Science.gov

Sample records for human endometriosis relation

  1. [Endometriosis related infertility].

    PubMed

    Pouly, J-L; Canis, M; Velemir, L; Brugnon, F; Rabischong, B; Botchorichvili, R; Jardon, K; Peikrishvili, R; Mage, G; Janny, L

    2007-04-01

    From the literature, the crucial knowledge were drawn among endometriosis related infertility. Endometriosis is an important factor of infertility in minimal or light stages and a major one in mild or moderate stages. Thus, a laparoscopy must be performed to confirm endometriosis when suggestive clinical or biological signs exist. In absence of them, laparoscopy can be delayed after intra-uterine inseminations (IUI). The first line treatment is laparoscopic surgery. Its efficacy is proven. It is useless to prescribe a post-operative medical treatment (GnRH analogues). Surgery leads to 25 to 40% of deliveries. It is dependant on age, infertility duration, tubo-ovarian adhesion and tubes involvement. But, surgery can be avoided and the patient is directly referred to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) when the lesions extension is so important that surgery exposes to complications or when there is a permanent other indication for IVF (severe male infertility). When infertility persists 6 to 12 months after surgery and without patent recurrence, ovulation stimulations and IUI are performed as the second line treatment. After IUI failure, or in case of recurrence, IVF must be applied. A second surgery is not recommended. The IVF results are not impaired by the presence of endometriosis and even of endometriomas. Thus, it is useless to operate again endometriosis before IVF. In opposition, in severe stages or in cases of recurrence, a pre-IVF medical treatment (GnRH analogues) improves the results. IVF do not increased the risk of endometriosis acute growth. In case of infertility and pain, infertility is considered as the first target. But medical treatment can be prescribed between the IVF attempts. PMID:17267133

  2. ENDOMETRIOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Woodburn K.

    1950-01-01

    The cause of endometriosis is not known. The incidence of the disease is greater than was previously suspected and it probably is increasing. Nulliparous women are more likely to have endometriosis than are women who have had children. The commonest symptoms are lower abdominal pain, disturbance of menstruation, and dysmenorrhea, most often of the increasing or acquired type. Relative and absolute sterility are common partners of endometriosis. A better percentage of correct preoperative diagnoses should be obtained in view of present knowledge. Radical operation on women in the premenopausal age groups with endometriosis is resorted to in far too high a percentage of cases. The good results which can be attained with conservative therapy, including surgical and hormone therapy, should be stressed. There is some evidence that endocrine therapy may control endometriosis. The dangers attending these methods have not as yet been determined. PMID:15400564

  3. Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... stick together. The bleeding, inflammation , and scarring can cause pain, especially before and during menstruation. What is the link between infertility and endometriosis? Almost 40% of women with infertility have endometriosis. Inflammation from endometriosis may ...

  4. Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    Endometriosis is a problem affecting a woman's uterus - the place where a baby grows when she's pregnant. Endometriosis is when the kind of tissue that normally ... may be the first sign. The cause of endometriosis is not known. Pain medicines and hormones often ...

  5. Association of FCRL3 Genetic Polymorphisms With Endometriosis-Related Infertility Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Guang; Wang, Surong; Zhang, Shiqian; Xie, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Fc receptor-like 3 (FCRL3) gene was reported to be linked to a variety of autoimmune diseases, including endometriosis-related infertility. However, this linkage has not been studied in Chinese population and there has been no meta-analysis on the interrelationship of FCRL3 gene and endometriosis-related infertility. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between FCRL3 genetic polymorphisms and the risk of endometriosis-related infertility in Han Chinese, and a further meta-analysis was conducted to confirm our results. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7528684 [FCRL3_3], rs11264799 [FCRL3_4], rs945635 [FCRL3_5], and rs3761959 [FCRL3_6]) on FCRL3 gene were genotyped in a case–control cohort composed of 217 patients suffering from endometriosis-related infertility and 220 healthy controls using cleaved amplification polymorphism sequence-tagged sites (polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR–RFLP). Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to evaluate the association quantitatively. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of previous studies including the present study was implemented through Stata 11.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX). We found an approximately 1.4-fold significantly increased frequency of the FCRL3_3 variant in women with endometriosis-related infertility over the controls (OR = 1.41 [95% CI = 1.08–1.84], P = 0.013). However, no significant difference was found between women with endometriosis-related infertility and controls for FCRL3_4, FCRL3_5, and FCRL3_6. Regardless of the symptoms and the revised classification of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (rASRM) stage of endometriosis, there was a significant association between FCRL3_3 variant and an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility. Meta-analysis of previous studies combined with the present study further confirmed the association between FCRL3_3 and the risk of endometriosis-related infertility. In summary, the present study suggested that FCRL3_3 variant was associated with an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility, regardless of symptoms, and rASRM stage of the patients. Meta-analysis of previous studies combined with the present study further confirmed our results. Further large-scale studies in the future are warranted to explore the association between FCRL3 genetic polymorphisms and endometriosis-related infertility, as well as other human diseases, in Asian and other ethnicities. PMID:26334889

  6. Effect of Letrozole on endometriosis-related pelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Almassinokiani, Fariba; Almasi, Alireza; Akbari, Peyman; Saberifard, Mahboubeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: To determine the role of Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, in the treatment of endometriotic pain. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial in minimally invasive surgery research center, 51 women with pelvic endometriosis and endometriotic pain (dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain) score of 5 or more (for at least one of these endometriotic pain), after laparoscopic diagnosis and conservative laparoscopic surgery were treated with either Letrozole plus OCP (n=25) or only OCP (n=26) for 4 months continuously. Results: Using VAS test, the score of dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain 4 months after the laparoscopic surgery declined significantly in both groups but the difference between results of the two groups was not significant. Conclusion: Both treatment modalities showed comparable effectiveness in the treatment of pains related to endometriosis and in comparison with OCP, Letrozole did not affect the outcome. PMID:25664308

  7. An efficient model of human endometriosis by induced unopposed estrogenicity in baboons.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hareesh B; Baker, Robert; Owston, Michael A; Escalona, Renee; Dick, Edward J; VandeBerg, John L; Nickisch, Klaus J

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic estrogen-dependent disease that occurs in approximately 10% of reproductive age women. Baboons offer a clear benefit for studying the initiation and progression of endometriosis since baboon is very close to humans phylogenetically. Progestins are used in the treatment of endometriosis. The therapeutic window of progestins depends on the ratio of its affinity towards progesterone receptor agonism verses antagonism. The present study is to determine the role of pure antiprogestin in baboon endometriosis. We hypothesize that pure antiprogestin will induce unopposed estrogenicity and spontaneous endometriosis in baboons. The rate of endometrial invasion and attachment through modeled peritoneum in the presence and absence of progesterone and antiprogestin was evaluated in this study. A baboon model of endometriosis induced by unopposed estrogenicity using progesterone receptor antagonist (EC304) was used in this study. We observed EC304 has induced unopposed estrogenicity that deregulated proteins involved in attachment, invasion, cell growth, and steroid hormone receptors in this model. Our data suggest that depleting progesterone levels in the endometrium will increase estrogen hyper-responsiveness that leads to increased endometriotic lesion progression in the baboon (Papio anubis) model. This study reports a refined model of human endometriosis in baboons that could potentially be used to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the benefit of women suffering from endometriosis. PMID:26908459

  8. Effect of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation on Nerve Fibers of A Rat Model of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhang, Zhe; Takushige, Natsuko; Kong, Bei-Hua; Wang, Guo-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a common, benign, oestrogen-dependent, chronic gynaecological disorder associated with pelvic pain and infertility. Some researchers have identified nerve fibers in endometriotic lesions in women with endometriosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted interest for their possible use for both cell and gene therapies because of their capacity for self-renewal and multipotentiality of differentiation. We investigated how human umbilical cord-MSCs (hUC-MSCs) could affect nerve fibers density in endometriosis. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, hUC-MSCs were isolated from fresh human umbilical cord, characterized by flow cytometry, and then transplanted into surgically induced endometriosis in a rat model. Ectopic endometrial implants were collected four weeks later. The specimens were sectioned and stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against neurofilament (NF), nerve growth factor (NGF), NGF receptor p75 (NGFRp75), tyrosine kinase receptor-A (Trk-A), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) to compare the presence of different types of nerve fibers between the treatment group with the transplantation of hUC-MSCs and the control group without the transplantation of hUC-MSCs. Results There were significantly less nerve fibers stained with specific markers we used in the treatment group than in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion MSC from human umbilical cord reduced nerve fiber density in the treatment group with the transplantation of hUC-MSCs. PMID:25918595

  9. The non-human primate model of endometriosis: research and implications for fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Braundmeier, A.G.; Fazleabas, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    The development of an animal model of endometriosis is crucial for the investigation of disease pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. These models will enhance our ability to evaluate the causes for the subfertility associated with disease and provide a first-line validation of treatment modulators. Currently rodents and non-human primate models have been developed, but each model has their limitations. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the current findings and theories on the development of endometriosis and disease progression and the effectiveness of therapeutic targets using the experimental induced model of endometriosis in the baboon (Papio anubis). PMID:19633013

  10. Endometriosis still a challenge

    PubMed Central

    Mehedintu, C; Plotogea, MN; Ionescu, S; Antonovici, M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Endometriosis is a debilitating disease with features of chronic inflammation. Endometriosis appears to be one of the most common benign gynecological proliferations in premenopausal women since it is estimated that 10–15% of reproductive aged women suffer from pelvic endometriosis. The biology of endometriosis is unclear. Despite its prevalence, this disease remains poorly understood and current studies prove that there is no relationship between the extent of the disease and its symptomatology. There is no blood test available for the diagnosis of endometriosis. Up to this point, there is no single very successful option for the treatment of endometriosis. Due to the relatively poor efficacy of hormonal therapy for endometriosis, several other experimental therapies are currently undergoing clinical trial. PMID:25408753

  11. Regulation of interleukin-8 expression in human endometrial endothelial cells: a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Luk, Janelle; Seval, Yasemin; Kayisli, Umit A; Ulukus, Murat; Ulukus, Cagnur E; Arici, Aydin

    2005-03-01

    The elevation of the proinflammatory chemoattractant cytokine levels in ectopic and eutopic endometrium of endometriosis implies an inflammatory basis for this disease. The relationship between endothelial cells and leukocytes is likely to be important in the regulation of inflammatory mediators of endometriosis. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal and spatial expression of IL-8 in human endometrial endothelial cells (HEEC) in vivo and to compare the in vitro regulation of IL-8 expression by sex steroids in HEEC from women with or without endometriosis. Eutopic endometrial tissues and endometriosis implants were grouped according to menstrual cycle phase and examined by immunohistochemistry for IL-8 expression. Endothelial cells of endometriotic implants expressed higher IL-8 immunoreactivity compared with endothelial cells of eutopic endometrium from women with or without endometriosis (P < 0.02). For in vitro studies, HEEC were isolated from women with or without endometriosis and grown to preconfluence. The purity of cultured HEEC (90-95%) was confirmed by immunocytochemistry using endothelium-specific markers, CD31 and CD146. The effects of estradiol (5 x 10(-8) m), progesterone (10(-7) m), or both on IL-8 mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Sex steroids reduced the expression of IL-8 mRNA and protein in HEEC from women without endometriosis. In contrast, both estradiol and progesterone stimulated IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in HEEC from women with endometriosis. We postulate that the stimulation of chemokine expression by sex steroids in HEEC of women with endometriosis may play a role in the inflammatory aspect of this disease. PMID:15613411

  12. Endometrial CXCL13 Expression Is Cycle Regulated in Humans and Aberrantly Expressed in Humans and Rhesus Macaques With Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Franasiak, Jason M.; Burns, Katherine A.; Slayden, Ov; Yuan, Lingwen; Fritz, Marc A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Lessey, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    C-X-C ligand 13 (CXCL13), a regulator of mucosal immunity, is secreted by human endometrial epithelium and may be involved in embryo implantation. However, cyclic expression of human endometrial CXCL13 in health and disease is not well studied. This study examines cycle stage-specific endometrial CXCL13 expression in normal humans when compared to those with biopsy-confirmed, stage 1 to 4 endometriosis using real-time reverse transcriptase, real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Eutopic endometrial CXCL13 expression was also compared between normal, control Rhesus macaques, and macaques with advanced endometriosis. In healthy women, CXLC13 messenger RNA expression was minimal in the proliferative phase and maximal in the secretory phase. However, in the presence of endometriosis, proliferative-phase endometrial expression markedly increased in both humans and rhesus subjects (P < .05). The cross-species and cross-stage concordance suggests a pathophysiologic role for CXCL13 in endometriosis and its use as a biomarker for disease. PMID:25031316

  13. Antiangiogenesis therapy for endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Nap, Annemiek W; Griffioen, Arjan W; Dunselman, Gerard A J; Bouma-Ter Steege, Jessica C A; Thijssen, Victor L J L; Evers, Johannes L H; Groothuis, Patrick G

    2004-03-01

    It is known that angiogenesis is of pivotal importance for the development of endometriosis. However, in the treatment of endometriosis patients, prevention of endometriosis lesion development only will not be sufficient as a therapy. Treatment options, aimed at interfering with established lesions, have to be developed. In this study we evaluated whether inhibition of angiogenesis by angiostatic therapy is also effective in antagonizing the sustentation of endometriosis. We evaluated the effect of the angiostatic compounds antihuman vascular endothelial growth factor, TNP-470, endostatin, and anginex on the growth of established endometriosis lesions in the nude mouse model. We show that human endometrium in the proliferative endometrium is highly angiogenic and that vascular endothelial growth factor-A is the most important angiogenesis promotory factor. The angiostatic compounds significantly decreased microvessel densities and the number of established endometriosis lesions. In the remaining lesions, the number of pericyte-protected vessels is not different in control and treated mice; however, the number of unprotected vessels was significantly reduced in the groups treated with the angiostatic agents. Our data demonstrate that inhibitors of angiogenesis effectively interfere with the maintenance and growth of endometriosis by inhibiting angiogenesis. This suggests that the use of angiostatic agents may be promising as a therapy for endometriosis. PMID:15001592

  14. MAPK/ERK signal pathway involved expression of COX-2 and VEGF by IL-1β induced in human endometriosis stromal cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fengying; Cao, Jing; Liu, Qiuhong; Zou, Ying; Li, Hongyun; Yin, Tuanfang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Now there are more and more evidences that Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in angiogenesis of endometriosis (EMs). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a potent angiogenic activity. However, it is worth studying about the regulating mechanism of COX-2/COX-1 and VEGF in the development of human endometriosis in vitro. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of 4 cytokines on COX-2/COX-1 expression and the effect of IL-1β on VEGF release in human endometriosis stromal cells (ESC), and to explore the related signaling pathways involved in vitro. Methods: Isolation, culture and identification of ESC. Cells were treated with 4 cytokines, and the inhibitor mitogen-activated protein-Erk (MEK) and the inhibitor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) prior to adding cytokine IL-1β. COX-2 protein expression was measured by western blot and VEGF secretion was determined by ELISA. Results: Among four kinds of cytokines, IL-1β treatment increased COX-2 protein expression and VEGF release in three ESC, and TNF-α had the same effect on COX-2 protein level as IL-1β only in ectopic and eutopic ESC, and MCSF had only slight effect on ectopic ESC. In contrast, cytokines had no effect on COX-1 expression. We also demonstrated that MAPK reduced the synthesis of COX-2 by IL-1β induced. COX-2 inhibitor reduced VEGF release by IL-1β induced. Conclusions: i) In human ESC in vitro, IL-1β up-regulated the COX-2 expression through the activation of p38 MAPK pathway, and not to COX-1. ii) Up-regulation of VEGF level by IL-1β treatment was found in human endometriosis stromal cell and COX-2 inhibitor was involved in this process. PMID:24133591

  15. [Endometriosis and malignoma].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, U; Richter, O; Wardelmann, E; Valter, M; Schmutzler, R; Sillem, M; Possover, M; Mallmann, P

    2003-01-01

    Malignant tumors arising from endometriosis are rare. A frequency of about 1% has been reported with in 80% the ovary, and in 20% extragonadal sites being affected. The most common extragonadal manifestations are the rectosigmoid and the rectovaginal septum. For extragonadal malignant tumors arising from endometriosis, complete resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy, possibly plus adjuvant progestin therapy, is the treatment of choice. Endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinomas are likely to present with lower stage disease and predominantly lower grade tumors. While their treatment follows that of common ovarian cancer, a poorer response to chemotherapy must be considered. As unopposed estrogen replacement therapy has been identified as a risk factor for the development of endometriosis-associated cancer, it is not recommended for hormone replacement therapy in women with a history of endometriosis. Loss of heterozygosity and mutations of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene may be early events of tumorigenesis. Endometriosis and its malignant transformation, perhaps, may serve as a suitable model in this regard. According to recent studies, endometriosis is associated with an increased relative risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:14505256

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Hormonally active environmental agents recently have been associated with the development of endometriosis. METHODS: We undertook a study to assess the relation between endometriosis, an estrogen dependent gynecologic disease, and 62 individual polychlorinated biphe...

  17. Endometriosis: alternative methods of medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Hernando, Leticia; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Jose L; Marqueta-Marques, Laura; Alvarez-Conejo, Carmen; Tejerizo-García, Álvaro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Villegas-Muñoz, Emilia; Martin-Jimenez, Angel; Jiménez-López, Jesús S

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an inflammatory estrogen-dependent disease defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine sites. The main purpose of endometriosis management is alleviating pain associated to the disease. This can be achieved surgically or medically, although in most women a combination of both treatments is required. Long-term medical treatment is usually needed in most women. Unfortunately, in most cases, pain symptoms recur between 6 months and 12 months once treatment is stopped. The authors conducted a literature search for English original articles, related to new medical treatments of endometriosis in humans, including articles published in PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Library. Keywords included “endometriosis” matched with “medical treatment”, “new treatment”, “GnRH antagonists”, “Aromatase inhibitors”, “selective progesterone receptor modulators”, “anti-TNF α”, and “anti-angiogenic factors”. Hormonal treatments currently available are effective in the relief of pain associated to endometriosis. Among new hormonal drugs, association to aromatase inhibitors could be effective in the treatment of women who do not respond to conventional therapies. GnRH antagonists are expected to be as effective as GnRH agonists, but with easier administration (oral). There is a need to find effective treatments that do not block the ovarian function. For this purpose, antiangiogenic factors could be important components of endometriosis therapy in the future. Upcoming researches and controlled clinical trials should focus on these drugs. PMID:26089705

  18. Dioxin-like PCBs and Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    A recent survey in the United States identified 287 different chemicals in human cord blood, demonstrating the significant exposure of women and their children to a wide array of environmental toxicants. While reducing contamination and exposure should be an international priority, it is equally appropriate to develop an understanding of the health consequences of increasing world-wide industrialization. Endometriosis, a disease of the female reproductive tract, has emerged as a disease potentially related to environmental exposures. While a number of population-based studies have suggested that a woman's exposure to dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls may affect her risk of developing this disease, other studies have failed to find such evidence. In the current manuscript, we will review the limited data regarding polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and endometriosis with a focus on dioxin-like toxicants. We will also discuss the potential importance of early life exposures to these toxicants on the subsequent development of endometriosis. PMID:20377312

  19. Oxidative stress and oocyte quality: ethiopathogenic mechanisms of minimal/mild endometriosis-related infertility.

    PubMed

    Da Broi, Michele Gomes; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis, a highly prevalent gynecological disease, is often associated with infertility, even in its milder forms (minimal and mild endometriosis). However, no consensus has been established with regard to this relationship and the possible mechanisms involved have not been completely elucidated. The oocyte is believed to have an important role in the infertility presented by these patients. Hence, oxidative stress events associated with alterations in the peritoneal, serum and/or follicular microenvironments might result in poor oocyte quality and compromise the reproductive potential of these women. Here, we review possible mechanisms involved in oocyte quality impairment that might lead to infertility in patients with early endometriosis. PMID:26685866

  20. Regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression in human endometrial endothelial cells by sex steroids: a potential mechanism for leukocyte recruitment in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Luk, Janelle; Seval, Yasemin; Ulukus, Murat; Ulukus, Emine Cagnur; Arici, Aydin; Kayisli, Umit A

    2010-03-01

    The main aim of this study is to describe the in vivo temporal and spatial expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) in human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) and to compare the in vitro regulation of MCP-1 expression by sex steroids in HEECs from women with or without endometriosis. Eutopic endometrial tissues and endometriosis implants were grouped according to the menstrual cycle phase and were examined by immunohistochemistry for MCP-1 expression. No significant difference was observed for MCP-1 immunoreactivity in the endothelial cells of eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis when compared to endometrium of women without endometriosis and to endometriosis implants. For in vitro studies, the purity of cultured HEECs (90%-95%) was confirmed by immunocytochemistry using endothelium-specific markers CD31 and CD146. The effects of estradiol (5 x 10(- 8) mol/L), progesterone (10(-7) mol/L), or both on MCP-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA), respectively. Sex steroids did not have significant effect on MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in HEECs from women without endometriosis. However, we observed that the sex steroid treatment stimulated MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in HEECs from women with endometriosis (P < .05). We postulate that the stimulation of chemokine expression by sex steroids in the endometrial endothelial cells in women with endometriosis may play a central role in recruiting mononuclear cells, therefore contributing to the inflammatory aspect of endometriosis. PMID:19933497

  1. Genome-wide enrichment analysis between endometriosis and obesity-related traits reveals novel susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Macgregor, Stuart; Drong, Alexander W.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Harris, Holly R.; Randall, Joshua C.; Prokopenko, Inga; Nyholt, Dale R.; Morris, Andrew P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Zondervan, Krina T.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory condition in women that results in pelvic pain and subfertility, and has been associated with decreased body mass index (BMI). Genetic variants contributing to the heritable component have started to emerge from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), although the majority remain unknown. Unexpectedly, we observed an intergenic locus on 7p15.2 that was genome-wide significantly associated with both endometriosis and fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI; WHRadjBMI) in an independent meta-GWAS of European ancestry individuals. This led us to investigate the potential overlap in genetic variants underlying the aetiology of endometriosis, WHRadjBMI and BMI using GWAS data. Our analyses demonstrated significant enrichment of common variants between fat distribution and endometriosis (P = 3.7 × 10−3), which was stronger when we restricted the investigation to more severe (Stage B) cases (P = 4.5 × 10−4). However, no genetic enrichment was observed between endometriosis and BMI (P = 0.79). In addition to 7p15.2, we identify four more variants with statistically significant evidence of involvement in both endometriosis and WHRadjBMI (in/near KIFAP3, CAB39L, WNT4, GRB14); two of these, KIFAP3 and CAB39L, are novel associations for both traits. KIFAP3, WNT4 and 7p15.2 are associated with the WNT signalling pathway; formal pathway analysis confirmed a statistically significant (P = 6.41 × 10−4) overrepresentation of shared associations in developmental processes/WNT signalling between the two traits. Our results demonstrate an example of potential biological pleiotropy that was hitherto unknown, and represent an opportunity for functional follow-up of loci and further cross-phenotype comparisons to assess how fat distribution and endometriosis pathogenesis research fields can inform each other. PMID:25296917

  2. Expression and Significance of WNT4 in Ectopic and Eutopic Endometrium of Human Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanming; Li, Yan; Liu, Kuiran; Chen, Peng; Wang, Danbo

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to investigate the expression of the WNT4 gene in ectopic endometrium and eutopic endometrium (EU) during endometriosis and the relationship of WNT4 expression with the menstrual cycle. Ectopic endometrium and EU tissues were collected from 30 women with pathologically confirmed endometriosis and 30 women without endometriosis. The WNT4 protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels were measured by fluorescence-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot methods. The expression of WNT4 was not significantly correlated with the menstrual cycle, and there were no significant differences when WNT4 expression in proliferative endometrium was compared with that in secretory endometrium within each group. There were no significant differences between the protein and mRNA expression of WNT4 in ectopic endometrium and in EU from participants with endometriosis. The WNT4 expression level in EU was significantly reduced compared with that in normal endometrium of the control group, even when analyzed by the menstrual cycle phase. WNT4 was also downregulated in ectopic lesions. This study provides further evidence supporting the theory of "EU determinism" in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:26363035

  3. Effect of hydroxychloroquine and characterization of autophagy in a mouse model of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, A; Rockfield, S; Taran, N; Haller, E; Engelman, R W; Flores, I; Panina-Bordignon, P; Nanjundan, M

    2015-01-01

    In endometriosis, the increased survival potential of shed endometrial cells (which normally undergo anoikis) is suggested to promote lesion development. One mechanism that may alter anoikis is autophagy. Using an autophagic flux inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we identified that it reduces the in vitro survival capacity of human endometriotic and endometrial T-HESC cells. We also identified that HCQ could decrease lesion numbers and disrupt lesion histopathology, as well as increase the levels of peritoneal macrophages and the IP-10 (10 kDa interferon-γ-induced protein) chemokine in a mouse model of endometriosis. We noted that RNA levels of a subset of autophagic markers were reduced in lesions relative to uterine horns from endometriosis-induced (untreated) mice. In addition, the RNA levels of autophagic markers were decreased in uterine horns of endometriosis-induced mice compared with those from controls. However, we noted that protein expression of LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light-chain 3β; an autophagic marker) was increased in uterine horns of endometriosis-induced mice compared with uterine horns of controls. By immunohistochemical staining of a human endometriosis-focused tissue microarray, we observed LC3B expression predominantly in epithelial relative to stromal cells in both eutopic and ectopic endometria. Via transmission electron microscopy, cells from eutopic endometria of endometriosis-induced mice contained more lipid droplets (rather than autophagosomes) compared with uterine horns from controls. Collectively, our findings indicate that the autophagic pathway is dysregulated in both ectopic and eutopic endometrium in a murine model of endometriosis and that HCQ has potential as a therapeutic agent for women afflicted with endometriosis.

  4. Effect of hydroxychloroquine and characterization of autophagy in a mouse model of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, A; Rockfield, S; Taran, N; Haller, E; Engelman, R W; Flores, I; Panina-Bordignon, P; Nanjundan, M

    2016-01-01

    In endometriosis, the increased survival potential of shed endometrial cells (which normally undergo anoikis) is suggested to promote lesion development. One mechanism that may alter anoikis is autophagy. Using an autophagic flux inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we identified that it reduces the in vitro survival capacity of human endometriotic and endometrial T-HESC cells. We also identified that HCQ could decrease lesion numbers and disrupt lesion histopathology, as well as increase the levels of peritoneal macrophages and the IP-10 (10 kDa interferon-γ-induced protein) chemokine in a mouse model of endometriosis. We noted that RNA levels of a subset of autophagic markers were reduced in lesions relative to uterine horns from endometriosis-induced (untreated) mice. In addition, the RNA levels of autophagic markers were decreased in uterine horns of endometriosis-induced mice compared with those from controls. However, we noted that protein expression of LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light-chain 3β; an autophagic marker) was increased in uterine horns of endometriosis-induced mice compared with uterine horns of controls. By immunohistochemical staining of a human endometriosis-focused tissue microarray, we observed LC3B expression predominantly in epithelial relative to stromal cells in both eutopic and ectopic endometria. Via transmission electron microscopy, cells from eutopic endometria of endometriosis-induced mice contained more lipid droplets (rather than autophagosomes) compared with uterine horns from controls. Collectively, our findings indicate that the autophagic pathway is dysregulated in both ectopic and eutopic endometrium in a murine model of endometriosis and that HCQ has potential as a therapeutic agent for women afflicted with endometriosis. PMID:26775710

  5. Effect of hydroxychloroquine and characterization of autophagy in a mouse model of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Rockfield, S; Taran, N; Haller, E; Engelman, R W; Flores, I; Panina-Bordignon, P; Nanjundan, M

    2016-01-01

    In endometriosis, the increased survival potential of shed endometrial cells (which normally undergo anoikis) is suggested to promote lesion development. One mechanism that may alter anoikis is autophagy. Using an autophagic flux inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we identified that it reduces the in vitro survival capacity of human endometriotic and endometrial T-HESC cells. We also identified that HCQ could decrease lesion numbers and disrupt lesion histopathology, as well as increase the levels of peritoneal macrophages and the IP-10 (10 kDa interferon-γ-induced protein) chemokine in a mouse model of endometriosis. We noted that RNA levels of a subset of autophagic markers were reduced in lesions relative to uterine horns from endometriosis-induced (untreated) mice. In addition, the RNA levels of autophagic markers were decreased in uterine horns of endometriosis-induced mice compared with those from controls. However, we noted that protein expression of LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light-chain 3β; an autophagic marker) was increased in uterine horns of endometriosis-induced mice compared with uterine horns of controls. By immunohistochemical staining of a human endometriosis-focused tissue microarray, we observed LC3B expression predominantly in epithelial relative to stromal cells in both eutopic and ectopic endometria. Via transmission electron microscopy, cells from eutopic endometria of endometriosis-induced mice contained more lipid droplets (rather than autophagosomes) compared with uterine horns from controls. Collectively, our findings indicate that the autophagic pathway is dysregulated in both ectopic and eutopic endometrium in a murine model of endometriosis and that HCQ has potential as a therapeutic agent for women afflicted with endometriosis. PMID:26775710

  6. Art and Endometriosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berstein, Jane C.

    1995-01-01

    Relation of an art therapist's personal story concerning her struggle to overcome endometriosis, and how her artwork has played a vital role in coping with the disease. Illustrated with a chronology of artwork produced during a bout with the illness. (JPS)

  7. Endometriosis: cost estimates and methodological perspective.

    PubMed

    Simoens, S; Hummelshoj, L; D'Hooghe, T

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to provide a systematic review of estimates and methodology of studies quantifying the costs of endometriosis. Included studies were cost-of-illness analyses quantifying the economic impact of endometriosis and cost analyses calculating diagnostic and treatment costs of endometriosis. Annual healthcare costs and costs of productivity loss associated with endometriosis have been estimated at $2801 and $1023 per patient, respectively. Extrapolating these findings to the US population, this study calculated that annual costs of endometriosis attained $22 billion in 2002 assuming a 10% prevalence rate among women of reproductive age. These costs are considerably higher than those related to Crohn's disease or to migraine. To date, it is not possible to determine whether a medical approach is less expensive than a surgical approach to treating endometriosis in patients presenting with chronic pelvic pain. Evidence of endometriosis costs in infertile patients is largely lacking. Cost estimates were biased due to the absence of a control group of patients without endometriosis, inadequate consideration of endometriosis recurrence and restricted scope of costs. There is a need for more and better-designed studies that carry out longitudinal analyses of patients until the cessation of their symptoms or that model the chronic nature of endometriosis. PMID:17584822

  8. Endometriosis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    May, K; Becker, C M

    2008-06-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition, responsible for significant morbidity and social-economic impact. Although the condition has been recognized for many years, the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. In turn, this results in inadequate treatment and high recurrence rates. Various theories try to explain the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. However, none of them can explain all disease locations and appearances, and it is unclear how these fragments establish into endometriotic lesions. New vessel formation has long been recognized as a feature of endometriosis, often clearly visible at laparoscopy. Recent work has focused on identifying the role of vascularization in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, by allowing lesions to establish and grow. In this review the authors outline the basic mechanisms of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the human eutopic endometrium, and consider how this data can be applied to endometriotic implants. Furthermore, the authors discuss molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, and how this may be used to therapeutic advantage in the treatment of endometriosis. PMID:18547987

  9. Endometriosis-Related Hemoperitoneum in Pregnancy: A Diagnosis to Keep in Mind

    PubMed Central

    Cozzolino, Mauro; Corioni, Serena; Maggio, Luana; Sorbi, Flavia; Guaschino, Secondo; Fambrini, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is an important gynecologic clinical entity, pathologically defined by the ectopic presence of endometrium and frequently associated with pelvic pain, that affects approximately 10% of females of reproductive age. A rare but severe complication of endometriosis during pregnancy is spontaneous hemoperitoneum in pregnancy (SHiP), severe intraabdominal bleeding that can be life threatening. Case Report We present the case of a patient with SHiP at 29 weeks of pregnancy. A supraumbilical midline laparotomy was performed, and pelvic exploration revealed a lacerated and bleeding right ovary. Right annessiectomy was performed, and a cesarean section was performed because hemostasis was not achievable. A healthy baby was born, and hemostasis was finally achieved. Conclusion We believe that in gravid females with a history of endometriosis, severe abdominal pain, and a reduction of hemoglobin, physicians should always suspect SHiP. Because SHiP is a life-threatening condition for both the mother and the baby, a prompt diagnosis must lead to prompt treatment. PMID:26413000

  10. Endometriosis-Related Infertility: The Role of the Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Surrey, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    The assisted reproductive technologies, particularly in vitro fertilization (IVF), represent the most efficient and successful means of overcoming infertility associated with endometriosis. Although older studies suggest that IVF outcomes are compromised in endometriosis patients, more contemporary reports show no differences compared to controls. The exception may be evidence of poorer outcomes and diminished ovarian response in women with advanced disease, particularly those with significant ovarian involvement or prior ovarian surgery. Prolonged pre-IVF cycle suppressive medical therapy, particularly gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists, appears to improve success rates in a subset of endometriosis patients. However, as of yet, there is no diagnostic marker to specifically identify those who would most benefit from this approach. Pre-IVF cycle surgical resection of nonovarian disease has not been consistently shown to improve outcomes with the possible exception of resection of deeply invasive disease, although the data is limited. Precycle resection of ovarian endometriomas does not have benefit and should only be performed for gynecologic indications. Indeed, there is a large body of evidence to suggest that this procedure may have a deleterious impact on ovarian reserve and response. A dearth of appropriately designed trials makes development of definitive treatment paradigms challenging. PMID:26240824

  11. Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kristi M; Wieser, Friedrich A; Wilder, Catera L; Sidell, Neil; Platt, Manu O

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue on organs within the peritoneal cavity, causing debilitating abdominal pain and infertility. Current treatments alleviate moderate pain symptoms associated with the disorder but exhibit limited ability to prevent new or recurring lesion establishment and growth. Retrograde menstruation has been implicated for introducing endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity, but molecular mechanisms underlying attachment and invasion are not fully understood. We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. PMID:26482207

  12. Imprinting genes associated with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Much work has been carried out to investigate the genetic and epigenetic basis of endometriosis and proposed that endometriosis has been described as an epigenetic disease. The purpose of this study was to extract the imprinting genes that are associated with endometriosis development. Methods: The information on the imprinting genes can be accessed publicly from a web-based interface at http://www.geneimprint.com/site/genes-by-species. Results: In the current version, the database contains 150 human imprinted genes derived from the literature. We searched gene functions and their roles in particular biological processes or events, such as development and pathogenesis of endometriosis. From the genomic imprinting database, we picked 10 genes that were highly associated with female reproduction; prominent among them were paternally expressed genes (DIRAS3, BMP8B, CYP1B1, ZFAT, IGF2, MIMT1, or MIR296) and maternally expressed genes (DVL1, FGFRL1, or CDKN1C). These imprinted genes may be associated with reproductive biology such as endometriosis, pregnancy loss, decidualization process and preeclampsia. Discussion: This study supports the possibility that aberrant epigenetic dysregulation of specific imprinting genes may contribute to endometriosis predisposition. PMID:26417259

  13. Molecular profiling of experimental endometriosis identified gene expression patterns in common with human disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Idhaliz; Rivera, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Lynnette A.; Santiago, Olga I.; Vernon, Michael W.; Appleyard, Caroline B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate a rat model of endometriosis using cDNA microarrays by identifying common gene expression patterns beween experimental and natural disease. DESIGN Autotransplantation rat model. SETTING Medical school department. ANIMALS Female Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Endometriosis was surgically-induced by suturing uterine horn implants next to the small intestine’s mesentery. Control rats received sutures with no implants. After 60 days, endometriotic implants and uterine horn were obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Gene expression levels determined by cDNA microarrays and QRT-PCR. METHODS Cy5-labeled cDNA was synthesized from total RNA obtained from endometriotic implants. Cy3-labeled cDNA was synthesized using uterine RNA from a control rat. Gene expression levels were analyzed after hybridizing experimental and control labeled cDNA to PIQOR™ Toxicology Rat Microarrays (Miltenyi Biotec) containing 1,252 known genes. Cy5/Cy3 ratios were determined and genes with >2-fold higher or <0.5-fold lower expression levels were selected. Microarray results were validated by QRT-PCR. RESULTS We observed differential expression of genes previously shown to be upregulated in patients, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines/receptors, tumor invasion/metastasis factors, adhesion molecules, and anti-apoptotic factors. CONCLUSIONS This study presents evidence in support of using this rat model to study the natural history of endometriosis and test novel therapeutics for this incurable disease. PMID:17478174

  14. Endometriosis: A Guide for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is endometriosis? Endometriosis, pronounced, “end–o–me–tree–o–sis” can affect girls of all ages. ... the Endometriosis Association, the first organization in the world to provide information on endometriosis to females who ...

  15. Surgical measures for endometriosis-related infertility: a plea for research.

    PubMed

    Somigliana, E; Benaglia, L; Vigano', P; Candiani, M; Vercellini, P; Fedele, L

    2011-09-01

    The precise relationship between endometriosis and infertility is debated. Surgery is considered to play a role within the framework of the therapeutic options to cure infertile women with the disease even though its effectiveness is generally modest. In fact, there is unquestionably the need to improve surgical techniques in this area. Specifically, two main aspects require optimization: 1) preventing the injury to the follicular reserve that follows surgical excision of ovarian endometriomas and 2) preventing post-surgical formation and re-formation of adhesions. The comparison between the excision/stripping and the vaporization/coagulation techniques represents the main point of debate on what is the best procedure to remove ovarian endometrioma. Randomized controlled trials showed that the excision technique is associated with a higher pregnancy rate and a lower rate of recurrence although it may determine severe injury to the ovarian reserve. Improvements to this latter aspect may be represented by a combined excisional-vaporization technique or by replacing diathermy coagulation with surgical ovarian suture. Barrier agents reduce but not eliminate the post-surgical adhesion formation in women with endometriosis. Encouraging evidence has been reported with Interceed, Oxiplex/AP gel and Adept solution. However, available studies are mainly based on II look laparoscopies performed few weeks after the intervention and data on fertility is lacking. Clinical trials including pregnancy rate as a specific outcome are warranted. PMID:21764126

  16. [Anatomoclinical correlations of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Attieh, E; Jaoude, R A; Yazbeck, C; Mansour, F; Abboud, J

    1999-12-01

    This is an epidemiological study of 1,498 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for different reasons. Between 1989 and 1996, 308 cases of endometriosis were identified among 1,498 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery. One hundred and five patients were admitted for pelvic pain, 794 for infertility, 319 patients had both on admission, and 280 were admitted for non-gynecologic complaints. The incidence of endometriosis is related to the chief complaint on admission. This disease has different clinical manifestations, different locations and different stages. The mean age in our series is greater than that reported by the literature. The symptoms are related to the location of the lesions but not the stage of the disease. Unlike pelvic pain, infertility is correlated to the stages of the disease. PMID:10676044

  17. Letrozole and norethisterone acetate versus letrozole and triptorelin in the treatment of endometriosis related pain symptoms: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When aromatase inhibitors are used to treat premenopausal women with endometriosis, additional drugs should be used to effectively down-regulate gonadal estrogen biosynthesis. This randomized prospective open-label study compared the efficacy in treating pain symptoms and the tolerability of letrozole combined with either norethisterone acetate or triptorelin. Methods Women with pain symptoms caused by rectovaginal endometriosis were treated with letrozole (2.5 mg/day) and were randomized to also receive either oral norethisterone acetate (2.5 mg/day; group N) or intramuscular injection of triptorelin (11.25 mg every 3 months; group T). The scheduled length of treatment was 6 months. A visual analogue scale and a multidimensional categorical rating scale were used to assess the severity of pain symptoms. The volume of the endometriotic nodules was estimated by ultrasonography using virtual organ computer-aided analysis. Adverse effects of treatment were recorded. Results A total of 35 women were randomized between the two treatment protocols. Significantly more patients in group N rated their treatment as satisfactory or very satisfactory (64.7%) as compared to group T (22.2%; p = 0.028). The intensity of both non-menstrual pelvic pain and deep dyspareunia significantly decreased during treatment in both study groups, though no statistically meaningful difference between the two groups was apparent. Reduction in the volume of endometriotic nodules was significantly greater in group T than in group N. Interruption of treatment due to adverse effects significantly differed between the groups, with 8 women in group T (44.4%) and 1 woman in group N (5.9%) interrupting treatment (p = 0.018). Similarly, 14 women included in group T (77.8%) and 6 women included in group N (35.3%) experienced adverse effects of treatment (p = 0.018). During treatment, mineral bone density significantly decreased in group T but not in group N. Conclusions Aromatase inhibitors reduce the intensity of endometriosis-related pain symptoms. Combining letrozole with oral norethisterone acetate was associated with a lower incidence of adverse effects and a lower discontinuation rate than combining letrozole with triptorelin. PMID:21693037

  18. Systematic enrichment analysis of microRNA expression profiling studies in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shiyang; Xu, Hong; Kuang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on human microRNAs (miRNAs) expression data of endometriosis tissue profiles versus those of normal controls and to identify novel putative diagnostic markers. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Ovid Medline were used to search for endometriosis miRNA expression profiling studies of endometriosis. The miRNAs expression data were extracted, and study quality of each article was assessed. The frequently reported miRNAs with consistent regulation were screened out by a meta-profiling algorithm. The putative targets of consistently expressed miRNAs were predicted by using four target prediction tools (TargetScan, PicTar, miRanda, miRDB), and gene ontology pathway enrichment analysis (KEGG and Panther pathways) of the miRNA targets were carried out with GeneCodis web tool. Results: A total of 194 related literatures were retrieved in four databases. One hundred and thirty four differentially expressed miRNAs were found in the 12 microRNA expression profiling studies that compared endometriosis tissues with normal tissues, with 28 miRNAs reported in at least two studies, and 9882 candidate genes retrieved for 13 consistently expressed miRNAs. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) and Panther pathways enrichment analysis showed that endometriosis related differently expressed miRNA targets were mainly enriched in cancer, endocytosis, Wnt signalling pathway, and angiogenesis. It showed that these differently expressed miRNAs and gene are potential biomarkers of endometriosis. Conclusion: miRNAs appear to be potent regulators of gene expression in endometriosis and its associated reproductive disorders, raising the prospect of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic agent in endometriosis. PMID:26124927

  19. Aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Męczekalski, Błażej

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory condition in which foci of endometrial tissue grow outside of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis was estimated to affect 176 million women of childbearing potential all over the world in 2010. The presence of extrauterine endometrial tissue is associated with pain and infertility. Typical symptoms of endometriosis include dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia, heavy menstrual periods (menorrhagia), pelvic pain that is not related to menstrual cycles, dysuria, and chronic fatigue. Medical treatments for endometriosis include combined oral contraceptive pills, danazol, gestrinone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (aGnRHs). A new class of medications called aromatase inhibitors has been identified in recent years as potential therapeutic agents for endometriosis. This article provides general information about aromatase inhibitors, their use in gynaecology, and their adverse effects. In particular, the paper discusses the use of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of endometriosis in postmenopausal women. Unlike oral contraceptives, gestagens, aGnRHs, and danazol, which suppress ovarian oestrogen synthesis, aromatase inhibitors inhibit mainly extra-ovarian synthesis of oestrogens. Therefore, the use of aromatase inhibitors seems to be particularly relevant in older patients, as most of the body's oestrogen is produced outside the ovaries after menopause. The paper discusses also the use of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of pain associated with endometriosis and infertility caused by endometriosis. PMID:27095958

  20. A baboon model for endometriosis: implications for fertility

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Julie M; Fazleabas, Asgerally T

    2006-01-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain and infertility in women in the reproductive age group. Although the existence of this disease has been known for over 100 years our current knowledge of its pathogenesis and the pathophysiology of its related infertility remains unclear. Several reasons contribute to our lack of knowledge, the most critical being the difficulty in carrying out objective long-term studies in women. Thus, we and others have developed a model of this disease in the non-human primate, the baboon (Papio anubis). Intraperitoneal inoculation of autologous menstrual endometrium results in the development of endometriotic lesions with gross morphological characteristics similar to those seen in the human. Multiple factors have been implicated in endometriosis-associated infertility. We have described aberrant levels of factors involved in multiple pathways important in the establishment of pregnancy, in the endometrium of baboons induced with endometriosis. Specifically, we have observed dysregulation of proteins involved in invasion, angiogenesis, methylation, cell growth, immunomodulation, and steroid hormone action. These data suggest that, in an induced model of endometriosis in the baboon, an increased angiogenic capacity, decreased apoptotic potential, progesterone resistance, estrogen hyper-responsiveness, and an inability to respond appropriately to embryonic signals contribute to the reduced fecundity associated with this disease. PMID:17118171

  1. Endometriosis, Angiogenesis and Tissue Factor

    PubMed Central

    Krikun, Graciela

    2012-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF), is a cellular receptor that binds the factor VII/VIIa to initiate the blood coagulation cascade. In addition to its role as the initiator of the hemostatic cascade, TF is known to be involved in angiogenesis via intracellular signaling that utilizes the protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). We now review the physiologic expression of TF in the endometrium and its altered expression in multiple cell types derived from eutopic and ectopic endometrium from women with endometriosis compared with normal endometrium. Our findings suggest that TF might be an ideal target for therapeutic intervention in endometriosis. We have employed a novel immunoconjugate molecule known as Icon and were able to eradicate endometrial lesions in a mouse model of endometriosis without affecting fertility. These findings have major implications for potential treatment in humans. PMID:24278684

  2. Reduction of blood nitric oxide levels is associated with clinical improvement of the chronic pelvic pain related to endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, M.G.; Gomes, V.A.; Tanus-Santos, J.E.; Rosa-e-Silva, J.C.; Candido-dos-Reis, F.J.; Nogueira, A.A.; Poli-Neto, O.B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine the plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO) in women with chronic pelvic pain secondary to endometriosis (n=24) and abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (n=16). NO levels were measured in plasma collected before and 1 month after treatment. Pretreatment NO levels (μM) were lower in healthy volunteers (47.0±12.7) than in women with myofascial pain (64.2±5.0, P=0.01) or endometriosis (99.5±12.9, P<0.0001). After treatment, plasma NO levels were reduced only in the endometriosis group (99.5±12.9 vs 61.6±5.9, P=0.002). A correlation between reduction of pain intensity and reduction of NO level was observed in the endometriosis group [correlation = 0.67 (95%CI = 0.35 to 0.85), P<0.0001]. Reduction of NO levels was associated with an increase of pain threshold in this group [correlation = -0.53 (-0.78 to -0.14), P<0.0001]. NO levels appeared elevated in women with chronic pelvic pain diagnosed as secondary to endometriosis, and were directly associated with reduction in pain intensity and increase in pain threshold after treatment. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of NO in the pathophysiology of pain in women with endometriosis and its eventual association with central sensitization. PMID:25714893

  3. Microsurgery of ovarian endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Brosens, I A; Boeckx, W; Page, G

    1988-04-01

    A long-term follow-up study of 92 patients with ovarian endometriosis treated with microsurgical techniques showed that although endometriosis may persist in many patients, only seven patients required repeat ovarian surgery. Microsurgical techniques are to be recommended for the treatment of ovarian endometriosis and the prevention of postoperative adhesive disease of the ovaries. PMID:3372697

  4. Complex abdominopelvic endometriosis: the radiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Tanzilah Afzal; Elsayed, Marwa; Liong, Sue Yin; Sukumar, Sathi Anandan

    2015-10-01

    Endometriosis is a multifocal gynecological disorder affecting approximately 6%-10% of women during their reproductive years (Giudice and Kao in: Lancet 364:1789-1799, 2004). Presenting symptomatology often relates to the anatomical structures involved. Given the complexity of both the management and pain control of patients with complex endometriosis, the British Society of Gynaecological Endoscopy has issued guidelines on the establishment of a multidisciplinary team approach to these cases ( http://www.bsge.org.uk/ec-requirements-BSGE-accredited-endometriosis-centre.php ). The ovaries are the most common site affected, but the gastrointestinal, genitourinary tract, chest and other soft tissues are not infrequently involved. Less well-recognized features of the disease include the deep infiltrative form of endometriosis, malignant transformation and decidualization of endometriomas under progesterone. In this pictorial essay, we will discuss the clinical presentation and review the imaging features of these complex and under appreciated forms of endometriotic disease. PMID:25852046

  5. Genetics of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Montgomery, Grant W; Zondervan, Krina T

    2015-08-01

    Endometriosis is a heritable complex disorder that is influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Identification of these genetic factors will aid a better understanding of the underlying biology of the disease. In this article, we describe different methods of studying genetic variation of endometriosis, summarize results from genetic studies performed to date and provide recommendations for future studies to uncover additional factors contributing to the heritable component of endometriosis. PMID:26441051

  6. Endometriosis-associated Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, N.; Banys-Paluchowski, M.; Schmidt, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fehm, T.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common condition in women of reproductive age. According to several epidemiological studies endometriosis may be associated with increased risk of various malignancies. However, endometriosis-associated malignancy (EAM) is defined by certain histological criteria. About 80 % of EAM have been found in the ovary, whereas 20 % are localized in extragonadal sites like intestine, rectovaginal septum, abdominal wall, pleura and others. Some authors suggest that EAM arise from atypical endometriosis as an intermediate lesion between endometriosis and cancer. Moreover, a number of genetic alterations, like loss of heterozygosity (LOH), PTEN, ARID1 A and p53 mutations have been found in both endometriosis and EAM. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) is mostly a well or intermediately differentiated tumor of endometrioid or clear cell histological sub-type. Women affected by EAOC are on average five to ten years younger than non-EAOC patients; in most of the cases EAOC is a low stage disease with favorable clinical outcome. Since EAM is a rare condition systematic data on EAM are still missing. A systematic retrospective study on endometriosis-associated malignancies (EAM study) is currently being conducted by the Endometriosis Research Foundation together with the study groups on ovarian and uterine tumors of the working group for gynecological oncology (AGO) (gyn@mlk-berlin.de). PMID:26941451

  7. Inflammation and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingli; Yan, Yan; Liu, Zhou; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined by presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity and it affects approximately 5%-10% of women of reproductive age. Although endometriosis is usually considered to be due to retrograde menstruation, the true pathogenesis of this disease remains poorly understood. Endometriosis is associated with an inflammatory response and this inflammation leads to endothelial dysfunction and might even lead to carcinogenesis. Here, we review our current understanding of the role of inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:27100482

  8. Unusual Case of Postmenopausal Diffuse Endometriosis Mimicking Metastastic Ovarian Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Agarwal Sharma, Rajani; Lee, Elaine Yuen Phin; Vardhanabhuti, Varut; Khong, Pek-Lan; Ngu, Siew-Fei

    2016-02-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecologic condition of the premenopausal years. However, postmenopausal endometriosis is rare (2.2%) and thought to be related to high level of circulating estrogen, especially in hormonal replacement therapy. We present a case of a 69-year-old postmenopausal woman, previously healthy and on no regular medication, with diffuse peritoneal endometriosis and bilateral ovarian endometrioma mimicking metastatic ovarian carcinoma on FDG PET/CT. Both ovarian endometrioma had low-grade activity, but more strikingly, there was diffuse FDG-avid peritoneal dissemination and gross ascites. Endometriosis should not be totally disregarded as a differential diagnosis even at postmenopausal status. PMID:26462045

  9. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project: I. Surgical phenotype data collection in endometriosis research

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christian M.; Laufer, Marc R.; Stratton, Pamela; Hummelshoj, Lone; Missmer, Stacey A.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Adamson, G. David; Adamson, G.D.; Allaire, C.; Anchan, R.; Becker, C.M.; Bedaiwy, M.A.; Buck Louis, G.M.; Calhaz-Jorge, C.; Chwalisz, K.; D'Hooghe, T.M.; Fassbender, A.; Faustmann, T.; Fazleabas, A.T.; Flores, I.; Forman, A.; Fraser, I.; Giudice, L.C.; Gotte, M.; Gregersen, P.; Guo, S.-W.; Harada, T.; Hartwell, D.; Horne, A.W.; Hull, M.L.; Hummelshoj, L.; Ibrahim, M.G.; Kiesel, L.; Laufer, M.R.; Machens, K.; Mechsner, S.; Missmer, S.A.; Montgomery, G.W.; Nap, A.; Nyegaard, M.; Osteen, K.G.; Petta, C.A.; Rahmioglu, N.; Renner, S.P.; Riedlinger, J.; Roehrich, S.; Rogers, P.A.; Rombauts, L.; Salumets, A.; Saridogan, E.; Seckin, T.; Stratton, P.; Sharpe-Timms, K.L.; Tworoger, S.; Vigano, P.; Vincent, K.; Vitonis, A.F.; Wienhues-Thelen, U.-H.; Yeung, P.P.; Yong, P.; Zondervan, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To standardize the recording of surgical phenotypic information on endometriosis and related sample collections obtained at laparoscopy, allowing large-scale collaborative research into the condition. Design An international collaboration involving 34 clinical/academic centers and three industry collaborators from 16 countries. Setting Two workshops were conducted in 2013, bringing together 54 clinical, academic, and industry leaders in endometriosis research and management worldwide. Patient(s) None. Intervention(s) A postsurgical scoring sheet containing general and gynecological patient and procedural information, extent of disease, the location and type of endometriotic lesion, and any other findings was developed during several rounds of review. Comments and any systematic surgical data collection tools used in the reviewers' centers were incorporated. Main Outcome Measure(s) The development of a standard recommended (SSF) and minimum required (MSF) form to collect data on the surgical phenotype of endometriosis. Result(s) SSF and MSF include detailed descriptions of lesions, modes of procedures and sample collection, comorbidities, and potential residual disease at the end of surgery, along with previously published instruments such as the revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine and Endometriosis Fertility Index classification tools for comparison and validation. Conclusion(s) This is the first multicenter, international collaboration between academic centers and industry addressing standardization of phenotypic data collection for a specific disease. The Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project SSF and MSF are essential tools to increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis by allowing large-scale collaborative research into the condition. PMID:25150390

  10. Peripheral changes in endometriosis-associated pain

    PubMed Central

    Morotti, Matteo; Vincent, Katy; Brawn, Jennifer; Zondervan, Krina T.; Becker, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pain remains the cardinal symptom of endometriosis. However, to date, the underlying mechanisms are still only poorly understood. Increasing evidence points towards a close interaction between peripheral nerves, the peritoneal environment and the central nervous system in pain generation and processing. Recently, studies demonstrating nerve fibres and neurotrophic and angiogenic factors in endometriotic lesions and their vicinity have led to increased interest in peripheral changes in endometriosis-associated pain. This review focuses on the origin and function of these nerves and factors as well as possible peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to the generation and modulation of pain in women with endometriosis. METHODS We conducted a systematic search using several databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL) of publications from January 1977 to October 2013 to evaluate the possible roles of the peripheral nervous system in endometriosis pathophysiology and how it can contribute to endometriosis-associated pain. RESULTS Endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluid from women with endometriosis had pronounced neuroangiogenic properties with increased expression of new nerve fibres, a shift in the distribution of sensory and autonomic fibres in some locations, and up-regulation of several neurotrophins. In women suffering from deep infiltrating endometriosis and bowel endometriosis, in which the anatomical distribution of lesions is generally more closely related to pelvic pain symptoms, endometriotic lesions and surrounding tissues present higher nerve fibre densities compared to peritoneal lesions and endometriomas. More data are needed to fully confirm a direct correlation between fibre density in these locations and the amount of perceived pain. A better correlation between the presence of nerve fibres and pain symptoms seems to exist for eutopic endometrium. However, this appears not to be exclusive to endometriosis. No correlation between elevated neurotrophin levels and pain severity seems to exist, suggesting the involvement of other mediators in the modulation of pain. CONCLUSIONS The increased expression of neuotrophic factors and nerve fibres in endometriotic lesions, eutopic endometrium and the peritoneum imply a role of such peripheral changes in the pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated pain. However, a clear link between these findings and pain in patients with endometriosis has so far not been demonstrated. PMID:24859987

  11. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively.

  12. Biomarkers of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Fassbender, Amelie; Vodolazkaia, Alexandra; Saunders, Philippa; Lebovic, Dan; Waelkens, Etienne; De Moor, Bart; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2013-03-15

    A noninvasive test for endometriosis would be useful for the early detection of endometriosis in symptomatic women who have pelvic pain and/or subfertility with normal ultrasound results. This would include nearly all cases of minimal-to-mild endometriosis, some cases of moderate-to-severe endometriosis without a clearly visible ovarian endometrioma, and cases with pelvic adhesions and/or other pelvic pathology that might benefit from surgery to improve pelvic pain and/or subfertility. This overview discusses the diagnostic performance of noninvasive or semi-invasive tests for endometriosis, including panels of known peripheral blood biomarkers, protein/peptide markers discovered by proteomics, miRNA, and endometrial nerve fiber density. Tests with high sensitivity and acceptable specificity have been developed; some have been validated in independent populations and are therefore promising. To make real progress, international agreement on biobank development is needed for standard operating procedures for the collection, treatment, storage, and analysis of tissue samples and for detailed clinical phenotyping of these samples. Furthermore, it is necessary to validate the diagnostic accuracy of any promising test prospectively in an independent symptomatic patient population with subfertility and/or pain without clear ultrasound evidence of endometriosis and with a clinical indication for surgery, divided into cases with laparoscopically and histologically confirmed endometriosis and controls with laparoscopically confirmed absence of endometriosis. PMID:23414923

  13. Quality of Life Assessment Using EuroQOL EQ-5D Questionnaire in Patients with Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: The Relation with Symptoms and Locations

    PubMed Central

    Touboul, C.; Amate, P.; Ballester, M.; Bazot, M.; Fauconnier, A.; Daraï, E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) using EuroQOL (EQ-5D) and its correlation with symptoms and locations of endometriotic lesions. One hundred and fifty-nine patients referred for DIE from January 2011 to April 2011 were prospectively invited to complete questionnaires evaluating symptoms associated with endometriosis as well as the EQ-5D questionnaire and health state. Patients also had locations of DIE evaluated by clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All 159 patients completed the questionnaires. Item response rate was 91.1%. The most intense symptoms were dysmenorrhea (7.1/10), painful defecation (6.3/10), and fatigue (6.0/10). Mean (SD) scores were 77 (14) for the EQ-5D questionnaire and 63.4 (21) for the health state. A relation was observed between the EQ-5D questionnaire and the presence of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, cyclic pelvic pain, painful defecation, and diarrhea or constipation. Vaginal and rectal infiltrations were significantly associated with altered EQ-5D and health state scores. The EQ-5D questionnaire is easy to complete and well related to symptoms of DIE. Rectal and vaginal infiltrations were found to be determinant factors of altered QOL by the EQ-5D questionnaire and health state. PMID:26464845

  14. Quality of Life Assessment Using EuroQOL EQ-5D Questionnaire in Patients with Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: The Relation with Symptoms and Locations.

    PubMed

    Touboul, C; Amate, P; Ballester, M; Bazot, M; Fauconnier, A; Daraï, E

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) using EuroQOL (EQ-5D) and its correlation with symptoms and locations of endometriotic lesions. One hundred and fifty-nine patients referred for DIE from January 2011 to April 2011 were prospectively invited to complete questionnaires evaluating symptoms associated with endometriosis as well as the EQ-5D questionnaire and health state. Patients also had locations of DIE evaluated by clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All 159 patients completed the questionnaires. Item response rate was 91.1%. The most intense symptoms were dysmenorrhea (7.1/10), painful defecation (6.3/10), and fatigue (6.0/10). Mean (SD) scores were 77 (14) for the EQ-5D questionnaire and 63.4 (21) for the health state. A relation was observed between the EQ-5D questionnaire and the presence of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, cyclic pelvic pain, painful defecation, and diarrhea or constipation. Vaginal and rectal infiltrations were significantly associated with altered EQ-5D and health state scores. The EQ-5D questionnaire is easy to complete and well related to symptoms of DIE. Rectal and vaginal infiltrations were found to be determinant factors of altered QOL by the EQ-5D questionnaire and health state. PMID:26464845

  15. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with Endometriosis in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh Jahanian; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Mehrak

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometriosis affects women’s physical and mental wellbeing. Symptoms include dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and infertility. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between some relevant factors and symptoms and risk of an endometriosis diagnosis in infertile women. Materials and Methods A retrospective study of 1282 surgical patients in an infertility Institute, Iran between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated by laparoscopy. Of these, there were 341 infertile women with endometriosis (cases) and 332 infertile women with a normal pelvis (comparison group). Chi-square and t tests were used to compare these two groups. Logistic regression was done to build a prediction model for an endometriosis diagnosis. Results Gravidity [odds ratio (OR): 0.8, confidence interval (CI): 0.6-0.9, P=0.01], parity (OR: 0.7, CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.01), family history of endometriosis (OR: 4.9, CI: 2.1-11.3, P<0.001), history of galactorrhea (OR: 2.3, CI: 1.5-3.5, P=0.01), history of pelvic surgery (OR: 1.9, CI: 1.3-2.7, P<0.001), and shorter menstrual cycle length (OR: 0.9, CI: 0.9-0.9, P=0.04) were associated with endometriosis. Duration of natural menstruation and age of menarche were not correlated with subsequent risk of endometriosis (P>0.05). Fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and premenstrual spotting were more significant among late-stage endometriosis patients than in those with early-stage endometriosis and more prevalent among patients with endometriosis than that of the comparison group. In the logistic regression model, gravidity, family history of endometriosis, history of galactorrhea, history of pelvic surgery, dysmenorrhoea, pelvic pain, dysparaunia, premenstrual spotting, fatigue, and diarrhea were significantly associated with endometriosis. However, the number of pregnancies was negatively related to endometriosis. Conclusion Endometriosis is a considerable public health issue because it affects many women and is associated with the significant morbidity. In this study, we built a prediction model which can be used to predict the risk of endometriosis in infertile women. PMID:27123195

  16. Pharmacologic management of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, E; Garabedian-Ruffalo, S M

    1991-07-01

    The incidence, pathogenesis, staging, and treatment of endometriosis are reviewed, with an emphasis on pharmacologic management of this condition. Endometriosis--the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue--can be found in 15-25% of infertile women and may be found in 1-5% of all women between menarche and menopause. Although the pathogenesis of endometriosis is uncertain, the most tenable etiologic theory is a combination of celomic metaplasia and retrograde menstruation. Staging is based on the American Fertility Society classification scheme, with stage I being the mildest and stage IV the most severe form of the disease. The management of endometriosis depends on the extent of the disease, the severity of the symptoms, the age of the patient, and the patient's desire for future fertility. Treatment modalities include expectant management, surgery, induction of a pseudopregnancy state with hormonal therapy (e.g., oral contraceptives), or induction of a pseudomenopausal state. The induction of a pseudomenopausal state with the use of oral danazol gained widespread favor in the 1970s as the treatment of choice in patients with endometriosis, but therapy is often associated with unpleasant adverse effects. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists may provide a safe and clinically effective alternative to danazol therapy in patients with endometriosis. Results of a multicenter study comparing nafarelin with danazol for treatment of endometriosis indicated no significant differences between treatment groups with respect to improvements in disease state and symptomatology. The most common adverse effect associated with nafarelin therapy is hot flashes. The GnRH agonist nafarelin is as effective as danazol or oral contraceptives for the treatment of endometriosis and causes fewer adverse reactions. GnRH agonists may replace danazol as the treatment of choice in patients with endometriosis. PMID:1830521

  17. Current Concepts in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Molgaard, Craig A.; Gresham, Louise; Golbeck, Amanda L.

    1985-01-01

    There are no conclusive data available on the incidence or prevalence of endometriosis, yet the notion persists that the frequency of cases has dramatically risen in western societies during the past 25 years. Race, familial predisposition, reproductive history, socioeconomic status, personality type and a historical drop in age at menarche have been posited as risk factors for the complex and as-yet-unclear epidemiology of this disorder. The epidemiology of endometriosis is constrained by the difficulty of the diagnosis. Several analytic concepts from epidemiology, however, could be profitably used to further our knowledge of endometriosis. Included are the case-control study, survival and life-table analyses and correlations of psychologic traits with susceptibility to development of the disease. Though none of these techniques is original or without potential for bias, they may be underutilized in solving the conundrum of endometriosis. PMID:2930948

  18. [Endometriosis Update 2016].

