaries of health and pension funds, mainly those aged 65 and over raises many social and economic problems since they are supported by a relatively smaller number of potential contributors, i.e. those in the economically active ages between 18 and 64. Therefore, there is a search for any therapeutic agent improving quality of life in the elderly. A role for melatonin as such a compound was recently suggested. In this survey, data on the possible role of melatonin in human aging and age-related diseases are briefly presented. Undoubtedly the aging process is multi-factorial, and no single factor has been identified which satisfactorily explains the phenomenon. Although many theories relating the pineal gland and its secretory product melatonin to aging have been proposed, the role of this agent in the aging process is still unclear. However, for several reasons it seems reasonable to postulate a role for melatonin in this process. Melatonin levels decline gradually over the life-span and may be related to lowered sleep efficacy, very often associated with advancing age, as well as to deterioration of many circadian rhythms. Melatonin exhibits immunomodulatory properties, and a remodeling of immune system function is an integral part of aging. Finally, because melatonin is a potent free radical scavenger, its deficiency may result in reduced antioxidant protection in the elderly which may have significance not only for aging per se but also may contribute to the incidence or severity of some age-related diseases. Presently available data do not allow us to conclude that melatonin may have a role in extending normal longevity. However, although melatonin cannot be recognized as 'rejuvenating' agent, some of its actions may be beneficial for the aging process. Administration of melatonin may improve temporal organization in advanced age. Moreover, it has beneficial effects on sleep as well as age-related diseases. Although recommendations of melatonin supplementation in elderly should be considered, there is a need for extensive studies on the use of melatonin in order to improve the quality of life in advanced age. PMID:15582288

  9. Rapidly quantifying the relative distention of a human bladder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (inventor); Heyman, Joseph S. (inventor); Mineo, Beth A. (inventor); Cavalier, Albert R. (inventor); Blalock, Travis N. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A device and method of rapidly quantifying the relative distention of the bladder in a human subject are disclosed. The ultrasonic transducer which is positioned on the subject in proximity to the bladder is excited by a pulser under the command of a microprocessor to launch an acoustic wave into the patient. This wave interacts with the bladder walls and is reflected back to the ultrasonic transducer, when it is received, amplified and processed by the receiver. The resulting signal is digitized by an analog-to-digital converter under the command of the microprocessor and is stored in the data memory. The software in the microprocessor determines the relative distention of the bladder as a function of the propagated ultrasonic energy; and based on programmed scientific measurements and individual, anatomical, and behavioral characterists of the specific subject as contained in the program memory, sends out a signal to turn on any or all of the audible alarm, the visible alarm, the tactile alarm, and the remote wireless alarm.

  10. Should we abstain from treating women with endometriosis using menopausal hormone therapy, for fear of an increased ovarian cancer risk?

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, S; Antoine, C; Vandromme, J; Fastrez, M

    2015-08-01

    Women suffering from endometriosis often have an early menopause, resulting in severe menopausal symptoms and an increased risk of osteoporosis. They are therefore candidates for menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Unfortunately, MHT may increase the risk of endometriosis recurrence. Moreover, endometriosis patients are at increased risk of ovarian cancer, which may be further enhanced by MHT use. It is unknown, however, whether MHT more frequently increases type I (low-grade serous tumors), which seem to be increased when endometriosis is present, or type II (the more aggressive high-grade serous) tumors. We propose the following decision-making algorithm for endometriosis patients considering MHT. Those who have been treated with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and in whom there is no residual endometriotic disease, can probably be treated using MHT without risk of endometriosis recurrence or fear of ovarian cancer. For women with significant, residual endometriosis lesions, the benefit may outweigh the risks, when menopause is reached before the age of 45 years or when severe symptoms are present. PMID:25958744

  11. Relating the metatranscriptome and metagenome of the human gut

    PubMed Central

    Franzosa, Eric A.; Morgan, Xochitl C.; Segata, Nicola; Waldron, Levi; Reyes, Joshua; Earl, Ashlee M.; Giannoukos, Georgia; Boylan, Matthew R.; Ciulla, Dawn; Gevers, Dirk; Izard, Jacques; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Although the composition of the human microbiome is now well-studied, the microbiota’s >8 million genes and their regulation remain largely uncharacterized. This knowledge gap is in part because of the difficulty of acquiring large numbers of samples amenable to functional studies of the microbiota. We conducted what is, to our knowledge, one of the first human microbiome studies in a well-phenotyped prospective cohort incorporating taxonomic, metagenomic, and metatranscriptomic profiling at multiple body sites using self-collected samples. Stool and saliva were provided by eight healthy subjects, with the former preserved by three different methods (freezing, ethanol, and RNAlater) to validate self-collection. Within-subject microbial species, gene, and transcript abundances were highly concordant across sampling methods, with only a small fraction of transcripts (<5%) displaying between-method variation. Next, we investigated relationships between the oral and gut microbial communities, identifying a subset of abundant oral microbes that routinely survive transit to the gut, but with minimal transcriptional activity there. Finally, systematic comparison of the gut metagenome and metatranscriptome revealed that a substantial fraction (41%) of microbial transcripts were not differentially regulated relative to their genomic abundances. Of the remainder, consistently underexpressed pathways included sporulation and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas up-regulated pathways included ribosome biogenesis and methanogenesis. Across subjects, metatranscriptional profiles were significantly more individualized than DNA-level functional profiles, but less variable than microbial composition, indicative of subject-specific whole-community regulation. The results thus detail relationships between community genomic potential and gene expression in the gut, and establish the feasibility of metatranscriptomic investigations in subject-collected and shipped samples. PMID:24843156

  12. Relational frame theory and the experimental analysis of human sexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Roche

    1997-01-01

    Behavior analysts have not been particularly active in the experimental analysis of human sexual behavior. This may be because the complexity of human sexuality suggests that it defies a molecular empirical analysis. Recent developments in the experimental analysis of complex behavior and language, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic research program into human sexual conduct. The present

  13. Human and national security: a relation of contradiction or commonality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efstathios T. Fakiolas

    2011-01-01

    The human security literature helps refocus attention on human beings but seems to assume that the state is separate from society. The article seeks to rectify this deficit. It combines Marx’s ontological and epistemological insights with a realist analysis of the state, in order to restore both human agency as the sole driving force of history and the state as

  14. Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human physical of these traits. In this study, we assessed the relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human received 16 June 2009 Abstract A number of traits have been proposed to be important in human mate choice

  15. Relative Valuation of Pain in Human Orbitofrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Chater, Nick; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The valuation of health-related states, including pain, is a critical issue in clinical practice, health economics, and pain neuroscience. Surprisingly the monetary value people associate with pain is highly context-dependent, with participants willing to pay more to avoid medium-level pain when presented in a context of low-intensity, rather than high-intensity, pain. Here, we ask whether context impacts upon the neural representation of pain itself, or alternatively the transformation of pain into valuation-driven behavior. While undergoing fMRI, human participants declared how much money they would be willing to pay to avoid repeated instances of painful cutaneous electrical stimuli delivered to the foot. We also implemented a contextual manipulation that involved presenting medium-level painful stimuli in blocks with either low- or high-level stimuli. We found no evidence of context-dependent activity within a conventional “pain matrix,” where pain-evoked activity reflected absolute stimulus intensity. By contrast, in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex, a strong contextual dependency was evident, and here activity tracked the contextual rank of the pain. The findings are in keeping with an architecture where an absolute pain valuation system and a rank-dependent system interact to influence willing to pay to avoid pain, with context impacting value-based behavior high in a processing hierarchy. This segregated processing hints that distinct neural representations reflect sensory aspects of pain and components that are less directly nociceptive whose integration also guides pain-related actions. A dominance of the latter might account for puzzling phenomena seen in somatization disorders where perceived pain is a dominant driver of behavior. PMID:25355207

  16. Global burden of human papillomavirus and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Forman, David; de Martel, Catherine; Lacey, Charles J; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Bruni, Laia; Vignat, Jerome; Ferlay, Jacques; Bray, Freddie; Plummer, Martyn; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-11-20

    The worldwide prevalence of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in women without cervical abnormalities is 11-12% with higher rates in sub-Saharan Africa (24%), Eastern Europe (21%) and Latin America (16%). The two most prevalent types are HPV16 (3.2%) and HPV18 (1.4%). Prevalence increases in women with cervical pathology in proportion to the severity of the lesion reaching around 90% in women with grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer. HPV infection has been identified as a definite human carcinogen for six types of cancer: cervix, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including the base of the tongue and tonsils). Estimates of the incidence of these cancers for 2008 due to HPV infection have been calculated globally. Of the estimated 12.7 million cancers occurring in 2008, 610,000 (Population Attributable Fraction [PAF]=4.8%) could be attributed to HPV infection. The PAF varies substantially by geographic region and level of development, increasing to 6.9% in less developed regions of the world, 14.2% in sub-Saharan Africa and 15.5% in India, compared with 2.1% in more developed regions, 1.6% in Northern America and 1.2% in Australia/New Zealand. Cervical cancer, for which the PAF is estimated to be 100%, accounted for 530,000 (86.9%) of the HPV attributable cases with the other five cancer types accounting for the residual 80,000 cancers. Cervical cancer is the third most common female malignancy and shows a strong association with level of development, rates being at least four-fold higher in countries defined within the low ranking of the Human Development Index (HDI) compared with those in the very high category. Similar disparities are evident for 5-year survival-less than 20% in low HDI countries and more than 65% in very high countries. There are five-fold or greater differences in incidence between world regions. In those countries for which reliable temporal data are available, incidence rates appear to be consistently declining by approximately 2% per annum. There is, however, a lack of information from low HDI countries where screening is less likely to have been successfully implemented. Estimates of the projected incidence of cervical cancer in 2030, based solely on demographic factors, indicate a 2% increase in the global burden of cervical cancer, i.e., in balance with the current rate of decline. Due to the relative small numbers involved, it is difficult to discern temporal trends for the other cancers associated with HPV infection. Genital warts represent a sexually transmitted benign condition caused by HPV infection, especially HPV6 and HPV11. Reliable surveillance figures are difficult to obtain but data from developed countries indicate an annual incidence of 0.1 to 0.2% with a peak occurring at teenage and young adult ages. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:23199955

  17. Radiographic imaging of human papillomavirus related carcinomas of the oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Corey, Amanda S; Hudgins, Patricia A

    2012-07-01

    Imaging, especially contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) for anatomy and positron emission tomography (PET) with labeled (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose for physiologic detail, is critical for staging carcinomas of the oropharynx. As the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related carcinomas of the tonsil and base of tongue (BOT) increases, experience with CECT and PET for staging HPV+ tumors is growing. No imaging modality, however, can determine whether the tumor is HPV+. There are some unique challenges posed by HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In most locations of the head and neck, a malignancy enhances more than surrounding normal structures, which facilitates tumor mapping. Unfortunately, normal lymphoid tissue of the oropharynx, in the BOT and palatine tonsillar fossa, enhances on CECT and gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in a manner similar to SCC. The primary tumor may be small or even occult at presentation, and easily over-looked on CECT. PET coupled with CECT has made a true "unknown primary" very rare, as the metabolically active tumor is almost always detectable on PET. The nodal metastases, so common with HPV+ SCC, can be truly cystic; and as such, can be misdiagnosed as a second branchial cleft cyst, a congenital benign lesion. These pitfalls, coupled with the complex anatomy of the upper aerodigestive tract, make staging these tumors difficult. In this monograph we describe the anatomy of the oropharynx and review the imaging modalities available for staging. Figures highlight the points raised in the text. PMID:22782221

  18. Error-related electrocorticographic activity in humans during continuous movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milekovic, Tomislav; Ball, Tonio; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Mehring, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) devices make errors in decoding. Detecting these errors online from neuronal activity can improve BMI performance by modifying the decoding algorithm and by correcting the errors made. Here, we study the neuronal correlates of two different types of errors which can both be employed in BMI: (i) the execution error, due to inaccurate decoding of the subjects’ movement intention; (ii) the outcome error, due to not achieving the goal of the movement. We demonstrate that, in electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from the surface of the human brain, strong error-related neural responses (ERNRs) for both types of errors can be observed. ERNRs were present in the low and high frequency components of the ECoG signals, with both signal components carrying partially independent information. Moreover, the observed ERNRs can be used to discriminate between error types, with high accuracy (?83%) obtained already from single electrode signals. We found ERNRs in multiple cortical areas, including motor and somatosensory cortex. As the motor cortex is the primary target area for recording control signals for a BMI, an adaptive motor BMI utilizing these error signals may not require additional electrode implants in other brain areas.

  19. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    PubMed

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology. PMID:20978837

  20. Bayesian Theory of Mind : modeling human reasoning about beliefs, desires, goals, and social relations

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris L. (Chris Lawrence)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis proposes a computational framework for understanding human Theory of Mind (ToM): our conception of others' mental states, how they relate to the world, and how they cause behavior. Humans use ToM to predict ...

  1. Allelo typing of Endometriosis with Adjacent Ovarian Carcinoma Reveals Evidence of a Common Lineage1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiuxian Jiang; Sarah J. Morland; Andrew Hitchcock; Eric J. Thomas; Ian G. Campbell

    Endometriosisis a common gynecologicaldisease in which tissue sim ilar to the endometriumproliferates at sites outside the uterine cavity. Malignanttransformationof endometriosisto endometrioidand clear cell ovarian carcinomashas been documentedin histológica! studies, but no molecular genetic evidence exists to support that endometriosis is the clonal precursor of such malignancies. We examined 14 cases of endo metriosissynchronouswithovariancancerfor loss of heterozygosityon 12 chromosomearms, X chromosome

  2. [Possibilities of surgery and their differentiated use in the individual treatment of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Sillem, M; Ulrich, U

    2003-01-01

    Numerous medical, surgical, and combined therapies have been proposed in the management of endometriosis. This range of treatment options contrasts remarkably with the evidence regarding their respective proven success rates. An exact preoperative differential diagnosis as well as adherence to operative recommendations that have been established meanwhile are essential for optimal results of surgery. PMID:14505260

  3. Endometriosis Patients in the Postmenopausal Period: Pre- and Postmenopausal Factors Influencing Postmenopausal Health

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Peter; Oppelt, Peter; Binder, Helge

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate patients' health status and the course of endometriosis from the premenopausal to the postmenopausal period and evaluate influencing factors that may be relevant. Methods. Questionnaire completed by 35 postmenopausal women in whom endometriosis had been histologically confirmed premenopausally. Correlation and regression analyses were carried out to identify factors relevant to their postmenopausal health status. Results. Overall, there was clear improvement in typical endometriosis symptoms and sexual life. Clear associations (P < 0.005) were observed between premenopausal factors like physical limitations caused by the disease, impaired social contacts and psychological problems, and postmenopausal pain and impairment of sexual life. Three statistical models for assessing pain and impairment of sexual life in the postmenopausal period were calculated on the basis of clinical symptoms in the premenopausal period, with a very high degree of accuracy (P < 0.001; R2 = 0.833/0.857/0.931). Conclusions. The results of the survey strongly suggest that physical fitness and freedom from physical restrictions, a good social environment, and psychological care in both the premenopausal and postmenopausal periods lead to marked improvements in the postmenopausal period with regard to pain, dyspareunia, and influence on sexual life in endometriosis patients. PMID:24987703

  4. Arch Intern Med. Author manuscript Personal history of endometriosis and risk of cutaneous melanoma in a

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of cutaneous melanoma in a large prospective cohort of French women Kvaskoff Marina , Mesrine Sylvie , Fournier Background An association between melanoma and endometriosis has been reported, but most findings relied on case-control studies or a limited number of melanoma cases, and therefore the available evidence

  5. The International Endogene Study: a collection of families for genetic research in endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Objective: The aim of the International Endogene Study is to discover genes that influence susceptibility to endometriosis. Design: The study brings together two research groups based in Australia and the United Kingdom that independently have been collecting families for linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Both groups used similar methods to recruit families, obtain clinical notes, assign disease status based

  6. [A case of intestinal occlusion caused by endometriosis of the cecum].

    PubMed

    Veneziano, M; Zaraca, F; Framarino, M; Di Paola, M; Giobbe, M; Montemurro, L; Fabiani, C; Filippoussis, P; Mancicni, B; Marzetti, L; Carboni, M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to heighten awareness of intestinal endometriosis, a disease that may mimic other abdominal pathologies (bowel carcinoma, intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis), sometimes found in the emergency setting. The Authors report a case of acute bowel obstruction due to coecal endometriosis with appendix mucocele, peritoneal pseudomyxoma and ovarian endometrioma. The patient was operated on in the emergency setting, a right colectomy was performed and she then received pharmacological suppressive treatment with Gn-RH analogues and danatrol. We remark that preoperative diagnosis is very difficult in those cases that do not have a past history of pelvic endometriosis. An accurate anamnesis regarding the chronology of pain onset (typically only during the menstruation at first), but especially intraoperative histopathologic examination are useful for diagnosis. An increased awareness of intestinal endometriosis in reproductive age women with acute bowel obstruction, associated with an accurate anamnesis of menstrual history may allow pre- or intraoperative diagnosis, which is the clue to a less aggressive operation. Postoperative follow up and hormonal therapy are mandatory. PMID:10793771

  7. Deregulation of LOXL1 and HTRA1 gene expression in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Dentillo, Daniel Blassioli; Meola, Juliana; Rosa e Silva, Julio Cesar; Giuliatti, Silvana; Silva Junior, Wilson Araujo; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Martelli, Lucia

    2010-11-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Although 15% of the female population in reproductive age is affected by endometriosis, its pathogenesis remains unclear. According to the most accepted pathogenesis hypothesis, endometrial fragments from the menstrual phase are transported through the uterine tubes to the peritoneal cavity, where they undergo implantation and growth, invading adjacent tissues. However, the establishment of the disease requires that endometrial cells present molecular characteristics favoring the onset and progression of ectopic implantation. In this investigation, we analyzed the differential gene expression profiles of peritoneal and ovarian endometriotic lesions compared to the endometrial tissue of nonaffected women using rapid subtraction hybridization (RaSH). In our study, this method was applied to samples of endometriotic lesions from affected women and to biopsies of endometrium of healthy women without endometriosis, where we could identify 126 deregulated genes. To evaluate the expression of genes found by RaSH method, we measured LOXL1, HTRA1, and SPARC genes by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Significant different expression was obtained for HTRA1 and LOXL1, upregulated in the ectopic endometrium, suggesting that these genes are involved in the physiopathology of endometriosis and may favor the viability of endometrial cells at ectopic sites. PMID:20940247

  8. What is the societal burden of endometriosis-associated symptoms? a prospective Belgian study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sarah; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Meuleman, Christel; Dirksen, Carmen; Dunselman, Gerard; Simoens, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a complex disease that affects a large number of women of reproductive age and imposes a significant burden on patients and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnosis, comorbidities, healthcare resource use, treatment patterns, costs and quality of life of women with endometriosis seen in a Belgian tertiary care centre. A total of 134 patients were included in a prospective questionnaire-based cost-of-illness study. Patients were diagnosed after a median delay of 2 years after onset of symptoms. Almost all patients reported having at least one comorbidity. Total annual costs per patient were €9872 (95% confidence interval €7930–11,870), with costs of productivity loss representing 75% of total costs. Hospitalizations, surgeries, infertility treatments, pain and anxiety increased total costs significantly (P 0.001). Patients generated an average of 0.82 QaLY over a 1-year time horizon. This study showed that direct and indirect costs attributable to endometriosis-associated symptoms are substantial. Earlier diagnosis and cost-effective treatment of endometriosis may decrease productivity loss, quality of life impairment and healthcare consumption and consequently reduce total costs to patients and society. PMID:24268732

  9. The international endogene study: a collection of families for genetic research in endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Treloar; Ruth Hadfield; Grant Montgomery; Ann Lambert; Jacki Wicks; David H Barlow; Daniel T O’Connor; Stephen Kennedy

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the International Endogene Study is to discover genes that influence susceptibility to endometriosis.Design: The study brings together two research groups based in Australia and the United Kingdom that independently have been collecting families for linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Both groups used similar methods to recruit families, obtain clinical notes, assign disease status based on

  10. National German Guideline (S2k): Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Endometriosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, U.; Buchweitz, O.; Greb, R.; Keckstein, J.; von Leffern, I.; Oppelt, P.; Renner, S. P.; Sillem, M.; Stummvoll, W.; De Wilde, R.-L.; Schweppe, K.-W.