    PubMed

    Imesch, Patrick; Fink, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecologic benign disease, affecting 6–10% of women of reproductive age. The disease is often associated with dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain and infertility. The exact mechanism of the pathogenesis of endometriosis has not yet been fully elucidated, therefore, current medical therapeutic options are more symptom-oriented than causal. The aim of the present work is to summarize the current diagnostic and therapeutic options. PMID:26934009

  19. Differential regulation of Akt phosphorylation in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Ozgur; Seval, Yasemin; Uz, Yesim H; Cakmak, Hakan; Ulukus, Murat; Kayisli, Umit A; Arici, Aydin

    2009-12-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), a serine/threonine kinase, regulates the function of many cellular proteins involved in apoptosis and proliferation. It was postulated that there is a higher Akt activity in endometriosis compared with normal endometrium, and that oestrogen may be one of the factors responsible for the high Akt activation in endometriotic cells. Phospho-Akt (pAkt) concentrations in normal, eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues were compared by immunohistochemistry, and a higher pAkt immunoreactivity was revealed in eutopic and ectopic endometrium compared with normal endometrium, in vivo. Higher Akt phosphorylation in stromal cells from eutopic endometrium was observed, when compared with normal, in vitro (P < 0.05). Akt phosphorylation was rapidly (2-10 min) stimulated when endometrial stromal cells from normal and endometriosis patients were treated with 17 beta-oestradiol. In endometrial stromal cells from the endometriosis group, ICI 182,780 (ICI, a specific oestrogen receptor antagonist) failed to antagonize the effect of oestradiol when combined with oestradiol, and revealed a stimulatory effect on Akt phosphorylation when given alone (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since Akt affects cell survival, it is suggested that increased Akt phosphorylation may be related to the altered apoptosis/proliferation harmony in endometriosis, and therefore Akt may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:20031030

  20. The history of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Brosens, Ivo; Lippi, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    A dispute has recently emerged whether early descriptions exist of the condition we name endometriosis. A first question is: 'Who identified endometriosis?' To respond, two non-complementary methods have been employed: searching for ancient descriptions of symptoms associated with endometriosis or, alternatively, identifying researchers who described pathological features we associate with the presence of endometriosis in its various forms. We opted for the latter and found no evidence that in older times anyone delineated the macroscopic features of endometriosis; descriptions of menstrual or cyclic pain cannot be taken as proof of knowledge of what caused it. During the mid-part of the 19th century, Rokitansky had a great intuition: endometrial glands and stroma can be present in ovarian and uterine neoplasias. However, using histological parameters of endometrial structure and activity, the first scientist to delineate peritoneal endometriosis under the name 'adenomyoma' was Cullen. On the other hand, Rokitansky was the first to describe a form of adenomyosis (an adenomatous polyp). Early descriptions of ovarian endometrioma as 'haematomas of the ovary' or 'chocolate cysts' date back to the end of the 19th century. The first mention of an 'ovary containing uterine mucosa' was published in 1899 by Russel, but Sampson was the first to demonstrate specific endometrial activities, such as desquamation at the time of menstruation and decidualization in pregnancy; subsequently, he presented a theory on its pathogenesis. PMID:24853333

  1. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... most difficulty becoming pregnant and often require advanced fertility treatment. How is endometriosis treated? Endometriosis needs the female hormone estrogen to develop and grow. Birth control pills and other drugs that lower or block estrogen can be effective ...

  2. Human Relations Ideabook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Jean A.

    Intended for local human relations committees and commissions, this ideabook may serve as a do-it-yourself kit, a springboard for human relations action, showing concrete action steps that can be taken. Ideas and suggestions given in the booklet may be used to provide a basis for organizing a human relations committee; awaken the educational

  3. Is endometrial receptivity transcriptomics affected in women with endometriosis? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Velasco, Juan A; Fassbender, Amelie; Ruiz-Alonso, Maria; Blesa, David; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Simon, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Endometrial receptivity is still questioned today in women with endometriosis. The aim of this study was to assess the endometrial receptivity gene signature in patients with different stages of endometriosis by investigating transcriptomic modifications of their endometrium using the endometrial receptivity array (ERA) test. A prospective, interventional multicentre pilot trial was designed and implemented in two university-affiliated infertility units from Belgium and Spain. Gene expression microarray was used to diagnose the receptivity status by quantifying the expression of 238 specific genes directly related to human endometrial receptivity. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed no clustering of samples based on endometriosis stages. Two subgroups of samples clustered together corresponding on the day of the cycle in which the biopsy was taken (day 18 versus days 19-20). None of the 238 genes present in the ERA array were significantly over- or under- expressed in any of different stages of the disease compared with controls. Minimal differences were found when looking at the functional profile, suggesting that the possible effect from a clinical point of view may be meaningless. Endometrial receptivity gene signature during the implantation window does not vary significantly among patients with endometriosis even considering different stages compared with healthy women. PMID:26385059

  4. Phosphoproteomics Analysis of Endometrium in Women with or without Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Mei; Deng, Hai-Teng; Liu, Chong-Dong; Chen, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The molecular mechanisms underlying the endometriosis are still not completely understood. In order to test the hypothesis that the approaches in phosphoproteomics might contribute to the identification of key biomarkers to assess disease pathogenesis and drug targets, we carried out a phosphoproteomics analysis of human endometrium. Methods: A large-scale differential phosphoproteome analysis, using peptide enrichment of titanium dioxide purify and sequential elution from immobilized metal affinity chromatography with linear trap quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry, was performed in endometrium tissues from 8 women with or without endometriosis. Results: The phosphorylation profiling of endometrium from endometriosis patients had been obtained, and found that identified 516 proteins were modified at phosphorylation level during endometriosis. Gene ontology annotation analysis showed that these proteins were enriched in cellular processes of binding and catalytic activity. Further pathway analysis showed that ribosome pathway and focal adhesion pathway were the top two pathways, which might be deregulated during the development of endometriosis. Conclusions: That large-scale phosphoproteome quantification has been successfully identified in endometrium tissues of women with or without endometriosis will provide new insights to understand the molecular mechanisms of the development of endometriosis. PMID:26415800

  5. Recognising, understanding and managing endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    FRASER, IAN S.

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of tissue lesions or nodules, histologically similar to the endometrium, at sites outside the uterus. It is a highly variable condition that has a wide spectrum of symptoms. The aetiology of endometriosis is probably multifactorial, with a strong familial component recognised. Women with endometriosis have multiple disturbances of function in the eutopic endometrium that women without the disease do not have. A firm diagnosis of endometriosis is rarely possible in general practice. The ‘gold standard’ for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis is currently a diagnostic laparoscopy. PMID:19562047

  6. Immune interactions in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Herington, Jennifer L; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L; Lucas, John A; Osteen, Kevin G

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine (ectopic) sites. In women who develop this disease, alterations in specific biological processes involving both the endocrine and immune systems have been observed, which may explain the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissue in affected women. In the past decade, a considerable amount of research has implicated a role for alterations in progesterone action at both eutopic and ectopic sites of endometrial growth which may contribute to the excessive inflammation associated with progression of endometriosis; however, it remains unclear whether these anomalies induce the condition or are simply a consequence of the disease process. In this article, we summarize current knowledge of alterations within the immune system of endometriosis patients and discuss how endometrial cells from women with this disease not only have the capacity to escape immunosurveillance, but also use inflammatory mechanisms to promote their growth within the peritoneal cavity. Finally, we discuss evidence that exposure to an environmental endocrine disruptor, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, can mediate the development of an endometrial phenotype that exhibits both reduced progesterone responsiveness and hypersensitivity to proinflammatory stimuli mimicking the endometriosis phenotype. Future studies in women with endometriosis should consider whether a heightened inflammatory response within the peritoneal microenvironment contributes to the development and persistence of this disease. PMID:21895474

  7. GPs have key role in early diagnosis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Laura; Overton, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus. Deposits are commonly distributed on the ovaries, uterosacral ligaments, pouch of Douglas, rectum and sigmoid colon, bladder and ureter. Endometriosis is common, affecting 10% of the female adult population and up to 50% of women with infertility. Risk factors include early menarche, late menopause, delayed childbearing, vaginal outflow obstruction and a first-degree relative affected. Women commonly present to their GP with pelvic pain, painful intercourse or subfertility. Classically the pain starts several days before the period which is extremely painful. After the period, symptoms tend to improve until mid-cycle when the pattern repeats again. Patients also complain of fatigue. Abdominal palpation, bimanual and speculum examination are important to identify signs of endometriosis, but also to exclude alternative diagnoses such as fibroid uterus, infection or pregnancy. However, a normal examination does not exclude a diagnosis of endometriosis. Serum CA125 can be raised in endometriosis but is not specific or sensitive for the condition and is therefore not recommended as a screening test. A normal pelvic ultrasound scan does not exclude a diagnosis of endometriosis. The gold standard investigation for endometriosis is laparoscopy and biopsy with histological confirmation. Referral should be considered if pain is not controlled with simple analgesia or the diagnosis is suspected in a woman who is actively trying to conceive. Early referral should be considered in women with abnormal examination findings, or an abnormal ultrasound result. PMID:26062268

  8. How to Evaluate Adenomyosis in Patients Affected by Endometriosis?

    PubMed Central

    Seracchioli, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study is to evaluate adenomyosis in patients undergoing surgery for different type of endometriosis. It is an observational study including women with preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis. Demographic data and symptoms were recorded (age, body mass index, parity, history of previous surgery, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dyschezia, dysuria, and abnormal uterine bleeding). Moreover a particular endometrial shape “question mark sign” linked to the presence of adenomyosis was assessed. Results. From 217 patients with ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis, we found 73 with ovarian histological confirmation of endometriosis, 92 with deep infiltrating endometriosis, and 52 patients who underwent surgery for infertility. Women with adenomyosis alone represented the oldest group of patients (37.8 ± 5.18 years, P = 0.02). Deep endometriosis patients were nulliparous more frequently (P < 0.0001), had history of previous surgery (P = 0.004), and complained of more intense pain symptoms than other groups. Adenomyosis alone was significantly associated with abnormal uterine bleeding (P < 0.0001). The question mark sign was found to be strongly related to posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis (P = 0.01). Conclusion. Our study confirmed the strong relationship between adenomyosis and endometriosis and evaluated demographic aspects and symptoms in patients affected by different type of endometriosis. PMID:25197569

  9. Menstruation pulls the trigger for inflammation and pain in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Laux-Biehlmann, Alexis; d'Hooghe, Thomas; Zollner, Thomas M

    2015-05-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, hormone-dependent, inflammatory disease, characterized by the presence and growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. It affects 5-10% of the female population of reproductive age and is frequently associated with moderate to severe pain, subfertility, and a marked reduction in health-related quality of life. Here, we propose a new pathophysiological concept of endometriosis, summarizing recent findings in one unifying picture. We propose menstruating tissue as the trigger for inflammatory pain in endometriosis through the activation of innate immune cells and peripheral nerve endings. We speculate how innovative treatment modalities beyond hormonal treatment will improve patients' lives. PMID:25899467

  10. Endometriosis in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Erica C.; Kho, Kimberly A.; Morozov, Vadim V.; Kearney, Susan; Zurawin, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Women with endometriosis often report onset of symptoms during adolescence; however, the diagnosis of endometriosis is often delayed. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of adolescents who underwent laparoscopy for pelvic pain and were diagnosed with endometriosis: specifically, the symptoms, time from onset of symptoms to correct diagnosis, number and type of medical professionals seen, diagnosis, treatment, and postoperative outcomes. Methods: We reviewed a series of 25 females ≤21 years of age with endometriosis diagnosed during laparoscopy for pelvic pain over an 8-year period. These patients were followed up for 1 year after surgery. Results: The mean age at the time of surgery was 17.2 (2.4) years (range, 10–21). The most common complaints were dysmenorrhea (64%), menorrhagia (44%), abnormal/irregular uterine bleeding (60%), ≥1 gastrointestinal symptoms (56%), and ≥1 genitourinary symptoms (52%). The mean time from the onset of symptoms until diagnosis was 22.8 (31.0) months (range, 1–132). The median number of physicians who evaluated their pain was 3 (2.3) (range, 1–12). The adolescents had stage I (68%), stage II (20%), and stage III (12%) disease. Atypical endometriosis lesions were most commonly observed during laparoscopy. At 1 year, 64% reported resolved pain, 16% improved pain, 12% continued pain, and 8% recurrent pain. Conclusions: Timely referral to a gynecologist experienced with laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis is critical to expedite care for adolescents with pelvic pain. Once the disease is diagnosed and treated, these patients have favorable outcomes with hormonal and nonhormonal therapy. PMID:26005317

  11. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    Female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was 7 years after exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event, leading to the conclusion that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crewmembers.

  12. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    It was found that female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was determined to be 7 years after the proton exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received by the experimental animals were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event. It is concluded that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crew members. 15 references.

  13. Impact of Medical and Surgical Treatment of Endometriosis on the Cure of Endometriosis and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mettler, Liselotte; Ruprai, R.; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This endometriosis study evaluates three different treatment strategies (hormonal medication, surgical, or combined treatment) and discusses the influence of endometriosis on the cure of this disease and pain relief. Four hundred and fifty patients with genital endometriosis, aged 18–44 years, were randomly distributed to three treatment groups at the first laparoscopy. They were reevaluated at a second-look laparoscopy (D 426/10), one to two months after the three-month hormonal therapy for groups 1 and 3 and five to six months later for group 2 (surgical treatment alone). Outcome data focussed on the recurrence of symptoms and pain. The three treatment options independent of the initial endoscopic endometriosis classification (EEC) stage including deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) achieved an overall cure rate of 50% or higher. The highest cure rate of 60% was achieved by the combined treatment, 55% by the exclusively hormonal therapy, and 50% by the exclusively surgical treatment. An overall pregnancy rate between 55% and 65% was achieved with no significant difference in relation to the therapeutical option. PMID:25580428

  14. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project: IV. Tissue collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research

    PubMed Central

    Fassbender, Amelie; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Vitonis, Allison F.; Viganò, Paola; Giudice, Linda C.; D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Hummelshoj, Lone; Adamson, G. David; Becker, Christian M.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Adamson, G.D.; Allaire, C.; Anchan, R.; Becker, C.M.; Bedaiwy, M.A.; Buck Louis, G.M.; Calhaz-Jorge, C.; Chwalisz, K.; D'Hooghe, T.M.; Fassbender, A.; Faustmann, T.; Fazleabas, A.T.; Flores, I.; Forman, A.; Fraser, I.; Giudice, L.C.; Gotte, M.; Gregersen, P.; Guo, S.-W.; Harada, T.; Hartwell, D.; Horne, A.W.; Hull, M.L.; Hummelshoj, L.; Ibrahim, M.G.; Kiesel, L.; Laufer, M.R.; Machens, K.; Mechsner, S.; Missmer, S.A.; Montgomery, G.W.; Nap, A.; Nyegaard, M.; Osteen, K.G.; Petta, C.A.; Rahmioglu, N.; Renner, S.P.; Riedlinger, J.; Roehrich, S.; Rogers, P.A.; Rombauts, L.; Salumets, A.; Saridogan, E.; Seckin, T.; Stratton, P.; Sharpe-Timms, K.L.; Tworoger, S.; Vigano, P.; Vincent, K.; Vitonis, A.F.; Wienhues-Thelen, U.-H.; Yeung, P.P.; Yong, P.; Zondervan, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of human tissues relevant to endometriosis. Design An international collaboration involving 34 clinical/academic centers and three industry collaborators from 16 countries on five continents. Setting In 2013, two workshops were conducted followed by global consultation, bringing together 54 leaders in endometriosis research and sample processing from around the world. Patient(s) None. Intervention(s) Consensus SOPs were based on: 1) systematic comparison of SOPs from 24 global centers collecting tissue samples from women with and without endometriosis on a medium or large scale (publication on >100 cases); 2) literature evidence where available, or consultation with laboratory experts otherwise; and 3) several global consultation rounds. Main Outcome Measure(s) Standard recommended and minimum required SOPs for tissue collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research. Result(s) We developed “recommended standard” and “minimum required” SOPs for the collection, processing, and storage of ectopic and eutopic endometrium, peritoneum, and myometrium, and a biospecimen data collection form necessary for interpretation of sample-derived results. Conclusion(s) The EPHect SOPs allow endometriosis research centers to decrease variability in tissue-based results, facilitating between-center comparisons and collaborations. The procedures are also relevant to research into other gynecologic conditions involving endometrium, myometrium, and peritoneum. The consensus SOPs are based on the best available evidence; areas with limited evidence are identified as requiring further pilot studies. The SOPs will be reviewed based on investigator feedback and through systematic triannual follow-up. Updated versions will be made available at: http://endometriosisfoundation.org/ephect. PMID:25256928

  15. CYP19 gene variant confers susceptibility to endometriosis-associated infertility in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ledan; Lu, Xiaosheng; Wang, Danhan; Qu, Wanglei; Li, Wenju; Xu, Xiaowen; Huang, Qiusui; Han, Xueying; Lv, Jieqiang

    2014-01-01

    An aromatase encoded by the CYP19 gene catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of estrogens, which is related to endometriosis development. To assess the association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with the risks of endometriosis, chocolate cysts and endometriosis-related infertility, a case-control study was conducted in Chinese Han women by recruiting 225 healthy control females, 146 patients with endometriosis, 94 endometriosis women with chocolate cyst and 65 women with infertility resulting from endometriosis, as diagnosed by both pathological and laparoscopic findings. Individual genotypes at rs2236722:T>C, rs700518:A>G, rs10046:T>C and [TTTA]n polymorphisms were identified. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between the control group and case groups by chi-square analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined by logistic regression analysis to predict the association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with the risk of endometriosis, the related chocolate cysts and infertility. The genotype distributions of the tested CYP19 gene polymorphisms were not significantly different between the healthy control group and the endometriosis/endometriosis with the chocolate cyst group. However, the CYP19 rs700518AA genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility (55.4% in the infertility group vs 25.3% in the control group, P<0.001; OR (95% CI): 3.66 (2.06-6.50)) under the recessive form of the A allele. Therefore, we concluded that in Chinese Han females CYP19 gene polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to endometriosis or chocolate cysts, whereas CYP19 rs700518AA genotype confers genetic susceptibility to endometriosis-related infertility. PMID:24968701

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Maureen A.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Hediger, Mary L.; Vexler, Albert; Kostyniak, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Limited study of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and endometriosis has been conducted. One hundred women aged 18-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy provided 20 cc of blood for toxicologic analysis and surgeons completed operative reports regarding the presence of endometriosis. Gas chromatography with electron-capture was used to quantify (ng/g serum) six OCPs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual pesticides and groups based on chemical structure adjusting for current cigarette smoking and lipids. The highest tertile of aromatic fungicide was associated with a five-fold risk of endometriosis (aOR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6) compared to the lowest tertile. Similar results were found for t-nonachlor and HCB. These are the first such findings in a laproscopic cohort that suggest an association between OCP exposure and endometriosis. More prospective studies are necessary to ensure temporal ordering and confirm these findings. PMID:20580667

  17. Endometriosis (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is usually so bad that it causes a girl to miss school, sports, and social activities. Other possible symptoms include: ... can make living with endometriosis a challenge. Some girls find it difficult ... why they miss school, sports, or other activities, for example. If you ...

  18. Chronic Pelvic Pain in Endometriosis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Triolo, Onofrio; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Sturlese, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) could be considered nowadays a deep health problem that challenges physicians all over the world. This because its aetiology is still unclear, the course of the disease could vary a lot among different patients and through time in the same patient, and the response to treatments is not every time successful. Among women who underwent laparoscopy for CPP, endometriosis is found in about 1/3 of the cases, while only 25% of women with histological confirmed endometriosis are asymptomatic. A wide range of variables may exert their influence on the resulting pain syndrome in endometriosis; for example, score according to American society for reproductive medicine (rASRM), size of the sub-peritoneal and pelvic wall implants, Douglas obliteration, previous surgery. It is widely accepted nowadays that central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) seems to influence each other and this interconnection play a key role in pain modulation. Moreover, the phenomena induced by endometriosis in the pelvis, including the breakdown of peritoneal homeostasis and the induction of the production of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines, are responsible of altered innervations and modulation of pain pathways in these patients. There are many proposed medical and surgical approach to treat this painful syndrome, although there is necessity of more efforts to create new non-invasive strategies that set a more accurate diagnosis of the causes of endometriotic-related CPP, and therefore facilitate its eradication. PMID:23671540

  19. Perfluorochemicals and Endometriosis The ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Peterson, C. Matthew; Chen, Zhen; Hediger, Mary L.; Croughan, Mary S.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Stanford, Joseph B.; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Giudice, Linda C.; Kennedy, Anne; Sun, Liping; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental chemicals may be associated with endometriosis. No published research has focused on the possible role of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) despite their widespread presence in human tissues. Methods: We formulated two samples. The first was an operative sample comprising 495 women aged 18–44 years scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy at one of 14 participating clinical sites in the Salt Lake City or San Francisco area, 2007–2009. The second was a population-based sample comprising 131 women matched to the operative sample on age and residence within a 50-mile radius of participating clinics. Interviews and anthropometric assessments were conducted at enrollment, along with blood collection for the analysis of nine PFCs, which were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Endometriosis was defined based on surgical visualization (in the operative sample) or magnetic resonance imaging (in the population sample). Using logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each PFC (log-transformed), adjusting for age and body mass index, and then parity. Results: Serum perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; OR = 1.89 [95% CI = 1.17–3.06]) and perfluorononanoic acid (2.20 [1.02–4.75]) were associated with endometriosis in the operative sample; findings were moderately attenuated with parity adjustment (1.62 [0.99–2.66] and 1.99 [0.91–4.33], respectively). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (1.86 [1.05–3.30]) and PFOA (2.58 [1.18–5.64]) increased the odds for moderate/severe endometriosis, although the odds were similarly attenuated with parity adjustment (OR = 1.50 and 1.86, respectively). Conclusions: Select PFCs were associated with an endometriosis diagnosis. These associations await corroboration. PMID:22992575

  20. Endometriosis and infertility.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Donnez, Olivier; Orellana, Renan; Binda, Maria M; Dolmans, Marie M

    2016-06-01

    Endometriosis remains a very enigmatic and perplexing disease. The exact mechanism by which endometriosis causes infertility is still unclear. In the present paper, we will review possible mechanisms leading to subfertility or infertility in women with endometriosis and examine them according to location. Endometriosis in the pelvic cavity is a pathology associated with a general inflammatory response and should therefore be considered an inflammatory disease. Inflammatory changes affect the peritoneal fluid and hence the intratubal milieu, since the ampulla (where fertilization takes place) is exposed to peritoneal fluid through the fimbria. Any inflammatory change at this level may therefore impact fertilization and natural conception. The relationship between ovarian endometriomas and infertility may, of course, be explained by the presence of periovarian endometriosis. In the ovary, fibrosis observed in some cortical areas is induced by the inflammatory reaction caused by the presence of endometriomas. The association between fibrosis and a reduced ovarian reserve was demonstrated. Upregulated recruitment and the subsequent demise of early follicles may result in focal exhaustion of primordial follicles. Burn-out of early follicles by a local pelvic inflammatory environment caused by endometriomas may therefore be suggested. However, intraovarian inflammation, subsequent fibrosis and depletion of the ovarian reserve constitute another reason that should also be given due consideration. In addition, surgery should not be ruled out as a possible cause of ovarian reserve depletion. In conclusion, potential mechanisms leading to infertility are numerous, and while some of them remain hypothetical for now, others are supported by clear evidence. These possible mechanisms were reviewed in the present paper. PMID:26837776

  1. Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Richard O.; Giudice, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Originally described over three hundred years ago, endometriosis is classically defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in extrauterine locations. Endometriosis is an inflammatory, estrogen dependent condition associated with pelvic pain and infertility. This work reviews the disease process from theories regarding origin to the molecular basis for disease sequelae. A thorough understanding of the histopathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis is essential toward the development of novel diagnostic and treatment approaches for this debilitating condition. PMID:22819144

  2. Oxidation Sensitive Nociception Involved in Endometriosis Associated Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Kristeena; Fahrmann, Johannes; Mitchell, Brenda; Paul, Dennis; King, Holly; Crain, Courtney; Cook, Carla; Golovko, Mikhail; Brose, Stephen; Golovko, Svetlana; Santanam, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a disease characterized by the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and is associated with chronic pelvic pain. Peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with endometriosis is a dynamic milieu, rich in inflammatory markers and pain-inducing prostaglandins PGE2/PGF2α and lipid peroxides, and the endometriotic tissue is innervated with nociceptors. Our clinical study showed the abundance of oxidatively-modified lipoproteins in the PF of women with endometriosis and the ability of antioxidant supplementation to alleviate endometriosis-associated pain. We hypothesized that oxidatively-modified lipoproteins present in the PF are the major source of nociceptive molecules that play a key role in endometriosis-associated pain. In this study, PF obtained from women with endometriosis or control women were used for (i) the detection of lipoprotein derived oxidation-sensitive pain molecules, (ii) the ability of such molecules to induce nociception, and (iii) the ability of antioxidants to suppress this nociception. LC-MS/MS showed the generation of eicosanoids by oxidized-lipoproteins similar to that seen in the PF. The oxidatively-modified lipoproteins induced hypothermia (intra-cerebroventricular) in CD-1 mice and nociception in the Hargreaves paw-withdrawal latency assay in Sprague-Dawley rats. Antioxidants, vitamin-E and N-acetylcysteine and the NSAID, indomethacin suppressed the pain inducing ability of oxidatively-modified lipoproteins. Treatment of human endometrial cells with oxidatively-modified lipoproteins or PF from women with endometriosis showed up-regulation of similar genes belonging to the opioid and inflammatory pathways. Our finding that oxidatively-modified lipoproteins can induce nociception has a broader impact not only in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain but also in other diseases associated with chronic pain. PMID:25599233

  3. Urine, peritoneal fluid and omental fat proteomes of reproductive age women: Endometriosis-related changes and associations with endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Katherine E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Johansen, Eric B.; Niles, Richard K.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Albertolle, Matthew; Zhou, Yan; Prasad, Namrata; Drake, Penelope M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Hall, Steven C.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Louis, Germaine M. Buck; Fisher, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis, ectopic growth of the uterine lining (endometrium), which affects 6–11% of reproductive age women, is associated with pelvic pain and infertility. We investigated the peritoneal fluid (PF), urine and omental fat (OF) proteomes of women with endometriosis vs. individuals with no surgically visualized endometriosis. All participants were enrolled in the NICHD-funded ENDO Study. A two-step proteomic study was performed. The first, a broad survey, employed a semi-quantitative gel LC-mass spectrometry (MS) workflow: SDS PAGE fractionation, trypsin digestion and LC–MS/MS. The results showed sample integrity but failed to detect any differences between women with and without endometriosis. The second step was a quantitative analysis of OF samples. We employed another sample set (n = 30) from women ± disease and isobaric mass-tag (iTRAQ) chemistry to label peptides and 2D LC–MS/MS for protein identification and quantification. Three proteins—matrix metalloproteinase-9, neutrophil elastase, and FAM49B—were significantly lower in abundance in samples from women with endometriosis. Interestingly, neutrophil elastase and FAM49B levels were associated with higher levels of a subset of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that were previously measured in the same samples. The results of these experiments showed the feasibility of associating endometriosis with changes in the OF protein repertoire and EDC levels. Biological significance Endometriosis, pathological growth of the uterine lining, is associated with significant morbidities, including pain and infertility. However, the causes of this common condition are poorly understood. This study determined whether endometriosis was associated with changes in the protein composition of peritoneal fluid, urine and/or omental fat. A protein of unknown function (FAM49B) and two proteinases (metalloproteinase-9, neutrophil elastase) were down regulated in OF samples from women with versus without endometriosis. These findings suggested proteinase imbalances at sites that were distant from the endometriotic lesions. Additionally, FAM49B and neutrophil elastase levels were associated with higher levels of a subset of environmental chemicals that were quantified in the same samples, suggesting other possible associations. Thus, this work generated hypotheses that will be tested in further studies. PMID:25284053

  4. Fetal programming theory: implication for the understanding of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Iwai, Kana; Niiro, Emiko; Morioka, Sachiko; Yamada, Yuki

    2014-03-01

    Comparison of the transcriptomes and proteomes of the decidualization-specific genes that express high vs low levels of the eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis compared with controls, could be useful in understanding the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Genome-wide comparison between decidual tissue and non-decidual tissue identified many genes significantly modulated in the process of decidualization. Comparison of eutopic endometrium and endometriotic sites also revealed up- and down-regulated genes. A combined analysis of the experimental data showed specific genes up-regulated both at the endometriotic site and in the decidualization process, representing a broad diversity of molecular functions, including cell cycle regulation, angiogenesis and adhesion molecules. In contrast, down-regulated genes identified in endometriosis among genes overexpressed in decidualization encode Müllerian embryogenesis, which includes transcription factors, hormonal regulation and cytokine expression. The mechanism responsible for insufficient decidualization in endometriosis may be mediated through down-regulation of the Müllerian embryogenesis-related genes. In conclusion, a range of decidualization resistance has been associated with endometriosis. Future study will identify the putative mechanisms relating epigenetic changes of decidualization susceptibility genes in early life to the risk of developing endometriosis in adulthood. PMID:24374047

  5. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis: an electronic guideline implementability appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines are intended to improve healthcare. However, even if guidelines are excellent, their implementation is not assured. In subfertility care, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) guidelines have been inventoried, and their methodological quality has been assessed. To improve the impact of the ESHRE guidelines and to improve European subfertility care, it is important to optimise the implementability of guidelines. We therefore investigated the implementation barriers of the ESHRE guideline with the best methodological quality and evaluated the used instrument for usability and feasibility. Methods We reviewed the ESHRE guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis to assess its implementability. We used an electronic version of the guideline implementability appraisal (eGLIA) instrument. This eGLIA tool consists of 31 questions grouped into 10 dimensions. Seven items address the guideline as a whole, and 24 items assess the individual recommendations in the guideline. The eGLIA instrument identifies factors that influence the implementability of the guideline recommendations. These factors can be divided into facilitators that promote implementation and barriers that oppose implementation. A panel of 10 experts from three European countries appraised all 36 recommendations of the guideline. They discussed discrepancies in a teleconference and completed a questionnaire to evaluate the ease of use and overall utility of the eGLIA instrument. Results Two of the 36 guideline recommendations were straightforward to implement. Five recommendations were considered simply statements because they contained no actions. The remaining 29 recommendations were implementable with some adjustments. We found facilitators of the guideline implementability in the quality of decidability, presentation and formatting, apparent validity, and novelty or innovation of the recommendations. Vaguely defined actions, lack of facilities, immeasurable outcomes, and inflexibility within the recommendations formed barriers to implementation. The eGLIA instrument was generally useful and easy to use. However, assessment with the eGLIA instrument is very time-consuming. Conclusions The ESHRE guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis could be improved to facilitate its implementation in daily practice. The eGLIA instrument is a helpful tool for identifying obstacles to implementation of a guideline. However, we recommend a concise version of this instrument. PMID:21247418

  6. Interplay between Endometriosis and Pregnancy in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bilotas, Mariela Andrea; Olivares, Carla Noemí; Ricci, Analía Gabriela; Baston, Juan Ignacio; Bengochea, Tatiana Soledad; Meresman, Gabriela Fabiana; Barañao, Rosa Inés

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of endometriosis on fertility and the levels of the IL-2 and IFN-γ in the peritoneal fluid in a mouse model; to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on endometriotic lesion growth, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Study Design Two month old C57BL/6 female mice underwent either a surgical procedure to induce endometriosis or a sham surgery. Four weeks after surgery mice were mated and sacrificed at day 18 of pregnancy. Number of implantation sites, fetuses and fetal weight were recorded. Endometriotic lesions were counted, measured, excised and fixed. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were evaluated in lesions by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for PCNA respectively. Levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were assessed by ELISA in the peritoneal fluid. Results Pregnancy rate (i.e. pregnant mice/N) decreased in mice with endometriosis. However there were no significant differences in resorption rate, litter size and pup weight between groups. IFN-γ augmented in endometriosis mice independently of pregnancy outcome. Additionally IFN-γ increased in pregnant endometriosis mice compared to pregnant sham animals. While IFN-γ increased in non pregnant versus pregnant mice in the sham group, IL-2 was increased in non pregnant mice in the endometriosis group. The size of endometriotic lesions increased in pregnant mice while apoptosis increased in the stroma and cell proliferation decreased in the epithelium of these lesions. Additionally, leukocyte infiltration, necrosis and decidualization were increased in the same lesions. Conclusions Pregnancy rate is reduced in this mouse model of endometriosis. Levels of IL-2 are increased in the peritoneal fluid of mice with endometriosis suggesting a role of this cytokine in infertility related to this disease. The size of endometriotic lesions is increased in pregnant mice; however pregnancy has a beneficial effect on lesions by decreasing cell proliferation and by increasing apoptosis, decidualization and necrosis. PMID:25915402

  7. Understanding the role of epigenomic, genomic and genetic alterations in the development of endometriosis (review).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Imanaka, Shogo; Nakamura, Haruki; Tsuji, Ayumi

    2014-05-01

    Endometriosis is a complex disease influenced by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to describe genomic instability, genetic polymorphisms and their haplotype, epigenetic alterations associated with predisposition to endometriosis, and the key factors associated with endometriosis-related ovarian neoplasms. Focus has been given on the developing paradigm that epigenetic alterations or genetic mutations in endometriosis may start in utero or in adolescent and young adults. A search was conducted between 1966 and 2010 through the English language literature (online Medline PubMed database) using the keywords endometriosis combined with epigenetic, genetic and environment. Genetic/epigenetic alterations include single‑nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and promoter methylation. Several genes with genetic polymorphisms analyzed in the present study tended to overlap previously reported endometriosis susceptibility genes. Retrograde menstruation leads to iron overload, which facilitates the accumulation of somatic mutations through Fenton reaction-mediated oxidative stress. The epigenetic disruption of gene expression plays an important role in the development of endometriosis through interaction with environmental changes. There seems to be at least three spatiotemporally distinct phases of the development of endometriosis: the initial phase of genetic background inherited from parents; followed by epigenetic modifications in the female offspring; and iron overload, which is subject to dynamic modulation later in life. In conclusion, the marked regulation of endometriosis susceptibility genes may stem from a mechanism responsible for epigenetic and genetic mutations based on the microenvironmental changes. PMID:24639062

  8. MAST scores, alcohol consumption, and gynecological symptoms in endometriosis patients.

    PubMed

    Perper, M M; Breitkopf, L J; Breitstein, R; Cody, R P; Manowitz, P

    1993-04-01

    Alcohol consumption (quantity, frequency, and pattern) and alcohol-related problems were determined in endometriosis patients (n = 137), patients with other gynecological disorders (n = 91), and normal control subjects (n = 98). Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), questions to determine the quantity and frequency of alcohol use, and questions regarding the relationship between gynecological symptoms and alcohol intake. The percentage of endometriosis patients with MAST scores greater than five or seven was significantly greater than that of normal control subjects (p = 0.045 and p = 0.009, respectively), but did not differ from that for patients with other gynecological disorders. Endometriosis patients with high MAST scores (> or = 5) tended to consume more alcohol on a yearly basis than normal control subjects with high MAST scores (p = 0.07). Among participants who experienced gynecological symptoms and were not abstainers, 31% of endometriosis patients, 9.5% of normal control subjects, and 14.3% of patients with other gynecological disorders reported increasing their alcohol consumption when experiencing gynecological symptoms. Endometriosis patients tended to differ in this regard from normal control subjects (p = 0.058) and were significantly different from patients with other gynecological disorders (p = 0.039). The evidence suggests that the gynecological problems of endometriosis may be a major medical correlative of alcoholism in women. PMID:8488967

  9. Novel Therapies Targeting Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Osteen, Kevin G.; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Lockwood, Charles J.; Krikun, Graciela; Sokalska, Anna; Duleba, Antoni J.

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is an often painful disorder in which the endometrial glands and stroma grow outside the uterus. The disease affects women’s quality of life and is a common cause of infertility. In this review, we describe promising new developments in the field based on in vitro assays and rodent models, each of which has the potential to be beneficial in the treatment of this disease. We will specifically describe the role of anti-inflammatory drugs, selective estrogen, or progesterone modulators, statins, antiangiogenic agents, and the potential for targeting stem cells as likely methods to hone in and eliminate endometriosis. The most promising of these potential therapies are currently slated for further testing in both rodent and nonhuman primate trials. PMID:21693775

  10. DNA methylation in endometriosis (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KOUKOURA, OURANIA; SIFAKIS, STAVROS; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined by the presence and growth of functional endometrial tissue, outside the uterine cavity, primarily in the ovaries, pelvic peritoneum and rectovaginal septum. Although it is a benign disease, it presents with malignant characteristics, such as invasion to surrounding tissues, metastasis to distant locations and recurrence following treatment. Accumulating evidence suggests that various epigenetic aberrations may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Aberrant DNA methylation represents a possible mechanism repsonsible for this disease, linking gene expression alterations observed in endometriosis with hormonal and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence indicate that endometriosis may partially be due to selective epigenetic deregulations influenced by extrinsic factors. Previous studies have shed light into the epigenetic component of endometriosis, reporting variations in the epigenetic patterns of genes known to be involved in the aberrant hormonal, immunologic and inflammatory status of endometriosis. Although recent studies, utilizing advanced molecular techniques, have allowed us to further elucidate the possible association of DNA methylation with altered gene expression, whether these molecular changes represent the cause or merely the consequence of the disease is a question which remains to be answered. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology and malignant evolution of endometriosis. We also provide insight into the mechanisms through which DNA methylation-modifying agents may be the next step in the research of the pharmaceutical treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26934855

  11. DNA methylation in endometriosis (Review).

    PubMed

    Koukoura, Ourania; Sifakis, Stavros; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is defined by the presence and growth of functional endometrial tissue, outside the uterine cavity, primarily in the ovaries, pelvic peritoneum and rectovaginal septum. Although it is a benign disease, it presents with malignant characteristics, such as invasion to surrounding tissues, metastasis to distant locations and recurrence following treatment. Accumulating evidence suggests that various epigenetic aberrations may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Aberrant DNA methylation represents a possible mechanism repsonsible for this disease, linking gene expression alterations observed in endometriosis with hormonal and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence indicate that endometriosis may partially be due to selective epigenetic deregulations influenced by extrinsic factors. Previous studies have shed light into the epigenetic component of endometriosis, reporting variations in the epigenetic patterns of genes known to be involved in the aberrant hormonal, immunologic and inflammatory status of endometriosis. Although recent studies, utilizing advanced molecular techniques, have allowed us to further elucidate the possible association of DNA methylation with altered gene expression, whether these molecular changes represent the cause or merely the consequence of the disease is a question which remains to be answered. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology and malignant evolution of endometriosis. We also provide insight into the mechanisms through which DNA methylation-modifying agents may be the next step in the research of the pharmaceutical treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26934855

  12. Genome-wide expressions in autologous eutopic and ectopic endometrium of fertile women with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to obtain a lead of the pathophysiology of endometriosis, genome-wide expressional analyses of eutopic and ectopic endometrium have earlier been reported, however, the effects of stages of severity and phases of menstrual cycle on expressional profiles have not been examined. The effect of genetic heterogeneity and fertility history on transcriptional activity was also not considered. In the present study, a genome-wide expression analysis of autologous, paired eutopic and ectopic endometrial samples obtained from fertile women (n = 18) suffering from moderate (stage 3; n = 8) or severe (stage 4; n = 10) ovarian endometriosis during proliferative (n = 13) and secretory (n = 5) phases of menstrual cycle was performed. Methods Individual pure RNA samples were subjected to Agilent’s Whole Human Genome 44K microarray experiments. Microarray data were validated (P < 0.01) by estimating transcript copy numbers by performing real time RT-PCR of seven (7) arbitrarily selected genes in all samples. The data obtained were subjected to differential expression (DE) and differential co-expression (DC) analyses followed by networks and enrichment analysis, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The reproducibility of prediction based on GSEA implementation of DC results was assessed by examining the relative expressions of twenty eight (28) selected genes in RNA samples obtained from fresh pool of eutopic and ectopic samples from confirmed ovarian endometriosis patients with stages 3 and 4 (n = 4/each) during proliferative and secretory (n = 4/each) phases. Results Higher clustering effect of pairing (cluster distance, cd = 0.1) in samples from same individuals on expressional arrays among eutopic and ectopic samples was observed as compared to that of clinical stages of severity (cd = 0.5) and phases of menstrual cycle (cd = 0.6). Post hoc analysis revealed anomaly in the expressional profiles of several genes associated with immunological, neuracrine and endocrine functions and gynecological cancers however with no overt oncogenic potential in endometriotic tissue. Dys-regulation of three (CLOCK, ESR1, and MYC) major transcription factors appeared to be significant causative factors in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometriosis. A novel cohort of twenty-eight (28) genes representing potential marker for ovarian endometriosis in fertile women was discovered. Conclusions Dysfunctional expression of immuno-neuro-endocrine behaviour in endometrium appeared critical to endometriosis. Although no overt oncogenic potential was evident, several genes associated with gynecological cancers were observed to be high in the expressional profiles in endometriotic tissue. PMID:23006437

  13. A population-based case–control study of urinary bisphenol A concentrations and risk of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Koch, Holger M.; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is bisphenol A (BPA) exposure associated with the risk of endometriosis, an estrogen-driven disease of women of reproductive age? SUMMARY ANSWER Our study suggests that increased urinary BPA is associated with an increased risk of non-ovarian pelvic endometriosis, but not ovarian endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY BPA, a high-volume chemical used in the polymer industry, has been the focus of public and scientific concern given its demonstrated estrogenic effects in vivo and in vitro and widespread human exposure. Prior studies of BPA and endometriosis have yielded inconsistent results and were limited by the participant sampling framework, small sample size or use of serum (which has very low/transient concentrations) instead of urine to measure BPA concentrations. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We used data from the Women's Risk of Endometriosis study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis, conducted among female enrollees of a large healthcare system in the US Pacific Northwest. Cases were women with incident, surgically confirmed endometriosis diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and controls were women randomly selected from the defined population that gave rise to the cases, without a current or prior diagnosis of endometriosis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS Total urinary BPA concentrations were measured in 143 cases and 287 population-based controls using single, spot urine samples collected after disease diagnosis in cases. Total urinary BPA concentration (free and conjugated species) was quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for urinary creatinine concentrations, age and reference year. We also evaluated the association by disease subtypes, ovarian and non-ovarian pelvic endometriosis, that may be etiologically distinct. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We did not observe a statistically significant association between total urinary BPA concentrations and endometriosis overall. We did observe statistically significant positive associations when evaluating total urinary BPA concentrations in relation to non-ovarian pelvic endometriosis (second versus lowest quartile: OR 3.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 7.3; third versus lowest quartile: OR 3.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 7.6), but not in relation to ovarian endometriosis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Given the short elimination half-life of BPA, our study was limited by the timing of collection of the single urine sample, that occurred after case diagnosis. Thus, our BPA measurements may not accurately represent the participants' levels during the etiologically relevant time period for endometriosis development. In addition, since it was not feasible in this population-based study to surgically confirm the absence of disease, it is possible that some controls may have had undiagnosed endometriosis. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS By using population-based data, it is more likely that the controls represented the underlying frequency of BPA exposure in contrast to prior studies that used for comparison control women undergoing surgical evaluation, where the indication for surgery may be associated with BPA exposure. The significant associations observed in this study suggest that BPA may affect the normal dynamic structural changes of hormonally responsive endometrial tissue during the menstrual cycle, promoting the establishment and persistence of refluxed endometrial tissue in cases with non-ovarian pelvic endometriosis. Further research is warranted to confirm our novel findings in endometriosis subtypes that may be etiologically distinct. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (grant number R03 ES019976), the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (grant number R01 HD033792); US Environmental Protection Agency, Science to Achieve Results (STAR) (grant number R82943-01-0) and National Institute of Nursing Research (grant number F31NR013092) to KU for training support. This work was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official view of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Nursing Research or the National Institutes of Health. The authors have no actual or potential competing financial interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Not applicable. PMID:25205760

  14. Induction of Endometriosis in Mice: A New Model Sensitive to Estrogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endometriosis consists of the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. A rat model of endometriosis is available to evaluate the potential for environmental chemicals to promote the disease but may he relatively insensitive for the evaluation of the hazard of certain comp...

  15. Ten-Eleven Translocation Genes are Downregulated in Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Roca, F J; Loomans, H A; Wittman, A T; Creighton, C J; Hawkins, S M

    2016-01-01

    Our previous whole genome expression analysis of endometriomas suggested dysregulation of the ten-eleven translocation genes (TET1, TET2, and TET3), involved in converting 5- methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC). The objective of this study was to validate the expression of TET genes in ectopic and eutopic endometrium and in primary cultures of human endometrial stromal fibroblasts (HESF) during in vitro decidualization and to quantify 5-hmC levels in patients with endometriosis. Blood, eutopic endometrium, and endometriotic tissues were collected at time of gynecologic surgery. HESF cultures were created from eutopic endometrium of women without (HESF-CONTROL) and with endometriosis (HESF-ENDO) and underwent in vitro decidualization. Genomic DNA from blood and tissues underwent quantification of the absolute amount of 5-hmC using ELISA. The expression of TET1, TET2, and TET3 was decreased in endometriosis compared to non-endometriosis control eutopic endometrium. Surprisingly, the global amount of 5-hmC was higher in ectopic endometrium than control eutopic endometrium, while genomic DNA from blood of women with endometriosis contained statistically significantly less 5-hmC than women without endometriosis. Expression of TET1, TET2, and TET3 was decreased in non-decidualized HESFENDO. Upon in vitro decidualization, control HESF showed decreased expression of TET3, while decidualized HESF-ENDO showed no statistically significant change in expression of TET1, TET2, or TET3. These results indicate that the TET genes are downregulated in ectopic endometrium and in HESF-ENDO, and suggest for the first time that TET genes play a role in endometriosis. High global amounts of 5-hmC in endometriotic tissues suggest unique epigenetic regulation in these tissues. PMID:26917261

  16. Endometriosis-associated Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Matalliotakis, I M; Cakmak, H; Ziogos, M D E; Kalogeraki, A; Kappou, D; Arici, A

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is to report three cases of patients with endometriosis and infertility, and associated with Lyme disease. The medical files of 405 women with endometriosis and 200 without endometriosis were studied retrospectively. We report 3 cases with endometriosis and Lyme disease. Of 405 patients with endometriosis treated in our study over a 6-year period, 3(0.8%) had Lyme disease. All cases presented with typical erythema migraines, fever and fatigue. The serological findings were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, for 3 cases. Two out of 3 women underwent IVF-ET procedures and one of them conceived in the first cycle without complication during pregnancy or after childbirth recorded. We concluded that women with endometriosis are more likely to have chronic fatigue syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and other autoimmune inflammatory and endocrine diseases. A review of the literature confirms the uniqueness of the co-existence of Lyme disease in women with endometriosis in these cases. PMID:20143981

  17. Endometriosis and breast cancer: A survey of the epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    PONTIKAKI, A.; SIFAKIS, S.; SPANDIDOS, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Recent reviews have demonstrated the connection between endometriosis and breast cancer, which represents the most frequently diagnosed female cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related mortality among women worldwide. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of available published epidemiological studies indicating the association between endometriosis and breast cancer, and simultaneously to categorize the results based on the strength of the association, with the intention of the critical evaluation of the existing data. We performed a rigorous search of the PubMed/Medline database, using the key words ‘endometriosis’ and ‘breast cancer’ for all studies published in the English language until September 2015. We found 4 retrospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies and 3 case-cohort studies that demonstrated a notable risk for developing breast cancer among women with endometriosis. By contrast, we also found 5 case-control studies, 1 prospective cohort study, 1 case-cohort study and 1 cross-sectional study that demonstrated a negative association between endometriosis and breast cancer. In conclusion, as regards the clarification of a ‘robust’ or ‘weak’ association between endometriosis and breast cancer, no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to the limited number of studies and the limitations of each of these studies. New well-designed, prospective cohort or randomized control trials with long-term follow-up are warranted in order to provide evidence-based clinical recommendations for proper counseling, screening and treatment strategies for patients with endometriosis, and hence to improve public health. PMID:26870162

  18. Evaluation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Polymorphism Frequencies in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Abutorabi, Roshanak; Baradaran, Azar; Sadat Mostafavi, Fatemeh; Zarrin, Yasaman; Mardanian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background The pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), is a pathogenic element for a number of disorders. Previous studies have reported that the -1031 T/C and -238 G/A polymorphisms in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene are important factors in reproductive-related disorders. One of the most common gynecological diseases of women during the reproductive years is endometriosis. This study aims to assess an association between the -1031 T/C, -238 G/A and -308 G/A polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene promoter region to endometriosis. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, we enrolled 65 endometriosis patients and 65 matched healthy control women by simple sampling. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to analyze -1031 T/C, -238 G/A and -308 G/A polymorphisms in the TNF-α gene promoter region. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results We found a strong association between the -1031 T/C polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene with endometriosis (P=0.001). There were no significant associations between the -238 G/A (P=0.243) and -308 G/A (P=1) polymorphisms with endometriosis and again endometriosis stages have no association with these polymorphisms. Conclusion The -1031 T/C polymorphism and CC genotype can be used as a relevant marker to identify women at risk of developing endometriosis. PMID:26644856

  19. Nanoparticle-Assisted Combinatorial Therapy for Effective Treatment of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhay Kumar; Chakravarty, Baidyanath; Chaudhury, Koel

    2015-05-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Conventional treatment modalities for endometriosis are unsatisfactory; therefore, there is a need to treat the underlying causes and mechanism. Oxidative stress, extracellular matrix degradation, and angiogenesis are associated with the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The anti-angiogenic and antioxidant properties of epigallocatechin gallate and the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory activity of the antibiotic doxycycline are well established. However, epigallocatechin gallate and doxycycline have several limitations when used in their native forms. This motivated us to synthesize dual drug-loaded (epigallocatechin gallate and doxycycline) nanoparticles and check their therapeutic efficacy in mice with induced endometriosis. The synthesized nanoparticles displayed features of a promising drug-delivery system, such as small size, high encapsulation efficiency, controlled drug release, and low toxicity. The serum of endometriosis-induced mice and controls was assessed for various oxidative stress markers, matrix-degrading enzymes, and angiogenic markers before and after nanoparticle administration. Endometrial glands, stroma, and new microvessels were determined using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Treatment with dual drug-loaded nanoparticles markedly decreased oxidative stress, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and angiogenesis, as well as endometrial gland presence and microvessel density. Mitigation of endometriosis-related adverse effects further produced an improvement in the quality of oocytes, which is critical for successful pregnancy outcomes. Our observations suggest that owing to their combinatorial effect, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles loaded with epigallocatechin gallate and doxycycline in a single vehicle appear to be promising for the treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26349392

  20. Endometriosis within the sigmoid colon/extragenital endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Acar, Turan; Acar, Nihan; Çelik, Salih Can; Ekinci, Neşe; Tarcan, Ercüment; Çapkınoğlu, Emir

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Although it is common in women in the reproductive age, intestinal endometriosis is extremely rare and may lead to serious clinical problems. In this article, we present two rare cases of endometriosis localized in the sigmoid colon lumen. The first case is a 45 year-old female complaining of rectal bleeding for 6 months. A polypoid lesion with suspicion of malignancy, 3-4 cm in size was identified at colonoscopy. Laparoscopic anterior resection was performed since it was not suitable for colonoscopic polypectomy. The pathology examination revealed extragenital endometriosis. The second case is a 36 year-old female admitted for lower abdominal pain and rectal bleeding for the last 3 months. She was diagnosed with sigmoid diverticulitis. The patient's symptoms regressed with medical treatment, but due to early and multiple recurrent episodes it was decided to perform an elective laparoscopic anterior resection. The pathology report stated diverticulosis coli and intraluminal endometriosis. Intestinal endometriosis should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in female patients of the reproductive age who present with constipation, gastrointestinal bleeding, nausea, vomiting, cramp-like abdominal pain, diarrhea and pelvic pain. In these patients, resection and anastomosis of the effected bowel segment is accepted as the choice of treatment. PMID:26668537

  1. Endometriosis within the sigmoid colon/extragenital endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Turan; Acar, Nihan; Çelik, Salih Can; Ekinci, Neşe; Tarcan, Ercüment; Çapkınoğlu, Emir

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Although it is common in women in the reproductive age, intestinal endometriosis is extremely rare and may lead to serious clinical problems. In this article, we present two rare cases of endometriosis localized in the sigmoid colon lumen. The first case is a 45 year-old female complaining of rectal bleeding for 6 months. A polypoid lesion with suspicion of malignancy, 3–4 cm in size was identified at colonoscopy. Laparoscopic anterior resection was performed since it was not suitable for colonoscopic polypectomy. The pathology examination revealed extragenital endometriosis. The second case is a 36 year-old female admitted for lower abdominal pain and rectal bleeding for the last 3 months. She was diagnosed with sigmoid diverticulitis. The patient’s symptoms regressed with medical treatment, but due to early and multiple recurrent episodes it was decided to perform an elective laparoscopic anterior resection. The pathology report stated diverticulosis coli and intraluminal endometriosis. Intestinal endometriosis should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in female patients of the reproductive age who present with constipation, gastrointestinal bleeding, nausea, vomiting, cramp-like abdominal pain, diarrhea and pelvic pain. In these patients, resection and anastomosis of the effected bowel segment is accepted as the choice of treatment. PMID:26668537

  2. Somatic Stem Cells and Their Dysfunction in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Djokovic, Dusan; Calhaz-Jorge, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that somatic stem cells (SSCs) of different types prominently contribute to endometrium-associated disorders such as endometriosis. We reviewed the pertinent studies available on PubMed, published in English language until December 2014 and focused on the involvement of SSCs in the pathogenesis of this common gynecological disease. A concise summary of the data obtained from in vitro experiments, animal models, and human tissue analyses provides insights into the SSC dysregulation in endometriotic lesions. In addition, a set of research results is presented supporting that SSC-targeting, in combination with hormonal therapy, may result in improved control of the disease, while a more in-depth characterization of endometriosis SSCs may contribute to the development of early-disease diagnostic tests with increased sensitivity and specificity. Key message: Seemingly essential for the establishment and progression of endometriotic lesions, dysregulated SSCs, and associated molecular alterations hold a promise as potential endometriosis markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:25593975

  3. The effects of massage therapy on dysmenorrhea caused by endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Valiani, Mahboubeh; Ghasemi, Niloofar; Bahadoran, Parvin; Heshmat, Reza

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studying womens quality of life, we come across some harmful effects that factor such as dysmenorrhea caused by endometriosis leaves on their lives, their ability to work, their familial relations, and their self-confidence. Due to the repeated medical follow-ups and the side effects of medical therapies and endometriosis surgeries, many patients tend to use less expensive, nonmedical, and nonaggressive methods. The present study aimed to assess the effects of massage therapy, one of the aforementioned methods on endometriosis caused dysmenorrhea. METHODS: This was a semi-empirical clinical trial. Considering inclusion criteria, 23 patients suffering from endometriosis visited the Infertility Center of Isfahan, who were later confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy were picked as the sample through a simple method. The visual analog scale and McGill questionnaires were used once before and twice after the end of intervention for each patient. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the intensity of pain before the intervention started, immediately after, and also six weeks after it (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of this study and confirmations of other ones, it seems that massage therapy can be a fitting method to reduce the menstrual pain caused by endometriosis. PMID:21589790

  4. Endometriosis Linked to Heart Disease in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158019.html Endometriosis Linked to Heart Disease in Study Gynecological condition ... March 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who have endometriosis, the abnormal growth of uterine tissue outside the ...

  5. Spontaneous hymeneal endometriosis: a rare cause of dyspareunia

    PubMed Central

    Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Laas, Enora; Cortez, Annie; Daraï, Emile

    2014-01-01

    Vulvar endometriosis can occur after surgery or trauma and cause dyspareunia. A 30-year-old woman presented with orificial dyspareunia lasting for 5 months. Her history was marked by a vaginal birth without perineal injury and the removal of a cyst from the left Bartholin’s gland. On examination, we observed a selectively painful, superficial and retractile lesion, 5 mm in diameter at the junction of the hymen at some distance from the bartholinitis scar. Endometriosis was suspected due to the exacerbation of pain during menses. The surgery consisted of excision of the hymenal area of the painful lesion. Pathological examination confirmed the presence of endometrial tissue. The painful symptoms resolved and no additional treatment was administered. Any vulvar lesion, regardless of its appearance and location, can be related to endometriosis. Surgical resection is recommended to relieve the symptoms and provide histological proof. PMID:24671316

  6. Postcoital bleeding due to cervical endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Seval, Mehmet Murat; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Atak, Zeliha; Guresci, Servet

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis of the uterine cervix is a rare lesion that is generally asymptomatic in gynaecological practice. We present a case with postcoital bleeding due to a cervical mass mimicking cervical polyp or fibroma which was histologically proven as cervical endometriosis later. Cervical endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cervical masses with postcoital bleeding. PMID:23376669

  7. Postcoital bleeding due to cervical endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Seval, Mehmet Murat; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Atak, Zeliha; Guresci, Servet

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis of the uterine cervix is a rare lesion that is generally asymptomatic in gynaecological practice. We present a case with postcoital bleeding due to a cervical mass mimicking cervical polyp or fibroma which was histologically proven as cervical endometriosis later. Cervical endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cervical masses with postcoital bleeding. PMID:23376669

  8. Clarithromycin and telithromycin increases interleukin-10 expression in the rat endometriosis model.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Masakazu; Tanaka, Naomi; Takeda, Ken; Ihara, Tomomi; Sugamata, Masao

    2011-09-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecological disorder associated with infertility. However, treatment options remain limited at present. Since the pathogenesis involves immune responses, the immunomodulatory effect of macrolide on endometriosis has been the focus of much research. A previous study showed that clarithromycin decreased stromal proliferation and promoted apoptosis of fibroblasts in an endometriosis model in rats; however, the mechanism of the effect remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of clarithromycin, one of the major macrolides, and telithromycin, one of the antibiotics belonging to a macrolide group (ketolide), on IL6, IL10 and Ccl2 expression in a rat endometriosis model induced by the surgical transplantation of endometrium onto the peritoneum in 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. After autotransplantation, the rats were given daily administration of clarithromycin (16 mg/kg/day or telithromycin (12 mg/kg/day) for 3 days. The induced lesions were examined 4 days after autotransplantation. After treatment, IL10 expression in the lesions was increased in rats treated with clarithromycin (1.70-fold) and telithromycin (2.88-fold). The drugs attenuated proliferative stromal lesion of the endometriosis model. The results showed that in the endometriosis model, the drugs enhanced expression of IL10, which may play a role in inhibiting excess inflammatory reaction with its therapeutic effect on the lesion. Macrolide and ketolide therapy may have significant value for the treatment of human endometriosis. PMID:21665488

  9. Aberrant activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Gak; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jung-Ho; Langenheim, John F.; Ferguson, Susan D.; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.; Young, Steven L.; Lessey, Bruce A.; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are STAT3 signaling molecules differentially expressed in endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER Levels of phospho-STAT3 and HIF1A, its downstream signaling molecule, are significantly higher in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis when compared with women without the disease. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory condition. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory survival cytokine known to induce prolonged activation of STAT3 via association with the IL-6 receptor. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Cross-sectional measurements of STAT3 and HIF1A protein levels in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis versus those without. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Levels of phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) and HIF1A were examined in the endometrium of patients with and without endometriosis as well as in a non-human primate animal model using western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Levels of pSTAT3 were significantly higher in the eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis when compared with women without the disease in both the proliferative and secretory phases. HIF1A is known to be stabilized by STAT3 and IL-6. Our immunohistochemistry results show abundant HIF1A expression within the eutopic endometrial epithelial cells of women with endometriosis. Furthermore, pSTAT3 and HIF1A proteins are co-localized in endometriosis. This aberrant activation of pSTAT3 and HIF1A is confirmed by sequential analysis of eutopic endometrium using a baboon animal model of induced endometriosis. Lastly, we confirmed this IL-6 induction of both STAT3 phosphorylation and HIF1A mRNA expression in Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Ishikawa cancer cell line was used to study a benign disease. The peritoneal fluid contains various inflammatory cytokines in addition to IL-6 and so it is possible that other cytokines may affect the activity and expression of STAT3 signaling molecules. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Our results imply that aberrant activation of STAT3 signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Our findings could progress in our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis and potential therapeutic interventions by targeted pharmacological. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This work was supported by NIH R01 HD067721 (to S.L.Y and B.A.L) and NIH R01 HD057873 and American Cancer Society Research Grant RSG-12-084-01-TBG (to J.-W.J.). There are no conflicts of interest. PMID:25750101

  10. Diagnosis, management, and long-term outcomes of rectovaginal endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Nash S; Caplin, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Rectovaginal endometriosis is the most severe form of endometriosis. Clinically, it presents with a number of symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, dyschezia, and rectal bleeding. The gold standard for diagnosis is laparoscopy with histological confirmation; however, there are a number of options for presurgical diagnosis, including clinical examination, transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imagining, colonoscopy, and computed tomography colonography. Treatment can be medical or surgical. Medical therapies include birth control pills, oral progestins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol, and injectable progestins. Analgesics are often used as well. Surgery improves up to 70% of symptoms. Surgery is either ablative or excisional, and is conducted via transvaginal, laparoscopic, laparotomy, or combined approaches. Common surgical techniques involve shaving of the superficial rectal lesion, laparoscopic anterior discoid resection, and low anterior bowel resection and reanastomosis. Outcomes are generally favorable, but postoperative complications may include intra-abdominal bleeding, anastomotic leaks, rectovaginal fistulas, strictures, chronic constipation, and the need for reoperation. Recurrence of rectal endometriosis is a possibility as well. Other outcomes are improved pain-related symptoms and fertility. Long-term outcomes vary according to the management strategy used. This review will provide the most recent approaches and techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis. PMID:24232977

  11. Diagnosis, management, and long-term outcomes of rectovaginal endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Moawad, Nash S; Caplin, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Rectovaginal endometriosis is the most severe form of endometriosis. Clinically, it presents with a number of symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, dyschezia, and rectal bleeding. The gold standard for diagnosis is laparoscopy with histological confirmation; however, there are a number of options for presurgical diagnosis, including clinical examination, transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imagining, colonoscopy, and computed tomography colonography. Treatment can be medical or surgical. Medical therapies include birth control pills, oral progestins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol, and injectable progestins. Analgesics are often used as well. Surgery improves up to 70% of symptoms. Surgery is either ablative or excisional, and is conducted via transvaginal, laparoscopic, laparotomy, or combined approaches. Common surgical techniques involve shaving of the superficial rectal lesion, laparoscopic anterior discoid resection, and low anterior bowel resection and reanastomosis. Outcomes are generally favorable, but postoperative complications may include intra-abdominal bleeding, anastomotic leaks, rectovaginal fistulas, strictures, chronic constipation, and the need for reoperation. Recurrence of rectal endometriosis is a possibility as well. Other outcomes are improved pain-related symptoms and fertility. Long-term outcomes vary according to the management strategy used. This review will provide the most recent approaches and techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis. PMID:24232977

  12. Endometriosis in association with uterine anomaly.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S; Wakim, N G; Schikler, K N; Yussman, M A

    1986-01-01

    Endometriosis is frequently a chronic process, which may begin soon after menarche. The process may be enhanced by mechanical obstruction. Theories of retrograde menstruation and metaplasia still remain in vogue. Endometriosis is a cause of both acute and chronic pelvic pain in the adolescent. We present case reports of müllerian lateral wall fusion defects with surgical correction and evidence for resorption of endometriosis. Clinicians must be aware that patients with uterine anomalies may develop extensive endometriosis, which upon creation of an unobstructed outflow tract results in complete resorption. Furthermore, the mechanism of formation of endometriosis in association with an outflow tract obstruction may be very different from that associated with infertility. We recommend consideration of endometriosis and/or a reproductive tract abnormality in the adolescent with persistent pelvic pain. PMID:3946502

  13. Immunological aspects of endometriosis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Krl?kov, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common and serious illness affecting women in their reproductive years. Despite the ongoing interest and intensive research of this crippling disease, the cause remains unknown since its first description over 150 years ago. The origins and genesis of endometriosis, despite numerous hypotheses, are still unclear. One of the possible causes of the development of endometriosis might be the immune system, despite the fact that endometriosis is generally considered to be a steroid-sensitive disease. Numerous aspects of the immune system has been found changed, from the different number of activated macrophages to different subtypes of lymphocytes and their activities, suggesting involvement of immunity. On the other hand, it is possible that immunological changes around the endometriotic lesion are only secondary to the establishment of endometriosis. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of immunological reactions in endometriosis. PMID:26244140

  14. Estradiol promotes cells invasion by activating β-catenin signaling pathway in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wenqian; Zhang, Ling; Yu, Lan; Xie, Wei; Man, Yicun; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Hengwei; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease that involves the adhesion, invasion, and angiogenesis of endometrial tissues outside of the uterine cavity. We hypothesized that a link exists between estrogen and beta-catenin (β-catenin) signaling in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) were separated from eutopic endometrial tissues that were obtained from patients with endometriosis. β-catenin expression and cells invasiveness ability were up-regulated by 17β-estradiol (E2) in an estrogen receptor (ESR)-dependent manner, whereas β-catenin siRNA abrogated this phenomenon. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation and dual immunofluorescence studies confirmed ESR1, β-catenin, and lymphoid enhancer factor 1/T cell factor 3 co-localization in the nucleus in HESCs after E2 treatment. To determine the role of β-catenin signaling in the implantation of ectopic endometrium, we xenotransplanted eutopic endometrium from endometriosis patients into ovariectomized severe combined immunodeficiency mice. The implantation of the endometrium was suppressed by β-catenin siRNA. Collectively, studies regarding β-catenin signaling are critical for improving our understanding of the pathogenesis of estrogen-induced endometriosis, which can translate into the development of treatments and therapeutic strategies for endometriosis. PMID:26432349

  15. Estradiol promotes cells invasion by activating β-catenin signaling pathway in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenqian; Zhang, Ling; Yu, Lan; Xie, Wei; Man, Yicun; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Hengwei; Liu, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease that involves the adhesion, invasion, and angiogenesis of endometrial tissues outside of the uterine cavity. We hypothesized that a link exists between estrogen and beta-catenin (β-catenin) signaling in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) were separated from eutopic endometrial tissues that were obtained from patients with endometriosis. β-catenin expression and cells invasiveness ability were up-regulated by 17β-estradiol (E2) in an estrogen receptor (ESR)-dependent manner, whereas β-catenin siRNA abrogated this phenomenon. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation and dual immunofluorescence studies confirmed ESR1, β-catenin, and lymphoid enhancer factor 1/T cell factor 3 co-localization in the nucleus in HESCs after E2 treatment. To determine the role of β-catenin signaling in the implantation of ectopic endometrium, we xenotransplanted eutopic endometrium from endometriosis patients into ovariectomized severe combined immunodeficiency mice. The implantation of the endometrium was suppressed by β-catenin siRNA. Collectively, studies regarding β-catenin signaling are critical for improving our understanding of the pathogenesis of estrogen-induced endometriosis, which can translate into the development of treatments and therapeutic strategies for endometriosis. PMID:26432349

  16. Dual suppression of estrogenic and inflammatory activities for targeting of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuechao; Gong, Ping; Chen, Yiru; Nwachukwu, Jerome C.; Srinivasan, Sathish; Ko, CheMyong; Bagchi, Milan K.; Taylor, Robert N.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Nettles, Kendall W.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogenic and inflammatory components play key roles in a broad range of diseases including endometriosis, a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disorder in which endometrial tissue creates inflammatory lesions at extrauterine sites, causing pelvic pain and reduced fertility. Current medical therapies focus primarily on reducing systemic levels of estrogens, but these are of limited effectiveness and have considerable side effects. We developed estrogen receptor (ER) ligands, chloroindazole (CLI) and oxabicycloheptene sulfonate (OBHS), which showed strong ER-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in a preclinical model of endometriosis that recapitulates the estrogen dependence and inflammatory responses of the disease in immunocompetent mice and in primary human endometriotic stromal cells in culture. Estrogen-dependent phenomena, including cell proliferation, cyst formation, vascularization, and lesion growth, were all arrested by CLI or OBHS, which prevented lesion expansion and also elicited regression of established lesions, suppressed inflammation, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis in the lesions, and interrupted crosstalk between lesion cells and infiltrating macrophages. Studies in ERα or ERβ knockout mice indicated that ERα is the major mediator of OBHS effectiveness and ERβ is dominant in CLI actions, implying involvement of both ERs in endometriosis. Neither ligand altered estrous cycling or fertility at doses that were effective for suppression of endometriosis. Hence, CLI and OBHS are able to restrain endometriosis by dual suppression of the estrogen-inflammatory axis. Our findings suggest that these compounds have the desired characteristics of preventive and therapeutic agents for clinical endometriosis and possibly other estrogen-driven and inflammation-promoted disorders. PMID:25609169

  17. Epigenetic dysregulation of endometriosis susceptibility genes (Review).

    PubMed

    Koike, Natsuki; Higashiura, Yumi; Akasaka, Juria; Uekuri, Chiharu; Ito, Fuminori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present review was to illustrate how dysregulation of hormonal signaling regulates expressional changes of spatially associated genes in endometriosis. From a multi‑platform endometriosis dataset, an integrated analysis was performed of epigenomic changes of several biologically relevant genes that have been validated in the literature. Estrogen receptor (ER) may act as a direct epigenetic driver for endometriosis establishment, maintenance and progression. A majority of endometriosis susceptibility genes may be present in functional downstream targets of ER and located near the known imprinting genes. Previous studies have shed light on the overlapping genetic signatures between endometriosis development and the defective decidualization process. The steroid hormone‑mediated decidualization signaling pathway was shown to be frequently dysregulated in endometriosis. DNA methylation is associated with various intragenic or intergenic epigenetic modifications of chromatin. Chromatin architecture may be established in temporal and spatial orchestration of the recruitment of genes specifically downregulated in endometriosis. In conclusion, defective chromatin architecture at the ER target locus may have a key role in endometriosis. Endometriosis represents an interesting model to explore the variation of expression of spatially associated genes. PMID:25891066

  18. Endometriosis: A Disease That Remains Enigmatic

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, a gynecologic pathology, is defined by the presence of a tissue similar to uterine endometrium, which is located in places other than physiologically appropriate. These endometrial heterotopic islets contain glands and stroma and are functionally capable of responding to exogenous, endogenous, or local hormonal stimuli. Endometriosis affects 8%10% of women of reproductive age; in 30% of the women, the condition is associated with primary or secondary infertility. In several instances, endometriosis persists as a minimal or mild disease, or it can resolve on its own. Other cases of endometriosis show severe symptomatology that ends when menopause occurs. Endometriosis can, however, reactivate in several postmenopausal women when iatrogenic or endogenous hormones are present. Endometriosis is occasionally accompanied by malignant ovarian tumors, especially endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas. Its pathogenesis is widely debated, and its variable morphology appears to represent a continuum of individual presentations and progressions. Endometriosis has no pathognomonic signs or symptoms; it is therefore difficult to diagnose. Because of its enigmatic etiopathogenesis, there is currently no satisfactory therapy for all patients with endometriosis. Treatments include medications, surgery, or combined therapies; currently, the only procedures that seem to cure endometriosis are hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. In this paper, we review the most controversial and enigmatic aspects of this disease. PMID:23956867

  19. Association of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and CA 125 with the endometriosis score

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul Ki; Park, Jung Yeon; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the severity of endometriosis and the preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and serum level of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125). Methods Data were obtained from the medical records of 419 patients who underwent laparoscopic conservative surgery for ovarian endometrioma between April 2005 and March 2013. Each patient's preoperative complete blood count was recorded and the endometriosis score was assessed. Results The endometriosis score was not associated with either the NLR or the serum level of CA 125. The endometriosis score was negatively related to preoperative hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The only positive association was between NLR and the patients' age. NLR and preoperative serum anti-Müllerian hormone level were found to be negatively related. Conclusion The severity of endometriosis was not associated with the serum level of CA 125 or the NLR. The presence of a negative correlation between the severity of endometriosis and red blood cell dynamics needs further investigation. PMID:25599037

  20. Human Relations Class. A Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillen, Mary A.

    A junior high level human relations class develops human interaction and oral communication skills. A week-by-week syllabus contains the following components: introduction of the students to each other and to the principles of body language, transactional analysis, and group interaction; behavior contracts; group dynamics topics and exercises;…

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Thompson, Mary Lou; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Holt, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. Objective: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. Methods: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Results: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum β-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). Conclusions: In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of β-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women. Citation: Upson K, De Roos AJ, Thompson ML, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr DB, Holt VL. 2013. Organochlorine pesticides and risk of endometriosis: findings from a population-based case–control study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1319–1324; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306648 PMID:24192044

  2. Treatment of infertility associated with deep endometriosis: definition of therapeutic balances.

    PubMed

    Somigliana, Edgardo; Garcia-Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Deep endometriosis is a demanding condition that is associated with infertility. However, evidence supporting a direct link between deep endometriosis and infertility is weak. In fact, infertility in affected patients is more likely to be explained by the strong association between deep endometriosis and adhesions, superficial endometriotic implants, ovarian endometriomas, and adenomyosis. The purported beneficial effects of surgery on infertility are mainly based on the 40%-42% pregnancy rate (PR) after surgery observed in published case series. However, this level of evidence is questionable and overestimates the benefits of the intervention. Even if comparative studies are lacking, IVF may be a valid alternative. The procedure may be less effective in affected women compared with other indications and it is not without additional deep endometriosis-related risks. Some case reports suggest that lesions might progress during IVF causing ureteral or intestinal complications or can decidualize during pregnancy causing intestinal perforation, pneumothorax, and pelvic vessels rupture. Finally, in the decision-making process, physicians should also consider that women with a history of deep endometriosis may face an increased risk of pregnancy complications. In conclusion, clear recommendation for the management of infertile women with deep endometriosis cannot be extrapolated from the literature. The therapeutic decision should be based on a comprehensive evaluation that includes clinical history, instrumental findings, pain symptoms, risks of pregnancy complications, and the woman's wishes. PMID:26342244

  3. Shikonin reduces endometriosis by inhibiting RANTES secretion and mononuclear macrophage chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong-Ping; Gu, Lin; Long, Jun; Chen, Jie; Ni, Jie; Qian, Ning; Shi, Ying-Li

    2014-03-01

    Endometriosis is a common disease in females of reproductive age and has the classic characteristic of mononuclear cell infiltration into lesions. Shikonin is an anti-inflammatory phytocompound obtained from Lithospermum erythrorhizon whose potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of endometriosis remain unclear. The working hypothesis of the present study was that shikonin is capable of inhibiting the development of endometriosis by inhibiting the chemotactic effect. In a murine model of endometriosis, shikonin significantly inhibited the growth of human endometrial tissue implanted into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice (P<0.05) and no adverse effects were observed. Mouse regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (mRANTES) levels in the peritoneal fluid of the animal endometriosis model were higher than those in normal SCID mice (P<0.05) and decreased significantly following shikonin treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Peritoneal fluid from SCID mice treated with shikonin inhibited the chemotaxis of monocytes; this inhibitory effect was eradicated by mRANTES antibody. In vitro, shikonin significantly inhibited RANTES expression in U937 cells that were cultured alone or co-cultured with human mesothelial and endometrial stromal cells. In addition, shikonin inhibited the RANTES-induced chemotaxis of U937 cells (P<0.05). The results indicate that shikonin inhibits the development of endometriosis by various mechanisms, including the inhibition of RANTES expression and the reduction of mononuclear cell migration to lesions. Therefore, shikonin may be a novel, useful and safe agent for treating endometriosis. PMID:24520268

  4. Reduced connexin 43 in eutopic endometrium and cultured endometrial stromal cells from subjects with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jie; Boicea, Anisoara; Barrett, Kara L.; James, Christopher O.; Bagchi, Indrani C.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Nezhat, Ceana; Sidell, Neil; Taylor, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that reduced fecundity associated with endometriosis reflects a failure of embryonic receptivity. Microdomains composed of endometrial gap junctions, which facilitate cell–cell communication, may be implicated. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of connexin (Cx) 43 block human endometrial cell differentiation in vitro and conditional uterine deletion of Cx43 alleles cause implantation failure in mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether women with endometriosis have reduced eutopic endometrial Cx43. Cx26 acted as a control. Endometrial biopsies were collected from age, race and cycle phase-matched women without (15 controls) or with histologically confirmed endometriosis (15 cases). Immunohistochemistry confirmed a predominant localization of Cx43 in the endometrial stroma, whereas Cx26 was confined to the epithelium. Cx43 immunostaining was reduced in eutopic biopsies of endometriosis subjects and western blotting of tissue lysates confirmed lower Cx43 levels in endometriosis cases, with Cx43/β-actin ratios =3.4 ± 1.5 in control and =1.2 ± 0.3 in endometriosis biopsies (P < 0.01). When endometrial stromal cells (ESC) were isolated from endometriosis cases, Cx43 levels and scrape loading-dye transfer were reduced by ∼45% compared with ESC from controls. In vitro decidualization of ESC derived from endometriosis versus control subjects resulted in lesser epithelioid transformation and a significantly reduced up-regulation of Cx43 protein (1.2 ± 0.2- versus 1.7 ± 0.4-fold, P < 0.01). No changes in Cx26 were observed. While basal steady-state levels of Cx43 mRNA did not differ with respect to controls, ESC from endometriosis cases failed to manifest a response to hormone treatment in vitro. In summary, eutopic endometrial Cx43 concentrations in endometriosis cases were <50% those of controls in vivo and in vitro, functional gap junctions were reduced and hormone-induced Cx43 mRNA levels were blunted. PMID:24270393

  5. Repetitive surgery for recurrent symptomatic endometriosis: what to do?

    PubMed

    Vercellini, Paolo; Barbara, Giussy; Abbiati, Annalisa; Somigliana, Edgardo; Viganò, Paola; Fedele, Luigi

    2009-09-01

    In spite of the increasing number of operative laparoscopies performed for endometriosis associated pelvic pain, postoperative symptomatic recurrences are very common. Reoperation is often considered the best treatment option, but the extent and duration of the effect of second-line surgery is still unclear. The best available evidence has been reviewed in order to define the results of repetitive conservative surgery, the effects of pelvic denervating procedures and postoperative medical treatments, as well as the long-term outcome of definitive surgery. Because of the paucity of published data, estimating the real risk of symptomatic recurrence and need for reoperation after repetitive conservative surgery for endometriosis is very difficult. Based on the limited information available, the long-term outcome appears suboptimal, with a cumulative probability of pain recurrence between 20% and 40%, and of a further surgical procedure between 15% and 20%. These figures are probably an underestimate related to drawbacks in study design, exclusions of dropouts, and publication bias and should be considered with caution. Systematic complementary performance of denervating procedures in addition to reoperation cannot be recommended, as only a few symptomatic patients complain of predominantly midline, hypo-gastric pain. The outcome of hysterectomy for endometriosis-associated pain at medium-term follow-up seems quite satisfactory. Nevertheless, about 15% of patients had persistent symptoms, and 3-5% experienced worsening of pain. Concomitant bilateral oophorectomy reduced the risk of reoperation due to recurrent pelvic pain by six times. However, at least one gonad should be preserved in young women, especially in those with objections to the use of oestrogen-progestogens. Medical treatment appears to have limited and inconsistent effects when used for only a few months after conservative procedures. Data on the benefit of prolonged drug regimens with oral contraceptives or progestogen are lacking. The risk of recurrence of endometriosis during hormone replacement therapy seems marginal if combined preparations or tibolone are used and oestrogen-only treatments are avoided. The opportune surgical solution in women with recurrent symptoms after previous conservative procedures for endometriosis should be based on the desire for conception as well as on psychological characteristics. Studies on surgical management of recurrent rectovaginal endometriosis are warranted, due to the peculiar technical difficulties as well as the high risk of complications associated with this challenging disease form. PMID:19482404

  6. TRENDS IN HUMAN RELATIONS RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WINICK, CHARLES

    A REVIEW OF MAIN TRENDS IN RECENT HUMAN RELATIONS RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES, PARTICULARLY AS ILLUSTRATED IN THE WORK OF SIGMUND LIVINGSTON FELLOWS, IS PRESENTED. THE FOCUS IS ON STUDIES DEALING WITH ETHNIC, RACIAL, OR RELIGIOUS CATEGORIES, AND ON RESEARCH DEALING WITH INTERGROUP PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION. THE THREE MAJOR TRENDS IN RESEARCH…

  7. [Aromatase inhibitors--theoretical concept and present experiences in the treatment of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Ebert, A D; Bartley, J; David, M; Schweppe, K-W

    2003-01-01

    The medical treatment of endometriosis needs to be optimized. Therapeutic management strategies of endometriosis-associated pain or recurrent disease is primarily aimed at downregulating the ovarian function or at antagonizing the effect of estrogen in ectopic endometrial implants. In this context, basic research is delivering powerful tools for the possible development of new, specific treatment modalities. Recently, aromatase overexpression has been detected in endometriotic tissue. Aromatase (p450arom) is responsible for conversion of C19 androgens to estrogen in several human tissues. Aromatase activity gives rise to local estrogen biosynthesis, which, in turn, stimulates prostaglandin E(2) production by upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thus establishing a positive feedback cycle. Another abnormality in endometriosis, i. e. the deficiency in 17 beta-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase type-II (17 beta-HSD-Type-II) expression, impairs the inactivation of estradiol to estrone. In contrast to the eutopic endometrium, these molecular aberrations collectively favour accumulation of increasing amounts of local estradiol and prostaglandin E(2) in endometriosis. In several human cell lines, prostaglandin and estrogen concentrations are associated with proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis resistance, and even invasiveness. Consequently, aromatase and COX-2 are promising new therapeutic targets. In summary, specific aromatase inhibitors (such as Letrozole, Anastrozol or Exemestan) or selective COX-2 inhibitors (e.g. Celecoxib, Rofecoxib) are of great interest to be studied in clinical trials in premenopausal woman with endometriosis to extend the spectrum of currently available treatment options. PMID:14505258

  8. Problems with the diagnosis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Berker, Bulent; Seval, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Endometriosis is classically defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in outside the uterine cavity. As the definition suggests that confirming the ectopic endometrial stroma and glands in ectopic location histopathologically should be necessary for the diagnosis of endometriosis. Therefore, this situation leads to the need for surgery like laparoscopy for diagnosis. However, this surgical diagnostic approach will not be reliable for all patients with suspected endometriosis. It seems to be an important problem that there is still no reliable clinically diagnostic method or pathognomonic clinical finding, which may allow accurate diagnosis of endometriosis without the need for surgery or histopathologic evaluation. While these clinical features are not pathognomonic for the endometriosis, they should be used as markers for creating high-risk population for endometriosis. Clinical features and the available diagnostic methods, their advantages and limitations for the endometriosis will be discussed in this article. The different options for clinical assessment, laboratory tests and imaging techniques will be summarized and the advantages and disadvantages of these methods will be evaluated. We will also discuss the gold standard definitive diagnostic options with their problematic aspects. PMID:26389666

  9. Serum biomarker for diagnosis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Signorile, Pietro Giulio; Baldi, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Endometriosis is estimated to affect 10% of women during the reproductive years. The lack of a non-invasive diagnostic test significantly contributes to the long delay between onset of the symptoms and definitive diagnosis of endometriosis. This case-control study was conducted to identify specific endometriosis antigens using 2D gel analysis in women with endometriosis (n = 5) and without endometriosis (n = 5). Differentially expresses spots were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS) with MASCOT analysis, in order to identify the corresponding proteins. ELISAs were performed on a different cohort of endometriosis (n = 120) and healthy patients (n = 20) in order to confirm the differential expression of the identified proteins. ROC analysis of ELISA results confirmed the statistical significance of the differential expression for one of these proteins: Zn-alpha2-glycoprotein (P = 0.019). We propose the analysis of the expression level of this protein in the serum as a new non-invasive diagnostic test for endometriosis. PMID:24648304

  10. Air Pollution Exposures During Adulthood and Risk of Endometriosis in the Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Aschengrau, Ann; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter and proximity to large roadways may promote disease mechanisms, including systemic inflammation, hormonal alteration, and vascular proliferation, that may contribute to the development and severity of endometriosis. Objective: Our goal was to determine the association of air pollution exposures during adulthood, including distance to road, particulate matter < 2.5 μm, between 2.5 and 10 μm, and < 10 μm, (PM2.5, PM10–2.5, PM10), and timing of exposure with risk of endometriosis in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Methods: Proximity to major roadways and outdoor levels of PM2.5, PM10–2.5, and PM10 were determined for all residential addresses from 1993 to 2007. Multivariable-adjusted time-varying Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relation between these air pollution exposures and endometriosis risk. Results: Among 84,060 women, 2,486 incident cases of surgically confirmed endometriosis were identified over 710,230 person-years of follow-up. There was no evidence of an association between endometriosis risk and distance to road or exposure to PM2.5, PM10–2.5, or PM10 averaged over follow-up or during the previous 2- or 4-year period. Conclusions: Traffic and air pollution exposures during adulthood were not associated with incident endometriosis in this cohort of women. Citation: Mahalingaiah S, Hart JE, Laden F, Aschengrau A, Missmer SA. 2014. Air pollution exposures during adulthood and risk of endometriosis in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Environ Health Perspect 122:58–64; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306627 PMID:24225723

  11. A Case of Multisystem Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Athwal, Pardeep; Patel, Krishna; Hassani, Cameron; Bahadori, Shapour; Nardi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare complication secondary to pleural endometriosis. We present a case of a 37-year-old-female with a history of recurrent pneumothoraces with an associated temporal relationship to the onset of her menses. In addition to her recurrent pneumothoraces, on further evaluation, she was found to have multiple nodular masses within the omentum. A thoracoscopic biopsy was subsequently performed, which showed endometrial implants within the pleural space and within the omental cavity. The radiological features and pathogenesis of this rare disease are reviewed and discussed with reference to relevant literature. PMID:24421917

  12. A case of multisystem endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Athwal, Pardeep; Patel, Krishna; Hassani, Cameron; Bahadori, Shapour; Nardi, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare complication secondary to pleural endometriosis. We present a case of a 37-year-old-female with a history of recurrent pneumothoraces with an associated temporal relationship to the onset of her menses. In addition to her recurrent pneumothoraces, on further evaluation, she was found to have multiple nodular masses within the omentum. A thoracoscopic biopsy was subsequently performed, which showed endometrial implants within the pleural space and within the omental cavity. The radiological features and pathogenesis of this rare disease are reviewed and discussed with reference to relevant literature. PMID:24421917

  13. Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Deodutta; Morgan, Marisa; Yoo, Changwon; Deoraj, Alok; Roy, Sandhya; Yadav, Vijay Kumar; Garoub, Mohannad; Assaggaf, Hamza; Doke, Mayur

    2015-01-01

    We present a combined environmental epidemiologic, genomic, and bioinformatics approach to identify: exposure of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity; epidemiologic association between endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) and health effects, such as, breast cancer or endometriosis; and gene-EDC interactions and disease associations. Human exposure measurement and modeling confirmed estrogenic activity of three selected class of environmental chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenols (BPs), and phthalates. Meta-analysis showed that PCBs exposure, not Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, increased the summary odds ratio for breast cancer and endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EDC interactions and disease associations identified several hundred genes that were altered by exposure to PCBs, phthalate or BPA. EDCs-modified genes in breast neoplasms and endometriosis are part of steroid hormone signaling and inflammation pathways. All three EDCs–PCB 153, phthalates, and BPA influenced five common genes—CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR2, FOS, and IGF1—in breast cancer as well as in endometriosis. These genes are environmentally and estrogen responsive, altered in human breast and uterine tumors and endometriosis lesions, and part of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in cancer. Our findings suggest that breast cancer and endometriosis share some common environmental and molecular risk factors. PMID:26512648

  14. Estradiol is a critical mediator of macrophage-nerve cross talk in peritoneal endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Erin; Temp, Julia; Esnal-Zufiurre, Arantza; Mechsner, Sylvia; Horne, Andrew W; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2015-08-01

    Endometriosis occurs in approximately 10% of women and is associated with persistent pelvic pain. It is defined by the presence of endometrial tissue (lesions) outside the uterus, most commonly on the peritoneum. Peripheral neuroinflammation, a process characterized by the infiltration of nerve fibers and macrophages into lesions, plays a pivotal role in endometriosis-associated pain. Our objective was to determine the role of estradiol (E2) in regulating the interaction between macrophages and nerves in peritoneal endometriosis. By using human tissues and a mouse model of endometriosis, we demonstrate that macrophages in lesions recovered from women and mice are immunopositive for estrogen receptor β, with up to 20% being estrogen receptor α positive. In mice, treatment with E2 increased the number of macrophages in lesions as well as concentrations of mRNAs encoded by Csf1, Nt3, and the tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptor, TrkB. By using in vitro models, we determined that the treatment of rat dorsal root ganglia neurons with E2 increased mRNA concentrations of the chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 that stimulated migration of colony-stimulating factor 1-differentiated macrophages. Conversely, incubation of colony-stimulating factor 1 macrophages with E2 increased concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin 3, which stimulated neurite outgrowth from ganglia explants. In summary, we demonstrate a key role for E2 in stimulating macrophage-nerve interactions, providing novel evidence that endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent neuroinflammatory disorder. PMID:26073038

  15. Ecto-nucleotidases Activities in the Contents of Ovarian Endometriomas: Potential Biomarkers of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Texidó, Laura; Romero, Claudia; García-Valero, José; Fernández Montoli, M. Eulalia; Baixeras, Núria; Condom, Enric; Ponce, Jordi; García-Tejedor, Amparo; Martín-Satué, Mireia

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is a common gynecologic condition affecting millions of women worldwide. It is an inflammatory, estrogen-dependent complex disorder, with broad symptomatic variability, pelvic pain, and infertility being the main characteristics. Ovarian endometriomas are frequently developed in women with endometriosis. Late diagnosis is one of the main problems of endometriosis; thus, it is important to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the ecto-nucleotidases activities in the contents of endometriomas. These enzymes, through the regulation of extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, are key enzymes in inflammatory processes, and their expression has been previously characterized in human endometrium. To achieve our objective, the echo-guided aspirated fluids of endometriomas were analyzed by evaluating the ecto-nucleotidases activities and compared with simple cysts. Our results show that enzyme activities are quantifiable in the ovarian cysts aspirates and that endometriomas show significantly higher ecto-nucleotidases activities than simple cysts (5.5-fold increase for ATPase and 20-fold for ADPase), thus being possible candidates for new endometriosis biomarkers. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of ecto-nucleotidases bearing exosomes in these fluids. These results add up to the knowledge of the physiopathologic mechanisms underlying endometriosis and, open up a promising new field of study. PMID:25276049

  16. Bladder endometriosis, a remarkable resemblance in a monozygotic twin

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    It is known for many years that heritability plays a role in the development of endometriosis in many patients. Deep endometriosis of the bladder is a rare presentation of the disease and bladder endometriosis was not reported in monozygotic twin studies so far. Since monozygotic twins share the same genes, concordance and differences in presentation of endometriosis may help to discriminate between genetic and environmental determinants. The remarkable resemblance in the presentation of bladder endometriosis in this monozygotic twin seems to indicate that genetic factors are of importance in the arising of deep endometriosis in the bladder too. PMID:21125001

  17. Endometriosis: A New Cellular and Molecular Genetic Approach for Understanding the Pathogenesis and Evolutivity

    PubMed Central

    Bouquet De Jolinière, Jean; Ayoubi, Jean Marc Bernard; Gianaroli, Luca; Dubuisson, Jean Bernard; Gogusev, Jean; Feki, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign disease with high prevalence in women of reproductive age estimated between 10 and 15% and is associated with considerable morbidity. Its etiology and pathogenesis are controversial but it is believed to involve multiple genetic, environmental, immunological, angiogenic, and endocrine processes. Altered expressions of growth factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, and enzymes for estrogen synthesis and metabolism have been frequently observed in this condition. The possibility of genetic basis of endometriosis is demonstrated in studies of familial disease, in which the incidence of endometriosis is higher for first-degree relatives of probands as compared to controls. This review describes mainly the cellular, cytochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features of endometriotic lesions and cultured endometriotic cells. In attempts to identify candidate gene (s) involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, a tissue-based approaches including conventional cytogenetics (RHG-banding), loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were employed. In addition to the karyotypic anomalies, consistent chromosome instability was confirmed by CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The nature and significance of the molecular genetic aberrations in relation to the locations and function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes will be discussed. At last, a possible pathogenic role of embryonic duct remnants was observed in seven female fetal reproductive tract in endometriosis and may induce a discussion about the beginning of ovarian tumors and malignant proliferations. PMID:25593940

  18. Molecular and preclinical basis to inhibit PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 as a novel nonsteroidal therapy for endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Arosh, Joe A.; Lee, JeHoon; Balasubbramanian, Dakshnapriya; Stanley, Jone A.; Long, Charles R.; Meagher, Mary W.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Starzinski-Powitz, Anna; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a debilitating, estrogen-dependent, progesterone-resistant, inflammatory gynecological disease of reproductive age women. Two major clinical symptoms of endometriosis are chronic intolerable pelvic pain and subfertility or infertility, which profoundly affect the quality of life in women. Current hormonal therapies to induce a hypoestrogenic state are unsuccessful because of undesirable side effects, reproductive health concerns, and failure to prevent recurrence of disease. There is a fundamental need to identify nonestrogen or nonsteroidal targets for the treatment of endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are higher in women with endometriosis, and this increased PGE2 plays important role in survival and growth of endometriosis lesions. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pharmacological inhibition of PGE2 receptors, EP2 and EP4, on molecular and cellular aspects of the pathogenesis of endometriosis and associated clinical symptoms. Using human fluorescent endometriotic cell lines and chimeric mouse model as preclinical testing platform, our results, to our knowledge for the first time, indicate that selective inhibition of EP2/EP4: (i) decreases growth and survival of endometriosis lesions; (ii) decreases angiogenesis and innervation of endometriosis lesions; (iii) suppresses proinflammatory state of dorsal root ganglia neurons to decrease pelvic pain; (iv) decreases proinflammatory, estrogen-dominant, and progesterone-resistant molecular environment of the endometrium and endometriosis lesions; and (v) restores endometrial functional receptivity through multiple mechanisms. Our novel findings provide a molecular and preclinical basis to formulate long-term nonestrogen or nonsteroidal therapy for endometriosis. PMID:26199416

  19. Molecular and preclinical basis to inhibit PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 as a novel nonsteroidal therapy for endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Arosh, Joe A; Lee, JeHoon; Balasubbramanian, Dakshnapriya; Stanley, Jone A; Long, Charles R; Meagher, Mary W; Osteen, Kevin G; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L; Burghardt, Robert C; Starzinski-Powitz, Anna; Banu, Sakhila K

    2015-08-01

    Endometriosis is a debilitating, estrogen-dependent, progesterone-resistant, inflammatory gynecological disease of reproductive age women. Two major clinical symptoms of endometriosis are chronic intolerable pelvic pain and subfertility or infertility, which profoundly affect the quality of life in women. Current hormonal therapies to induce a hypoestrogenic state are unsuccessful because of undesirable side effects, reproductive health concerns, and failure to prevent recurrence of disease. There is a fundamental need to identify nonestrogen or nonsteroidal targets for the treatment of endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are higher in women with endometriosis, and this increased PGE2 plays important role in survival and growth of endometriosis lesions. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pharmacological inhibition of PGE2 receptors, EP2 and EP4, on molecular and cellular aspects of the pathogenesis of endometriosis and associated clinical symptoms. Using human fluorescent endometriotic cell lines and chimeric mouse model as preclinical testing platform, our results, to our knowledge for the first time, indicate that selective inhibition of EP2/EP4: (i) decreases growth and survival of endometriosis lesions; (ii) decreases angiogenesis and innervation of endometriosis lesions; (iii) suppresses proinflammatory state of dorsal root ganglia neurons to decrease pelvic pain; (iv) decreases proinflammatory, estrogen-dominant, and progesterone-resistant molecular environment of the endometrium and endometriosis lesions; and (v) restores endometrial functional receptivity through multiple mechanisms. Our novel findings provide a molecular and preclinical basis to formulate long-term nonestrogen or nonsteroidal therapy for endometriosis. PMID:26199416

  20. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Endometriosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose endometriosis? Skip sharing on social media ... under a microscope, to confirm the diagnosis. 1 Health care providers may also use imaging methods to produce ...

  1. Endometriosis: bright future for a cloudy past?

    PubMed

    Nothnick, Warren B

    2015-01-21

    New estrogen receptor ligands arrest endometriotic implant survival but spare reproductive cycles in a mouse model of endometriosis, thus forging a path to new treatment options (Zhao et al., this issue). PMID:25609165

  2. Parametrial and rectovaginal adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, U; Rhiem, K; Kaminski, M; Wardelmann, E; Trog, D; Valter, M; Richter, O N

    2005-01-01

    Malignant extragonadal tumors arising from endometriosis are rare. We report on two cases. A 41-year-old gravida 1, para 1 (G1P1), with adenocarcinoma of the right parametrium arising from endometriosis and a 51-year-old G1P1 with endometriosis-associated rectovaginal adenocarcinoma were treated. Treatment included radical surgery plus radiation therapy. While the former patient was doing well 2 years after the primary diagnosis, the latter suffered a local pelvic recurrence 2 years later. Although there are no randomized controlled studies, radical surgery followed by radiation therapy seems generally to be the treatment of choice. The analysis of PTEN in various forms of endometriosis and its malignant transformation may help in understanding the early steps of tumorigenesis. PMID:16343215

  3. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    PubMed Central

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  4. Atypical retroperitoneal endometriosis and use of tamoxifen*

    PubMed Central

    Naufel, Daniel Zambuzzi; Penachim, Thiago José; de Freitas, Leandro Luiz Lopes; Cardia, Patricia Prando; Prando, Adilson

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of the retroperitoneum by endometriosis occurs only sporadically. In the present report, emphasis will be given to the magnetic resonance imaging findings which raised the diagnostic suspicion of periureteral lesion in a patient undergoing tamoxifen therapy, presenting with left upper quadrant pain and hydronephrosis. Histopathological findings obtained by means of computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy revealed the diagnosis of periureteral endometriosis. PMID:25741109

  5. Dysmenorrhea and Endometriosis in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Tasuku

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is defined as symptoms associated with menstruation, such as abdominal pain, cramping and lumbago, that interfere with daily activity. Primary dysmenorrhea refers to menstrual pain without underlying pathology, whereas secondary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain associated with underlying pathology. Endometriosis, one of the main causes of secondary dysmenorrhea, induces dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain and infertility, resulting in marked reduction of quality of life during reproductive age. This review article is a comprehensive overview of dysmenorrhea and endometriosis in young women. PMID:24574576

  6. Higher SOD1 Gene Expression in Cumulus Cells From Infertile Women With Moderate and Severe Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Donabela, Flávia Cappello; Meola, Juliana; Padovan, Cristiana Carolina; de Paz, Cláudia Cristina Paro; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2015-11-01

    It is questioned whether worsening of oocyte quality and oxidative stress (OS) are involved in the pathogenesis of infertility related to endometriosis and in compromised intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. Cumulus cells (CCs) protect oocytes from entering apoptosis induced by OS. Thus, we carried out a case-control study comparing expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4; genes encoding for the main antioxidant enzymes) in CCs from mature oocytes of 26 infertile patients with minimal/mild endometriosis, 14 patients with moderate/severe endometriosis, and 41 controls undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for ICSI, using real-time polymerase chain reaction. As a secondary objective, we investigated the interaction between the expression of these genes and clinical pregnancy (CP) by a statistical model. Only infertile women with moderate/severe endometriosis showed increased expression of the SOD1 in CCs compared to women with minimal/mild endometriosis and controls, with a positive interaction between increased expression and the occurrence of CP, suggesting that SOD1 might be a potential biomarker of CP following ICSI. PMID:25947891

  7. Endometriosis: Survey of Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Options and Latest Research Work

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz-Böss, I.; Laschke, M. W.; Müller, F.; Rosenbaum, P.; Baum, S.; Solomayer, E. F.; Ulrich, U.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most frequent benign diseases in women of child-bearing age. The main symptoms are chronic upper abdominal pain and infertility. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis are as yet insufficiently clarified. Thus, therapy is mainly symptomatic with laparoscopic surgery being the gold standard. The aim of drug therapy is to achieve a hypo-oestrogenic condition. In cases of severe endometriosis and a desire to have children there is often an indication for assisted reproduction. The present article illustrates almost all current aspects on the diagnosis of and therapy of endometriosis. From the clinical viewpoint, emphasis is placed on the rare cases of deeply infiltrating endometriosis that are, however, accompanied with a high morbidity. Current therapeutic options in cases of infertility are also presented in more detail. Furthermore, special attention is paid to the latest research results from both clinical and basic research fields in order to demonstrate our current knowledge on the pathogenesis and, where possible, potentially related therapeutic options. PMID:25221341

  8. A call for more transparency of registered clinical trials on endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Sun-Wei; Hummelshoj, Lone; Olive, David L.; Bulun, Serdar E.; D'Hooghe, Thomas M.; Evers, Johannes L.H.

    2009-01-01

    In response to the pressing need for more efficacious and safer therapeutics for endometriosis, there have been numerous reports in the last decade of positive results from animal and in vitro studies of various compounds as potential therapeutics for endometriosis. A handful of these have undergone phase II/III clinical trials. Since the announcement of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors that mandated registration as a prerequisite for publication, 57 endometriosis-related clinical trials have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, an Internet-based public depository for information on drug studies. Among them, 25 are listed as completed, and 2 as suspended. There are 15 completed phase II/III trials, which evaluated the efficacy of various promising compounds. Yet only three of the 15 trials (20%) have published their results. The remaining 12 (80%) studies so far have not published their findings. We argue that this apparent lack of transparency will actually not benefit the trial sponsors or the public, and will ultimately prove detrimental to research efforts attempting to develop more efficacious and safer therapeutics for endometriosis. Thus we call for more transparency of clinical trials on endometriosis. PMID:19264712

  9. Uterine Leukocyte Function and Dysfunction: A Hypothesis on the Impact of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Kirstin L; Fazleabas, Asgerally T

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the growth of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterus. The disease affects approximately 10-15% of women of reproductive age and presents with clinical symptoms of pelvic pain and infertility. Changes in the leukocyte populations within the ectopic tissue and eutopic endometrium have been reported, and data suggest these alterations contribute to the pathology and symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discussed differences when comparing uterine NK cells and regulatory T cells within the eutopic endometrium between patients with endometriosis and healthy patients, and how these differences relate to implantation failure and/or decreased clearance of menstrual tissue in patients with the disease. The data demonstrate a critical need to examine endometrium and menstrual tissue in patients with endometriosis excluded from studies examining unknown causes of infertility and heavy menstrual bleeding. The information gathered from excluded patients will further enhance our understanding of how the immune system contributes to the pathophysiology of endometriosis and help to identify biomarkers for patients at higher risk for developing endometriosis-associated infertility. PMID:26782366

  10. Endometriosis and physical exercises: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical exercise seems to have protective effects against diseases that involve inflammatory processes since it induces an increase in the systemic levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also acts by reducing estrogen levels. Evidence has suggested that the symptoms associated with endometriosis result from a local inflammatory peritoneal reaction caused by ectopic endometrial implants. Thus, the objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between physical exercise and the prevalence and/or improvement of the symptoms associated with endometriosis. To this end, data available in PubMed (1985–2012) were surveyed using the terms “endometriosis and physical exercises”, “endometriosis and life style and physical exercises” in the English language literature. Only 6 of the 935 articles detected were included in the study. These studies tried establish a possible relationship between the practice of physical exercise and the prevalence of endometriosis. The data available are inconclusive regarding the benefits of physical exercise as a risk factor for the disease and no data exist about the potential impact of exercise on the course of the endometriosis. In addition, randomized studies are necessary. PMID:24393293

  11. [Endometriosis: physiopathology and investigation trends (first part)].

    PubMed

    Ayala Yánez, Rodrigo; Mota González, Manuel

    2007-08-01

    Until today endometriosis continues to be a diagnostic challenge since the only way to confirm a diagnosis, based on clinical criteria, is through direct visualization of the endometriosis lesions. This has a direct impact in the development of proper statistics on the incidence and prevalence of endometriosis. Current research has been focused on the basis of the Retrograde Menstruation theory, establishing the involvement of various biochemical, immunologic and molecular factors within the physiopathology of endometriosis. The development of endometriosis has been divided into 5 basic processes: adhesion, invasion, recruiting, angiogenesis and proliferation, here, we have revised the first two due to the importance they potentially contain with regards to diagnosis and therapy. Research on adhesion has led to studies on the peritoneal epithelium structure, the role of integrins, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM), cadherins and hyaluronic acid; invasiveness has led to the study of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), various protocols on metaloproteinases and their inhibitors as well as their interactions and response to sexual steroids, tumor growth factor beta (TGF-beta), interleukins and metalloproteinase polymorphisms. These advances have been crucial, though various observations leads us to believe that the etiology is multifactorial, there are factors whose antagonists, inhibitors or suppressors may actually have a role as molecular markers or therapeutic agents of endometriosis. PMID:18293678

  12. [ENZIAN-score, a classification of deep infiltrating endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Tuttlies, F; Keckstein, J; Ulrich, U; Possover, M; Schweppe, K W; Wustlich, M; Buchweitz, O; Greb, R; Kandolf, O; Mangold, R; Masetti, W; Neis, K; Rauter, G; Reeka, N; Richter, O; Schindler, A E; Sillem, M; Terruhn, V; Tinneberg, H R

    2005-10-01

    The ENZIAN-Score is presented as a new instrument to classify the deep infiltrating endometriosis. Especially the retroperitoneal part of the severe endometriosis is focussed on. In analogy to an oncological staging four different stages are pronounced. The localisation and the expansion of the endometriosis nodule was indicated to different subgroups. The still used rAFS-score is of no clinical evidence, as we pointed out in a retrospective study of our patients with severe intestinal endometriosis. PMID:16195969

  13. A polymorphism in a let-7 microRNA binding site of KRAS in women with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Grechukhina, Olga; Petracco, Rafaella; Popkhadze, Shota; Massasa, Efi; Paranjape, Trupti; Chan, Elcie; Flores, Idhaliz; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Taylor, Hugh S

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis is found in 5–15% of women of reproductive age and is more frequent in relatives of women with the disease. Activation of KRAS results in de novo endometriosis in mice, however, activating KRAS mutations have not been identified in women. We screened 150 women with endometriosis for a polymorphism in a let-7 microRNA (miRNA) binding site in the 3'-UTR of KRAS and detected a KRAS variant allele in 31% of women with endometriosis as opposed to 5% of a large diverse control population. KRAS mRNA and protein expression were increased in cultured endometrial stromal cells of women with the KRAS variant. Increased KRAS protein was due to altered miRNA binding as demonstrated in reporter assays. Endometrial stromal cells from women with the KRAS variant showed increased proliferation and invasion. In a murine model, endometrial xenografts containing the KRAS variant demonstrated increased proliferation and decreased progesterone receptor levels. These findings suggest that an inherited polymorphism of a let-7 miRNA binding site in KRAS leads to abnormal endometrial growth and endometriosis. The LCS6 polymorphism is the first described genetic marker of endometriosis risk. PMID:22307873

  14. Intussusception secondary to endometriosis of the cecum

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Hideki; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Nakata, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Toshikazu; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intussusception in adults is a rare cause of bowel obstruction. Endometriosis of the bowel is also a rare entity that can be the cause of bowel obstruction. Here, we report a rare case of intussusception secondary to endometriosis of the cecum. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 40-year-old woman presented to the hospital with a one-week history of intermittent epigastric pain. On physical examination, there was a soft, round non-tender palpable mass in the right flank and abdominal computed tomography scan revealed an intussusception. We made the diagnosis of ileo-colic intussusception and performed ileocecal resection. The surgical specimen revealed a round submucosal cystic mass in the cecum and the histology showed endometriosis of the cecum. DISCUSSION Intussusception in adults is a rare entity present in just 1% of all patients with bowel obstruction, and 5% of all intussusceptions. In general, intussusception in adults has a pathologic lesion as the lead point and the lesion is a malignancy in 2050% of the cases. Thus, the treatment of an intussusception in adults should be operative. Endometriosis of the bowel is a rare cause of intussusception. Small endometriosis lesions of the bowel are unlikely to cause symptoms; however, in patients presenting with bowel obstruction, urgent treatment is indicated. CONCLUSION Intussusception in an adult is a rare cause of bowel obstruction and intussusception caused by endometriosis is also rare. Although rare, the diagnosis of endometriosis as a cause of intussusception must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25460428

  15. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and biobanking harmonization project: II. Clinical and covariate phenotype data collection in endometriosis research

    PubMed Central

    Vitonis, Allison F.; Vincent, Katy; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Fassbender, Amelie; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Hummelshoj, Lone; Giudice, Linda C.; Stratton, Pamela; Adamson, G. David; Becker, Christian M.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To harmonize the collection of nonsurgical clinical and epidemiologic data relevant to endometriosis research, allowing large-scale collaboration. Design An international collaboration involving 34 clinical/academic centers and three industry collaborators from 16 countries on five continents. Setting In 2013, two workshops followed by global consultation, bringing together 54 leaders in endometriosis research. Patients None. Intervention(s) Development of a self-administered endometriosis patient questionnaire (EPQ), based on [1] systematic comparison of questionnaires from eight centers that collect data from endometriosis cases (and controls/comparison women) on a medium to large scale (publication on >100 cases); [2] literature evidence; and [3] several global consultation rounds. Main Outcome Measure(s) Standard recommended and minimum required questionnaires to capture detailed clinical and covariate data. Result(s) The standard recommended (EPHect EPQ-S) and minimum required (EPHect EPQ-M) questionnaires contain questions on pelvic pain, subfertility and menstrual/reproductive history, hormone/medication use, medical history, and personal information. Conclusion(s) The EPQ captures the basic set of patient characteristics and exposures considered by the WERF EPHect Working Group to be most critical for the advancement of endometriosis research, but is also relevant to other female conditions with similar risk factors and/or symptomatology. The instruments will be reviewed based on feedback from investigators, and–after a first review after 1 year–triannually through systematic follow-up surveys. Updated versions will be made available through http://endometriosisfoundation.org/ephect. PMID:25256930

  16. Radical Surgery for Endometriosis: Analysis of Quality of Life and Surgical Procedure

    PubMed Central

    De la Hera-Lazaro, Cristina M.; Muñoz-González, Jose L.; Perez, Reyes Oliver; Vellido-Cotelo, Rocío; Díez-Álvarez, Alvaro; Muñoz-Hernando, Leticia; Alvarez-Conejo, Carmen; Jiménez-López, Jesús S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The main aim of this study is to determine the improvement in quality of life in patients who have undergone radical surgery because of severe endometriosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS This nonrandomized interventional study (quasi experimental) was carried out between January 2009 and September 2014. A total of 46 patients with diagnosis of severe endometriosis were included. Radical surgery, including hysterectomy, was performed. Acting as their own control group, the patients were asked to fill in a validated questionnaire of quality of life [Endometriosis Health Profile-5 (EHP-5)] and a visual analog scale of pain at the moment of the preoperative visit (one month prior to surgery) and six months after the surgery. RESULTS Radical surgery for endometriosis was performed in 46 patients at our center over the period of six years. Among the patients, 73.9% of them had undergone previous surgery for endometriosis. In 82.6% of cases, a complete laparoscopic resection was carried out. Gastrointestinal tract resection was performed in 21.7%, and urinary tract resection was necessary in 8.7%. The mean age of the patients was 38.6 years. The rate of complications was 30.4%. Six months after the surgery, all items of the EHP-5 questionnaire had a lower score, which means an improvement in all aspects of quality of life related to endometriosis. The difference obtained between the scores before and after the surgery was statistically significant. The mean visual analog scale score before the surgery was 8.5, whereas it decreased to 1.4 after the surgery (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Performing a radical surgery is a difficult decision to make; however, it can provide optimal results in terms of improvement of quality of life and, therefore, should be considered when conservative therapy fails. PMID:26966396

  17. Models of endometriosis and their utility in studying progression to ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    King, Claire M; Barbara, Cynthia; Prentice, Andrew; Brenton, James D; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common benign gynaecological condition affecting at least 10% of women of childbearing age and is characterized by pain--frequently debilitating. Although the exact prevalence is unknown, the economic burden is substantial (∼$50 billion a year in the USA alone) and it is associated with considerable morbidity. The development of endometriosis is inextricably linked to the process of menstruation and thus the models that best recapitulate the human disease are in menstruating non-human primates. However, the use of these animals is ethically challenging and very expensive. A variety of models in laboratory animals have been developed and the most recent are based on generating menstrual-like endometrial tissue that can be transferred to a recipient animal. These models are genetically manipulable and facilitate precise mechanistic studies. In addition, these models can be used to study malignant transformation in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Epidemiological and molecular evidence indicates that endometriosis is the most plausible precursor of both clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer (OCCA and OEA, respectively). While this progression is rare, understanding the underlying mechanisms of transformation may offer new strategies for prevention and therapy. Our ability to pursue this is highly dependent on improved animal models but the current transgenic models, which genetically modify the ovarian surface epithelium and oviduct, are poor models of ectopic endometrial tissue. In this review we describe the various models of endometriosis and discuss how they may be applicable to developing our mechanistic understanding of OCCA and OEA. PMID:26456077

  18. Pathophysiology and Immune Dysfunction in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Soo Hyun; Monsanto, Stephany P.; Miller, Caragh; Singh, Sukhbir S.; Thomas, Richard; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, chronic, proinflammatory disease prevalent in 10% of women of reproductive age worldwide. Characterized by the growth of endometrium-like tissue in aberrant locations outside of the uterus, it is responsible for symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and subfertility that degrade quality of life of women significantly. In Canada, direct and indirect economic cost of endometriosis amounts to 1.8 billion dollars, and this is elevated to 20 billion dollars in the United States. Despite decades of research, the etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis still remain to be elucidated. This review aims to bring together the current understanding regarding the pathogenesis of endometriosis with specific focus on mechanisms behind vascularization of the lesions and the contribution of immune factors in facilitating lesion establishment and development. The role of hormones, immune cells, and cytokine signaling is highlighted, in addition to discussing the current pharmaceutical options available for management of pain symptoms in women with endometriosis. PMID:26247027

  19. Pathophysiology and Immune Dysfunction in Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soo Hyun; Monsanto, Stephany P; Miller, Caragh; Singh, Sukhbir S; Thomas, Richard; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, chronic, proinflammatory disease prevalent in 10% of women of reproductive age worldwide. Characterized by the growth of endometrium-like tissue in aberrant locations outside of the uterus, it is responsible for symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and subfertility that degrade quality of life of women significantly. In Canada, direct and indirect economic cost of endometriosis amounts to 1.8 billion dollars, and this is elevated to 20 billion dollars in the United States. Despite decades of research, the etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis still remain to be elucidated. This review aims to bring together the current understanding regarding the pathogenesis of endometriosis with specific focus on mechanisms behind vascularization of the lesions and the contribution of immune factors in facilitating lesion establishment and development. The role of hormones, immune cells, and cytokine signaling is highlighted, in addition to discussing the current pharmaceutical options available for management of pain symptoms in women with endometriosis. PMID:26247027

  20. Update on the treatment of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Chae, Hee Dong; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kang, Byung Moon

    2013-06-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterus, causing diverse progressive symptoms such as infertility, pelvic pain, and dysmenorrhea. Although endometriosis has been described since the 1800s, the mechanisms responsible for its pathogenesis and progression remain poorly understood. It is well established that endometriosis grows and regresses in an estrogen-dependent fashion and the disease can be effectively cured by definitive surgery. However, prolonged medical therapy may be needed in most of the cases since conservative surgery is usually performed especially in young women. This treatment modality is often associated with only partial relief and/or recurrence of the disease. In the present review, up-to-date findings on the treatment of endometriosis will be briefly summarized. The outcomes of surgery in patients with endometriosis will be reviewed in terms of pelvic pain relief as well as infertility treatment largely based on recent Cochrane reviews and clinical reports. The efficacy of newer drugs including aromatase inhibitor, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and dienogest will be also reviewed based on recent clinical studies. PMID:23875160

  1. Natural Killer Cells: Key Players in Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Thiruchelvam, Uma; Wingfield, Mary; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2015-10-01

    Endometriosis affects more than 10% of women, causing significant pain and morbidity. It is also a significant cause of infertility. The aetiology of the disease remains an enigma, and the mechanisms responsible for the associated infertility are unclear. A role for immune cells in endometriosis has been postulated, with attention directed towards natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages. NK cells kill tumours and infected cells but also have roles in tissue remodelling in several organs including the uterus and are key to successful pregnancy. Here, we explore evidence (from peer-reviewed published articles) of phenotypic and functional abnormalities in NK cell subpopulations of women with endometriosis. It is clear that peripheral blood NK cells and peritoneal NK cells have reduced cytotoxic function in women with endometriosis. Uterine NK cells have a vital role in infertility, but very little research has been carried out in this area. We propose that abnormal u NK cell activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis and its associated infertility and that future research should focus on this complex area. PMID:26104509

  2. Association between endometriosis and hyperprolactinemia in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Seddigheh; Mirabi, Parvaneh; Basirat, Zahra; Zeinalzadeh, Mahtab; Khafri, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association of endometriosis with hyperprolactinemia is controversial. Objective: The present study aimed to determine the frequency of endometriosis and association of prolactin with endometriosis in infertile women. Materials and Methods: 256 infertile women who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for the evaluation of infertility, referred to Fatemezahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center were included in a cross-sectional study. The presence of endometriosis was evaluated. To investigate the association of endometriosis with hyperprolactinemia, the patients whose infertility was not caused by endometriosis were included as control group. Serum prolactin (PRL) level was measured in both groups. The comparison of basal serum PRL levels between the two groups was performed, using independent t-test. One way ANOVA was used to determine PRL association with endometriosis stages. Results: The frequency of endometriosis was found to be 29%. PRL levels were significantly higher in endometriosis group compared to control group (23.021.25 vs. 17.221.22 respectively, p=0.004). Statistically significant associations were found between staging of endometriosis and prolactin levels (p=0.01). Conclusion: Hyperprolactinemia may be associated with endometriosis and its progression. PMID:26000006

  3. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonization Project: III. Fluid biospecimen collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research

    PubMed Central

    Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Fassbender, Amelie; Vitonis, Allison F.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hummelshoj, Lone; D'Hooghe, Thomas M.; Adamson, G. David; Giudice, Linda C.; Becker, Christian M.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Adamson, G.D.; Allaire, C.; Anchan, R.; Becker, C.M.; Bedaiwy, M.A.; Buck Louis, G.M.; Calhaz-Jorge, C.; Chwalisz, K.; D'Hooghe, T.M.; Fassbender, A.; Faustmann, T.; Fazleabas, A.T.; Flores, I.; Forman, A.; Fraser, I.; Giudice, L.C.; Gotte, M.; Gregersen, P.; Guo, S.-W.; Harada, T.; Hartwell, D.; Horne, A.W.; Hull, M.L.; Hummelshoj, L.; Ibrahim, M.G.; Kiesel, L.; Laufer, M.R.; Machens, K.; Mechsner, S.; Missmer, S.A.; Montgomery, G.W.; Nap, A.; Nyegaard, M.; Osteen, K.G.; Petta, C.A.; Rahmioglu, N.; Renner, S.P.; Riedlinger, J.; Roehrich, S.; Rogers, P.A.; Rombauts, L.; Salumets, A.; Saridogan, E.; Seckin, T.; Stratton, P.; Sharpe-Timms, K.L.; Tworoger, S.; Vigano, P.; Vincent, K.; Vitonis, A.F.; Wienhues-Thelen, U.-H.; Yeung, P.P.; Yong, P.; Zondervan, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of fluid biospecimens relevant to endometriosis. Design An international collaboration involving 34 clinical/academic centers and 3 industry collaborators from 16 countries on 5 continents. Setting In 2013, 2 workshops were conducted, followed by global consultation, bringing together 54 leaders in endometriosis research and sample processing worldwide. Patient(s) None. Intervention(s) Consensus SOPs were based on: [1] systematic comparison of SOPs from 18 global centers collecting fluid samples from women with and without endometriosis on a medium/large scale (publication on >100 cases), [2] literature evidence where available, or consultation with laboratory experts otherwise, and [3] several global consultation rounds. Main Outcome Measure(s) Standard recommended and minimum required SOPs for biofluid collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research. Result(s) We developed recommended standard and minimum required SOPs for the collection, processing, and storage of plasma, serum, saliva, urine, endometrial/peritoneal fluid, and menstrual effluent, and a biospecimen data-collection form necessary for interpretation of sample-derived results. Conclusion(s) The Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project SOPs allow endometriosis research centers to decrease variability in biofluid sample results, facilitating between-center comparisons and collaborations. The procedures are also relevant to research into other female conditions involving biofluid samples subject to cyclic reproductive influences. The consensus SOPs are based on the best available evidence; areas with limited evidence are identified as requiring further pilot studies. The SOPs will be reviewed based on investigator feedback, and through systematic tri-annual follow-up. Updated versions will be made available at: endometriosisfoundation.org/ephect. PMID:25256929

  4. Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Krester DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ... diagnosis, management. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  5. Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advil and Motrin) or naproxen (Aleve). Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Some women report relief from pain ... Advil and Motrin) or naproxen (Aleve). Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Some women report relief from pain ...

  6. Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the implantation of a fertilized egg or embryo. If there is no pregnancy, progesterone production drops ... changes that may interfere with egg pickup, fertilization, embryo transport through the fallopian tubes, or embryo implantation ...

  7. Correlation between matrix metalloproteinase-9 and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiping; Wang, Jianye; Wang, Haiyu; Tang, Ning; Li, Yunfei; Zhang, Yan; Hao, Tianyu

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial implantation is the major cause of endometriosis (EMS). Matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) can degrade multiple extracellular matrix and has been postulated to be related with EMC occurrence. This study thus investigated serum and ascites levels of MMP-9 in EMS patients, in an attempt to discuss the correlation between MMP-9 and EMS. A total of 100 EMS patients, including eutopic endometrium and ectopic endometrium, were recruited in this study along with hysteromyoma patients as the control group. Peripheral blood and ascites samples were collected and tested for MMP-9 levels using gelatin zymogram and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In EMS patients, MMP-9 levels in serum and ascites were 6.240.53 mM and 38.574.93 mM, respectively. Both of them were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Eutopic endometrium group had higher MMP-9 levels compared to those in ectopic endometrium ones (P<0.05). With advancement of disease stage, EMS patients had progressively elevated MMP-9 levels (P<0.05). Patients at proliferative stage had higher MMP-9 secretion (P<0.05). In summary, site of endometrium, clinical stage and proliferative cycle were independent risk factors for EMS. The elevation of serum and ascites MMP-9 existed in EMS patients, of which those had ectopic endometrium, advanced stage and at proliferative stage had higher MMP-9 expression. PMID:26722547

  8. MR imaging of endometriosis: ten imaging pearls.

    PubMed

    Siegelman, Evan S; Oliver, Edward R

    2012-10-01

    Endometriosis, which is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a common cause of pelvic pain and infertility, affecting as many as 10% of premenopausal women. Because its effects may be devastating, radiologists should be familiar with the various imaging manifestations of the disease, especially those that allow its differentiation from other pelvic lesions. The "pearls" offered here are observations culled from the authors' experience with the use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the detection and characterization of pelvic endometriosis. First, the inclusion of T1-weighted fat-suppressed sequences is recommended for all MR examinations of the female pelvis because such sequences facilitate the detection of small endometriomas and aid in their differentiation from mature cystic teratomas. Second, it must be remembered that benign endometriomas, like many pelvic malignancies, may exhibit restricted diffusion. Although women with endometriosis are at risk for developing clear cell and endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancers (ie, endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers), imaging findings such as enhancing mural nodules should be confirmed before a diagnosis of ovarian malignancy is offered. The presence of a dilated fallopian tube, especially one containing hemorrhagic content, is often associated with pelvic endometriosis. Deep (solid infiltrating) endometriosis can involve the pelvic ligaments, anterior rectosigmoid colon, bladder, uterus, and cul-de-sac, as well as surgical scars; the lesions often have poorly defined margins and T2 signal hypointensity as a result of fibrosis. The presence of subcentimeter foci with T2 hyperintensity representing ectopic endometrial glands within these infiltrating fibrotic masses may help establish the diagnosis. PMID:23065164

  9. Lifetime occupational history and risk of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Jennifer L.; Holt, Victoria L.; Chen, Chu; Davis, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Endometriosis is the presence of functioning endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity, most often in the pelvic peritoneal cavity. Women with endometriosis commonly have dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pain, menorrhagia and/or metrorrhagia; disease complications can include adhesions, chronic pain, and infertility. This exploratory case-control study investigated the relationship between lifetime occupational history and surgically confirmed endometriosis in a population-based sample. Methods Interviews were conducted with cases, all reproductive-aged female enrollees of a large health-maintenance organization first diagnosed with surgically confirmed endometriosis between April 1, 1996 and March 31, 2001 and randomly selected controls from the reproductive-aged female enrollee list from the same time period. Each reported job was coded using US Census Occupations and Industries codes, and jobs were classed into categories. Having ever worked an occupation in a given job class was compared to never having done so using unconditional logistic regression. Results Having ever worked as a flight attendant, service station attendant, or health worker, particularly as a nurse or health aide, was associated with increased risk of endometriosis (flight attendant: OR 9.80, 95% CI 1.08 - 89.02; service station attendant: OR 5.77, 95% CI 1.03 -32.43; health worker: OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03 - 2.15). Income and education did not make a difference in the odds ratio estimates for the occupations examined. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that having ever worked as a flight attendant, service station attendant, or health worker, particularly as a nurse, may be associated with an increased risk of endometriosis. PMID:19377833

  10. Endometrial seedlings. A survival instinct? Immunomodulation and its role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Portelli, M; Pollacco, J; Sacco, K; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Calleja-Agius, J

    2011-12-01

    Endometriosis occurs when ectopic cells from the endometrium implant within the peritoneum. It is considered as a disease of multifactorial aetiology and affects 7-10% of women of reproductive age worldwide. In endometriosis, the immune system is thought to be dysfunctional and various studies have shown cytokine imbalance. Commonly upregulated cytokines include Tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interferon gamma and interleukin-10. Through analysis of the molecular makeup of the peritoneal fluid, a change is shown to occur, conferring resistance from macrophages and lymphocytes to endometrial cells. This is possibly due to a reduced Inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 synthesis. Survival of ectopic endometrial cells also arises through the expression of human leukocyte antigens. Apart from the survival of ectopic/eutopic cells in endometriosis, there is marked cellular proliferation, which has also been attributed to a change in the expression of proteins such as Bcl-2-Associated X protein, B-cell lymphoma-2 protein, transforming growth factor-beta and the enzyme aromatase. Danazol and aromatase inhibitors modulate the immune system, thus allowing partial restoration of cytokine levels. Pharmacogenomics may be the way forward in developing novel treatment modalities for endometriosis. PMID:22036759

  11. STEM CELLS IN ENDOMETRIUM AND THEIR ROLE IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Paula Gabriela Marin; Abrão, Mauricio Simões; Krikun, Graciela; Taylor, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    The human endometrium is a dynamic tissue, which undergoes cycles of growth and regression with each menstrual cycle. Adult progenitor stem cells are likely responsible for this remarkable regenerative capacity; these same progenitor stem cells may also have an enhanced capacity to generate endometriosis if shed in a retrograde fashion. The progenitor stem cells reside in the uterus, however less committed mesenchymal stem cells may also travel from other tissues such as bone marrow to repopulate the progenitor population. Mesenchymal stem cells are also involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and may be the principle source of endometriosis outside of the peritoneal cavity when they differentiate into endometriosis in ectopic locations. Finally, besides progenitor stem cells, recent publications have identified multipotent stem cells in the endometrium. These multipotent stem cells are a readily available source of cells that are useful in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Endometrial stem cells have been used to generate chondrocytes, myocytes, neurons and adiposites in vitro as well as to replace dopiminergic neurons in a murine model of Parkinson disease. PMID:21401624

  12. Human papillomaviruses-related cancers

    PubMed Central

    Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin; Al-Awadhi, Rana; Missaoui, Nabiha; Adam, Ishag; Durusoy, Raika; Ghabreau, Lina; Akil, Nizar; Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Yasmeen, Amber; Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are estimated to be the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Meanwhile, it is well established that infection by high-risk HPVs is considered the major cause of cervical cancer since more than 96% of these cancers are positive for high-risk HPVs, especially types 16 and 18. Moreover, during the last 2 decades, numerous studies pointed-out the possible involvement of high-risk HPV in several human carcinomas including head and neck, colorectal and breast cancers. The association between high-risk HPVs and cervical cancer and potentially other human malignancies would necessitate the introduction of vaccines which were generated against the 2 most frequent high-risk HPVs (types 16 and 18) worldwide, including the Middle East (ME) as well as North African countries. The presence of high-risk HPVs in the pathogenesis of human cancers in the ME, which is essential in order to evaluate the importance of vaccination against HPVs, has not been fully investigated yet. In this review, we present an overview of the existing epidemiological evidence regarding the presence of HPV in human cancers in the ME and the potential impact of vaccination against HPV infections and its outcome on human health in this region. PMID:25424787

  13. Is acupuncture effective in the treatment of pain in endometriosis?

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Iréne; Lundeberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endometriosis is a multifactorial, estrogen-dependent, inflammatory gynecological condition – often with long-lasting visceral pelvic pain of different origin, and infertility among women. Current management options for patients’ are often inadequate, with side effects for many for whom acupuncture techniques could be an alternative. Earlier studies have discussed the efficacy of acupuncture, but not its methodological aspects. Objectives To summarize the documented clinical effects of acupuncture on rated visceral pelvic endometriosis-related pain, and associated variables among individuals, within and between studied groups, and to discuss the methodological treatment aspects. Methods Published full text clinical studies, case reports, and observational studies with abstracts written in English were searched by using the keywords “Acupuncture and Endometriosis” in databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL. The reporting guidelines, Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture was used for the methodological report. Results Three studies were found including 99 women, 13–40 years old, with diagnosed endometriosis. The studies were different in research design, needle stimulation techniques, and evaluation instruments. Methodological similarities were seven to12 needle insertions per subject/session, and 15–25 minutes of needle retention time. The needles were placed in lower back/pelvic-abdominal area, in the shank, feet, and hands. Treatment numbers varied from nine to 16 and patients received one to two treatments per week. Similarity in reported treatment effects in the quoted studies, irrespective of research design or treatment technique, was reported decrease of rated pain intensity. Discussion Meta-analysis is the standard procedure for the evaluation of evidence of treatment effects, ie, on a group level, usually without analysis of the individual responses even with obvious spread in the results leading to lack of guidance for treatment of the individual patient. By conceptualizing pain as subjective, the individual aspect should serve as the basis for the analysis to allow clinical recommendations. From a physiological and a western medical perspective, acupuncture can be regarded as a type of sensory stimulation that induces changes in the function of the central nervous system that partly can explain the decrease of perceived pain in response to acupuncture treatment irrespective of the technique. Conclusion Endometriosis is often painful, although with various origin, where standard treatments may be insufficient or involve side effects. Based on the reported studies, acupuncture could be tried as a complement as it is an overall safe treatment. In the future, studies designed for evaluating effectiveness between treatment strategies rather than efficacy design would be preferred as the analyses of treatment effects in the individual patients. PMID:27069371

  14. Metal status in human endometrium: Relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rzymski, Piotr; Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Jakubowski, Karol; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Opala, Tomasz

    2014-07-15

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. - Highlights: • Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are detectable in human endometrium. • Mean metal content in human endometrium decreases in Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd order. • Cigarettes smoking increases endometrial content of Cd and Pb. • Lesioned endometrial tissue was characterized by higher metal contents.