    2014-01-01

    In this guideline, recommendations and standards for optimum diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis are presented. They are based on the analysis of the available scientific evidence as published in prospective randomized and retrospective studies as well as in systematic reviews. The guideline working group consisted of experts from Austria, Germany, Switzerland, and the Czech Republic.

  11. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Endometriosis and Its Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Iwabuchi, Takuya; Yoshimoto, Chiharu; Shigetomi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of redox status in endometriosis and its malignant transformation. A search was conducted between 1990 and 2014 through the English language literature (online MEDLINE PubMed database) using the keywords endometriosis combined with malignant transformation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant defense. In benign endometriosis, autoxidation and Fenton reaction of hemoglobin from the ferrous Fe2+ (oxyhemoglobin) state to the ferric Fe3+ (methemoglobin) state lead to production of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O2? and ?OH. Hemoglobin, heme, and iron derivatives in endometriotic cysts cause distortion in the homeostatic redox balance. Excess oxidative stress could trigger DNA damage and cell death. In contrast, endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) might be associated with an effective antioxidant defense, including heme oxygenases, cytochrome P450 family, and glutathione transferase family. The pattern of redox balance supports that enhanced antioxidants may be involved in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation. In conclusion, oxidant/antioxidant balance function is a double-edged sword, promoting cell death or carcinogenesis. Upregulation of antioxidant functions in endometriotic cyst may result in restoration of cell survival and subsequent malignant transformation. PMID:26185594

  12. Presurgical diagnosis of posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis based on a standardized questionnaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chapron; H. Barakat; X. Fritel; J.-B. Dubuisson; G. Breart; A. Fauconnier

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To derive a diagnostic model based on symptoms and history as assessed by a standardized ques- tionnaire to predict posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) among women with chronic pelvic pain symp- toms. METHODS: 134 women scheduled for laparoscopy for chronic pelvic pain symptoms completed a standardized self-administered questionnaire, specifically designed for the study. We compared the symptoms of the

  13. Vaginal hyperalgesia in a rat model of endometriosis Karen J. Berkley*, Angie Cason, Heather Jacobs,

    E-print Network

    Berkley, Karen J.

    sham) was induced by autotransplantation of small pieces of uterus (or fat) on mesenteric cascade rights reserved. Keywords: Uterus; Referred pain; Fertility; Pelvic organ; Visceral pain Endometriosis the uterus, usually in the abdominal/pelvic cavity. Its main symptoms include reduced fertility, severe dysme

  14. A STUDY ON HOW HUMANS DESCRIBE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF IMAGE OBJECTS

    E-print Network

    Matsakis, Pascal

    1 A STUDY ON HOW HUMANS DESCRIBE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF IMAGE OBJECTS Xin Wang Pascal Matsakis Lana of linguistic terms denoting spatial relations that hold between the objects. Though progress has been made in the understanding and modelling of many individual relations, a better understanding of how human subjects use

  15. Human Footprints in Relation to the 1790 Eruption of Kilauea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, D. A.; Rausch, J.

    2008-12-01

    In 1790, a party of warriors and their families was decimated by an explosive eruption of Kilauea; fatality estimates range from about 80 to 5,405. In 1920, thousands of footprints made by barefoot walkers in wet accretionary lapilli ash were found within a few kilometers southwest of Kilauea's summit. In 1921, Jaggar related the footprints to survivors or rescuers of the 1790 eruption, mainly because he assumed that few people visited the supposedly forbidden area except in 1790. Archaeologists from Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park recently questioned whether the footprints were made at that time and by warriors, citing a wide range of directions that people were walking and evidence of extensive human use of the area. Forensic and anthropologic studies indicate that a human foot is about 15 percent of an individual's height. A man's foot may be slightly more that 15 percent, a women's slightly less, but nonetheless the height can be estimated to within a few centimeters. We measured the heel-big toe length of more than 400 footprints and calculated an average height of 1.5 m, including some children only a little more than 1 m tall. Few calculated heights are 1.75 m or more. Early Europeans described Hawaiian warriors as tall, one missionary estimating an average height of 1.78 m. A footprint may be larger than a foot, particularly in slippery, wet ash, so our estimates of heights are probably somewhat too large. The data indicate that most of the footprints were made by women and children, not by men, much less warriors. We traced the footprint-bearing ash into the tephra section on the southwest side of Kilauea's caldera. It occurs high in the section, resting on older explosive deposits. Its surface is indented by small lithic lapilli, which fell into the ash while it was still wet; a few even landed in footprints. The lithic lapilli are at the edge of a thick block and lapilli deposit that fell from a high eruption column; the column reached well into the jet stream, because its fallout was mainly dispersed east-southeastward by westerlies, a wind direction found only at high altitudes in Hawai'i. Surges associated with the high eruption column swept over the southwest and west rims of the caldera. These relations indicate that the accretionary lapilli (footprints) ash was an early stage of a powerful eruption involving both high columns and lithic surges. Hawaiian oral tradition says that the 1790 eruption was large, and Jaggar calculated a column height probably greater than 9 km (30,000 ft) based on observations of a pillar (eruption column) seen over Mauna Loa when viewed from the north. This is about halfway through the jet stream. Our work found two deposits of the late 1700s dispersed east of Kilauea's summit. The younger was probably erupted in 1790. A reconstruction of events in 1790 suggests that the accretionary lapilli ash fell early in the eruption, blown southwestward into areas where family groups, mainly women and children, were chipping glass from old pahoehoe for tools. They probably sought shelter while the ash was falling. but once it stopped, they slogged through the mud, leaving footprints in the 2-cm-thick deposit.. Meanwhile, the warriors and their families, camped at Kilauea's summit (supposedly for 3 days) waiting for the eruption to end, saw the sky clear following the ash eruption and started walking southwestward along the west side of the summit area. Then the most powerful stage of the eruption began, sending surges westward across the path of the doomed group, killing many. Afterwards, any survivors or rescuers who walked on the accretionary lapilli ash, by now dry, left no footprints that are preserved.

  16. ACID AIR AND AEROBIOLOGY RELATED TO THE MATURING HUMAN LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of 'acid air' on human health was studied by considering the effects of hygroscopicity upon aerosol deposition in the lung as a function of human subject age. Children are a critical sub-population to be incorporated into health effects analyses following ambient expos...

  17. Bioethics & human rights: access to health-related goods.

    PubMed

    Arras, John D; Fenton, Elizabeth M

    2009-01-01

    There are many good reasons for a merger between bioethics and human rights. First, though, significant philosophical groundwork must be done to clarify what a human right to health would be and--if we accept that it exists--exactly how it might influence the practical decisions we face about who gets what in very different contexts. PMID:19806778

  18. Supporting and Inhibiting Factors When Coping with Endometriosis From the Patients? Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, S.; Wildgrube, J.; Schippert, C.; Hillemanns, P.; Brandes, I.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Endometriosis is a chronic gynaecological disorder with manifold symptoms and psychosocial effects on the lives of affected women. The prevalence of endometriosis is estimated to be up to ten percent of women of reproductive age. As a result of its unclear aetiology, only limited treatment options are available. The treatment and care of affected women is therefore a challenge for their doctors. There is a need for healthcare services to provide affected women with support to cope with the disorder better. The aim of the study was to identify supporting and inhibiting factors on disease management to develop new support ideas. Materials and Methods: The results are based on a content analysis evaluation of text responses from 135 women with confirmed endometriosis. Open questions about disease management were posed in a patient questionnaire. A classification system was developed according to Mayrings Qualitative Content Analysis, which allowed the main topics to be identified and summarised qualitatively using a quantitative intermediate step. Results: Social support, treatment, as well as professional and healthcare system performance were found to be particularly supportive by patients. However, when questioned about inhibiting factors, healthcare system professionals and their performance were most commonly criticised. Just over 50?% of women expressed their criticism of doctors. Quality of care and empathy towards the patients were especially criticised. There is also a need for improvement with regard to communication and general support from doctors. The results illustrate the importance of doctors for women affected by endometriosis, but make it clear that there is a great need for improvement with regard to the profession. Conclusion: The results provide the first indication of problem areas in the management of endometriosis from which approaches could be developed to improve care. However, it must be pointed out that the perspective of affected women was solely investigated. For a comprehensive analysis, it would be necessary to include the perspective of care providers and the influence of society as well as the healthcare system. PMID:26097250

  19. 17?-estradiol and lipopolysaccharide additively promote pelvic inflammation and growth of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khaleque Newaz; Kitajima, Michio; Inoue, Tsuneo; Fujishita, Akira; Nakashima, Masahiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-05-01

    Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age. An additive effect between inflammation and stress reaction on the growth of endometriosis has been demonstrated. Here we investigated the combined effect between 17?-estradiol (E2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on pelvic inflammation and growth of endometriotic cells. Peritoneal fluid was collected from 46 women with endometriosis and 30 control women during laparoscopy. Peritoneal macrophages (M?) and stromal cells from eutopic/ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) were isolated from 10 women each with and without endometriosis in primary culture. Changes in cytokine secretion (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor ? [TNF-?]) by M? and proliferation of ESCs in response to single and combined treatment with E2 and LPS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively. A significantly increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? in M? culture media was found in response to E2 (10(-8) mol/L) compared to nontreated M?. This effect of E2 was abrogated after pretreatment of cells with ICI 182720 (10(-6) mol/L; an estrogen receptor [ER] antagonist). Combined treatment with E2 and LPS (10 ng/mL) additively promoted IL-6 and TNF-? secretion by peritoneal M? and growth of eutopic/ectopic ESCs. The additive effects of E2 + LPS on cytokine secretion and growth of ESCs were effectively suppressed after combined blocking of ER and Toll-like receptor 4. An additive effect was observed between E2 and LPS on promoting proinflammatory response in pelvis and growth of endometriosis. PMID:25355803

  20. An Evidence-Based Medicine Approach to the Treatment of Endometriosis-Associated Chronic Pelvic Pain: Placebo-Controlled Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred M. Howard

    2000-01-01

    ObjectiveUse an evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to evaluate the evidence regarding efficacy of treatment of endometriosis-associated chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCT)

  1. Molecular Classification of Endometriosis and Disease Stage Using High-Dimensional Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Tamaresis, John S.; Irwin, Juan C.; Goldfien, Gabriel A.; Rabban, Joseph T.; Burney, Richard O.; Nezhat, Camran; DePaolo, Louis V.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis (E), an estrogen-dependent, progesterone-resistant, inflammatory disorder, affects 10% of reproductive-age women. It is diagnosed and staged at surgery, resulting in an 11-year latency from symptom onset to diagnosis, underscoring the need for less invasive, less expensive approaches. Because the uterine lining (endometrium) in women with E has altered molecular profiles, we tested whether molecular classification of this tissue can distinguish and stage disease. We developed classifiers using genomic data from n = 148 archived endometrial samples from women with E or without E (normal controls or with other common uterine/pelvic pathologies) across the menstrual cycle and evaluated their performance on independent sample sets. Classifiers were trained separately on samples in specific hormonal milieu, using margin tree classification, and accuracies were scored on independent validation samples. Classification of samples from women with E or no E involved 2 binary decisions, each based on expression of specific genes. These first distinguished presence or absence of uterine/pelvic pathology and then no E from E, with the latter further classified according to severity (minimal/mild or moderate/severe). Best performing classifiers identified E with 90%–100% accuracy, were cycle phase-specific or independent, and used relatively few genes to determine disease and severity. Differential gene expression and pathway analyses revealed immune activation, altered steroid and thyroid hormone signaling/metabolism, and growth factor signaling in endometrium of women with E. Similar findings were observed with other disorders vs controls. Thus, classifier analysis of genomic data from endometrium can detect and stage pelvic E with high accuracy, dependent or independent of hormonal milieu. We propose that limited classifier candidate genes are of high value in developing diagnostics and identifying therapeutic targets. Discovery of endometrial molecular differences in the presence of E and other uterine/pelvic pathologies raises the broader biological question of their impact on the steroid hormone response and normal functions of this tissue. PMID:25243856

  2. Molecular classification of endometriosis and disease stage using high-dimensional genomic data.

    PubMed

    Tamaresis, John S; Irwin, Juan C; Goldfien, Gabriel A; Rabban, Joseph T; Burney, Richard O; Nezhat, Camran; DePaolo, Louis V; Giudice, Linda C

    2014-12-01

    Endometriosis (E), an estrogen-dependent, progesterone-resistant, inflammatory disorder, affects 10% of reproductive-age women. It is diagnosed and staged at surgery, resulting in an 11-year latency from symptom onset to diagnosis, underscoring the need for less invasive, less expensive approaches. Because the uterine lining (endometrium) in women with E has altered molecular profiles, we tested whether molecular classification of this tissue can distinguish and stage disease. We developed classifiers using genomic data from n = 148 archived endometrial samples from women with E or without E (normal controls or with other common uterine/pelvic pathologies) across the menstrual cycle and evaluated their performance on independent sample sets. Classifiers were trained separately on samples in specific hormonal milieu, using margin tree classification, and accuracies were scored on independent validation samples. Classification of samples from women with E or no E involved 2 binary decisions, each based on expression of specific genes. These first distinguished presence or absence of uterine/pelvic pathology and then no E from E, with the latter further classified according to severity (minimal/mild or moderate/severe). Best performing classifiers identified E with 90%-100% accuracy, were cycle phase-specific or independent, and used relatively few genes to determine disease and severity. Differential gene expression and pathway analyses revealed immune activation, altered steroid and thyroid hormone signaling/metabolism, and growth factor signaling in endometrium of women with E. Similar findings were observed with other disorders vs controls. Thus, classifier analysis of genomic data from endometrium can detect and stage pelvic E with high accuracy, dependent or independent of hormonal milieu. We propose that limited classifier candidate genes are of high value in developing diagnostics and identifying therapeutic targets. Discovery of endometrial molecular differences in the presence of E and other uterine/pelvic pathologies raises the broader biological question of their impact on the steroid hormone response and normal functions of this tissue. PMID:25243856

  3. A levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for the treatment of dysmenorrhea associated with endometriosis: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Vercellini; Giorgio Aimi; Stefania Panazza; Olga De Giorgi; Antonella Pesole; Pier Giorgio Crosignani

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an intrauterine system releasing 20 ?g of levonorgestrel per 24 hours in the long-term treatment of recurrent dysmenorrhea in women already operated on conservatively for endometriosis.Design: A prospective noncomparative pilot study.Setting: A tertiary care and referral academic center for patients with endometriosis.Patient(s): Twenty parous women with recurrent moderate or severe dysmenorrhea after

  4. Association between patient age at the time of surgical treatment for endometriosis and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Asada, Hironori; Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Furuya, Masataka; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Takao; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2009-10-01

    A cross-sectional comparative study among women who underwent surgical treatment for endometriosis revealed that frequency of the Ala/Ala genotype at aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) Pro185Ala polymorphism was three times higher (27.6% vs. 9.9%) in the younger group (30 years). AHHR genotyping may help to identify a subpopulation of women who are susceptible to the earlier onset of endometriosis. PMID:19501819

  5. Biology of Human Papillomavirus–Related Oropharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Jason D.; Chung, Christine H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent data show that human papillomavirus–positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has a distinct biological and clinical behavior compared with human papillomavirus–negative OPC. As this subset of head and neck cancer represents an increasing public health concern, a thorough understanding of the causative and mechanistic differences between these diseases and how these distinctions impact clinical treatment is required. In this review, we will summarize recent data in epidemiology, the mechanism of viral carcinogenesis and differences in tumor biology that may provide insights to improve the clinical management of patients with human papillomavirus–positive OPC. PMID:22687942

  6. Auditory and Vestibular Issues Related to Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Richard W.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Human spaceflight provides unique opportunities to study human vestibular and auditory systems. This session will discuss 1) vestibular adaptive processes reflected by pronounced perceptual and motor coordination problems during, and after, space missions; 2) vestibular diagnostic and rehabilitative techniques (used to promote recovery after living in altered gravity environments) that may be relevant to treatment of vestibular disorders on earth; and 3) unique acoustical challenges to hearing loss prevention and crew performance during spaceflight missions.

  7. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Lett; K. I. Altman; U. K. Ehmann; A. B. Cox

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose

  8. Relative Over-Reactivity of Human versus Chimpanzee Lymphocytes: Implications for the Human Diseases Associated with Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Paula C.; Stein, Lance L.; Hurtado-Ziola, Nancy; Hedrick, Stephen M.; Varki, Ajit

    2011-01-01

    Although humans and chimpanzees share >99% identity in alignable protein sequences, they differ surprisingly in the incidence and severity of some common diseases. In general, humans infected with various viruses, such as HIV and hepatitis C virus, appear to develop stronger reactions and long-term complications. Humans also appear to suffer more from other diseases associated with over-reactivity of the adaptive immune system, such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we show that human T cells are more reactive than chimpanzee T cells to a wide variety of stimuli, including anti-TCR Abs of multiple isotypes, L-phytohemagglutin, Staphylococcus aureus superantigen, a superagonist anti-CD28 Ab, and in MLRs. We also extend this observation to B cells, again showing a human propensity to react more strongly to stimuli. Finally, we show a relative increase in activation markers and cytokine production in human lymphocytes in response to uridine-rich (viral-like) ssRNA. Thus, humans manifest a generalized lymphocyte over-reactivity relative to chimpanzees, a finding that is correlated with decreased levels of inhibitory sialic acid-recognizing Ig-superfamily lectins (Siglecs; particularly Siglec-5) on human T and B cells. Furthermore, Siglec-5 levels are upregulated by activation in chimpanzee but not human lymphocytes, and human T cell reactivity can be downmodulated by forced expression of Siglec-5. Thus, a key difference in the immune reactivity of chimp and human lymphocytes appears to be related to the differential expression of Siglec-5. Taken together, these data may help explain human propensities for diseases associated with excessive activation of the adaptive immune system. PMID:20231688

  9. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  10. Social capital, human capital, and career success in public relations in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Ning Katherine Chen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which demographic, human capital, and social capital variables can predict career success for public relations practitioners in Taiwan. Social capital includes two dimensions: social trust and social network. Human capital includes education, rank, career tenure, and motivation. Public relations practitioners (150) from 16 agencies in Taiwan were interviewed in 2006. Social capital explained the

  11. Minneapolis Human Relations Program: An Evaluation 1972-1973. No. C-72-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesset, Bonna; And Others

    The first phase of the Minneapolis Public Schools' Desegregation/integration Plan involved a human relations oriented staff development program which focused on improving communication skills. The goal of the Human Relations Program for 1972-73 was to change the climate in the schools in preparation for desegregation and integration. The object of…

  12. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF PUTATIVE HUMAN CARCINOGENS AND RELATED CHEMICALS ON HUMAN FORESKIN FIBROBLASTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have evaluated 12 compounds representative of diverse classes of chemicals for their cytotoxicity and transforming ability of human skin fibroblasts in vitro in the presence and absence of human liver S-9 mix. n the absence of the human liver S-9 mix, only seven of the 12 comp...