  15. Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hopeman, Margaret M; Riley, Joan K; Frolova, Antonina I; Jiang, Hui; Jungheim, Emily S

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds, and they are classified by the location of the last double bond. Omega 3 (n-3) and omega 6 (n-6) PUFAs are obtained through food sources including fatty fish and seed/vegetable oils, respectively, and they are important to a number of physiologic processes including inflammation. Previous work demonstrates suppressive effects of n-3 PUFAs on endometriotic lesions in animal models and decreased risk of endometriosis among women with high n-3 PUFA intake. Thus, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating levels of PUFAs and endometriosis in women. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional study of serum PUFAs and clinical data from 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Serum PUFAs were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy and included n-3 PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 PUFAs such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships between specific and total serum PUFAs and patient history of endometriosis. Women with high serum EPA levels were 82% less likely to have endometriosis compared to women with low EPA levels (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.78). PMID:25539770

  16. Trace Elements and Endometriosis: The ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Anna Z.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Chen, Zhen; Peterson, C. Matthew; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Croughan, Mary S.; Sun, Liping; Hediger, Mary L.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Varner, Michael W.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been limited study of trace elements and endometriosis. Using a matched cohort design, 473 women aged 18–44 years were recruited into an operative cohort, along with 131 similarly-aged women recruited into a population cohort. Endometriosis was defined as surgically visualized disease in the operative cohort, and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed disease in the population cohort. Twenty trace elements in urine and three in blood were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Logistic regression estimated the adjusted odds (aOR) of endometriosis diagnosis for each element by cohort. No association was observed between any element and endometriosis in the population cohort. In the operative cohort, blood cadmium was associated with a reduced odds of diagnosis (aOR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.98), while urinary chromium and copper reflected an increased odds (aOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.21, 3.19; aOR=2.66; 95% CI: 1.26, 5.64, respectively). The varied associations underscore the need for continued research. PMID:23892002

  17. Bladder Endometriosis Mimicking TCC - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Asish; Bhatnagar, Atul; Seth, B N; Dang, Arbinder; Gupta, Vineeta

    2016-02-01

    Endometriosis is the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Though on its own endometriosis is not a rare lesion, the involvement of the urinary tract is rare but with the bladder being the most commonly affected organ. Endometriosis is usually seen in females between the ages of 30-40 years and may occur due to fluctuating levels of oestrogen and progesterone. Clinically the patient maybe asymptomatic or show symptoms of dysmenorrhea, irregular or heavy periods, pain in the pelvic area, lower abdomen or in the back. It has been suggested that ultrasonography should be done either before or during menstruation as the lesion becomes more evident and a biopsy taken during this period is a strong aid in reaching a final diagnosis. We report here an unusual case of bladder endometriosis where the patient came with severe pelvic pain and an endoluminal mass seen on the ultrasonographic report. Based on these findings a differential of transitional cell carcinoma was given which was ruled out based on the cystoscopic findings. PMID:27042525

  18. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: A PLAUSIBLE HYPOTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A potential connection exists between the increasing prevalence of endometriosis and exposure to organochlorine chemicals. There is evidence that dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) can increase the incidence and severity of the disease in monkeys and can promote the growth or survival of end...

  19. Glutathione-S-transferases M1/T1 gene polymorphisms and endometriosis: a meta-analysis in Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Ping; Xu, Da-Feng; Xu, Wei-Hua; Yao, Jia; Fu, Sheng-Miao

    2015-11-01

    In view of the controversies surrounding the glutathione-S-transferases (GST) M1/T1-endometriosis association, a meta-analysis of the GSTM1/GSTT1 genetic association studies of endometriosis was performed in Chinese populations. PubMed, Springer Link, OvidSP, and Chinese databases were searched for related studies. A total of nine studies on GSTM1-endometriosis involved 874 cases and 997 controls, and five studies on GSTT1 involved 404 cases and 513 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the null genotype of GSTM1/GSTT1 was significantly related to endometriosis risk in Chinese populations (GSTM1, OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.22-4.01; GSTT1, OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.34-3.99). In subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity and source of controls, the same results were observed in Chinese Han and population-based studies. The sensitivity analysis confirmed the reliability and stability of the meta-analysis. No publication bias was found among studies by Egger's test. In conclusion, our meta-analysis supports that the GSTM1/GSTT1 null genotype might contribute to individual susceptibility to endometriosis in Chinese populations, especially in Chinese Han. PMID:26370772

  20. Cytopathological features of scar endometriosis mimicking an adenocarcinoma: A diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Rekhi, Bharat; Sugoor, Pawan; Patil, Asawari; Shylasree, T S; Kerkar, Rajendra; Maheshwari, Amita

    2013-10-01

    Scar endometriosis can be a diagnostic challenge in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears that at times, is the first diagnostic modality in such cases. The challenge is amplified when the clinical details are limited and cytopathological features reveal nuclear atypia. A 33-year-old lady presented with an abdominal swelling that she noticed after she met with a scald. Clinically, the swelling was located lateral to her 3-year-old pfannenstiel incision scar. The initial diagnosis on FNAC was metastatic adenocarcinoma. On review, smears were hypercellular, comprising epithelial cells in groups and focally, regular glandular arrangements, imperceptibly admixed with numerous, relatively smaller, short spindly cells. Epithelial cells exhibited mild to focally, moderate nuclear enlargement/atypia. Subsequent biopsy and excision revealed endometrial glands exhibiting focal nuclear atypia with adjacent stroma. Diagnosis of endometriosis was offered. The results were reinforced with positive estrogen receptor staining in the glands and stroma, along with CD10 positivity in the stroma. The patient was recommended gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs and is presently free of disease a year after her diagnosis. FNAC can be a pitfall in the diagnosis of endometriosis. Correct diagnosis has significant therapeutic implications. Although presence of atypia in such cases should not delude the diagnosing cytopathologist for consideration of endometriosis, it should be documented. The value of clinical history in such cases cannot be overemphasized. PMID:24648677

  1. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis Predicts an Epigenetic Switch for GATA Factor Expression in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Matthew T.; Roqueiro, Damian; Monsivais, Diana; Ercan, C. Mutlu; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Brooks, David C.; Kakinuma, Toshiyuki; Ono, Masanori; Jafari, Nadereh; Dai, Yang; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological disease defined by the extrauterine growth of endometrial-like cells that cause chronic pain and infertility. The disease is limited to primates that exhibit spontaneous decidualization, and diseased cells are characterized by significant defects in the steroid-dependent genetic pathways that typify this process. Altered DNA methylation may underlie these defects, but few regions with differential methylation have been implicated in the disease. We mapped genome-wide differences in DNA methylation between healthy human endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells and correlated this with gene expression using an interaction analysis strategy. We identified 42,248 differentially methylated CpGs in endometriosis compared to healthy cells. These extensive differences were not unidirectional, but were focused intragenically and at sites distal to classic CpG islands where methylation status was typically negatively correlated with gene expression. Significant differences in methylation were mapped to 403 genes, which included a disproportionally large number of transcription factors. Furthermore, many of these genes are implicated in the pathology of endometriosis and decidualization. Our results tremendously improve the scope and resolution of differential methylation affecting the HOX gene clusters, nuclear receptor genes, and intriguingly the GATA family of transcription factors. Functional analysis of the GATA family revealed that GATA2 regulates key genes necessary for the hormone-driven differentiation of healthy stromal cells, but is hypermethylated and repressed in endometriotic cells. GATA6, which is hypomethylated and abundant in endometriotic cells, potently blocked hormone sensitivity, repressed GATA2, and induced markers of endometriosis when expressed in healthy endometrial cells. The unique epigenetic fingerprint in endometriosis suggests DNA methylation is an integral component of the disease, and identifies a novel role for the GATA family as key regulators of uterine physiologyaberrant DNA methylation in endometriotic cells correlates with a shift in GATA isoform expression that facilitates progesterone resistance and disease progression. PMID:24603652

  2. Estrogen-Induced CCN1 Is Critical for Establishment of Endometriosis-Like Lesions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuechao; Li, Quanxi; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.; Lau, Lester F.; Taylor, Robert N.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a prevalent gynecological disorder in which endometrial tissue proliferates in extrauterine sites, such as the peritoneal cavity, eventually giving rise to painful, invasive lesions. Dysregulated estradiol (E) signaling has been implicated in this condition. However, the molecular mechanisms that operate downstream of E in the ectopic endometrial tissue are unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, we used a mouse model of endometriosis. Endometrial tissue from donor mice was surgically transplanted on the peritoneal surface of immunocompetent syngeneic recipient mice, leading to the establishment of cystic endometriosis-like lesions. Our studies revealed that treatment with E led to an approximately 3-fold increase in the lesion size within a week of transplantation. E also caused a concomitant stimulation in the expression of connective tissue growth factor/Cyr61/Nov (CCN1), a secreted cysteine-rich matricellular protein, in the lesions. Interestingly, CCN1 is highly expressed in human ectopic endometriotic lesions. To address its role in endometriosis, endometrial tissue from Ccn1-null donor mice was transplanted in wild-type recipient mice. The resulting ectopic lesions were reduced up to 75% in size compared with wild-type lesions due to diminished cell proliferation and cyst formation. Notably, loss of CCN1 also disrupted the development of vascular networks in the ectopic lesions and reduced the expression of several angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-A and vascular endothelial growth factor-C. These results suggest that CCN1, acting downstream of E, critically controls cell proliferation and neovascularization, which support the growth and survival of endometriotic tissue at ectopic sites. Blockade of CCN1 signaling during the early stages of lesion establishment may provide a therapeutic avenue to control endometriosis. PMID:25321413

  3. Estradiol Is a Critical Mediator of Macrophage-Nerve Cross Talk in Peritoneal Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Erin; Temp, Julia; Esnal-Zufiurre, Arantza; Mechsner, Sylvia; Horne, Andrew W.; Saunders, Philippa T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis occurs in approximately 10% of women and is associated with persistent pelvic pain. It is defined by the presence of endometrial tissue (lesions) outside the uterus, most commonly on the peritoneum. Peripheral neuroinflammation, a process characterized by the infiltration of nerve fibers and macrophages into lesions, plays a pivotal role in endometriosis-associated pain. Our objective was to determine the role of estradiol (E2) in regulating the interaction between macrophages and nerves in peritoneal endometriosis. By using human tissues and a mouse model of endometriosis, we demonstrate that macrophages in lesions recovered from women and mice are immunopositive for estrogen receptor β, with up to 20% being estrogen receptor α positive. In mice, treatment with E2 increased the number of macrophages in lesions as well as concentrations of mRNAs encoded by Csf1, Nt3, and the tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptor, TrkB. By using in vitro models, we determined that the treatment of rat dorsal root ganglia neurons with E2 increased mRNA concentrations of the chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 that stimulated migration of colony-stimulating factor 1–differentiated macrophages. Conversely, incubation of colony-stimulating factor 1 macrophages with E2 increased concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin 3, which stimulated neurite outgrowth from ganglia explants. In summary, we demonstrate a key role for E2 in stimulating macrophage-nerve interactions, providing novel evidence that endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent neuroinflammatory disorder. PMID:26073038

  4. Endometriosis and Infertility: How and When to Treat?

    PubMed Central

    Fadhlaoui, Anis; Bouquet de la Jolinière, Jean; Feki, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue (glands or stroma) outside the uterus, which induces a chronic inflammatory reaction. Although endometriosis impairs fertility, it does not usually completely prevent conception. The question of evidence based-medicine guidelines in endometriosis-associated infertility is weak in many situations. Therefore, we will highlight in this issue where the challenges are. PMID:25593948

  5. Endometriosis-associated pain syndrome: a nurse-led approach

    PubMed Central

    Nagaratnam, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is an enigmatic disease and its fundamental cause is still unknown. Endometriosis-associated pain syndrome is a common problem; it is underdiagnosed and patients suffering from the syndrome are rarely seen in specialist pain clinics. The correlation between the extent of the disease and pain is weak. Endometriosis-associated pain syndrome may be cyclical or persistent and the pain may radiate to other pelvic organs. Optimum treatment is timely intervention using a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26516495

  6. The Computerized Human Relations Program - Humrelat -

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This is the report of a study accomplished in two separate parts: (1) Part I dealt with evaluation of an existing course of instruction in human relations at The Moraine Park Technical Institute, and (2) Part II dealt with the development of a proposed course of instruction in human relations for the technical institute. (Author)

  7. The social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women's lives: a critical narrative review.

    PubMed

    Culley, Lorraine; Law, Caroline; Hudson, Nicky; Denny, Elaine; Mitchell, Helene; Baumgarten, Miriam; Raine-Fenning, Nick

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Endometriosis is a chronic condition affecting between 2 and 17% of women of reproductive age. Common symptoms are chronic pelvic pain, fatigue, congestive dysmenorrhoea, heavy menstrual bleeding and deep dyspareunia. Studies have demonstrated the considerable negative impact of this condition on women's quality of life (QoL), especially in the domains of pain and psychosocial functioning. The impact of endometriosis is likely to be exacerbated by the absence of an obvious cause and the likelihood of chronic, recurring symptoms. The aims of this paper are to review the current body of knowledge on the social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women's lives; to provide insights into women's experience of endometriosis; to provide a critical commentary on the current state of knowledge and to make recommendations for future psycho-social research. METHODS The review draws on a method of critical narrative synthesis to discuss a heterogeneous range of both quantitative and qualitative studies from several disciplines. This included a systematic search, a structured process for selecting and collecting data and a systematic thematic analysis of results. RESULTS A total of 42 papers were included in the review; 23 used quantitative methods, 16 used qualitative methods and 3 were mixed methods studies. The majority of papers came from just four countries: UK (10), Australia (8), Brazil (6) and the USA (5). Key categories of impact identified in the thematic analysis were diagnostic delay and uncertainty; 'QoL' and everyday activities; intimate relationships; planning for and having children; education and work; mental health and emotional wellbeing and medical management and self-management. CONCLUSIONS Endometriosis has a significant social and psychological impact on the lives of women across several domains. Many studies have methodological limitations and there are significant gaps in the literature especially in relation to a consideration of the impact on partners and children. We recommend additional prospective and longitudinal research utilizing mixed methods approaches and endometriosis-specific instruments to explore the impact of endometriosis in more diverse populations and settings. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to develop and evaluate interventions for supporting women and partners living with this chronic and often debilitating condition. PMID:23884896

  8. Laser capture microdissection and cDNA array analysis of endometrium identify CCL16 and CCL21 as epithelial-derived inflammatory mediators associated with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Ashwini L; Murray, Andrew S; Jones, Rebecca L; Hannan, Natalie J; Salamonsen, Lois A; Rombauts, Luk

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding the pathophysiology of chemokine secretion in endometriosis may offer a novel area of therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify chemokines differentially expressed in epithelial glands in eutopic endometrium from normal women and those with endometriosis, and to establish the expression profiles of key chemokines in endometriotic lesions. Methods Laser capture microdissection isolated epithelial glands from endometrial eutopic tissue from women with and without endometriosis in the mid-secretory phase of their menstrual cycles. Gene profiling of the excised glands used a human chemokine and receptor cDNA array. Selected chemokines were further examined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results 22 chemokine/receptor genes were upregulated and two downregulated in pooled endometrial epithelium of women with endometriosis compared with controls. CCL16 and CCL21 mRNA was confirmed as elevated in some women with endometriosis compared to controls on individual samples. Immunoreactive CCL16 and CCL21 were predominantly confined to glands in eutopic and ectopic endometrium: leukocytes also stained. Immunoreactive CCL16 was overall higher in glands in ectopic vs. eutopic endometrium from the same woman (P < 0.05). Staining for CCL16 and CCL21 was highly correlated in individual tissues. Conclusion This study provides novel candidate molecules and suggests a potential local role for CCL16 and CCL21 as mediators contributing to the inflammatory events associated with endometriosis. PMID:17506907

  9. Primary Umbilical Endometriosis: Unusual and Rare Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Fuminori; Hirakawa, Eriko; Azuma, Yukihiro; Uejima, Chihiro; Ashida, Keigo; Harada, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    Primary umbilical endometriosis is a rare disorder and is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue within the umbilicus. A patient with painful mass in the umbilicus during menstrual period is studied in this paper. The possibility of subcutaneous endometriosis should be considered when an umbilical mass is detected despite the absence of previous surgery. In this case, urachal cancer, urachal remnant, umbilical endometriosis, and its malignant transformation were among the diseases considered in the differential diagnosis. Complete excision and histology are necessary to obtain a definitive diagnosis and optimal treatment for umbilical subcutaneous endometriosis.

  10. The impact of endometriosis on IVF/ICSI outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiyuan; Liao, Xiuhua; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Hanwang

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was aimed to investigate the impact of endometriosis on the IVF/ICSI outcomes. A total of 1027 cycles of patients undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment in a reproductive medicine unit of academic hospital were enrolled. In the present study, 431 cycles of patients with endometriosis constituted the study group, including 152 cycles of patients with stage I-II endometriosis and 279 cycles of patients with stage III-IV endometriosis, while 596 cycles of patients with tubal factors infertility were considered as the control group. Ovarian stimulation parameters and IVF/ICSI outcomes were compared. Patients with stage I-II and stage III-IV endometriosis required higher dosage and longer duration of gonadotropins, but had lower day 3 high-quality embryos rate, when compared to patients with tubal infertility. In addition, the number of oocytes retrieved, the number of obtained embryos, the number of day 3 high-quality embryos, serum E2 level on the day of hCG, fertilization rate were lower in patients with stage III-IV endometriosis than those in tubal factors group. Except reduced implantation rate in stage III-IV endometriosis group, no differences were found in other pregnancy parameters. This study suggests that IVF/ICSI yielded similar pregnancy outcomes in patients with different stages of endometriosis and patients with tubal infertility. Therefore, IVF/ICSI can be considered as an effective approach for managing endometriosis-associated infertility. PMID:24040458

  11. [Is endometriosis a precancerous lesion? Perspectives and clinical implications].

    PubMed

    Chene, G; Caloone, J; Moret, S; Le Bail-Carval, K; Chabert, P; Beaufils, E; Mellier, G; Lamblin, G

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between endometriosis and clear cell/endometrioid ovarian cancers (named "Endometriosis Associated Ovarian Cancer" or EAOC). The recent discovery of signaling pathways (especially the SWI/SNF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways) that linked endometriosis and EAOC could lead to the development of specific biomarkers as ARID1A to screen benign to premalignant endometriosis and to new targeted treatment. Moreover, the better understanding of the pathogenesis of the epithelial ovarian cancer arising from the Fallopian tube could allow new early prevention strategies that will be described in this review. PMID:26850282

  12. Extragenital endometriosis: assessment with MR imaging. A pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Menni, Katiuscia; Facchetti, Luca; Cabassa, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is a gynaecologic disease characterized by endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Commonly it affects the pelvic organs. When endometrial nodules or plaques are localized in sites other than the uterus or ovaries, it is termed extragenital endometriosis. Adequate pre-operative assessment is essential for treatment planning. MRI is a non-invasive method with high spatial resolution that allows the multiplanar evaluation of genital and extragenital endometriosis. Herein, we present a pictorial review of a variety of extragenital endometriosis cases, all of which can be encountered in clinical practice. PMID:26846303

  13. Cyst fluid hemoglobin species in endometriosis and its malignant transformation: The role of metallobiology

    PubMed Central

    IWABUCHI, TAKUYA; YOSHIMOTO, CHIHARU; SHIGETOMI, HIROSHI; KOBAYASHI, HIROSHI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relative concentrations of hemoglobin (Hb) species in endometriosis as a possible indicator of malignancy. Electronic absorption spectroscopy was employed to quantify the Hb species present in the cyst fluid collected from 8 patients with endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC), and compared with those present in the cyst fluid of 35 patients with benign endometriotic cysts. The 620/580 nm ratio in the electronic absorption spectrum, which was used as a surrogate indicator of the methemoglobin (metHb)/(oxyhemoglobin+metHb) ratio, was measured in each cyst fluid by ultraviolet/visible grating spectrophotometric microplate reader. The optimal cutoff value was defined according to the analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The sensitivity and specificity of detection were calculated on the basis of the cutoff value to differentiate EAOC from endometriosis. The 620/580 nm ratio of cyst fluid in EAOC patients was much lower than that measured in women with benign cysts (0.389±0.266 vs. 0.666±0.188, P=0.021). ROC curve analysis performed using 0.35 as the optimal cutoff value indicated that the 620/580 nm ratio had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value of 62.5, 100.0, 100.0 and 92.1%, respectively, in the diagnosis of EAOC. In conclusion, metHb is one of the most abundant Hb species in benign cysts, and the absorption 620/580 nm ratio of cyst fluid exhibits high specificity and PPV as a surveillance test for the early detection of malignant transformation of endometriosis. Thus, metallobiology highlights diverse features involved in Hb homeostasis and the pathogenesis of malignant transformation of endometriosis. PMID:27123121

  14. Improving accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis of endometriosis: Role of firefly in minimal access robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lue, John R.; Pyrzak, Adam; Allen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis continues to be a major primary gynecologic etiology of chronic pelvic pain. The symptom profile, which includes cyclic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia or dyschezia, is nonspecific and does not correlate with the extent or severity of disease. Trans-vaginal or trans-rectal ultrasound, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, can help visualize endometriomas and deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Additionally, there have been no serum marker tests available so far. However, even intraoperatively, the diagnosis may be missed, leading to under diagnosis and delayed or noninitiation of treatment. There are thought to be three distinct endometriotic lesions of the pelvis that are seen laparoscopically. The first is that which is visible on the pelvic peritoneal surface or the surface of the ovary, which is commonly termed peritoneal endometriosis. Second, endometriotic lesions that occur within the ovary and form cysts that are often lined with endometrioid mucosa are termed endometriomas. Lastly, rectovaginal endometriomas are endometriotic lesions that contain a mixture of adipose and fibrous tissue located between the rectum and vagina. All of these lesions can be singular or multiple and the pelvis may contain one or all three types of lesions. The shared histologic feature with all three lesions is the presence of endometrial epithelial cells or endometrial stroma. During a diagnostic procedure, the da-Vinci robot and its firefly mode allow for three dimensional visualization and seven degrees of instrument articulation for meticulous dissection of fibrotic areas of peritoneum that may contain deep infiltrating lesions of endometriosis. This case report describes a relatively new and innovative technique for effectively diagnosing and successfully treating endometriosis when other less invasive methods have failed. PMID:27073317

  15. Molecular Evidence for Differences in Endometrium in Severe Versus Mild Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanova, Lusine; Giudice, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Women with stage III/IV versus stage I/II endometriosis have lower implantation and pregnancy rates in natural and assisted reproduction cycles. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms underlying these clinical observations, herein we investigated the transcriptome of eutopic endometrium across the menstrual cycle in the setting of severe versus mild endometriosis. Proliferative (PE), early secretory (ESE), and mid-secretory (MSE) endometrial tissues were obtained from 63 participants with endometriosis (19 mild and 44 severe). Purified RNA was subjected to microarray analysis using the Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix platform. Data were analyzed with GeneSpring and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and subsequently validated. Comparison of differentially regulated genes, analyzed by cycle phase, revealed dysregulation of progesterone and/or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-regulated genes and genes related to thyroid hormone action and metabolism. Also, members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway were observed, with the greatest upregulation of EGFR in severe versus mild disease during the early secretory phase. The extracellular matrix proteoglycan versican (VCAN), which regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, was the most highly expressed gene in severe versus mild disease. Upregulation of microRNA 21 (MIR21) and DICER1 transcripts suggests roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of severe versus mild endometriosis, potentially through regulation of gene silencing and epigenetic mechanisms. These observed differences in transcriptomic signatures and signaling pathways may result in poorly programmed endometrium during the cycle, contributing to lower implantation and pregnancy rates in women with severe versus mild endometriosis. PMID:21063030

  16. Improving accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis of endometriosis: Role of firefly in minimal access robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lue, John R; Pyrzak, Adam; Allen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis continues to be a major primary gynecologic etiology of chronic pelvic pain. The symptom profile, which includes cyclic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia or dyschezia, is nonspecific and does not correlate with the extent or severity of disease. Trans-vaginal or trans-rectal ultrasound, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, can help visualize endometriomas and deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Additionally, there have been no serum marker tests available so far. However, even intraoperatively, the diagnosis may be missed, leading to under diagnosis and delayed or noninitiation of treatment. There are thought to be three distinct endometriotic lesions of the pelvis that are seen laparoscopically. The first is that which is visible on the pelvic peritoneal surface or the surface of the ovary, which is commonly termed peritoneal endometriosis. Second, endometriotic lesions that occur within the ovary and form cysts that are often lined with endometrioid mucosa are termed endometriomas. Lastly, rectovaginal endometriomas are endometriotic lesions that contain a mixture of adipose and fibrous tissue located between the rectum and vagina. All of these lesions can be singular or multiple and the pelvis may contain one or all three types of lesions. The shared histologic feature with all three lesions is the presence of endometrial epithelial cells or endometrial stroma. During a diagnostic procedure, the da-Vinci robot and its firefly mode allow for three dimensional visualization and seven degrees of instrument articulation for meticulous dissection of fibrotic areas of peritoneum that may contain deep infiltrating lesions of endometriosis. This case report describes a relatively new and innovative technique for effectively diagnosing and successfully treating endometriosis when other less invasive methods have failed. PMID:27073317

  17. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions. PMID:24370929

  18. Human alcohol-related neuropathology.

    PubMed

    de la Monte, Suzanne M; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions. PMID:24370929

  19. Association among XRCC1, XRCC3, and BLHX gene polymorphisms and chromosome instability in lymphocytes from patients with endometriosis and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, M S; Vilas Boas, D B; Gigliotti, C B; Salvadori, D M F

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a complex disease that has both benign and malignant characteristics. It affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Studies have demonstrated the existence of common genetic changes in endometriosis and ovarian cancer, suggesting a possible association between these 2 diseases. However, the mechanisms that lead to the development of cancer from endometriosis remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated 3 groups of women: 72 patients with endometriosis, 70 with ovarian cancer, and 70 healthy individuals (controls). Repair (XRCC1 codons 194 and 399, XPD codons 312 and 751, and XRCC3 codon 241)- and metabolism (BLHX codon 443)-related gene polymorphisms were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique; the efficiency of DNA damage repair was analyzed in vitro in lymphocytes exposed to bleomycin. The logistic regression model was used to evaluate key associations. The results showed an increased average of chromosome breakage in bleomycin-treated lymphocytes from patients with endometriosis and ovarian cancer compared with healthy women. We also detected significant association between XRCC1, XRCC3, and BLHX polymorphisms and a high frequency of chromosomal damage. Women with endometriosis or ovarian cancer may have an altered mechanism of DNA repair, and these defects may be related to a higher incidence of ovarian cancer. PMID:24615029

  20. [Expression of oncogenes (c-myc-neu) and prolactin receptor (PRLr) in tissues of women with endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Zamarripa, J M; Bermejo, M L; Bustos, H H; Castro, J I

    2000-03-01

    Endometriosis is a disease of unknown ethology; there are several theories that are unproven. It is known that women with such disease present with infertility, and that recurrence is very high, and apparently not depending of estrogenic stimulus. This phenomenon has been contributed to other growth factors and some oncogens. There are few studies about oncogens or other hormonal receptors; so, this study tries to evaluate them in eutopic tissue and in ectopic one of women with previous diagnosis of endometriosis. Our results show that myc as PRLr are expressed differently in the different tissues; and neu is expressed in the same way in both tissues. So, it was concluded that the cells of the endometriosis focus, have a differential status relating to expression of some of their genes, which target on their development and maintenance in a hormonal environment which differs from the uterine cavity. PMID:10808613

  1. Seminal Plasma Promotes Lesion Development in a Xenograft Model of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    McGuane, Jonathan T; Watson, Katherine M; Zhang, Jamie; Johan, M Zahied; Wang, Zhao; Kuo, Gabriel; Sharkey, David J; Robertson, Sarah A; Hull, M Louise

    2015-05-01

    The factors that predispose one-tenth of reproductive-aged women to endometriosis are poorly understood. We determined that genetic deficiency in transforming growth factor ?1 impairs endometriosis-like lesion growth in mice. Given that seminal plasma is an abundant source of transforming growth factor ?, we evaluated the effect of exposure to seminal plasma on the growth of endometrial lesions. Human endometrial explants were exposed to seminal plasma or to control medium before transfer to Prkdc(scid)-mutant (severe combined immunodeficient) mice. Xenografts exposed to seminal plasma showed an eightfold increase in volume and a 4.3-fold increase in weight after 14 days. These increases were associated with increased proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells and enhanced survival and proliferation of human stromal cells compared with those in control lesions, in which human stromal cell persistence was negligible. Although the distribution of macrophages was altered, their number and activation status did not change in response to seminal plasma. Seminal plasma stimulated the production of a variety of cytokines in endometrial tissue, including growth-regulated oncogene, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1?. These data suggest that seminal plasma enhances the formation of endometriosis-like lesion via a direct effect on endometrial cell survival and proliferation, rather than via macrophage-mediated mechanisms. These findings raise the possibility that endometrial exposure to seminal plasma could contribute to endometriotic disease progression in women. PMID:25907757

  2. TGF-βI Regulates Cell Migration through Pluripotent Transcription Factor OCT4 in Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Au, Heng-Kien; Chang, Jui-Hung; Wu, Yu-Chih; Kuo, Yung-Che; Chen, Yu-Hsi; Lee, Wei-Chin; Chang, Te-Sheng; Lan, Pei-Chi; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Lee, Kha-Liang; Lee, Mei-Tsu; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Huang, Yen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF-β)/TGF-β receptor signal is known to promote cell migration. Up-regulation of TGF-β in serum/peritoneal fluid and increased levels of pluripotent transcription factor OCT4 in endometriotic tissues are frequently observed in patients with endometriosis. However, the mechanisms underlying how TGF-β/TGF-β receptor and OCT4 affect endometriotic cell migration still remain largely unknown. Therefore, endometriotic tissue with high cell migratory capacity were collected from patients with adenomyotic myometrium (n = 23) and chocolate cyst (n = 24); and endometrial tissue with low cell migratory capacity in normal endometrium or hyperplastic endometrium (n = 8) were collected as the controls. We found the mRNA levels of TGF-β receptor I (TGF-β RI) and OCT4 were significantly higher in the high-migratory ectopic endometriotic tissues than those of the low-migratory normal or hyperplastic endometrium. Positive correlations between TGF-β RI and OCT4, and either TGF-β RI or OCT4 with migration-related genes (SNAIL, SLUG and TWIST) regarding the mRNA levels were observed in human endometriotic tissues. TGF-βI dose-dependently increased the gene and protein levels of OCT4, SNAIL and N-Cadherin (N-CAD) and silencing of endogenous OCT4 significantly suppressed the TGF-βI-induced expressions of N-CAD and SNAIL in primary human endometriotic stromal cells and human endometrial carcinoma cell lines RL95-2 and HEC1A. Furthermore, TGF-βI significantly increased the migration ability of endometriotic cells and silencing of OCT4 dramatically suppressed the TGF-βI-induced cell migration activity evidenced by wound-closure assay, transwell assay, and confocal image of F-actin cellular distribution. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that the niche TGF-β plays a critical role in initiating expressions of pluripotent transcription factor OCT4 which may contribute to the ectopic endometrial growth by stimulating endometrial cell migration. These findings would be useful for developing therapeutic strategies targeting TGF-β-OCT4 signaling to prevent endometriosis in the future. PMID:26675296

  3. TGF-βI Regulates Cell Migration through Pluripotent Transcription Factor OCT4 in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Au, Heng-Kien; Chang, Jui-Hung; Wu, Yu-Chih; Kuo, Yung-Che; Chen, Yu-Hsi; Lee, Wei-Chin; Chang, Te-Sheng; Lan, Pei-Chi; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Lee, Kha-Liang; Lee, Mei-Tsu; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Huang, Yen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF-β)/TGF-β receptor signal is known to promote cell migration. Up-regulation of TGF-β in serum/peritoneal fluid and increased levels of pluripotent transcription factor OCT4 in endometriotic tissues are frequently observed in patients with endometriosis. However, the mechanisms underlying how TGF-β/TGF-β receptor and OCT4 affect endometriotic cell migration still remain largely unknown. Therefore, endometriotic tissue with high cell migratory capacity were collected from patients with adenomyotic myometrium (n = 23) and chocolate cyst (n = 24); and endometrial tissue with low cell migratory capacity in normal endometrium or hyperplastic endometrium (n = 8) were collected as the controls. We found the mRNA levels of TGF-β receptor I (TGF-β RI) and OCT4 were significantly higher in the high-migratory ectopic endometriotic tissues than those of the low-migratory normal or hyperplastic endometrium. Positive correlations between TGF-β RI and OCT4, and either TGF-β RI or OCT4 with migration-related genes (SNAIL, SLUG and TWIST) regarding the mRNA levels were observed in human endometriotic tissues. TGF-βI dose-dependently increased the gene and protein levels of OCT4, SNAIL and N-Cadherin (N-CAD) and silencing of endogenous OCT4 significantly suppressed the TGF-βI-induced expressions of N-CAD and SNAIL in primary human endometriotic stromal cells and human endometrial carcinoma cell lines RL95-2 and HEC1A. Furthermore, TGF-βI significantly increased the migration ability of endometriotic cells and silencing of OCT4 dramatically suppressed the TGF-βI-induced cell migration activity evidenced by wound-closure assay, transwell assay, and confocal image of F-actin cellular distribution. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that the niche TGF-β plays a critical role in initiating expressions of pluripotent transcription factor OCT4 which may contribute to the ectopic endometrial growth by stimulating endometrial cell migration. These findings would be useful for developing therapeutic strategies targeting TGF-β-OCT4 signaling to prevent endometriosis in the future. PMID:26675296

  4. [Essential data set's archetypes for nursing care of endometriosis patients].

    PubMed

    Spigolon, Dandara Novakowski; Moro, Claudia Maria Cabral

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to develop an Essential Data Set for Nursing Care of Patients with Endometriosis (CDEEPE), represented by archetypes. An exploratory applied research with specialists' participation that was carried out at Heath Informatics Laboratory of PUCPR, between February and November of 2010. It was divided in two stages: CDEEPE construction and evaluation including Nursing Process phases and Basic Human Needs, and archetypes development based on this data set. CDEEPE was evaluated by doctors and nurses with 95.9% of consensus and containing 51 data items. The archetype "Perception of Organs and Senses" was created to represents this data set. This study allowed identifying important information for nursing practices contributing to computerization and application of nursing process during care. The CDEEPE was the basis for archetype creation, that will make possible structured, organized, efficient, interoperable, and semantics records. PMID:23596913

  5. Human Relations Education Project. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo Board of Education, NY.

    This project did the planning and pilot phases of an effort to improve the teaching of human relations in grades K-12 of public and private schools in the Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area. In the pilot phase, the project furnished on-the-job training for approximately 70 schools. The training was given by teams of human relations…

  6. Theories on the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Sourial, Samer; Hapangama, Dharani K.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, chronic inflammatory disease defined by the presence of extrauterine endometrial tissue. The aetiology of endometriosis is complex and multifactorial, where several not fully confirmed theories describe its pathogenesis. This review examines existing theories on the initiation and propagation of different types of endometriotic lesions, as well as critically appraises the myriad of biologically relevant evidence that support or oppose each of the proposed theories. The current literature suggests that stem cells, dysfunctional immune response, genetic predisposition, and aberrant peritoneal environment may all be involved in the establishment and propagation of endometriotic lesions. An orchestrated scientific and clinical effort is needed to consider all factors involved in the pathogenesis of this multifaceted disease and to propose novel therapeutic targets to reach effective treatments for this distressing condition. PMID:25763392

  7. Theories on the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Sourial, Samer; Tempest, Nicola; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, chronic inflammatory disease defined by the presence of extrauterine endometrial tissue. The aetiology of endometriosis is complex and multifactorial, where several not fully confirmed theories describe its pathogenesis. This review examines existing theories on the initiation and propagation of different types of endometriotic lesions, as well as critically appraises the myriad of biologically relevant evidence that support or oppose each of the proposed theories. The current literature suggests that stem cells, dysfunctional immune response, genetic predisposition, and aberrant peritoneal environment may all be involved in the establishment and propagation of endometriotic lesions. An orchestrated scientific and clinical effort is needed to consider all factors involved in the pathogenesis of this multifaceted disease and to propose novel therapeutic targets to reach effective treatments for this distressing condition. PMID:25763392

  8. Surgical Therapy of Endometriosis: Challenges and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, S; Ulrich, U; Schweppe, K W

    2013-09-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common disorders encountered in surgical gynaecology. The laparoscopic technique, the planning of the surgical intervention, the extent of information provided to patients and the interdisciplinary coordination make it a challenging intervention. Complete resection of all visible foci of disease offers the best control of symptoms. However, the possibility of achieving this goal is limited by the difficulty of detecting all foci and the risks associated with radical surgical strategies. Thus, the excision of ovarian endometrioma can result in a significant impairment of ovarian function, while damage to nerve structures during resection of the uterosacral ligaments, the parametrium, the rectovaginal septum or the vaginal cuff to treat deep infiltrating endometriosis can lead to serious functional impairments such as voiding disorders. A detailed risk-benefit analysis is therefore necessary, and patients must be treated using an individual approach. PMID:24771943

  9. Surgical Therapy of Endometriosis: Challenges and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, S.; Ulrich, U.; Schweppe, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common disorders encountered in surgical gynaecology. The laparoscopic technique, the planning of the surgical intervention, the extent of information provided to patients and the interdisciplinary coordination make it a challenging intervention. Complete resection of all visible foci of disease offers the best control of symptoms. However, the possibility of achieving this goal is limited by the difficulty of detecting all foci and the risks associated with radical surgical strategies. Thus, the excision of ovarian endometrioma can result in a significant impairment of ovarian function, while damage to nerve structures during resection of the uterosacral ligaments, the parametrium, the rectovaginal septum or the vaginal cuff to treat deep infiltrating endometriosis can lead to serious functional impairments such as voiding disorders. A detailed risk-benefit analysis is therefore necessary, and patients must be treated using an individual approach. PMID:24771943

  10. Spontaneous endometriosis in a mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S; Ochiai, K; Ochi, A; Ito, M; Kamiya, T; Yamamoto, H

    2012-01-01

    A 25-year-old female mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) died after exhibiting weakness and recumbency with serosanguineous ascites. Gross findings included haemoperitoneum and multifocal to diffuse serosal thickening with petechiae and ecchymoses throughout the peritoneum. The uterus was covered entirely with large blood clots and was adherent to the ovaries and pelvic wall. Microscopical and immunohistochemical examination revealed extra- and intra-uterine growth of ectopic endometrial tissue with marked fibrosis. The ectopic endometrial tissues predominantly consisted of stromal cells expressing CD10 and progesterone receptor and variably-sized glands lined by the epithelium with occasional slight expression of oestrogen receptor α. A diagnosis of endometriosis was made. This is the first report of naturally occurring endometriosis in a mandrill. PMID:22520805

  11. Length of Menstrual Cycle and Risk of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ming; Cheng, Yanfei; Bu, Huaien; Zhao, Ye; Zhao, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endometriosis is a complex disease that affects a large number of women worldwide and may cause pain and infertility. To systematically review published studies evaluating the relationship between menstrual cycle length and risk of endometriosis. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE in databases in July 2014 using the keywords “case–control studies,” “epidemiologic determinants,” “risk factors,” “menstrual cycle,” “menstrual length,” “menstrual character,” and “endometriosis.” We included case–control studies published in English that investigated cases of surgically confirmed endometriosis and examined the relationship between endometriosis risk and menstrual cycle. Eleven articles that met the inclusion criteria included data of 3392 women with endometriosis and 5006 controls. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used for the evaluation. For the association of risk of endometriosis and menstrual cycle length shorter than or equal to 27 days (SEQ27) or length longer than or equal to 29 days (LEQ29), the odds ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–1.43) and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.48–0.96), respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that menstrual cycle length SEQ27 increase the risk of endometriosis and cycle length LEQ29 decrease the risk. PMID:26945395

  12. Extrapelvic endometriosis: a rare entity or an under diagnosed condition?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is a clinical entity characterized by the presence of normal endometrial mucosa abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can be either endopelvic or extrapelvicdepending on the location of endometrial tissue implantation. Despite the rarity of extrapelvic endometriosis, several cases of endometriosis of the gastrointestinal tract, the urinarytract, the upper and lower respiratory system, the diaphragm, the pleura and the pericardium, as well as abdominal scars loci have been reported in the literature. There are several theories about the pathogenesis and the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Depending on the place of endometrial tissue implantation, endometriosis can be expressed with a wide variety of symptoms. The diagnosis of this entity is neither easy nor routine. Many diagnostic methods clinical and laboratory have been used, but none of them is the golden standard. The multipotent localization of endometriosis in combination with the wide range of its clinical expression should raise the clinical suspicion in every woman with periodic symptoms of extrapelvic organs. Finally, the therapeutic approach of this clinical entity is also correlated with the bulk of endometriosis and the locum that it is found. It varies from simple observation, to surgical treatment and treatment with medication as well as a combination of those. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1968087883113362. PMID:24294950

  13. Spontaneous External Endometriosis in a Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)

    PubMed Central

    Doré, Monique; Lagacé, Andre

    1985-01-01

    The present report describes a case of external endometriosis in a 28 year old female gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). Microscopical examination of a pelvic mass observed at necropsy revealed ovarian tissue together with uterine glands and stroma, fibrous tissue and many siderophages. Theories of pathogenesis of external endometriosis are briefly reviewed. ImagesFigure 1 and 2. PMID:17422589

  14. Intraperitoneal inflammation decreases endometriosis in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, N.M.; Fischer, O.M.; Gust, T.C.; Fuhrmann, U.; Habenicht, U.-F.; Schmidt, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of endometriosis remains elusive. It has been shown that patients have an altered peritoneal environment with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, activated macrophages and reduced clearance of retrogradely transported endometrial fragments. However, it is not known if this unique inflammatory situation is cause or consequence of endometriosis. This study investigates the impact of a pre-existing peritoneal inflammation on endometriosis establishment in a mouse model. METHODS Endometriosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing endometrium in mice. In parallel, a peritonitis model was established via intraperitoneal injection of thioglycolate medium (TM). Finally, endometriosis was induced in the inflamed peritoneal cavity and lesion establishment as well as morphological and histological characteristics were analysed. RESULTS Induction of endometriosis in an inflamed peritoneal cavity resulted in fewer lesions and significantly lower sum of lesion surface area per mouse in the TM-treated group. Additionally, a higher amount of non-attached debris could be detected in the peritoneal cavity of TM-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS An intraperitoneal inflammation decreases endometriosis establishment in this mouse model. Thus, a pre-existing peritoneal inflammation might not be a factor favouring the development of endometriosis. PMID:18653673

  15. [Intestinal endometriosis causing subacute ileus. Experience in three cases].

    PubMed

    Szendei, Gyórgy; Máthé, Zsolt; Hernádi, Zsolt; Antal, Péter; Dévényi, Nóra

    2002-10-01

    We present three rare cases of intestinal endometriosis. The patients were treated at the Endometriosis Clinic of the 1st Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Semmelweis University, Budapest. Their main symptom besides the classic symptoms of endometriosis (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain) was the catamenial haematochesia--a subacute obstruction which became more intensive in the perimenstrum and needed medical treatment but no surgical intervention. Because of the recurrent complaints, after detailed check-up and biopsy of the obstructing intestinal endometriosis, anterior resection of the rectum was performed with endocoagulation or extirpation of other endometriosis implants of the pelvis. Depending on the severity of pre or postoperative complaints patients underwent a GnRH-analogue therapy for six months. In one patient because of the patient's age, and extensive retrocervical-deep endometriosis causing serious dyspareunia--the resection was performed with additional hysterectomy and adnexectomy (TAH). Recently the patient is on monophasic hormone replacement therapy. In the two other patients after a second-look laparoscopy with testing the lumen of the tubes treatment was started for the induction--because of infertility. We give an overview of the frequency, incidence and possible pathomechanism of pelvic endometriosis. We describe the modern diagnostic and therapeutic tools of pelvic endometriosis. PMID:12474516

  16. Endometriosis and Ascites: A Strategy to Achieve Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Setubal, Antonio; Sidiropoulou, Zacharoula; Soares, Sergio; Barbosa, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Deep endometriosis presenting with ascites and preserved fertility is an unusual combination. This report describes a unique case of deep endometriosis and primary infertility, with a successful pregnancy after an optimal surgical approach and personalized ovarian stimulation protocol for in vitro fertilization, which shows the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in these patients. PMID:26025487

  17. Endometriosis, a disease of the macrophage.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Annalisa; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, a common cause of pelvic pain and female infertility, depends on the growth of vascularized endometrial tissue at ectopic sites. Endometrial fragments reach the peritoneal cavity during the fertile years: local cues decide whether they yield endometriotic lesions. Macrophages are recruited at sites of hypoxia and tissue stress, where they clear cell debris and heme-iron and generate pro-life and pro-angiogenesis signals. Macrophages are abundant in endometriotic lesions, where are recruited and undergo alternative activation. In rodents macrophages are required for lesions to establish and to grow; bone marrow-derived Tie-2 expressing macrophages specifically contribute to lesions neovasculature, possibly because they concur to the recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitors, and sustain their survival and the integrity of the vessel wall. Macrophages sense cues (hypoxia, cell death, iron overload) in the lesions and react delivering signals to restore the local homeostasis: their action represents a necessary, non-redundant step in the natural history of the disease. Endometriosis may be due to a misperception of macrophages about ectopic endometrial tissue. They perceive it as a wound, they activate programs leading to ectopic cell survival and tissue vascularization. Clearing this misperception is a critical area for the development of novel medical treatments of endometriosis, an urgent and unmet medical need. PMID:23372570

  18. Peripheral biomarkers of endometriosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    May, K.E.; Conduit-Hulbert, S.A.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; Kennedy, S.H.; Becker, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Endometriosis is estimated to affect 1 in 10 women during the reproductive years. There is often delay in making the diagnosis, mainly due to the non-specific nature of the associated symptoms and the need to verify the disease surgically. A biomarker that is simple to measure could help clinicians to diagnose (or at least exclude) endometriosis; it might also allow the effects of treatment to be monitored. If effective, such a marker or panel of markers could prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or recognize treatment failure at an early stage. METHODS We used QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) criteria to perform a systematic review of the literature over the last 25 years to assess critically the clinical value of all proposed biomarkers for endometriosis in serum, plasma and urine. RESULTS We identified over 100 putative biomarkers in publications that met the selection criteria. We were unable to identify a single biomarker or panel of biomarkers that have unequivocally been shown to be clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS Peripheral biomarkers show promise as diagnostic aids, but further research is necessary before they can be recommended in routine clinical care. Panels of markers may allow increased sensitivity and specificity of any diagnostic test. PMID:20462942

  19. Endometriosis, a disease of the macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Annalisa; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, a common cause of pelvic pain and female infertility, depends on the growth of vascularized endometrial tissue at ectopic sites. Endometrial fragments reach the peritoneal cavity during the fertile years: local cues decide whether they yield endometriotic lesions. Macrophages are recruited at sites of hypoxia and tissue stress, where they clear cell debris and heme-iron and generate pro-life and pro-angiogenesis signals. Macrophages are abundant in endometriotic lesions, where are recruited and undergo alternative activation. In rodents macrophages are required for lesions to establish and to grow; bone marrow-derived Tie-2 expressing macrophages specifically contribute to lesions neovasculature, possibly because they concur to the recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitors, and sustain their survival and the integrity of the vessel wall. Macrophages sense cues (hypoxia, cell death, iron overload) in the lesions and react delivering signals to restore the local homeostasis: their action represents a necessary, non-redundant step in the natural history of the disease. Endometriosis may be due to a misperception of macrophages about ectopic endometrial tissue. They perceive it as a wound, they activate programs leading to ectopic cell survival and tissue vascularization. Clearing this misperception is a critical area for the development of novel medical treatments of endometriosis, an urgent and unmet medical need. PMID:23372570

  20. Krüppel-Like Factor 9 and Progesterone Receptor Coregulation of Decidualizing Endometrial Stromal Cells: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Pabona, John Mark P.; Simmen, Frank A.; Nikiforov, Mikhail A.; Zhuang, DaZhong; Shankar, Kartik; Velarde, Michael C.; Zelenko, Zara; Giudice, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Endometriosis is characterized by progesterone resistance and associated with infertility. Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) is a progesterone receptor (PGR)-interacting protein, and mice null for Klf9 are subfertile. Whether loss of KLF9 expression contributes to progesterone resistance of eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis is unknown. Objective: The aims were to investigate 1) KLF9 expression in eutopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis, 2) effects of attenuated KLF9 expression on WNT-signaling component expression and on WNT inhibitor Dickkopf-1 promoter activity in human endometrial stromal cells (HESC), and 3) PGR and KLF9 coregulation of the stromal transcriptome network. Methods: Transcript levels of KLF9, PGR, and WNT signaling components were measured in eutopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis. Transcript and protein levels of WNT signaling components in HESC transfected with KLF9 and/or PGR small interfering RNA were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. KLF9 and PGR coregulation of Dickkopf-1 promoter activity was evaluated using human Dickkopf-1-luciferase promoter/reporter constructs and by chromatin immunoprecipitation. KLF9 and PGR signaling networks were analyzed by gene expression array profiling. Results: Eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis had reduced expression of KLF9 mRNA together with those of PGR-B, WNT4, WNT2, and DKK1. KLF9 and PGR were recruited to the DKK1 promoter and modified each other's transactivity. In HESC, KLF9 and PGR coregulated components of the WNT, cytokine, and IGF gene networks that are implicated in endometriosis and infertility. Conclusion: Loss of KLF9 coregulation of endometrial stromal PGR-responsive gene networks may underlie progesterone resistance in endometriosis. PMID:22259059

  1. Expression profiling of endometrium from women with endometriosis reveals candidate genes for disease-based implantation failure and infertility.

    PubMed

    Kao, L C; Germeyer, A; Tulac, S; Lobo, S; Yang, J P; Taylor, R N; Osteen, K; Lessey, B A; Giudice, L C

    2003-07-01

    Endometriosis is clinically associated with pelvic pain and infertility, with implantation failure strongly suggested as an underlying cause for the observed infertility. Eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis provides a unique experimental paradigm for investigation into molecular mechanisms of reproductive dysfunction and an opportunity to identify specific markers for this disease. We applied paralleled gene expression profiling using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate differentially regulated genes in endometrium from women with vs. without endometriosis. Fifteen endometrial biopsy samples (obtained during the window of implantation from eight subjects with and seven subjects without endometriosis) were processed for expression profiling on Affymetrix Hu95A microarrays. Data analysis was conducted with GeneChip Analysis Suite, version 4.01, and GeneSpring version 4.0.4. Nonparametric testing was applied, using a P value of 0.05, to assess statistical significance. Of the 12,686 genes analyzed, 91 genes were significantly increased more than 2-fold in their expression, and 115 genes were decreased more than 2-fold. Unsupervised clustering demonstrated down-regulation of several known cell adhesion molecules, endometrial epithelial secreted proteins, and proteins not previously known to be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, as well as up-regulated genes. Selected dysregulated genes were randomly chosen and validated with RT-PCR and/or Northern/dot-blot analyses, and confirmed up-regulation of collagen alpha2 type I, 2.6-fold; bile salt export pump, 2.0-fold; and down-regulation of N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase (important in synthesis of L-selectin ligands), 1.7-fold; glycodelin, 51.5-fold; integrin alpha2, 1.8-fold; and B61 (Ephrin A1), 4.5-fold. Two-way overlapping layer analysis used to compare endometrial genes in the window of implantation from women with and without endometriosis further identified three unique groups of target genes, which differ with respect to the implantation window and the presence of disease. Group 1 target genes are up-regulated during the normal window of implantation but significantly decreased in women with endometriosis: IL-15, proline-rich protein, B61, Dickkopf-1, glycodelin, N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase, G0S2 protein, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Group 2 genes are normally down-regulated during the window of implantation but are significantly increased with endometriosis: semaphorin E, neuronal olfactomedin-related endoplasmic reticulum localized protein mRNA and Sam68-like phosphotyrosine protein alpha. Group 3 consists of a single gene, neuronal pentraxin II, normally down-regulated during the window of implantation and further decreased in endometrium from women with endometriosis. The data support dysregulation of select genes leading to an inhospitable environment for implantation, including genes involved in embryonic attachment, embryo toxicity, immune dysfunction, and apoptotic responses, as well as genes likely contributing to the pathogenesis of endometriosis, including aromatase, progesterone receptor, angiogenic factors, and others. Identification and validation of selected genes and their functions will contribute to uncovering previously unknown mechanism(s) underlying implantation failure in women with endometriosis and infertility, mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of endometriosis and providing potential new targets for diagnostic screening and intervention. PMID:12810542

  2. Human frontal lobes are not relatively large

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Robert A.; Venditti, Chris

    2013-01-01

    One of the most pervasive assumptions about human brain evolution is that it involved relative enlargement of the frontal lobes. We show that this assumption is without foundation. Analysis of five independent data sets using correctly scaled measures and phylogenetic methods reveals that the size of human frontal lobes, and of specific frontal regions, is as expected relative to the size of other brain structures. Recent claims for relative enlargement of human frontal white matter volume, and for relative enlargement shared by all great apes, seem to be mistaken. Furthermore, using a recently developed method for detecting shifts in evolutionary rates, we find that the rate of change in relative frontal cortex volume along the phylogenetic branch leading to humans was unremarkable and that other branches showed significantly faster rates of change. Although absolute and proportional frontal region size increased rapidly in humans, this change was tightly correlated with corresponding size increases in other areas and whole brain size, and with decreases in frontal neuron densities. The search for the neural basis of human cognitive uniqueness should therefore focus less on the frontal lobes in isolation and more on distributed neural networks. PMID:23671074

  3. Umbilical endometriosis: report of a case and its dermoscopic features*

    PubMed Central

    Jaime, Thais Jerez; Jaime, Tatiana Jerez; Ormiga, Patrícia; Leal, Fabiano; Nogueira, Osvania Maris; Rodrigues, Nilton

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous endometriosis is a rare manifestation of endometriosis, representing 0.5% to 1% of all endometriosis cases. It can be divided into primary and secondary, when appearing spontaneously or after a surgical procedure, when it is mostly found on surgical scar tissue. Some etiologies were proposed, but none of them could entirely explain the appearance of the tumor. Differential diagnosis includes melanoma, metastatic nodule, keloid and pyogenic granuloma. Dermoscopic features are not yet well established, but there are some characteristics that suggest the diagnosis. Treatment is surgical in larger sized lesions. Malignization can occur. The screening for endometriosis is mandatory by means of gynecologic, imaging and marked-tumor evaluation. We report a case of primary umbilical endometriosis and discuss its dermoscopic aspects. PMID:23539017

  4. Do we need a robot in endometriosis surgery?

    PubMed

    Hickman, Lisa C; Kotlyar, Alexander; Luu, Thanh H; Falcone, Tommaso

    2016-06-01

    Since the initial approval of robotic surgery for gynecologic procedures in 2005, its use has been widely adopted, and its application has been expanded beyond hysterectomies and myomectomies. The role of robotics in endometriosis surgery remains controversial, as no randomized control trials have been conducted to evaluate its use over conventional laparoscopy, the current gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. The advantage of robotic surgery in early stage endometriosis remains unclear, whereas several case reports and retrospective studies have suggested a role for robotics in treating advanced stage and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Advantages in advanced stage endometriosis include lower blood loss and possible reduction in length of hospital stay, compared to conventional laparoscopy; however, operative times are consistently longer in robotic surgery with no differences in quality of life and fertility outcomes. Randomized control trials comparing robotic to conventional laparoscopy for endometriosis surgery are needed to more clearly define the role for this promising technology. PMID:26658115

  5. The Impact of Endometriosis and Its Treatment on Ovarian Reserve.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Ayse; Ata, Baris; Uncu, Gürkan

    2015-11-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease mostly affecting women at reproductive age. There is a clear association between endometriosis and infertility; however, exact mechanisms are unknown. Some evidence suggests an adverse effect on oocytes. Endometriosis and its surgical treatment can affect quantitative ovarian reserve as well. In the presence of endometriomas, serum level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) seems a more reliable marker of ovarian reserve than antral follicle count. Women with endometrioma have decreased serum AMH levels as compared with healthy controls. This is further declined after surgical excision, and the decline seems permanent. Bipolar cauterization of the ovary seems to be playing a role on ovarian damage. Extraovarian endometriosis and its surgical treatment can also be associated with decreased ovarian reserve, but there is limited information. Patients with endometriosis should be informed about fertility preservation options, especially in the presence of bilateral endometriomas or prior to surgery. PMID:26594869

  6. Ovarian endometriosis-associated stromal cells reveal persistently high affinity for iron

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masahiko; Ito, Fumiya; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yue; Ishida, Chiharu; Hattori, Yuka; Niwa, Masato; Hirayama, Tasuku; Nagasawa, Hideko; Iwase, Akira; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian endometriosis is a recognized risk for infertility and epithelial ovarian cancer, presumably due to iron overload resulting from repeated hemorrhage. To find a clue for early detection and prevention of ovarian endometriosis-associated cancer, it is mandatory to evaluate catalytic (labile) ferrous iron (catalytic Fe(II)) and to study iron manipulation in ovarian endometriotic lesions. By the use of tissues from women of ovarian endometriosis as well as endometrial tissue from women with and without endometriosis, we for the first time performed histological analysis and cellular detection of catalytic Fe(II) with a specific fluorescent probe (HMRhoNox-M), and further evaluated iron transport proteins in the human specimens and in co-culture experiments using immortalized human eutopic/ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) in the presence or absence of epithelial cells (EpCs). The amounts of catalytic Fe(II) were higher in ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ecESCs) than in normal eutopic endometrial stromal cells (n-euESCs) both in the tissues and in the corresponding immortalized ESCs. ecESCs exhibited higher transferrin receptor 1 expression both in vivo and in vitro and lower ferroportin expression in vivo than n-euESCs, leading to sustained iron uptake. In co-culture experiments of ESCs with iron-loaded EpCs, ecESCs received catalytic ferrous iron from EpCs, but n-euESCs did not. These data suggest that ecESC play a protective role for cancer-target epithelial cells by collecting excess iron, and that these characteristics are retained in the immortalized ecESCs. PMID:26498255

  7. Increased Association Between Endometriosis and Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hann-Chin; Lin, Chun-Yi; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Shen, Biing-Jiun; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chuang, Chi-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer has been well established. Nonetheless, endometriosis may also be associated with endometrial cancer because of shared etiological mechanisms of both estrogen stimulation and chronic inflammation; however, the association between these 2 disorders has rarely been investigated. Methods The National Health Insurance Research Databases in Taiwan were retrieved and analyzed. The case cohort consisted of patients with a diagnosis of endometriosis between January 1997 and December 2000 (N = 15,488). For the construction of control cohort, 8 age- and sex-matched control patients for every patient in the case cohort were selected using a random sampling method (n = 123,904). All subjects were tracked for 10 years from the date of entry to identify whether they had developed endometrial cancer. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate 10-year event occurrence of endometrial cancer. Results During the 10-year follow-up period, 392 participants developed endometrial cancer, with 104 (0.7%) distributed in the case cohort and 288 (0.2%) in the control cohort. Multivariable Cox regression modeling demonstrates a higher risk for developing endometrial cancer in the case cohort than in the control cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.495.35; P < 0.01). Age at diagnosis of endometriosis shows a moderator effect: when 40 years or younger, the risk for developing endometrial cancer was comparable between the case cohort and the control cohort (aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.553.70; P = 0.226), whereas when older than 40 years, the risk for developing endometrial cancer was higher in the former group than in the latter group (aHR, 7.08; 95% CI, 2.3321.55; P = 0.007). Conclusions Patients diagnosed with endometriosis may harbor an increased risk for developing endometrial cancer in their later life. Closer monitoring is advised for this patient population. PMID:25695548

  8. Vaginally Administered Danazol: An Overlooked Option in the Treatment of Rectovaginal Endometriosis?

    PubMed

    Godin, Richard; Marcoux, Violaine

    2015-12-01

    Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and heavy menstrual bleeding for more than 40 years. This medication has both central antigonadotropic actions and direct atrophic effects on endometriotic tissue. Although it demonstrates a high-efficacy profile, the associated side effects have resulted in limited usage. Vaginal administration of the drug may prove favourable specifically in rectovaginal endometriosis. This targeted mode of delivery is associated with a significant reduction in both pain symptoms and nodule size. The relative persistence of these therapeutic benefits is likely related to the direct tissue effects after absorption through the vaginal mucosa. Vaginal administration would also limit systemic propagation of danazol and thus should minimize androgenic side effects. Use of vaginal danazol also improves heavy menstrual bleeding and may even restore fertility in some patients. In this review we provide a critical analysis of the existing literature on the use of vaginal danazol. PMID:26637082

  9. Microcounseling Versus Human Relations Training: Relative Effectiveness with Undergraduate Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toukmanian, Shake G.; Rennie, David L.

    1975-01-01

    Twelve human relations training subjects received training in Carkhuff's seven core counselor conditions. Twelve microcounseling subjects were trained in use of attending behavior, minimal activity responses, verbal following behavior, open inquiry, and reflection of feeling. Microcounseling subjects gained significantly more on empathy than did…

  10. Somatic Copy Number Alterations Associated with Japanese or Endometriosis in Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Aikou; Sehouli, Jalid; Yanaihara, Nozomu; Hirata, Yukihiro; Braicu, Ioana; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Takakura, Satoshi; Saito, Misato; Yanagida, Satoshi; Takenaka, Masataka; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Morikawa, Asuka; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kyosuke; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Enomoto, Takayuki; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kigawa, Junzo; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo; Aida, Satoshi; Aoki, Yuko; Ishii, Nobuya; Ochiai, Kazunori; Akiyama, Tetsu; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    When compared with other epithelial ovarian cancers, the clinical characteristics of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCC) include 1) a higher incidence among Japanese, 2) an association with endometriosis, 3) poor prognosis in advanced stages, and 4) a higher incidence of thrombosis as a complication. We used high resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to identify somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) associated with each of these clinical characteristics of CCC. The Human Genome CGH 244A Oligo Microarray was used to examine 144 samples obtained from 120 Japanese, 15 Korean, and nine German patients with CCC. The entire 8q chromosome (minimum corrected p-value: q = 0.0001) and chromosome 20q13.2 including the ZNF217 locus (q = 0.0078) were amplified significantly more in Japanese than in Korean or German samples. This copy number amplification of the ZNF217 gene was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). ZNF217 RNA levels were also higher in Japanese tumor samples than in non-Japanese samples (P = 0.027). Moreover, endometriosis was associated with amplification of EGFR gene (q = 0.047), which was again confirmed by Q-PCR and correlated with EGFR RNA expression. However, no SCNAs were significantly associated with prognosis or thrombosis. These results indicated that there may be an association between CCC and ZNF217 amplification among Japanese patients as well as between endometriosis and EGFR gene amplifications. PMID:25658832

  11. Epigenetic Modulation of Collagen 1A1: Therapeutic Implications in Fibrosis and Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ye; Khan, Zaraq; Zanfagnin, Valentina; Correa, Luiz F; Delaney, Abigail A; Daftary, Gaurang S

    2016-04-01

    Progressive fibrosis is recalcitrant to conventional therapy and commonly complicates chronic diseases and surgical healing. We evaluate here a novel mechanism that regulates scar-tissue collagen (COL1A1/Col1a1) expression and characterizes its translational relevance as a targeted therapy for fibrosis in an endometriosis disease model. Endometriosis is caused by displacement and implantation of uterine endometrium onto abdominal organs and spreads with progressive scarring. Transcription factor KLF11 is specifically diminished in endometriosis lesions. Loss of KLF11-mediated repression of COL1A1/Col1a1 expression resulted in increased fibrosis. To determine the biological significance of COL1A1/Col1a1 expression on fibrosis, we modulated its expression. In human endometrial-stromal fibroblasts, KLF11 recruited SIN3A/HDAC (histone deacetylase), resulting in COL1A1-promoter deacetylation and repression. This role of KLF11 was pharmacologically replicated by a histone acetyl transferase inhibitor (garcinol). In contrast, opposite effects were obtained with a HDAC inhibitor (suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid), confirming regulatory specificity for these reciprocally active epigenetic mechanisms. Fibrosis was concordantly reversed in Klf11(-/-)animals by histone acetyl transferase inhibitor and in wild-type animals by HDAC inhibitor treatments. Aberrant lesional COL1A1 regulation is significant because fibrosis depended on lesion rather than host genotype. This is the first report demonstrating feasibility for targeted pharmacological reversal of fibrosis, an intractable phenotype of diverse chronic diseases. PMID:26935598

  12. Abnormal Expression of Prostaglandins E2 and F2α Receptors and Transporters in Patients with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Rakhila, Halima; Bourcier, Nathalie; Akoum, Ali; Pouliot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the level of expression of prostaglandin receptivity and uptake factors in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis. Design. Prospective study. Setting. Human reproduction research laboratory. Patients. Seventy-eight patients with endometriosis and thirty healthy control subjects. Intervention(s). Endometrial and endometriotic tissue samples were obtained during laparoscopic surgery. Main Outcome Measure(s). Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of mRNA encoding prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4), prostaglandin F2α receptor (FP), prostaglandin transporter (PGT), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4); immunohistochemical localization of expressed proteins. Results. Marked increases in receptors EP3, EP4, and FP and transporters PGT and MRP4 in ectopic endometrial tissue were noted, without noticeable change associated with disease stage. An increase in EP3 expression and decreases in FP and PGT were observed in the eutopic endometrium of endometriosis patients in conjunction with the phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusion(s). This study is the first to demonstrate a possible relationship between endometriosis and enhanced prostaglandin activity. In view of the wide range of prostaglandin functions, increasing cell receptivity and facilitating uptake in endometrial tissue could contribute to the initial steps of overgrowth and have an important role to play in the pathogenesis and symptoms of this disease. PMID:26240828

  13. Unremitting Cell Proliferation in the Secretory Phase of Eutopic Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Murillo, Yanira; Miranda-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Rendón-Huerta, Erika; Montaño, Luis F.; Cornejo, Gerardo Velázquez; Gómez, Lucila Poblano; Valdez-Morales, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Endometriosis is linked to altered cell proliferation and stem cell markers c-kit/stem cell factor (SCF) in ectopic endometrium. Our aim was to investigate whether c-kit/SCF also plays a role in eutopic endometrium. Design: Eutopic endometrium obtained from 35 women with endometriosis and 25 fertile eumenorrheic women was analyzed for in situ expression of SCF/c-kit, Ki67, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), phosphorylated RAC-alpha serine/threonin-protein kinase (pAkt), Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (pGSK3β), throughout the menstrual cycle. Results: Expression of Ki67 and SCF was higher in endometriosis than in control tissue (P < .05) and greater in secretory rather than proliferative (P < .01) endometrium in endometriosis. Expression of c-kit was also higher in endometriosis although similar in both phases. Expression of Akt and GSK3β was identical in all samples and cycle phases, whereas pAkt and pGSK3β, opposed to control tissue, remained overexpressed in the secretory phase in endometriosis. Conclusion: Unceasing cell proliferation in the secretory phase of eutopic endometriosis is linked to deregulation of c-kit/SCF-associated signaling pathways. PMID:25194152

  14. Knowledge of, and treatment strategies for, endometriosis among general practitioners.

    PubMed

    van der Zanden, Moniek; Nap, Annemiek W

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis is the most common benign gynaecological disorder. The general practitioner (GP) plays an important role in identifying women at early stages of the disease. This study was conducted to acquire information about awareness and knowledge of endometriosis among Dutch GPs, and clinical strategies taken. A total of 101 GPs completed a questionnaire either by email or at a local education meeting. The GPs annually encounter 2.8 women they suspect of having endometriosis. The estimated time to diagnosis was 65.7 months (39.1 months patient delay and 26.6 months doctors delay); 56.7% of GPs primarily refer to a gynaecologist for consultation or diagnostic tests. The GPs answered on average 16.6 out of 28 knowledge questions correctly. Seventy-six out of 87 GPs stated that they needed further education. The results of this study indicate that if a GP considers endometriosis as a diagnosis, adequate action is undertaken. As only limited numbers of women with endometriosis are encountered in their practice, GPs do not recognize immediately the symptoms that may be caused by endometriosis, leading to diagnostic delay. Our findings may help to set up teaching programmes and awareness strategies for first-line medical professionals to enhance timely diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26947452

  15. Preliminary molecular genetic analysis of the Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140) in women affected by endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Virginia; Ruiz, Rocío; Sainz, José Antonio; Cruz, Marina; López-Nevot, Miguel Angel; Galán, José Jorge; Real, Luis Miguel; de Castro, Francisco; López-Villaverde, Vicente; Ruiz, Agustín

    2005-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a complex disease affecting 10–15% of women at reproductive age. Very few genes are known to be altered in this pathology. RIP140 protein is an important cofactor of oestrogen receptor and many other nuclear receptors. Targeting disruption experiments of nrip1 gene in mice have demonstrated that nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 gene (nrip1), the gene encoding for rip140 protein, is essential for female fertility. Specifically, mice null for nrip1 gene are viable, but females are infertile because of complete failure of mature follicles to release oocytes at ovulation stage. The ovarian phenotype observed in mice devoid of rip140 closely resembles the luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome that is observed in a high proportion of women affected of endometriosis or idiopathic infertility. Here we present a preliminary work that analyses the role of NRIP1 gene in humans. Methods We have sequenced the complete coding region of NRIP1 gene in 20 unrelated patients affected by endometriosis. We have performed genetic association studies by using the DNA variants identified during the sequencing process. Results We identified six DNA variants within the coding sequence of NRIP1 gene, and five of them generated amino acid changes in the protein. We observed that three of twenty sequenced patients have specific combinations of amino-acid variants within the RIP140 protein that are poorly represented in the control population (p = 0.006). Moreover, we found that Arg448Gly, a common polymorphism located within NRIP1 gene, is associated with endometriosis in a case-control study (59 cases and 141 controls, pallele positivity test = 0.027). Conclusion Our results suggest that NRIP1 gene variants, separately or in combinations, might act as predisposing factors for human endometriosis. PMID:16131398

  16. Recurrent Hemoperitoneum During Pregnancy in Large Deep Endometriosis Infiltrating the Parametrium.

    PubMed

    Stochino Loi, Emanuela; Darwish, Basma; Abo, Carole; Millischer-Bellaiche, Anne-Elodie; Angioni, Stefano; Roman, Horace

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a young woman at 16 weeks' gestation who presented to a peripheral hospital with severe recurrent hemoperitoneum related to severe deep endometriosis infiltrating the left parametrium. She underwent 2 surgical open procedures in emergency, followed by pregnancy loss. Deep endometriosis infiltrated the rectum, the vagina, and the left parametrium, leading to stenosis of the left ureter and advanced destruction of the left kidney. Ovarian reserve was low with an antimullerian hormone level at .6 ng/mL. To improve endometriosis-related symptoms and preserve fertility, a laparoscopic conservative rectal and ureteral management was proposed with an aim to relieve symptoms, avoid further destruction of the left kidney, preserve the right splanchnic nerves and inferior hypogastric plexus, and enhance spontaneous conception. We performed a combined vaginal-laparoscopic approach that consisted of vaginal infiltration resection, adhesiolysis, rectal shaving, ureterolysis, and restoration of the permeability of the fallopian tubes. Seven months after surgery the patient spontaneously conceived and is doing well. PMID:26826678

  17. A Plan for Improving Human Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harford County Board of Education, Bel Air, MD.

    This is a position paper by the Harford County, Maryland Board of Education addressing the human relations problems in the school system. It enumerates the following specific plans: (1) The hiring of minority persons will be emphasized; minority persons will be promoted into leadership positions when possible; and in the hiring and promoting of…

  18. Colonoscopic tattoo dye spillage mimics endometriosis on laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, Shlomo M; Shurshalina, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Rare adverse effects of India ink injection spillage during colonoscopy have been reported. We present a case report in which prior colonoscopic India ink tattooing was found to mimic intraperitoneal endometriosis in a 48 year-old woman undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Multiple black lesions suspicious for endometriosis involving the anterior and posterior cul-de-sac, left ovary, and omentum were found. A pathological assessment showed peritoneal tissue with focal dark pigment associated with mild chronic inflammation and deposition of tattoo pigment; there was no evidence of endometriosis in the specimens. Surgical recognition of tattoo ink spillage in the peritoneum is very important to prevent misinterpretation of peritoneal findings. PMID:24473152

  19. Endometriosis After Surgical Menopause Mimicking Pelvic Malignancy: Surgeons’ Predicament

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Rani A.; Teo, Melissa; Bhat, Akhil Krishnanand

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of persistent endometriosis in women after menopause without any hormonal replacement therapy is very rare. This is a case of a woman with previous history of total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for endometriosis who presented with hemoperitoneum, vaginal bleeding, pelvic mass, and pulmonary thromboembolism mimicking as rectovaginal septum carcinoma. This is the first case report with a unique mode of presentation wherein the patient presented with hemoperitoneum requiring emergency embolization of the vessel to stabilize the patient. She underwent en bloc resection of the tumor with high anterior resection of the rectum. Histopathology confirmed endometriosis. PMID:24936277

  20. Cutaneous endometriosis: non-invasive analysis by epiluminescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, V; Massi, D; Mannone, F; Stante, M; Carli, P

    2003-05-01

    The clinical appearance of cutaneous endometriosis can share some features with malignant melanoma, thus representing a possible cause for concern in both patient and clinician. In recent years, the use of epiluminescence microscopy (ELM, dermoscopy) has proved useful in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. The purpose of this study was to analyse the dermoscopic features of cutaneous endometriosis with histopathological correlation. We studied a case which showed homogeneous reddish pigmentation, regularly distributed. Within this typical pigmentation there were small red globular structures, but more defined and of a deeper hue, which we called 'red atolls'. ELM thus revealed a distinctive pattern in cutaneous endometriosis. PMID:12780722

  1. Relational Human Ecology: Reconciling the Boundaries of Humans and Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNiel, J.; Lopes, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    Global change is transforming the planet at unprecedented rates. Global warming, massive species extinction, increasing land degradation, overpopulation, poverty and injustice, are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. What do we have to do and how much do we have to change to allow a transition to a more ecologically-conscious and just society? While these questions are of central concern, they cannot be fully addressed under the current paradigm, which hinders both our collection of knowledge and derivation of solutions. This paper attempts to develop a new variant of ecological thinking based on a relational ontological/epistemological approach. This is offered as a foundation for the political initiative to strive for a more fulfilling, sustainable and just society. This new approach, theoretically conceptualized as ‘relational human ecology,’ offers a relational (holistic) framework for overcoming mechanistic thinking and exploring questions regarding the long-term attainment of sustainability. Once established, we illustrate how the relational framework offers a new holistic approach centered on participatory inquiry within the context of a community workshop. We conclude with discussing possible directions for future relational human ecological participatory research, conducted from the intersection of myriad participants (i.e. agencies, academics, and community residents), and the ways in which this will allow for the derivation of accurate and sustainable solutions for global change. Key words: relational thinking, human ecology, complex adaptive systems, participatory inquiry, sustainability Vicente L. Lopes (corresponding author) Department of Biology Texas State University San Marcos, TX, USA e-mail: vlopes@txstate.edu Jamie N. McNiel Department of Sociology Texas State University San Marcos, TX, USATable 2 - Comparing Orthodox versus Relational Approaches to Ecological Inquiry * Retroduction, logical reasoning that something must be true because it was known to be true in the past Table 1 - Common Dualisms Prevalent in Western Thinking

  2. Appendiceal Nodules in the Setting of Endometriosis Can Be Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Klajner, Sidney; da Costa Gonçalves, Manoel Orlando; Passman, Leigh J.; Podgaec, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Endometriosis is occasionally found in the appendix, particularly in severe forms of deep infiltrating disease. Carcinoid tumor is the most common neoplasm of the appendix and may be overlooked or misdiagnosed when there are multiple endometriosis lesions in the pelvis. Case Description: We describe two cases of carcinoid tumor diagnosed in patients who underwent surgery to treat endometriosis, in whom the diagnosis of appendiceal endometriosis was presumed. Discussion: In the context of endometriosis, surgery is indicated when the appendix is affected. Despite the more likely diagnosis of appendiceal endometriosis, carcinoid tumors cannot be ruled out by imaging examinations. PMID:26175555

  3. Seeking New Treatments for Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... days of treatment with retinoic acid, the treated mice had fewer endometriotic lesions, and fewer of the ... the lab. They found that in both the mice and the human tissue, statins inhibited production of ...

  4. Unexpected increase of the CA 19-9 tumour marker in patients with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Matalliotakis, I; Panidis, D; Vlassis, G; Neonaki, M; Goumenou, A; Koumantakis, E

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the ovarian function of women with endometriosis could be identified by serologic concentration of the oncofetal antigen CA 19-9 before, during and after treatment for 6 months with danazol. A total of 15 women with endometriosis, 20-40 years old, were studied. The serum CA 19-9 antigen was measured by immunoradiometric assay. The measurement of CA 19-9 was repeated during the last 15 days of a 6-month therapy period with danazol and after 3 months from the end of the therapy in only seven women. It was found that: 1) Eight out of 15 women (53.3%) showed higher CA 19-9 values than the upper normal limit. 2) Danazol caused a significant decrease in the antigen values which remained stable after the cessation of therapy. This data suggests that endometriosis should be classified among other diseases which cause an increase in the serum levels of CA 19-9 and that ovarian function is related to antigen levels. PMID:9863924

  5. Treatment of Endometriosis with the GnRHa Deslorelin and Add-Back Estradiol and Supplementary Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sanjay K.; Daniels, AnnaMarie; Drosman, Steven R.; Udoff, Laurence; Foster, Warren G.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Spicer, Darcy V.; Daniels, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. This randomized, multicenter, open-label clinical trial was intended to generate pilot data on the efficacy and safety of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) deslorelin (D) with low-dose estradiol ± testosterone (E2  ± T) add-back for endometriosis-related pelvic pain. Methods. Women with pelvic pain and laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis were treated with a six-month course of daily intranasal D with concurrent administration of either transdermal E2, intranasal E2, or intranasal E2  + T. Efficacy data included evaluation of dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, tenderness, and induration. Cognition and quality of life were also assessed. Safety parameters included assessment of endometrial hyperplasia, bone mineral density (BMD), and hot flashes. Results. Endometriosis symptoms and signs scores decreased in all treatment arms from a baseline average of 7.4 to 2.5 after 3 months of treatment and 3.4 after 6 months. BMD changes and incidence of hot flashes were minimal, and no endometrial hyperplasia was observed. Patient-reported outcomes showed significant improvement across multiple domains. Conclusions. Daily intranasal D with low dose E2  ± T add-back resulted in significant reduction in severity of endometriosis symptoms and signs with few safety signals and minimal hypoestrogenic symptoms that would be expected with the use of a GnRHa alone. PMID:26881208

  6. Clinical analyses of endometriosis after conservative surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Xiaoping; Qian, Haihong; Kang, Le; Wang, Jin; Xie, Yan; Cheng, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the remission rate and outcome of pregnancy of patients who had moderate and severe ovarian endometriosis after conservative surgery. We also wished to analyze the associated factors of recurrence. Methods: Weconducted retrospective analyses of 199 cases with stage II-IV ovarian endometriosis who had preserved fertility under laparoscopic surgical treatment. Postoperatively, the 199 patients were divided into three groups: 43 cases underwent surgical treatment alone (group A); 47 were given a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-α) (group B), and 109 were given mifepristone (group C). Ten cases in group A were infertile, 26 cases in group B, and 38 cases in group C. All patients were followed up for 3 years. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Yangpu District Central Hospital. Results: In groups A, B and C, the remission rate was 58.13%, 70.21% and 60.55% and the difference not significant (P=0.384); Recurrence rates were 27.90%, 12.76% and 24.77%, and the difference between them significant (P<0.05). The recurrence rate in group B was the lowest. The natural pregnancy rate after surgery in the three study groups (untreated, GnRH-α and mifepristone) was 30%, 34.61% and 28.94% but this difference was not significant. Conclusion: Surgery can improve the symptom remission rate and fertility of patients. Postoperative drug therapy does not improve the chance of pregnancy. PMID:26885130

  7. Silent Loss of Kidney Seconary to Ureteral Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Paka, Chandhana; Gomaa, Mona; Schipper, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ureteral endometriosis is a serious localization of disease burden that can lead to urinary tract obstruction, with subsequent hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and potential kidney loss. Diagnosis is elusive and relies heavily on clinical suspicion as ureteral endometriosis can occur with both minimal and extensive disease. Surgical technique to treatment varies, but the goal is to salvage renal function and decrease disease burden. Case Descriptions: We describe 3 cases in which there was documentation of renal atrophy and function loss with subsequent workup and surgical intervention. Results: The cases illustrate varying surgical approaches tailored to localization of ureteral endometriosis. All cases were carried out laparoscopically. Conclusion: Ureteral endometriosis, albeit rare, can be complicated by potential loss of renal function. Clinical suspicion and preoperative assessment may help with diagnosis and allows for a multidisciplinary preconsultation. Laparoscopic surgical approach is based on extent of disease and localization and can be carried out successfully in the hands of a highly experienced laparoscopic surgeon. PMID:23318072

  8. A very rare case of endometriosis presenting with massive hemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Togami, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Haruyama, Maki; Orita, Yuji; Kamio, Masaki; Douchi, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a cause of acute abdomen because of the leakage or rupture of endometriotic cyst and tubo-ovarian abscess. However, massive hemoperitoneum as a cause of acute abdomen with endometriosis is very rare. We herein present a case of a 48-year-old woman who was urgently referred to our clinic with colic, abdominal distension, and hypovolemic shock during menstruation. Ultrasonography revealed massive hemorrhagic ascites. Exploratory laparoscopy was urgently performed to achieve hemostasis. The volume of hemoperitoneum evacuated from the pelvis was 1,890 mL. Although the uterus and bilateral ovaries were normal, fresh bleeding was observed from endometriosis on the left cul-de-sac peritoneum, and hemostasis was successfully performed. The potential occurrence of hemorrhagic shock associated with endometriosis, depending on the implantation site, needs to be recognized. PMID:25728863

  9. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Achach, Thouraya; Rammeh, Soumaya; Trabelsi, Amel; Ltaief, Rached; Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Mokni, Moncef; Korbi, Sadok

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated. PMID:19266089

  10. Neuroendocrine–immune disequilibrium and endometriosis: an interdisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Tariverdian, Nadja; Theoharides, Theoharis C.; Siedentopf, Friederike; Gutiérrez, Gabriela; Jeschke, Udo; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Blois, Sandra M.

    2007-01-01

    Endometriosis, a chronic disease characterized by endometrial tissue located outside the uterine cavity, affects one fourth of young women and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. However, an in-depth understanding of the pathophysiology and effective treatment strategies of endometriosis is still largely elusive. Inadequate immune and neuroendocrine responses are significantly involved in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, and key findings are summarized in the present review. We discuss here the role of different immune mechanisms particularly adhesion molecules, protein–glycan interactions, and pro-angiogenic mediators in the development and progression of the disease. Finally, we introduce the concept of endometrial dissemination as result of a neuroendocrine-immune disequilibrium in response to high levels of perceived stress caused by cardinal clinical symptoms of endometriosis. PMID:17621704

  11. Update on Biomarkers for the Detection of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Fassbender, Amelie; Burney, Richard O.; O, Dorien F.; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Giudice, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is histologically characterized by the displacement of endometrial tissue to extrauterine locations including the pelvic peritoneum, ovaries, and bowel. An important cause of infertility and pelvic pain, the individual and global socioeconomic burden of endometriosis is significant. Laparoscopy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of the condition. However, the invasive nature of surgery, coupled with the lack of a laboratory biomarker for the disease, results in a mean latency of 7–11 years from onset of symptoms to definitive diagnosis. Unfortunately, the delay in diagnosis may have significant consequences in terms of disease progression. The discovery of a sufficiently sensitive and specific biomarker for the nonsurgical detection of endometriosis promises earlier diagnosis and prevention of deleterious sequelae and represents a clear research priority. In this review, we describe and discuss the current status of biomarkers of endometriosis in plasma, urine, and endometrium. PMID:26240814

  12. Human fear-related motor neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Butler, T; Pan, H; Tuescher, O; Engelien, A; Goldstein, M; Epstein, J; Weisholtz, D; Root, J C; Protopopescu, X; Cunningham-Bussel, A C; Chang, L; Xie, X-H; Chen, Q; Phelps, E A; Ledoux, J E; Stern, E; Silbersweig, D A

    2007-11-30

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an experimental paradigm of instructed fear, we observed a striking pattern of decreased activity in primary motor cortex with increased activity in dorsal basal ganglia during anticipation of aversive electrodermal stimulation in 42 healthy participants. We interpret this pattern of activity in motor neurocircuitry in response to cognitively-induced fear in relation to evolutionarily-conserved responses to threat that may be relevant to understanding normal and pathological fear in humans. PMID:17980493

  13. [Pictures balance for optimal surgical management of pelvic endometriosis. Imaging and surgery of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Leroy, A; Garabedian, C; Fourquet, T; Azaïs, H; Merlot, B; Collinet, P; Rubod, C

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is a frequent benign pathology that is found in 10-15% of women and in 20% of infertile women. It has an impact on fertility, but also in everyday life. If medical treatment fails, surgical treatment can be offered to the patient. To provide adequate treatment and give clearer information to patients, it seems essential to achieve an optimal preoperative imaging assessment. Thus, the aim of this work is to define the information expected by the surgeon and the indications of each imaging test for each compartment of the pelvis, allowing an ideal surgical management of pelvic endometriosis. We will not discuss imaging techniques' principles and we will not develop the indications and surgical techniques. PMID:26874665

  14. Primary ovarian and pararectal hydatid cysts mimicking pelvic endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara; Çil, Ahmet Said; Karaman, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of 48-year-old woman with multiple hydatid cysts in pararectal region and right paraovarian localization with an unusual sonographic and computed tomographic presentation mimicking a pelvic endometriosis. During laparotomy, multiple pararectal and right ovarian cysts resembling endometriosis were resected. Pathologic examination gives the diagnosis of hydatid cysts. Retrospectively, we investigate the primary infection but the patient had no history of hepatic and liver involvement, it is a case of primary infection. PMID:23456529

  15. The role of NF-kappaB in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kaponis, Apostolos; Iwabe, Tomio; Taniguchi, Fuminori; Ito, Masayuki; Deura, Imari; Decavalas, George; Terakawa, Naoki; Harada, Tasuku

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor playing vital roles in innate immunity and other processes involving cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. This review highlights the importance of NF-kappaB in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB has been shown in endometriotic lesions. Complex interactions of NF-kappaB with steroid receptors and apoptotic molecules in endometriosis resulting in opposing roles of NF-kappaB are discussed. NF-kappaB regulates the expression of cytokines mediating autocrine self-amplifying cycles of cytokine release and NF-kappaB activation, leading to maintenance of inflammatory reactions in endometriosis. NF-kappaB can contribute to the increased ability of endometriotic cells to invade and adhere to the peritoneal surface by regulating the expression of matrix metaloproteinases. We are presenting the role of NF-kappaB to regulate vascularization and oxidative stress in endometriotic cells. Effects of drugs used for the treatment of endometriosis on NF-kappaB pathway are presented and we show how drugs that inhibit the NF-kappaB can mediate the progression of endometriosis. Novel therapeutic strategies involving the NF-kappaB and applied in endometriosis are also discussed. PMID:22652867

  16. Independent Replication and Meta-Analysis for Endometriosis Risk Loci.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Yadav; Fassbender, Amelie; Bowdler, Lisa; Fung, Jenny N; Peterse, Daniëlle; O, Dorien; Montgomery, Grant W; Nyholt, Dale R; D'Hooghe, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    Endometriosis is a complex disease that affects 6-10% of women in their reproductive years and 20-50% of women with infertility. Genome-wide and candidate-gene association studies for endometriosis have identified 10 independent risk loci, and of these, nine (rs7521902, rs13394619, rs4141819, rs6542095, rs1519761, rs7739264, rs12700667, rs1537377, and rs10859871) are polymorphic in European populations. Here we investigate the replication of nine SNP loci in 998 laparoscopically and histologically confirmed endometriosis cases and 783 disease-free controls from Belgium. SNPs rs7521902, rs13394619, and rs6542095 show nominally significant (p < .05) associations with endometriosis, while the directions of effect for seven SNPs are consistent with the original reports. Association of rs6542095 at the IL1A locus with 'All' (p = .066) and 'Grade_B' (p = .01) endometriosis is noteworthy because this is the first successful replication in an independent population. Meta-analysis with the published results yields genome-wide significant evidence for rs7521902, rs13394619, rs6542095, rs12700667, rs7739264, and rs1537377. Notably, three coding variants in GREB1 (near rs13394619) and CDKN2B-AS1 (near rs1537377) also showed nominally significant associations with endometriosis. Overall, this study provides important replication in a uniquely characterized independent population, and indicates that the majority of the original genome-wide association findings are not due to chance alone. PMID:26337243

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Related Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Nájera, Rafael; Herrera, M. I.; Andrés, R. de

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and related retroviruses, describing basic characteristics of this new group of viruses such as morphologic and genetic structure, biological and cultural properties, virus growth characteristics, genetic variability and virus replication. The discovery of new human and simian retroviruses has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to convene a group of experts to establish criteria for their characterization. This will allow rapid identification of new variants that may arise and allow public health measures to be implemented accordingly. Different approaches are made to nomenclature in view of the evolution of knowledge about these viruses, and a system of nomenclature has been proposed by the WHO working group. This system, inspired by the one developed for the influenza viruses, is practical and descriptive, providing information on the origins of the organism and its type. Images PMID:2829446

  18. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Adenofibroma in a Patient with Endometriosis of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Inju; Lim, Sung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCACs) are frequently associated with endometriosis and, less often with clear cell adenofibromas (CCAFs). We encountered a case of ovarian CCAC arising from benign and borderline adenofibromas of the clear cell and endometrioid types with endometriosis in a 53-year-old woman. Regions of the adenofibromas showed transformation to CCAC and regions of the endometriosis showed atypical endometriotic cysts. This case demonstrates that CCAC can arise from CCAF or endometriosis. PMID:26498012

  19. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Adenofibroma in a Patient with Endometriosis of the Ovary.

    PubMed

    Cho, Inju; Lim, Sung-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCACs) are frequently associated with endometriosis and, less often with clear cell adenofibromas (CCAFs). We encountered a case of ovarian CCAC arising from benign and borderline adenofibromas of the clear cell and endometrioid types with endometriosis in a 53-year-old woman. Regions of the adenofibromas showed transformation to CCAC and regions of the endometriosis showed atypical endometriotic cysts. This case demonstrates that CCAC can arise from CCAF or endometriosis. PMID:26498012

  20. Bronchial Artery Embolization in the Management of Pulmonary Parenchymal Endometriosis with Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kervancioglu, Selim Andic, Cagatay; Bayram, Nazan; Telli, Cumali; Sarica, Akif; Sirikci, Akif

    2008-07-15

    Pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis is extremely rare and usually manifests itself with a recurrent hemoptysis associated with the menstrual cycle. The therapies proposed for women with endometriosis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization has become a well-established and minimally invasive treatment modality for hemoptysis, and to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in pulmonary endometriosis. We report a case of pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis treated with embolotheraphy for hemoptysis.

  1. Multiple Beneficial Roles of Repressor of Estrogen Receptor Activity (REA) in Suppressing the Progression of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuechao; Chen, Yiru; Kuang, Ye; Bagchi, Milan K; Taylor, Robert N; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S

    2016-02-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, inflammation-driven gynecologic disorder in which endometrial tissue creates inflammatory lesions at extrauterine sites, leading to pelvic pain and impaired fertility. Although dysregulated estrogen receptor (ER) signaling has been implicated, understanding of this disease is incomplete and current therapies are of limited benefit. Using an immunocompetent syngeneic murine model, we used combinations of donor uterine tissue and/or recipient host mice with partial genetic deletion of the ER coregulator, repressor of ER activity (REA) (also known as prohibitin 2), to investigate roles of REA in the contributions of donor uterine tissue and host cell influences on endometriosis establishment and progression. Ectopic lesions derived from donor tissue with half the wild-type gene dosage of REA (REA(+/-)) grown in REA(+/-) hosts displayed enhanced proliferation, vascularization, and markedly increased neuron innervation and inflammatory responses, including elevated cytokine production, nuclear factor kappa B activation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and immune cell infiltration. Although lesion progression was greatest when REA was reduced in both donor tissue and host animals, other donor/host combinations indicated that distinct stimulatory inputs were derived from ectopic tissue (proliferative signals) and host cells (inflammatory signals). Importantly, depletion of REA in primary human endometriotic stromal cells led to elevated proliferation and expression of cell cycle regulators. Notably, REA was significantly lower in human endometriotic tissue versus normal human endometrium. Thus, REA modulates cross talk among multiple cell types in the uterine tissue and host background, serving as a brake on the estradiol-ER axis and restraining multiple aspects that contribute to the pathologic progression of endometriosis. PMID:26653759

  2. Relational and Transcendental Humanism: Exploring the Consequences of a Thoroughly Pragmatic Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The relational and transcendental elements of humanism are considered. Although the relational component of humanism is extraordinarily valuable, the author argues that the transcendental portion of humanism should be abandoned. The implications of a thoroughly pragmatic humanism are explored.

  3. No evidence of endometriosis within serous and mucinous tumors of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian endometriosis can transform into malignant tumors. The author retrospectively examined HE slides of 112 serous tumors and 75 mucinous tumors for the existence of ovarian endometriosis. When endometriosis is present within the tumors, the term "endometriosis-derived tumor" was applied. When endometriosis is recognized adjacent to the tumor, the term "endometriosis-associated tumor" was used. Of the 112 serous tumors (46 benign, 18 borderline, and 50 malignant), 4 (3.5%) (2 benign and 2 malignant) were endometriosis-associated tumors. None was endometriosis-derived tumor. Of the 75 mucinous tumors (30 benign, 26 borderline, and 19 malignant), 4 (5%) (1 borderline and 3 benign) were endometriosis-associated tumors. No tumors showed endometriosis-derived tumors. The data suggest that endometriosis does not transform into serous and mucous tumors. The author felt the limitation of retrospective survey, because the limited numbers of slides (5 to 15) were obtained from each tumor. The author also felt that endometriosis can be difficult to discern because of degenerative changes and other similar lesions such as fallopian tube, fimbria, inclusion cysts, rete ovarii, paraovarian cyst, and Müllerian ducts remnants. Prospective study using whole ovarian examination is required. PMID:22400074

  4. Endometriosis causing acute appendicitis complicated with hemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Curbelo-Peña, Yuhamy; Guedes-De la Puente, Xavier; Saladich-Cubero, Maria; Molinas-Bruguera, Joan; Molineros, Jose; De Caralt-Mestres, Enric

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a painful disorder characterized by endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. It usually affects the pelvis, but in rare cases it might extend to other parts of the body. The report is based on a case of a 39-year-old woman, who presented symptoms of acute appendicitis and diagnosis confirmed with ultrasonography and a computed tomography scan procedures. Laparoscopic appendicectomy was performed. After entering the abdominal cavity, hemoperitoneum was discovered with no associated pelvic or abdominal lesions. Biopsy confirmed acute appendicitis with endometrial glands and stroma infiltrating its muscular tissue. Patient recovered without complications and was discharged 48 h after surgery. The appendix is rarely affected by endometrial infiltration. The literature describes an incidence of 0.8%, just a few cases have been associated with acute appendicitis; however, none of them are described to present hemoperitoneum, being our patient the first one reported with such complication. PMID:26253154

  5. [Extragenital endometriosis leading to piriformis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hettler, A; Böhm, J; Pretzsch, M; von Salis-Soglio, G

    2006-04-01

    We report on a 44-year-old woman with a history of sciatica fluctuating with her menstrual cycle and going back over 10 years; ultimately it was present continuously and became disabling. Over the years the patient developed ipsilateral foot-drop, a sensory disorder in the lateral aspect of the lower limb and back of the foot, and atrophy of the gluteus muscle. MRI confirmed the suspicion of extragenital endometriosis, which had caused piriformis syndrome by compression with consequent damage to the sciatic and inferior gluteal nerves. After hormonal therapy had been tried without success, the endometrioma was excised to relieve the pressure on the nerves, and the diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. The motor deficit remained up to the 15 months since surgery, but the patient is now free of pain. PMID:16425055

  6. NonDioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Risk of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Peters, Ulrike; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana B.; Holt, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Endometriosis, a gynecologic disorder affecting 810% of reproductive-age women in the United States, is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and is linked to pelvic pain and infertility. Environmental contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are hypothesized to contribute to endometriosis risk through effects on steroid hormones. Objective We evaluated serum concentrations of certain noncoplanar PCBs, which have no or only weak dioxin-like properties, as risk factors for endometriosis. Methods In a casecontrol study of Group Health enrollees in western Washington State, 20 PCB congeners were measured in serum from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases that were newly diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 (n = 251) and from female controls matched for age and reference year (n = 538). Results Summed and estrogenic PCB concentrations were not associated with endometriosis risk [summed: odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82.2; estrogenic: OR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.81.4]. Although several congener-specific ORs were statistically above or below the null (PCB 170: third quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.30.9; PCB 196: third quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.20.7; PCB 201: second vs. lowest: OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.30.8; third quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.20.7), there were no overall consistent patterns of endometriosis risk. Conclusions Taken in context with other North American studies, our findings suggest that noncoplanar PCB concentrations consistent within the range of exposure currently observed in western Washington State do not contribute meaningfully to endometriosis risk. PMID:20423815

  7. Potential role of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Abu Hashim, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory disease affecting 5%–10% of reproductive-age women, with a prevalence of 5%–50% in infertile women and >33% of women with chronic pelvic pain. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are approved adjuvants for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Molecular studies have revealed the presence of aromatase P450, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ovarian estradiol, inside the endometriotic tissue, indicating local synthesis of estradiol. Thereby, AIs represent an appealing medical option for the management of different aspects of this enigmatic disease, especially pelvic pain and infertility. Accordingly, this review aims to evaluate the potential role of AIs in the treatment of endometriosis-associated symptoms, mainly pain and infertility. Notably, several studies have demonstrated that the combination of AIs with conventional therapy as oral contraceptive pills, progestins, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be used to control endometriosis-associated pain and pain recurrence in premenopausal women, particularly those with pain due to rectovaginal endometriosis refractory to other medical or surgical treatment. Some case reports have shown promising results in the treatment of postmenopausal endometriosis as first-line treatment, when surgery is contraindicated, or as second-line treatment in the case of postoperative recurrence. Third-generation AIs, especially letrozole, have challenged clomiphene citrate as an ovulation-induction agent in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and in cases of unexplained infertility. However, few studies are available regarding the use of AIs to treat endometriosis-associated infertility. Therefore, larger multicenter randomized trials using AIs for the treatment of endometriosis-associated infertility are needed to clarify its effect. The safety of AIs for ovulation induction or superovulation has generated a lively discussion. Data from recent retrospective and prospective studies have supported its safety. PMID:25092998

  8. Shared genetics underlying epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Painter, Jodie N; Nyholt, Dale R; Morris, Andrew P; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Burghaus, Stefanie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wicklund, Kristine G; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Eilber, Ursula; Rudolph, Anja; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Antonenkova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Edwards, Robert P; Kelley, Joseph L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Cannioto, Rikki; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H; Wu, Xifeng; Bisogna, Maria; Dao, Fanny; Levine, Douglas A; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Missmer, Stacey; Bjorge, Line; Salvesen, Helga B; Kopperud, Reidun K; Bischof, Katharina; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Olson, Sara H; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H; Sieh, Weiva; Whittemore, Alice S; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Gilks, C Blake; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Gawełko, Jan; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise; Trabert, Britton; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mclaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Eccles, Diana; Gayther, Simon A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J; Wu, Anna H; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Timorek, Agnieszka; Szafron, Lukasz; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Winham, Stacey J; Bandera, Elisa V; Poole, Elizabeth M; Morgan, Terry K; Risch, Harvey A; Goode, Ellen L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Webb, Penelope M; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D P; Montgomery, Grant W; Zondervan, Krina T; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; MacGregor, Stuart

    2015-10-15

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between endometriosis and certain histotypes of ovarian cancer, including clear cell, low-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas. We aimed to determine whether the observed associations might be due to shared genetic aetiology. To address this, we used two endometriosis datasets genotyped on common arrays with full-genome coverage (3194 cases and 7060 controls) and a large ovarian cancer dataset genotyped on the customized Illumina Infinium iSelect (iCOGS) arrays (10 065 cases and 21 663 controls). Previous work has suggested that a large number of genetic variants contribute to endometriosis and ovarian cancer (all histotypes combined) susceptibility. Here, using the iCOGS data, we confirmed polygenic architecture for most histotypes of ovarian cancer. This led us to evaluate if the polygenic effects are shared across diseases. We found evidence for shared genetic risks between endometriosis and all histotypes of ovarian cancer, except for the intestinal mucinous type. Clear cell carcinoma showed the strongest genetic correlation with endometriosis (0.51, 95% CI = 0.18-0.84). Endometrioid and low-grade serous carcinomas had similar correlation coefficients (0.48, 95% CI = 0.07-0.89 and 0.40, 95% CI = 0.05-0.75, respectively). High-grade serous carcinoma, which often arises from the fallopian tubes, showed a weaker genetic correlation with endometriosis (0.25, 95% CI = 0.11-0.39), despite the absence of a known epidemiological association. These results suggest that the epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian adenocarcinoma may be attributable to shared genetic susceptibility loci. PMID:26231222

  9. Quasi-resonance enhancement of laser-induced-fluorescence diagnosis of endometriosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Ralph H., Jr.; Vancaillie, Thierry G.

    1990-05-01

    Endometriosis, a common disease in women in the reproductive age group, is defined pathologically by the presence of endometrial tissue (inner lining of the uterus) outside the uterus. The displaced tissue is histologically identical to endometrium. In addition to being a highly prevalent disease, this disease is associated with many distressing and debilitating symptoms. Motivated by the need to improve diagnosis by endoscopic imaging instrumentation, we have previously used several drugs to cause selective laser-induced fluorescence of active surgically induced endometriosis in the rabbit model in vivo using ultraviolet-wavelength (351.1 and 363.8 nm) excitation from an argon-ion laser. In the present study we have investigated methods of enhancing differentiation between normal and abnormal tissue by using other excitation wavelengths. In addition to an enhanced capability for detecting abnormal tissue, there are several other advantages associated with using visible-wavelength excitation, such as deeper penetration into the tissue, as well as increased equipment performance, reliability, versatility, and availability. The disadvantage is that because only wavelengths longer than the excitation wavelength can be used for detection, some of the spectral information is lost. Because human endomeiriosis samples were somewhat limited in quantity, as well as specimen size, we used normal ovarian tissue for the laser-induced-fluorescence differentiation-enhancement studies. Positive enhancement of the laser-induced- fluorescence differentiation was found in human ovarian tissue in vitro utilizing 514.5-nm excitation from an argonion laser. Additionally, preliminary verification of this concept was accomplished in active surgically induced endometriosis in the rabbit model in vivo with visible argon-ion laser excitation of two tetracycline-based drugs. Future experiments with other drug treatments and excitation/detection parameters are planned.

  10. Eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis does not exhibit neurotrophic properties.

    PubMed

    Barcena de Arellano, Maria Luisa; Arnold, Julia; Sacher, Frank; Blöchle, Matthias; Staube, Magdalena; Bartley, Julia; Vercellino, Giuseppe F; Chiantera, Vito; Schneider, Achim; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2012-08-15

    The role of neurotrophins in eutopic endometrium from endometriosis-patients was investigated in a prospective study using immunofluorescence-staining, Western blot and a neuronal growth assay. The nerve growth factor is expressed in primary endometrial cell culture from women with and without endometriosis. Western blot analysis of endometrial biopsies or uterine fluid from patients with and without endometriosis shows no difference in the neurotrophin expression. We could not find a difference between patients with and without endometriosis with regards to the neurite outgrowth of sensory ganglia when treated with conditioned cultured medium or uterine fluid. This result refutes the assumed neurotrophic properties of eutopic endometrium of patients with endometriosis. PMID:22633194

  11. Actinomyces and Related Organisms in Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wade, William G.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Actinomyces israelii has long been recognized as a causative agent of actinomycosis. During the past 3 decades, a large number of novel Actinomyces species have been described. Their detection and identification in clinical microbiology laboratories and recognition as pathogens in clinical settings can be challenging. With the introduction of advanced molecular methods, knowledge about their clinical relevance is gradually increasing, and the spectrum of diseases associated with Actinomyces and Actinomyces-like organisms is widening accordingly; for example, Actinomyces meyeri, Actinomyces neuii, and Actinomyces turicensis as well as Actinotignum (formerly Actinobaculum) schaalii are emerging as important causes of specific infections at various body sites. In the present review, we have gathered this information to provide a comprehensive and microbiologically consistent overview of the significance of Actinomyces and some closely related taxa in human infections. PMID:25788515

  12. Medical Treatments for Endometriosis-Associated Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Luppi, Stefania; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The main sequelae of endometriosis are represented by infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain causes disability and distress with a very high economic impact. In the last decades, an impressive amount of pharmacological agents have been tested for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. However, only a few of these have been introduced into clinical practice. Following the results of the controlled studies available, to date, the first-line treatment for endometriosis associated pain is still represented by oral contraceptives used continuously. Progestins represent an acceptable alternative. In women with rectovaginal lesions or colorectal endometriosis, norethisterone acetate at low dosage should be preferred. GnRH analogues may be used as second-line treatment, but significant side effects should be taken into account. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used, but there is inconclusive evidence for their efficacy in relieving endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Other agents such as GnRH antagonist, aromatase inhibitors, immunomodulators, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors seem to be very promising, but there is not enough evidence to support their introduction into routine clinical practice. Some other agents, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-γ ligands, antiangiogenic agents, and melatonin have been proven to be efficacious in animal studies, but they have not yet been tested in clinical studies. PMID:25165691

  13. The role of fertility preservation in patients with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, L; Seidman, D S; Cittadini, E; Meirow, D

    2016-03-01

    Patients affected with severe endometriosis are at significant risk for ovarian tissue damage, which may lead to infertility, reduced response to ovarian stimulation, and occasionally, premature ovarian failure. The risk for a compromised ovarian reserve in young patients is especially high following repeated surgical intervention and in the presence of bilateral endometriomas. In many cases, enhanced loss of ovarian reserve may also result from the damaging effect of the pathologic process on follicle reservoir even without surgical interventions. Women diagnosed with severe endometriosis and those designated for extensive ovarian surgical intervention are frequently not planning to conceive. In light of recent advances in fertility preservation techniques (FPT), such as oocytes and ovarian tissue freezing, as well as their increasing success rates, we critically evaluate the options for FPT in patients suffering from endometriosis. Personalized counseling should be offered to all patients with endometriosis taking into account age, extent of ovarian involvement, current ovarian reserve, previous and impending surgeries for endometriosis, along with current success rates and possible risks associated with FPT. PMID:26768141

  14. Analysis of subsequent surgery rates among endometriosis patients who underwent surgery with and without concomitant leuprolide acetate therapy.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Bonafede, Machaon; Farr, Amanda M; Castelli-Haley, Jane; Winkel, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Objective To compare subsequent endometriosis-related surgery following initial laparoscopy among women treated with leuprolide acetate (LA) or other endometriosis therapies versus women who received no pharmacotherapy. Research design and methods This retrospective cohort analysis utilized MarketScan Commercial claims data. Women with endometriosis aged 18-49 who underwent laparoscopy between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011 were identified using diagnosis and procedures codes and were categorized into four cohorts based on claims within 90 days of laparoscopy: surgery plus adherent LA, surgery plus non-adherent LA, surgery plus other therapy, and surgery alone. Patients with proportion of days covered ≥0.80 in the 6 months after laparoscopy were considered adherent to LA. Main outcome measures Subsequent endometriosis-related surgery (laparoscopy, laparotomy or other excision/ablation/fulguration of endometriosis lesions, oophorectomy, or hysterectomy) was measured in the 6 and 12 months following initial laparoscopy. Risk of subsequent surgery was compared using multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Most women were treated with surgery only (n = 9865); fewer were treated with LA (adherent: n = 202; non-adherent: n = 490) or other therapies (n = 230). The proportion of patients with subsequent surgery ranged from 2.0% to 10.0% during the 6 month follow-up (12 month: 9.7% to 13.5%). Adherent LA use was associated with significantly lower risk of surgery compared to surgery alone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.31, p = 0.020) while use of other therapies was associated with significantly higher risk (HR = 1.51, p = 0.045) over the 6 month follow-up. There was no significant difference between the surgery plus non-adherent LA and surgery only cohort over 6 months (p = 0.247). The association between adherent LA and subsequent surgery was not significant over the 12 month follow-up. Conclusion Therapy with LA after laparoscopy for endometriosis was associated with lower risk of subsequent surgery at 6 months among women who were adherent to LA. Key limitations include lack of ability to capture disease severity which may have resulted in uncontrolled confounding. PMID:27027333

  15. Potential role of estrogen in maintaining the imbalanced sympathetic and sensory innervation in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanchun; Yao, Shuzhong

    2016-03-15

    Endometriosis, one of the most common benign gynecological diseases, affects millions of women of childbearing age. Endometriosis-associated pain is a major cause of disability and compromised quality of life in women. Neuropathic mechanisms are believed to play an important role. An imbalanced sympathetic and sensory innervation (reduced sympathetic innervation, with unchanged or increased sensory innervation in endometriotic lesions) has been demonstrated in endometriosis in recent studies. And it is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated pain. It is primarily considered to be a natural adaptive program to endometriosis-associated inflammation. However, it is important to further clarify whether other potential modulating factors are involved in this dysregulation. It is generally accepted that endometriosis is an estrogen dependent disease. Higher estrogen biosynthesis and lower estrogen inactivation in endometriosis can lead to an excess of local estrogen in endometriotic lesions. In addition to its proliferative and anti-inflammatory actions, local estrogen in endometriosis also exerts potential neuromodulatory effects on the innervation in endometriosis. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of estrogen in mediating this imbalanced sympathetic and sensory innervation in endometriosis, through direct and indirect mechanisms on sympathetic and sensory nerves. Theoretical elaboration of the underlying mechanisms provides new insights in supporting the therapeutic role of estrogen in endometriosis-associated pain. PMID:26777300

  16. Women with endometriosis have a higher DNA repair capacity and diminished breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Jaime L.; Flores, Idhaliz; Morales, Luisa M.; Monteiro, Janice; Alvarez-Garriga, Carolina; Bayona, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer (BC) and endometriosis are important reproductive health diseases for women. Although endometriosis is not a malignant condition, some of its characteristics mimic that of a malignancy. Endometriosis is associated with increased risk of certain cancers; however, whether it alters BC risk is unclear. This study evaluates the association of endometriosis and BC and explores whether DNA repair capacity (DRC) plays a role in such a relationship. Materials and Methods A case-control study of 991 women (385 with BC and 606 controls, all recruited over 5 years) was undertaken in Puerto Rico. Eighty participants with self-reported surgically diagnosed endometriosis were identified, 20 of whom also had a diagnosis of BC. Data from a structured questionnaire and DRC measurements were assessed to determine the association between BC, DRC, and endometriosis. Results Participants with BC cases were 50% less likely to have history of endometriosis (OR = 0.5 95%CI: 0.3, 0.9, p = 0.038) than women without BC controls. Findings that did not reach statistical significance included the following: women with history of endometriosis had a slightly higher DRC level than those without it; BC cases and history of endometriosis were less likely to have had endometriosis diagnosis before age 38 as compared to controls with endometriosis. Discussion Here we report an inverse association between endometriosis and BC, the former possibly conferring a protective effect on the latter. Although the mechanisms involved are unknown they may include protection provided by higher DRC and or hormonal treatments for endometriosis. A larger sample of endometriosis cases is necessary to confirm these results and answer the question of whether a higher DRC capacity may contribute to this potential protection, and to identify other factors at play. PMID:25473592

  17. Pathogenesis of Endometriosis: Roles of Retinoids and Inflammatory Pathways.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert N; Kane, Maureen A; Sidell, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Endometriosis is a nonmalignant, but potentially metastatic, gynecological condition manifested by the extrauterine growth of inflammatory endometrial implants. Ten percent of reproductive-age women are affected and commonly suffer pelvic pain and/or infertility. The theories of endometriosis histogenesis remain controversial, but retrograde menstruation and metaplasia each infer mechanisms that explain the immune cell responses observed around the ectopic lesions. Recent findings from our laboratories and others suggest that retinoic acid metabolism and action are fundamentally flawed in endometriotic tissues and even generically in women with endometriosis. The focus of our ongoing research is to develop medical therapies as adjuvants or alternatives to the surgical excision of these lesions. On the basis of concepts put forward in this review, we predict that the pharmacological actions and anticipated low side-effect profiles of retinoid supplementation might provide a new treatment option for the long-term management of this chronic and debilitating gynecological disease. PMID:26132929

  18. Hormonal therapies for endometriosis: implications for bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dawood, M Y

    1994-01-01

    The non-surgical treatment of endometriosis involves hormone therapy that either affects the lesions directly, or indirectly inhibits endometrial proliferation and induces atrophy through estrogen deprivation, or through a combination of these effects. The medications used to treat endometriosis are progestins (e.g. norethindrone, medroxyprogesterone acetate), oral contraceptives (e.g. estrogen-progesterone acetate), androgens and their derivatives (e.g. danazol, gestrinone), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists (e.g. buserelin, leuprolide acetate, nafarelin, goserelin, tryptorelin). Agents such as GnRH agonists that produce sustained and prolonged hypoestrogenemia, similar to the postmenopausal hypogonadal state, can have a significant negative impact on trabecular bone mass. Evidence from the use of oral contraceptives and medroxyprogesterone acetate indicated that they had no apparent adverse effect on bone mass. Initial studies with dual-photon absorptiometry were unable to detect any appreciable bone loss with GnRH agonists. Later studies, however, have invariably found significant bone loss as early as 3 months after the start of treatment. Quantitated computerized tomography always shows significant trabecular bone loss of the vertebrae and hip with GnRH agonists. Depot preparations appear to produce more marked loss than daily intranasal sprays. Recovery of bone loss may take 6-12 months after the end of therapy, with considerable individual variations. In contrast, treatment of endometriosis with danazol produces bone gain. If endometriosis has to be treated with bone-depleting agents, prevention or attenuation of bone loss using combined therapy with progestins, etidronate or calcitonin together with GnRH agonists should be considered; however, further studies are necessary to define the efficacy of such combined therapy. Smoking and excessive caffeine intake should be avoided. The risk of bone loss should be considered when choosing the appropriate management of endometriosis, the selection of patients, repeat therapies for recurrent endometriosis, and the formulation of such therapies, in order to minimize or overcome it. PMID:8209669

  19. Hydronephrosis due to ureteral endometriosis in women of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Wang, Xue-Ping; Li, Yan-Yuan; Jin, Bai-Ye; Xia, Dan; Wang, Shuo; Pan, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to improve the understanding of ureteral endometriosis, and remind the clinics to be highly suspicious of it in women of reproductive age with hydronephrosis without evidence of stones and malignancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on a database of 82 patients who underwent surgery for hydronephrosis due to ureteral endometriosis between Jan. 2007 and Apr. 2014. Results: All patients evaluated in this study were divided into three groups: Group A consisted of patients between 20-30 years (n = 12), Group B comprised of patients between 31-40 years (n = 29), Group C consisted of patients between 41-50 years (n = 41). Patients in Group C had a greater prevalence of pelvic pain compared with patients in Group A and Group B (P < 0.05). However there were no differences with respect to the prevalence of other non-specific genitourinary symptoms and the urinary symptoms. Infertility was found to occur more frequently in patients in Group A compared with patients in Group B and Group C (P < 0.05). Because of the lack of specific symptoms, ureteral endometriosis was diagnosed (20.1 ± 10.3) months on average after the patients suffered from mild hydronephrosis or mild loin pain. Preoperative examinations showed different degree of hydronephrosis, but lack of specificity. All patients underwent surgery by laparotomy or laparoscopy, such as ureterectomy with ureteroureterostomy or ureterocystoneostomy. The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis. Conclusion: The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis is elusive and relies heavily on clinical suspicion. Hence, women in the reproductive age, especially with infertility and pelvic pain, who have hydronephrosis without evidence of stones and malignance, should be adequately assessed via imaging techniques or diagnostic laparoscopy or cystoscopy to highly suspect the diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis. PMID:25785093

  20. Tight junction-related human diseases.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Norimasa

    2013-01-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular junctions adjacent to the apical ends of paracellular spaces. They have two classical functions, the barrier function and the fence function. The former regulates the passage of ions, water and various molecules through paracellular spaces, and is thus related to edema, jaundice, diarrhea and blood-borne metastasis. The latter function maintains cell polarity by forming a fence to prevent intermixing of molecules in the apical membrane with those in the lateral membrane. This function is deeply involved in cancer cell properties in terms of loss of cell polarity. Recently, two novel aspects of tight junctions have been reported. One is their involvement in signal transduction. The other is that fact that tight junctions are considered to be a crucial component of innate immunity. In addition, since some proteins comprising tight junctions work as receptors for viruses and extracellular stimuli, pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and affect the tight junction functions, leading to diseases. In this review, the relationship between tight junctions and human diseases will be described. PMID:23356220

  1. [Interest of selective progesterone receptor modulators in endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Merviel, P; Lourdel, E; Sanguin, S; Gagneur, O; Cabry, R; Nasreddine, A

    2013-09-01

    The SPRM (selective progesterone receptor modulators) are agonists and/or antagonists of progesterone receptor. They are responsible for anovulation, amenorrhea and a lower prostaglandin levels, which leads to an improvement in pain and regression of lesions in endometriosis. On the endometrium, a particular aspect, the progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes (PAEC), raises additional studies to verify its harmlessness. However, due to the lack of hypoestrogenism and metabolic effects with these drugs, it is very likely that the SPRM will in the near future an important place in the treatment of endometriosis. PMID:23972920

  2. Changes in Eutopic Endometrial Gene Expression During the Progression of Experimental Endometriosis in the Baboon, Papio Anubis1

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Yalda; Hastings, Julie; Roqueiro, Damian; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Giudice, Linda C.; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endometriosis is associated with aberrant gene expression in the eutopic endometrium of women with disease. To determine if the development of endometriotic lesions directly impacts eutopic endometrial gene expression, we sequentially analyzed the eutopic endometrium across the time course of disease progression in a baboon model of induced disease. Endometriosis was induced in baboons (n = 4) by intraperitoneal inoculation of autologous menstrual endometrium. Eutopic endometria were collected during the midsecretory phase (Days 9–11 postovulation) at 1, 3, 6–7, 10–12, and 15–16 mo after disease induction and compared with tissue from disease-free baboons. RNA was hybridized to Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays, and data were extracted using Gene-Chip Operating Software. Subsequently, both Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis were used to find biological states that have a statistically significant enrichment concomitant with pairwise comparison of human endometriosis arrays. Within 1 mo of induction of the disease, 4331 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.05). Hierarchical clustering revealed self-segregation into two groups—a) 1, 3, and 10–12 mo and b) 6–7 and 15–16 mo—together with controls. Clustering analysis at each stage of disease validated dysregulation of several signaling pathways, including Nodal-like receptor, EGF, ERK/MAPK, and PI3/AKT. Sequential analysis of the same animals during disease progression demonstrated an early disease insult and a transitory dominance of an estrogenic phenotype; however, as the disease progressed, a progesterone-resistant phenotype became evident. Furthermore, we demonstrate a 38.6% differential gene expression overlap with endometrial samples in the midsecretory phase from women with endometriosis, concomitant with similar dysregulation in human disease candidate genes Fos, Nodal, Suclg2, and Kras, among others. Molecular changes in the eutopic endometrium, associated with endometriosis, are directly impacted by endometriotic lesions, providing strong evidence that it is the disease rather than inherent defective endometrium that results in aberrant gene expression in the eutopic endometrium. Furthermore, this baboon model provides a powerful means whereby the early events associated with the pathology of disease and the resulting infertility may be elucidated. PMID:23284138

  3. Endometriosis Impairs Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cell Recruitment to the Uterus Whereas Bazedoxifene Treatment Leads to Endometriosis Regression and Improved Uterine Stem Cell Engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Sharif; Naqvi, Hanyia; Komm, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a disease defined by the ectopic growth of uterine endometrium. Stem cells contribute to the generation of endometriosis as well as to repair and regeneration of normal endometrium. Here we demonstrate that the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA), administered with conjugated estrogens (CEs), leads to regression of endometriosis lesions as well as reduction in stem cell recruitment to the lesions. Female mice underwent transplantation of male bone marrow. Endometrium was transplanted in the peritoneal cavity of half to create experimental endometriosis. Mice with or without experimental endometriosis were randomized to BZA/CE or vehicle treatment. Endometriosis lesions, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell engraftment of the lesions, and eutopic endometrium as well as ovarian stimulation were assessed. BZA treatment significantly reduced lesion size, gland number, and expression of proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Ovarian weight was not affected. Stem cells were recruited to the endometriosis lesions, and this recruitment was dramatically reduced by BZA/CE treatment. Stem cell engraftment was reduced in the uterus of animals with endometriosis; however the number of stem cells engrafting the uterus was completely restored by treatment with BZA/CE. Competition between endometriosis and the eutopic endometrium for a limited supply of stem cells and depletion of normal stem cells flux to the uterus is a novel mechanism by which endometriosis interferes with endometrial function and fertility. BZA/CE not only treats lesions of endometriosis, it also dramatically reduces stem cell recruitment to the lesions and restores stem cell engraftment of the uterine endometrium. PMID:24484171

  4. GENETICS OF HUMAN AGE RELATED DISORDERS.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, I; Thukral, N; Hasija, Y

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological phenomenon. The incidence of age related disorders (ARDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases increase rapidly with aging. ARDs are becoming a key social and economic trouble for the world's elderly population (above 60 years), which is expected to reach 2 billion by 2050. Advancement in understanding of genetic associations, particularly through genome wide association studies (GWAS), has revealed a substantial contribution of genes to human aging and ARDs. In this review, we have focused on the recent understanding of the extent to which genetic predisposition may influence the aging process. Further analysis of the genetic association studies through pathway analysis several genes associated with multiple ARDs have been highlighted such as apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cadherin 13 (CDH13), CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1 (CDKAL-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), indicating that these genes could play a pivotal role in ARD causation. These genes were found to be significantly enriched in Jak-STAT signalling pathway, asthma and allograft rejection. Further, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin (INS), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), estrogen receptor1 (ESR1), transforming growth factor, beta 1(TGFB1) and calmodulin 1 (CALM1) were found to be highly interconnected in network analysis. We believe that extensive research on the presence of common genetic variants among various ARDs may facilitate scientists to understand the biology behind ARDs causation. PMID:26856084

  5. Effects of steroid hormone on estrogen sulfotransferase and on steroid sulfatase expression in endometriosis tissue and stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Piccinato, Carla A; Neme, Rosa M; Torres, Natália; Sanches, Lívia Renta; Derogis, Priscilla Bento Mattos Cruz; Brudniewski, Heloísa F; Rosa E Silva, Júlio C; Ferriani, Rui A

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease that afflicts about 10% of women in their reproductive age, causing severe pain and infertility. The potential roles of female steroid hormones in modulating key estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, steroid sulfatase (STS) and estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), were investigated. The expression of STS and SULT1E1 mRNA in biopsy samples (n=78) of superficial and deep endometriotic lesions, eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and endometrium from control patients were compared according to the menstrual cycle phase. Increased STS gene expression was detected in superficial and deep-infiltrating lesions and a reduced SULT1E1 expression was also observed in the eutopic endometrium relative to the superficial lesions. Additionally, a significantly positive correlation was detected between STS and SULT1E1 mRNA expression levels in biopsy specimens collected from the endometriosis patients, and not in control individuals. The actions of female steroid hormones on SULT1E1 and STS expression were evidenced in endometriosis, revealed by increased expression levels in the luteal phase of the cycle. There was an increased STS expression in primary eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells treated with estradiol and progesterone (representative of the luteal phase, n=3). Although an increased STS mRNA expression was observed in hormone-induced endometrial stromal cells in vitro, no difference could be detected between the hormone treatment groups in estradiol formation from estradiol sulfate measured by LC-MS-MS. Interestingly, a greater expression of STS was observed in stromal cells from eutopic endometrium with an agreement in estradiol formation originated from estradiol sulfate. The differential regulation of STS and SULT1E1 could provide insights for novel studies of the therapeutic use of STS inhibitors. PMID:26723541

  6. Molecular biology of endometriosis: from aromatase to genomic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bulun, Serdar E; Monsivais, Diana; Kakinuma, Toshiyuki; Furukawa, Yuichi; Bernardi, Lia; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Dyson, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Endometriosis has been initially described as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue on pelvic organs or in extrapelvic sites; and this has been used as its key pathologic feature ever since. Endometriosis responds to fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone by growth and inflammation, leading to pain aggravated by menses. It was proposed that pelvic endometriosis primarily originate from retrograde menstruation of a critical number of eutopic endometrial cells with stem characteristics. This postulate is supported by the molecular defects found in ectopic endometriotic tissue. Genome-wide differences in CpG methylation between eutopic endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells are present. Defective CpG methylation affecting several genes that encode key transcription factors such as GATA6, steroidogenic factor-1, and estrogen receptor-β in endometriosis gives rise to overproduction of local estrogen and prostaglandins and suppression of progesterone receptor. Progesterone receptor deficiency leads to progesterone resistance, resulting in decreased retinol uptake and retinoic acid production and altered retinoic acid action. These molecular defects collectively give rise to poor cellular differentiation, enhanced survival, and increased inflammation, which are the biological hallmarks of endometriotic tissue. PMID:26036904

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of urinary cytokeratin 19 fragment for endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Lessey, B A; Savaris, R F; Ali, S; Brophy, S; Tomazic-Allen, S; Chwalisz, K

    2015-05-01

    Endometriosis affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age and 176 million women worldwide. The prevalence in women with infertility is between 30% and 50% but may be higher in women with pelvic pain, interstitial cystitis, or irritable bowel syndrome. Cytokeratin 19 has been suggested as a potential biomarker in urine for the diagnosis of this condition. The objective of this study was to prospectively determine the accuracy and the performance of a urinary cytokeratin 19 (uCYFRA 21-1) test for diagnosing endometriosis. Ninety-eight consecutive women who underwent laparoscopy had a urinary sample obtained before surgery and were included in the study. Endometriosis was diagnosed by laparoscopy and pathology in 64.3% (63 of 98 women). The estimates and 95% confidence intervals for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios were 11.1% (4.5%-21.5%), 94.3% (80.8%-99.3%), 77.7% (39.9-97.1), 37% (27-47.9), 1.94 (0.43-8.86), and 0.94 (0.84-1.06), respectively. Despite the high specificity, the uCYFRA 21-1 test has limited value for clinical practice to discriminate between women with and without endometriosis. PMID:25296695

  8. lmmuno Histochemical Profile of Endometrium in Patients With Genital Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Mettler, L.; Jürgensen, A.; Volkov, N. I.; Kulakov, V.; Parwaresch, M. R.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the occurence of different lymphocyte subsets in the endometrium of endometriosis patients and in healthy women on every day of the menstrual cycle with special emphasis to the proliferative activity of endometrial cells with Ki-S3 antibody. We also conducted immunohistochemical studies of T-lymphocytes, B-lympho-cytes, macrophages, natural-killer-cells and also of antigens class II of the histocompatibility complex (HLA-DR) during the different phases of the menstrual cycle in endometriosis and non-endometriosis patients. Endometrial lymphocyte subsets show equal quantity and distribution in endometriosis patients and in the control group. After a peak in the early preoliferative phase the absolute number of T-lymphocytes decreases while a predominance of T-suppressor/cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8) compared to T-helper/inducer lymphocytes (CD4) occurs towards the end of the menstrual cycle. It can be concluded that endometrium as the potential parent epithelia of endometriotic lesions seems not to be altered in its lymphatic cell content compared to healthy women. Furthermore endometrium is clearly characterised as part of the mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT). T-lymphocytes show specific quantitative changes due to different phases of the menstrual cycle. PMID:18493428

  9. Bladder Endometriosis Mimicking TCC – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Asish; Bhatnagar, Atul; Seth, B N; Dang, Arbinder

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Though on its own endometriosis is not a rare lesion, the involvement of the urinary tract is rare but with the bladder being the most commonly affected organ. Endometriosis is usually seen in females between the ages of 30-40 years and may occur due to fluctuating levels of oestrogen and progesterone. Clinically the patient maybe asymptomatic or show symptoms of dysmenorrhea, irregular or heavy periods, pain in the pelvic area, lower abdomen or in the back. It has been suggested that ultrasonography should be done either before or during menstruation as the lesion becomes more evident and a biopsy taken during this period is a strong aid in reaching a final diagnosis. We report here an unusual case of bladder endometriosis where the patient came with severe pelvic pain and an endoluminal mass seen on the ultrasonographic report. Based on these findings a differential of transitional cell carcinoma was given which was ruled out based on the cystoscopic findings. PMID:27042525

  10. Chronic common femoral vein occlusion secondary to endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Mila H.; Keldahl, Mark L.; Rodriguez, Heron E.

    2016-01-01

    Venous occlusion is sometimes caused by external compression due to adjacent masses. Endometriosis, the presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, is a rare cause of venous occlusion. We report a case of chronic common femoral vein occlusion due to endomctrioma causing severe leg edema and groin pain that was treated with resection and venous bypass. PMID:26993188

  11. Clinical Outcome after Colonic Resection in Women with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Klugsberger, Bettina; Shamiyeh, Andreas; Oppelt, Peter; Jabkowski, Christina; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Haas, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Background. In severe forms of endometriosis, the colon or rectum may be involved. This study evaluated the functional results and long-term outcome after laparoscopic colonic resection for endometriosis. Patients and Methods. Questionnaire survey with 24 women who had experienced typical symptoms, including pelvic pain, infertility, and endometriotic lesions in the bowel and undergone laparoscopic surgery, including low anterior resection, from 2009 to 2012, was conducted. Results. Information about the postoperative outcome was obtained from 22 women and was analyzed statistically. Twenty-one had undergone low anterior resection; one patient required a primary Hartmann procedure due to a rectovaginal fistula. The conversion rate was 4.5%. Major complications occurred in one patient, including an anastomotic leakage, and a Hartmann procedure was carried out subsequently in this patient. The symptoms of pain during defecation, pelvic pain, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, and hematochezia showed clear improvement one year after the operation and at the time of the questionnaire. Conclusion. Laparoscopic low anterior resection for deeply infiltrative endometriosis is technically demanding but feasible and safe, and it improves the clinical symptoms of endometriosis in the bowel. PMID:26258139

  12. Correlation of histological and macroscopic findings in peritoneal endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Strehl, Johanna D; Hackl, Janina; Wachter, David L; Klingsiek, Peter; Burghaus, Stefanie; Renner, Stefan P; Fasching, Peter A; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W

    2014-01-01

    Context: In the last two decades, a color based concept of disease activity in peritoneal endometriosis has been in use in the clinical context, with red lesions being considered active and black or white lesions being interpreted as less active or dormant. Objective: Our aim was to analyze 4 main color categories of peritoneal endometriosis (black, white, red and brown) in one single patient group using histomorphological and immunohistochemical methods. Design: 65 endometriosis lesions (30 black, 17 white, 11 brown, 7 red) were resected from 47 premenopausal, nulliparous women which had not received exogenous hormones for at least six months prior to the operation. Specimen workup, histomorphological analysis and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in a standardized manner. Results: The color categories showed a broad overlap in proliferative activity and hormone receptor expression. Differences were found in lesion morphology. Adjacent stromal reaction in particular showed a marked increase from red through brown and black to white lesions. Differences were also seen in gland pattern and gland content. Conclusions: Lesion colors in peritoneal endometriosis seem to be determined by gland content and a varying adjacent stromal reaction and more likely reflect an aging process than different levels of disease activity. PMID:24427335

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  14. [Chronic pelvic pain and cervical endometriosis after a subtotal hysterectomy].