  13. The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F X; Lorincz, A; Muñoz, N; Meijer, C J L M; Shah, K V

    2002-01-01

    The causal role of human papillomavirus infections in cervical cancer has been documented beyond reasonable doubt. The association is present in virtually all cervical cancer cases worldwide. It is the right time for medical societies and public health regulators to consider this evidence and to define its preventive and clinical implications. A comprehensive review of key studies and results is presented. PMID:11919208

  14. Identification of Three Related Human GRO Genes Encoding Cytokine Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Haskill; Amy Peace; John Morris; Sarah A. Sporn; Anthony Anisowicz; Sam W. Lee; Temple Smith; George Martin; Peter Ralph; Ruth Sager

    1990-01-01

    The product of the human GRO gene is a cytokine with inflammatory and growth-regulatory properties; GRO is also called MGSA for melanoma growth-stimulatory activity. We have identified two additional genes, GRObeta and GROgamma, that share 90% and 86% identity at the deduced amino acid level with the original GROalpha isolate. One amino acid substitution of proline in GROalpha by leucine

  15. Pyroelectricity in human skin related to physiological skin properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Athenstaedt; H. Claussen; D. Schaper

    1981-01-01

    The skin of living humans reacts to rapid changes of temperature, light, external electrical fields, hydrostatic pressure, and of uniaxial mechanical stress with voltage responses, which are analogous to the pyroelectric or piezoelectric voltage responses of pyroelectric materials. The electrical field dependence and the hydrostatic pressure dependence show strong non-linearity. The pyroelectric and the piezoelectric coefficients and their temperature dependence

  16. Nonviolence and Human Values: Empirical Support for Theoretical Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Mayton; Rhett Diessner; Cheryl D. Granby

    1996-01-01

    Individuals such as Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. successfully employed nonviolent strategies to attain significant political goals. Despite the implications of their achievements, psychologists have rarely studied predispositions to nonviolent behavior empirically. The purpose of this article is to link the current literature on human values with the literature on nonviolence from a Gandhian perspective. This study investigates the

  17. A Relational Hermeneutical Approach to Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad

    2010-01-01

    This research is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of human rights. The conceptualization is presented through the development of a theoretical framework in the form of an epistemology. The research articulates and defends the epistemology, which is grounded on…

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLES Arabidopsis Relatives of the Human Lysine-Specific

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    in plants. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana homologs of human Lysine-Specific Demethylase1 (LSD1, LSD1-LIKE1 (LDL1) and LSD1-LIKE2 (LDL2), act in partial redundancy with FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD; an additional homolog of LSD1) to repress FLC expression. However, LDL1 and LDL2 appear to act independently

  19. Meteorite falls in China and some related human casualty events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, Kevin; Weissman, Paul; Yeomans, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Statistics of witnessed and recovered meteorite falls found in Chinese historical texts for the period from 700 B.C. to A.D. 1920 are presented. Several notable features can be seen in the binned distribution as a function of time. An apparent decrease in the number of meteorite reports in the 18th century is observed. An excess of observed meteorite falls in the period from 1840 to 1880 seems to correspond to a similar excess in European data. A chi sq probability test suggest that the association between the two data sets are real. Records of human casualities and structural damage resulting from meteorite falls are also given. A calculation based on the number of casualty events in the Chinese meteorite records suggests that the probability of a meteroite striking a human is far greater than previous estimates. However, it is difficult to verify the accuracy of the reported casualty events.

  20. Relating land use and human intra-city mobility

    E-print Network

    Lee, Minjin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding human mobility patterns -- how people move in their everyday lives -- is an interdisciplinary research field. It is a question with roots back to the 19th century that has been dramatically revitalized with the recent increase in data availability. Models of human mobility often take the population distribution as a starting point. Another, sometimes more accurate, data source is land-use maps. In this paper, we discuss how the intra-city movement patterns, and consequently population distribution, can be predicted from such data sources. As a link between, land use and mobility, we show that the purposes of people's trips are strongly correlated with the land use of the trip's origin and destination. We calibrate, validate and discuss our model using survey data.

  1. Human biometeorological evaluation of heat-related mortality in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Muthers, Stefan; Koch, Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    The relationship between heat stress and mortality in the federal state of Vienna (Austria) was analyzed from 1970 to 2007. Long-term trends of mortality data and short-term adaptation to heat stress were considered by two complex approaches. The evaluation is based on the human biometeorological parameter, physiologically equivalent temperature. The results revealed a significant impact of heat stress on the human health, with a significantly higher sensitivity on women compared to men. Additionally, higher risks of deaths due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were found. During the long period of 38 years, some significant decreases of the sensitivity were found, especially in the medium heat stress levels. This could indicate active processes of long-term adaptation to the increasing heat stress.

  2. Age-related decline of human optic nerve axon populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betty M. Johnson; Michael Miao; Alfredo A. Sadun

    1987-01-01

    Human intracranial optic nerves were morphometrically examined to determine whether retinal ganglion cell axon populations\\u000a vary with age. A high-contrast lipid stain, paraphenylene-diamine (PPD), and a video image measurement system were employed\\u000a to sufficiently resolve the optic nerve fiber image for measurement at 5600X magnification. Total axon population decreased\\u000a with increasing age; mean axon diameter and optic nerve area did

  3. Error-Related Functional Connectivity of the Habenula in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Jaime S.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2011-01-01

    Error detection is critical to the shaping of goal-oriented behavior. Recent studies in non-human primates delineated a circuit involving the lateral habenula (LH) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) in error detection. Neurons in the LH increased activity, preceding decreased activity in the VTA, to a missing reward, indicating a feedforward signal from the LH to VTA. In the current study we used connectivity analyses to reveal this pathway in humans. In 59 adults performing a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified brain regions showing greater psychophysiological interaction with the habenula during stop error as compared to stop success trials. These regions included a cluster in the VTA/substantia nigra (SN), internal segment of globus pallidus, bilateral amygdala, and insula. Furthermore, using Granger causality and mediation analyses, we showed that the habenula Granger caused the VTA/SN, establishing the direction of this interaction, and that the habenula mediated the functional connectivity between the amygdala and VTA/SN during error processing. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to demonstrate a feedforward influence of the habenula on the VTA/SN during error detection in humans. PMID:21441989

  4. [The use of Gn-RH analogues in the management of the endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Velasco, Víctor

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of endometriosis with the Gn-RH agonists (Gn-RH(a)), is at present the most common medical therapy against this disease. It is used in patients consulting for infertility or pain; alone, associated with surgery or before Assisted Reproduction programs; besides in other special pathologies as Adenomiosis or Extrapelvic endometriosis. The results are very succesfuly, decreasing the extension of the endometriotic lesions in almost all cases; improving the pain in > 90% of patients; and with a good fertility recuperation. It is concluded, that the use of Gn-RH(a) is very useful in the management of the EM, alone or associated to surgery or Assisted Reproductive thechniques. PMID:16773804

  5. Simultaneous dermoid cyst and endometriosis in the same ovary: a case report.

    PubMed

    Prorocic, M; Tasic, L; Vasiljevic, M; Jurisic, A; Smiljkovic, O D; Raznatovic, S; Saranovic, M

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a case of a 33-year-old infertile woman with coincidental dermoid cyst and ovarian endometriosis in the same ovary. She was admitted to the Clinic because of cystic tumor of the left adnexa. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) examination found a bilocular tumor of complex structure on the left ovary. Video-laparoscopy was also performed. On the left ovary, two adjacent cystic formations were found. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy was performed and a surgical specimen was sent for histopathologic analysis. The diagnosis was a dermoid cyst and ovarian endometriosis. Without complications, the patient was released from the hospital. The patient was treated with an analogue of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) for three months as a preparation for in vitro fertilization (IVF). PMID:24283190

  6. Laser vaporization in treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Wilczak, Maciej; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The study shows the treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix in 79 patients. After first vaporization 74 patients were cured successfully. In two cases the laser procedure should be repeated and in 3 women the operation should be performed for the third time. All patients are still under control in our department and there is no recurrence observed. Carbon- dioxide laser vaporization under colposcopic control is an efficient method of treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix that requires no anaesthesia. The healing process after laser procedures is fast and without complications. The number of recurrences is low. Use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control because of precise destruction of lesions, fast healing and a low number of recurrences seems to be the method of choice.

  7. [Molecular biological features of ectopic and eutopic endometrium in genital endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Za?rat'iants, O V; Adamian, L V; Andreeva, E N; Maksimova, Iu V; Murdalova, Z Kh; Opalenov, K V; Movtaeva, Kh R; Sonova, M M; Zarubina, I P

    2010-01-01

    The molecular biological features of the eutopic and ectopic endometrium were studied in 46 patients with adenomyosis, 44 with endometrioid cysts in the ovaries, and 34 with disseminated mixed forms of genital endometriosis. Reproductive-aged patients with the eutopic endometrium in a proliferation phase with hyperplastic or inflammatory changes were selected. Ten samples of the endometrium in a phase proliferation, which had been obtained at medicolegal autopsy of women without reproductive disorders, were studied as a control group. Both the glandular and stromal components of the ectopic and eutopic endometrium in different forms of endometriosis were shown to differ from the intact endometrium in their molecular biological features (the expression of Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bax, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 10, matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibitor, the enzyme cytochrome P450 aromatase. PMID:21313758

  8. Endometriosis in adolescents is a hidden, progressive and severe disease that deserves attention, not just compassion

    PubMed Central

    Brosens, I.; Gordts, S.; Benagiano, G.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis in the adolescent has, in recent years, been discovered to be a challenging problem in gynaecology. Although the pain may start at a young age, even before the onset of menstruation, the diagnosis by laparoscopy is almost always postponed for several years, by which time destructive lesions have affected the tubo-ovarian structures and severely compromised fecundability. Several factors may play a role, but one important reason for this disease progression is likely to be the delay in diagnosis. Therefore, transvaginal ultrasounds and transvaginal access with a less invasive needle endoscopy are recommended for exploration of the pelvis, diagnosis of endometriosis and treatment at an early stage before severe lesions develop. PMID:23739215

  9. Endometriosis in adolescents is a hidden, progressive and severe disease that deserves attention, not just compassion.

    PubMed

    Brosens, I; Gordts, S; Benagiano, G

    2013-08-01

    Endometriosis in the adolescent has, in recent years, been discovered to be a challenging problem in gynaecology. Although the pain may start at a young age, even before the onset of menstruation, the diagnosis by laparoscopy is almost always postponed for several years, by which time destructive lesions have affected the tubo-ovarian structures and severely compromised fecundability. Several factors may play a role, but one important reason for this disease progression is likely to be the delay in diagnosis. Therefore, transvaginal ultrasounds and transvaginal access with a less invasive needle endoscopy are recommended for exploration of the pelvis, diagnosis of endometriosis and treatment at an early stage before severe lesions develop. PMID:23739215

  10. Detection of multiple, novel reverse transcriptase coding sequences in human nucleic acids: relation to primate retroviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, A.; Misra, R.; Rush, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of chemically synthesized oligonucleotides designed on the basis of amino acid and/or nucleotide sequence data were used to detect a large number of novel reverse transcriptase coding sequences in human and mouse DNAs. Procedures involving Southern blotting, library screening, and the polymerase chain reaction were all used to detect such sequences; the polymerase chain reaction was the most rapid and productive approach. In the polymerase chain reaction, oligonucleotide mixtures based on consensus sequence homologies to reverse transcriptase coding sequences and unique oligonucleotides containing perfect homology to the coding sequences of human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II were both effective in amplifying reverse transcriptase-related DNA. It is shown that human DNA contains a wide spectrum of retrovirus-related reverse transcriptase coding sequences, including some that are clearly related to human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II, some that are related to the L-1 family of long interspersed nucleotide sequences, and others that are related to previously described human endogenous proviral DNAs. In addition, human T-cell leukemia virus type I-related sequences appear to be transcribed in both normal human T cells and in a cell line derived from a human teratocarcinoma.

  11. Prediction of endometriosis with serum and peritoneal fluid markers: a prospective controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Bedaiwy; T. Falcone; J. Goldberg; M. Attaran; D. Nelson; A. Agarwal

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this prospective controlled trial was to investigate the ability of a group of serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) markers to predict, non-surgically, endometriosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum and PF samples were obtained from 130 women while undergoing laparoscopy for pain, infertility, tubal ligation or sterilization reversal. Concentrations of six cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-13

  12. Aromatase: a key molecule in the pathophysiology of endometriosis and a therapeutic target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled M Zeitoun; Serdar E Bulun

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To provide a clinically useful model illustrating the molecular aberrations affecting estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism in endometriosis and to discuss the therapeutic role of aromatase inhibitors.Design: Literature review.Result(s): Several molecular aberrations were found in endometriotic lesions (in contrast to eutopic endometrium) that favor increased local concentrations of E2. Endometriotic stromal cells aberrantly express aromatase, which converts C19 steroids to

  13. Anti-TNF-  treatment for deep endometriosis-associated pain: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Koninckx; M. Craessaerts; D. Timmerman; F. Cornillie; S. Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is associated with an inflammatory response. Hence infliximab, an anti-TNF-a monoclonal antibody, might relieve pain. METHODS: A randomized placebo-controlled trial was designed with 21 women with severe pain and a rectovaginal nodule of at least 1 cm. After 1 month of observation, three infusions of infliximab (5 mg\\/kg) or placebo were given. Surgery was performed 3 months later

  14. Optimizing gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Olive, David L

    2004-01-01

    Endometriosis is a highly prevalent disease among women of reproductive age. While many treatments are available, one of the most widely utilized is treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. These agents work by producing a profound suppression of gonadotropin secretion by the pituitary, resulting in a hypoestrogenic state and subsequent diminution of endometriosis lesions. The GnRH agonists on the market have been shown to work quite well in reducing all pain symptoms associated with endometriosis, including dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and noncyclic pelvic pain. However, there is no evidence to suggest that this treatment is of value in endometriosis-associated infertility. Conflicting data exist regarding the role of GnRH agonists in the treatment of endometriomas, but the bulk of the evidence suggests a low degree of efficacy. GnRH agonists are often initiated with the onset of menses, but a more rapid response is observed with mid-luteal administration. A limit of 6 months per treatment course is required due to loss of bone mineral density during therapy, but this can be extended via the addition of 'add-back' therapy. Such adjunctive regimens demonstrated to maintain efficacy and reduce adverse effects include progestogen alone or a low-dose combination of estrogen and progestogen. Retreatment with these drugs is supported by limited data. The use of GnRH agonists as surgical adjuncts has been studied by several investigators. Their use preoperatively has not been shown to be of value. Similarly, 3 months of postoperative administration has failed to enhance treatment. However, 6 months of postoperative GnRH agonists appear to improve the duration of relief of pain symptoms. Future studies will need to focus on the role of these agents when used for repeated courses, in young women, and in conjunction with assisted reproduction. PMID:15743104

  15. Association between endometriosis and N-acetyl transferase 2 polymorphisms in a UK population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Nakago; Ruth M. Hadfield; Krina T. Zondervan; Helen Mardon; Sanjiv Manek; David Barlow; Stephen Kennedy

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between endometriosis and polymorphisms in the N-acetyl transferase 2 (NAT 2) gene was investigated in a UK population, as this gene has been previously implicated in the aetiology of the disease. Point mutations in the gene result in the variant alleles NAT 2 *5, *6 and *7 from the wild-type NAT 2* 4allele. Homozygotes for the NAT 2*

  16. Rectus abdominal muscle endometriosis in a patient with cesarian scar: case report.

    PubMed

    Sahin, L; Dinçel, O; Türk, B Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is the existence of endometrial tissue out of the intrauterine cavity. Abdominal wall endometrioma is a well-defined mass composed of endometrial glands and stroma that may develop after gynecologic and obstetrical surgeries. A cyclic painful mass at the site of a cesarean section scar is most likely due to an endometrioma, and wide local excision is the advisable treatment. The authors present a case of endometrioma in the abdominal wall, which was treated with local excision. PMID:24597267

  17. Interval of Injections of Intramuscular Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate in the Long-Term Treatment of Endometriosis-Associated Pain: A Randomized Comparative Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sopon Cheewadhanaraks; Krantarat Peeyananjarassri; Chainarong Choksuchat; Kriengsak Dhanaworavibul; Thanapan Choobun; Sathana Bunyapipat

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the optimal interval of injections of intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg in the long-term treatment of endometriosis-associated pain. Method: 112 patients with symptomatic endometriosis were randomized to receive either injections every month for 6 months, then every 3 months for a total of 15 months or injections every 3 months for 15 months. The primary outcome

  18. Evaluation of germline sequence variants within the promoter region of RANTES gene in a cohort of women with endometriosis from Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Antinolo; R. M. Fernandez; J. A. Noval; J. C. Garcia-Lozano; S. Borrego; I. Marcos; J. L. Molini

    2003-01-01

    The RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cells expressed and secreted) chemokine, is known to be expressed in endometriotic lesions in a concentration correlating with the severity of endometriosis. Since it has been widely demonstrated that endometriosis has a genetic basis, we postulated that the gene encoding RANTES could be a good candidate gene for the disease. We have used

  19. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer: A ten-year cohort study of women living in the Estrie Region of Quebec, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aziz Aris

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Endometriosis has been believed to increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer, but recent data supporting this hypothesis are lacking. The aim of this study was to verify whether the incidence of endometriosis, ovarian cancer and the both increased during the last 10 years among women living in the Estrie region of Quebec. METHODS: We collected data of women

  20. Association between endometriosis stage, lesion type, patient characteristics and severity of pelvic pain symptoms: a multivariate analysis of over 1000 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vercellini; L. Fedele; G. Aimi; G. Pietropaolo; D. Consonni; P. G. Crosignani

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between lesion type, disease stage and severity of pain was studied in a large group of women with endometriosis to verify whether endometrial implants at different sites determine specific complaints and to evaluate the validity of the current classification system in women with symptomatic disease. METHODS: A total of 1054 consecutive women with endometriosis undergoing first-line conservative

  1. Nuclear Factor-?B (NF-?B): An Unsuspected Major Culprit in the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis That Is Still at Large?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Wei Guo

    2007-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as the ectopic presence of endometrial glandular and stromal cells outside the uterine cavity, is a common benign gynecological disorder with an enigmatic pathogenesis. Many genes and gene products have been reported to be altered in endometriosis, yet some of them may not be major culprits but merely unwitting accomplices or even innocent bystanders. Therefore, the identification and

  2. Malignancy arising in extragonadal endometriosis: a case report and summary of the world literature.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J J; Wheeler, J E