    PubMed

    Acosta Martínez, Marcos; Zamora Escudero, Rodrigo; García-Benítez, Carlos Quesnel; Vieyra Cortés, Edmundo Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The ectopic location of endometrial glands and stroma may cause the formation of a tumor known as endometrioma. It almost always occurs in the ovary, and due to its characteristic appearance has been called "chocolate cyst". Cervical localization of this disease is extremely rare, and when it occurs, tends to be an exocervical and/or endocervical injury, as a result of cervical procedures. We communicate the case of a patient with cystic endometriosis in the cervix after a subtotal abdominal hysterectomy, performed by obstetric hemorrhage. Even though there have been reports about cases of cervical endometriosis, most of them have been reported as superficial cervical endometriosis and as a discovery after a total hysterectomy or cervical biopsy, in some cases even with original diagnosis ofAGUS (atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance). We concluded that in this case, instrumented uterine curettage and subtotal hysterectomy by obstetric indication are a possible origin of cervical endometriosis, due to "seeding" endometrial tissue during the curettage in a friable cervix. PMID:23513405

  15. Tamoxifen-associated polypoid endometriosis mimicking an ovarian neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Ho; Jin, So-Young; Jeen, Yoon Mi; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Dong Won

    2015-07-01

    Tamoxifen has been widely used for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer, but several gynecological side effects have been noted, including endometrial hyperplasia, polyp and carcinoma. Polypoid endometriosis is one of the extremely rare benign complications associated with tamoxifen therapy. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman, who had received left partial mastectomy due to breast cancer (about 4 years ago) and was taking tamoxifen treatment, had an ovarian cyst on ultrasonography. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging suggested tamoxifen-associated endometrial and ovarian changes, especially a 4.1×3.4-cm-sized, well-defined, multicystic mass in the right ovary. She received hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Microscopically, the right paratubal mass showed endometrial glands and stroma, and immunohistochemical staining for CD10 confirmed the endometrial nature of the stroma. Three cases of polypoid endometriosis have been reported in the Korean literature, but in none of the cases, polypoid endometriosis was associated with tamoxifen use. Herein, we report the first case of polypoid endometriosis associated with tamoxifen treatment in Korea. PMID:26217606

  16. Human cells display reduced apoptotic function relative to chimpanzee cells.

    PubMed

    Arora, Gaurav; Mezencev, Roman; McDonald, John F

    2012-01-01

    Previously published gene expression analyses suggested that apoptotic function may be reduced in humans relative to chimpanzees and led to the hypothesis that this difference may contribute to the relatively larger size of the human brain and the increased propensity of humans to develop cancer. In this study, we sought to further test the hypothesis that humans maintain a reduced apoptotic function relative to chimpanzees by conducting a series of apoptotic function assays on human, chimpanzee and macaque primary fibroblastic cells. Human cells consistently displayed significantly reduced apoptotic function relative to the chimpanzee and macaque cells. These results are consistent with earlier findings indicating that apoptotic function is reduced in humans relative to chimpanzees. PMID:23029431

  17. Genes Downregulated in Endometriosis Are Located Near the Known Imprinting Genes

    PubMed Central

    Higashiura, Yumi; Koike, Natsuki; Akasaka, Juria; Uekuri, Chiharu; Iwai, Kana; Niiro, Emiko; Morioka, Sachiko; Yamada, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    There is now accumulating evidence that endometriosis is a disease associated with an epigenetic disorder. Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon known to regulate DNA methylation of either maternal or paternal alleles. We hypothesize that hypermethylated endometriosis-associated genes may be enriched at imprinted gene loci. We sought to determine whether downregulated genes associated with endometriosis susceptibility are associated with chromosomal location of the known paternally and maternally expressed imprinting genes. Gene information has been gathered from National Center for Biotechnology Information database geneimprint.com. Several researchers have identified specific loci with strong DNA methylation in eutopic endometrium and ectopic lesion with endometriosis. Of the 29 hypermethylated genes in endometriosis, 19 genes were located near 45 known imprinted foci. There may be an association of the genomic location between genes specifically downregulated in endometriosis and epigenetically imprinted genes. PMID:24615936

  18. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis on the Right Port Site After Laparoscopy: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cozzolino, Mauro; Magnolfi, Stefania; Corioni, Serena; Moncini, Daniela; Mattei, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis can be intrapelvic or, rarely, extrapelvic. Endometriosis involving the rectus abdominis muscle on the trocar port site is a rare event; until now, only 16 cases have been reported in the literature. The majority of cases were associated with previous abdominal surgery such as diagnostic laparoscopy, cyst excision, appendectomy, myomectomy, or cholecystectomy. We review all the reported cases of this unusual form of extrapelvic endometriosis. Case Report We report a new case of abdominal wall endometriosis at the trocar port site in the rectus abdominis muscle in a woman who had undergone 2 laparoscopies for endometriosis in the 3 years before coming to our attention. The diagnosis was made by sonography. We performed a surgical resection of the lesion with a free macroscopic margin of 5-10 mm. Conclusion Endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any abdominal swelling. In our experience, surgery is the treatment of choice. PMID:26412997

  19. Deep Infiltrating Colorectal Endometriosis Treated With Robotic-Assisted Rectosigmoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schraibman, Vladimir; Okazaki, Samuel; Maccapani, Gabriel; Chen, Winston Jenning; Domit, Cassia Danielle; Kaufmann, Oskar Grau; Advincula, Arnold P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Deep infiltrating pelvic endometriosis with bowel involvement is one of the most aggressive forms of endometriosis. Nowadays, robotic technology and telemanipulation systems represent the latest developments in minimally invasive surgery. The aim of this study is to present our preliminary results and evaluate the feasibility of robotic-assisted laparoscopic colorectal resection for severe endometriosis. Methods: Between September 2009 and December 2011, 10 women with colorectal endometriosis underwent surgery with the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). We evaluated the following parameters: short-term complications, clinical outcomes and long-term follow-up, pain relief recurrence rate, and fertility outcomes. Results: Extensive ureterolysis was required in 8 women (80%). Ovarian cystectomy with removal of the cystic wall was performed in 7 women (70%). Torus resection was performed in all women, with unilateral and bilateral uterosacral ligament resection in 1 woman (10%) and 8 women (80%), respectively. In addition to segmental colorectal resection in all cases, partial vaginal resection was necessary in 2 women (20%). An appendectomy was performed in 2 patients (20%). The mean operative time with the robot was 157 minutes (range, 90–190 minutes). The mean hospital stay was 3 days. Six patients had infertility before surgery, with a mean infertility time of 2 years. After a 12-month follow-up period, 4 women (67%) conceived naturally and 2 (33%) underwent in vitro fertilization. Conclusion: We show that robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of deep infiltrating bowel endometriosis is feasible, effective, and safe. PMID:23925016

  20. HDAC1 and HDAC2 are differentially expressed in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Colón-Díaz, Maricarmen; Báez-Vega, Perla; García, Miosotis; Ruiz, Abigail; Monteiro, Janice B; Fourquet, Jessica; Bayona, Manuel; Alvarez-Garriga, Carolina; Achille, Alexandra; Seto, Edward; Flores, Idhaliz

    2012-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have been ascribed important roles in endometriosis. Covalent histone modifications at lysine residues have been shown to regulate gene expression and thus contribute to pathological states in many diseases. In endometriosis, histone deacetylase inhibition (HDACi) resulted in reactivation of E-cadherin, attenuation of invasion, decreased proliferation of endometriotic cells, and caused lesion regression in an animal model. This study was conducted to assess basal and hormone-regulated gene expression levels of HDAC1 and HDAC2 (HDAC1/2) in cell lines and protein expression levels in tissues. Basal and steroid hormone-regulated HDAC1/2 gene expression levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in cell lines and tissues. Protein levels were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissues on an endometriosis tissue microarray (TMA). Basal HDAC1/2 gene expression levels were significantly higher in endometriotic versus endometrial stromal cells, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) significantly downregulated HDAC1 expression in endometrial epithelial cells. Levels of HDAC2 were upregulated by E2 and downregulated by E2 + P4 in endometrial stromal cells. Hormone modulation of HDAC1/2 gene expression was lost in the endometriotic cell line. Immunohistochemistry showed that HDAC1/2 proteins were expressed in a substantial proportion of lesions and endometrium from patients, and their expression levels varied according to lesion localization. The highest proportion of strong HDAC1 immunostaining was seen in ovarian, skin, and gastrointestinal lesions, and of HDAC2 in skin lesions and endometrium from patients with endometriosis. These studies suggest that endometriosis etiology may be partially explained by epigenetic regulation of gene expression due to dysregulations in the expression of HDACs. PMID:22344732

  1. Evaluation of biodegradable microspheres containing nomegestrol acetate in a rat model of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yan; Zhou, Xianying; Hao, Shufang; Xie, Shuwu; Zhou, Jieyun; Guo, Xiangjie; Li, Zhao; Huang, Yunsheng; Chen, Qinghua

    2014-12-18

    We assessed the efficacy of biodegradable microspheres (MSs) containing nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) for treatment of endometriosis in a rat model and investigated its preliminary mechanism of action. Sprague-Dawley rats with surgically implanted endometrial autografts were divided randomly into four groups of thirteen rats each, and subcutaneously injected twice (10d apart) with either empty MSs or MSs containing nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC-MS; 27-800mg per kg of rat body weight). Twenty-one days after the first injection, blood and endometriotic tissues were collected and assayed for changes in endometriotic tissue, serum hormone, liver function parameters, and apoptotic protein. No remarkable irritation was observed at the site of injection. NOMAC-MS treatment significantly reduced the volume of the endometrial autografts, decreased serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, triiodothyronine, and alanine aminotransferase, and decreased levels of estrogen receptor alpha protein. Furthermore, NOMAC-MS at the highest dose significantly reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase and endometrial antibody, reduced the Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio, and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins. There was no pronounced difference observed in alkaline phosphatase, carbohydrate antigen 125, progesterone receptor, or vascular endometrial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in any of the tested groups relative to the control. NOMAC-MS significantly changed the expression of apoptotic protein only at the highest dose. Our findings warrant the further investigation of sustained application of steroid hormone via microspheres for the treatment of endometriosis. PMID:25201168

  2. Demographic and Clinical Features of Endometrial Polyps in Patients with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningning; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To compare the clinical features of endometrial polyps (EPs) between patients with endometriosis (EM) (EM group) and without EM (non-EM group). Methods and Results. Seventy-six cases in the EM group and 133 cases in the non-EM group underwent laparotomy or hysteroscopy and laparoscopy; later, it was confirmed that the results by pathology from July 2002 to April 2008 in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. The recurrence of EPs was followed up after the surgery until 2013. The following parameters were assessed: age, gravidity, parity, infertility, and menstrual cycle changes, as well as polyps diameters, locations, number, association with the revised American Fertility Society (r-AFS) classification, and their recurrence. On review, 76 EPs cases of EM group histologically resembled EPs but the majority of EPs with EM occurred in primary infertility cases and in fewer pregnancy rate women who had stable and smaller EPs without association with the AFS stage. The recurrence rate of EPs in EM group was higher than that in non-EM group. Conclusion. It is important to identify whether infertile patients with EM are also having EPs. Removing any coexisting EPs via hysteroscopy would be clinically helpful in treating endometriosis-related infertility in these patients.

  3. Pharmaceutical treatments to prevent recurrence of endometriosis following surgery: a model-based economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, Sabina; Barton, Pelham; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Horne, Andrew W; Roberts, Tracy Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective Conduct an economic evaluation based on best currently available evidence comparing alternative treatments levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) and ‘no treatment’ to prevent recurrence of endometriosis after conservative surgery in primary care, and to inform the design of a planned trial-based economic evaluation. Methods We developed a state transition (Markov) model with a 36-month follow-up. The model structure was informed by a pragmatic review and clinical experts. The economic evaluation adopted a UK National Health Service perspective and was based on an outcome of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). As available data were limited, intentionally wide distributions were assigned around model inputs, and the average costs and outcome of the probabilistic sensitivity analyses were reported. Results On average, all strategies were more expensive and generated fewer QALYs compared to no treatment. However, uncertainty attributing to the transition probabilities affected the results. Inputs relating to effectiveness, changes in treatment and the time at which the change is made were the main causes of uncertainty, illustrating areas where robust and specific data collection is required. Conclusions There is currently no evidence to support any treatment being recommended to prevent the recurrence of endometriosis following conservative surgery. The study highlights the importance of developing decision models at the outset of a trial to identify data requirements to conduct a robust post-trial analysis. PMID:27084280

  4. Photodynamic treatment (PDT) of endometrium primary cultures serving as an in-vitro-model for endometriosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werter, Wiebke; Viereck, Volker; Keckstein, J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Rueck, Angelika C.

    1994-05-01

    As a new treatment model for endometriosis, photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied to endometrium cultures. Endometriosis is a benign disease. Therefore primary cultures were used instead of cell lines. Endometrium is composed of epithelial and stromal cells which can also be found in primary culture. While stromal cells take a polygonal shape in culture, epithelial cells form cell colonies. PSIII (Photasan III), which is similar to hematorporphyrin derivate (HpD), meso-tetra (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TPPS4), which posses a high fluorescence quantum yield and may be useful in fluorescence diagnosis of subtle endometriotic spots, and methylene blue (MB), a vital dye with phototoxic properties, were used as photosensitizers. Different sensitizer concentrations and incubation times were applied. The highest phototoxicity was observed for PSIII; TPPS4 and MB were less phototoxic. We compared our results with the sensitivity of cell lines described in the literature. The necessary irradiation to destroy stromal cells was relatively high but still in the same dimension as for cell lines. However they were even more sensitive than epithelial cells. This was true for all sensitizers used.

  5. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of endometrium primary cultures serving as an in-vitro model for endometriosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herter, Wiebke; Viereck, Volker; Keckstein, J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Rueck, Angelika C.

    1994-05-01

    As a new treatment model for endometriosis, photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied to endometrium cultures. Endometriosis is a benign disease. Therefore primary cultures were used instead of cell lines. Endometrium is composed of epithelial and stromal cells which can also be found in primary culture. While stromal cells take a polygonal shape in culture, epithelial cells form cell colonies. PSIII (Photasan III), which is similar to hematorporphyrin derivate (HpD), meso-tetra (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TPPS4), which posses a high fluorescence quantum yield and may be useful in fluorescence diagnosis of subtle endometriotic spots, and methylene blue (MB), a vital dye with phototoxic properties, were used as photosensitizers. Different sensitizer concentrations and incubation times were applied. The highest phototoxicity was observed for PSIII; TPPS4 and MB were less phototoxic. We compared our results with the sensitivity of cell lines described in the literature. The necessary irradiation to destroy stromal cells was relatively high but still in the same dimension as for cell lines. However they were even more sensitive than epithelial cells. This was true for all sensitizers used.

  6. Laparoscopic Management of Bowel Endometriosis: Predictors of Severe Disease and Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Hajhosseini, Babak; King, Louise P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The identification of high-stage and recurrent cases of bowel endometriosis is critical, because these cases require careful surgical planning. We aim to describe the clinical characteristics of women with bowel endometriosis, our principles in laparoscopic management of this pathology, and to identify predictors of severe disease and recurrence. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 193 patients with pathologically confirmed bowel endometriosis. Results: Predictors of higher-stage endometriosis include a history of previous laparoscopic surgery (P=.04) and a presenting complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding (P=.01). The higher the stage of endometriosis, the more likely there would be coexistent urinary tract endometriosis (P=.02), a need for enterolysis (P=.002), ovarian cystectomy (P<.001), and bowel resection (P=.01) performed during laparoscopy. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI) had significantly higher recurrence rates of endometriosis compared to those with lower BMI (P=.002). Within our cohort, 87% of our patients achieved amelioration of symptoms by the end of the first postoperative month. Conclusions: Our study confirms that laparoscopic management of bowel endometriosis is safe and effective. We found 2 statistically significant predictors of higher-stage disease that should prompt careful surgical planning. Obesity is associated with a higher rate of recurrence of endometriosis. PMID:22643495

  7. Sequential imaging of intraneural sciatic nerve endometriosis provides insight into symptoms of cyclical sciatica.

    PubMed

    Capek, Stepan; Amrami, Kimberly K; Howe, Benjamin M; Collins, Mark S; Sandroni, Paola; Cheville, John C; Spinner, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis of the nerve often remains an elusive diagnosis. We report the first case of intraneural lumbosacral plexus endometriosis with sequential imaging at different phases of the menstrual cycle: during the luteal phase and menstruation. Compared to the first examination, the examination performed during the patient's period revealed the lumbosacral plexus larger and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. The intraneural endometriosis cyst was also larger and showed recent hemorrhage. Additionally, this case represents another example of perineural spread of endometriosis from the uterus to the lumbosacral plexus along the autonomic nerves and then distally to the sciatic nerve and proximally to the spinal nerves. PMID:26743918

  8. Study of experimental endometriosis using fluorescence of eosin-tamoxifen association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogniez, A.; Mordon, Serge R.; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Querleu, Denis; Brunetaud, Jean Marc

    1993-08-01

    The main problem of endometriosis is the detection of microscopic and atypical lesions. The successful destruction of these endometriotic sites depends on their detection. This study aimed to develop a spectrofluorometric method to increase the sensitivity of detection of endometriosis. A surgical-induced endometriosis was performed in ten rabbits. Five weeks later, the fluorescence of these endometriotic lesions was studied after injection of tamoxifen and local application of eosin. This fluorescence was compared with that of healthy broad ligament and that obtained without tamoxifen and without eosin. A spectral analysis showed a specific fluorescence of eosin-tamoxifen association, more intense than autofluorescence and selectively observed within endometriosis.

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha: A promising therapeutic target in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lei; Wang, Wenyan; Zhang, Yu; Song, Enxue; Fan, Yijun; Wei, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissues on the ovaries and pelvic peritoneum, and it is a significant cause of pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and infertility of women in their reproductive age. However, the etiology of endometriosis remains obscure. In recent years, a growing body of evidence validated that hypoxia developed a close relationship with endometriosis and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) was increased significantly in the development of endometriosis. Furthermore, inhibiting the expression of HIF-1α contributed to suppress endometriosis progression, suggesting HIF-1α plays a critical function in endometriosis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which HIF-1α associates with endometriosis are still undefined. In this brief review, we had a general understanding of HIF-1α firstly, and then we tried to sum up the collective knowledge of HIF-1α in endometriosis. Finally, we will discuss kinds of novel therapeutic approaches to endometriosis based on the functions of HIF-1α. PMID:26898675

  10. Human milk and related oligosaccharides as prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Barile, Daniela; Rastall, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are believed to have a range of biological activities beyond providing nutrition to the infant. Principal among these is that they may act as prebiotics. Prebiotics are dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides that provide a health benefit to the host mediated by the modulation of the human gut microbiota. While it is clear that such oligosaccharides may have potential applications in infants and adults alike, this potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing HMO. Consequently functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are under investigation. GOS are produced enzymatically from lactose for commercial use in food applications--including addition to infant formulae--as similar to breast milk oligosaccharides, they encourage a gut bacteria population that promotes health and reduces the incidence of intestinal infections. New methods for separation and concentration of complex, breast milk-like oligosaccharides from bovine milk industrial streams that contain only low amounts of these valuable oligosaccharides are providing the opportunity to investigate other viable sources of specific oligosaccharides for use as prebiotics in supplements or food products. PMID:23434179

  11. Teacher Leader Human Relations Skills: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 142 graduate school teachers working in schools throughout southwestern Ohio assessed their human relation skills. A human relations survey was used for the study, and results were compared with colleagues assessing the teachers in the study. The survey was developed using a Likert-type scale, and was based on key elements affecting

  12. A Human Relations Approach to the Practice of Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebore, Ronald W.

    This book centers on the human-relation skills and knowledge that educational leaders need to lead public schools effectively. The purpose of the book is to help administrators and those studying to become administrators enhance their human-relations skills. The content and method of this book are centered on the first four of the six Interstate…

  13. Teacher Leader Human Relations Skills: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 142 graduate school teachers working in schools throughout southwestern Ohio assessed their human relation skills. A human relations survey was used for the study, and results were compared with colleagues assessing the teachers in the study. The survey was developed using a Likert-type scale, and was based on key elements affecting…

  14. Relative sound localisation abilities in human listeners

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katherine C.; Bizley, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial acuity varies with sound-source azimuth, signal-to-noise ratio, and the spectral characteristics of the sound source. Here, the spatial localisation abilities of listeners were assessed using a relative localisation task. This task tested localisation ability at fixed angular separations throughout space using a two-alternative forced-choice design across a variety of listening conditions. Subjects were required to determine whether a target sound originated to the left or right of a preceding reference in the presence of a multi-source noise background. Experiment 1 demonstrated that subjects' ability to determine the relative location of two sources declined with less favourable signal-to-noise ratios and at peripheral locations. Experiment 2 assessed performance with both broadband and spectrally restricted stimuli designed to limit localisation cues to predominantly interaural level differences or interaural timing differences (ITDs). Predictions generated from topographic, modified topographic, and two-channel models of sound localisation suggest that for low-pass stimuli, where ITD cues were dominant, the two-channel model provides an adequate description of the experimental data, whereas for broadband and high frequency bandpass stimuli none of the models was able to fully account for performance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that relative localisation performance was uninfluenced by shifts in gaze direction. PMID:26328685

  15. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately. PMID:22024809

  16. [Treatment of endometriosis with removing blood stasis and purgation method].

    PubMed

    Wang, D Z; Wang, Z Q; Zhang, Z F

    1991-09-01

    According to the method of differentiation of symptom complexes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), endometriosis is a disease of blood stasis and mass in the lower portion of abdomen. 76 cases were treated by TCM prescription named endometriotic pill No 1 with rhubarb as the main ingredient. The chief functions of the rhubarb were removing blood stasis, disintegrating mass and purgation. The total effective rate was 80.26%. Among them, the effective rate of dysmenorrhea was 88.89%, that of pelvic pain was 66.72%, that of intercourse pain 72.12%, and diminishing in size of mass or nodule 22.15%; 3 cases of 22 infertility got pregnant (13.63%). The results revealed that the endometriotic pill No 1 yielded distinct improvement in the treatment of endometriosis, including clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory assay of blood rheology, serum Ig, subgroup of T lymphocyte (OKT system) and PG. PMID:1773464

  17. Chronic Pain Syndromes in Gynaecological Practice: Endometriosis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Siedentopf, F.

    2012-01-01

    As gynaecologists frequently function as “general practitioners” for women, gynaecologists are frequently confronted with questions which initially appear to have only a tenuous connection to their field. Chronic pain syndromes represent a particular challenge, especially as pain syndromes are often associated with severe psychosocial stress for the affected woman. This article discusses some of the psychometric aspects of chronic pain in endometriosis and fibromyalgia together with practical therapeutic approaches. PMID:26640283

  18. Decidualization of intranodal endometriosis in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an unusual case of decidualized endometriosis detected in pelvic lymph nodes. The presence of intranodal ectopic decidua in pregnant women has been described. A few cases of decidualization of endometriotic foci in the pelvic or para-aortic lymph nodes have also been associated with pregnancy. However, decidualized intranodal endometriosis occurring in a postmenopausal woman has not been described. A 52-year-old woman presented with a very large adnexal mass. Menopause occurred at the age of 47, and she had been treated with hormone replacement therapy. She received a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for clear cell carcinoma of the right ovary. Histological examination revealed the presence of ectopic decidua in several pelvic lymph nodes. The deciduas consisted of sheets of loosely cohesive, large, uniform, round cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Typical of decidualization of intranodal endometriosis, a few irregularly shaped, inactive endometrial glands lined by single layers of columnar to cuboidal epithelium were present within the decidua. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the decidual cells were positive for CD10, vimentin, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, which indicated that progestin-induced decidualization had occurred in the intranodal endometriotic stroma. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of decidualized intranodal endometriosis occurring in association with hormone replacement therapy in a postmenopausal woman. Misdiagnosis of this condition as a metastatic tumor can be avoided by an awareness of these benign inclusions, supported by immunohistochemical staining results. PMID:25755813

  19. Danazol in the management of ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, M.E.; Krueger, R.P.; Wiser, W.L.

    1985-08-01

    A case is reported in which a woman was diagnosed with ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis after cystourethrogram, retrograde pyelogram and a renal scan. After unsuccessful treatment with danazol, a retroperitoneal ureteroneocystotomy was performed. The ureter was found to be obstructed by dense fibrous tissue that contained endometrial glands. It was concluded that danazol is unlikely to relieve endometriotic ureteric obstruction once dense fibrosis has occurred. 8 references, 2 figures.

  20. Graves Disease Is Associated With Endometriosis: A 3-Year Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Park, Eun-Ju; Seo, Yong-Soo; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Seon-Young; Park, Won I

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of thyroid diseases between women with and without endometriosis.We established the endometriosis group according to diagnosis codes, surgery codes, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist codes using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatients Sample (HIRA-NIS) from 2009 to 2011. Four controls were randomly matched to each endometriosis case. Thyroid disease cases were selected using the thyroid disease diagnosis code (E0X).Among the 1,843,451 women sampled, 5615 had endometriosis; 22,460 controls were matched to the endometriosis cases. After adjustment for age and sampling year, Graves disease was associated with endometriosis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.30-4.88; P < 0.01), while hypothyroidism was not (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.90-1.52; P = 0.25). Autoimmune hypothyroidism was also not associated with endometriosis (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.88-2.94; P = 0.12).This study revealed an association between Graves disease and endometriosis. PMID:26962803

  1. Chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis: translational evidence of the relationship and implications

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Pamela; Berkley, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many clinicians and patients believe that endometriosis-associated pain is due to the lesions. Yet causality remains an enigma, because pain symptoms attributed to endometriosis occur in women without endometriosis and because pain symptoms and severity correlate poorly with lesion characteristics. Most research and reviews focus on the lesions, not the pain. This review starts with the recognition that the experience of pain is determined by the central nervous system (CNS) and focuses on the pain symptoms. METHODS Comprehensive searches of Pubmed, Medline and Embase were conducted for current basic and clinical research on chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis. The information was mutually interpreted by a basic scientist and a clinical researcher, both in the field of endometriosis. The goal was to develop new ways to conceptualize how endometriosis contributes to pain symptoms in the context of current treatments and the reproductive tract. RESULTS Endometriotic lesions can develop their own nerve supply, thereby creating a direct and two-way interaction between lesions and the CNS. This engagement provides a mechanism by which the dynamic and hormonally responsive nervous system is brought directly into play to produce a variety of individual differences in pain that can, in some women, become independent of the disease itself. CONCLUSIONS Major advances in improving understanding and alleviating pain in endometriosis will likely occur if the focus changes from lesions to pain. In turn, how endometriosis affects the CNS would be best examined in the context of mechanisms underlying other chronic pain conditions. PMID:21106492

  2. miR-191 Modulates Malignant Transformation of Endometriosis Through Regulating TIMP3

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Mei; Yang, Piyong; Hua, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Although aberrant expression of several miRNAs was found during the pathological development of endometriosis to endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC), their roles are not fully understood. miR-191 is a miRNA significantly upregulated in endometriosis and EAOC patients. However, its downstream network is still not clear. This study explored its role in malignant transformation of endometriosis to EAOC. Material/Methods Tissues from 12 healthy controls, 12 patients with endometriomas, and 12 patients with EAOC were used to verify miR-191 expression by using qRT-PCR. Endometriosis cell line CRL-7566 and ovarian endometrioid carcinoma cell line CRL-11731 were used to explore the downstream regulative function of miR-191. Results By using tissue and serum samples from healthy, endometriosis, and EAOC participants, we confirmed that miR-191 expression was significantly higher in endometriosis and EAOC participants. Interestingly, we also observed that TIMP3 expression was negatively correlated with miR-191 expression. Overexpressing miR-191 in CRL-7566 significantly increased cell proliferation and invasion, while miR-191 knockdown in CRL-11731 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and invasion. These modulating effects of miR-191 are achieved through its regulation of TIMP3. Conclusions miR-191 can directly regulate TIMP3 expression, thereby affecting cell proliferation rate and invasion ability. The miR-191-TIMP3 axis might be critical in the malignant transformation of endometriosis to EAOC. PMID:25819812

  3. Epidemiology of Endometriosis in France: A Large, Nation-Wide Study Based on Hospital Discharge Data

    PubMed Central

    von Theobald, Peter; Cottenet, Jonathan; Iacobelli, Silvia; Quantin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of hospitalization for endometriosis in the general population in France and in each French region and to describe temporal trends, rehospitalization rates, and prevalence of the different types of endometriosis. The analyses were carried out on French hospital discharge data and covered the period 2008–2012 and a population of 14,239,197 women of childbearing age. In this population, the prevalence of hospitalization for endometriosis was 0.9%, ranging from 0.4% to 1.6% between regions. Endometriosis affected 1.5% of hospitalized women of childbearing age, ranging from 1.0% to 2.4% between regions. The number of patients hospitalized for endometriosis significantly increased over the study period (p < 0.01). Of these, 4.2% were rehospitalized at least once at one year: ranging from 2.7% to 6.3% between regions. The cumulative rehospitalization rate at 3 years was 6.9%. The types of endometriosis according to the procedures performed were as follows: ovarian (40–50%), peritoneal (20–30%), intestinal (10–20%), and ureteral or bladder (<10%), with significant differences between regions. This is the first detailed epidemiological study of endometriosis in France. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the increasing prevalence of endometriosis and for the significant differences in regional prevalence of this disease. PMID:27148550

  4. Modified Virtual Colonoscopy in the Diagnosis and Quantification of Bowel and Disseminated Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    van der Wat, Johan; Kaplan, Mitch D

    2015-05-01

    This article describes the basic technology and technique behind modified virtual colonoscopy (MVC). It is accompanied by images illustrating the possibility of MVC to advance the imaging for endometriosis beyond the current modalities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound. A quantification system is described that will ultimately make staging and multicenter prospective scientific studies possible for rectogenital and disseminated endometriosis. PMID:26054986

  5. Evaluation of oxidative stress in endometriosis: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Maryam; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Esmaelzadeh, Seddigheh; Hajian, Karimollah; Basirat, Zahra; Ghasemi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress (OS) may have a contribution in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. However, the results of previous studies regarding OS in endometriosis are controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of OS markers in endometriosis versus the control group. Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 30 women with endometriosis aged 20-38 years presented to Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Babol, Iran between March 2011 through November 2013. The serum samples of 40 women with same age were collected as the control group. The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl and iron were measured by photometric methods and compared between the patient and control groups using t-test. Also, we used ROC curve analysis to determine the discrimination ability of these markers. Results: Serum iron in endometriosis patients was significantly higher than control (p<0.0001). Area under the ROC curve (AUC) for iron, MDA and carbonyl were 0.899, 0.648 and 0.530, respectively. Serum iron at cutoff value of 173.3 g/dl exhibited high discrimination ability to discriminate endometriosis from control. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the high level of serum iron may promote OS in patients with endometriosis. In addition, serum Iron at cut off level of 173.3 exhibits high discriminative ability to distinguish patients with endometriosis from healthy subjects. PMID:26221493

  6. Molecular aspects of development and regulation of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common and painful condition affecting women of reproductive age. While the underlying pathophysiology is still largely unknown, much advancement has been made in understanding the progression of the disease. In recent years, a great deal of research has focused on non-invasive diagnostic tools, such as biomarkers, as well as identification of potential therapeutic targets. In this article, we will review the etiology and cellular mechanisms associated with endometriosis as well as the current diagnostic tools and therapies. We will then discuss the more recent genomic and proteomic studies and how these data may guide development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics. The current diagnostic tools are invasive and current therapies primarily treat the symptoms of endometriosis. Optimally, the advancement of “-omic” data will facilitate the development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers as well as therapeutics that target the pathophysiology of the disease and halt, or even reverse, progression. However, the amount of data generated by these types of studies is vast and bioinformatics analysis, such as we present here, will be critical to identification of appropriate targets for further study. PMID:24927773

  7. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer: links, risks, and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, Mary Ellen; Lyttle, Brianna M

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecological condition characterized by specific histological, molecular, and clinical findings. It affects 5%–10% of premenopausal women, is a cause of infertility, and has been implicated as a precursor for certain types of ovarian cancer. Advances in technology, primarily the ability for whole genome sequencing, have led to the discovery of new mutations and a better understanding of the function of previously identified genes and pathways associated with endometriosis associated ovarian cancers (EAOCs) that include PTEN, CTNNB1 (β-catenin), KRAS, microsatellite instability, ARID1A, and the unique role of inflammation in the development of EAOC. Clinically, EAOCs are associated with a younger age at diagnosis, lower stage and grade of tumor, and are more likely to occur in premenopausal women when compared with other ovarian cancers. A shift from screening strategies adopted to prevent EAOCs has resulted in new recommendations for clinical practice by national and international governing bodies. In this paper, we review the common histologic and molecular characteristics of endometriosis and ovarian cancer, risks associated with EAOCs, clinical challenges and give recommendations for providers. PMID:26170722

  8. Colorectal endometriosis and pregnancy wish: why doing primary surgery.

    PubMed

    Roman, Horace

    2015-01-01

    One of the most interesting debates surrounding deep endometriosis concerns the management of patients with colorectal lesions and pregnancy intention, for which no strong first level of evidence data exists to recommend performing surgical excision of colorectal endometriosis or ART. Studies assessing the policy of primary IVF have recorded pregnancy rates inferior to 45% and estimated cumulative pregnancy rates after up to 3 cycles or IVF as high as 68%. Other authors have reported pregnancy rates over 60% in patients undergoing primary surgery for colorectal endometriosis, with spontaneous conception representing up to 60% of pregnancies. Although overall pregnancy rates appear roughly comparable in patients undergoing either IVF followed by surgery or surgery followed if required by IVF, questions remain as to whether delaying surgery for months or years impairs health. Delaying surgery may lead to bowel occlusion, higher rates of radical colorectal procedures, increased postoperative morbidity and prolonged painful complaints. To provide definitive answers requires a randomized trial on an international scale with a sample size exceeding 400 patients and follow up averaging 4 years. PMID:25961688

  9. Comparison of the clinical value of CA 19-9 versus CA 125 for the diagnosis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kurdoglu, Zehra; Gursoy, Rifat; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ozlem; Erdem, Ahmet

    2009-11-01

    Preoperative blood samples and intraoperative tissue specimens were obtained from 101 patients with endometriosis and 78 patients without endometriosis referred for benign gynecologic operations to investigate the clinical value of serum and tissue CA 19-9 levels in the diagnostic evaluation of endometriosis as compared to CA 125. Our prospective cohort study showed that serum CA 19-9 is a valuable marker in the diagnosis of endometriosis, and it may be used to predict the patients with severe endometriosis when used with CA 125. PMID:19631319

  10. Endometriosis Under Estradiol Stimulation Imaged Using 18F-FDG and Its Control After Estradiol Cessation and Progesterone Hormonal Replacement.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Frédéric; Turcotte, Éric

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is a frequent and benign cause of disabling abdominal pain, for which a diagnosis suspicion is clinically raised, but its confirmation necessitates a surgical exploration by laparoscopy. Foci of endometriosis proliferate under estrogen stimulation, like normal endometrium. We present a patient under estradiol stimulation for a history of endometrial cancer who underwent a PET/CT scan to assess an abdominal lesion showing a high F-FDG uptake, which normalized under progesterone hormonal replacement and cessation of estradiol. Two consecutive biopsies confirmed endometriosis. F-FDG evaluation of endometriosis under estrogen stimulation could be a promising approach to refractory endometriosis assessment. PMID:26505859

  11. A Dynamic Conception of Humanity, Intercultural Relation and Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noaparast, Khosrow Bagheri; Khosravi, Zohreh

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this paper relates to the conceptualizations of human identity and intercultural relations needed for cooperative learning (CL) to occur. At one extreme, some have argued that the relation between different cultures should be conceptualized in terms of incommensurability. At the other extreme, a standardization and unification…

  12. Levels of transferrin and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein in women with and without endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S P; Lee, J H; Jiang, H; Arnaud, P; Rust, P F

    1999-01-01

    The study objective was to test the hypothesis that elevated levels of transferrin and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein occur in the peritoneal environment of patients with endometriosis that may lead to the observed autoimmunity to these proteins. We set up a double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring levels of transferrin and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein in the serum and peritoneal fluid samples from women with (n = 24-60) and without endometriosis (n = 35-49). Serum and peritoneal fluid levels of alpha 2-HS glycoprotein and peritoneal fluid levels of transferrin were significantly elevated in patients with endometriosis, in contrast to the controls. Serum levels of transferrin in patients, however, were significantly less in the patients than in controls. We conclude that transferrin and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein are present at high concentrations in the peritoneal fluids of patients with endometriosis. This may play a significant role in the autoimmune pathophysiology of endometriosis. PMID:10433073

  13. Endometriosis in a Patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Troncon, Júlia Kefalás; Zani, Ana Carolina Tagliatti; Vieira, Andrea Duarte Damasceno; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto; Nogueira, Antônio Alberto; Rosa-e-Silva, Júlio César

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report a case of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) in which there were two nonfunctional rudimentary uteruses with the presence of ovarian endometrioma, corroborating that there are valid alternative theories to the existence of endometriosis, rather than Sampson's theory alone, such as the coelomic metaplasia theory. Design. A case report. Setting. A tertiary referral center, which is also a university hospital. Patient. A fifteen-year-old patient with MRKH syndrome and endometriosis. Intervention. Laparoscopic approach for diagnostic confirmation and treatment of the endometrioma. Results. Evidence of endometriosis in a patient with no functional uterus. Conclusions. This case report and a few others that are available in the literature reinforce the possibility that coelomic metaplasia could be the origin of endometriosis. Patients with müllerian agenesis and pelvic pain should be carefully evaluated, and the presence of pelvic endometriosis should not be excluded. PMID:25610677

  14. Video-assisted laparoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of endometriosis: safety, reliability, and invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, Erica; Nezhat, Camran

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis is a highly enigmatic disease with multiple presentations ranging from infertility to severe pain, often causing significant morbidity. Video-assisted laparoscopy (VALS) has now replaced laparotomy as the gold standard for the diagnosis and management of endometriosis. While imaging has a role in the evaluation of some patients, histologic examination is needed for a definitive diagnosis. Laboratory evaluation currently has a minor role in the diagnosis of endometriosis, although studies are underway investigating serum markers, genetic studies, and endometrial sampling. A high index of suspicion is essential to accurately diagnose this complex condition, and a multidisciplinary approach is often indicated. The following review discusses laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis from the pre-operative evaluation of patients suspected of having endometriosis to surgical technique for safe and adequate laparoscopic diagnosis of the condition and postsurgical care. PMID:22927769

  15. Endometriosis after Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy with Uterine Morcellation: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Mitchell W.; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Richter, Holly E.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective To compare the incidence of new onset endometriosis after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH) with uterine morcellation to traditional routes. Design Single center case-control study Design Classification Canadian Task Force Classification II-2 Setting Single Center case-control study of hysterectomies from January, 2006 through December, 2008. Patients 277 laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomies with morcellation (cases) and 187 transvaginal or abdominal hysterectomies without morcellation (controls) performed from January, 2006 to December 2008. Interventions 464 women underwent hysterectomy, 277 cases via laparoscopic supracervical approach (LSH) with morcellation and 187 performed either transvaginally or abdominally without morcellation. Repeat operative procedures were performed for other benign indications on 16 of 464 (3.5%) prior hysterectomy patients. Measurements and Main Results 102 patients had endometriosis at the time of hysterectomy diagnosed by pathologic evaluation or gross visualization. In those without endometriosis, repeat operative procedures were performed for pain and bleeding in 3.3% (12/362). 60% (3/5) of LSH patients and 28.6% (2/7) of the control group were found to have newly diagnosed endometriosis conferring a rate of 1.4% (3/217) for the LSH group and 1.4% (2/145) in the controls. In patients with endometriosis, repeat operative procedures for pain and/or bleeding occurred in 2.9% (3/102); 3/60 of LSH patients and none in the control group (0/42). Two of these 3 patients undergoing a second surgery had recurrent/continued endometriosis. Conclusion Newly diagnosed endometriosis was noted in 1.4% of patients after hysterectomy with a similar incidence between the LSH and control groups. Reoperation for those with endometriosis at the time of LSH with morcellation was infrequent, but endometriosis was usually found. Further research is needed to delineate risk factors for development of de novo endometriosis after hysterectomy. PMID:22265051

  16. Adenomyosis and Endometriosis in the California Teachers Study: Reproductive and Lifestyle Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Templeman, Claire; Marshall, Sarah F; Ursin, Giske; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Clarke, Christina A.; Allen, Mark; Deapen, Dennis; Ziogas, Argyrios; Reynolds, Peggy; Cress, Rosemary; Anton-Culver, Hoda; West, Dee; Ross, Ronald K.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reproductive and lifestyle correlates of a surgically confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis or adenomyosis in a large prospective cohort. Setting The California Teachers Study (CTS), an ongoing prospective study of female teachers and school administrators established from the rolls of the California State Teachers Retirement System. Patients Diagnoses of endometriosis and adenomyosis were identified from California statewide hospital patient discharge records for CTS cohort members with no prior history of endometriosis. Women with an incident surgical diagnosis of endometriosis (n=229) or adenomyosis (n=961) were compared to disease-free women in the same age range (for endometriosis, n=43,493; for adenomyosis, n=79,495). Main Outcome Measure(s) Logistic regression methods were used to calculate age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) and associated 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) for self-reported menstrual and reproductive characteristics. Results Women diagnosed with endometriosis were younger than those diagnosed with adenomyosis. Factors significantly associated with endometriosis were having a mother or sister with endometriosis and nulligravidity. Factors significantly associated with adenomyosis were increasing parity, early menarche (≤10 years of age), and having short menstrual cycles (≤24 days in length). Women who were obese were also more likely to have a diagnosis of adenomyosis. Conclusions These observations provide the first epidemiologic profile of women with a surgical diagnosis of adenomyosis and indicate that this profile differs from that of women with a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis. Our results also suggest that adenomyosis but not endometriosis is associated with increased endogenous exposure to estrogen. PMID:17919609

  17. Evaluation of the Relationship between Endometriosis and Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Khanaki, Korosh; Nouri, Mohammad; Ardekani, Ali M.; Ghassemzadeh, Alieh; Shahnazi, Vahideh; Sadeghi, Mohammad R.; Darabi, Masoud; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Dolatkhah, Homayon; Saremi, Abotaleb; Imani, Ali R.; Rahimipour, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a common chronic inflammation causing major problems including infertility. The role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as their potential anti-inflammatory effects in endometriosis needs to be further explored. The objective of this study was to compare serum phospholipid fatty acid profile in endometriosis patients with controls, and to explore the correlation of this profile with the severity of the disease. Methods: Sixty-four endometriosis patients and 74 control women, in reproductive age, participated in this study. Among the endometriosis patients, 19 cases were in stage I, 27 cases in stage II, 8 cases in stage III, and 10 cases in stage IV. Each patient underwent laparoscopy. Before surgery, 5 ml of blood was obtained. After extraction of the total lipids, serum total phospholipid fraction was isolated by thin layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition of the phospholipid fraction was determined by gas chromatography and the resulted profile was compared in endometriosis patients and controls. The profile was also compared in the endometriosis group based on the severity of disease. Results: Stearic acid was significantly lower in the endometriosis group as compared to controls (P= 0.030). No other fatty acid compositions were significantly different between patients and controls. Serum ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to arachidonic acid (AA) was in reasonable correlation with the severity of endometriosis (r = 0.34, P = 0.006). Conclusion: According to these findings, levels of fatty acids in serum total phospholipids seem not to be a marker for endometriosis, but the EPA to AA ratio was a relevant factor indicating severity of illness. PMID:22562031

  18. Association of Chronic Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis With Signs of Sensitization and Myofascial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Pamela; Khachikyan, Izabella; Sinaii, Ninet; Ortiz, Robin; Shah, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sensitization, myofascial trigger points, and quality of life in women with chronic pelvic pain with and without endometriosis. Methods A cross-sectional prospective study of women aged 18 to 50 with pain suggestive of endometriosis and healthy, pain-free volunteers without history of endometriosis. Patients underwent a physiatric neuro-musculoskeletal assessment of clinical signs of sensitization and myofascial trigger points in the abdominopelvic region. Pain symptoms, psychosocial, and quality-of-life measures were also assessed. All pain participants underwent laparoscopic excision of suspicious lesions to confirm endometriosis diagnosis by histologic evaluation. Results Patients included 18 with current, biopsy-proven endometriosis, 11 with pain only, and 20 healthy volunteers. The prevalence of sensitization as measured by regional allodynia and hyperalgesia was similar in both pain groups (83% and 82%) but much lower among healthy volunteers (15%, p<0.001). Nearly all women with pain had myofascial trigger points (94% and 91%). Adjusting for study group, those with high anxiety (OR=1.05, 95% CI:1.0041.099; p=0.031) and depression (OR=1.06, 95% CI:1.0051.113; p=0.032) scores were more likely to have sensitization. Pain patients with any history of endometriosis had the highest proportion of sensitization compared to the others (87% v 67% v 15%; p<0.001). Adjusting for any history of endometriosis, those with myofascial trigger points were most likely sensitized (OR=9.41, 95% CI:1.7750.08, p=0.009). Conclusions Sensitization and myofascial trigger points were common in women with pain regardless of whether they had endometriosis at surgery. Those with any history of endometriosis were most likely to have sensitization. Traditional methods of classifying endometriosis-associated pain based on disease, duration, and anatomy are inadequate and should be replaced by a mechanism-based evaluation, as our study illustrates. PMID:25730237

  19. Coping with Endometriosis Eckersley Jill and Aziz Zara Coping with Endometriosis 128pp £9.99 Sheldon Press 9781847093523 1847093523 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2016-02-10

    The powerful foreword by award-winning author Dame Hilary Mantel, who has endometriosis, gives the stamp of authority to this book for women who have the condition and for those who have symptoms but are undiagnosed. PMID:26860163

  20. Compatibility of a novel thrombospondin-1 analog with fertility and pregnancy in a xenograft mouse model of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Diane S; Edwards, Andrew K; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Thomas, Richard; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological disease defined by the growth of endometrium outside of the uterus. Although endometriosis contributes to 50% of female infertility cases, medical treatments are incompatible with pregnancy. Angiogenesis, the growth of blood vessels from existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in endometriotic lesion growth and survival. Previously, we demonstrated the effectiveness of thrombospondin-1 analog, ABT-898 (Abbott Laboratories) to inhibit endometriotic lesion vascularization in mice. We have now evaluated the trans-generational implications of ABT-898 treatment before and during mouse pregnancy. We hypothesized that ABT-898 would target lesion vasculature without affecting pregnancy, offspring development, or ovarian and uterine vascularity in mice. Endometriosis was induced using human endometrium in ?-estradiol-primed BALB/c-Rag-2-/-Il2r?-/- mice receiving intraperitoneal injections of ABT-898 (25 mg/kg) or 5% dextrose control for 21 days. Ultrasound assessment of lesion vascularization revealed a reduction in blood flow supplying treated lesions. Excised ABT-898 treated lesions stained for CD31+ endothelial cells exhibited a decrease in microvessel density. Following confirmation of estrous cycling, mice were bred and treated with ABT-898 on gestation days 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19. ABT-898 did not affect estrous cycling or pregnancy parameters including litter size across generations and offspring weight gain. Quantification of angiogenic cytokine plasma levels revealed no significant differences between treatment groups. Vimentin staining of the uterus and ovary revealed no observable effects of ABT-898. Similarly, no obvious histological anomalies were observed in the kidney, liver, ovary, or uterus following ABT-898 treatment. These results suggest that ABT-898 effectively inhibit endometriotic lesion vascularization without affecting trans-generational pregnancy outcomes in mice. PMID:25811892

  1. Compatibility of a Novel Thrombospondin-1 Analog with Fertility and Pregnancy in a Xenograft Mouse Model of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Diane S.; Edwards, Andrew K.; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Thomas, Richard; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological disease defined by the growth of endometrium outside of the uterus. Although endometriosis contributes to 50% of female infertility cases, medical treatments are incompatible with pregnancy. Angiogenesis, the growth of blood vessels from existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in endometriotic lesion growth and survival. Previously, we demonstrated the effectiveness of thrombospondin-1 analog, ABT-898 (Abbott Laboratories) to inhibit endometriotic lesion vascularization in mice. We have now evaluated the trans-generational implications of ABT-898 treatment before and during mouse pregnancy. We hypothesized that ABT-898 would target lesion vasculature without affecting pregnancy, offspring development, or ovarian and uterine vascularity in mice. Endometriosis was induced using human endometrium in β-estradiol-primed BALB/c-Rag-2-/-Il2rγ-/- mice receiving intraperitoneal injections of ABT-898 (25 mg/kg) or 5% dextrose control for 21 days. Ultrasound assessment of lesion vascularization revealed a reduction in blood flow supplying treated lesions. Excised ABT-898 treated lesions stained for CD31+ endothelial cells exhibited a decrease in microvessel density. Following confirmation of estrous cycling, mice were bred and treated with ABT-898 on gestation days 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19. ABT-898 did not affect estrous cycling or pregnancy parameters including litter size across generations and offspring weight gain. Quantification of angiogenic cytokine plasma levels revealed no significant differences between treatment groups. Vimentin staining of the uterus and ovary revealed no observable effects of ABT-898. Similarly, no obvious histological anomalies were observed in the kidney, liver, ovary, or uterus following ABT-898 treatment. These results suggest that ABT-898 effectively inhibit endometriotic lesion vascularization without affecting trans-generational pregnancy outcomes in mice. PMID:25811892

  2. Progesterone Action in Endometrial Cancer, Endometriosis, Uterine Fibroids, and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. Julie; Kurita, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) mediates the actions of the ovarian steroid progesterone, which together with estradiol regulates gonadotropin secretion, prepares the endometrium for implantation, maintains pregnancy, and differentiates breast tissue. Separation of estrogen and progesterone actions in hormone-responsive tissues remains a challenge. Pathologies of the uterus and breast, including endometrial cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer, are highly associated with estrogen, considered to be the mitogenic factor. Emerging evidence supports distinct roles of progesterone and its influence on the pathogenesis of these diseases. Progesterone antagonizes estrogen-driven growth in the endometrium, and insufficient progesterone action strikingly increases the risk of endometrial cancer. In endometriosis, eutopic and ectopic tissues do not respond sufficiently to progesterone and are considered to be progesterone-resistant, which contributes to proliferation and survival. In uterine fibroids, progesterone promotes growth by increasing proliferation, cellular hypertrophy, and deposition of extracellular matrix. In normal mammary tissue and breast cancer, progesterone is pro-proliferative and carcinogenic. A key difference between these tissues that could explain the diverse effects of progesterone is the paracrine interactions of PR-expressing stroma and epithelium. Normal endometrium is a mucosa containing large quantities of distinct stromal cells with abundant PR, which influences epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation and protects against carcinogenic transformation. In contrast, the primary target cells of progesterone in the breast and fibroids are the mammary epithelial cells and the leiomyoma cells, which lack specifically organized stromal components with significant PR expression. This review provides a unifying perspective for the diverse effects of progesterone across human tissues and diseases. PMID:23303565

  3. Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Gurumurthy, Aishwarya; Hayano, Takahide; Ahmadloo, Somayeh; Omer, Waleed H; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Akihito; Kurose, Keisuke; Enomoto, Takayuki; Akira, Shigeo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2016-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human complex disorders. However, functional characterization of the disease-associated SNPs remains a formidable challenge. Here we explored regulatory mechanism of a SNP on chromosome 9p21 associated with endometriosis by leveraging "allele-specific" functional genomic approaches. By re-sequencing 1.29 Mb of 9p21 region and scrutinizing DNase-seq data from the ENCODE project, we prioritized rs17761446 as a candidate functional variant that was in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the original GWAS SNP (rs10965235) and located on DNase I hypersensitive site. Chromosome conformation capture followed by high-throughput sequencing revealed that the protective G allele of rs17761446 exerted stronger chromatin interaction with ANRIL promoter. We demonstrated that the protective allele exhibited preferential binding affinities to TCF7L2 and EP300 by bioinformatics and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. ChIP assays for histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation and RNA polymerase II reinforced the enhancer activity of the SNP site. The allele specific expression analysis for eutopic endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma cell lines showed that rs17761446 was a cis-regulatory variant where G allele was associated with increased ANRIL expression. Our work illuminates the allelic imbalances in a series of transcriptional regulation from factor binding to gene expression mediated by chromatin interaction underlie the molecular mechanism of 9p21 endometriosis risk locus. Functional genomics on common disease will unlock functional aspect of genotype-phenotype correlations in the post-GWAS stage. PMID:27055116

  4. Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Gurumurthy, Aishwarya; Hayano, Takahide; Ahmadloo, Somayeh; Omer, Waleed H; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Akihito; Kurose, Keisuke; Enomoto, Takayuki; Akira, Shigeo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human complex disorders. However, functional characterization of the disease-associated SNPs remains a formidable challenge. Here we explored regulatory mechanism of a SNP on chromosome 9p21 associated with endometriosis by leveraging “allele-specific” functional genomic approaches. By re-sequencing 1.29 Mb of 9p21 region and scrutinizing DNase-seq data from the ENCODE project, we prioritized rs17761446 as a candidate functional variant that was in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the original GWAS SNP (rs10965235) and located on DNase I hypersensitive site. Chromosome conformation capture followed by high-throughput sequencing revealed that the protective G allele of rs17761446 exerted stronger chromatin interaction with ANRIL promoter. We demonstrated that the protective allele exhibited preferential binding affinities to TCF7L2 and EP300 by bioinformatics and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. ChIP assays for histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation and RNA polymerase II reinforced the enhancer activity of the SNP site. The allele specific expression analysis for eutopic endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma cell lines showed that rs17761446 was a cis-regulatory variant where G allele was associated with increased ANRIL expression. Our work illuminates the allelic imbalances in a series of transcriptional regulation from factor binding to gene expression mediated by chromatin interaction underlie the molecular mechanism of 9p21 endometriosis risk locus. Functional genomics on common disease will unlock functional aspect of genotype-phenotype correlations in the post-GWAS stage. PMID:27055116

  5. Modern Education and Better Human Relations. Freedom Pamphlets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, William H.

    This 1957 pamphlet discusses bias against minority groups, discriminatory attitudes and acts, and the need to replace discrimination with better human relations. In this context, the role of schools, and of education in general, in teaching positive intergroup relations is defined. The modern concept of education emphasizes "living" what is to be…

  6. The Student Teacher and Human Relations. AST Bulletin Number 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Irvin L.

    The student teacher must develop and incorporate into his behavior human relations skills to enable him to relate effectively to members of his classroom and of the school community. Serving as a basis for evaluation, a method of gaining the fullest satisfaction from teaching, and a prerequisite to more effective teaching, these skills are…

  7. Association between endometriosis and the interleukin 1A (IL1A) locus

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Yadav; Low, Siew-Kee; Attia, John; Gordon, Scott D.; Henders, Anjali K.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; MacGregor, Stuart; Martin, Nicholas G.; McEvoy, Mark; Morris, Andrew P.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Scott, Rodney J.; Kubo, Michiaki; Zondervan, Krina T.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nyholt, Dale R.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the interleukin 1A (IL1A) gene locus associated with endometriosis risk? SUMMARY ANSWER We found evidence for strong association between IL1A SNPs and endometriosis risk. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Genetic factors contribute substantially to the complex aetiology of endometriosis and the disease has an estimated heritability of ∼51%. We, and others, have conducted genome-wide association (GWA) studies for endometriosis, which identified a total of nine independent risk loci. Recently, two small Japanese studies reported eight SNPs (rs6542095, rs11677416, rs3783550, rs3783525, rs3783553, rs2856836, rs1304037 and rs17561) at the IL1A gene locus as suggestively associated with endometriosis risk. There is also evidence of a link between inflammation and endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We sought to further investigate the eight IL1A SNPs for association with endometriosis using an independent sample of 3908 endometriosis cases and 8568 controls of European and Japanese ancestry. The study was conducted between October 2013 and July 2014. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS By leveraging GWA data from our previous multi-ethnic GWA meta-analysis for endometriosis, we imputed variants in the IL1A region, using a recent 1000 Genomes reference panel. After combining summary statistics for the eight SNPs from our European and Japanese imputed data with the published results, a fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed. An additional meta-analysis restricted to endometriosis cases with moderate-to-severe (revised American Fertility Society stage 3 or 4) disease versus controls was also performed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE All eight IL1A SNPs successfully replicated at P < 0.014 in the European imputed data with concordant direction and similar size to the effects reported in the original Japanese studies. Of these, three SNPs (rs6542095, rs3783550 and rs3783525) also showed association with endometriosis at a nominal P < 0.05 in our independent Japanese sample. Fixed-effect meta-analysis of the eight SNPs for moderate-to-severe endometriosis produced a genome-wide significant association for rs6542095 (odds ratio = 1.21; 95% confidence interval = 1.13–1.29; P = 3.43 × 10−8). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The meta-analysis for moderate-to-severe endometriosis included results of moderate-to-severe endometriosis cases from our European data sets and all endometriosis cases from the Japanese data sets, as disease stage information was not available for endometriosis cases in the Japanese data sets. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS SNP rs6542095 is located ∼2.3 kb downstream of the IL1A gene and ∼6.9 kb upstream of cytoskeleton-associated protein 2-like (CKAP2L) gene. The IL1A gene encodes the IL1a protein, a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family which is involved in various immune responses and inflammatory processes. These results provide important replication in an independent Japanese sample and, for the first time, association of the IL1A locus in endometriosis patients of European ancestry. SNPs within the IL1A locus may regulate other genes, but if IL1A is the target, our results provide supporting evidence for a link between inflammatory responses and the pathogenesis of endometriosis. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The research was funded by grants from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust. None of the authors has competing interests for the study. PMID:25336714

  8. Olfactomedin-4 Regulation by Estrogen in the Human Endometrium Requires Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dassen, Hellen; Punyadeera, Chamindie; Delvoux, Bert; Schulkens, Iris; Marchetti, Claudia; Kamps, Rick; Klomp, Jan; Dijcks, Fred; de Goeij, Anton; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Kyama, Cleophas; Ederveen, Antwan; Dunselman, Gerard; Groothuis, Patrick; Romano, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Olfactomedin-4 (OLFM-4) is an extracellular matrix protein that is highly expressed in human endometrium. We have examined the regulation and function of OLFM-4 in normal endometrium and in cases of endometriosis and endometrial cancer. OLFM-4 expression levels are highest in proliferative-phase endometrium, and 17β-estradiol up-regulates OLFM-4 mRNA in endometrial explant cultures. Using the luciferase reporter under control of the OLFM-4 promoter, it was shown that both 17β-estradiol and OH-tamoxifen induce luciferase activity, and epidermal growth factor receptor-1 is required for this estrogenic response. In turn, EGF activates the OLFM-4 promoter, and estrogen receptor-α is needed for the complete EGF response. The cellular functions of OLFM-4 were examined by its expression in OLFM-4-negative HEK-293 cells, which resulted in decreased vimentin expression and cell adherence as well as increased apoptosis resistance. In cases of endometriosis and endometrial cancer, OLFM-4 expression correlated with the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor-1 and estrogen receptor-α (or estrogen signaling). An increase of OLFM-4 mRNA was observed in the endometrium of endometriosis patients. No change in OLFM-4 expression levels were observed in patients with endometrial cancer relative with controls. In conclusion, cross-talk between estrogen and EGF signaling regulates OLFM-4 expression. The role of OLFM-4 in endometrial tissue remodeling before the secretory phase and during the predisposition and early events in endometriosis can be postulated but requires additional investigation. PMID:21048224

  9. How to Develop an Electronic Clinical Endometriosis Research File Integrated in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Vanhie, A.; Fassbender, A.; O, D.; Tomassetti, C.; Meuleman, C.; Peeraer, K.; Debrock, S.; D'Hooghe, Th.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is associated with a range of pelvic-abdominal pain symptoms and infertility. It is a chronic disease that can have a significant impact on various aspects of women's lives, including their social and sexual relationships, work, and study. Despite several international guidelines on the management of endometriosis, there is a wide variety of clinical practice in the management of endometriosis, resulting in many women receiving delayed or suboptimal care. In this paper we discuss the possibilities and benefits of using electronic health records for clinical research in the field of endometriosis. The development of a wide range of clinical software for electronic patient records has made the registration of large datasets feasible and the integration of research files and clinical files possible. Integration of global standards on registration of endometriosis care in electronic health records could improve reporting of research data and facilitate the execution of large, multicentre randomized trials on the management of endometriosis. These highly needed trials could bring us the evidence needed for the optimisation of management of women with endometriosis. PMID:26240823

  10. Increased Risk of Endometriosis in Patients With Lower Genital Tract Infection: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wu-Chou; Chang, Cherry Yin-Yi; Hsu, Yu-An; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Wan, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis results from the ectopic invasion of endometrial glands and stroma in the peritoneal cavity. The exact etiology of endometriosis is still unknown. It has, however, been shown that there are higher numbers of Escherichia coli in menstrual blood, and higher endotoxin levels in menstrual fluid, as well as, in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. In this study, we aimed to determine whether lower genital tract infections could increase the risk of endometriosis.We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance database to conduct a population-based cohort study. We included patients diagnosed with inflammatory diseases of the cervix, vagina, and vulva, and a control group comprising patients matched by age, sex, and comorbidities but without inflammatory diseases of the cervix, vagina, or vulva.A total of 79,512 patients were included in the inflammatory disease group and an equal number of control individuals were selected. The incidence of endometriosis (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-2.12; P < 0.001) was higher among patients than controls. Cox proportional hazards models showed that irrespective of comorbidities, lower genital tract infection was an independent risk factor for endometriosis.Patients with lower genital tract infections exhibit a substantially higher risk for developing endometriosis. PMID:26962775

  11. New Horizons in the Etiopathogenesis and Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zubrzycka, A; Zubrzycki, M; Janecka, A; Zubrzycka, M

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological inflammatory diseases, occurring in adolescents and women in the reproductive age group and leading to infertility. The precise etiopathogenesis of endometriosis is unknown, but several theories concerning the phenomena involved in its development have been proposed. Beside classic retrograde menstruation, these include lymphatic and vascular metastases, iatrogenic direct implantation, coelomic metaplasia, embryonic remnants and mesenchymal cell differentiation or induction; the persistence of a form of embryonic endometriosis may also be involved, as well as the theory of the possible role of endometrial stem/progenitor cells. This paper deals with other risk factors which may be potentially involved in the etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, including the immune, inflammatory, endocrine, genetic, anatomical and environmental factors. At present, endometriosis can only be diagnosed with surgery, where laparoscopy is considered a gold standard. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a test allowing to detect non-invasive molecular biomarkers to identify the symptoms of endometriosis early on in disease development. A thorough understanding of the etiopathogenesis of endometriosis is essential toward the development of novel diagnostic assays and effective treatments of the disease. PMID:26391550

  12. Sigmoid endometriosis and a diagnostic dilemma – A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Nasim, H.; Sikafi, D.; Nasr, A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal endometriosis is often an infrequently considered diagnosis in female of childbearing age by general surgeon. There is a delay in diagnosis because of constellation of symptoms and lack of specific diagnostic modalities. Patients suffer from intestinal endometriosis for many years before they are diagnosed. Often, such patients are labelled with irritable bowel syndrome. Intestinal endometriosis has a diagnostic time delay of 8–11 years due to its non-specific clinical features and multi-system involvement. Presentation of Case Our patient was a 32 years old Caucasian female who was referred to us with features of intestinal obstruction. Despite repeated clinical assessments and use of different diagnostic modalities the diagnosis was still inconclusive even after 21 days of her first presentation to primary care physician. She had an exploratory laparotomy, sigmoid colectomy, and Hartmann's procedure with a temporary colostomy with us. Histopathology confirmed endometriosis and also showed melanosis coli. She was referred to the gynaecological team for review and follow up. Discussion Intestinal endometriosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in female patients of childbearing age group presenting with non-specific gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. Our patient manifested intestinal endometriosis and melanosis coli on histopathology suggesting symptoms of long duration. Conclusion Bowel endometriosis is a less considered and often ignored differential diagnosis in acute and chronic abdomen. This condition has considerable effect on patient's health both physically and psychologically. PMID:22096721

  13. Looking for Celiac Disease in Italian Women with Endometriosis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Sebastiano; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Gallo, Antonella; Campo, Vincenzo; Palombini, Guglielmo; Santoliquido, Angelo; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, a potential link between endometriosis and celiac disease has been hypothesized since these disorders share some similarities, specifically concerning a potential role of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunological dysfunctions. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease among Italian women with endometriosis with respect to general population. Consecutive women with a laparoscopic and histological confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis were enrolled; female nurses of our institution, without a known history of endometriosis, were enrolled as controls. IgA endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies measurement and serum total IgA dosage were performed in both groups. An upper digestive endoscopy with an intestinal biopsy was performed in case of antibodies positivity. Presence of infertility, miscarriage, coexistence of other autoimmune diseases, and family history of autoimmune diseases was also investigated in all subjects. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 5 of 223 women with endometriosis and in 2 of 246 controls (2.2% versus 0.8%; P = 0.265). Patients with endometriosis showed a largely higher rate of infertility compared to control group (27.4% versus 2.4%; P < 0.001). Our results confirm that also in Italian population an increased prevalence of celiac disease among patients with endometriosis is found, although this trend does not reach the statistical significance. PMID:24804204

  14. Bowel endometriosis: Colorectal surgeon’s perspective in a multidisciplinary surgical team

    PubMed Central

    Wolthuis, Albert M; Meuleman, Christel; Tomassetti, Carla; D’Hooghe, Thomas; de Buck van Overstraeten, Anthony; D’Hoore, André