    1977-12-01

    A case of clear cell carcinoma arising in endometriosis of the retroperitoneum is presented. It occurred 5 years after supracervical hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and following 4 years of estrogen therapy. The literature concerning malignancy developing in extragonadal endometriosis has been reviewed and is summarized as follows: 1) 45 cases have been compiled, of which 32 were carcinomas and 13 sarcomas; 2) adenocarcinoma was the most common histologic type, although virtually every tumor of müllerian derivation has been described; 3) the typical patient was nulliparous and perimenopausal; 4) the rectovaginal septum was the most common site, and in general the frequency of malignancy in a given site parallels the frequency of endometriosis in that location; 5) simultaneous tumors of the uterus or ovary were present in seven cases (15%); 6) prognosis appeared affected by site and histologic type; 7) a history of prior pelvic irradiation to effect castration was present in three (9%) of the patients with adenocarcinoma; and 8) four (12%) of the patients with adenocarcinoma were subjected to exogenous estrogens or estrogen-secreting ovarian tumors. PMID:338141

  3. Crohn’s disease complicated by multiple stenoses and internal fistulas clinically mimicking small bowel endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Teke, Zafer; Aytekin, Faruk Onder; Atalay, Ali Ozgur; Demirkan, Nese Calli

    2008-01-01

    We report a 31-year-old woman with Crohn’s disease complicated by multiple stenoses and internal fistulas clinically misdiagnosed as small bowell endometriosis, due to the patient’s perimenstrual symptoms of mechanical subileus for 3 years; at first monthly, but later continuous, and gradually increasing in severity. We performed an exploratory laparotomy for small bowel obstruction, and found multiple ileal strictures and internal enteric fistulas. Because intraoperative findings were thought to indicate Crohn’s disease, a right hemicolectomy and partial distal ileum resection were performed for obstructive Crohn’s ileitis. Histopathology of the resected specimen revealed Crohn’s disease without endometrial tissue. The patient made an uneventful recovery from this procedure and was discharged home 10 d post-operatively. The differential diagnosis of Crohn’s diease with intestinal endometriosis may be difficult pre-operatively. The two entities share many overlapping clinical, radiological and pathological features. Nevertheless, when it is difficult to identify the cause of intestinal obstruction in a woman of child-bearing age with cyclical symptoms suggestive of small bowel endometriosis, Crohn’s disease should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:18176980

  4. Recto-sigmoid endoscopic-ultrasonography in the staging of deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Roseau, Gilles

    2014-11-16

    Recto-sigmoid endoscopic ultrasonography (RS-EUS) has first been used in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis in the early 1990's. Since then, although publications have been sparse, RS-EUS is routinely used for this indication in few centers. In this paper, we focus on technical aspects and operating method of rectal and sigmoid endo-sonography, and describe the most characteristic echographic presentations of endometriosis of the lower digestive tract. Through a literature review, results obtained with different types of endo-rectal probes, either flexible endoscopic, or blind rigid, are presented and compared with those of other close imaging techniques: magnetic resonance imaging and the more recent trans-vaginal sonography. As well as these two latter techniques, RS-EUS appears as an interesting method in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis particularly to evaluate rectal and sigmoid infiltrations. However, more prospective studies are required, to correctly define respective indications for each exam, in the light of recent advancements in treating this frequent disease. PMID:25400866

  5. [SHBG serum level in women with endometriosis before, during and after long-term danazol therapy].

    PubMed

    Panidis, D; Kokkinos, T; Vavilis, D; Rousso, D; Tantanassis, T; Kalogeropoulos, A

    1993-02-01

    Ten patients with endometriosis, aged from 21 to 37 years, were treated with danazol at a dosage level of 200 mg three times daily for 6 months. Three blood samples were drawn 60 min apart for evaluation of the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), before danazol administration (4th day of the cycle), during the last two weeks of the six-month therapy and three months after the cessation of treatment (4th day of the cycle). In contrast to that, SHBG levels were also evaluated in ten normal women, aged 21-37 years (4th day of the cycle). It was found that: a) SHGB values were significantly higher in patients with endometriosis than in the control group (p < 0.01), b) danazol resulted in significant decrease of SHBG levels (p < 0.001), c) there was no correlation between SHBG levels before and during danazol administration, and d) SHBG levels were significantly lower three months after the cessation of danazol than before the administration of the medication (p < 0.05), while these levels were not significantly different, compared with those of normal women. Our results support the view, that SHBG production disturbances might interfere with the possible pathogenetic mechanisms of infertility observed in endometriosis. PMID:8462828

  6. Recto-sigmoid endoscopic-ultrasonography in the staging of deep infiltrating endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Roseau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Recto-sigmoid endoscopic ultrasonography (RS-EUS) has first been used in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis in the early 1990's. Since then, although publications have been sparse, RS-EUS is routinely used for this indication in few centers. In this paper, we focus on technical aspects and operating method of rectal and sigmoid endo-sonography, and describe the most characteristic echographic presentations of endometriosis of the lower digestive tract. Through a literature review, results obtained with different types of endo-rectal probes, either flexible endoscopic, or blind rigid, are presented and compared with those of other close imaging techniques: magnetic resonance imaging and the more recent trans-vaginal sonography. As well as these two latter techniques, RS-EUS appears as an interesting method in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis particularly to evaluate rectal and sigmoid infiltrations. However, more prospective studies are required, to correctly define respective indications for each exam, in the light of recent advancements in treating this frequent disease. PMID:25400866

  7. [Recurrence of pain after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis: How does it happen? How to manage?].

    PubMed

    Borghese, B; Santulli, P; Streuli, I; Lafay-Pillet, M-C; de Ziegler, D; Chapron, C

    2014-01-01

    Recurrence of deep endometriosis remains a major issue in the management of endometriosis. The main cause for recurrence appears to be an incomplete excisional surgery. Therefore, the goal of the primary surgery should be the complete resection of all endometriotic lesions. If surgical skills cannot meet this objective it seems preferable to refer the patient to a center with a recognized expertise in this field rather than performing an incomplete surgery. It seems also possible to tailor the indications according to the symptoms, especially when endometriosis affects the bladder in association with an asymptomatic vaginal and/or rectal involvement. This strategy does not increase the rate of recurrence. Postoperative medical treatment based on ovarian function suppression is attractive as it diminishes the recurrence rate. Facing the recurrence, appropriate assessment of the benefit risk balance must be performed. Medical treatment is an option. When surgery is chosen, it seems interesting to discuss carefully the indication of hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy, especially for women over 40 years old with no desire for pregnancy and/or symptomatic adenomyosis. Risks of induced ovarian castration must be taken into account. PMID:23265672

  8. Increased AKT or MEK1/2 Activity Influences Progesterone Receptor Levels and Localization in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Jennifer L.; Unno, Kenji; Caraveo, Marshall; Lu, Zhenxiao

    2013-01-01

    Context: Endometriosis is characterized by progesterone resistance and hyperactivity of the AKT and MAPK pathways. Kinases can cause posttranslational modifications of the progesterone receptor (PR) to influence cellular localization and protein stability. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether the increased AKT or MAPK kinase-1/2 (MEK1/2) activity observed in endometriotic stromal cells (OSIS) from ovarian endometriomas influences levels of PR protein. In turn, the effects of inhibiting AKT or MEK1/2 in the presence of the progestin R5020 on cell viability were investigated. Results: Inhibiting AKT with MK-2206 or MEK1/2 with U0126 for 24 hours in the absence of R5020 increased total and nuclear PRA and PRB protein levels in OSIS but not in eutopic endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients from disease-free patients. MK-2206 and R5020 decreased OSIS viability and increased apoptosis. Trends toward decreased volumes of sc grafted endometriosis tissues were demonstrated with MK-2206 and progesterone. Conclusions: Inhibition of AKT or MEK1/2 increased total and nuclear PR protein in OSIS. MK-2206 and R5020 decreased OSIS viability and increased apoptosis. The AKT and MAPK pathways may be potential molecular targets for the treatment of endometriosis. PMID:24064688

  9. Human Nephrosclerosis Triggers a Hypoxia-Related Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Neusser, Matthias A.; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Moll, Anton G.; Segerer, Stephan; Edenhofer, Ilka; Sen, Kontheari; Stiehl, Daniel P.; Kretzler, Matthias; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Schlöndorff, Detlef; Cohen, Clemens D.

    2010-01-01

    In the kidney, hypoxia contributes to tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but little is known about its implications for glomerular damage and glomerulosclerosis. Chronic hypoxia was hypothesized to be involved in nephrosclerosis (NSC) or “hypertensive nephropathy.” In the present study genome-wide expression data from microdissected glomeruli were studied to examine the role of hypoxia in glomerulosclerosis of human NSC. Functional annotation analysis revealed prominent regulation of hypoxia-associated biological processes in NSC, including angiogenesis, fibrosis, and inflammation. Glomerular expression levels of a majority of genes regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) were significantly altered in NSC. Among these HIF targets, chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 4 (CXCR4) was prominently induced. Glomerular CXCR4 mRNA induction was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR in an independent cohort with NSC but not in those with other glomerulopathies. By immunohistological analysis, CXCR4 showed enhanced positivity in podocytes in NSC biopsy specimens. This CXCR4 positivity was associated with nuclear localization of HIF1? only in podocytes of NSC, indicating transcriptional activity of HIF. As the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12/SDF-1 is constitutively expressed in podocytes, autocrine signaling may contribute to NSC. In addition, a blocking CXCR4 antibody caused significant inhibition of wound closure by podocytes in an in vitro scratch assay. These data support a role for CXCR4/CXCL12 in human NSC and indicate that hypoxia not only is involved in tubulointerstitial fibrosis but also contributes to glomerular damage in NSC. PMID:20019191

  10. Low Birth Weight Is Strongly Associated with the Risk of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Results of a 743 Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Borghese, Bruno; Sibiude, Jeanne; Santulli, Pietro; Lafay Pillet, Marie-Christine; Marcellin, Louis; Brosens, Ivo; Chapron, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The influence of intrauterine environment on the risk of endometriosis is still controversial. Whether birth weight modifies the risk of endometriosis in adulthood remains an open question. For this purpose, we designed a case-control study involving 743 women operated on for benign gynecological indications from January 2004 to December 2011. Study group included 368 patients with histologically proven endometriosis: 54 superficial endometriosis (SUP), 79 endometriomas (OMA) and 235 deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Control group included 375 patients without endometriosis as surgically checked. Mean birth weights were compared between patients and controls, according to endometriosis groups and rAFS stages. Mean birth weight was significantly lower for patients with endometriosis as compared to controls (3,119g ± 614 and 3,251g ± 557 respectively; p = 0.002). When compared to controls, patients with DIE had the lowest birth weight with a highly significant difference (3,103g ± 620, p = 0.002). In univariate analysis, patients with low birth weight (LBW), defined as a BW < 2,500g, had a higher risk of endometriosis, especially DIE, as compared to the reference group (OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.0-2.3 and OR = 1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-2.7, respectively). Multivariate analysis, adjusted on ethnicity and smoking status, showed the persistence of a significant association between endometriosis and LBW with a slight increase in the magnitude of the association (aOR = 1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-2.6 for endometriosis, aOR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-2.9 for DIE). In conclusion, LBW is independently associated with the risk of endometriosis in our population. Among patients with LBW, the risk is almost two-times higher to develop DIE. This association could reflect common signaling pathways between endometriosis and fetal growth regulation. There is also the possibility of a role played by placental insufficiency on the development of the neonate’s pelvis and the occurrence of neonatal uterine bleeding that could have consequences on the risk of severe endometriosis. PMID:25679207

  11. The human glioma pathogenesis-related protein is structurally related to plant pathogenesis-related proteins and its gene is expressed specifically in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E V; Zhang, Y; Zhu, W; Biggs, J

    1995-06-14

    We report the cloning of a cDNA encoding GliPR (glioma pathogenesis-related protein), a protein that is structurally similar to plant pathogenesis-related proteins. The GLIPR gene is highly expressed in the human brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme/astrocytoma, but neither in normal fetal or adult brain tissue, nor in other nervous system tumors. GliPR shares up to 50% amino acid (aa) homology with plant pathogenesis-related proteins, group 1, over a region that comprises almost two thirds of the protein. We speculate that there may be functional similarities between the human and plant proteins as well. PMID:7607567

  12. Emergence of dynamical complexity related to human heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Mei-Chu; Peng, C.-K.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-12-01

    We apply the refined composite multiscale entropy (MSE) method to a one-dimensional directed small-world network composed of nodes whose states are binary and whose dynamics obey the majority rule. We find that the resulting fluctuating signal becomes dynamically complex. This dynamical complexity is caused (i) by the presence of both short-range connections and long-range shortcuts and (ii) by how well the system can adapt to the noisy environment. By tuning the adaptability of the environment and the long-range shortcuts we can increase or decrease the dynamical complexity, thereby modeling trends found in the MSE of a healthy human heart rate in different physiological states. When the shortcut and adaptability values increase, the complexity in the system dynamics becomes uncorrelated.

  13. The Functions of Empathy (Decentering) in Human Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark V. Redmond

    1989-01-01

    Empathy, in its broadest usage, is considered a fundamental dimension of interpersonal and communication competence. Empathy enhances a person's understanding of others, and the ability to make predictions about others. Understanding and prediction make empathy a possible tool for persuasion, compliance gaining, relational development, and counseling. Empathy affects decision making about others and attribution. Empathy acts to reflect what has

  14. Antioxidant Supplements Improve Parameters Related to Skin Structure in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Heinrich; H. Tronnier; W. Stahl; M. Béjot; J.-M. Maurette

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the influence of two different antioxidant supplements composed of carotenoids, vitamin E and selenium on parameters related to skin health and skin aging. Thirty-nine volunteers with healthy, normal skin of skin type 2 were divided into 3 groups (n = 13) and supplemented for a period of 12 weeks. Group 1 received a mixture

  15. [Event-related potentials of human brain in spatial hearing].

    PubMed

    Al'tman, Ia A; Va?tulevich, S F; Shestopalova, L B; Petropavlovskaia, E A; Nikitin, N I

    2012-01-01

    The review presents the data concerning auditory event-related potentials and their "mismatch negativity" component under conditions of stationary and moving sound source localization. Both free-field and dichotic experimental conditions are considered. The interhemispheric asymmetry of the brain responses elicited by the sound sources of various spatial properties is also discussed. PMID:22690588

  16. The meaning of work, employment relations, and strategic human resources management in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itzhak Harpaz; Ilan Meshoulam

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the meaning of work, employment relations, and strategic human resources management. First it shows that Israeli workers have become more individualistic and materialistic, and less collectively oriented, as instrumental achievements outweigh contributions to society. These issues apparently influence employment relations and organizational policies. Next, it deals with the corporatist employment relations system, based on tri-partite collective

  17. 1H NMR Based Targeted Metabolite Profiling for Understanding the Complex Relationship Connecting Oxidative Stress with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Saikat K.; Srivastava, Sudha; Chakravarty, Baidyanath

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates the active role of oxidative stress in the development of endometriosis; however, the mechanism of reactive oxygen species generation is poorly understood. Metabonomics/metabolomics is a scientific discipline that can be used to study changes in metabolite ensembles associated with disease pathophysiology. The present study focuses on the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy based targeted metabolite profiling approach to explore dysregulation in metabolites expression in women with endometriosis. Further, association of oxidative stress with the metabolite ensembles, if any, is investigated. Using multivariate statistics, partial least square discriminant analysis model was generated which could classify endometriosis patients with sensitivity and specificity of 92.83% and 100%, respectively, and with a classification rate of 96.4%. In conjunction with increased glucose metabolism, citrate and succinate were found to be elevated in endometriosis patients. Higher levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and advanced oxidation protein products and lower levels of total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione were also observed. Increased glucose metabolism and defects in the mitochondrial respiratory system are suggested to be the possible sources of excessive reactive oxygen species generation in endometriosis. PMID:23984345

  18. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is over-expressed in uterine endometrium from women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Sillem, M; Prifti, S; Monga, B; Buvari, P; Shamia, U; Runnebaum, B

    1997-12-01

    Extracellular matrix degradation by secreted proteases, e.g. plasmin, is essential for endometrial functions such as blastocyst implantation and menstruation. We investigated whether the expression of plasmin(ogen) activating or inhibiting factors in endometrial cells from women with endometriosis was different from women without the disease. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from 10 patients with and 16 women without endometriosis. Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 supplemented with diethylstilboestrol (10(-10) M) alone or combined with promegestone (5 x 10(-8) or 5 x 10(-6) M). Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 and -2, and soluble uPA receptor (suPA-R) concentrations were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the conditioned media. uPA and PAI-2 concentrations were not influenced by steroid treatment and did not differ between women with and without endometriosis, whereas PAI-1 was significantly up-regulated by promegestone in both groups. In contrast, suPA-R expression was not influenced by steroid treatment but was significantly higher in cells from endometriosis patients. This is the first report on suPA-R secretion in endometrial cells and the results indicate an altered activation of plasmin(ogen) in endometrium from women with endometriosis that could lead to a higher proteolytic potential of retrogradely menstruated endometrial fragments with consecutive development of endometriotic foci. PMID:9464855

  19. Interferon-beta Related DNA Is Dispersed in the Human Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anurag D. Sagar; Pravinkumar B. Sehgal; Lester T. May; Masayori Inouye; Doris L. Slate; Lester Shulman; Frank H. Ruddle

    1984-01-01

    Interferon-beta 1 (IFN-beta 1) complementary DNA was used as a hybridization probe to isolate human genomic DNA clones lambda B3 and lambda B4 from a human genomic DNA library. Blot-hybridization procedures and partial nucleotide sequencing revealed that lambda B3 is related to IFN-beta 1 (and more distantly to IFN-alpha 1). Analyses of DNA obtained from a panel of human-rodent somatic

  20. Aging-related oxidative stress in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Retana-Ugalde, Raquel; Muñoz-Sánchez, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    Oxidative stress has been reported to increase with aging; however, the scientific evidence is controversial. We therefore aimed to analyze the relationship between aging and some markers of oxidative stress. A cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out in a sample of 249 healthy subjects: (i) 25-29 years (n = 22); (ii) 30-39 years (24); (iii) 40-49 years (30); (iv) 50-59 years (48); (v) 60-69 years (60), and (vi) >or= 70 years (65). We measured lipoperoxides and total antioxidant status in plasma and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes. There was an age-related increase in lipoperoxides, which was evident in the comparison of the group of 25-29 years (0.22 0.11 micromol/l) with the group of 60-69 years (0.38 +/- 0.18 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and >or= 70 years (0.42 +/- 0.19, p < 0.001). Conversely, the total antioxidant status showed an age-related decrease (25-29 years, 1.4 +/- 0.31 mmol/l vs 60-69 years, 1.1 +/- 0.21 and >or= 70 years, 1.1 +/- 0.22, p < 0.05 for each). In erythrocytes, glutathione peroxidase activity showed an age-related decrease (25-29 years, 7,966 +/- 1,813 UI/l vs 60-69 years, 6,193 +/- 2,235 and >or= 70 years, 6,547 +/- 2,307, p < 0.001 for each), whereas superoxide dismutase activity was similar in all age groups. Importantly, there was no age-related change in oxidative stress markers in subjects of < 60 years. These findings suggest that age of >or= 60 years may be associated with increased oxidative stress. PMID:17984623

  1. Human Development, Marriage and Family Relations. Volume I: Compendium of Researches--1963-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraswathi, T. S., Ed.

    Provided in this document are detailed abstracts of studies in the areas of human development, and marriage and family relations. Studies were completed in the Department of Child Development of the Faculty of Home Science, M. S. University of Baroda, India. The first section, on human development, describes studies of physical, motor, and mental…

  2. The Identification of Apoptosis-related Residues in Human Thymosin -10 by Mutational Analysis and

    E-print Network

    Lee, Keun Woo

    The Identification of Apoptosis-related Residues in Human Thymosin -10 by Mutational Analysis the frequency of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells. To identify the critical residues responsible for TB10-mediated apoptosis, we used a series of computational meth- ods. First, a three-dimensional structure

  3. Meiotic disturbances related to human male sterility J. M. LUCIANI, A. STAHL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Meiotic disturbances related to human male sterility J. M. LUCIANI, A. STAHL Laboratoire d. Summary. The authors found an abnormal karyotype in 5 to 15 p. 100 of the cases of male sterility studied anomalies are one cause of human male sterility. These anomalies act in different ways : - They may cause

  4. A Challenge for Developers: Preserving the Interactivity of Human Relations in a Standalone Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, F. E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the efforts taken by the Cornell Interactive Theater Ensemble to provide interactive human relations training on date rape using live dramatizations, video with facilitated audience participation, and an electronic multimedia format with decision trees for interactive involvement. (EA)

  5. How Allentown Is Putting Its Policy on Human Relations into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldham, Neild

    1974-01-01

    Human relations committees, composed of all elements in the school district family, were formed in each school to initiate self-study programs and assist in planning school assemblies stressing cultural awareness. (Author)

  6. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  7. Markers predicting progression of human immunodeficiency virus-related disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tsoukas, C M; Bernard, N F

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interacts with the immune system throughout the course of infection. For most of the disease process, HIV activates the immune system, and the degree of activation can be assessed by measuring serum levels of molecules such as beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin, as well as other serum and cell surface phenotype markers. The levels of some of these markers correlate with clinical progression of HIV disease, and these markers may be useful as surrogate markers for development of clinical AIDS. Because the likelihood and timing of development of clinical AIDS following seroconversion, for any particular individual, are not readily predictable, the use of nonclinical disease markers has become critically important to patient management. Surrogate markers of HIV infection are, by definition, measurable traits that correlate with disease progression. An ideal marker should identify patients at highest risk of disease progression, provide information on how long an individual has been infected, help in staging HIV disease, predict development of opportunistic infections associated with AIDS, monitor the therapeutic efficacy of immunomodulating or antiviral treatments, and the easily quantifiable, reliable, clinically available, and affordable. This review examines the current state of knowledge and the role of surrogate markers in the natural history and treatment of HIV infection. The clinical usefulness of each marker is assessed with respect to the criteria outlined for the ideal surrogate marker for HIV disease progression. PMID:8118788

  8. An in vitro digestibility study on human milk and related proteins used in infant formula 

    E-print Network

    Vethencourt-Petrini, Adriana Coromoto

    1988-01-01

    AN IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY STUDY ON HUMAN MILK AND RELATED PROTEINS USED IN INFANT FORNULA A Thesis by AORIANA COROMOTO VETHENCOURT- PETRINI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A A M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology AN IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY STUDY ON HUMAN MILK AND RELATED PROTEINS USED IN INFANT FORMULA A Thesis by ADRIANA COROMOTO VETHENCOURT-PETRINI Approved as to style...

  9. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaspar Wyss

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH) are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in low-income countries. METHODS AND FRAMEWORK: The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources

  10. Immune therapy for human papillomaviruses-related cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Ricardo; Rosales, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a large family of double strand DNA viruses comprising more than 180 types. Infection with HPV is very common and it is associated with benign and malignant proliferation of skin and squamous mucosae. Many HPVs, considered low-risk such as HPV 6 and 11, produce warts; while high-risk viruses, such as HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, and 58, induce tumors. About 5% of all cancers in men and women are associated with HPV infection. Because there are not antiviral drugs for HPV infection, current therapies for low-risk HPV infections involve physical removal of the lesion by cryotherapy, trichloracetic acid, laser, or surgical removal. Surgical procedures are effective in the treatment of pre-cancerous lesions, however after these procedures, many recurrences appear due to new re-infections, or to failure of the procedure to eliminate the HPV. In addition, HPV can inhibit recognition of malignant cells by the immune system, leading to the development of cancer lesions. When this occurs, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are then used. Unfortunately, about 50% of the HPV-cancer patients still die. In the past decade, a better knowledge of the natural history of the virus-host interaction and of the immune response against this viral infection has brought new therapeutic strategies geared to modulate the immune system to generate an efficient virus-specific cytotoxic response. Novel HPV protein-expressing vaccines have shown some significant clinical efficacy and systemic HPV-specific cytotoxic T cell responses. This review will describe the current status of the several therapeutic strategies used to treat HPV-induced lesions, and discuss the various new therapies now being tested. PMID:25493236

  11. Peritoneal full-conditioning reduces postoperative adhesions and pain: a randomised controlled trial in deep endometriosis surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To translate the concept of full-conditioning (FC) from animal experiments to the human, and to evaluate the efficacy for adhesion prevention. FC consisted of decreasing acute inflammation by 86% CO2+ 10% N2O?+?4% O2 for the pneumoperitoneum, cooling of the peritoneal cavity, humidification, heparinized rinsing solution and 5 mg of dexamethasone as demonstrated in animal models. Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT: NCT01344486) comparing standard laparoscopy with full conditioning together with a barrier in a 2/3 ratio in 44 women undergoing deep endometriosis surgery at KULeuven. The primary aim was reduction of adhesions. Secondary aims were CO2 resorption, postoperative pain and recovery. Randomization was performed after signing informed consent. Adhesion scoring during second look laparoscopy and pain scoring were done blindly. Results In the FC group (n?=?16) adhesions were completely prevented in 12/16 women whereas in the control group (n?=?11) all women had severe adhesions (P?human the efficacy of FC in reducing CO2 resorption and adhesions with in addition less postoperative pain, lower postoperative CRP concentrations and an accelerated recovery. PMID:24326155

  12. Relation between HLA genes, human skin volatiles and attractiveness of humans to malaria mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Niels O; Beijleveld, Hans; Qiu, Yu Tong; Maliepaard, Chris; Verduyn, Willem; Haasnoot, Geert W; Claas, Frans H J; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Takken, Willem; van Loon, Joop J A; Smallegange, Renate C

    2013-08-01

    Chemical cues are considered to be the most important cues for mosquitoes to find their hosts and humans can be ranked for attractiveness to mosquitoes based on the chemical cues they emit. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are considered to be involved in the regulation of human body odor and may therefore affect human attractiveness to mosquitoes, and hence, affect the force of malaria transmission. In the present study the correlations between HLA profiles, human skin volatiles and human attractiveness to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto were examined. Skin emanations of 48 volunteers were collected by rubbing a foot over glass beads. Previously the attractiveness of these emanations to An. gambiae was determined. In this study, the chemical composition of these emanations was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and blood samples of all volunteers were taken for HLA analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), Fisher's exact test and random forest regression were used to test for correlations between individuals classified as either highly or poorly attractive to mosquitoes and their HLA profile and volatile composition. HLA profiling suggests that people carrying HLA gene Cw?07 are more attractive to mosquitoes. GC-MS revealed that limonene, 2-phenylethanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were associated with individuals that were poorly attractive to An.gambiae and lactic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid and octanal with individuals that were highly attractive. Such compounds offer potential for disruption of mosquito behavior in malaria intervention programs. PMID:23688850

  13. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2014-11-10

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25389189

  14. A Prospective Study of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1, Its Binding Protein 3, and Risk of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Fan; Hankinson, Susan E; Schernhammer, Eva; Pollak, Michael N; Missmer, Stacey A

    2015-07-15

    Several retrospective case-control studies suggested that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) was associated with endometriosis. However, results are inconsistent and no prospective study exists. We prospectively evaluated associations between plasma levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II. Between blood collections in 1996-1999 and 2007, we ascertained 310 premenopausal women with incident endometriosis and 615 matched controls. We estimated incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable conditional logistic regression. We observed no statistically significant associations between endometriosis and IGF-1 (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 1.27; Ptrend = 0.48), IGFBP-3 (IRR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.57; Ptrend = 0.51), and the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 molar ratio (IRR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.34; Ptrend = 0.64), comparing the top with the bottom tertile. IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and the molar ratio appeared to be positively associated with endometriosis risk among women aged <40 years at blood draw (IGF-1: IRR = 1.60, 95% CI: 0.86, 2.98; IGFBP-3: IRR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.16; IGF-1:IGFBP-3: IRR = 1.57, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.88) but not among women aged ?40 years at blood draw (all Pheterogeneity ? 0.05). Overall, these data suggest that, if IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 plays a role in the etiology of endometriosis, it is minimal and perhaps only among younger women. PMID:26121987

  15. The Prognostic Value of Individual Adhesion Scores from the Revised American Fertility Society Classification System for Recurrent Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Jeon, Young Eun; Chon, Seung Joo; Park, Joo Hyun; Seo, Seok Kyo; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of each component of the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) classification system for the first recurrence of endometriosis after conservative laparoscopy. Materials and Methods As this was a retrospective cohort study, data were collected by reviewing medical records. A total of 379 women ages 18 to 49 years were included. Women who underwent conservative laparoscopy with histologic confirmation of endometriosis at Gangnam Severance Hospital between March 2003 and May 2010 were included. Individual components of the rAFS classification system as well as preoperative serum CA-125 levels were retrospectively analyzed to assess their prognostic values for recurrence of endometriosis. Results Of 379 patients, 80 (21.2%) were found to have recurrence of endometriosis. The median duration of follow-up was 19.0 months, and the mean age at the time of surgery was 31.8±6.7 years. In endometriosis of advanced stage, younger age at the time of surgery, bilateral ovarian cysts at the time of diagnosis, a rAFS ovarian adhesion score >24, and complete cul-de-sac obliteration were independent risk factors of poor outcomes, and a rAFS ovarian adhesion score >24 had the highest risk of recurrence [hazard ratio=2.948 (95% CI: 1.116-7.789), p=0.029]. Conclusion Our results suggest that of the rAFS adnexal adhesion scores, the ovarian adhesion score rather than the tubal adhesion score was associated with a significantly increased risk of recurrent endometriosis. The preoperative serum CA-125 level may be also a significant prognostic factor for recurrence, as known. However, it seemed to only have borderline significance in affecting recurrence in the current study. PMID:26069133

  16. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Suppress the Cystic Lesion Formation of Peritoneal Endometriosis in Transgenic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Tomio, Kensuke; Taguchi, Ayumi; Isobe, Yosuke; Iwamoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aki; Kojima, Satoko; Mori, Mayuyo; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Arimoto, Takahide; Oda, Katsutoshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Taketani, Yuji; Kang, Jing X.; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kozuma, Shiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) play a role in controlling pathological inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue on the peritoneum and an exaggerated inflammatory environment around ectopic tissues. Here peritoneal endometriosis was reproduced using a mouse model in which murine endometrial fragments were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Fat-1 mice, in which omega-6 can be converted to omega-3 PUFAs, or wild type mice, in which it cannot, were used for the endometriosis model to address the actions of omega-3 PUFAs on the development of endometriotic lesions. The number and weight of cystic endometriotic lesions in fat-1 mice two weeks after inoculation were significantly less than half to those of controls. Mediator lipidomics revealed that cystic endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluids were abundant in 12/15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12/15-HEPE), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and their amount in fat-1 mice was significantly larger than that in controls. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX)-knockout (KO) and control mice with or without EPA administration were assessed for the endometriosis model. EPA administration decreased the number of lesions in controls but not in 12/15-LOX-KO mice. The peritoneal fluids in EPA-fed 12/15-LOX-KO mice contained reduced levels of EPA metabolites such as 12/15-HEPE and EPA-derived resolvin E3 even after EPA administration. cDNA microarrays of endometriotic lesions revealed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in fat-1 mice was significantly lower than that in controls. These results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous EPA-derived PUFAs protect against the development of endometriosis through their anti-inflammatory effects and, in particular, the 12/15-LOX-pathway products of EPA may be key mediators to suppress endometriosis. PMID:24039864

  17. Event-related potential correlates of emergent inference in human arbitrary relational learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Dymond, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the functional-anatomical correlates of cognition supporting untrained, emergent relational inference in a stimulus equivalence task. In Experiment 1, after learning a series of conditional relations involving words and pseudowords, participants performed a relatedness task during which EEG was recorded. Behavioural performance was faster and more accurate on untrained, indirectly related symmetry (i.e., learn AB and infer BA) and equivalence trials (i.e., learn AB and AC and infer CB) than on unrelated trials, regardless of whether or not a formal test for stimulus equivalence relations had been conducted. Consistent with previous results, event related potentials (ERPs) evoked by trained and emergent trials at parietal and occipital sites differed only for those participants who had not received a prior equivalence test. Experiment 2 further replicated and extended these behavioural and ERP findings using arbitrary symbols as stimuli and demonstrated time and frequency differences for trained and untrained relatedness trials. Overall, the findings demonstrate convincingly the ERP correlates of intra-experimentally established stimulus equivalence relations consisting entirely of arbitrary symbols and offer support for a contemporary cognitive-behavioural model of symbolic categorisation and relational inference. PMID:22982069

  18. Factors related to Israeli lesbian women's intention to be vaccinated against human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Ben-Natan, Merav; Maor, Shir

    2014-10-01

    Summary Lesbian women's susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection and, as a consequence, to cervical cancer, is similar to that of heterosexual women. However, little is known about factors related to lesbian women's intention to be vaccinated against human papillomavirus. The aim of the study was to identify factors related to Israeli lesbian women's intention to be vaccinated, using the Health Belief Model. The study has a cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 207 lesbian women recruited at clubs in central Israel's lesbian community completed a questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model. Thirty-two percent of the respondents reported having a high intention to be vaccinated. Perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer and perceived benefits of human papillomavirus vaccination were found to be related to intention to be vaccinated. The findings offer insights that can inform health care providers of strategies to promote vaccination against human papillomavirus in this unique population. PMID:24469971

  19. Detailed comparative map of human chromosome 19q and related regions of the mouse genome

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, L.; Shannon, M.E.; Kim, Joomyeong [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); and others

    1996-08-01

    One of the larger contiguous blocks of mouse-human genomic homology includes the proximal portion of mouse chromosome 7 and the long arm of human chromosome 19. Previous studies have demonstrated the close relationship between the two regions, but have also indicated significant rearrangements in the relative orders of homologous mouse and human genes. Here we present the genetic locations of the homologs of 42 human chromosome 19q markers in the mouse, with an emphasis on genes also included in the human chromosome 19 physical map. Our results demonstrate that despite an overall inversion of sequences relative to the centromere, apparent {open_quotes}transpositions{close_quotes} of three gene-rich segments, and a local inversion of markers mapping near the 19q telomere, gene content, order, and spacing are remarkably well conserved throughout the lengths of these related mouse and humans regions. Although most human 19q markers have remained genetically linked in mouse, one small human segment forms a separate region of homology between human chromosome 19q and mouse chromosome 17. Three of the four rearrangements of mouse versus human 19q sequences involve segments that are located directly adjacent to each other in 19q13.3-q13.4, suggesting either the coincident occurrence of these events or their common association with unstable DNA sequences. These data permit an unusually in-depth examination of this large region of mouse-human genomic homology and provide an important new tool to aid in the mapping of genes and associated phenotypes in both species. 66 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Co-expression of human agouti-related protein enhances expression and stability of human melanocortin-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Kuglae; Jung, Youngjin; Park, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Weontae

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins, and they are considered major targets of approximately half of all therapeutic agents. Human melanocortin-4 receptor (hMC4R) plays an important role in the control of energy homeostasis, and its mutants are directly related to severe human obesity. Here, we describe optimized protocols for the high-yield expression and purification of hMC4R that will accelerate structural study. Truncations of the N- and C-termini of hMC4R with T4 lysozyme (T4L) insertion increase the solubility as well as stability of the protein. Strikingly, co-expression of human mini-agouti-related protein (mini-AgRP) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells enables excellent stability of hMC4R. The protein yield in the human mini-AgRP co-expression system is increased by about 3-4 times compared to that of hMC4R alone. Data from analytical size exclusion chromatography (aSEC) and thermostability assay show that hMC4R becomes homogeneous and stable with a melting temperature of 58°C in the presence of human mini-AgRP. PMID:25446108

  1. Session 3B: The Sociology of Human Rights Actors Advancing Human Rights in Industrial Relations Scholarship: Obstacles and Prospects in Doctoral Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Hilgert

    Despite advances in the notion of human rights at work, the idea of human rights has not had a place in industrial relations scholarship. This paper examines core ideas and assumptions underlying the major theoretical approaches in industrial relations in order to understand each framework's compatibility with the human rights worldview. Five major theoretical approaches are included in this study:

  2. Impact of endometriosis on women's health: comparative historical data show that the earlier the onset, the more severe the disease.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Mary Lou

    2004-04-01

    Looking at endometriosis from the bigger picture -- as a systemic endocrine, immunological, and gastrointestinal disease -- opens the door to broader treatments. The bigger-picture understanding of the disease also makes clear a variety of patterns of presenting symptoms, again clarifying the diagnosis. Data from over 7000 confirmed cases clearly show that delay in diagnosis (the average time to diagnosis is >9 years) is a major problem and that current treatments are far from satisfactory. In conclusion, the impact of endometriosis, a disease that already produces intense symptoms, is worsened by a current lack of understanding of the disease beyond its pelvic definition. PMID:15157638

  3. Evaluating and Refining Computational Models of Spatial Relations Through Cross-Linguistic Human-Subjects Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Mark; David Comas; Max J. Egenhofer; Scott M. Freundschuh; Michael D. Gould; Joan Nunes

    1995-01-01

    Human-subjects testing based on a sound formal model is outlined as an effective way to evaluate and refine computational models of spatial relations. The cognitive response of a subject (person) to a real- world situation depends on the characteristic of the situation and the characteristics of the subject. Spatial entities can be characterized by topological relations, metric, scale (scope), kinds

  4. Human Growth Hormone Release: Relation to Slow-Wave Sleep and Sleep-Waking Cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Sassin; D. C. Parker; J. W. Mace; R. W. Gotlin; L. C. Johnson; L. G. Rossman

    1969-01-01

    Release of human growth hormone during sleep is significantly related to slow, synchronized stages of sleep and therefore would seem to be controlled by related neural mechanisms. When sleep-waking cycles are reversed by 12 hours, the release of growth hormone with sleep is reversed; thus release does not follow an inherent circadian rhythm independent of sleep.

  5. Talking to Robots: On the Linguistic Construction of Personal Human-Robot Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    How should we make sense of 'personal' human-robot relations, given that many people view robots as 'mere machines'? This paper proposes that we understand human-robot relations from a phenomenological view as social relations in which robots are constructed as quasi-others. It is argued that language mediates in this construction. Responding to research by Turkle and others, it is shown that our talking to robots (as opposed to talking about robots) reveals a shift from an impersonal third-person to a personal second-person perspective, which constitutes a different kind of human-robot relation. The paper makes suggestions for empirical research to further study this social-phenomenological process.