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological condition that presents as endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus and induces a chronic inflammatory reaction. Up to 15% of women in their reproductive period are affected by this condition. Deep endometriosis is defined as endometriosis located more than 5 mm beneath the peritoneal surface. This type of endometriosis is mostly found on the uterosacral ligaments, inside the rectovaginal septum or vagina, in the rectosigmoid area, ovarian fossa, pelvic peritoneum, ureters, and bladder, causing a distortion of the pelvic anatomy. The frequency of bowel endometriosis is unknown, but in cases of bowel infiltration, about 90% are localized on the sigmoid colon or the rectum. Colorectal involvement results in alterations of bowel habits such as constipation, diarrhea, tenesmus, dyschezia, and, rarely, rectal bleeding. Differential diagnosis must be made in case of irritable bowel syndrome, solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, and a rectal tumor. A precise diagnosis about the presence, location, and extent of endometriosis is necessary to plan surgical treatment. Multidisciplinary laparoscopic treatment has become the standard of care. Depending on the size of the lesion and site of involvement, full-thickness disc excision or bowel resection needs to be performed by an experienced colorectal surgeon. Long-term outcomes, following bowel resection for severe endometriosis, regarding pain and recurrence rate are good with a pregnancy rate of 50%. PMID:25400445

  15. Obstetric Outcomes in Chinese Women with Endometriosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; Leng, Jin-Hua; Liu, Jun-Tao; Lang, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of endometriosis on obstetric outcomes is still ambiguous. The aim of our study was to determine the association between endometriosis and adverse obstetric outcomes in a cohort of Chinese women. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to compare obstetric outcomes between 249 women with endometriosis and 249 women without endometriosis. All women were nulliparous and achieved singleton pregnancies naturally. Women with endometriosis were diagnosed during surgery and confirmed histologically. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of measures of obstetric outcomes were calculated. Results: Women with endometriosis showed significantly increased risks of preterm labor (adjusted OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.05–5.57), placenta previa (adjusted OR, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.23–16.50), and cesarean section (adjusted OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.31–2.84). No significant differences were observed in the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal growth restriction, small for gestational age, placental abruption, or luteal support in the first trimester between the two groups. Conclusions: Women with endometriosis are at a higher risk of preterm labor, placenta previa, and cesarean section during pregnancy and need additional care. PMID:25673445

  16. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma associated with endometriosis: a case report with immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Murta, E F C; Nomelini, R S; Ferreira, F A; Lima, M A

    2007-01-01

    Endometriosis is a frequent benign gynecological disease; nonetheless, it can demonstrate some aspects that resemble malignant disease. Malignant transformation of endometriosis occurs mainly in the ovary. A rare case of transition between typical endometriosis and clear cell carcinoma with immunohistochemical study is presented. The patient, a 30-year-old Caucasian woman (para 0), was diagnosed with endometriosis ten years before. Six months later she developed a left cystic ovarian tumor (58 cm3) that persisted after two ultrasounds in a four-month period. Tumor markers were normal (CA125, CA 15.3, CA 19.9, alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembrionary antigen A1). There was no ascites. The left ovarian mass was removed by laparotomy and endometriosis in continuity with carcinoma positive for cytokeratin 7 and estrogen receptor was revealed. CD10 was positive in the stromal cells of the endometriosis. Clear cell carcinoma grade 3 was diagnosed. In conclusion, although a rare event, the association of typical endometriosis and clear cell carcinoma of the ovary should be kept in mind, mainly in patients with a persistent ovarian cyst. PMID:17966222

  17. Diagnostics and Therapy for Malignant (Degenerate) Colon Endometriosis – Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Schutz, R.; Woziwodzki, J.; Schweppe, K.-W.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant degeneration of colon endometriosis is a very rare event. We report here on three cases. A 48-year-old woman with a 10-year history of endometriosis was treated for a rectal adenocarcinoma, a 61-year-old G1P1, who was operated at the age of 40 years for ovarian endometriosis and again at the age of 53 years for an endometriosis-associated endometroid ovarian carcinoma, presented for therapy for a lymph node recurrence of the ovarian cancer and, secondly, due to a malignantly degenerated rectum-sigmoid colon endometriosis; furthermore a 54-year old woman with a 21-year history of endometriosis was operated for malignant colon endometriosis. The tumour occurred during an adjuvant anti-oestrogen treatment with an aromatase inhibitor following surgical and radiotherapy for breast cancer. In all cases a radical cancer operation was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and in one case with an additional radiotherapy. In the follow-up periods of 18 months, 2 and 5 years, respectively, all women remained free of recurrences. Although this is not a randomised controlled study due to the rare occurrence of such cases, a radical operation followed by individualised adjuvant therapy appears to be the treatment of choice. PMID:27134299

  18. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C and anti-angiogenesis therapy in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei-Wei; Lu, Huan; Hou, Wen-Jing; Xu, Guang-Xu; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Sheng, You-Hua; Cheng, Ming-Jun; Zhang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important pathogenesis of Endometriosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is one of the most important factor in the regulation of both normal and abnormal angiogenesis. Anti-angiogenic treatment of endometriosis is still in the exploratory stage. In this study, we investigate the relationship between VEGF-C and endometriosis, the therapeutic effects of Endostar in the rat endometriosis model. We then demonstrated that Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF-C was higher in endometriotic tissues than in control normal ovary tissues (P < 0.01) and higher in the endomertriosis grade III-IV than in endomertriosis grade I-II (P=0.013). In rat endometriosis model, we observed a significant reduction in the mean volume and weight of the endometriotic implants per rat in the treatment group as compared with the control group. By immunohistochemical evaluation, there was a significant reduction in VEGF-C expression after treatment in all areas examined. VEGF-C may be involved in the pathogenesis of endomertriosis by regulating the angiogenesis. Endostar has therapeutic effects of endometriosis lesions in the rat endometriosis model. PMID:25550812

  19. Oocyte quality is decreased in women with minimal or mild endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Guo, Nan; Zhang, Xiao-min; Shi, Wei; Tong, Xian-hong; Iqbal, Furhan; Liu, Yu-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis, a pathological condition in which the endometrium grows outside the uterus, is one of the most common causes of female infertility; it is diagnosed in 2540% of infertile women. The mechanism by which endometriosis affects the fertility of females remains largely unknown. We examined the ultrastructure of oocytes from patients with minimal or mild endometriosis and control females undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the physiological significance of oocyte quality for patients with minimal or mild endometriosis. The TEM results revealed that the oocytes from women with minimal or mild endometriosis exhibited abnormal mitochondrial structure and decreased mitochondria mass. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that the mitochondrial DNA copy number was significantly reduced in the oocytes from women with minimal or mild endometriosis compared with those of the control subjects. Our results suggest that decreased oocyte quality because of impaired mitochondrial structure and functions probably an important factor affecting the fertility of endometriosis patients. PMID:26022105

  20. Patients With Chronic Pelvic Pain: Endometriosis or Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome share similar symptoms. Interstitial cystitis was once considered rare, but it is now recognized as more common than previously thought. This review examines evidence that patients presenting with symptoms typically attributed to endometriosis or with unresolved pelvic pain after treatment for endometriosis may, in fact, have interstitial cystitis, and suggests approaches for appropriate diagnosis. Methods: A MedLine search using “chronic pelvic pain,” “endometriosis,” “interstitial cystitis,” and “bladder origin pain” as key words was performed for the most recent English-language articles. Additional references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each publication. Discussion: The symptoms of endometriosis and inter-stitial cystitis frequently overlap, and these 2 conditions may even coexist in the same patient. In cases of unresolved endometriosis and persistent pelvic pain, patients may have interstitial cystitis. A variety of tools are available to aid in identifying interstitial cystitis. Conclusion: Gynecologists should be alert to the possible presence of interstitial cystitis in patients who present with chronic pelvic pain typical of endometriosis. PMID:17761077

  1. Identification of differentially methylated genes in the malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Key roles for epigenetic mechanisms in tumorigenesis are well accepted, while the relationship between gene methylation and malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis (EMS) was seldom reported. In this study, we aimed to screen for aberrantly methylated genes associated with the malignant transformation of ovarian EMS and to preliminarily verify the reliability of screened results by detecting the methylation status and protein expression of the candidate gene in a larger scale of formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Methods Methylated CpG island amplification coupled with representational difference analysis (MCA-RDA) was performed on 3 couples of endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC) fresh samples to identify differentially methylated candidate genes related to malignant transformation of ovarian EMS; Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and immunohistochemistry were performed in 30 EAOC samples to detected the methylation status and protein expression of RASSF2 gene to verify the reliability of MCA-RDA results. Results Nine differentially methylated genes were obtained by MCA-RDA as candidate genes for malignant transformation of EMS; Methylation frequency of RASSF2 in the neoplastic tissues of EAOC group was higher than that in the ectopic endometria (p < 0.05). While protein expression of RASSF2 in the neoplastic tissues was lower than that in the ectopic endometria of the EAOC group (p < 0.05) Absence of protein expression of RASSF2 was significantly correlated with the promoter methylation of the gene (p < 0.05). Conclusions RASSF2, RUNX3, GSTZ1, CYP2A, GBGT1, NDUFS1, SPOCK2, ADAM22, and TRIM36 were candidate genes for malignant transformation of ovarian EMS and epigenetic inactivation of RASSF2 by promoter hypermethylation is an early event in malignant transformation of ovarian EMS. The screen results were reliable and worthy of further study. PMID:25298284

  2. Potential Role of Semaphorin 3A and Its Receptors in Regulating Aberrant Sympathetic Innervation in Peritoneal and Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jiaming; Tan, Hao; Liu, Tianyu; Shang, Chunliang; Liu, Duo; Guo, Luyan; Yao, Shuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of nerve repellent factors in regulation of the imbalanced innervation of endometriosis. This prospective study aims to explore the role of Sema 3A in regulating aberrant sympathetic innervation in peritoneal and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Ectopic endometriotic lesion were collected from patients with peritoneal endometriosis (n = 24) and deep infiltrating endometriosis of uterosacral ligament (n = 20) undergoing surgery for endometriosis. Eutopic endometrial samples were collected from patients with endometriosis (n = 22) or without endometriosis (n = 26). Healthy peritoneum (n = 13) from the lateral pelvic wall and healthy uterosacral ligament (n = 13) were obtained from patients who had no surgical and histological proof of endometriosis during hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Firstly, we studied the immunostaining of Sema 3A, Plexin A1 and NRP-1 in all the tissues described above. Then we studied the nerve fiber density (NFD) of endometriosis-associated (sympathetic) nerve and para-endometriotic (sympathetic) nerve by double immunofluorescence staining. Finally we analyzed the relationship between expression of Sema 3A in stromal cells of endometriotic lesion and the aberrant innervation of endometriosis. Semi-quantitative immunostaining demonstrated that (1) Higher immunostaining of Sema 3A were found in the eutopic endometrial glandular epithelial cells from patients with endometriosis (p = 0.041) than those without endometriosis; (2) Sema 3A immunostaining was higher in glandular epithelial cells of peritoneal endometriosis (P<0.001) and deep infiltrating endometriotic lesions of uterosacral ligament (P = 0.028)compared with glandular epithelial cells of the endometrium from women with endometriosis, while its expression in ectopic stormal cells in both groups were significantly lower than that from eutopic endometrium of women without endometirosis (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). NFDs of Anti-TH (+) endometriosis-associated sympathetic nerve of peritoneal endometriosis (p<0.001) and deep endometriosis of uterosacral ligament (p<0.001) were significantly lower than NFDs of para-endometriotic sympathetic nerve. Our results suggest that Sema 3A may contribute to the regulation of aberrant sympathetic innervation in peritoneal and deep infiltrating endometriosis. PMID:26720585

  3. The Role of Placental Protein 14 in the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Zhu, Libo

    2013-01-01

    Placental protein 14 (PP-14) is the principal secretory phase product of endometrium and has been shown to inhibit cell immune function. But its role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis is controversy. The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of PP-14 in peritoneal fluid (PF) and serum and PP-14 protein expression in endometriotic lesions in women with ovarian endometriosis (n = 75) when compared to women without endometriosis (n = 49) between day 7 and day 20 of their menstrual cycle. Concentrations of PP-14 in PF and serum as well as PP-14 protein expression in endometriotic lesions in women with and without endometriosis were evaluated by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Serum PP-14 concentrations were significantly increased in women with endometriosis (7.5 ± 1.4 ng/mL) compared to those in women without endometriosis (5.8 ± 0.9 ng/mL; P < .05) and statistically decreased after surgery and further reduced by using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy (P < .05). However, the concentrations of PP-14 in PF did not reach a significant difference between women with and without endometriosis (P > .05). In women with endometriosis, scores of PP-14 protein expression in the lesions (n = 50, 2.2 [0∼5.8]) were significantly correlated with serum PP-14 concentrations (n = 50, 7.6 ± 1.3 ng/mL; P < .01). Our results suggest that PP-14 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:23670949

  4. Diet and risk of endometriosis in a population-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; Peters, Ulrike; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    Diet plausibly has a role in the aetiology of endometriosis through effects on steroid hormone levels; however, few published studies have examined the diet and endometriosis risk. We evaluated dietary risk factors for endometriosis in a population-based case–control study. Cases were 284 Group Health (GH) enrollees aged 18–49 years with newly diagnosed, surgically confirmed endometriosis between 1996 and 2001. Controls were 660 randomly selected age-matched female GH enrollees without a history of endometriosis. Nutrients and selected food groups were assessed using the Women’s Health Initiative FFQ. OR of endometriosis risk associated with dietary exposures were estimated using unconditional logistic regression and adjusted for identified covariates. Increased total fat consumption was associated with decreased endometriosis risk (fourth quartile v. lowest: OR 0·5, 95% CI 0·2, 1·0, P-trend=0·12). Increased β-carotene consumption and servings/d of fruit were associated with increased risk (β-carotene third quartile v. lowest: OR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1, 2·6; fourth quartile v. lowest: OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·0, 2·5, P-trend 0·16; fruit >2 servings/d v. <1: OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·0, 2·3, P -trend=0·04). We also found a suggestion of decreased endometriosis risk associated with the consumption of dairy products (2 servings/d v. ≤1: OR 0·6, >2 servings/d v. ≤1: OR 0·7), but this association was not statistically significant for the highest tertile. The present study suggests that specific dietary components may be associated with endometriosis risk. PMID:20875189

  5. The Impact of Endometriosis across the Lifespan of Women: Foreseeable Research and Therapeutic Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, C. L.; Foster, W. G.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to estrogen dependence, endometriosis is characterized by chronic pelvic inflammation. The impact of the chronic pelvic inflammatory state on other organ systems and women's health is unclear. Endometriosis associated chronic inflammation and potential adverse health effects across the lifespan render it imperative for renewed research vigor into the identification of novel biomarkers of disease and therapeutic options. Herein we propose a number of opportunities for research and development of new therapeutics to address the unmet needs in the treatment of endometriosis per se and its ancillary risks for other diseases in women across the lifespan. PMID:26064879

  6. The Impact of Endometriosis across the Lifespan of Women: Foreseeable Research and Therapeutic Prospects.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C L; Foster, W G; Agarwal, S K

    2015-01-01

    In addition to estrogen dependence, endometriosis is characterized by chronic pelvic inflammation. The impact of the chronic pelvic inflammatory state on other organ systems and women's health is unclear. Endometriosis associated chronic inflammation and potential adverse health effects across the lifespan render it imperative for renewed research vigor into the identification of novel biomarkers of disease and therapeutic options. Herein we propose a number of opportunities for research and development of new therapeutics to address the unmet needs in the treatment of endometriosis per se and its ancillary risks for other diseases in women across the lifespan. PMID:26064879

  7. Evaluation of the endometriosis treatment success rate by the laparoscopic-pharmacological method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutrynowski, Andrzej; Zabielska, Renata; Smolarczyk, Roman

    1996-03-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the success rate of the operative laparoscopy assisted by electrocoagulation and laser as well as danazol and lynestrenol in the endometriosis treatment. One-hundred-ninety women with the recognized endometriosis were included into the study. In the I degree(s) endometriosis the operative or hormonal therapy was applied, in the II-IV degree(s) the combined therapy was used. The complete cure was achieved in 159 of the patients (84%): 28 women conceived, in 131 of the cases remission was recognized during the second laparoscopy. Eighteen women found improvement (9%) while 13 women (7%) reported the lack of improvement.

  8. Surgery for deep infiltrating endometriosis: technique and rationale.

    PubMed

    Kondo, William; Bourdel, Nicolas; Zomer, Monica Tessmann; Slim, Karem; Botchorischvili, Revaz; Rabischong, Benoit; Mage, Gérard; Canis, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The surgical treatment of deep infiltrating endometriosis is challenging and complex. Currently, the gold standard for patient care is the referral to tertiary centers with a multidisciplinary team including gynecologists, colorectal surgeon and urologist with adequate training in advanced laparoscopic surgery. The surgical technique is essential to adequately manage the disease and to minimize the risk of complications; however, the technique is rarely taught and described in details. This paper reviews our current technique and all the tricks to allow the reproduction and even the improvement of this technique by other surgeons. PMID:23276992

  9. Intraskeletal Variability of Relative Cortical Area in Humans.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Marissa C; Goliath, Jesse R; Stout, Sam D; Hubbe, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Histomorphometric and cross-sectional geometric studies of bone have provided valuable information about age at death, behavioral and activity patterns, and pathological conditions for past and present human populations. While a considerable amount of exploratory and applied research has been completed using histomorphometric and cross-sectional geometric properties, the effects of intraskeletal variability on interpreting observed histomorphometric data have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to quantify intraskeletal variability in the relative cortical area of long bones and ribs from modern humans. To examine intraskeletal variability, cross-sections of the femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, ulna, and rib when present, were examined within individuals from a cadaveric collection (N = 34). Relative cortical area was compared within individuals using a repeated measurements General Linear Model, which shows significant differences between bones, particularly between the rib and the remaining long bones. Complementarily, correlations between bones' relative cortical area values suggest an important allometric component affecting this aspect of long bones, but not of the rib. This study highlights the magnitude of intraskeletal variability in relative cortical area in the human skeleton, and because the relative cortical area of any particular bone is affected by a series of confounding factors, extrapolation of relative cortical area values to infer load history for other skeletal elements can be misleading. PMID:26058578

  10. Human Relations in Education: Its Time Has Come.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Bob E.

    Through the use of human relations techniques, educators can bring about significant changes in the schools. The primary factor is to implement a planned program that will promote better relationships between individuals of different races, religions, and national origins. In order to do this, it may be necessary to reshape the attitudes held by…

  11. An Evaluation of the Human Relations Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, J. L.

    A Human Relations Training Program conducted with an experimental group of 150 educators from the Upper Cumberland Region in Tennessee is evaluated in this document. In an effort to assess the effects of the program, internal and external criteria, and matched control groups were utilized. The Personal Orientation Inventory, F Scale, Semantic…

  12. Elementary Affective Education in Human Relations: Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. P. K. Yonge Lab. School.

    The activities and resources in this teacher's guide have been developed and field tested as part of the research and development mission of the P. K. Yonge Laboratory School of the College of Education of the University of Florida. The Elementary Affective Education for Human Relations Project utilized classroom teachers in a variety of settings…

  13. Human Relation Skills in Counseling. A Higher Education Training Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert W.

    The purpose of this training module is to assist participants in acquiring high-level basic counseling skills. Specifically, trainees will master those skills crucial to the four Carkhuff stages of basic helping. The ultimate purpose is to help counselors involved in Manpower Programs upgrade their interpersonal human relations/basic counseling…

  14. Human Relations Training for Educators. Final Evaluation. Project Upper Cumberland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, J. L.

    Project Upper Cumberland was a three year endeavor which served 16 Tennessee counties. The final report and evaluation, in three documents, summarizes the three innovative programs which it engendered: (1) teacher inservice training, emphasizing human relations; (2) a pilot cultural arts program (art, music, drama) for grades 1-12; and (3) a pilot…

  15. Endometrial Stromal Cells and Immune Cell Populations Within Lymph Nodes in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Fazleabas, A. T.; Braundmeier, A. G.; Markham, R.; Fraser, I. S.; Berbic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that immunological responses may be altered in endometriosis. The baboon (Papio anubis) is generally considered the best model of endometriosis pathogenesis. The objective of the current study was to investigate for the first time immunological changes within uterine and peritoneal draining lymph nodes in a nonhuman primate baboon model of endometriosis. Paraffin-embedded femoral lymph nodes were obtained from 22 normally cycling female baboons (induced endometriosis n = 11; control n = 11). Immunohistochemical staining was performed with antibodies for endometrial stromal cells, T cells, immature and mature dendritic cells, and B cells. Lymph nodes were evaluated using an automated cellular imaging system. Endometrial stromal cells were significantly increased in lymph nodes from animals with induced endometriosis, compared to control animals (P = .033). In animals with induced endometriosis, some lymph node immune cell populations including T cells, dendritic cells and B cells were increased, suggesting an efficient early response or peritoneal drainage. PMID:21617251

  16. Double circular stapler technique for bowel resection in rectosigmoid endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Pinho; Crispi, Claudio P; Oliveira, Flavio M; Junior, Paulo S; Raymundo, Thiers S; Pereira, Thiago D

    2014-01-01

    To reduce bladder function impairment and avert the serious complications of anastomotic leakage after segmental rectosigmoidectomy and to minimize the persistence of endometriotic lesions associated with discoid resection, we used the double circular stapling (DCS) technique. This technique enables excision of bowel endometriosis nodules larger than those that can be removed with the single-load technique of the circular stapler. Of 120 patients who underwent surgery to treat bowel endometriosis, intestinal shaving was performed in 24, discoid resection with single circular stapling in 40, and rectosigmoidectomy in 55. Eleven patients (9.2%) underwent the DCS technique. In the DCS group, the size of the rectosigmoid lesion ranged from 2.2 cm to 4.2 cm. Median operative time for the DCS technique was 100 minutes, compared with 150 minutes for rectosigmoidectomy (p = .04). Only 1 of 11 patients (9%) had urinary retention, compared with postoperative urinary retention in 14 of 55 patients (25%) who had undergone rectosigmoidectomy (difference not significant). Only 1 patient, with a 4.2-cm nodule, had a positive margin in the specimen obtained at the second stapling. DCS is a promising technique and may avert rectosigmoidectomy in selected patients. PMID:23969140

  17. Genetics of endometriosis: a review of the positional cloning approaches.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Stephen

    2003-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that endometriosis is inherited as a complex genetic trait in which multiple genes conferring disease susceptibility interact with each other and the environment to produce the phenotype. Research groups worldwide are trying to identify such susceptibility genes through a "positional cloning" approach. This involves mapping their approximate chromosomal localization using linkage analysis by studying the segregation of DNA markers with disease in families without any knowledge of disease mechanisms. The next stage involves choosing a candidate gene in that region, based upon some theoretical or actual knowledge of disease mechanisms, and showing that polymorphisms in that gene occur more frequently in affected individuals than in controls. The approach should produce a clearer understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in disease etiology and pathogenesis. It is unlikely that endometriosis is a single disease entity, and it should be possible to categorize the disease into subtypes on the basis of genetic information. The strategy should lead to the discovery of new drug targets, which will be a major advance given that treatment to date has focused upon crude manipulation of ovarian function. PMID:12917780

  18. Krüppel-Like Factor 13 Deficiency in Uterine Endometrial Cells Contributes to Defective Steroid Hormone Receptor Signaling but Not Lesion Establishment in a Mouse Model of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Heard, Melissa E; Velarde, Michael C; Giudice, Linda C; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2015-06-01

    Krüppel-like Factor (KLF) 13 and the closely related KLF9 are members of the Sp/KLF family of transcription factors that have collectively emerged as essential regulators of tissue development, differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death. Steroid hormone-responsive tissues express multiple KLFs that are linked to progesterone receptor (PGR) and estrogen receptor (ESR) actions either as integrators or as coregulators. Endometriosis is a chronic disease characterized by progesterone resistance and dysregulated estradiol signaling; nevertheless, distinct KLF members' contributions to endometriosis remain largely undefined. We previously demonstrated promotion of ectopic lesion establishment by Klf9 null endometrium in a mouse model of endometriosis. Here we evaluated whether KLF13 loss of expression in endometrial cells may equally contribute to lesion formation. KLF13 transcript levels were lower in the eutopic endometria of women with versus women without endometriosis at menstrual midsecretory phase. In wild-type (WT) mouse recipients intraperitoneally administered WT or Klf13 null endometrial fragments, lesion incidence did not differ with donor genotype. No differences were noted for lesion volume, number, proliferation status, and apoptotic index as well. Klf13 null lesions displayed reduced total PGR and ESR1 (RNA and immunoreactive protein) and altered expression of several PGR and ESR1 target genes, relative to WT lesions. Unlike for Klf9 null lesions, changes in transcript levels for PGR-A, ESR1, and Notch/Hedgehog-associated pathway components were not observed for Klf13 null lesions. Results demonstrate lack of a causative relationship between endometrial KLF13 deficiency and lesion establishment in mice, and they support the broader participation of multiple signaling pathways, besides those mediated by steroid receptors, in the pathology of endometriosis. PMID:25904015

  19. Developing a Noninvasive Procedure Using Labeled Monoclonal Antibody Anti-VEGF (Bevacizumab) for Detection of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniel Escorsim; Perini, Jamila Alessandra; Orlando, Margarida Maria Camoes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The off-label use of bevacizumab labeled with 99mTc as a new radiopharmaceutical for imaging of endometriosis is a promising noninvasive, new clinical procedure. The bevacizumab in monoclonal antibodies targeted at vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is superexpressed in cases of endometriosis. In this study we evaluate the imaging of endometriosis lesion in rats (induced to endometriosis) using bevacizumab-99mTc. The results showed that bevacizumab-99mTc imaged the lesion and support his use for Nuclear Medicine applied to gynecology. Also the results appointed that this radiopharmaceutical has a hepatobiliary excretion. It is important to notice that the dose used was almost 0,01% of the usual dose for the bevacizumab. PMID:26240826

  20. Developing a Noninvasive Procedure Using Labeled Monoclonal Antibody Anti-VEGF (Bevacizumab) for Detection of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Daniel Escorsim; Perini, Jamila Alessandra; Orlando, Margarida Maria Camoes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The off-label use of bevacizumab labeled with 99mTc as a new radiopharmaceutical for imaging of endometriosis is a promising noninvasive, new clinical procedure. The bevacizumab in monoclonal antibodies targeted at vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is superexpressed in cases of endometriosis. In this study we evaluate the imaging of endometriosis lesion in rats (induced to endometriosis) using bevacizumab-99mTc. The results showed that bevacizumab-99mTc imaged the lesion and support his use for Nuclear Medicine applied to gynecology. Also the results appointed that this radiopharmaceutical has a hepatobiliary excretion. It is important to notice that the dose used was almost 0,01% of the usual dose for the bevacizumab. PMID:26240826

  1. Renal Endometriosis Tends to Be Misdiagnosed as Renal Tumor: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Song, Ri-jin; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Shi-qing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Renal endometriosis is a rare disease for which the mechanisms of pathogenesis are still unclear. As such, early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment are often delayed because of the tendency to be misdiagnosed as a renal tumor. In October 2013 we performed a radical nephrectomy for a 37-year-old woman with renal endometriosis who was preoperatively misdiagnosed as having a right renal tumor. Avoiding the misdiagnosis of renal endometriosis requires a detailed case history, especially regarding whether the cyclicity of lumbodorsal pain and hematuria correlates with patients' menstrual cycles. Imaging examinations are commonly helpful for localization, whereas relieving symptoms with drugs to create a hypoestrogenic state is useful for clinical diagnosis. However, a final diagnosis for renal endometriosis still must depend on histopathologic examination. PMID:25692445

  2. Should we diagnose and treat minimal and mild endometriosis before medically assisted reproduction?

    PubMed

    Leung, Annie S; Dahan, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of minimal or mild endometriosis prior to assisted reproduction (ranging from intrauterine insemination to in vitro fertilization [IVF]) to improve the likelihood of success is controversial. Ovulation suppression is commonly used in endometriosis to decrease pain, however, there is little evidence to suggest improvements in fertility associated with this technique. Moreover, current evidence is sparse and does not support ovarian suppression prior to intrauterine insemination with or without ovulation induction, while there is some evidence favoring ovarian suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists prior to IVF to improve pregnancy rates. However, the majority of studies were performed in women with moderate to severe endometriosis. There is currently conflicting evidence regarding surgical ablation or removal of endometriomas prior to IVF, and its outcome on pregnancy rates. This review highlights the paucity of data in the management of endometriosis prior to assisted reproductive technologies and suggests that further studies are needed. PMID:26616457

  3. Pathogenesis of Age-Related Bone Loss in Humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although data from rodent systems are extremely useful in providing insights into possible mechanisms of age-related bone loss, concepts evolving from animal models need to ultimately be tested in humans. Methods. This review provides an update on mechanisms of age-related bone loss in humans based on the author’s knowledge of the field and focused literature reviews. Results. Novel imaging, experimental models, biomarkers, and analytic techniques applied directly to human studies are providing new insights into the patterns of bone mass acquisition and loss as well as the role of sex steroids, in particular estrogen, on bone metabolism and bone loss with aging in women and men. These studies have identified the onset of trabecular bone loss at multiple sites that begins in young adulthood and remains unexplained, at least based on current paradigms of the mechanisms of bone loss. In addition, estrogen appears to be a major regulator of bone metabolism not only in women but also in men. Studies assessing mechanisms of estrogen action on bone in humans have identified effects of estrogen on RANKL expression by several different cell types in the bone microenvironment, a role for TNF-α and IL-1β in mediating effects of estrogen deficiency on bone, and possible regulation of the Wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, by estrogen. Conclusions. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of age-related bone loss in humans. However, there are also significant gaps in knowledge, particularly in defining cell autonomous changes in bone in human studies to test or validate concepts emerging from studies in rodents. Decision Editor: Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD PMID:22923429

  4. Bleeding ureter: endometriosis mascarading as a ureteral malignancy - a case report.

    PubMed

    Babu, S M L Prakash; Sandeep, Puvvada; Pathade, Amey; Nagaraj, H K

    2014-10-01

    Ureteral endometriosis is a serious localization of disease burden that can lead to urinary tract obstruction, with subsequent hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and potential kidney loss. As the diagnosis is elusive, a heavy clinical suspicion is necessary. Surgical technique to treatment varies, but the goal is to salvage renal function and decrease disease burden. Here, we are presenting a rare case of bleeding ureter in a young lady who had endometriosis of the ureter. PMID:25478397

  5. Bleeding Ureter: Endometriosis Mascarading as a Ureteral Malignancy - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Puvvada; Pathade, Amey; Nagaraj, H K

    2014-01-01

    Ureteral endometriosis is a serious localization of disease burden that can lead to urinary tract obstruction, with subsequent hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and potential kidney loss. As the diagnosis is elusive, a heavy clinical suspicion is necessary. Surgical technique to treatment varies, but the goal is to salvage renal function and decrease disease burden. Here, we are presenting a rare case of bleeding ureter in a young lady who had endometriosis of the ureter. PMID:25478397

  6. Mitochondrial Genome Variations in Advanced Stage Endometriosis: A Study in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Govatati, Suresh; Tipirisetti, Nageswara Rao; Perugu, Shyam; Kodati, Vijaya Lakshmi; Deenadayal, Mamata; Satti, Vishnupriya

    2012-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological benign disease that shares several features similar to malignancy. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been reported in all most all types of tumors. However, it is not known as to whether mtDNA mutations are associated with endometriosis. Methodology We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of analogous ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues along with blood samples from 32 advanced stage endometriosis patients to analyze the role of somatic and germ-line mtDNA variations in pathogenesis of endometriosis. All ectopic tissues were screened for tumor-specific mtDNA deletions and microsatellite instability (MSI). We also performed mtDNA haplogrouping in 128 patients and 90 controls to identify its possible association with endometriosis risk. Principal Findings We identified 51 somatic (novel: 31; reported: 20) and 583 germ-line mtDNA variations (novel: 53; reported: 530) in endometriosis patients. The A13603G, a novel missense mutation which leads to a substitution from serine to glycine at the codon 423 of ND5 gene showed 100% incidence in ectopic tissues. Interestingly, eutopic endometrium and peripheral leukocytes of all the patients showed heteroplasmy (A/G; 40–80%) at this locus, while their ectopic endometrium showed homoplasmic mutant allele (G/G). Superimposition of native and mutant structures of ND5 generated by homology modeling revealed no structural differences. Tumor-specific deletions and MSI were not observed in any of the ectopic tissues. Haplogrouping analysis showed a significant association between haplogroup M5 and endometriosis risk (P: 0.00069) after bonferroni correction. Conclusions Our findings substantiate the rationale for exploring the mitochondrial genome as a biomarker for the diagnosis of endometriosis. PMID:22815783

  7. [Value of the tumor markers CA 125, Ca 19-9, CA 15-3 and CEA in endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Cirkel, U; Ochs, H; Latussek, B; Schneider, H P

    1991-08-01

    CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3 and CEA were measured in 42 patients with histologically verified endometriosis, who had been treated for six months by the LHRH-analogue buserelin (900 mcg/d intranasally). Before therapy, for all of the markers tested the sensitivity was as follows: CA 125 49%, CA 19-9 19%, CA 15-3 19% and CEA 0%. Pretherapeutically the correlation coefficient between CA 125 and the AFS stages was r = 0.40, indicating no significant relation. Following therapy the correlation between the tested glycoproteins and the AFS stages was less indicative. Only CA 125 showed a significant decrease during treatment (p less than 0.05), which paralleled the therapeutic hypo-oestrogenism. According to our results measurement of CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3 and CEA is not sufficient to replace surgical procedures of monitoring endometriosis. The significant reduction of CA 125 apparently represents loss of ovarian function rather than regression of the disease. PMID:1936874

  8. A case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the rectum treated by laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Okazawa, Yu; Takahashi, Rina; Mizukoshi, Kosuke; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Ishiyama, Shun; Sugimoto, Kiichi; Takahashi, Makoto; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Okuzawa, Atsushi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Yao, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Malignant transformation of intestinal endometriosis occurring in the extraovarian sites is extremely rare. We report a very rare case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the rectum. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 83-year-old woman was admitted with the complaint of hematochezia. Colonoscopy revealed a tumor around about half of the rectal circumference. Biopsy of the tumor revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Low anterior resection was undergone laparoscopically under the diagnosis of rectal carcinoma. Histopathological examination revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma, invading the sub-serosa of the rectum, but no metastasis of the lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical staining showed strong positivity for cytokeratin 7, but no staining for cytokeratin 20 and CDX2. The tumor existed adjacent to the endometrial glands, which were stained positive for Estrogen receptor. Ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis. Eighteen months after surgery, there are no signs of tumor recurrence. DISCUSSION Clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from intestinal endometriosis has been reported in 7 cases, including our case. Careful observation is required because the prognosis of endometriosis after malignant transformation remains poor. CONCLUSION We report a very rare case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the rectum treated by laparoscopic surgery. PMID:25460452

  9. Infertility and endometriosis: a need for global management that optimizes the indications for surgery and ART.

    PubMed

    De Ziegler, D; Streuli, M I; Borghese, B; Bajouh, O; Abrao, M; Chapron, C

    2011-08-01

    Endometriosis causes pelvic pain and infertility. Infertility results from effects of endometriosis exerted in the pelvic cavity, in the ovaries and/or on the uterus. Medical treatment effective on pain and at preventing disease recurrence following surgery is of no use for improving the chances of conceiving naturally. Surgery however improves the chances of conceiving in the 12-18 months afterward. Endometriosis through extension of the disease to the ovaries may harm ovarian response to COS needed in ART. Surgery for endometrioma(s) may further reduce ovarian responses to COS in case of endometriosis. Remarkably however, reduced ovarian responses due to endometriosis are not necessarily associated with reduced oocyte quality and ART outcome. Pre-ART treatment with oral contraceptives (OC) improves ART outcome in case of ovarian endometriosis particularly, if endometriomas are present at the time of oocyte retrieval. This measure requires however that a proper OC-FSH/hMG interval is respected and that "LH" effects are provided during the ovarian stimulation, using either hMG or small doses of hCG. These latter precautions prevent the adverse outcome reported in case of pre-ART use of OC when ovarian stimulation is conducted using r-FSH exclusively. PMID:21747345

  10. Prevention of the recurrence of symptom and lesions after conservative surgery for endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Koga, Kaori; Takamura, Masashi; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    Although surgical excision of endometriosis both improves pain and enhances fertility, recurrence can further exacerbate pain and reduce fertility, which in turn impacts the quality of life and increases personal as well as social costs. Therefore, it is crucial to prevent the recurrence of symptoms and lesions after conservative surgery. This article reviews evidence regarding the prevention of postoperative recurrence of endometriosis reported since the 1990s. Over the past 5 years, many new studies have been conducted and have demonstrated that long-term postoperative medication markedly reduces the recurrence. Most of these studies used oral contraceptives (OC), with either the cyclic or continuous regimen, while some used oral or intrauterine progestin. Continuous OC is more efficacious than cyclic OC, especially for dysmenorrhea. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is also shown to prevent recurrence of dysmenorrhea and possibly endometriosis lesions. Dienogest, a new progestin, is shown to reduce the recurrence of endometrioma. Similar to the case of ovarian endometriosis, long-term postoperative medication after conservative surgery for deep infiltrating or extragenital endometriosis seems important, although data are limited. Regardless of the lesion and the medication type, patients who discontinued medication experienced a higher incidence of recurrence, indicating that the protective effect of these medications seems to vanish rapidly after the discontinuation. On the basis of these facts, together with the pathogenesis of recurrence (retrograde menstruation and ovulation), regular and prolonged medication until the patient wishes to conceive is highly recommended to prevent the postoperative recurrence of endometriosis. PMID:26354093

  11. Rapidly quantifying the relative distention of a human bladder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor); Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Mineo, Beth A. (Inventor); Cavalier, Albert R. (Inventor); Blalock, Travis N. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device and method was developed to rapidly quantify the relative distention of the bladder of a human subject. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned on the human subject near the bladder. A microprocessor controlled pulser excites the transducer by sending an acoustic wave into the human subject. This wave interacts with the bladder walls and is reflected back to the ultrasonic transducer where it is received, amplified, and processed by the receiver. The resulting signal is digitized by an analog to digital converter, controlled by the microprocessor again, and is stored in data memory. The software in the microprocessor determines the relative distention of the bladder as a function of the propagated ultrasonic energy. Based on programmed scientific measurements and the human subject's past history as contained in program memory, the microprocessor sends out a signal to turn on any or all of the available alarms. The alarm system includes and audible alarm, the visible alarm, the tactile alarm, and the remote wireless alarm.

  12. Ecological integrity of streams related to human cancer mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Hitt, Nathaniel P; Hendryx, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Assessments of ecological integrity have become commonplace for biological conservation, but their role for public health analysis remains largely unexplored. We tested the prediction that the ecological integrity of streams would provide an indicator of human cancer mortality rates in West Virginia, USA. We characterized ecological integrity using an index of benthic macroinvertebrate community structure (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, SCI) and quantified human cancer mortality rates using county-level data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Regression and spatial analyses revealed significant associations between ecological integrity and public health. SCI was negatively related to age-adjusted total cancer mortality per 100,000 people. Respiratory, digestive, urinary, and breast cancer rates increased with ecological disintegrity, but genital and oral cancer rates did not. Smoking, poverty, and urbanization were significantly related to total cancer mortality, but did not explain the observed relationships between ecological integrity and cancer. Coal mining was significantly associated with ecological disintegrity and higher cancer mortality. Spatial analyses also revealed cancer clusters that corresponded to areas of high coal mining intensity. Our results demonstrated significant relationships between ecological integrity and human cancer mortality in West Virginia, and suggested important effects of coal mining on ecological communities and public health. Assessments of ecological integrity therefore may contribute not only to monitoring goals for aquatic life, but also may provide valuable insights for human health and safety. PMID:20361230

  13. Consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by gut-related microbes.

    PubMed

    Marcobal, Angela; Barboza, Mariana; Froehlich, John W; Block, David E; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2010-05-12

    Human milk contains large amounts of complex oligosaccharides that putatively modulate the intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants by acting as decoy binding sites for pathogens and as prebiotics for enrichment of beneficial bacteria. Several bifidobacterial species have been shown to grow well on human milk oligosaccharides. However, few data exist on other bacterial species. This work examined 16 bacterial strains belonging to 10 different genera for growth on human milk oligosaccharides. For this propose, a chemically defined medium, ZMB1, was used, which allows vigorous growth of a number of gut-related microorganisms in a fashion similar to complex media. Interestingly, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bacteroides fragilis , and Bacteroides vulgatus strains were able to metabolize milk oligosaccharides with high efficiency, whereas Enterococcus , Streptococcus , Veillonella , Eubacterium , Clostridium , and Escherichia coli strains grew less well or not at all. Mass spectrometry-based glycoprofiling of the oligosaccharide consumption behavior revealed a specific preference for fucosylated oligosaccharides by Bi. longum subsp. infantis and Ba. vulgatus. This work expands the current knowledge of human milk oligosaccharide consumption by gut microbes, revealing bacteroides as avid consumers of this substrate. These results provide insight on how human milk oligosaccharides shape the infant intestinal microbiota. PMID:20394371

  14. Transepidermal water loss related to volar forearm sites in humans.

    PubMed

    Panisset, F; Treffel, P; Faivre, B; Lecomte, P B; Agache, P

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate differences in human skin transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in vivo related to site on volar forearm. Fourteen healthy volunteers entered the study and seven sites were tested. After randomization of both forearm and measure order, TEWL measurements were performed using the Servo Med Evaporimeter. TEWL values next to the wrist were found statistically greater than on the other sites. Hence wrist region should preferably be excluded from TEWL measurements on forearm. PMID:1350141

  15. Learning multiple relative attributes with humans in the loop.

    PubMed

    Qian, Buyue; Wang, Xiang; Cao, Nan; Jiang, Yu-Gang; Davidson, Ian

    2014-12-01

    Semantic attributes have been recognized as a more spontaneous manner to describe and annotate image content. It is widely accepted that image annotation using semantic attributes is a significant improvement to the traditional binary or multiclass annotation due to its naturally continuous and relative properties. Though useful, existing approaches rely on an abundant supervision and high-quality training data, which limit their applicability. Two standard methods to overcome small amounts of guidance and low-quality training data are transfer and active learning. In the context of relative attributes, this would entail learning multiple relative attributes simultaneously and actively querying a human for additional information. This paper addresses the two main limitations in existing work: 1) it actively adds humans to the learning loop so that minimal additional guidance can be given and 2) it learns multiple relative attributes simultaneously and thereby leverages dependence amongst them. In this paper, we formulate a joint active learning to rank framework with pairwise supervision to achieve these two aims, which also has other benefits such as the ability to be kernelized. The proposed framework optimizes over a set of ranking functions (measuring the strength of the presence of attributes) simultaneously and dependently on each other. The proposed pairwise queries take the form of which one of these two pictures is more natural? These queries can be easily answered by humans. Extensive empirical study on real image data sets shows that our proposed method, compared with several state-of-the-art methods, achieves superior retrieval performance while requires significantly less human inputs. PMID:25373081

  16. Role of colonoscopy in the diagnostic work-up of bowel endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Milone, Marco; Mollo, Antonio; Musella, Mario; Maietta, Paola; Sosa Fernandez, Loredana Maria; Shatalova, Olena; Conforti, Alessandro; Barone, Gianni; De Placido, Giuseppe; Milone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of colonoscopy for the prediction of intestinal involvement in deep pelvic endometriosis. METHODS: This prospective observational study was performed between September 2011 and July 2014. Only women with both a clinical and imaging diagnosis of deep pelvic endometriosis were included. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained in all cases. Both colonoscopy and laparoscopy were performed by expert surgeons with a high level of expertise with these techniques. Laparoscopy was performed within 4 wk of colonoscopic examination. All hypothetical colonoscopy findings (eccentric wall thickening with or without surface nodularities and polypoid lesions with or without surface nodularities of endometriosis) were compared with laparoscopic and histological findings. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the presence of colonoscopic findings of intestinal endometriosis. RESULTS: A total of 174 consecutive women aged between 21-42 years with a diagnosis of deep pelvic endometriosis who underwent colonoscopy and surgical intervention were included in our analysis. In 76 of the women (43.6%), intestinal endometrial implants were found at surgery and histopathological examination. Specifically, 38 of the 76 lesions (50%) were characterized by the presence of serosal bowel nodules; 28 of the 76 lesions (36.8%) reached the muscularis layer; 8 of the 76 lesions (10.5%) reached the submucosa; and 2 of the 76 lesions (2.6%) reached the mucosa. Colonoscopic findings suggestive of intestinal endometriosis were detected in 7 of the 174 (4%) examinations. Colonoscopy failed to diagnose intestinal endometriosis in 70 of the 76 women (92.1%). A colonoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis was obtained in all cases of mucosal involvement, in 3 of 8 cases (37.5%) of submucosal involvement, in no cases of muscularis layer involvement and in 1 of 38 cases (2.6%) of serosa involvement. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of colonoscopy for the diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis were 7%, 98%, 85% and 58%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Being an invasive procedure, colonoscopy should not be routinely performed in the diagnostic work-up of bowel endometriosis. PMID:25945014

  17. Surgery for endometriosis-associated infertility: do we exaggerate the magnitude of effect?

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, B.; Turki, R.; Lotfy, H.; Ranganathan, S.; Zahed, H.; Freeman, A.R.; Shilbayeh, Z.; Sassy, M.; Shalaby, M.; Malik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Surgery remains the mainstay in the diagnosis and management of endometriosis. The number of surgeries performed for endometriosis worldwide is ever increasing, however do we have evidence for improvement of infertility after the surgery and do we exaggerate the magnitude of effect of surgery when we counsel our patients? The management of patients who failed the surgery could be by repeat surgery or assisted reproduction. What evidence do we have for patients who fail assisted reproduction and what is their best chance for achieving pregnancy? Material and methods: In this study we reviewed the evidence-based practice pertaining to the outcome of surgery assisted infertility associated with endometriosis. Manuscripts published in PubMed and Science Direct as well as the bibliography cited in these articles were reviewed. Patients with peritoneal endometriosis with mild and severe disease were addressed separately. Patients who failed the primary surgery and managed by repeat or assisted reproduction technology were also evaluated. Patients who failed assisted reproduction and managed by surgery were also studied to determine of the best course of action. Results: In patients with minimal and mild pelvic endometriosis, excision or ablation of the peritoneal endometriosis increases the pregnancy rate. In women with severe endometriosis, controlled trials suggested an improvement of pregnancy rate. In women with ovarian endometrioma 4 cm or larger ovarian cystectomy increases the pregnancy rate, decreases the recurrence rate, but is associated with decrease in ovarian reserve. In patients who have failed the primary surgery, assisted reproduction appears to be significantly more effective than repeat surgery. In patients who failed assisted reproduction, the management remains to be extremely controversial. Surgery in expert hands might result in significant improvement in pregnancy rate. Conclusion: In women with minimal and mild endometriosis, surgical excision or ablation of endometriosis is recommended as first line with doubling the pregnancy rate. In patients with moderate and severe endometriosis surgical excision also is recommended as first line. In patients who failed to conceive spontaneously after surgery, assisted reproduction is more effective than repeat surgery. Following surgery, the ovarian reserve may be reduced as determined by Anti Mullerian Hormone. The antral follicle count is not significantly reduced. In women with large endometriomas > 4 cm the ovarian endometrioma should be removed. In women who have failed assisted reproduction, further management remains controversial in the present time. PMID:26177374

  18. Participants' Abilities in Perceptual and Interpersonal Discrimination Related to Human Relations Training Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezoff, Bob; Carew, Donald K.

    In an extension of a pilot study (Mezoff, 1980B) the influence of participant cognitive style on various human relations training (HRT) outcomes was explored. Cognitive style dimensions investigated were field-dependence-independence (FD-FI, Witkin 1978) and interpersonal discrimination (Carr 1979). University students (N=39) enrolled in a group…

  19. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. PMID:21913285

  20. Gallbladder endometriosis as a cause of occult bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Saadat-Gilani, K; Bechmann, L; Frilling, A; Gerken, G; Canbay, A

    2007-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl with colicky abdominal pain and chronic anemia presented to the gastrointestinal service of the University Hospital of Essen. In the routine workup, there were no pathological findings despite the anemia. Because of the fluctuation of symptoms with a climax at the time of menstruation, consecutive ultrasound studies were performed revealing a visible mass inside the gallbladder. This finding was confirmed by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study performed at the same time. Because of the severe anemia by that time, a cholecystectomy was performed, and histology reconfirmed the diagnosis of isolated gallbladder endometriosis. The patient recovered well and has had no recurrence of the disease to date. PMID:17724812

  1. Gallbladder endometriosis as a cause of occult bleeding.

    PubMed

    Saadat-Gilani, K; Bechmann, L; Frilling, A; Gerken, G; Canbay, A

    2007-09-01

    A 17-year-old girl with colicky abdominal pain and chronic anemia presented to the gastrointestinal service of the University Hospital of Essen. In the routine workup, there were no pathological findings despite the anemia. Because of the fluctuation of symptoms with a climax at the time of menstruation, consecutive ultrasound studies were performed revealing a visible mass inside the gallbladder. This finding was confirmed by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study performed at the same time. Because of the severe anemia by that time, a cholecystectomy was performed, and histology reconfirmed the diagnosis of isolated gallbladder endometriosis. The patient recovered well and has had no recurrence of the disease to date. PMID:17724812

  2. Plasticity of the human auditory cortex related to musical training.

    PubMed

    Pantev, Christo; Herholz, Sibylle C

    2011-11-01

    During the last decades music neuroscience has become a rapidly growing field within the area of neuroscience. Music is particularly well suited for studying neuronal plasticity in the human brain because musical training is more complex and multimodal than most other daily life activities, and because prospective and professional musicians usually pursue the training with high and long-lasting commitment. Therefore, music has increasingly been used as a tool for the investigation of human cognition and its underlying brain mechanisms. Music relates to many brain functions like perception, action, cognition, emotion, learning and memory and therefore music is an ideal tool to investigate how the human brain is working and how different brain functions interact. Novel findings have been obtained in the field of induced cortical plasticity by musical training. The positive effects, which music in its various forms has in the healthy human brain are not only important in the framework of basic neuroscience, but they also will strongly affect the practices in neuro-rehabilitation. PMID:21763342

  3. Statins as Targeted "Magical Pills" for the Conservative Treatment of Endometriosis: May Potential Adverse Effects on Female Fertility Represent the "Dark Side of the Same Coin"? A Systematic Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Vitagliano, Amerigo; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Gizzo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze all the available evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies regarding the efficacy of statin therapy in the treatment of endometriosis, evaluating the potential efficacy, side effects, and contraindications of their administration in humans. We focused on defining the potential benefits that the administration of statins may have on patients affected by endometriosis and the possible adverse effects of such a therapy on ovarian function and fertility profile. According to our article selection criteria, we included in the review in vitro and in vivo studies performed on human or animal models. The systematic review of literature identified 24 eligible articles, 12 of which reported evidence regarding the effects of statins on endometrial/endometriotic cells and 12 regarding their effects on ovarian function and fertility. All articles seem to emphasize the utility of statin administration in the treatment of endometriosis due to their anti-proliferative/proapoptotic effects, their ability to reduce cell viability and migration, and the inhibition of angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. Regarding the potential adverse effects on gonadal activities, steroidogenesis and fertility function, no conclusive data were collected in human models (excluding women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome in which significant decline of androgen levels was reported after statin treatment), while contrasting results were reported by studies conducted in in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Despite evidence supporting statins as the potential therapeutic agent for a targeted conservative treatment of endometriosis, the uncertainties regarding their impact on gonadal function may not define them as an appropriate therapy for all young fertile women. PMID:25929256

  4. 1H NMR- based metabolomics approaches as non- invasive tools for diagnosis of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghazi, Negar; Arjmand, Mohammad; Akbari, Ziba; Mellati, Ali Owsat; Saheb-Kashaf, Hamid; Zamani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: So far, non-invasive diagnostic approaches such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or blood tests do not have sufficient diagnostic power for endometriosis disease. Lack of a non-invasive diagnostic test contributes to the long delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of endometriosis. Objective: The present study focuses on the identification of predictive biomarkers in serum by pattern recognition techniques and uses partial least square discriminant analysis, multi-layer feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) modeling tools for the early diagnosis of endometriosis in a minimally invasive manner by 1H- NMR based metabolomics. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was done in Pasteur Institute, Iran in June 2013. Serum samples of 31 infertile women with endometriosis (stage II and III) who confirmed by diagnostic laparoscopy and 15 normal women were collected and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The model was built by using partial least square discriminant analysis, QDA, and ANNs to determine classifier metabolites for early prediction risk of disease. Results: The levels of 2- methoxyestron, 2-methoxy estradiol, dehydroepiandrostion androstendione, aldosterone, and deoxy corticosterone were enhanced significantly in infertile group. While cholesterol and primary bile acids levels were decreased. QDA model showed significant difference between two study groups. Positive and negative predict value levels obtained about 71% and 78%, respectively. ANNs provided also criteria for detection of endometriosis. Conclusion: The QDA and ANNs modeling can be used as computational tools in noninvasive diagnose of endometriosis. However, the model designed by QDA methods is more efficient compared to ANNs in diagnosis of endometriosis patients. PMID:27141542

  5. Analysis of an interleukin-6 gene promoter polymorphism in women with endometriosis by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Fritz; Fabjani, Gerhild; Tempfer, Clemens; Schneeberger, Christian; Sator, Michael; Huber, Johannes; Wenzl, Rene

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 has been implicated in the etiology of endometriosis. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position -174 in the IL-6 gene promoter appears to influence IL-6 transcription rates in vitro and basal IL-6 levels in vivo. We determined the genotype and the allele frequencies of the -174 IL-6 promoter polymorphism and the corresponding IL-6 serum levels in women with endometriosis. The pyrosequencing technique was used to assess the IL-6 genotypes in 94 women with histologically confirmed endometriosis (study group). A series of 70 healthy women without history of uterine disease served as clinical controls (control group).Allele frequencies for the G allele among women with and without endometriosis were 59.6% and 55.0%, respectively (P =.430; odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53, 1.29). Homozygotes for the protective allele C were present in 17.0% of women with endometriosis and in 18.6% of controls were homozygous for the protective allele C (P =.797; OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.40, 2.02). When patients with various disease manifestations were compared, we found an association between the -174 G allele and chocolate cysts (P =.037). Serum levels of IL-6 were significantly higher in women with endometriosis than in controls (P <.001), with highest levels in women with chocolate cysts. There was no association between serum IL-6 levels and IL-6 genotype. The IL-6 promoter polymorphism -174 G/C does not contribute significantly to overall disease susceptibility but does predispose the carrier to distinct endometriosis with chocolate cysts. A genetically determined high IL-6 response might play a pathogenic role in this disease condition. PMID:12517591

  6. Structural studies of human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1

    SciTech Connect

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Koski, Raymond A.; Bonafé, Nathalie

    2011-10-01

    Structural analysis of a truncated soluble domain of human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1, a membrane protein implicated in the proliferation of aggressive brain cancer, is presented. Human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) is a membrane protein that is highly upregulated in brain cancers but is barely detectable in normal brain tissue. GLIPR1 is composed of a signal peptide that directs its secretion, a conserved cysteine-rich CAP (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins) domain and a transmembrane domain. GLIPR1 is currently being investigated as a candidate for prostate cancer gene therapy and for glioblastoma targeted therapy. Crystal structures of a truncated soluble domain of the human GLIPR1 protein (sGLIPR1) solved by molecular replacement using a truncated polyalanine search model of the CAP domain of stecrisp, a snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), are presented. The correct molecular-replacement solution could only be obtained by removing all loops from the search model. The native structure was refined to 1.85 Å resolution and that of a Zn{sup 2+} complex was refined to 2.2 Å resolution. The latter structure revealed that the putative binding cavity coordinates Zn{sup 2+} similarly to snake-venom CRISPs, which are involved in Zn{sup 2+}-dependent mechanisms of inflammatory modulation. Both sGLIPR1 structures have extensive flexible loop/turn regions and unique charge distributions that were not observed in any of the previously reported CAP protein structures. A model is also proposed for the structure of full-length membrane-bound GLIPR1.

  7. Endometriosis coexisting with mature cystic teratoma in the same ovary and ectopic pregnancy of left fallopian tube: a rare coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Heesuk; Rheu, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A coexistence of endometriosis and mature cystic teratoma in the same ovary is a rare occurrence although such tumors of ovaries are said to be common in the reproductive age group. We report a case of fimbrial ectopic pregnancy combined with simultaneous ipsilateral ovarian presentation of endometriosis and mature teratoma. PMID:25984312

  8. Length of Menstrual Cycle and Risk of Endometriosis: A Meta-Analysis of 11 Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming; Cheng, Yanfei; Bu, Huaien; Zhao, Ye; Zhao, Wenli

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is a complex disease that affects a large number of women worldwide and may cause pain and infertility.To systematically review published studies evaluating the relationship between menstrual cycle length and risk of endometriosis.We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE in databases in July 2014 using the keywords "case-control studies," "epidemiologic determinants," "risk factors," "menstrual cycle," "menstrual length," "menstrual character," and "endometriosis."We included case-control studies published in English that investigated cases of surgically confirmed endometriosis and examined the relationship between endometriosis risk and menstrual cycle.Eleven articles that met the inclusion criteria included data of 3392 women with endometriosis and 5006 controls. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used for the evaluation.For the association of risk of endometriosis and menstrual cycle length shorter than or equal to 27 days (SEQ27) or length longer than or equal to 29 days (LEQ29), the odds ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.43) and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.48-0.96), respectively.In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that menstrual cycle length SEQ27 increase the risk of endometriosis and cycle length LEQ29 decrease the risk. PMID:26945395

  9. Pericardial, pleural and diaphragmatic endometriosis in association with pelvic peritoneal and bowel endometriosis: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Roviglione, Giovanni; Rosenberg, Piergiorgio; Pesci, Anna; Clarizia, Roberto; Bruni, Francesco; Zardini, Claudio; Ruffo, Giacomo; Placci, Angelo; Crippa, Stefano; Minelli, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Diaphragmatic endometriosis is a rare entity, often asymptomatic, which has been described only in small series. It is almost always associated with severe pelvic involvement. The most plausible theory about this condition is based on retrograde menstruation and subsequent transportation of viable cells in peritoneal fluid from the pelvis up the right gutter to the right hemidiaphragm, thus demonstrating its asymmetric distribution on the diaphragm. Pre-operative diagnosis is poorly supported by imaging techniques. In most cases, it is an incidental finding because the lesions may hide behind the right hepatic lobe. In that case it cannot be easily demonstrated with a laparoscope from an umbilical port. Symptomatic diaphragmatic endometriosis is associated with deep lesions which can involve the entire thickness of the diaphragm. In these cases, treatment is more difficult with possible incomplete pain relief and a considerable possibility of recurrence. In this subset, abdominal surgery is recommended. Surgical treatment must be individualized on the basis of the patient's age, fertility desires, type and location of disease and symptoms. We report the surgical treatment of a patient with synchronous pericardial, pleural and diaphragmatic endometriosis associated with pelvic peritoneal and bowel involvement. A review of the literature regarding pericardial and diaphragmatic endometriosis focusing on anatomical and surgical aspects of its management is undertaken. PMID:23256014

  10. [Endometriosis Fertility Index, or classification of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine for postoperative endometriosis patients with infertility: Which is more relevant?].