  6. Upstream Stimulatory Factor-2 Regulates Steroidogenic Factor-1 Expression in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Cheng, You-Hong; Lin, Zhihong; Reierstad, Scott; Yin, Ping; Attar, Erkut; Xue, Qing; Imir, Gonca; Thung, Steven; Trukhacheva, Elena; Suzuki, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu; Kim, J. Julie; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2008-01-01

    Local estrogen biosynthesis is a major factor in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Aberrant expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase in endometriotic tissue leads to an up-regulation of estrogen production. The transcription factor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) activates the promoters of both StAR and aromatase in endometriotic tissue. We investigated differences in SF-1 expression in endometriotic tissue and normally located endometrium to elucidate the mechanism underlying increased StAR and aromatase activities in endometriosis. Serial deletion and site-directed mutants of the SF-1 promoter showed that an E-box sequence was critical for its activity in endometriotic stromal cells. EMSAs showed that the upstream stimulatory factor (USF) 1 and 2 in nuclear extracts from endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells bound to the E-box. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation-PCR assay, however, demonstrated in intact cells that binding activity of USF2 to the SF-1 promoter was strikingly higher than that of USF1 in endometriotic stromal cells and that USF1 or USF2 binding activity was hardly detectable in endometrial stromal cells. Moreover, knockdown of USF2 but not USF1 resulted in robust and consistent down-regulation of SF-1 and its target genes StAR and aromatase in endometriotic stromal cells. USF2 but not USF1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in endometriotic vs. endometrial stromal cells. In vivo, USF2 mRNA and immunoreactive USF2 levels in endometriotic tissues were strikingly higher than those in endometrium. Taken together, the elevated levels of USF2 in endometriosis account for, in part, the aberrant expression of SF-1 and its target gene StAR and aromatase. PMID:18165439

  7. [The mechanisms of palindrome-stimulated mutation and related human diseases].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Xiao, Fei; Guo, Jian

    2013-05-01

    In prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, the palindrome regions are highly variable and instable. The reason for this instability is that palindrome can form a hairpin or cruciform structure, which can result in deletions or chromosomal translocations by certain mechanisms, such as slipped mispairing, single-strand annealing and non-homologous end joining. In human genomes, palindromes commonly exist in the essential elements which can regulate the expressions of different genes, and the mutations stimulated by palindromes are also closely associated with the occurrences and progressions of certain human diseases such as male infertility and thalassemia. Based on recent studies, we briefly summarize the types of mutations caused by palindromes and their possible mechanisms, as well as the related human diseases. This review would provide some information for the following researches about the roles and functions of palindromes in gene expression, regulation, mutation and related human diseases. PMID:23732662

  8. Human myeloperoxidase activity is inhibited in vitro by quercetin. Comparison with three related compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pincemail; C. Deby; A. Thirion; M. de Bruyn-Dister; R. Goutier

    1988-01-01

    Summary Quercetin is an effective inhibitor of human myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, both with purified enzyme (IC50=3.5 ?M) and in a system using stimulated human neutrophils. Quercetin is significantly more potent than three other related compounds (rutin, rutin sulfate and troxerutin) and than methimazole, a previously-known myeloperoxidase inhibitor. The inhibitory activity of quercetin is of the competitive type. Moreover, quercetin is

  9. Conditioned Insulin and Blood Sugar Responses in Humans in Relation to Binge Eating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joost Overduin; Anita Jansen

    1997-01-01

    Overduin, J. and A. Jansen. Conditioned insulin and blood sugar responses in humans in relation to binge eating. Physiol Behav 61(4) 569–575, 1997.—This study proposed to demonstrate a classically conditioned blood sugar decrease in humans and to clarify its relevance for binge eating. Six conditioning trials were run in healthy females. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was a compound peppermint flavor\\/fragrance,

  10. Human Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein Is Down-regulated and Induces Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesang Ko; Ki Sung Ryu; Young Han Lee; Doe Sun Na; Yoon Suk Kim; Young Mi Oh; In Sik Kim; Jin Woo Kim

    2002-01-01

    To identify genes involved in cervical carcinogenesis, the mRNA differential display method was used. A 220-bp cDNA fragment called CA11 was present in normal cervical tissue but not in primary cervical cancer tissue or cervical cancer cell lines. CA11 exhibited 98% homology with the recorded human secreted frizzled-related protein (hsFRP) sequence. A dominant hsFRP mRNA transcript of approximately 4.6 kb

  11. Natural killer cells are crucial for the efficacy of Icon (factor VII\\/human IgG1 Fc) immunotherapy in human tongue cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiwei Hu; Jing Li

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Icon is a novel, dual neovascular- and cancer cell-targeting immunotherapeutic agent and has shown efficacy in the treatment of cancer, wet form macular degeneration and endometriosis. However, its underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of Icon immunotherapy in cancer using a squamous carcinoma human tongue cancer line TCA8113 in

  12. Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition.

    PubMed

    Young, V R; Pellett, P L

    1994-05-01

    Plant protein foods contribute approximately 65% of the per capita supply of protein on a worldwide basis and approximately 32% in the North American region. These sources of protein are discussed in relation to their amino acid content, human amino acid requirements, and dietary protein quality. Mixtures of plant proteins can serve as a complete and well-balanced source of amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. This short review ends with a list of series of myths and realities concerning the relationship between plant protein and human nutrition and a list of some nutritional issues of concern to the health professional and informed consumer. PMID:8172124

  13. Brief communication: when Adam delved ... an activity-related lesion in three human skeletal populations.

    PubMed

    Knüsel, C J; Roberts, C A; Boylston, A

    1996-07-01

    A rare, activity-related lesion, the clay-shoveller's fracture, was identified during osteological analysis in three human populations dating from the Roman to the later Medieval period in England, circa fourth to 14th centuries A.D. The prevalence of this fracture in these populations suggests an osteological indicator for several possible manual activities, but also one that may be the result of a long-standing human subsistence adaptation requiring digging in the soil. Since males as opposed to females appear to be preferentially affected, the occurrence of such injuries has the potential to provide an insight into the sexual division of labor in earlier human populations. PMID:8798998

  14. The molecular genetics of sirtuins: association with human longevity and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Letizia; Kehoe, Patrick G; Forloni, Gianluigi; Albani, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The sirtuins are a family of proteins remarkably conserved from yeast to humans. In organisms such as yeast, worms and flies it is quite well established that the activity of sirtuins prolongs lifespan. As a result of promising findings in simple organisms, sirtuins are now investigated in higher organisms in relation to the ageing process. In mammals there are seven different sirtuin proteins each encoded by individual genes (SIRT1-7). Although sirtuins share a highly conserved catalytic domain, they differ in their biological function. Some mammalian sirtuins have been implicated in different ageing pathways and their modulation has been deemed to be beneficial in different models of age-associated diseases. Overall, sirtuins could contribute to mechanisms of human longevity and avoid or delay the onset of age-associated disorders. Here we review and discuss the potential impact of genetic variation in the sirtuin genes in relation to human longevity and age-related diseases. PMID:21537393

  15. Large-scale oscillation of structure-related DNA sequence features in human chromosome 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wentian; Miramontes, Pedro

    2006-08-01

    Human chromosome 21 is the only chromosome in the human genome that exhibits oscillation of the (G+C) content of a cycle length of hundreds kilobases (kb) ( 500kb near the right telomere). We aim at establishing the existence of a similar periodicity in structure-related sequence features in order to relate this (G+C)% oscillation to other biological phenomena. The following quantities are shown to oscillate with the same 500kb periodicity in human chromosome 21: binding energy calculated by two sets of dinucleotide-based thermodynamic parameters, AA/TT and AAA/TTT bi- and tri-nucleotide density, 5'-TA-3' dinucleotide density, and signal for 10- or 11-base periodicity of AA/TT or AAA/TTT. These intrinsic quantities are related to structural features of the double helix of DNA molecules, such as base-pair binding, untwisting or unwinding, stiffness, and a putative tendency for nucleosome formation.

  16. Hyaluronic acid-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MR imaging of surgically induced endometriosis model in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, He; Li, Jingchao; Sun, Wenjie; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Guofu; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine, which may affect nearly 60% of women in reproductive age. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) defined as an endometriotic lesion penetrating into the retroperitoneal space or the wall of the pelvic organs to a depth of at least 5 mm represents the most diagnostic challenge. Herein, we reported the use of hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (HA-Fe3O4 NPs) for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of endometriotic lesions in the rodent model. Sixteen endometriotic lesions were surgically induced in eight rats by autologous transplantation. Four weeks after lesion induction, three rats were scanned via MR imaging after tail vein injection of the HA-Fe3O4 NPs. Accordingly, the remaining five mice were sacrificed in the corresponding time points. The ectopic uterine tissues (EUTs) were confirmed by histological analysis. Quantification of Fe in the EUT was also performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Our results showed that by using the HA-Fe3O4 NPs, the EUTs were able to be visualized via T2-weighted MR imaging at 2 hours post injection, corroborating the Prussian blue staining results. The developed HA-Fe3O4 NPs could be used as negative contrast agents for sensitively detecting endometriosis in a mouse model and may be applied for future hyperthermia treatment of endometriosis. PMID:24722347

  17. Time elapsed from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of endometriosis in a cohort study of Brazilian women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Arruda; C. A. Petta; M. S. Abrao; C. L. Benetti-Pinto

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study aim was to assess the time elapsed between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of endo- metriosis, and to identify the factors associated with diagnostic delay in a group of Brazilian women. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 200 women with surgically confirmed endometriosis were interviewed at an endo- metriosis outpatient clinic. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) time

  18. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Water-soluble Progesterone-Conjugated Probes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Hormone Related Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sukerkar, Preeti A.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Townsend, Taryn R.; Ahmed, Roshan A.; Burdette, Joanna E.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) is strongly associated with disease prognosis and therapeutic efficacy in hormone related diseases such as endometriosis and breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers. Receptor status is currently determined by immunohistochemistry assays. However, noninvasive PR imaging agents could improve disease detection and help elucidate pathological molecular pathways, leading to new therapies and animal disease models. A series of water-soluble PR-targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes were synthesized using Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. These agents demonstrated activation of PR in vitro and preferential accumulation in PR(+) compared to PR(?) human breast cancer cells with low toxicity. In xenograft tumor models, the agents demonstrated enhanced signal intensity in PR(+) tumors compared to PR(?) tumors. The results suggest that these agents may be promising MRI probes for PR(+) diseases. PMID:21972997

  19. TLR3 and TLR4 expression in healthy and diseased human endometrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svenja Allhorn; Carsten Böing; Andrea A Koch; Rainer Kimmig; Isabella Gashaw

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the innate immune system by initiating and directing immune response to pathogens. TLRs are expressed in the human endometrium and their regulation might be crucial for the pathogenesis of endometrial diseases. METHODS: TLR3 and TLR4 expression was investigated during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal endometrium considering peritoneal endometriosis, hyperplasia, and

  20. Transrectal ultrasound – Techniques and outcomes in the management of intestinal endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Rossini, Lucio G.B.; Ribeiro, Paulo A.A.G.; Rodrigues, Francisco C.M.; Filippi, Sheila S.; Zago, Rodrigo de R.; Schneider, Nutianne C.; Okawa, Luciano; Klug, Wilmar A.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of endoscopic ultrasound has facilitated the evaluation of subepithelial and surrounding lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Deep pelvic endometriosis, with or without infiltration of the intestinal wall, is a frequent disease that can be observed in women in their fertile age. Patients of this disease may present nonspecific signs and symptoms or be completely asymptomatic. Laparoscopic surgical resection of endometriotic lesions is the treatment of choice in symptomatic patients. An accurate preoperative evaluation is indispensable for therapeutic decisions mainly in the suspicion of intestinal wall and/or urinary tract infiltration, and also in cases where we need to establish histological diagnosis or to rule out malignant disease. Diagnostic tools, including transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance image, transvaginal ultrasound, barium enema, and colonoscopy, play significant roles in determining the presence, depth, histology, and other relevant data about the extension of the disease. Diagnostic algorithm depends on the clinical presentation, the expertise of the medical team, and the technology available at each institution. This article reviews and discusses relevant clinical points in endometriosis, including techniques and outcomes of the study of the disease through transrectal ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration. PMID:24949332

  1. Gene transcription abnormalities in canine atopic dermatitis and related human eosinophilic allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plager, Douglas A.; Torres, Sheila M.F.; Koch, Sandra N.; Kita, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is clinically similar to human AD, implicating it as a useful model of human eosinophilic allergic disease. To identify cutaneous gene transcription changes in relatively early inflammation of canine AD, microarrays were used to monitor transcription in normal skin (n = 13) and in acute lesional AD (ALAD) and nearby visibly nonlesional AD (NLAD) skin (n = 13) from dogs. Scanning the putative abnormally transcribed genes, several potentially relevant genes, some abnormally transcribed in both NLAD and ALAD (e.g. IL6, NFAM1, MSRA, and SYK), were observed. Comparison for abnormally transcribed genes common to two related human diseases, human AD and asthmatic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (aCRSwNP), further identified genes or gene sets likely relevant to eosinophilic allergic inflammation. These included: (1) genes associated with alternatively activated monocyte-derived cells, including members of the monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) gene cluster, (2) members of the IL1 family gene cluster, (3) eosinophil-associated seven transmembrane receptor EMR1 and EMR3 genes, (4) interferon-inducible genes, and (5) keratin genes associated with hair and nail formation. Overall, numerous abnormally transcribed genes were observed only in canine AD; however, many others are common to related human eosinophilic allergic diseases and represent therapeutic targets testable in dogs with AD. PMID:22749291

  2. Evaluation of mean platelet volume, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio in advanced stage endometriosis with endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    Yavuzcan, Ali; Ça?lar, Mete; Üstün, Yusuf; Dilbaz, Serdar; Özdemir, ?smail; Y?ld?z, Elif; Özkara, Atilla; Kumru, Selahattin

    2013-01-01

    Objective We compared the preoperative values of mean platelet volume (MPV) and peripheral systemic inflammatory response (SIR) markers (neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio) between patients with advanced-stage (stage 3/4) endometriosis having endometrioma (OMA) and patients with a non-neoplastic adnexal mass other than endometrioma (non-OMA). Material and Methods Patients who underwent operations with the pre-diagnosis of infertility or adnexal mass and who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation were included. Results Haemoglobin levels, leucocyte count, platelet count, neutrophil count and lymphocyte count were not significantly different between patients with advanced stage endometriosis having OMA, patients with non-OMA and patients in the control group (p=0.970, p=0.902, p=0.373, p=0.501 and p=0.463, respectively). Patients with stage 3/4 endometriosis having OMA, patients with non-OMA and control patients were also not significantly different in terms of MPV (p=0.836), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (p=0.555) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) (p=0.358). Preoperative cancer antigen 125 (Ca-125) levels were significantly higher in patients with OMA (p=0.006). Mean size of the OMAs was significantly lower than non-OMAs (p=0.000). Conclusion It is very important to determine advanced stage endometriosis and OMAs during preoperative evaluation in order to inform patients and plan an appropriate surgical approach. We demonstrate that MPV, NLR and PLR values are not useful for this purpose in patients with advanced stage endometriosis that are proven to develop severe inflammation at either the cellular or molecular level. PMID:24592108

  3. Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus in relation to gender and sexual orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Swaab; M. A. Hofman

    1995-01-01

    Recently, sex differences in the structures of the human hypothalamus and adjacent brain structures have been observed that seem to be related to gender, to gender problems such as transsexuality, and to sexual orientation, that is, heterosexuality and homosexuality. Although these observations have yet to be confirmed, and their exact functional implications are far from clear, they open up a

  4. Human Relations Skills: Activity To Increase Life and Career Successes for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Beverly; Stitt, Tom

    This guide presents activities to increase human relations skills for women. Each activity includes sections on the goal, group size, materials required, time required, objective, procedures and directions, discussion questions and key points, and evaluation. Activities are: (1) self-esteem, including sections on interaction, insights, and…

  5. Genetics of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs): a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt; D. I. Boomsma

    1994-01-01

    Twin and family studies of normal variation in the human electroencephalogram (EEG) and event related potentials (ERPs) are reviewed. Most of these studies are characterized by small sample sizes. However, by summarizing these studies in one paper, we may be able to gain some insight into the genetic influences on individual differences in central nervous system functioning that may mediate

  6. In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases

    E-print Network

    Hebert, Daniel N.

    In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases 1377 C. Protein folding 1378 II. Protein Translocation, Folding, and Quality Control in the Endoplasmic Reticulum 1379 A. Protein targeting to the ER 1379 B. Chaperone-assisted protein folding in the ER 1379 C

  7. Predicted Light Scattering from Particles Observed in Human Age-Related Nuclear Cataracts Using Mie

    E-print Network

    Johnsen, Sönke

    Predicted Light Scattering from Particles Observed in Human Age-Related Nuclear Cataracts Using Mie. Craig Fowler4 PURPOSE. To employ Mie scattering theory to predict the light- scattering from micrometer.58 were used to calculate scattering efficiencies for particle radii 0.05 to 3 m and incident light

  8. Explaining the Rise of ‘Human Rights’ in Analyses of Sino-African Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun Breslin; Ian Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Popular perceptions of China and its global role are often shaped by two words: ‘made in’. Yet this vision of China that focuses primarily on Beijing as a coming economic superpower is relatively new, and it is not that long ago that two other words tended to dominate debates on and discourses of China: ‘human rights’. To be sure, real

  9. A uniform anthropomorphological approach to the human conception of dimensional relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Grabowski

    1999-01-01

    Within psycholinguistics, the dimensional conception of space is described through a variety of theoretical constructs, e.g., frames of reference, perspectives, strategies, and patterns. The objective of this paper is to introduce a uniform classification of the alternatives of dimensionally conceiving of object relations, derived from the functional and morphological asymmetries of the human body which define an anthropomorphous Origo, and

  10. Fluoride content of selected human food, pet food and related materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Siebert; K. Trautner

    1985-01-01

    Summary A survey was made of the fluoride content of selected human foods, some animal feeds, and related materials, with the purpose of a better characterization of products whose fluoride may contribute to the intake of fluoride by man as well as by some kinds of animals. Uptake of fluoride, especially from food with or without a foregoing food chain,

  11. Human Relations and Community Life in Rural New York State: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    Trends, strengths and assets, weaknesses and problem areas, goals, and public policy questions in the area of human relations and community life in rural New York state are presented with supporting statistics. Trends considered include rural and elderly rural population increases; suicide, homicide, and domestic violence rate increases; demands…

  12. Human factors in firefighting: ergonomic, cardiopulmonary, and psychogenic stress-related issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tee L. Guidotti

    1992-01-01

    There are many issues in firefighting that involve human factors and cardiopulmonary conditioning. Population-based mortality and disability surveillance studies suggest a relatively small but significant excess of disability but not mortality from nonmalignant cardiovascular disease for fire fighters. More targeted cohort and case-control studies do not support such an excess and instead suggest a strong healthy worker effect. Pulmonary function

  13. Neuropsychopharmacologia huNgarica 2013. XV. Vf. 3. szm 165 Network Analysis of Neurotransmitter Related Human

    E-print Network

    Pluhár, András

    Neuropsychopharmacologia huNgarica 2013. XV. éVf. 3. szám 165 Network Analysis of Neurotransmitter a merged interactome dataset, we analyzed the network of these Neurotransmitter Related Human Kinase Genes, neurotransmitter zoltaN Brys1 , aNdras pluhar2 , JaNos tiBor Kis3 , Bela Buda4 aNd attila szaBo5 1 Literatura

  14. Evaluation of Human Relations Training Programs. Final Report for Period April 1975-October 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas George; And Others

    An evaluation was made of computer assisted instruction on human relations skills implemented on the PLATO IV computer system. These materials had been devised for use by company commanders (CCs) at Naval Recruit Training Commands (RTCs). A substantial improvement on the part of CCs, and recruits of CCs undergoing this instruction, was found.…

  15. Toward a 21st-Century Understanding of Humans' Relation to Nature: Two Hats?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Scott

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, environmental education (EE) has shouldered the imposition of impartiality on its methods and practices. Considering the reality of global climate change, the author urges the adoption of the more accurate theory of humans' relation to the natural world. This theory necessitates partiality toward healthy, functioning natural…

  16. Multiplex analysis of age-related protein and lipid modifications in human Bruch's membrane

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, J. Renwick; Pawlak, Anna M.; Boulton, Michael E.; Zhang, Jianye; Monnier, Vincent M.; McGarvey, John J.; Stitt, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the human retina is characterized by progressive pathology, which can lead to vision loss. This progression is believed to involve reactive metabolic intermediates reacting with constituents of Bruch's membrane, significantly altering its physiochemical nature and function. We aimed to replace a myriad of techniques following these changes with one, Raman spectroscopy. We used multiplexed Raman spectroscopy to analyze the age-related changes in 7 proteins, 3 lipids, and 8 advanced glycation/lipoxidation endproducts (AGEs/ALEs) in 63 postmortem human donors. We provided an important database for Raman spectra from a broad range of AGEs and ALEs, each with a characteristic fingerprint. Many of these adducts were shown for the first time in human Bruch's membrane and are significantly associated with aging. The study also introduced the previously unreported up-regulation of heme during aging of Bruch's membrane, which is associated with AGE/ALE formation. Selection of donors ranged from ages 32 to 92 yr. We demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can identify and quantify age-related changes in a single nondestructive measurement, with potential to measure age-related changes in vivo. We present the first directly recorded evidence of the key role of heme in AGE/ALE formation.—Beattie, J. R., Pawlak, A. M., Boulton, M. E., Zhang, J., Monnier, V. M., McGarvey, J. J., Stitt, A. W. Multiplex analysis of age-related protein and lipid modifications in human Bruch's membrane. PMID:20686107

  17. Some Basic Issues Related to Contextual Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Human Resource Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan J Motowidlo

    2000-01-01

    This article examines some basic issues that might pose conceptual challenges in applying ideas related to contextual performance and organizational citizenship behavior to human resource management. It considers labeling issues and differences between the origins and definitions of the terms, contextual performance, and organizational citizenship behavior, and argues that the labeling issues are less important than careful definition and measurement

  18. USER INTERFACES For articles on related subjects, see HUMAN FACTORS IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS;

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Robert J.K.

    of an interactive computer system that communicates with the user. Design of the user interface includes any aspect interfaces for users with physical or other disa- bilities. Knowledge of the nature of the user's workUSER INTERFACES For articles on related subjects, see HUMAN FACTORS IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS

  19. Widespread age-related differences in the human brain microstructure revealed by quantitative magnetic resonance

    E-print Network

    Smittenaar, Peter

    Widespread age-related differences in the human brain microstructure revealed by quantitative Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland c Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology neuroimaging biomarkers for myelination and iron levels, parameters sensitive to aging, were acquired from 138

  20. Human Papillomavirus-Related Disease in Men: Not Just a Women's Issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2010-01-01

    The most common cause of mortality related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is cervical cancer. However, male HPV infection is also an important concern, both for the disease burden in men and for the risk of transmission to women. HPV is associated with a variety of cancers in men, including anal cancer and a subset of penile and oral cancers.

  1. Estimating the number needed to vaccinate to prevent diseases and death related to human papillomavirus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Brisson; Nicolas Van de Velde; Marie-Claude Boily

    2007-01-01

    Background: A vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18 is now licensed for use in Canada and many other countries. We sought to estimate the number needed to vaccinate to prevent HPV-related diseases and death. Methods: A cohort model of the natural history of HPV infection was developed. Model simulations were based on 209 different parameter

  2. Infection of Human B Lymphocytes with Lymphocryptoviruses Related to Epstein-Barr Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMIR MOGHADDAM; JOACHIM KOCH; BETHANY ANNIS; FRED WANG

    Lymphocryptoviruses (LCVs) naturally infecting Old World nonhuman primates are closely related to the human LCV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and share similar genome organization and sequences, biologic prop- erties, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. LCVs can efficiently immortalize B lymphocytes from the autologous species, but the ability of a given LCV to immortalize B cells from other Old World primate species is variable.

  3. Homocysteine related Nutritional and Genetic Risk Factors for Human Congenital Heart Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Verkleij-Hagoort

    2007-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) belong to the most common group of major congenital malformations in newborns. Most CHDs are considered complex diseases with a multifactorial aetiology, which are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This thesis presents the results of the ongoing HAVEN study, in which human congenital heart anomalies and homocysteine related genetic and nutritional

  4. Functional organization of human posterior parietal cortex: grasping- and reaching-related activations relative to topographically organized cortex

    PubMed Central

    Konen, Christina S.; Mruczek, Ryan E. B.; Montoya, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    The act of reaching to grasp an object requires the coordination between transporting the arm and shaping the hand. Neurophysiological, neuroimaging, neuroanatomic, and neuropsychological studies in macaque monkeys and humans suggest that the neural networks underlying grasping and reaching acts are at least partially separable within the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). To better understand how these neural networks have evolved in primates, we characterized the relationship between grasping- and reaching-related responses and topographically organized areas of the human intraparietal sulcus (IPS) using functional MRI. Grasping-specific activation was localized to the left anterior IPS, partially overlapping with the most anterior topographic regions and extending into the postcentral sulcus. Reaching-specific activation was localized to the left precuneus and superior parietal lobule, partially overlapping with the medial aspects of the more posterior topographic regions. Although the majority of activity within the topographic regions of the IPS was nonspecific with respect to movement type, we found evidence for a functional gradient of specificity for reaching and grasping movements spanning posterior-medial to anterior-lateral PPC. In contrast to the macaque monkey, grasp- and reach-specific activations were largely located outside of the human IPS. PMID:23515795

  5. The effects of post-surgical administration of goserelin plus anastrozole compared to goserelin alone in patients with severe endometriosis: a prospective randomized trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyide Soysal; Mehmet Emin Soysal; Suzan Ozer; Tugba Gezgin

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among patients using GnRH analogues for endometriosis it has been postulated that peripheral and inflammation-induced in-situ aromatization of adrenal androgens are probably the main reasons for the high rates of failure during follow-up. We hypothesized that in cases with premenopausal severe endometriosis, use of a combination of anastrozole and goserelin to achieve almost maximal endocrine blockade of estrogen synthesis

  6. Laparoscopic treatment of complete obliteration of the cul-de-sac associated with endometriosis: long-term follow-up of en bloc resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Redwine; Jeremy T. Wright

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate symptom relief following a laparoscopic technique designed for treatment of complete obliteration of the cul-de-sac associated with endometriosis, with fertility preserved.Design: Preoperative and postoperative questionnaire study of a cohort of patients with complete obliteration of the cul-de-sac undergoing a standardized laparoscopic surgical treatment.Setting: American tertiary referral center for the surgical treatment of endometriosis.Patients: Eighty-four consecutive patients undergoing

  7. Follow-up report on a randomized controlled trial of laser laparoscopy in the treatment of pelvic pain associated with minimal to moderate endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. G Sutton; Andrew S Pooley; Simon P Ewen; Patricia Haines

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the longer term efficacy of laparoscopic laser surgery in the treatment of painful pelvic endometriosis and to observe the natural history of the disease at second-look laparoscopy in a control group.Design: One-year follow-up of a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial.Setting: A referral center for the laparoscopic laser treatment of endometriosis.Patient(s): Sixty-three patients with pelvic pain and minimal

  8. Histological Confirmation of Endometriosis in a 9YearOld Girl Suffering from Unexplained Cyclic Pelvic Pain since Her Eighth Year of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas D. Ebert; Norbert Fuhr; Matthias David; Lorena Schneppel; Thomas Papadopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease of women in their reproductive age and characterized by the occurrence of stromal cells and endometrial-like glands outside the uterine cavity. Patient: A report of a 9-year-old premenarcheal girl who was transferred to the Endometriosis Research Center Berlin-Brandenburg Level III (Academic Teaching Hospital) because of cyclic pelvic pain since her 8th year of

  9. Insights into iron and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) involvement in chronic inflammatory processes in peritoneal endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Defrère, Sylvie; González-Ramos, Reinaldo; Lousse, Jean-Christophe; Colette, Sébastien; Donnez, Olivier; Donnez, Jacques; Van Langendonckt, Anne

    2011-08-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic pelvic inflammatory process. Local inflammation is known to play a role in pain and infertility associated with the disease, and may be extensively involved in molecular and cellular processes leading to endometriosis development. In this review, we focus on two inflammatory mediators clearly implicated in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, iron and NF-kappaB, and their potential association. Iron is essential for all living organisms, but excess iron results in toxicity and is linked to pathological disorders. In endometriosis patients, iron overload has been demonstrated in the different compartments of the peritoneal cavity (peritoneal fluid, endometriotic lesions, peritoneum and macrophages). This iron overload affects numerous mechanisms involved in endometriosis development. Moreover, iron can generate free radical species able to react with a wide range of cellular constituents, inducing cellular damage. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species also impairs cellular function by altering gene expression via regulation of redox-sensitive transcription factors such as NF-kappaB, which is clearly implicated in endometriosis. Indeed, NF-kappaB is activated in endometriotic lesions and peritoneal macrophages of endometriosis patients, which stimulates synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, generating a positive feedback loop in the NF-kappaB pathway. NF-kappaB-mediated gene transcription promotes a variety of processes, including endometriotic lesion establishment, maintenance and development. In conclusion, iron and NF-kappaB appear to be linked and both are clearly involved in endometriosis development, making these pathways an attractive target for future treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:21692040

  10. Bufalin induces apoptosis and the G0\\/G1 cell cycle arrest of endometriotic stromal cells: a promising agent for the treatment of endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaei Nasu; Masakazu Nishida; Tami Ueda; Noriyuki Takai; Sun Bing; Hisashi Narahara; Isao Miyakawa

    2006-01-01

    Most of the current medical treatments for endometriosis aim to down-regulate the estrogen activity. However, a high recurrence rate after medical treatments has been the most significant problem. Bufalin is a major digoxin-like immunoreactive component isolated from the skin and parotid venom glands of toad and is considered an apoptosis-inducing agent. To apply bufalin to the medical treatment of endometriosis,

  11. High-density fine-mapping of a chromosome 10q26 linkage peak suggests association between endometriosis and variants close to CYP2C19

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Jodie N.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Morris, Andrew; Zhao, Zhen Z.; Henders, Anjali K.; Lambert, Ann; Wallace, Leanne; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Treloar, Susan A.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Montgomery, Grant W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To refine a previously reported linkage peak for endometriosis on chromosome 10q26, and conduct follow-up analyses and a fine-mapping association study across the region to identify new candidate genes for endometriosis. Design Case-control study. Setting Academic research. Subject(s) Cases = 3,223 women with surgically confirmed endometriosis; Controls = 1,190 women without endometriosis and 7,060 population samples. Intervention(s) Analysis of 11,984 SNPs on chromosome 10. Main outcome measure(s) Allele frequency differences between cases and controls. Results Linkage analyses on families grouped by endometriosis symptoms (primarily subfertility) provided increased evidence for linkage (logarithm of odds (LOD) score = 3.62) near a previously reported linkage peak. Three independent association signals were found at 96.59 Mb (rs11592737, P=4.9 × 10?4), 105.63 Mb (rs1253130, P=2.5 × 10?4) and 124.25 Mb (rs2250804, P=9.7 × 10?4). Analyses including only samples from linkage families supported the association at all three regions. However, only rs11592737 in the cytochrome P450 subfamily C (CYP2C19) gene was replicated in an independent sample of 2,079 cases and 7060 population controls. Conclusion(s) The role of the CYP2C19 gene in conferring risk for endometriosis warrants further investigation. PMID:21497341

  12. Clear cell carcinoma derived from an endometriosis focus in a scar after a caesarean section--a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Dobrosz, Zuzanna; Pale?, Piotr; Stojko, Rafa?; W?aszczuk, Pawe?; Nies?uchowska-Hoxha, Anna; Piechuta-Ko?mider, Ilona

    2014-10-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the occurrence of endometrial glands and endometrial stromal cells outside their typical localization within the uterus. Malignant transformation of endometriosis foci in a scar after a caesarean section (cc) is very rare--until 2013 (in a span of 40 years), about 40 such cases have been described. In our article, we describe a case of a 42-year-old woman with a tumour localized in a scar after a caesarean section. The tumour was diagnosed as clear cell carcinoma derived from an endometriosis focus. The long time interval--17 years in average (from 3 to 39 years) between the surgery (cesarean section in most cases) and the tumor diagnosis is characteristic. In the case we describe, the patient was diagnosed 16 years after the endometriosis focus in the scar had arised. Even though endometriosis is a benign lesion, it has many features distinctive for invasive carcinoma; it may itself undergo a malignant transformation as well as increase the risk of endometrial carcinoma or clear cell ovarian carcinoma. Maybe in future, more exhaustive studies will allow establishing a therapeutic protocol in patients with extra-ovarian malignant transformation of endometriosis foci. PMID:25546933

  13. Expression of human sequences related to those of mouse mammary tumor virus.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, G C; Chretien, S; Hanson, I M; Rochefort, H; May, F E; Westley, B R

    1988-01-01

    Sequences related to those of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) genome have been cloned from human DNA by screening a library prepared from the DNA of a human breast cancer cell line with MuMTV gag-pol DNA. Nine distinct groups of (MuMTV-related) sequences were identified among 100 lambda recombinants by cross-hybridization experiments with subcloned fragments containing gag-pol-related DNA. The largest group, of 64 recombinants, contains the MuMTV-related sequences cloned by others. The other eight groups contain MuMTV-related sequences that have not been described previously. The gag-pol regions of one recombinant from each of the nine groups were hybridized to RNA prepared from five human breast cancer cell lines, from placenta, and from two cell lines derived from other malignancies. RNAs were detected by probes for seven of the groups. The RNAs ranged in size from 1.2 to 12 kilobases. Probes for six of the groups detected large RNAs that could represent transcripts of full-length proviral DNA. Two of the probes detected RNA in one breast cancer cell line only. Most of the RNAs were detected in more than one cell line. Images PMID:2831381

  14. Medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, as a model for human obesity-related glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Koichiro; Kawashima, Yusuke; Nakamura, Tomomi; Powell, Rebecca; Hidoh, Yuya; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao; Kodera, Yoshio; Tsuji, Takashi; Ma, Jian-Xing; Sakai, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Obara, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, an ongoing significant public health problem, is a part of complex disease characterized as metabolic syndrome. Medaka and zebrafish are useful aquatic experimental animals widely used in the field of toxicology and environmental health sciences and as a human disease models. In medaka, simple feeding of a high fat diet (HFD) can induce body weight gain, excessive accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and steatohepatists, which mimics human metabolic syndrome. In the present study, to explore the possibility that the adult medaka fed with HFD (HFD-medaka) can be used as an animal model for human metabolic syndrome-associated glomerular disease, including obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG), we analyzed structural alterations and protein expression in the mesonephric kidney of HFD-medaka. We found that the histopathology was consistent with glomerulomegaly accompanied by the dilation of glomerular capillaries and proliferative expansion of the mesangium, a condition partially comparable to human ORG. Moreover, expressions of several kinds of kidney disease-related proteins (such as MYH9, SM22?) were significantly elevated. Thus, the HFD-medaka has a high potential as an animal model useful for exploring the mechanism underling human ORG. PMID:23353086

  15. Species-Related Differences in the Proteome of Rat and Human Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martens, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    The core proteomes of human and rat pancreatic beta cells were compared by label-free LC-MS/MS: this resulted in quantification of relative molar abundances of 707 proteins belonging to functional pathways of intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and cytoskeleton. Relative molar abundances were conserved both within and between pathways enabling the selection of a housekeeping network for geometric normalization and the analysis of potentially relevant differential expressions. Human beta cells differed from rat beta cells in their lower level of enzymes involved in glucose sensing (MDH1, PC, and ACLY) and upregulation of lysosomal enzymes. Human cells also expressed more heat shock proteins and radical scavenging systems: apart from SOD2, they expressed high levels of H2O2-scavenger peroxiredoxin 3 (PRDX3), confirmed by microarray, Western blotting, and microscopy. Besides conferring lower susceptibility to oxidative stress to human cells PRDX3 might also play a role in physiological redox regulation as, in rat, its expression was restricted to a beta cell subset with higher metabolic glucose responsiveness. In conclusion, although their core proteomic architecture is conserved, human and rat beta cells differ in their molar expression of key enzymes involved in glucose sensing and redox control.

  16. Carbapenem resistance in a human clinical isolate identified to be closely related to Acinetobacter indicus.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Rémy A; Poirel, Laurent; van der Reijden, Tanny J K; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lescat, Mathilde; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-10-01

    Here we report a case of carbapenem resistance in a human clinical isolate that was found to be closely related to the newly described environmental species Acinetobacter indicus. This strain harboured the blaOXA-23 carbapenemase gene located on a conjugative plasmid. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA and rpoB genes, together with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis, showed that this strain was distantly related to the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and was closely related to A. indicus. PMID:25245212

  17. Identification of a family of closely related human ubiquitin conjugating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J P; Bates, P W; Yang, M; Vierstra, R D; Weissman, A M

    1995-12-22

    Two very closely related human E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, UbfH5B and UbcH5C, have been identified. These enzymes are products of distinct genes and are 88-89% identical in amino acid sequence to the recently described human E2, UbcH5 (now designated UbcH5A), UbcH5A-C are homologous to a family of five ubiquitin conjugating enzymes from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtUBC8-12. They are also closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScUBC4 and ScUBC5, which are involved in the stress response, and play a central role in the targeting of short-lived regulatory proteins for degradation. mRNAs encoding UbcH5A-C were co-expressed in all cell lines and tissues evaluated, with UbcH5C transcripts generally expressed at the highest levels. Analysis of Southern blots suggests that there are likely to be other related members of this family. Both UbcH5B and UbcH5C form thiol ester adducts with ubiquitin, and have activities similar to UbcH5A and AtUBC8 in the conjugation of ubiquitin to target proteins in the presence of the human ubiquitin protein ligase E6-AP. These results establish the existence of a highly conserved, and widely expressed, family of human ubiquitin conjugating enzymes. PMID:8530467

  18. Health-related rehabilitation services: assessing the global supply of and need for human resources

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human resources for rehabilitation are often a neglected component of health services strengthening and health workforce development. This may be partly related to weaknesses in the available research and evidence to inform advocacy and programmatic strategies. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe the global situation in terms of supply of and need for human resources for health-related rehabilitation services, as a basis for strategy development of the workforce in physical and rehabilitation medicine. Methods Data for assessing supply of and need for rehabilitative personnel were extracted and analyzed from statistical databases maintained by the World Health Organization and other national and international health information sources. Standardized classifications were used to enhance cross-national comparability of findings. Results Large differences were found across countries and regions between assessed need for services requiring health workers associated to physical and rehabilitation medicine against estimated supply of health personnel skilled in rehabilitation services. Despite greater need, low- and middle-income countries tended to report less availability of skilled health personnel, although the strength of the supply-need relationship varied across geographical and economic country groupings. Conclusion The evidence base on human resources for health-related rehabilitation services remains fragmented, the result of limited availability and use of quality, comparable data and information within and across countries. This assessment offered the first global baseline, intended to catalyze further research that can be translated into evidence to support human resources for rehabilitation policy and practice. PMID:22004560

  19. Suppression of matrix metalloproteinases inhibits establishment of ectopic lesions by human endometrium in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, K L; Matrisian, L M; Rodgers, W H; Gorstein, F; Osteen, K G

    1997-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases of the stromelysin family are expressed in the human endometrium as a consequence of cellular events during the menstrual cycle that require extracellular matrix remodeling. We have recently documented the presence of these enzymes in lesions of endometriosis, a benign disease that presents as persistent ectopic sites of endometrial tissue, usually within the peritoneal cavity. Endometriosis can develop after retrograde menstruation of endometrial tissue fragments, and establishment of ectopic sites within the peritoneal cavity requires breakdown of extracellular matrix. To examine whether matrix metalloproteinases might contribute to the steroid-dependent epidemiology and cellular pathophysiology of endometriosis, we have developed an experimental model of endometriosis using athymic nude mice as recipients of human endometrial tissue. Our results demonstrate that estrogen treatment of human endometrial tissue in organ culture maintains secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and promotes establishment of ectopic peritoneal lesions when injected into recipient animals. In contrast, suppressing metalloproteinase secretion in vitro with progesterone treatment, or blocking enzyme activity with a natural inhibitor of metalloproteinases, inhibits the formation of ectopic lesions in this experimental model. PMID:9185507

  20. Biology of human papillomavirus infection and immune therapy for HPV-related head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Best, Simon R; Niparko, Kevin J; Pai, Sara I

    2012-08-01

    This article outlines the biology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of human mucosa and the cellular pathways that are altered through viral infection. The article provides a conceptual framework with which to understand the 2 major immunologic strategies to address HPV-related diseases: (1) prevention of primary HPV infection through the use of prophylactic vaccines and (2) treatment of established infection and diseases through therapeutic vaccines. Nonimmunologic therapy that targets cellular dysregulation induced by HPV infection is also discussed. The challenges in actualizing these conceptually attractive therapies on both a societal and biological level are examined. PMID:22793854

  1. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically related to HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry, R. F.; Fermin, C. D.; Hart, D. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Donehower, L. A.; Luo-Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. The loss of salivary and lacrimal gland function is accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration. Because similar symptoms and glandular pathology are observed in certain persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a search was initiated for a possible retroviral etiology in this syndrome. A human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle that is antigenically related to HIV was detected in lymphoblastoid cells exposed to homogenates of salivary tissue from patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Comparison of this retroviral particle to HIV indicates that they are distinguishable by several ultrastructural, physical, and enzymatic criteria.