    PubMed

    Boujenah, J; Hugues, J N; Sifer, C; Bricou, A; Cédrin-Durnerin, I; Sonigo, C; Monforte, M; Poncelet, C

    2015-12-01

    The revised American Fertility Society classification system has been most used after surgery by all consensus on endometriosis fertility. However, it does not predict pregnancy. The EFI score has been recently developed to aim at predicting clinical pregnancy after surgery. Several study performed its external validation. It may be a useful new tool to counsel couples for personalized postoperative management. PMID:26597487

  11. Relation between transcardiac and transthoracic current during defibrillation in humans.

    PubMed

    Lerman, B B; Deale, O C

    1990-12-01

    Conceptually, transthoracic defibrillation threshold current can be considered a function of at least two quantities. It is directly proportional to the transcardiac threshold current and inversely proportional to the transcardiac current fraction (FC) or the ratio of transcardiac and transthoracic current. Although experimental and theoretical estimates of FC have been as high as 45%, previous measurements in humans have not been made. This study was designed to quantify FC in humans. During intraoperative testing of the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator, transthoracic rescue shocks of 200-400 J were delivered when the device failed to defibrillate. Simultaneous transthoracic voltage (VT) and transcardiac voltage (VC) between two implanted epicardial patch electrodes were measured. The ratio, VC/VT, was 0.04 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- SD) in 10 patients. In 16 dogs, a comparison was made between direct measurement of FC and VC/VT. FC was determined with a specially designed electrode system, which was calibrated to account for field distortion introduced by the electrodes. There was no significant difference between FC and VC/VT, which were both approximately 0.05, suggesting that VC/VT was statistically equivalent to FC. The results of this study, therefore, indicate that during transthoracic defibrillation in humans, approximately 4% of transthoracic current traverses the heart. This relatively small percentage of current results from the existence of parallel pathways, such as the thoracic cage and lungs, which shunt current around the heart. PMID:2245503

  12. Memory-related brain lateralisation in birds and humans.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Sanne; Nicol, Alister U

    2015-03-01

    Visual imprinting in chicks and song learning in songbirds are prominent model systems for the study of the neural mechanisms of memory. In both systems, neural lateralisation has been found to be involved in memory formation. Although many processes in the human brain are lateralised--spatial memory and musical processing involves mostly right hemisphere dominance, whilst language is mostly left hemisphere dominant--it is unclear what the function of lateralisation is. It might enhance brain capacity, make processing more efficient, or prevent occurrence of conflicting signals. In both avian paradigms we find memory-related lateralisation. We will discuss avian lateralisation findings and propose that birds provide a strong model for studying neural mechanisms of memory-related lateralisation. PMID:25036892

  13. Novel human endogenous sequences related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, M S; Boyce-Jacino, M T; Faras, A J

    1992-01-01

    Endogenous retrovirus-related sequences exist within the normal genomic DNA of all eukaryotes, and these endogenous sequences have been shown to be important to the nature and biology of related exogenous retroviruses and may also play a role in cellular functions. To date, no endogenous sequences related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been reported. Herein we describe the first report of the presence of nucleotide sequences related to HIV-1 in human, chimpanzee, and rhesus monkey DNAs from normal uninfected individuals. We also present the isolation and characterization of two of these endogenous HIV-1-related sequences, EHS-1 and EHS-2. With use of low-stringency Southern blot hybridization, complex banding patterns were detected in human DNA with 5' and 3' HIV-1-derived probes. When an HIV-1 env region probe was used, we detected a less complex, conserved banding pattern in human DNA as well as a related but distinct banding pattern in chimpanzee and rhesus monkey DNAs. EHS-1 and -2 were cloned from normal human genomic DNA libraries by using the env region probe. Clone EHS-1 shows sequence similarity with the domain of the envelope cellular protease cleavage site of HIV-1, while EHS-2 has sequence similarity to the overlapping reading frame for Rev and gp41. Stringent hybridization of EHS-1 back to primate genomic DNA indicates two distinct EHS-1 loci in normal human DNA, an identical band pattern in chimpanzee DNA, and a single locus in rhesus monkey DNA. Likewise, EHS-2 is present as a single highly conserved locus in all three species. An oligonucleotide derived from EHS-2 across a region of near identity to HIV-1 detects a complex banding pattern in all primates tested similar to that seen with the 3' HIV-1 probe. These data suggest that most of the HIV-1-related sequences identified in primate DNA share a common core of nucleic acid sequence found in both EHS-2 and rev and that some of these HIV-1-related sequences have additional larger regions of sequence similarity to HIV-1. Images PMID:1548756

  14. Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells Are Up-Regulated in a Mouse Model of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christian M.; Beaudry, Paul; Funakoshi, Tae; Benny, Ofra; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Zurakowski, David; Folkman, Judah; D'Amato, Robert J.; Ryeom, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a debilitating disease characterized by the growth of ectopic endometrial tissue. It is widely accepted that angiogenesis plays an integral part in the establishment and growth of endometriotic lesions. Recent data from a variety of angiogenesis-dependent diseases suggest a critical role of bone marrow–derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in neovascularization. In this study we examined the blood levels of EPCs and mature circulating endothelial cells in a mouse model of surgically induced endometriosis. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed elevated levels of EPCs in the blood of mice with endometriosis compared with control subject that underwent a sham operation. EPC concentrations positively correlated with the amount of endometriotic tissue and peaked 1 to 4 days after induction of disease. In a green fluorescent protein bone marrow transplant experiment we found green fluorescent protein–positive endothelial cells incorporated into endometriotic lesions but not eutopic endometrium, as revealed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Finally, treatment of endometriosis-bearing mice with the angiogenesis inhibitor Lodamin, an oral nontoxic formulation of TNP-470, significantly decreased EPC levels while suppressing lesion growth. Taken together, our data indicate an important role for bone marrow–derived endothelial cells in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and support the potential clinical use of anti-angiogenic therapy as a novel treatment modality for this disease. PMID:21435458

  15. Endometriosis and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zafrakas, Menelaos; Grimbizis, Grigorios; Timologou, Anna; Tarlatzis, Basil C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A possible etiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer has been repeatedly reported in the literature. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate published epidemiological data on this issue. Review Methods: We conducted an extensive search of the literature in MEDLINE, of articles ever published until February 2014, using the key-words “endometriosis” and “ovarian” and one of the following terms in the title: “cancer” or “malignancy” or “malignant” or “tumor” or “neoplasia” or “neoplasm” or “transformation.” Retrieved papers were checked for further relevant publications. Results: Overall, our search yielded 1 prospective cohort study, 10 retrospective cohort, and 5 case–control studies. A meta-analysis of these studies was not considered to be appropriate, due to differences in data reporting, study design, and adjustment for confounding factors. Limitations: The main limitation of studies found, with one exception, was the lack of operative confirmation of endometriosis. Conclusion: An association of endometriosis with clear-cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer was a consistent finding in most studies. On the other hand, existing epidemiological evidence linking endometriosis with ovarian cancer is insufficient to change current clinical practice. Prospective cohort studies, with prior laparoscopic confirmation, localization, and staging of endometriosis are needed, in order to further clarify this issue. PMID:25593938

  16. Endometriosis - A Chameleon: Patients' Perception of Clinical Symptoms, Treatment Strategies and Their Impact on Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wimberger, P; Grbling, N; Riehn, A; Furch, M; Klengel, J; Goeckenjan, M

    2014-10-01

    Introduction: Endometriosis is a chronic disease with differing clinical presentations. Treatment strategies depend mainly on clinical presentation and patient lifestyle. In women newly diagnosed with endometriosis, it is often difficult to understand the pathophysiologic origin, the potential individual impairment due to disease and the different treatment options. Compliance with the selected treatment is therefore often not optimal. Material and Methods: In a descriptive study, data of 51 women with endometriosis (mean age 36.2?years ?11.3) were analyzed according to the predominant clinical presentation: asymptomatic disease, disease with typical symptoms, ovarian cysts or infertility. Results: More than 50?% of patients ascribed a therapeutic benefit to surgical intervention or endocrine treatment, especially women in the subgroup with dysmenorrhea who received combined treatment. It should be noted that in the group of women facing infertility, more than half stated that they could not decide on the value of diagnostic and therapeutic reproductive medicine. Nevertheless, more than half of the women in this group became pregnant within two years after the initial diagnosis. Discussion: When deciding on the best treatment strategy for endometriosis, it is important to take account of potential pain and infertility. Women's perception of endometriosis will vary depending on their symptoms, the time of diagnosis and their lifestyle. Offering continuous information on clinical aspects and manifestations of the disease may improve treatment outcomes. Personalized counseling is an essential part of the clinical management of the disease. PMID:25364034

  17. Putting the pieces together: endometriosis blogs, cognitive authority, and collaborative information behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Diane M; McKenzie, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A discourse analysis was conducted of peer-written blogs about the chronic illness endometriosis to understand how bloggers present information sources and make cases for and against the authority of those sources. Methods: Eleven blogs that were authored by endometriosis patients and focused exclusively or primarily on the authors' experiences with endometriosis were selected. After selecting segments in which the bloggers invoked forms of knowledge and sources of evidence, the text was discursively analyzed to reveal how bloggers establish and dispute the authority of the sources they invoke. Results: When discussing and refuting authority, the bloggers invoked many sources of evidence, including experiential, peer-provided, biomedical, and intuitive ones. Additionally, they made and disputed claims of cognitive authority via two interpretive repertoires: a concern about the role and interests of the pharmaceutical industry and an understanding of endometriosis as extremely idiosyncratic. Affective authority of information sources was also identified, which presented as social context, situational similarity, or aesthetic or spiritual factors. Conclusions: Endometriosis patients may find informational value in blogs, especially for affective support and epistemic experience. Traditional notions of authority might need to be revised for the online environment. Guidelines for evaluating the authority of consumer health information, informed by established readers' advisory practices, are suggested. PMID:21464850

  18. Patients’ and physicians’ descriptions of occurrence and diagnosis of endometriosis: a qualitative study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of endometriosis is considerable but its diagnosis is a dilemma. The aim of this study was to explore the perception and experiences of endometriosis patients and physicians about occurrence and diagnosis of endometriosis. Methods A qualitative research using content analysis was used to obtain data from purposely selected endometriosis patients (12 participants) and gynecologists (6 participants) from January to September 2013 in Tehran. Data were coded and analyzed using a thematic approach. Results Seven themes emerged: 1) pain localization, 2) Severity of pain and struggle for pain relief, 3) Feeling inability to play the role of femininity, 4) Reducing physical health, 5) Disruption of social life, 6) Looking for a reliable diagnostic indicator, 7) Uncertainty of physical examination. The results highlighted that patients with the disease can experience different feelings that interfere with their wellbeing and their lives, and sometimes could be disabling. Conclusion Patients and physicians are looking for a certain, noninvasive and inexpensive diagnostic method. This study helps to promote clinical diagnostic view and knowledge development about description of endometriosis diagnosis to decrease diagnostic delay and mismanagement. PMID:25174639

  19. The Surgical Treatment of Severe Endometriosis Positively Affects the Chance of Natural or Assisted Pregnancy Postoperatively

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt-Hawes, Erin M.; Campbell, Neil; Maley, Peta E.; Won, Haryun; Hooshmand, Dona; Henry, Amanda; Ledger, William; Abbott, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To report reproductive outcomes following laparoscopic surgical excision of histologically confirmed r-ASRM stage III-IV endometriosis. Study Design. A retrospective cohort study was performed at the Royal Hospital for Women, a university teaching hospital, Sydney, Australia. Women who had fertility-preserving laparoscopic excision of stage III-IV endometriosis from 1997 to 2009 were contacted regarding reproductive outcomes. Results. In the study period, 355 women underwent surgery for stage III-IV endometriosis. Follow-up data are available for 253/355 (71%) women. Postoperatively, 142/253 (56%) women attempted to conceive with a conception rate of 104/142 (73%). Confidence intervals for pregnancy for women who were attempting conception (including the nonresponders) range from 104/262 (40%) to 224/262 (85%). Median time to conception was 12 months. No positive prognostic factors for pregnancy were identified on regression analyses. Conclusions. These data provide information to women with suspected severe disease preoperatively concerning their likely postoperative fertility outcomes. Ours is a population with severe endometriosis, rather than an infertile population with endometriosis, so caution needs to be applied when applying these data to women with fertility issues alone. PMID:26247022

  20. Incidence and Estimated Prevalence of Endometriosis and Adenomyosis in Northeast Italy: A Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Giuseppe; Barbone, Fabio; Ronfani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Despite being quite frequent and having serious implications in terms of symptomatology and fertility, data on incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis following gold standard definitions are dramatically lacking. The average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis in industrialized countries still ranges from five to ten years. Using the regional centralized data linkage system, we calculated incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in the female population of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, for the years 2011–2013. Cases were defined as new diagnoses from hospital discharge records, following procedures allowing direct visualization for endometriosis and hysterectomy for adenomyosis, with or without histological confirmation. Diagnoses were considered “new” after verifying women had not been diagnosed in the previous ten years. Incidence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in women aged 15–50 years is 0.14%. Prevalence, estimated from incidence, is 2.00%. Adenomyosis, representing 28% of all diagnoses, becomes increasingly prevalent after the age of 50 years. Our results shows how the study of both endometriosis and adenomyosis should not be limited to women of premenopausal age. Further efforts are needed to sensitize women and health professional, and to find new data linkage possibilities to identify undiagnosed cases. PMID:27101396

  1. Traditional Chinese medical herbs staged therapy in infertile women with endometriosis: a clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhaorong; Lian, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease defined as the presence of endometrioid tissue (glands and stroma) outside the uterus. About 30 to 40% patients with endometriosis are infertile. In traditional Chinese medical system, endometriosis associated infertility is mostly caused by kidney deficiency and blood stasis. The herb of reinforcing kidney and removing blood stasis is designed to treat the disease. Material and methods: All the 80 up-to-standard patients were divided into two different groups exactly according to the random principle. They were treated with hormone and traditional Chinese medical herb separately. After half year’s therapy, all the patients received one year’s follow-up. Their transvaginal ultrasonographic changes, serum hormone levels and pregnancy rate were recorded to analysis the effect. Results: No significant difference happened in two groups’ demographic and clinical characteristics (P > 0.05). After the treatment, the effect on serum hormone levels and specific markers are significant (P < 0.05). The transvaginal ultrasonographic changes were positive, too. The text on hepatic and renal function confirmed to the safety of the herb. Compared to hormone therapy, the traditional Chinese medical herb is safe and effective for endometriosis patients with infertility. Conclusion: Compared with hormone therapy, traditional Chinese medical herb’s two-staged therapy is effective and safe for endometriosis patients with infertility. PMID:26550373

  2. Increased IL-25 levels in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bungum, Helle Folge; Nygaard, Uffe; Vestergaard, Christian; Martensen, Pia M; Knudsen, Ulla Breth

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated a higher prevalence of allergic disease among women with endometriosis. It is already well established that type 1 allergies develop in a Th2 cytokine environment. Recent studies have shown, however, that IL-25 induces a Th2 development of naive T lymphocytes and is central in the Th2 response. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the presence of IL-25 in the peritoneal fluid of women suffering from endometriosis. PF was obtained both from women undergoing laparoscopic surgery due to endometriosis (25 cases) and from women wanting sterilisation (19 controls). IL-25 levels were then investigated by ELISA. Women with endometriosis showed significantly higher levels of IL-25 in their PF (p=0.019) compared to controls. IL-25 levels did not correlate with the stage of endometriosis. Both Th2-cells and mast cells express IL-25, which could favor the development of allergies by perpetuating a hypersensitivity reaction. Further, IL-25 may also hold a role as a diagnostic tool. PMID:26852387

  3. Incidence and Estimated Prevalence of Endometriosis and Adenomyosis in Northeast Italy: A Data Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Morassutto, Caterina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ricci, Giuseppe; Barbone, Fabio; Ronfani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Despite being quite frequent and having serious implications in terms of symptomatology and fertility, data on incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis following gold standard definitions are dramatically lacking. The average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis in industrialized countries still ranges from five to ten years. Using the regional centralized data linkage system, we calculated incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in the female population of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, for the years 2011-2013. Cases were defined as new diagnoses from hospital discharge records, following procedures allowing direct visualization for endometriosis and hysterectomy for adenomyosis, with or without histological confirmation. Diagnoses were considered "new" after verifying women had not been diagnosed in the previous ten years. Incidence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in women aged 15-50 years is 0.14%. Prevalence, estimated from incidence, is 2.00%. Adenomyosis, representing 28% of all diagnoses, becomes increasingly prevalent after the age of 50 years. Our results shows how the study of both endometriosis and adenomyosis should not be limited to women of premenopausal age. Further efforts are needed to sensitize women and health professional, and to find new data linkage possibilities to identify undiagnosed cases. PMID:27101396

  4. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Winkler, Amy M.; Korde, Vrushali; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Davis, John R.; Brewer, Molly A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the US largely due to late detection secondary to unreliable symptomology and screening tools without adequate resolution. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a recently emerging imaging modality with promise in ovarian cancer diagnostics, providing non-destructive subsurface imaging at imaging depths up to 2 mm with near-histological grade resolution (1020 ?m). In this study, we developed the first ever laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) device, evaluated the safety and feasibility of LOCT, and characterized the microstructural features of human ovaries in vivo. Methods A custom LOCT device was fabricated specifically for laparoscopic imaging of the ovaries in patients undergoing oophorectomy. OCT images were compared with histopathology to identify preliminary architectural imaging features of normal and pathologic ovarian tissue. Results Thirty ovaries in 17 primarily peri or post-menopausal women were successfully imaged with LOCT: 16 normal, 5 endometriosis, 3 serous cystadenoma, and 4 adenocarcinoma. Preliminary imaging features developed for each category reveal qualitative differences in the homogeneous character of normal post-menopausal ovary, the ability to image small subsurface inclusion cysts, and distinguishable features for endometriosis, cystadenoma, and adenocarcinoma. Conclusions We present the development and successful implementation of the first laparoscopic OCT probe. Comparison of OCT images and corresponding histopathology allowed for the description of preliminary microstructural features for normal ovary, endometriosis, and benign and malignant surface epithelial neoplasms. These results support the potential of OCT both as a diagnostic tool and imaging modality for further evaluation of ovarian cancer pathogenesis. PMID:19481241

  5. Clinical assessment of human gustatory function using event related potentials.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Thomas; Genow, Alexandra; Landis, Basile Nicolas

    2010-04-01

    Gustatory event related potentials (ERP) were developed more than a decade ago. Although the first studies were highly promising, no clinical routine application has yet been reported. The aim of the study was to use gustatory ERP in a clinical setting and to investigate gender related differences, concentration dependency and their test-retest reliability. The question of whether investigations in patients with documented taste disorders provide meaningful results was addressed. 17 healthy volunteers participated in two sessions. Acetic acid was presented to the left or right portion of the tongue; stimuli were embedded in a constantly flowing air stream. Subjects rated the stimulus intensity using visual analogue scales. Lateralised sour thresholds were established by means of a psychophysical taste test. ERP amplitude P1 was largest at frontocentral recording sites while amplitude P2 had a parietal maximum. Women had shorter response latencies than men. Concentration related differences were found for amplitudes P2 and for latencies P1 and N1. Shorter ERP response latencies were seen for stimulation of the right compared with the left side. Test-retest reliability was highest for the higher stimulus concentration, and highest coefficients of correlation were found for latencies of ERP peaks P1 and N1. Preliminary investigations in a patient with hemiageusia indicated the usefulness of gustatory ERP in the diagnostic process, especially with regard to medicolegal cases. In conclusion, the present work shows that gustatory ERP provide a relatively unbiased, reliable and easy approach to objective assessment of human taste function. PMID:19726416

  6. The Protein Kinase A Pathway-Regulated Transcriptome of Endometrial Stromal Fibroblasts Reveals Compromised Differentiation and Persistent Proliferative Potential in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanova, Lusine; Horcajadas, Jose A.; Weeks, James L.; Esteban, Francisco J.; Nezhat, Camran N.; Conti, Marco; Giudice, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic abnormalities in transplanted eutopic endometrium are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of pelvic endometriosis. Herein we investigated transcriptomic differences in human endometrial stromal fibroblasts (hESFs) from women with (hESFendo) vs. without (hESFnonendo) endometriosis, in response to activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway with 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP). hESFnonendo (n = 4) and hESFendo (n = 4) were isolated from eutopic endometrium and treated ± 0.5 mm 8-Br-cAMP for 96 h. Purified total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis using the whole-genome Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix platform. A total of 691 genes were regulated in cAMP-treated hESFnonendo vs. 158 genes in hESFendo, suggesting a blunted response to cAMP/PKA pathway activation in women with disease. Real-time PCR and ELISA validated the decreased expression of decidualization markers in hESFendo compared with hESFnonendo. In the absence of disease, 8-Br-cAMP down-regulated progression through the cell cycle via a decrease in cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 6, and cell division cycle 2 and an increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A. However, cell cycle components in hESFendo were not responsive to 8-Br-cAMP, resulting in persistence of a proliferative phenotype. hESFendo treated with 8-Br-cAMP exhibited altered expression of immune response, extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, and apoptosis genes. Changes in phosphodiesterase expression and activity were not different among experimental groups. These data support that eutopic hESFendo with increased proliferative potential can seed the pelvic cavity via retrograde menstruation and promote establishment, survival, and proliferation of endometriosis lesions, independent of hydrolysis of cAMP and likely due to an inherent abnormality in the PKA pathway. PMID:20068008

  7. The effects and possible mechanisms of puerarin to treat endometriosis model rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Danying; Zhai, Dongxia; Shen, Wei; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Yiqun; Cai, Zailong; Li, Ji; Yu, Chaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of puerarin to treat endometriosis (EMT) model rats and the possible regulatory mechanisms. Methods. EMT model rats were surgically induced by autotransplantion of endometrial tissues. The appropriate dosage of puerarin to treat EMT model rats was determined by observing the pathologic morphology of ectopic endometrial tissues and by detecting the levels of estradiol (E2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) of both serum and ectopic endometrial tissues. The related genes and proteins of ectopic endometrial tissues were analyzed by Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to explore the possible mechanisms. Results. Puerarin could reduce the levels of E2 and PGE2 and prevent the growth of ectopic endometrium tissues by inhibiting the expression of aromatase cytochrome P450 (p450arom) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2); puerarin could adjust the anabolism of E2 by upregulating the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid-2 (17β-hsd-2) and downregulating the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid-1 (17β-hsd-1) of the ectopic endometrium tissues; puerarin could increase the expression of ERβ and improve the inflammatory microenvironment of EMT model rats. Conclusions. Our data suggest that puerarin has a therapeutic effect on EMT model rats and could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of EMT in clinic. PMID:25815028

  8. The Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Puerarin to Treat Endometriosis Model Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Zhang, Danying; Zhai, Dongxia; Shen, Wei; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Yiqun; Cai, Zailong; Li, Ji; Yu, Chaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of puerarin to treat endometriosis (EMT) model rats and the possible regulatory mechanisms. Methods. EMT model rats were surgically induced by autotransplantion of endometrial tissues. The appropriate dosage of puerarin to treat EMT model rats was determined by observing the pathologic morphology of ectopic endometrial tissues and by detecting the levels of estradiol (E2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) of both serum and ectopic endometrial tissues. The related genes and proteins of ectopic endometrial tissues were analyzed by Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to explore the possible mechanisms. Results. Puerarin could reduce the levels of E2 and PGE2 and prevent the growth of ectopic endometrium tissues by inhibiting the expression of aromatase cytochrome P450 (p450arom) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2); puerarin could adjust the anabolism of E2 by upregulating the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid-2 (17β-hsd-2) and downregulating the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid-1 (17β-hsd-1) of the ectopic endometrium tissues; puerarin could increase the expression of ERβ and improve the inflammatory microenvironment of EMT model rats. Conclusions. Our data suggest that puerarin has a therapeutic effect on EMT model rats and could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of EMT in clinic. PMID:25815028

  9. Burden of human papillomavirus infection and related diseases in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Oren; Roura, Esther; Barchana, Micha; Diaz, Mireia; Bornstein, Jacob

    2013-11-22

    This manuscript provides the available data on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related diseases in Israel. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) among Jewish women was 17.4 per 100,000 in 2007, showing an increase since 1997. The incidence of cervical cancer was 5.3 per 100,000 Israeli Jewish women and 2.3 per 100,000 Israeli non-Jewish women in 2007. This rate is relatively low compared to other developed countries, and could be explained by cultural and religious factors such as male circumcision or sexual behavior. Mortality rates were around 1.5 per 100,000 Israeli women in 2007. Incidences of other anogenital, oral cavity, and pharynx cancers are very low, below 1.0 per 100.000 Israeli women and men. Information is scarce on HPV prevalence and HPV type distribution among women with cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 were the two most common types in both preneoplastic lesions and cervical cancer, representing 60% of total invasive cases. Data on genital warts show an incidence rate of 239 per 100,000 men and 185 per 100,000 women, similar to that found in other Western countries. Despite these low incidences, it is important to improve the information on the overall burden of HPV-related morbidity and on the HPV prevalence to evaluate an organized cervical cancer screening program and the introduction of the HPV vaccine in the national school-based vaccine program. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in Israel" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 8, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24229717

  10. Human theta oscillations related to sensorimotor integration and spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Madsen, Joseph R; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aschenbrenner-Scheibe, Richard; Newman, Ehren L; Kahana, Michael J

    2003-06-01

    oscillations in the rat hippocampus have been implicated in sensorimotor integration (Bland, 1986), especially during exploratory and wayfinding behavior. We propose that human cortical activity coordinates sensory information with a motor plan to guide wayfinding behavior to known goal locations. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed invasive recordings from epileptic patients while they performed a spatially immersive, virtual taxi driver task. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found oscillations during both exploratory search and goal-seeking behavior and, in particular, during virtual movement, when sensory information and motor planning were both in flux, compared with periods of self-initiated stillness. oscillations had different topographic and spectral characteristics during searching than during goal-seeking, suggesting that different cortical networks exhibit depending on which cognitive functions are driving behavior (spatial learning during exploration vs orienting to a learned representation during goal-seeking). In contrast, oscillations in the beta band appeared to be related to simple motor planning, likely a variant of the Rolandic mu rhythm. These findings suggest that human cortical oscillations act to coordinate sensory and motor brain activity in various brain regions to facilitate exploratory learning and navigational planning. PMID:12805312

  11. Milk and meat iodine content: relation to human health.

    PubMed

    Hemken, R W

    1980-05-15

    The amount of iodine consumed by human beings in the United States has increased over the past 10 to 15 years. Although there is no direct evidence of an increased human iodine toxicity problem because of the increased intake, there is some concern that if this trend continues, the greater iodine concentration may contribute to an increase in thyroid disorders. Because iodine content in milk has increased by 300% to 500% over the past 10 to 15 years, factors contributing to this increase have been studied. Organic iodine additions to the feed supply have contributed to large increases in iodine content in milk from some farms, and are considered the main factor contributing to the large increase in iodine content in milk values. Iodine teat dips and udder washes contribute to the increased iodine content of milk but generally do not result in increases of more than 150 micrograms/L. Iodine-sanitizing agents used on milking equipment or in milk transfer and storage equipment can contribute large amounts if improperly used, but the frequency of this problem is small. Iodine content in meat does increase with increased iodine intake, but the transfer of iodine to meat is relatively lower than it is to milk. PMID:7216884

  12. Human serum albumin and its relation with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sitar, Mustafa Erinç; Aydin, Seval; Cakatay, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    Human serum albumin, a negative acute phase reactant and marker of nutritive status, presents at high concentrations in plasma. Albumin has always been used in many clinical states especially to improve circulatory failure. It has been showed that albumin is involved in many bioactive functions such as regulation of plasma osmotic pressure, binding and transport of various endogenous or exogenous compounds, and finally extracellular antioxidant defenses. Molecules like transferrin, caeruloplasmin, haptoglobin, uric acid, bilirubin, alpha-tocopherol, glucose, and albumin constitute extracellular antioxidant defenses in blood plasma but albumin is the most potent one. Most of the antioxidant properties of albumin can be attributed to its unique biochemical structure. The protein possesses antioxidant properties such as binding copper tightly and iron weakly, scavenging free radicals, e.g., hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and Peroxynitrite (ONOOH) and providing thiol group (-SH). Whether it is chronic or acute, during many pathological conditions, biomarkers of oxidative protein damage increase and this observation continues with considerable oxidation of human serum albumin. There is an important necessity to specify its interactions with Reactive Oxygen Species. Generally, it may lower the availability of pro-oxidants and be preferentially oxidized to protect other macromolecules but all these findings make it necessary that researchers give a more detailed explanation of albumin and its relations with oxidative stress. PMID:24273915

  13. Metabolism of (S)-bioallethrin and related compounds in humans.

    PubMed

    Leng, G; Kühn, K H; Wieseler, B; Idel, H

    1999-06-30

    Chrysanthemate insecticides like (S)-bioallethrin, natural pyrethins, and related pyrethroids are subjected to extensive hydrolytic and oxidative degeneration by the mammalian metabolism, leading to a complex series of metabolites partially conjugated and finally eliminated in the urine. The major oxidation products of chrysanthemic acid, cis-(E)- and trans-(E)-chrysanthemumdicarboxcylic acid (cis-(E) and trans-(E)-CDCA), were synthesized and their structures were established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (H1-NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Diastereoselective separation was by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary gas chromatography (GC). An analytical method for extraction and identification of CDCA from human urine was developed. Quantitation was by gas chromatography and electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of detection was 20 microg/l for cis-(E)-CDCA and 10 microg/l for trans-(E)-CDCA. To test the applicability of the presented method, urine samples of humans exposed to (S)-bioallethrin were investigated. Urinary peak excretion of trans-(E)-CDCA occurred within 24 h after exposure. PMID:10414788

  14. Wogonoside induces autophagy-related apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Handong; Cong, Zixiang; Xu, Jianguo; Zhu, Jianhong; Ji, Xiangjun; Ding, Ke

    2014-09-01

    Wogonoside, a bioactive flavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has shown preclinical anticancer efficacy in various cancer models. However, the effects of wogonoside on glioblastoma cells remain unclear. In the present study, we found that wogonoside exhibited a cytotoxic effect on human glioblastoma cells. The suppression of cell viability was due to the induction of mitochondrial apoptosis. Furthermore, the presence of autophagic hallmarks, including an increase in punctate microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) dots, changes in cellular morphology and increased levels of autophagy-related proteins were observed in the wogonoside-treated cells. Wogonoside treatment also enhanced autophagic flux as reflected by the increased acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) formation, p62 degradation and LC3 turnover. Notably, blockade of autophagy by a chemical inhibitor or RNA interference decreased the anticancer effect of wogonoside. In addition, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6 kinase (PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K) signaling pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) participated in wogonoside-induced autophagy and apoptosis. These findings support the initiation of further studies of wogonoside as a candidate for the treatment of human malignant glioma. PMID:24970553

  15. Human crew-related aspects for astrobiology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Cora S.; Pletser, Vladimir; Foing, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Several space agencies and exploration stakeholders have a strong interest in obtaining information on technical and human aspects to prepare for future extra-terrestrial planetary exploration. In this context, the EuroGeoMars campaign, organized with support from the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and partner institutes, was conducted by the crews 76 and 77 in February 2009 in The Mars Society's ‘Mars Desert Research Station’ (MDRS) in Utah. The EuroGeoMars encompasses two groups of experiments: (1) a series of field science experiments that can be conducted from an extra-terrestrial planetary surface in geology, biology, astronomy/astrophysics and the necessary technology and networks to support these field investigations; (2) a series of human crew-related investigations on crew time organization in a planetary habitat, on the different functions and interfaces of this habitat, and on man-machine interfaces of science and technical equipment. This paper recalls the objective of the EuroGeoMars project and presents the MDRS and its habitat layout. Social and operational aspects during simulations are described. Technical and operational aspects of biology investigations in the field and in the habitat laboratory are discussed in detail with the focus point set on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of microbial DNA in soil samples.

  16. Long-lasting analgesic effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in treatment of chronic endometriosis pain.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Reza; Badran, Bashar W; Kazemi, Reza; Habibnezhad, Mohammad; George, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 10-20% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis, with 70-90% of these women reporting chronic pain symptoms that persist during their menstrual cycle. We are presenting a case in which a novel form of noninvasive brain stimulation called transcranial direct current stimulation was used as an intervention in a 32-year-old woman with persistent, chronic pain symptoms caused by endometriosis for 20 years. Ten daily, 20-min sessions of 2-mA anodal transcranial direct current stimulation were applied over the left primary motor cortex. Acutely, visual analog scale pain symptoms were reduced by 60%. There were also significant decreases in modules of the Endometriosis Health Profile. At the 4-month follow-up, the patient still expressed an overall decrease in pain symptoms of 30%. PMID:26419900

  17. CYFRA 21-1 in urine: a diagnostic marker for endometriosis?

    PubMed Central

    Gjavotchanoff, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic workup of endometriosis usually involves laparoscopic inspection and histological examination of biopsies. Unequivocal laboratory parameters for this ailment have not been available in routine diagnostic evaluations thus far. In this study, we examined urine concentrations of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA 21-1), a structural protein specific for epithelia. We performed immunoassays for CYFRA 21-1 in urine samples from women afflicted with endometriosis throughout their menstrual cycle. We observed a significant increase in CYFRA 21-1 concentrations, corrected by creatinine levels, in the late follicular phase as compared with the level in healthy controls. We conclude that cyclically increased CYFRA 21-1 concentrations in urine could serve as a valuable noninvasive diagnostic parameter in the workup of clinically manifesting endometriosis. PMID:25709504

  18. A rare case of post-hysterectomy vault site iatrogenic endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Cha Hien; Kim, Jeong Jin; Kim, Woo Young; Min, Kyeung Whan; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2015-07-01

    A 45-year-old woman with a prior history of hysterectomy due to adenomyosis and leiomyomas was presented at our outpatient gynecology clinic 13 months later with sudden lower pelvic discomfort and vaginal bleeding symptoms. The patient underwent vaginal vault biopsy however diagnosis was still uncertain. Additional evaluation was required due to massive rebleeding incidents. After an emergent explorative laparoscopic operation with total excision of the vault, a diagnosis of vaginal vault endometriosis was made. Our theory is that a possible transplantation of endometrial cells during morcellation of the adenomyotic uterus which then may have progressed to iatrogenic endometriosis of the vaginal vault. Therefore, vault endometriosis must be considered in incidences of delayed massive bleeding occurring in post-hysterectomy patients when other diagnoses have been excluded. PMID:26217604

  19. [Update on the use of oral contraceptives in the treatment of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Triano-Sánchez, R; de Prado-Prieto, L

    2012-03-01

    Endometriosis has a prevalence of about 10% and benefits from hormonal contraceptive treatment. It is a chronic and recurrent illness that occurs in fertile women, and is characterised by ectopic endometrial tissue. Clinical manifestations are: infertility, pain and pelvic mass. The goals of the treatment are: relief of symptoms, prevention of progression of disease and the stimulation of fertility. Current treatment options are: Expectant management, analgesia, hormonal therapy, surgery and combined therapies. The use of combined contraceptives is associated with a reduced risk of developing endometriosis, they are also a good choice to prevent pregnancy, and for women with minimal or mild symptoms. Progestins are used for symptomatic endometriosis and as an adjuvant to surgery. The combined contraceptives and the progestins must be considered as a first line treatment. PMID:24895705

  20. Stress Management Affects Outcomes in the Pathophysiology of an Endometriosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Myrella L.; Hernández, Siomara; Thompson, Kenira J.; Bayona, Manuel; Flores, Idhaliz

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown detrimental effects of stress in an animal model of endometriosis. We now investigated whether the ability to control stress can affect disease parameters. Endometriosis was surgically induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats before exposing animals to a controllable (submerged platform) or uncontrollable (no platform) swim stress protocol. Corticosterone levels and fecal pellet numbers were measured as an indicator of stress. Uncontrollable stress increased the number and size of the endometriotic cysts. Rats receiving uncontrollable stress had higher anxiety than those exposed to controllable stress or no stress and higher corticosterone levels. Uncontrollable stressed rats had more colonic damage and uterine cell infiltration compared to no stress, while controllable stress rats showed less of an effect. Uncontrollable stress also increased both colonic and uterine motility. In summary, the level of stress controllability appears to modulate the behavior and pathophysiology of endometriosis and offers evidence for evaluating therapeutic interventions. PMID:25015902

  1. Relevance of Imaging Examinations in the Surgical Planning of Patients with Bowel Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Trippia, Carlos H.; Zomer, Monica T.; Terazaki, Carlos R.T.; Martin, Rafael L.S.; Ribeiro, Reitan; Kondo, William

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The complexity of the disease results from its multiple clinical presentations, the multifocal pattern of distribution of the lesions, the presence of extra pelvic sites of the disease (mainly affecting the urinary and the intestinal tracts), and the difficulty in the preoperative diagnosis (by means of imaging studies) and in the surgical treatment. The preoperative mapping of the lesions, either by ultrasound or by magnetic resonance imaging, allows for an adequate surgical planning and a better preoperative patient counseling, especially in those women with deep infiltrating endometriosis affecting the bowel. Also, the choice of the surgical team that is going to perform the procedure may be based on the preoperative workup. In this paper, we highlight the important findings that should be described in the imaging examination reports for the preoperative workup of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis of the intestine. PMID:26917983

  2. Soluble Ligands for the NKG2D Receptor Are Released during Endometriosis and Correlate with Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    González-Foruria, Iñaki; Santulli, Pietro; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Carmona, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a benign gynaecological disease. Abundant bulk of evidence suggests that patients with endometriosis have an immunity dysfunction that enables ectopic endometrial cells to implant and proliferate. Previous studies show that natural killer cells have a pivotal role in the immune control of endometriosis. Methods and Findings This is a prospective laboratory study conducted in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2011 and April 2013. We investigated non-pregnant, younger than 42-year-old patients (n= 202) during surgery for benign gynaecological conditions. After complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity, 121 women with histologically proven endometriosis and 81 endometriosis-free controls women were enrolled. Patients with endometriosis were classified according to a surgical classification in three different types of endometriosis: superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SUP), ovarian endometrioma (OMA) and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Peritoneal fluid samples were obtained from all study participants during the surgery in order to detect soluble NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB and ULBP-2). When samples with undetectable peritoneal fluid levels of MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 were excluded, MICA ratio levels were significantly higher in endometriosis patients than in controls (median, 1.1 pg/mg; range, 0.1–143.5 versus median, 0.6 pg/mg; range, 0.1–3.5; p=0.003). In a similar manner peritoneal fluid MICB levels were also increased in endometriosis-affected patients compared with disease-free women (median, 4.6 pg/mg; range, 1.2–4702 versus median, 3.4 pg/mg; range, 0.7–20.1; p=0.001). According to the surgical classification, peritoneal fluid soluble MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 ratio levels were significantly increased in DIE as compared to controls (p=0.015, p=0.003 and p=0.045 respectively). MICA ratio levels also correlated with dysmenorrhea (r=0.232; p=0.029), total rAFS score (r=0.221; p=0.031) and adhesions rAFS score (r=0.221; p=0.031). Conclusions We demonstrate a significant increase of peritoneal fluid NKG2D ligands in women with endometriosis especially in those cases presenting DIE. This study suggests that NKG2D ligands shedding is a novel pathway in endometriosis complex pathogenesis that impairs NK cell function. PMID:25775242

  3. Structural studies of human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Koski, Raymond A.; Bonafé, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Human glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIPR1) is a membrane protein that is highly upregulated in brain cancers but is barely detectable in normal brain tissue. GLIPR1 is composed of a signal peptide that directs its secretion, a conserved cysteine-rich CAP (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins) domain and a transmembrane domain. GLIPR1 is currently being investigated as a candidate for prostate cancer gene therapy and for glioblastoma targeted therapy. Crystal structures of a truncated soluble domain of the human GLIPR1 protein (sGLIPR1) solved by molecular replacement using a truncated polyalanine search model of the CAP domain of stecrisp, a snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), are presented. The correct molecular-replacement solution could only be obtained by removing all loops from the search model. The native structure was refined to 1.85 Å resolution and that of a Zn2+ complex was refined to 2.2 Å resolution. The latter structure revealed that the putative binding cavity coordinates Zn2+ similarly to snake-venom CRISPs, which are involved in Zn2+-dependent mechanisms of inflammatory modulation. Both sGLIPR1 structures have extensive flexible loop/turn regions and unique charge distributions that were not observed in any of the previously reported CAP protein structures. A model is also proposed for the structure of full-length membrane-bound GLIPR1. PMID:21931216

  4. Periclitoral endometriosis: the dilemma of a chronic disease invading a rare location.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, Frances W; Carey, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis affects 6% to 10% of women of reproductive age; extrapelvic endometriosis is considered a rare event with perineal endometriosis being even rarer still (only a few cases of spontaneous episodes described, the majority being from episiotomy scars). We present a unique case of periclitoral endometriosis, which to the best of our knowledge is the first in the literature. It is a 29-year-old nulligravida female with a painful fluctuant right periclitoral mass that had been growing with no response to antibiotic therapy. At the initial removal, pathology reported the lesion as endometriosis. The patient was placed on oral contraceptives, and she was noted to have monthly swelling and shrinking of the site with her menstrual cycles. When she went off hormonal contraception, she represented with the growing lesion 3.5 weeks after her last menses; she underwent re-excision. Because of the extension of the lesion medially and its adherence to the clitoral body, the decision was made to evacuate only as much of the capsule that could be safely identified to minimize the risk of damaging the clitoris. Complete excision in this case was difficult without sacrificing a portion of the clitoris and potentially resulting in decreased sexual function and persistent clitoral pain. In a patient in whom complete excision is not possible, there is potential for mass recurrence in the setting of residual tissue. Reviewing the literature suggests that there are risks with both recurrence and clitoral excision. We found that in-depth patient counseling, hormonal suppression, and close follow-up are necessary when dealing with periclitoral endometriosis postexcision. PMID:25680686

  5. Reducing low-value care in endometriosis between limited evidence and unresolved issues: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Vercellini, Paolo; Giudice, Linda C; Evers, Johannes L H; Abrao, Mauricio S

    2015-09-01

    Quantification of benefits and harms of medical interventions should be based on high-quality evidence, which is not always the case in the endometriosis field. In many clinical circumstances, healthcare decisions in women with endometriosis are taken based on suboptimal evidence or on evidence of coexistence of benefits and harms that must be balanced. In these conditions, it is important to avoid or reduce the use of low-value care, i.e. interventions with defined harms and uncertain benefits, or whose effectiveness is comparable with less expensive alternatives. In particular, we suggest that: (i) non-surgical diagnosis based on symptoms, physical findings and transvaginal ultrasonography is possible in most women with symptomatic endometriosis. Thus, except in doubtful cases, laparoscopy should be intended for surgical treatment, not for diagnostic purposes: early diagnosis and diagnostic laparoscopy are not synonymous; (ii) future trials on new drugs for endometriosis should address those outcomes that are most important to patients, should be designed as superiority trials and should include a progestin or an estrogen-progestin as a comparator. Moreover, limitation of repetitive surgery for recurrent endometriosis is among the objectives of long-term medical treatment; (iii) indications for surgery should be the result of a balance between demonstrated benefits in terms of fertility enhancement and pain relief, specific risks associated with excision of different types of endometriotic lesions, cost-effectiveness and patient preference after detailed information; (iv) physicians, health professionals and policy makers should discriminate between screening for and diagnosis of endometriosis. Limited peritoneal foci, which are frequently observed also in asymptomatic women, regress or remain stable in about two thirds of cases. Therefore, the theoretical premises for a screening campaign are currently unclear; (v) physicians should develop the ability to effectively communicate quantitative information based on international guidelines and systematic literature reviews. This will assist a woman's understanding of the interaction between the evidence and her priorities, facilitating the transition towards value-based medicine. PMID:26141710

  6. Prevalence of endometriosis among adolescent school girls with severe dysmenorrhea: A cross sectional prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Ahmed; Shams, Maher; Badawy, Ahmed; Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of endometriosis among adolescent school girls with severe dysmenorrhea. Methodology Data was collected via interviewed questionnaire. Patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of endometriosis were further evaluated by abdominal ultrasonography (AUS), serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125). Laparoscopy was done for confirmation in those who agreed. Those who declined laparoscopy were offered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results A total number of 654 adolescents were interviewed. Their mean age was 15.2 ± 3.53 SD years. The mean duration of cycles and flow days was 29 ± 8.4 SD and 4 ± 2.8 SD respectively. The age of menarche in years was 13 ± 1.2 SD. Cycles were regular in 77.4 % (n=506) while irregular in 22.6 % (n=148). Of all studied girls, 48.9% (n=320) had menstrual pain of varying degree of severity. Severe dysmenorrhea was reported in 68.8 % (n=220/320) of them. Fifty six of these cases (25.5 %) had ultrasound findings suggestive of endometriosis. CA125 was elevated in 41.5 % (n= 27/56) of them. Patients accepted laparoscopic confirmations were 34, of them 79.4%, (n=27) had positive histo-pathological evidence of endometriosis. MRI was offered to those declined laparoscopy (n=22). Endometriosis was suggested in 77.3% of them. Conclusion The study concluded the prevalence of endometriosis in adolescents with severe dysmenorrhea was 12.3 % despite some declined laparoscopy. The unacceptability of laparoscopy and unfeasibility of local examination and trans-vaginal ultrasound add more to the difficulty of diagnosis. PMID:26609292

  7. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed. PMID:26022836

  8. Bladder Endometriosis and Endocervicosis: Presentation of 2 Cases with Endoscopic Management and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes Pastor, Javier; Ballestero Diego, Roberto; Correas Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Torres Díez, Eduardo; Fernández Flórez, Alejandro; Ballesteros Olmos, Gerardo; Gutierrez Baños, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract endometriosis and endocervicosis are an uncommon pathologic finding, with a common embryological origin. We present 2 cases of female patients with bladder mass. The first one was a finding of a nodular formation in the bladder during study of a nonviable foetus and the second was an incidental finding of a neoformation in the fundus of the bladder during the realization of an ultrasound. In both cases, we performed a surgical management with transurethral resection. Histopathological examination revealed a bladder endometrioma in the first case and endocervicosis with associated endometriosis in the second. PMID:25184072

  9. Expect the unexpected: Endometriosis mimicking a rectal carcinoma in a post-menopausal lady

    PubMed Central

    Jakhmola, C. K.; Kumar, Ameet; Sunita, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Altered bowels habits along with rectal mass in an elderly would point toward a rectal cancer. We report an unusual case of a post-menopausal lady who presented with these complaints. We had difficulties in establishing a pre-operative diagnosis. With a tentative diagnosis of a rectal cancer/gastrointestinal stromal tumor, she underwent a laparoscopic anterior resection. On histopathology, this turned out to be endometriosis. Bowel endometriosis is an uncommon occurrence. That it occurred in a post-menopausal lady was a very unusual finding. We discuss the case, its management, and the relevant literature. PMID:27073315

  10. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Ovarian Endometriosis-A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hippargi, Surekha B.; Mestri, Namrata B.; Mehrotra, Nikhil M.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism, characterised by presence of Mullerian duct derivatives in a genotypic and phenotypic male. It is caused by absence of anti- Mullerian hormone or defective functioning of its receptors. We report a case of 19-year-old cryptorchid male with history of orchideopexy who was clinically and radiologically diagnosed as left sided chylocele. A definitive diagnosis of PMDS with ovarian endometriosis was made on histopathological examination which is important for genetic counselling and to reduce complications like infertility and neoplastic transformation. We report this case of PMDS with ovary showing evidence of endometriosis for its rarity. PMID:27042476

  11. Expect the unexpected: Endometriosis mimicking a rectal carcinoma in a post-menopausal lady.

    PubMed

    Jakhmola, C K; Kumar, Ameet; Sunita, B S

    2016-01-01

    Altered bowels habits along with rectal mass in an elderly would point toward a rectal cancer. We report an unusual case of a post-menopausal lady who presented with these complaints. We had difficulties in establishing a pre-operative diagnosis. With a tentative diagnosis of a rectal cancer/gastrointestinal stromal tumor, she underwent a laparoscopic anterior resection. On histopathology, this turned out to be endometriosis. Bowel endometriosis is an uncommon occurrence. That it occurred in a post-menopausal lady was a very unusual finding. We discuss the case, its management, and the relevant literature. PMID:27073315

  12. Human attribute concepts: relative ubiquity across twelve mutually isolated languages.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Gerard; Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Bel-Bahar, Tarik S

    2014-07-01

    It has been unclear which human-attribute concepts are most universal across languages. To identify common-denominator concepts, we used dictionaries for 12 mutually isolated languages-Maasai, Supyire Senoufo, Khoekhoe, Afar, Mara Chin, Hmong, Wik-Mungkan, Enga, Fijian, Inuktitut, Hopi, and Kuna-representing diverse cultural characteristics and language families, from multiple continents. A composite list of every person-descriptive term in each lexicon was closely examined to determine the content (in terms of English translation) most ubiquitous across languages. Study 1 identified 28 single-word concepts used to describe persons in all 12 languages, as well as 41 additional terms found in 11 of 12. Results indicated that attribute concepts related to morality and competence appear to be as cross-culturally ubiquitous as basic-emotion concepts. Formulations of universal-attribute concepts from Osgood and Wierzbicka were well-supported. Study 2 compared lexically based personality models on the relative ubiquity of key associated terms, finding that 1- and 2-dimensional models draw on markedly more ubiquitous terms than do 5- or 6-factor models. We suggest that ubiquitous attributes reflect common cultural as well as common biological processes. PMID:24956320

  13. Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Palefsky, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of the review The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers is increased among people with HIV infection compared with the general population. This review will describe recent findings in HPV-associated cancer incidence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HPV/disease prevalence at sites other than cervix and anus, and recent data on screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Recent findings Consistent with high prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and AIN in HIV-positive men and women, new data show that the incidence of cervical cancer has not declined since the introduction of ART and that the incidence of anal cancer is rising. Several studies also highlight high rates of HPV infection and HPV-associated disease at sites other than the cervix and anus, including the penis and mouth. Treatment methods for AIN have been described and show reasonable efficacy. Summary New data imply that the problem of HPV-related cancers will not decline among HIV-positive men and women in the ART era, highlighting the need to perform studies to determine if screening and treatment of AIN will prevent development of anal cancer. Recent data show progress in both of these areas. PMID:19339939

  14. Generative models: Human embryonic stem cells and multiple modeling relations.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Melinda Bonnie

    2016-04-01

    Model organisms are at once scientific models and concrete living things. It is widely assumed by philosophers of science that (1) model organisms function much like other kinds of models, and (2) that insofar as their scientific role is distinctive, it is in virtue of representing a wide range of biological species and providing a basis for generalizations about those targets. This paper uses the case of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to challenge both assumptions. I first argue that hESC can be considered model organisms, analogous to classic examples such as Escherichia coli and Drosophila melanogaster. I then discuss four contrasts between the epistemic role of hESC in practice, and the assumptions about model organisms noted above. These contrasts motivate an alternative view of model organisms as a network of systems related constructively and developmentally to one another. I conclude by relating this result to other accounts of model organisms in recent philosophy of science. PMID:27083092

  15. Rapidly quantifying the relative distention of a human bladder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor); Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Mineo, Beth A. (Inventor); Cavalier, Albert R. (Inventor); Blalock, Travis N. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A device and method of rapidly quantifying the relative distention of the bladder in a human subject are disclosed. The ultrasonic transducer which is positioned on the subject in proximity to the bladder is excited by a pulser under the command of a microprocessor to launch an acoustic wave into the patient. This wave interacts with the bladder walls and is reflected back to the ultrasonic transducer, when it is received, amplified and processed by the receiver. The resulting signal is digitized by an analog-to-digital converter under the command of the microprocessor and is stored in the data memory. The software in the microprocessor determines the relative distention of the bladder as a function of the propagated ultrasonic energy; and based on programmed scientific measurements and individual, anatomical, and behavioral characterists of the specific subject as contained in the program memory, sends out a signal to turn on any or all of the audible alarm, the visible alarm, the tactile alarm, and the remote wireless alarm.

  16. Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS). Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016) geometric mean (95% CI) whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3) μg/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9) μg/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated. PMID:23317102

  17. Statins Inhibit Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 Expression in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Hakan; Basar, Murat; Seval-Celik, Yasemin; Osteen, Kevin G.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Lockwood, Charles J.; Arici, Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Statins are potent inhibitors of the endogenous mevalonate pathway. Besides inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis, statins may also demonstrate anti-inflammatory properties. Inflammation is implicated in the attachment and invasion of endometrial cells to the peritoneal surface and growth of ectopic endometrium by inducing proliferation and angiogenesis. In this study, the effect of statins on monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) expression in endometriotic implants in nude mouse model and in cultured endometriotic cells was evaluated. In mouse model, simvastatin decreased MCP-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in endometriotic implants (P < .05). Similarly, both simvastatin and mevastatin revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of MCP-1 production in cultured endometriotic cells (P < .01). This inhibitory effect of the statins on MCP-1 production was reversed by the downstream substrates of the mevalonate pathway. Moreover, statins decreased MCP-1 messenger RNA expression in cultured endometriotic cells (P < .05). In conclusion, statins exert anti-inflammatory effect in endometriotic cells and could provide a potential treatment of endometriosis in the future. PMID:22267540

  18. Identification of Biomarkers for Endometriosis Using Clinical Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Liu, Ya-Nan; Li, Yi; Tian, Li; Ye, Xue; Cui, Heng; Chang, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated possible biomarkers for endometriosis (EM) using the ClinProt technique and proteomics methods. Methods: We enrolled 50 patients with EM, 34 with benign ovarian neoplasms and 40 healthy volunteers in this study. Serum proteomic spectra were generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) combined with weak cationic exchange (WCX) magnetic beads. Possible biomarkers were analyzed by a random and repeat pattern model-validation method that we designed, and ClinProtools software, results were refined using online liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Results: We found a cluster of 5 peptides (4210, 5264, 2660, 5635, and 5904 Da), using 3 peptides (4210, 5904, 2660 Da) to discriminate EM patients from healthy volunteers, with 96.67% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We selected 4210 and 5904 m/z, which differed most between patients with EM and controls, and identified them as fragments of ATP1B4, and the fibrinogen alpha (FGA) isoform 1/2 of the FGA chain precursor, respectively. Conclusions: ClinProt can identify EM biomarkers, which – most notably – distinguish even early-stage or minimal disease. We found 5 stable peaks at 4210, 5264, 2660, 5635, and 5904 Da as potential EM biomarkers, the strongest of which were associated with ATP1B4 (4210 Da) and FGA (5904 Da); this indicates that ATP1B4 and FGA are associated with EM pathogenesis. PMID:25673457

  19. Serological survey in the Finnish human population implies human-to-human transmission of Ljungan virus or antigenically related viruses.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, A J; Voutilainen, L; Lehmusto, R; Henttonen, H; Lappalainen, M; Kallio-Kokko, H; Vaheri, A; Vapalahti, O

    2016-04-01

    Ljungan virus (LV) is a picornavirus related to human parechoviruses (HPeV). The virus has been found in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and several other rodent species, and suggested to have zoonotic potential. Thus far, seroepidemiological data on LV infections in humans are scarce. In this study, we aimed to characterize the demographic and geographical distribution of LV-reactive antibodies in Finland, and to investigate its occurrence in patients suspected of having a rodent-borne disease, nephropathia epidemica (NE) caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Using an immunofluorescence assay (LV strain 145SLG), we screened human sera (n = 1378) and found LV-reactive antibodies in 36% of samples. The probability of possessing LV-reactive antibodies peaked at age of 14 years, suggesting that most infections occur in childhood. The prevalence of LV-reactive antibodies was significantly higher in the urbanized area surrounding Helsinki than in more rural Central Finland. These findings are uncharacteristic of a rodent-borne pathogen, and therefore we consider human-to-human transmission of one or several Ljungan-like viruses as a likely cause for most of the observed antibody responses. PMID:26489898

  20. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread—optimally universal—implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph ‘Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases’ Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters. PMID:24229716

  1. Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Schiller, John T; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fisher, William A; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A; Franco, Eduardo L; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J L M; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2013-12-29

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread-optimally universal-implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph 'Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases' Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters. PMID:24331745

  2. Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Schiller, John T; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fisher, William A; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A; Franco, Eduardo L; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J L M; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2013-12-30

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread-optimally universal-implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph 'Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases' Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters. PMID:24331817

  3. Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Schiller, John T; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fisher, William A; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A; Franco, Eduardo L; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J L M; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2013-12-31

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread-optimally universal-implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph 'Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases' Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters. PMID:24332295

  4. Relative valuation of pain in human orbitofrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Winston, Joel S; Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Chater, Nick; Dolan, Raymond J

    2014-10-29

    The valuation of health-related states, including pain, is a critical issue in clinical practice, health economics, and pain neuroscience. Surprisingly the monetary value people associate with pain is highly context-dependent, with participants willing to pay more to avoid medium-level pain when presented in a context of low-intensity, rather than high-intensity, pain. Here, we ask whether context impacts upon the neural representation of pain itself, or alternatively the transformation of pain into valuation-driven behavior. While undergoing fMRI, human participants declared how much money they would be willing to pay to avoid repeated instances of painful cutaneous electrical stimuli delivered to the foot. We also implemented a contextual manipulation that involved presenting medium-level painful stimuli in blocks with either low- or high-level stimuli. We found no evidence of context-dependent activity within a conventional "pain matrix," where pain-evoked activity reflected absolute stimulus intensity. By contrast, in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex, a strong contextual dependency was evident, and here activity tracked the contextual rank of the pain. The findings are in keeping with an architecture where an absolute pain valuation system and a rank-dependent system interact to influence willing to pay to avoid pain, with context impacting value-based behavior high in a processing hierarchy. This segregated processing hints that distinct neural representations reflect sensory aspects of pain and components that are less directly nociceptive whose integration also guides pain-related actions. A dominance of the latter might account for puzzling phenomena seen in somatization disorders where perceived pain is a dominant driver of behavior. PMID:25355207

  5. Relative Valuation of Pain in Human Orbitofrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Chater, Nick; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The valuation of health-related states, including pain, is a critical issue in clinical practice, health economics, and pain neuroscience. Surprisingly the monetary value people associate with pain is highly context-dependent, with participants willing to pay more to avoid medium-level pain when presented in a context of low-intensity, rather than high-intensity, pain. Here, we ask whether context impacts upon the neural representation of pain itself, or alternatively the transformation of pain into valuation-driven behavior. While undergoing fMRI, human participants declared how much money they would be willing to pay to avoid repeated instances of painful cutaneous electrical stimuli delivered to the foot. We also implemented a contextual manipulation that involved presenting medium-level painful stimuli in blocks with either low- or high-level stimuli. We found no evidence of context-dependent activity within a conventional “pain matrix,” where pain-evoked activity reflected absolute stimulus intensity. By contrast, in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex, a strong contextual dependency was evident, and here activity tracked the contextual rank of the pain. The findings are in keeping with an architecture where an absolute pain valuation system and a rank-dependent system interact to influence willing to pay to avoid pain, with context impacting value-based behavior high in a processing hierarchy. This segregated processing hints that distinct neural representations reflect sensory aspects of pain and components that are less directly nociceptive whose integration also guides pain-related actions. A dominance of the latter might account for puzzling phenomena seen in somatization disorders where perceived pain is a dominant driver of behavior. PMID:25355207

  6. Global burden of human papillomavirus and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Forman, David; de Martel, Catherine; Lacey, Charles J; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Bruni, Laia; Vignat, Jerome; Ferlay, Jacques; Bray, Freddie; Plummer, Martyn; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-11-20

    The worldwide prevalence of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in women without cervical abnormalities is 11-12% with higher rates in sub-Saharan Africa (24%), Eastern Europe (21%) and Latin America (16%). The two most prevalent types are HPV16 (3.2%) and HPV18 (1.4%). Prevalence increases in women with cervical pathology in proportion to the severity of the lesion reaching around 90% in women with grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer. HPV infection has been identified as a definite human carcinogen for six types of cancer: cervix, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including the base of the tongue and tonsils). Estimates of the incidence of these cancers for 2008 due to HPV infection have been calculated globally. Of the estimated 12.7 million cancers occurring in 2008, 610,000 (Population Attributable Fraction [PAF]=4.8%) could be attributed to HPV infection. The PAF varies substantially by geographic region and level of development, increasing to 6.9% in less developed regions of the world, 14.2% in sub-Saharan Africa and 15.5% in India, compared with 2.1% in more developed regions, 1.6% in Northern America and 1.2% in Australia/New Zealand. Cervical cancer, for which the PAF is estimated to be 100%, accounted for 530,000 (86.9%) of the HPV attributable cases with the other five cancer types accounting for the residual 80,000 cancers. Cervical cancer is the third most common female malignancy and shows a strong association with level of development, rates being at least four-fold higher in countries defined within the low ranking of the Human Development Index (HDI) compared with those in the very high category. Similar disparities are evident for 5-year survival-less than 20% in low HDI countries and more than 65% in very high countries. There are five-fold or greater differences in incidence between world regions. In those countries for which reliable temporal data are available, incidence rates appear to be consistently declining by approximately 2% per annum. There is, however, a lack of information from low HDI countries where screening is less likely to have been successfully implemented. Estimates of the projected incidence of cervical cancer in 2030, based solely on demographic factors, indicate a 2% increase in the global burden of cervical cancer, i.e., in balance with the current rate of decline. Due to the relative small numbers involved, it is difficult to discern temporal trends for the other cancers associated with HPV infection. Genital warts represent a sexually transmitted benign condition caused by HPV infection, especially HPV6 and HPV11. Reliable surveillance figures are difficult to obtain but data from developed countries indicate an annual incidence of 0.1 to 0.2% with a peak occurring at teenage and young adult ages. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:23199955

  7. Error-related electrocorticographic activity in humans during continuous movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milekovic, Tomislav; Ball, Tonio; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Mehring, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) devices make errors in decoding. Detecting these errors online from neuronal activity can improve BMI performance by modifying the decoding algorithm and by correcting the errors made. Here, we study the neuronal correlates of two different types of errors which can both be employed in BMI: (i) the execution error, due to inaccurate decoding of the subjects’ movement intention; (ii) the outcome error, due to not achieving the goal of the movement. We demonstrate that, in electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from the surface of the human brain, strong error-related neural responses (ERNRs) for both types of errors can be observed. ERNRs were present in the low and high frequency components of the ECoG signals, with both signal components carrying partially independent information. Moreover, the observed ERNRs can be used to discriminate between error types, with high accuracy (≥83%) obtained already from single electrode signals. We found ERNRs in multiple cortical areas, including motor and somatosensory cortex. As the motor cortex is the primary target area for recording control signals for a BMI, an adaptive motor BMI utilizing these error signals may not require additional electrode implants in other brain areas.

  8. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    PubMed

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology. PMID:20978837

  9. Recurrent AAV2-related insertional mutagenesis in human hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nault, Jean-Charles; Datta, Shalini; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Franconi, Andrea; Mallet, Maxime; Couchy, Gabrielle; Letouzé, Eric; Pilati, Camilla; Verret, Benjamin; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Balabaud, Charles; Calderaro, Julien; Laurent, Alexis; Letexier, Mélanie; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Calvo, Fabien; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are liver tumors related to various etiologies, including alcohol intake and infection with hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus. Additional risk factors remain to be identified, particularly in patients who develop HCC without cirrhosis. We found clonal integration of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) in 11 of 193 HCCs. These AAV2 integrations occurred in known cancer driver genes, namely CCNA2 (cyclin A2; four cases), TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase; one case), CCNE1 (cyclin E1; three cases), TNFSF10 (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 10; two cases) and KMT2B (lysine-specific methyltransferase 2B; one case), leading to overexpression of the target genes. Tumors with viral integration mainly developed in non-cirrhotic liver (9 of 11 cases) and without known risk factors (6 of 11 cases), suggesting a pathogenic role for AAV2 in these patients. In conclusion, AAV2 is a DNA virus associated with oncogenic insertional mutagenesis in human HCC. PMID:26301494

  10. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  11. Human Aging Is a Metabolome-related Matter of Gender.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Maté, Ianire; Naudí, Alba; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otín, Manuel; De la Fuente, Mónica; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-05-01

    A molecular description of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the plasma metabolite profile by using high-throughput metabolome profiling technologies of 150 healthy humans ranging from 30 to 100 years of age. Using a nontargeted approach, we detected 2,678 metabolite species in plasma, and the multivariate analyses separated perfectly two groups indicating a specific signature for each gender. In addition, there is a set of gender-shared metabolites, which change significantly during aging with a similar tendency. Among the identified molecules, we found vitamin D2-related compound, phosphoserine (40:5), monoacylglyceride (22:1), diacylglyceride (33:2), and resolvin D6, all of them decreasing with the aging process. Finally, we found three molecules that directly correlate with age and seven that inversely correlate with age, independently of gender. Among the identified molecules (6 of 10 according to exact mass and retention time), we found a proteolytic product (l-γ-glutamyl-l-leucine), which increased with age. On the contrary, a hydroxyl fatty acid (25-hydroxy-hexacosanoic), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), two phospholipids (phosphocholine [42:9]and phosphoserine [42:3]) and a prostaglandin (15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) decreased with aging. These results suggest that lipid species and their metabolism are closely linked to the aging process. PMID:26019184

  12. ERβ- and prostaglandin E2-regulated pathways integrate cell proliferation via Ras-like and estrogen-regulated growth inhibitor in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, D; Dyson, M T; Yin, P; Coon, J S; Navarro, A; Feng, G; Malpani, S S; Ono, M; Ercan, C M; Wei, J J; Pavone, M E; Su, E; Bulun, S E

    2014-08-01

    In endometriosis, stromal and epithelial cells from the endometrium form extrauterine lesions and persist in response to estrogen (E2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Stromal cells produce excessive quantities of estrogen and PGE2 in a feed-forward manner. However, it is unknown how estrogen stimulates cell proliferation and survival for the establishment and persistence of disease. Previous studies suggest that estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) is strikingly overexpressed in endometriotic stromal cells. Thus, we integrated genome-wide ERβ binding data from previously published studies in breast cells and gene expression profiles in human endometriosis and endometrial tissues (total sample number = 81) and identified Ras-like, estrogen-regulated, growth inhibitor (RERG) as an ERβ target. Estradiol potently induced RERG mRNA and protein levels in primary endometriotic stromal cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated E2-induced enrichment of ERβ at the RERG promoter region. PGE2 via protein kinase A phosphorylated RERG and enhanced the nuclear translocation of RERG. RERG induced the proliferation of primary endometriotic cells. Overall, we demonstrated that E2/ERβ and PGE2 integrate at RERG, leading to increased endometriotic cell proliferation and represents a novel candidate for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24992181

  13. Hypoxia Promotes Invasion of Endometrial Stromal Cells via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Upregulation-Mediated β-Catenin Activation in Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenqian; Zhang, Ling; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Hengwei; Liu, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is a common benign gynecological disease defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced increases in invasive ability of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Herein, we show that the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor lα (HIF-1α) and β-catenin were greater in ectopic endometriotic tissue compared with eutopic tissue from controls. Exposure of eutopic endometrial stromal cells under hypoxic conditions or treated with desferrioxamine (DFO, chemical hypoxia) resulted in a time-dependent increase in β-catenin expression and its dephosphorylation. Hypoxia/HIF-1α also activated the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) signaling pathway and the expression of target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase 9, and knockdown of HIF-1α or β-catenin abrogated hypoxia-induced increases in HESC invasiveness. These results suggest that HIF-1α interacting with β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway, which is activated by hypoxia, may provide new insights into the etiology of endometriosis. PMID:26482209

  14. Human papillomavirus-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Guo, Theresa W; Smith, David F; Wang, Hao; Ogawa, Takenori; Pai, Sara I; Westra, William H

    2013-02-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established cause of head and neck carcinomas arising in the oropharynx. The presence of HPV has also been reported in some carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract, but little is known about their overall incidence or their clinicopathologic profile. The surgical pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for all carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract from 1995 to 2011, and tissue microarrays were constructed. p16 immunohistochemical analysis and DNA in situ hybridization for high-risk types of HPV were performed. Demographic and clinical outcome data were extracted from patient medical records. Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high-risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV-positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV-negative tumors were p16 positive (P<0.0001). The HPV-related carcinomas occurred in 19 men and 15 women ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (mean, 54 y). A trend toward improved survival was observed in the HPV-positive group (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.28]). The presence of high-risk HPV in 21% of sinonasal carcinomas confirms HPV as an important oncologic agent of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. Although nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type, there is a wide morphologic spectrum of HPV-related disease that includes a variant that resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma. The distinctiveness of these HPV-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract with respect to risk factors, clinical behavior, and response to therapy remains to be clarified. PMID:23095507

  15. Endometriosis, in vitro fertilisation and the risk of gynaecological malignancies, including ovarian and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikos F; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Fotiou, Stylianos

    2010-02-01

    There is evidence that endometriosis as well as drugs used in the process of in vitro fertilisation appear to associate with increased risk for gynaecological cancer. In this review, we attempt to describe this relationship according to the most recent epidemiologic data and to present the possible mechanisms on the molecular level that could potentially explain this correlation. There are data to support that ovarian endometriosis could have the potential for malignant transformation. Epidemiologic and genetic studies support this notion. It seems that endometriosis is associated with specific types of ovarian cancer (endometrioid and clear cell). There is no clear association between endometriosis and breast or endometrial cancer. More studies are needed to establish the risk factors that may lead to malignant transformation of this condition and to identify predisposed individuals who may require closer surveillance. Currently, there is no proven relationship between any type of gynaecological cancer and drugs used for infertility treatment. In principle, infertile women have increased risk for gynaecologic malignancies. Nulligravidas who received treatment are at increased risk for malignancy compared with women who had conceived after treatment. There is limited evidence that clomiphene citrate use for more than six cycles or 900mg or treatment of women over the age of 40 could increase their risk for ovarian and breast cancer. More studies with the appropriate statistical power and follow-up time are required to evaluate accurately the long-term effects of these drugs and procedures. PMID:19733123

  16. Endometriosis Patients in the Postmenopausal Period: Pre- and Postmenopausal Factors Influencing Postmenopausal Health

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Peter; Oppelt, Peter; Binder, Helge

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate patients' health status and the course of endometriosis from the premenopausal to the postmenopausal period and evaluate influencing factors that may be relevant. Methods. Questionnaire completed by 35 postmenopausal women in whom endometriosis had been histologically confirmed premenopausally. Correlation and regression analyses were carried out to identify factors relevant to their postmenopausal health status. Results. Overall, there was clear improvement in typical endometriosis symptoms and sexual life. Clear associations (P < 0.005) were observed between premenopausal factors like physical limitations caused by the disease, impaired social contacts and psychological problems, and postmenopausal pain and impairment of sexual life. Three statistical models for assessing pain and impairment of sexual life in the postmenopausal period were calculated on the basis of clinical symptoms in the premenopausal period, with a very high degree of accuracy (P < 0.001; R2 = 0.833/0.857/0.931). Conclusions. The results of the survey strongly suggest that physical fitness and freedom from physical restrictions, a good social environment, and psychological care in both the premenopausal and postmenopausal periods lead to marked improvements in the postmenopausal period with regard to pain, dyspareunia, and influence on sexual life in endometriosis patients. PMID:24987703

  17. National German Guideline (S2k): Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Endometriosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, U.; Buchweitz, O.; Greb, R.; Keckstein, J.; von Leffern, I.; Oppelt, P.; Renner, S. P.; Sillem, M.; Stummvoll, W.; De Wilde, R.-L.; Schweppe, K.-W.

    2014-01-01

    In this guideline, recommendations and standards for optimum diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis are presented. They are based on the analysis of the available scientific evidence as published in prospective randomized and retrospective studies as well as in systematic reviews. The guideline working group consisted of experts from Austria, Germany, Switzerland, and the Czech Republic. PMID:26157194

  18. Pregnancy Rate after Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation and Intrauterine Insemination for the Treatment of Endometriosis following Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Keresztúri, Attila; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Daru, József; Pásztor, Norbert; Sikovanyecz, János; Zádori, János; Márton, Virág; Koloszár, Sándor; Szöllősi, János; Németh, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare pregnancy rate after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination (COH-IUI) with no treatment in patients with endometriosis-associated infertility treated with laparoscopy. Design. A clinical cohort study. Setting. University-level tertiary care center. Patients. 238 women with various stages of endometriosis after laparoscopic treatment. Interventions. Either COH-IUI or follow-up for 12 months. Main Outcome Measures. The primary outcome measures were clinical pregnancy and live birth rate. Predictive factors evaluated were female age, maternal BMI, and duration of infertility. Results. The pregnancy rate attained after the integrated laparoscopy–COH-IUI approach was 53.4%, while it was significantly lower (38.5%) in the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in live births (48.3% versus 34.2%). Patie