  2. Promotion of endometriosis in mice by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K L; Cummings, A M; Birnbaum, L S

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies showed exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) enhances the development of endometriotic lesions. In this study we examined the effects of other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons on endometriotic proliferation. B6C3F1 female mice were treated via oral gavage a total of five times, with 3 weeks between each dosing, with 0, 1, 3, or 10 micrograms 2,3,7,8,-TCDD/kg body weight (bw); 3 or 30 mg 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153)/kg bw; 100, 300, or 1000 micrograms 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)/kg bw; 10, 30, or 100 micrograms 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF)/kg bw; or 2 or 20 mg 1,3,6,8-TCDD/kg at 10 ml/kg bw. Endometriosis was surgically induced during the week of the second dosing. Three weeks following the final dose, the mice were euthanized and endometriotic lesions, whole body, liver, ovaries, uterine horn, and thymus were weighted, and lesion diameters were measured. Lesions, uterine horns, and ovaries were fixed for histopathology and livers were processed for measurement of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Both 2,3,7,8-TCDD (1 and 3 micrograms/kg bw) and 4-PeCDF (100 micrograms/kg bw) significantly enhanced the growth of endometrial lesions. No statistically significant increase in endometriotic lesion size was detected in animals treated with either PCB 126 or with the highest dose of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, possibly due to the effects of histologically observed ovarian toxicity. The nondioxin-like compounds, PCB 153 and 1,3,6,8-TCDD, produced no observable effects on endometriosis. Hepatic EROD activity was significantly induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 4-PeCDF, and PCB 126, but not by PCB 153 or 1,3,6,8-TCDD. The results of this study provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon-promoted endometriosis may be Ah receptor mediated. PMID:9294722

  3. Identification and detection of a novel human endogenous retrovirus-related gene, and structural characterization of its related elements

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Up-regulation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is associated with many diseases, including cancer. In this study, an H family HERV (HERV-H)-related gene was identified and characterized. Its spliced transcript lacks protein-coding capacity and may belong to the emerging class of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The 1.3-kb RNA consisting of four exons is transcribed from an Alu element upstream of a 5.0-kb structurally incomplete HERV-H element. RT-PCR and quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that expression of this HERV-related transcript was negatively associated with colon, stomach, and kidney cancers. Its expression was induced upon treatment with DNA methylation and histone deacetylation inhibitors. A BLAT search using long terminal repeats (LTRs) identified 50 other LTR homogenous HERV-H elements. Further analysis of these elements revealed that all are structurally incomplete and only five exert transcriptional activity. The results presented here recommend further investigation into a potentially functional HERV-H-related ncRNA. PMID:21637440

  4. Nature and biosynthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides related to oligosaccharides in human breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Intanon, Montira; Arreola, Sheryl Lozel; Pham, Ngoc Hung; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Haltrich, Dietmar; Nguyen, Thu-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are prominent among the functional components of human breast milk. While HMO have potential applications in both infants and adults, this potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing these complex structures. Consequently, functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides are under investigation, and nowadays, infant formulae are supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides to mimic the biological effects of HMO. Recently, approaches toward the production of defined human milk oligosaccharide structures using microbial, fermentative methods employing single, appropriately engineered microorganisms were introduced. Furthermore, galactose-containing hetero-oligosaccharides have attracted an increasing amount of attention because they are structurally more closely related to HMO. The synthesis of these novel oligosaccharides, which resemble the core of HMO, is of great interest for applications in the food industry. PMID:24571717

  5. Nature and biosynthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides related to oligosaccharides in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Intanon, Montira; Arreola, Sheryl Lozel; Pham, Ngoc Hung; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Haltrich, Dietmar; Nguyen, Thu-Ha

    2014-04-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are prominent among the functional components of human breast milk. While HMO have potential applications in both infants and adults, this potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing these complex structures. Consequently, functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides are under investigation, and nowadays, infant formulae are supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides to mimic the biological effects of HMO. Recently, approaches toward the production of defined human milk oligosaccharide structures using microbial, fermentative methods employing single, appropriately engineered microorganisms were introduced. Furthermore, galactose-containing hetero-oligosaccharides have attracted an increasing amount of attention because they are structurally more closely related to HMO. The synthesis of these novel oligosaccharides, which resemble the core of HMO, is of great interest for applications in the food industry. PMID:24571717

  6. Human-animal bonds I: the relational significance of companion animals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Froma

    2009-12-01

    The importance of human-animal bonds has been documented throughout history, across cultures, and in recent research. However, attachments with companion animals have been undervalued and even pathologized in the field of mental health. This article briefly surveys the evolution of human-animal bonds, reviews research on their health and mental health benefits, and examines their profound relational significance across the life course. Finally, the emerging field of animal-assisted interventions is described, noting applications in hospital and eldercare settings, and in innovative school, prison, farm, and community programs. The aim of this overview paper is to stimulate more attention to these vital bonds in systems-oriented theory, practice, and research. A companion paper in this issue focuses on the role of pets and relational dynamics in family systems and family therapy. PMID:19930433

  7. The Ability of North Island Robins to Discriminate between Humans Is Related to Their Behavioural Type

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Craig; Salter, Matt; Chevallier, Clément; Robertson, Nicola; Berard, Otis; Burns, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Animals are able to learn to identify persistent threats to themselves and their offspring. For example, birds are able to quickly learn to discriminate between humans that have previously threatened their nests from humans with whom they have had no prior experience. However, no study has yet examined whether a bird's ability to discriminate between humans is related to the bird's underlying behavioural type. In this study, we examined whether there were differences among North Island (NI) robins (Petroica longipes), based on their underlying behavioural type, in their abilities to discriminate between familiar and novel human observers. Using a simple feeding experiment, we timed how long it took birds to attack a food item placed next to an observer on each of 7 days. On the eighth day, a different observer timed the birds. We found that birds could be split into two behaviour types based on their attack behaviour: fast attackers (latencies <20 sec) and slow attackers (latencies >20 secs). Interestingly, the fast birds did not increase their attack latency in response to the novel observer whereas the slow attackers did. This result, for the first time, demonstrates that a bird's ability to discriminate between humans can vary among birds based on their behavioural type. PMID:23700482

  8. Expression and bioregulation of the kallikrein-related peptidases family in the human neutrophil.

    PubMed

    Lizama, Alejandro J; Andrade, Yessica; Colivoro, Patricio; Sarmiento, Jose; Matus, Carola E; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Figueroa, Carlos D

    2015-08-01

    The family of kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) has been identified in a variety of immunolabeled human tissue sections, but no previous study has experimentally confirmed their presence in the human neutrophil. We have investigated the expression and bioregulation of particular KLKs in the human neutrophil and, in addition, examined whether stimulation by a kinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist or fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP) induces their secretion. Western blot analysis of neutrophil homogenates indicated that the MM of the KLKs ranged from 27 to 50?kDa. RT-PCR showed that blood neutrophils expressed only KLK1, KLK4, KLK10, KLK13, KLK14 and KLK15 mRNAs, whereas the non-differentiated HL-60 cells expressed most of them, with exception of KLK3 and KLK7. Nevertheless, mRNAs for KLK2, KLK5, KLK6 and KLK9 that were previously undetectable appeared after challenging with a mixture of cytokines. Both kinin B1R agonist and fMLP induced secretion of KLK1, KLK6, KLK10, KLK13 and KLK14 into the culture medium in similar amounts, whereas the B1R agonist caused the release of lower amounts of KLK2, KLK4 and KLK5. When secreted, the differing proteolytic activity of KLKs provides the human neutrophil with a multifunctional enzymatic capacity supporting a new dimension for its role in human disorders of diverse etiology. PMID:25563717

  9. Inhibitory interneurons of the human prefrontal cortex display conserved evolution of the phenotype and related genes

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Chet C.; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Uddin, Monica; Boddy, Amy M.; Wildman, Derek E.; Bonar, Christopher J.; Lewandowski, Albert H.; Phillips, Kimberley A.; Erwin, Joseph M.; Hof, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons participate in local processing circuits, playing a central role in executive cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex. Although humans differ from other primates in a number of cognitive domains, it is not currently known whether the interneuron system has changed in the course of primate evolution leading to our species. In this study, we examined the distribution of different interneuron subtypes in the prefrontal cortex of anthropoid primates as revealed by immunohistochemistry against the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin. In addition, we tested whether genes involved in the specification, differentiation and migration of interneurons show evidence of positive selection in the evolution of humans. Our findings demonstrate that cellular distributions of interneuron subtypes in human prefrontal cortex are similar to other anthropoid primates and can be explained by general scaling rules. Furthermore, genes underlying interneuron development are highly conserved at the amino acid level in primate evolution. Taken together, these results suggest that the prefrontal cortex in humans retains a similar inhibitory circuitry to that in closely related primates, even though it performs functional operations that are unique to our species. Thus, it is likely that other significant modifications to the connectivity and molecular biology of the prefrontal cortex were overlaid on this conserved interneuron architecture in the course of human evolution. PMID:19955152

  10. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A; Márquez, Ana L; Vargas, J Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met. PMID:25639588

  11. Molecular Characterization of Various Trichomonad Species Isolated from Humans and Related Mammals in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Kamaruddin, Mudyawati; Rahman, Md. Moshiur; Arayama, Shunsuke; Hidayati, Anggi P.N.; Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji B.S.; Yoshikawa, Hisao; Kawahara, Ei

    2014-01-01

    Trichomonad species inhabit a variety of vertebrate hosts; however, their potential zoonotic transmission has not been clearly addressed, especially with regard to human infection. Twenty-one strains of trichomonads isolated from humans (5 isolates), pigs (6 isolates), rodents (6 isolates), a water buffalo (1 isolate), a cow (1 isolate), a goat (1 isolate), and a dog (1 isolate) were collected in Indonesia and molecularly characterized. The DNA sequences of the partial 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene or 5.8S rRNA gene locus with its flanking regions (internal transcribed spacer region, ITS1 and ITS2) were identified in various trichomonads; Simplicimonas sp., Hexamastix mitis, and Hypotrichomonas sp. from rodents, and Tetratrichomonas sp. and Trichomonas sp. from pigs. All of these species were not detected in humans, whereas Pentatrichomonas hominis was identified in humans, pigs, the dog, the water buffalo, the cow, and the goat. Even when using the high-resolution gene locus of the ITS regions, all P. hominis strains were genetically identical; thus zoonotic transmission between humans and these closely related mammals may be occurring in the area investigated. The detection of Simplicimonas sp. in rodents (Rattus exulans) and P. hominis in water buffalo in this study revealed newly recognized host adaptations and suggested the existence of remaining unrevealed ranges of hosts in the trichomonad species. PMID:25352694

  12. The ability of North Island Robins to discriminate between humans is related to their behavioural type.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Craig; Salter, Matt; Chevallier, Clément; Robertson, Nicola; Berard, Otis; Burns, Kevin C

    2013-01-01

    Animals are able to learn to identify persistent threats to themselves and their offspring. For example, birds are able to quickly learn to discriminate between humans that have previously threatened their nests from humans with whom they have had no prior experience. However, no study has yet examined whether a bird's ability to discriminate between humans is related to the bird's underlying behavioural type. In this study, we examined whether there were differences among North Island (NI) robins (Petroica longipes), based on their underlying behavioural type, in their abilities to discriminate between familiar and novel human observers. Using a simple feeding experiment, we timed how long it took birds to attack a food item placed next to an observer on each of 7 days. On the eighth day, a different observer timed the birds. We found that birds could be split into two behaviour types based on their attack behaviour: fast attackers (latencies <20 sec) and slow attackers (latencies >20 secs). Interestingly, the fast birds did not increase their attack latency in response to the novel observer whereas the slow attackers did. This result, for the first time, demonstrates that a bird's ability to discriminate between humans can vary among birds based on their behavioural type. PMID:23700482

  13. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A.; Márquez, Ana L.; Vargas, J. Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met.

  14. Differential expression of apoptosis-related factors induces the age-related apoptosis of the gracilis muscle in humans

    PubMed Central

    PARK, SOO YEON; LEE, JUNG HWAN; KIM, HA YOUNG; YOON, KYOUNG HO; PARK, SEONG KYU; CHANG, MUN SEOG

    2014-01-01

    In the normal aging process, apoptosis has been implicated as a mechanism responsible for the loss of muscle cells and plays an important role in age-related muscle loss. Several signaling pathways involved in skeletal muscle apoptosis are currently under intense investigation, particularly the caspase-independent pathway. This study investigated the age-related apoptotic changes occurring in the gracilis muscle in humans between 10 and 50 years of age. For this purpose, muscle samples were divided into 5 groups (n=8). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and immunofluorescence detection were performed to determine the number of apoptotic muscle cells in each group. In addition, the expression levels of apoptosis-related factors, such as Bcl-2, Bax, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), caspase-3 and calpain-1 were determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. TUNEL assay revealed a significant increase in gracilis muscle apoptosis with aging. The activity of caspase-3 in the gracilis muscle tended to change with age, although the changes were not significant, while the increase in DNA nuclei in muscle from 50 years of age (5.419±0.97) was associated with an increase in the expression of AIF, as observed both at protein (10–30%) and mRNA level (10–60%) in gracilis tissues. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the relative Bcl-2 expression decreased with aging, while Bax expression was upregulated compared to 10 -year-olds. In addition, a double-labeling experiment with TUNEL staining and immunofluorescence revealed the co-localization of nuclear AIF-positive and TUNEL-labeled cells. This study suggests that apoptosis in gracilis skeletal muscle in the elderly is partly mediated through the expression of Bcl-2/Bax and the degradation of AIF. PMID:24584667

  15. Dose-related structural effects of photodynamic therapy on choroidal and retinal structures of human eyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt; Arne Viestenz; Gottfried O. H. Naumann; Horst Laqua; S. Michels; Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on choroidal and retinal structures of human eyes. Methods. One eye from each of three patients with large malignant melanomas of the uvea destined for enucleation received PDT using verteporfin according to the approved treatment recommendations for patients with age-related macular degeneration. Two laser spots and two light doses (50 J\\/cm2

  16. Ethical issues relating to supply of human tissue to the commercial biomedical sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Womack

    2002-01-01

    Demand for an ethical supply of human tissue for research in the commercial biomedical sector is increasing substantially.\\u000a This article sets out to review ethical issues specifically relating to acquisition of tissue from patients in a publicly\\u000a funded national health service (NHS), for research use in a commercial setting. Some of the background to recent high profile\\u000a Inquiries in England

  17. Transcriptional diversity of DMRT1 (dsx- and mab3-related transcription factor 1) in human testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Hua Cheng; Ming Ying; Yi Hao Tian; Yiqing Guo; Ken McElreavey; Rong Jia Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in the evolutionary genetics of sex determination indicate that the only molecular similarity in sex determination found so far among phyla is between the fly doublesex, worm mab-3 and vertebrate DMRT1(dsx- and mab3-related transcription factor 1) \\/DMY genes. Each of these factors encodes a zinc-finger-like DNA-binding motif, DM domain. Insights into the evolution and functions of human DMRT1

  18. Allelic variants of the human MHC class I chain-related B gene ( MICB )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Ando; Nobuhisa Mizuki; Masao Ota; Masaaki Yamazaki; Shigeaki Ohno; Kaori Goto; Yoshihisa Miyata; Kazuo Wakisaka; Seiamak Bahram; H. Inoko

    1997-01-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is located within a 4 megabase segment on chromosome 6p21.3. Recently, a\\u000a highly divergent MHC class I chain-related gene family, MIC was identified within the class I region. The MICA and MICB genes in this family have unique patterns of tissue expression. The MICA gene is highly polymorphic, with more than 20 alleles identified

  19. Identification of small molecule antagonists of the human mas-related gene-X1 receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priya Kunapuli; Seungtaek Lee; Wei Zheng; Melissa Alberts; Oleg Kornienko; Rebecca Mull; Anthony Kreamer; Jong-Ik Hwang; Melvin I. Simon; Berta Strulovici

    2006-01-01

    The recently identified mas-related-gene (MRG) family of receptors, located primarily in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion, has been implicated in the perception of pain. Thus, antagonists of this class of receptors have been postulated to be useful analgesics. Toward this end, we developed a cell-based beta-lactamase (BLA) reporter gene assay to identify small molecule antagonists of the human

  20. Low False-Negative Rate of PCR Analysis for Detecting Human Papillomavirus-Related Cervical Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILIP ZAZOVE; BARBARA D. REED; LUCIE GREGOIRE; ALEX FERENCZY; DANIEL W. GORENFLO; WAYNE D. LANCASTER; Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish

    1998-01-01

    Although PCR analysis is a sensitive test for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the cervix, the proportion of cases of cervical dysplasia missed, or the false-negative rate, has been unknown. We determined the accuracy of PCR analysis for HPV DNA as a predictor of HPV-related cervical lesions in a cross-sectional study of sexually active women, aged 18 to 50